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Sample records for population-based prevalence type

  1. Prevalence of immediate-type food allergy in Korean schoolchildren: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun; Hahm, Myung-Il; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Chae, Yoomi; Park, Yong Mean; Han, Man Yong; Lee, Kee-Jae; Kim, Ja Kyoung; Yang, Eun Seok; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2012-01-01

    Although the prevalence and causes of food allergy (FA) vary by geographic location, large well-designed epidemiological studies in Asia are lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of immediate-type FA in the general population of Korean schoolchildren. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 using a stratified two-stage cluster-sampling design. In this survey, children aged 6-7 years and 12-13 years were randomly selected, and the presence of FA was determined by a questionnaire survey and assessment of specific IgE. After adjustment for missing data, 3907 children aged 6-7 years and 3975 students aged 12-13 years who completed the questionnaire were included in this study. In children aged 6-7 years, the prevalence of confirmed immediate-type FA was 0.3%, and the prevalence of possible immediate-type FA was 0.3%. By contrast, 0.6 and 1.0% of children aged 12-13 years had confirmed immediate-type FA and possible immediate-type FA, respectively. In 6- to 7-year-old children, egg was the most frequent causative food associated with a confirmed or possible immediate-type FA. In 12- to 13-year-old children, crustaceans were the most frequent cause of confirmed immediate-type FA, and fruit was most frequently involved in possible immediate-type FA. This is the first nationwide population-based study of FA in Korean schoolchildren. Unlike in western countries, the prevalence of immediate-type FA seems to be low. In 12- to 13 year-old children with confirmed immediate-type FA, peanuts/tree nuts are not common causes, whereas crustaceans are frequent triggers. PMID:23394505

  2. Prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence by type and severity: population-based studies in Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Leyla; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2013-08-01

    The article estimates the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) by type and severity in population-based samples from three countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU). The article utilized nationally representative data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in Azerbaijan (2006), Moldova (2005), and Ukraine (2007). Respondents were selected using stratified multistage cluster sampling. The sample included ever-married (or cohabitating) females of reproductive age (15-49 years old); weighted sample n = 3,847 in Azerbaijan, n = 4,321 in Moldova, and n = 2,355 in Ukraine. The analysis used multinomial survey logistic regression adjusting for the sampling design and sampling weights. Ten percent of ever-partnered women in Azerbaijan and Ukraine and 20% in Moldova ever experienced physical IPV (without sexual) from their most recent husband or cohabitating partner; 3% of women in Azerbaijan and Ukraine and 5% in Moldova experienced sexual IPV (with or without physical), and 2% of women in Azerbaijan, 3% in Ukraine, and 6% in Moldova experienced violence resulting in severe physical injuries from their most recent partner. In all three countries physical, sexual, and injurious IPV was higher among formerly married women. Compared to women with above secondary education, women with secondary education or below demonstrated higher risk for physical IPV (in Moldova and Ukraine), sexual IPV in Moldova, and injurious IPV in all three countries. Poor socioeconomic status-as indicated by low household wealth status in Azerbaijan and partner's unemployment in Moldova and Ukraine-was significantly associated with higher risk for physical and injurious IPV. In Moldova and Ukraine partners' low level of education was associated with higher risk for sexual IPV. The article demonstrates that experiences and factors associated with IPV are diverse and context specific. The findings may be helpful in targeting interventions to

  3. Increasing Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in a Rural Bangladeshi Population: A Population Based Study for 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Afsana, Faria; My Diep, Lien; Binte Munir, Sanjida; Wright, Erica; Mahmood, Sharif; Khan, A. K. Azad; Hussain, Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    Background To observe changes in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and its associated risk factors in a rural Bangladeshi population over a 10-year period. Methods Three cross-sectional studies were undertaken in a rural community (aged ≥20 years) in 1999, 2004, and 2009. Structured questionnaires including sociodemographic parameters, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and blood glucose values were recorded. DM and IFG were diagnosed using 1999 World Health Organization criteria. Results Age standardized prevalence of DM increased significantly (P<0.001) from 1999 to 2009 (2.3%, 6.8%, and 7.9% in 1999, 2004, and 2009, respectively). The prevalence of IFG increased significantly (P=0.011) from 4.6% to 5.8% between 1999 and 2004 but then decreased from 5.8% to 5.3% during 2004 to 2009. Significant linear trends were shown in both sexes for general and central obesity as indicated by body mass index, waist circumference, and waist hip ratio (WHR). Increasing age and systolic blood pressure were significant risk factors for DM in all three studies. WHR for males was also significantly associated with the risk of DM in all three studies. WHR for females was only significantly associated with DM in 2009. Conclusion A significant rise in the prevalence of DM was observed in this population over 10 years. This increase was seen in both sexes, and in all age groups. A significant increase in the prevalence of the associated risk factors of general and central obesity was observed in both sexes. PMID:23439676

  4. Prevalence and Incidence of Hypoglycaemia in 532,542 People with Type 2 Diabetes on Oral Therapies and Insulin: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Population Based Studies

    PubMed Central

    Edridge, Chloe L.; Dunkley, Alison J.; Bodicoat, Danielle H.; Rose, Tanith C.; Gray, Laura J.; Davies, Melanie J.; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2015-01-01

    Objective To collate and evaluate the current literature reporting the prevalence and incidence of hypoglycaemia in population based studies of type 2 diabetes. Research Design and Methods Medline, Embase and Cochrane were searched up to February 2014 to identify population based studies reporting the proportion of people with type 2 diabetes experiencing hypoglycaemia or rate of events experienced. Two reviewers independently screened studies for eligibility and extracted data for included studies. Random effects meta-analyses were carried out to calculate the prevalence and incidence of hypoglycaemia. Results 46 studies (n = 532,542) met the inclusion criteria. Prevalence of hypoglycaemia was 45% (95%CI 0.34,0.57) for mild/moderate and 6% (95%CI, 0.05,0.07) for severe. Incidence of hypoglycaemic episodes per person-year for mild/moderate and for severe was 19 (95%CI 0.00, 51.08) and 0.80 (95%CI 0.00,2.15), respectively. Hypoglycaemia was prevalent amongst those on insulin; for mild/moderate episodes the prevalence was 50% and incidence 23 events per person-year, and for severe episodes the prevalence was 21% and incidence 1 event per person-year. For treatment regimes that included a sulphonylurea, mild/moderate prevalence was 30% and incidence 2 events per person-year, and severe prevalence was 5% and incidence 0.01 events per person-year. A similar prevalence of 5% was found for treatment regimes that did not include sulphonylureas. Conclusions Current evidence shows hypoglycaemia is considerably prevalent amongst people with type 2 diabetes, particularly for those on insulin, yet still fairly common for other treatment regimens. This highlights the subsequent need for educational interventions and individualisation of therapies to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia. PMID:26061690

  5. Birth Prevalence of Cerebral Palsy: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Doernberg, Nancy; Schieve, Laura; Christensen, Deborah; Goodman, Alyson; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Population-based data in the United States on trends in cerebral palsy (CP) birth prevalence are limited. The objective of this study was to examine trends in the birth prevalence of congenital spastic CP by birth weight, gestational age, and race/ethnicity in a heterogeneous US metropolitan area. METHODS Children with CP were identified by a population-based surveillance system for developmental disabilities (DDs). Children with CP were included if they were born in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, from 1985 to 2002, resided there at age 8 years, and did not have a postneonatal etiology (n = 766). Birth weight, gestational age, and race/ethnicity subanalyses were restricted to children with spastic CP (n = 640). Trends were examined by CP subtype, gender, race/ethnicity, co-occurring DDs, birth weight, and gestational age. RESULTS Birth prevalence of spastic CP per 1000 1-year survivors was stable from 1985 to 2002 (1.9 in 1985 to 1.8 in 2002; 0.3% annual average prevalence; 95% confidence interval [CI] −1.1 to 1.8). Whereas no significant trends were observed by gender, subtype, birth weight, or gestational age overall, CP prevalence with co-occurring moderate to severe intellectual disability significantly decreased (−2.6% [95% CI −4.3 to −0.8]). Racial disparities persisted over time between non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white children (prevalence ratio 1.8 [95% CI 1.5 to 2.1]). Different patterns emerged for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black children by birth weight and gestational age. CONCLUSIONS Given improvements in neonatal survival, evidence of stability of CP prevalence is encouraging. Yet lack of overall decreases supports continued monitoring of trends and increased research and prevention efforts. Racial/ethnic disparities, in particular, warrant further study. PMID:26659459

  6. HPV prevalence and type-distribution in cervical cancer and premalignant lesions of the cervix: A population-based study from Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lesley A; O'Rorke, Michael A; Wilson, Robbie; Jamison, Jackie; Gavin, Anna T

    2016-07-01

    Assessment of Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and genotype distribution is important for monitoring the impact of prophylactic HPV vaccination. This study aimed to demonstrate the HPV genotypes predominating in pre-malignant and cervical cancers in Northern Ireland (NI) before the vaccination campaign has effect. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks from 2,303 women aged 16-93 years throughout NI were collated between April 2011 and February 2013. HPV DNA was amplified by PCR and HPV genotyping undertaken using the Roche(®) linear array detection kit. In total, 1,241 out of 1,830 eligible samples (68.0%) tested positive for HPV, with the majority of these [1,181/1,830 (64.5%)] having high-risk (HR) HPV infection; 37.4% were positive for HPV-16 (n = 684) and 5.1% for HPV-18 (n = 93). HPV type-specific prevalence was 48.1%, 65.9%, 81.3%, 92.2%, and 64.3% among cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) Grades I-III, squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) cases, respectively. Most SCC cases (81.3%) had only one HPV genotype detected and almost a third (32.0%) of all cervical pathologies were HPV negative including 51.9% of CIN I (n = 283), 34.1% CIN II (n = 145), 18.7% of CIN III (n = 146), 7.8% of SCC (n = 5), and 35.7% of AC (n = 5) cases. This study provides important baseline data for monitoring the effect of HPV vaccination in NI and for comparison with other UK regions. The coverage of other HR-HPV genotypes apart from 16 and 18, including HPV-45, 31, 39, and 52, and the potential for cross protection, should be considered when considering future polyvalent vaccines. J. Med. Virol. 88:1262-1270, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26680281

  7. Prevalence of Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS): A Population-Based Study in Olmsted County, Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Varun; Alikhan, Ali; Vazquez, Benjamin G.; Weaver, Amy L.; Davis, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a follicular occlusion disorder occurring in apocrine-rich regions of the skin. Estimates of the prevalence of this disorder have not been population-based. We sought to provide population-based information on the prevalence of HS in Olmsted County, Minnesota as of 1/1/2009. METHODS Rochester Epidemiology Project, a unique infrastructure that combines and makes accessible all medical records in Olmsted County since the 1960s, was used to collect population-based data on the prevalence of HS. RESULTS We identified 178 confirmed cases of HS that included 135 females and 43 males, and estimated the total sex- and age-adjusted prevalence in Olmsted County to be 127.8 per 100,000 or 0.13%. The total prevalence was significantly higher among women than men. CONCLUSION This study represents the first population-based investigation on the prevalence of HS. In this population-based cohort, HS was less prevalent than previous reports have suggested. PMID:25228133

  8. Prevalence of different forms of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Chang, Yi-Ting; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Fetzer, Susan; Wang, Jung-Der

    2015-04-01

    Reported cases of child maltreatment are increasing in Taiwan. Yet, comprehensive epidemiological characteristics of adolescents' exposure over the wide spectrum of violence are still lacking. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and magnitude of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents. A population-based study was conducted with 5,276 adolescents aged 12-18 from 35 schools in 17 cities and townships to determine the prevalence of five forms of child maltreatment in Taiwan. A total of 5,236 adolescents completed anonymous, self-report, structured questionnaires. Most adolescents (91%, n=4,788) experienced at least one form of maltreatment with 83% (n=4,347) exposed during the previous year. Violence exposure was the most common type of child maltreatment experienced, followed by psychological abuse, physical abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse. Adolescents reported an average of 7.4 (SD=5.87) victimizations over their lifetime and 4.8 (SD=4.82) victimizations during the past year. Females reported a higher rate of neglect, while males reported a higher rate of sexual abuse. Most of the sexual abuse perpetrators were known by their victims. Adolescents' victimization and polyvictimization from child maltreatment in Taiwan deserves a review and modification of national control and prevention policies. PMID:25477233

  9. Estimating HIV Prevalence in Zimbabwe Using Population-Based Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Chinomona, Amos; Mwambi, Henry Godwell

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of HIV prevalence computed using data obtained from sampling a subgroup of the national population may lack the representativeness of all the relevant domains of the population. These estimates are often computed on the assumption that HIV prevalence is uniform across all domains of the population. Use of appropriate statistical methods together with population-based survey data can enhance better estimation of national and subgroup level HIV prevalence and can provide improved explanations of the variation in HIV prevalence across different domains of the population. In this study we computed design-consistent estimates of HIV prevalence, and their respective 95% confidence intervals at both the national and subgroup levels. In addition, we provided a multivariable survey logistic regression model from a generalized linear modelling perspective for explaining the variation in HIV prevalence using demographic, socio-economic, socio-cultural and behavioural factors. Essentially, this study borrows from the proximate determinants conceptual framework which provides guiding principles upon which socio-economic and socio-cultural variables affect HIV prevalence through biological behavioural factors. We utilize the 2010–11 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (2010–11 ZDHS) data (which are population based) to estimate HIV prevalence in different categories of the population and for constructing the logistic regression model. It was established that HIV prevalence varies greatly with age, gender, marital status, place of residence, literacy level, belief on whether condom use can reduce the risk of contracting HIV and level of recent sexual activity whereas there was no marked variation in HIV prevalence with social status (measured using a wealth index), method of contraceptive and an individual’s level of education. PMID:26624280

  10. Estimating HIV Prevalence in Zimbabwe Using Population-Based Survey Data.

    PubMed

    Chinomona, Amos; Mwambi, Henry Godwell

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of HIV prevalence computed using data obtained from sampling a subgroup of the national population may lack the representativeness of all the relevant domains of the population. These estimates are often computed on the assumption that HIV prevalence is uniform across all domains of the population. Use of appropriate statistical methods together with population-based survey data can enhance better estimation of national and subgroup level HIV prevalence and can provide improved explanations of the variation in HIV prevalence across different domains of the population. In this study we computed design-consistent estimates of HIV prevalence, and their respective 95% confidence intervals at both the national and subgroup levels. In addition, we provided a multivariable survey logistic regression model from a generalized linear modelling perspective for explaining the variation in HIV prevalence using demographic, socio-economic, socio-cultural and behavioural factors. Essentially, this study borrows from the proximate determinants conceptual framework which provides guiding principles upon which socio-economic and socio-cultural variables affect HIV prevalence through biological behavioural factors. We utilize the 2010-11 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (2010-11 ZDHS) data (which are population based) to estimate HIV prevalence in different categories of the population and for constructing the logistic regression model. It was established that HIV prevalence varies greatly with age, gender, marital status, place of residence, literacy level, belief on whether condom use can reduce the risk of contracting HIV and level of recent sexual activity whereas there was no marked variation in HIV prevalence with social status (measured using a wealth index), method of contraceptive and an individual's level of education. PMID:26624280

  11. Clinical risk factors for fracture in postmenopausal Canadian women: a population-based prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Leslie, William D; Anderson, William A; Metge, Colleen J; Manness, Lori-Jean

    2007-04-01

    Clinical risk factor assessment can be used to enhance fracture risk estimation based upon bone densitometry alone. Population- and age-specific risk factor prevalence data are required for the construction of these risk models. Our objective was to derive population-based prevalence estimates of specific clinical risk factors for postmenopausal women resident in the Province of Manitoba, Canada. A random sample of 40,300 women age 50 or older identified from the provincial health plan was mailed a validated self-report risk factor survey. The response rate was 8747 (21.7%) with a final study population of 8027 women after exclusions. The individual prevalence for each clinical risk factor ranged from 5.8% for hyperthyroidism to 33.0% for a fall in the preceding 12 months. Most point prevalence estimates were similar to other large cohort studies, though the prevalences of inactivity and poor mobility were higher than expected while height at age 25 and the prevalence of any fracture after age 50 were lower than expected. Most of the respondents (86.9%) had at least one non-age clinical risk factor, 60.6% had two or more, and 33.5% had three or more. Age affected risk factor prevalence, and older age was associated with a higher rate of multiple risk factors. The availability of age-specific risk factor prevalence rates in this population may allow for more accurate fracture risk modeling. PMID:17182296

  12. Adult Prevalence of Epilepsy in Spain: EPIBERIA, a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Castro, Pedro J.; Mauri-Llerda, Jose Angel; Hernández-Ramos, Francisco José; Sánchez-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Parejo-Carbonell, Beatriz; Quiroga-Subirana, Pablo; Vázquez-Gutierrez, Fernando; Santos-Lasaosa, Sonia; Mendez-Lucena, Carolina; Redondo-Verge, Luis; Tejero-Juste, Carlos; Morandeira-Rivas, Clara; Sancho-Rieger, Jerónimo; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study assesses the lifetime and active prevalence of epilepsy in Spain in people older than 18 years. Methods. EPIBERIA is a population-based epidemiological study of epilepsy prevalence using data from three representative Spanish regions (health districts in Zaragoza, Almería, and Seville) between 2012 and 2013. The study consisted of two phases: screening and confirmation. Participants completed a previously validated questionnaire (EPIBERIA questionnaire) over the telephone. Results. A total of 1741 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 261 (14.99%) raising a suspicion of epilepsy. Of these suspected cases, 216 (82.75%) agreed to participate in phase 2. Of the phase 2 participants, 22 met the International League Against Epilepsy's diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. The estimated lifetime prevalence, adjusted by age and sex per 1,000 people, was 14.87 (95% CI: 9.8–21.9). Active prevalence was 5.79 (95% CI: 2.8–10.6). No significant age, sex, or regional differences in prevalence were detected. Conclusions. EPIBERIA provides the most accurate estimate of epilepsy prevalence in the Mediterranean region based on its original methodology and its adherence to ILAE recommendations. We highlight that the lifetime prevalence and inactive epilepsy prevalence figures observed here were compared to other epidemiological studies. PMID:26783554

  13. Sun Exposure Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results from the Austrian Population-Based UVSkinRisk Survey

    PubMed Central

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    Recreational sun exposure accounts for a large number of acute and chronic dermatological diseases, including skin cancer. This study aimed at estimating the one-year prevalence of sun exposure and skin health-associated knowledge and attitudes among Austrian citizens. The population-based UVSkinRisk survey investigated a representative sample of Austrian adults using a structured questionnaire. In total, 1500 study subjects (median age 33.0 years, 50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Among study participants, prevalence of sun exposure was 47%, with slightly higher rates in males (48%) compared to females (46%). Younger age, lower professional category, darker skin type, motives to tan, sunbed use, sunburn, and outdoor sport activity increased the odds for prevalent sun exposure. This is the first population-based study evaluating the prevailing sun exposure and recreational habits influencing skin health among Austrian citizens. Despite public media campaigns educating on the harmful effects of sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunlight exposure. The results suggest that multifaceted socio-cultural characteristics stimulate recreational sun exposure and tanning habits. Communicating individualized Public (Skin) Health messages might be the key to prevent photo-induced skin health hazards in light-skinned populations. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26797627

  14. Sun Exposure Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results from the Austrian Population-Based UVSkinRisk Survey.

    PubMed

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    Recreational sun exposure accounts for a large number of acute and chronic dermatological diseases, including skin cancer. This study aimed at estimating the one-year prevalence of sun exposure and skin health-associated knowledge and attitudes among Austrian citizens. The population-based UVSkinRisk survey investigated a representative sample of Austrian adults using a structured questionnaire. In total, 1500 study subjects (median age 33.0 years, 50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Among study participants, prevalence of sun exposure was 47%, with slightly higher rates in males (48%) compared to females (46%). Younger age, lower professional category, darker skin type, motives to tan, sunbed use, sunburn, and outdoor sport activity increased the odds for prevalent sun exposure. This is the first population-based study evaluating the prevailing sun exposure and recreational habits influencing skin health among Austrian citizens. Despite public media campaigns educating on the harmful effects of sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunlight exposure. The results suggest that multifaceted socio-cultural characteristics stimulate recreational sun exposure and tanning habits. Communicating individualized Public (Skin) Health messages might be the key to prevent photo-induced skin health hazards in light-skinned populations. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26797627

  15. Prevalence of auditory hallucinations in Norwegian adolescents: Results from a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Kompus, Kristiina; Løberg, Else-Marie; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Lundervold, Astri Johansen

    2015-01-01

    Knowing the prevalence and characteristics of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in adolescents is important for estimations of need for mental health care and assessment of psychosis risk. In this report we assess the prevalence of AVH in a population-based sample of 16–19 years old Norwegian adolescents (n = 9,646, 46.4% male) using two items assessing AVH (from the extended Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale). The prevalence of hearing a voice speaking thoughts aloud was 10.6%. The prevalence of being troubled by voices was 5.3%, showing that negative emotionality about AVH is less frequent than the experience of hearing voices. Female respondents had slightly increased risk for being troubled by voices than males (odds ratio = 1.3), while age did not modulate prevalence. This AVH prevalence is in line with earlier reports in smaller samples of adolescents and indicates that AVH are not uncommon in this period of life. Further longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the value of AVH in predicting psychiatric disorder. PMID:25968251

  16. The Incidence and Prevalence of Common Variable Immunodeficiency Disease in Taiwan, A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chih-Wei; Lai, Kuo-Lung; Chen, Der-Yuan; Lin, Ching-Heng; Chen, Hsin-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is one of the primary immunodeficiency diseases that occur in both children and adults. We present here a nationwide, population-based epidemiological study of CVID across all ages in Taiwan during 2002–2011. Using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 279.06, cases of CVID were identified from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database from January 2002 to December 2011. Age- and sex-specific incidence and prevalence rates were calculated. A total of 47 new cases of CVID during 2002–2011 were identified. Total prevalence rose from 0.13 per 100,000 in 2002 to 0.28 per 100,000 in 2011. The annual incidence rate during 2002–2011 was 0.019 per 100,000. Cases were equally distributed between males and females and males mostly occurred in younger patients. This nationwide population-based study showed that the incidence and prevalence of CVID in Taiwan were lower than that in Western countries. PMID:26461272

  17. Prevalence and symptoms of intracranial arachnoid cysts: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Katrin; Jaraj, Daniel; Marlow, Thomas; Jensen, Christer; Skoog, Ingmar; Wikkelsø, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of intracranial arachnoid cysts in a large population-based sample. We also aimed to assess the association between arachnoid cysts and cognitive impairment, depression, epilepsy, headache, dizziness, previous head trauma, hip fractures, and mortality. A population-based cohort and nested case-control study. The sample comprised representative populations (n = 1235) aged ≥ 70 years. All participants underwent baseline neuropsychiatric examinations, including computed tomography (CT) of the brain, between 1986 and 2000. All CT scans were examined for arachnoid cysts. Headache, dizziness, history of head trauma, dementia, depression, epilepsy, and hip fracture were assessed using data from clinical examinations, interviews and the Swedish hospital discharge register. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental Status Examination, and depressive symptoms using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. Date of death was obtained from the National Swedish Death Registry. The prevalence of arachnoid cysts was 2.3 % (n = 29), with no significant difference between men and women. Probands with and without cysts had the same frequency of headache, dizziness, previous head trauma, cognitive impairment, and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, there were no differences regarding the prevalence of dementia, depression, epilepsy, or previous hip fracture. Arachnoid cysts were not associated with increased mortality. Arachnoid cysts are common incidental finding, with the same rate in men and women, and are probably asymptomatic. The lack of relation with symptoms like headache, dizziness and cognitive impairment suggest caution in ascribing symptoms to incidentally discovered arachnoid cysts and a restrictive attitude to treatment. PMID:26860092

  18. Population-Based Prevalence of Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorders in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Smith, Timothy; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) and/or autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Western Australia (WA). A cohort of children born from 1983 to 2010 in WA with an ID and/or ASD were identified using the population-based IDEA (Intellectual Disability Exploring Answers) database, which ascertains cases through the Disability Services Commission (DSC) as well as education sources. Information on race, gender, mother's residence at birth and deaths was obtained through linkage to the Midwives Notification System and the Mortality Register. Diagnostic information on the cause of ID was obtained through review of medical records where available and children were classified as biomedical cause, ASD, or unknown cause. An overall prevalence of ID of 17.0/1000 livebirths (95% CI: 16.7, 17.4) showed an increase from the 10-year previous prevalence of 14.3/1000. The prevalence for mild or moderate ID was 15.0 (95% CI: 14.6, 15.3), severe ID was 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.3), and unknown level of ID was 0.9 (95% CI: 0.8, 1.0)/1000 livebirths. The prevalence for Aboriginal children was 39.0/1000 compared with 15.7/1000 for non-Aboriginal children, giving a prevalence ratio of 2.5 (95% CI: 2.4, 2.6). Prevalence of all ASD was 5.1/1000 of which 3.8/1000 had ASD and ID. The prevalence of ID has risen in WA over the last 10 years with most of this increase due to mild or moderate ID. Whilst the prevalence of ASD has also increased over this time this does not fully explain the observed increase. Aboriginal children are at a 2.5-fold risk of ID but are less likely to be accessing disability services. PMID:27227936

  19. Prevalence and correlates of diabetes mellitus in Malawi: population-based national NCD STEPS survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previously considered as a disease of the affluent, west or urban people and not of public health importance, diabetes mellitus is increasingly becoming a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. However, population-based data to inform prevention, treatment and control are lacking. Methods Using the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance, a population-based, nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted between July and September 2009 on participants aged 25–64 years. A multi-stage cluster sample design and weighting were used to produce a national representative data for that age range. Detailed findings on the magnitude of diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting blood glucose are presented in this paper. Results Fasting blood glucose measurement was conducted on 3056 participants (70.2% females, 87.9% from rural areas). The age- sex standardised population-based mean fasting blood glucose was 4.3 mmol/L (95% CI 4.1-4.4 mmol/L) with no significant differences by age, sex and location (urban/rural). The overall prevalence of impaired fasting blood glucose was 4.2% (95% CI 3.0%-5.4%). Prevalence of impaired blood glucose was higher in men than in women, 5.7% (95% CI 3.9%-7.5%) vs 2.7% (95% CI 1.6%- 3.8%), p < 0.01. In both men and women, prevalence of raised fasting blood glucose or currently on medication for diabetes was 5.6% (95% CI 2.6%- 8.5%). Although the prevalence of diabetes was higher in men than women, 6.5% (95% CI 2.6%-10.3%) vs 4.7% (95% CI 2.4%-7.0%), in rural than urban, 5.4% (95% CI 2.4%-8.4%) vs 4.4% (95% CI 2.8%-5.9%) and in males in rural than males in urban, 6.9% (95% CI 2.8%-11.0%) vs 3.2% (95% CI 0.1%-6.3%), the differences were not statistically significant, p > 0.05. Compared to previous estimates, prevalence of diabetes increased from <1.0% in 1960s to 5.6% in 2009 (this study). Conclusion High prevalence of impaired fasting blood glucose and diabetes mellitus

  20. Changing prevalence of severe congenital heart disease: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Egbe, Alexander; Uppu, Santosh; Lee, Simon; Ho, Deborah; Srivastava, Shubhika

    2014-10-01

    Although the epidemiology of congenital heart disease (CHD) has been described, the authors believe changes in prenatal factors such as termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly and prenatal vitamin supplementation have altered the birth prevalence of severe CHD. This population-based study reviewed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database and identified all cases with a severe CHD diagnosis among all live birth entries from 1999 to 2008. A time trend analysis then was performed for specific severe CHD diagnoses stratified by race, socioeconomic status, and geographic location. Overall, severe CHD prevalence was 147.4 per 100,000 live births, with a temporal decrease in prevalence from 168.9 per 100,000 in 1999 to 129.3 per 100,000 in 2008 (p = 0.03). Among the 12 severe CHD diagnoses included in our cohort, the prevalence of truncus arteriosus (p = 0.02), tetralogy of Fallot (p = 0.001), hypoplastic left heart syndrome (p = 0.001), and pulmonary atresia (p = 0.01) decreased significantly during the study period. The observed prevalence trends varied significantly by race (Caucasians), socioeconomic class (upper income quartiles), and geographic location (Northeast and West regions). The study findings showed a temporal decrease in severe CHD prevalence, which varied by race, socioeconomic status, and geographic location. The authors speculated that the observed trend might be due to increased termination of fetuses with prenatally diagnosed CHD. The impact of sociodemographic variables on the observed prevalence trend might be due to differences in access to specialized perinatal care and fetal heart programs or because of variability in termination of pregnancy. PMID:24823884

  1. Prevalence and correlates of coronary heart disease: first population-based study in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Zeidan, Rouba Karen; Farah, Rita; Chahine, Mirna N; Asmar, Roland; Hosseini, Hassan; Salameh, Pascale; Pathak, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Background Lebanon is experiencing a growing epidemic of coronary heart diseases (CHDs), as most low- and middle-income countries currently are. However, this growth can be attenuated if effective preventive strategies are adopted. Purpose To provide the first national population-based prevalence of CHD and to describe the profile of Lebanese adults with prevalent CHD. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study using a multistage cluster sample across Lebanon. We interviewed residents aged 40 years and older using a questionnaire that captured the presence of CHDs and their risk factors (RFs). Results Our study showed that 13.4% of the Lebanese population aged ≥40 years suffer from a prevalent CHD. CHD seemed to appear more prematurely than in developed countries, and males seemed to be more subject to CHD than females until a certain age. CHD was associated with older age, male sex, a lower economic situation, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, having a family history of premature cardiovascular diseases, and suffering from diabetes. However, smoking and waist circumference did not seem to have an independent effect on CHD, but rather an effect mediated by biological RFs. Conclusion This is the first nationwide endeavor conducted in Lebanon to assess the prevalence of CHD. This study also confirms the relevance of the classic RFs of CHD and their applicability to the Lebanese population, thus allowing for prevention strategies. PMID:27051290

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence in Chinese women: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Li, Xinyu; Wang, Quanyi; Lu, Yongxian

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the current prevalence rate of urinary incontinence (UI) and to identify risk factors in Chinese women, we conducted a population-based survey in 3058 women in Beijing, China, in 2009. The prevalence rate of UI was estimated to be 22.1%, with stress UI (12.9%) being more prevalent than urgency UI (1.7%) and mixed UI (7.5%). The prevalence rates of UI, urgency UI, and mixed UI increased with age, with the highest recorded in participants aged ≥70 years. However, stress UI was most commonly seen in participants aged 50 to 69 years. Risk factors for UI included aging, lower education background, older age of menarche, menstrual disorder, pregnancy history, episiotomy, chronic pelvic pain, gynecological disease, other chronic diseases, constipation, fecal incontinence, lower daily water intake, and frequency of high protein intake. UI is a common disorder in Chinese women, and many risk factors are able to affect the development of UI. PMID:22186396

  3. Prevalence and correlates of erectile dysfunction in Salvador, northeastern Brazil: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Moreira, E D; Lisboa Lôbo, C F; Villa, M; Nicolosi, A; Glasser, D B

    2002-08-01

    Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in Brazil and to explore potential sociodemographic, medical, and lifestyle correlates. A cross-sectional, population-based, household survey was conducted in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Cluster samples of representative households were randomly selected for interviews. Of 654 eligible subjects, 602 (92%) participated. A structured questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers. ED was categorized as 'none', 'mild', 'moderate', or 'severe' according to the ability to 'attain and/or maintain an erection satisfactory for sexual intercourse'. All data were obtained by self-report. The age-adjusted prevalence of ED was 39.5% (minimal 25.1%, moderate 13.1%, severe 1.3%). Prevalence and severity increased with age. Having never been married, diabetes, depression, or prostate disease and current depressive or lower urinary tract symptoms were significantly (P<0.05) associated with increased prevalence. Medical, sociodemographic, and lifestyle variables associated with ED may alert physicians to patients at risk for ED and offer insight to its etiology. PMID:12161762

  4. Long term trends in prevalence of neural tube defects in Europe: population based study

    PubMed Central

    Loane, Maria; de Walle, Hermien; Arriola, Larraitz; Addor, Marie-Claude; Barisic, Ingeborg; Beres, Judit; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Dias, Carlos; Draper, Elizabeth; Garne, Ester; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Klungsoyr, Kari; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; Lynch, Catherine; McDonnell, Bob; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J; O’Mahony, Mary T; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Rounding, Catherine; Sipek, Antonin; Tucker, David; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Study question What are the long term trends in the total (live births, fetal deaths, and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly) and live birth prevalence of neural tube defects (NTD) in Europe, where many countries have issued recommendations for folic acid supplementation but a policy for mandatory folic acid fortification of food does not exist? Methods This was a population based, observational study using data on 11 353 cases of NTD not associated with chromosomal anomalies, including 4162 cases of anencephaly and 5776 cases of spina bifida from 28 EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) registries covering approximately 12.5 million births in 19 countries between 1991 and 2011. The main outcome measures were total and live birth prevalence of NTD, as well as anencephaly and spina bifida, with time trends analysed using random effects Poisson regression models to account for heterogeneities across registries and splines to model non-linear time trends. Summary answer and limitations Overall, the pooled total prevalence of NTD during the study period was 9.1 per 10 000 births. Prevalence of NTD fluctuated slightly but without an obvious downward trend, with the final estimate of the pooled total prevalence of NTD in 2011 similar to that in 1991. Estimates from Poisson models that took registry heterogeneities into account showed an annual increase of 4% (prevalence ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.07) in 1995-99 and a decrease of 3% per year in 1999-2003 (0.97, 0.95 to 0.99), with stable rates thereafter. The trend patterns for anencephaly and spina bifida were similar, but neither anomaly decreased substantially over time. The live birth prevalence of NTD generally decreased, especially for anencephaly. Registration problems or other data artefacts cannot be excluded as a partial explanation of the observed trends (or lack thereof) in the prevalence of NTD. What this study adds In the absence of mandatory fortification

  5. Prevalence and pattern of radiographic intervertebral disc degeneration in Vietnamese: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Lai, Thai Q; Mai, Linh D; Doan, Minh C; Pham, Hoa N; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2015-06-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is one of the most common skeletal disorders, yet few data are available in Asian populations. We sought to assess the prevalence and pattern of radiographic IDD in a Vietnamese population. This population-based cross-sectional investigation involved 170 men and 488 women aged ≥40 years, who were randomly sampled from the Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam). Anthropometric data, clinical history and self-reported back and neck pain were ascertained by a questionnaire. Plain radiographs (from the cervical spine, thoracic spine to the lumbar spine) were examined for the presence of disc space narrowing and/or osteophytosis using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading system. The presence of radiographic IDD was defined if the KL grade was 2 or greater in at least one disc. The prevalence of radiographic IDD was 62.4% (n = 106) in men and 54.7% (n = 267) in women. The most frequently affected site was the lumbar spine with prevalence being 50.6 and 43.2% in men and women, respectively. The prevalence of IDD increased with advancing age: 18.8% among those aged 40-49 years, and increased to 83.4% in those aged ≥60 years. Self-reported neck pain and lower back pain were found in 30 and 44% of individuals, respectively. There was no statistically significant association between self-reported neck pain and cervical spine OA. These data suggest that radiographic IDD is highly prevalent in the Vietnamese population, and that self-reported back pain is not a sensitive indicator of IDD. PMID:25791571

  6. Prevalence of chronic diseases among physicians in Taiwan: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Li-Ting; Chiu, Yu-Lung; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Chung, Shiu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The health of physicians is an important topic which needs to be addressed in order to provide the best quality of patient care. However, there are few studies on the prevalence of chronic diseases among physicians. In this study, we explored the prevalence of chronic diseases among physicians and compared the probability of chronic diseases between physicians and the general population using a population-based data set in Taiwan. Study design A cross-sectional study. Setting Taiwan. Participants Our study consisted of 1426 practising physicians and 5704 general participants. Primary outcome measures We chose 22 chronic diseases from the Elixhauser Comorbidity index and nine highly prevalent medical conditions in an Asian population for analysis. We used conditional logistic regression analyses to investigate the OR and its corresponding 95% CI of chronic diseases between these two groups. Results The conditional logistic regression analyses showed that physicians had lower odds of peripheral vascular disorders (OR=0.41, 95% CI=0.19 to 0.90), uncomplicated diabetes (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.60 to 0.97), complicated diabetes (OR=0.53, 95% CI=0.34 to 0.83), renal failure (OR=0.41, 95% CI=0.19 to 0.90), liver diseases (OR=0.78, 95% CI=0.66 to 0.94), and hepatitis B or C (OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.49 to 0.77) and higher odds of hypertension (OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.03 to 1.41), hyperlipidaemia (OR=1.43, 95% CI=1.23 to 1.67) and asthma (OR=1.59, 95% CI=1.16 to 2.18) than the general population. Conclusions We concluded that although physicians had decreased prevalence of some chronic diseases, they had a significantly increased prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and asthma. PMID:26940106

  7. Prevalence of sun exposure and its associated factors in southern Brazil: a population-based study*

    PubMed Central

    Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Reichert, Felipe Fossati; dos Santos, Iná da Silva; Haack, Ricardo Lanzetta; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sunlight exposure is responsible for a large number of dermatological diseases. OBJECTIVE We estimated the prevalence of sunlight exposure and its associated factors in adults from southern Brazil in a cross-sectional, population-based study. METHODS We investigated a representative sample of individuals aged ≥ 20 years (n=3,136). Sunlight exposure and its associated factors were evaluated in two distinct situations: at leisure time and at work. The time period investigated ranged from December 2004 to March 2005, comprising 120 days of the highest ultraviolet index in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, in southern Brazil. The participants were asked about sunlight exposure for at least 20 minutes between 10 A.M. and 4 P.M. The analysis was stratified by sex, and sunlight exposure was grouped into five categories. RESULTS Among the 3,136 participants, prevalence of sunlight exposure at the beach was 32.8% (95% CI, 30.3 - 35.2) and 26.3% (95% CI, 24.2 28.3) among men and women, respectively. The prevalence at work was 39.8% (95% CI, 37.2 - 42.4) among men and 10.5% (95% CI, 9.1 - 12.0) among women. Age was inversely associated with sunlight exposure. Family income and achieved schooling were positively associated with sunlight exposure at leisure time and inversely associated with sunglight exposure at work. Self-reported skin color was not associated. Knowledge of any friend or relative who has been affected by skin cancer was positively associated with sunlight exposure among men at work. CONCLUSION Despite the media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of sunlight exposure during a period of high ultraviolet index. PMID:24068126

  8. Prevalence of and Predictors for Frequent Utilization of Emergency Department: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Ko, Mingchung; Lee, Yaling; Chen, Chuchieh; Chou, Pesus; Chu, Dachen

    2015-07-01

    Frequent emergency department (ED) users contribute to a disproportionate number of ED visits that consume a substantial amount of medical resources. Additionally, people with frequent ED visits may be at greater risks of illnesses and injury and are vulnerable to even more severe health events. We conducted, based on a nationally representative sample, a population-based study to estimate the prevalence of frequent ED users among all ED users, and to explore factors associated with frequent ED visits. This is a population-based cross-sectional study. Data of 1 million people randomly selected from all beneficiaries of Taiwan's National Health Insurance claim database in 2010 were analyzed to estimate the distribution of ED visit among ED users. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to calculate the independent associations of factors with prevalence of frequent (4-12 ED visits per year) and highly frequent (>12 ED visits per year) ED visits. Of the 1 million beneficiaries 170,475 subjects used ED service in 2010 and 103,111 (60.5%), 37,964 (22.3%), 14,881 (8.7%), 14,041 (8.2%), and 460 (0.3%) subjects had 1, 2, 3, 4 to 12, and more than 12 ED visits, respectively. ED users with 4 to 12 visits and those with >12 visits disproportionally accounted for 24.1% and 3.0%, respectively, of all ED visits in 2010. We noted significant associations of frequent ED visit with a number of factors including socio-demographics, health care utilization, and comorbidity. Among them, the most increased adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was noted for hospitalization during the past year (AOR = 1.85) and younger ages (1-6 years) (AOR = 1.84). On the contrary, the significant predictors for highly frequent ED visit with greater AOR included hospitalization during the past year (AOR = 3.95), > 12 outpatient visits during the past year (AOR = 2.66), and a history of congestive heart failure (AOR = 2.64) and psychiatric disorders (AOR = 2.35). People admitted and with frequent outpatient

  9. Delayed sleep phase syndrome in adolescents: prevalence and correlates in a large population based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS) in adolescence, and to examine the association to insomnia and school non-attendance. Methods Data stem from a large population based study in Hordaland County in Norway conducted in 2012, the ung@hordaland study. In all, 10,220 adolescents aged 16–18 years (54% girls) provided self-reported data on a range of sleep parameters: DSPS was defined according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Revised (ICSD-R) criteria, while insomnia was defined according to the Quantitative Criteria for Insomnia. Other sleep parameters included time in bed, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, oversleeping, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, subjective sleep need, sleep deficiency, sleepiness and tiredness. Sleep data were calculated separately for weekdays and weekends. Data on school non-attendance were provided by official registers. Results The prevalence of DSPS was 3.3%, and significantly higher among girls (3.7%) than boys (2.7%). There was a strong overlap between DSPS and insomnia, with more than half of the adolescents with DSPS also meeting the criteria for insomnia (53.8% for boys and 57.1% for girls). Adolescents with DSPS had significantly higher odds ratios (OR) of non-attendance at school. After adjusting for sociodeographical factors, insomnia and depression, the adjusted ORs for days of non-attendance were OR = 3.22 (95% CI: 1.94-5.34) for boys and OR = 1.87 (95% CI: 1.25-2.80) for girls. A similar effect was found for hours of non-attendance for boys, with an adjusted OR = 3.05 (95% CI: 1.89-4.92). The effect for girls was no longer significant after full adjustment (OR =1.48 [95% CI: 0.94-2.32]). Conclusions This is one of the first studies to estimate the prevalence of DSPS in adolescents. The high prevalence of DSPS, and overlap with insomnia, in combination with the odds of school non-attendance, suggest that a broad

  10. Extremely high prevalence of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Murmansk, Russia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, J; Marjamäki, M; Haanperä-Heikkinen, M; Marttila, H; Endourova, L B; Presnova, S E; Mathys, V; Bifani, P; Ruohonen, R; Viljanen, M K; Soini, H

    2011-09-01

    Drug resistance and molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in the Murmansk region was investigated in a 2-year, population-based surveillance of the civilian population. During 2003 and 2004, isolates from all culture-positive cases were collected (n = 1,226). Prevalence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) was extremely high, as 114 out of 439 new cases (26.0%), and 574 out of 787 previously treated cases (72.9%) were resistant to at least isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF). Spoligotyping of the primary MDR-TB isolates revealed that most isolates grouped to the Beijing SIT1 genotype (n = 91, 79.8%). Isolates of this genotype were further analyzed by IS6110 RFLP. Sequencing of gene targets associated with INH and RIF resistance further showed that the MDR-TB strains are highly homogeneous as 78% of the MDR, SIT1 strains had the same resistance-conferring mutations. The genetic homogeneity of the MDR-TB strains indicates that they are actively transmitted in Murmansk. PMID:21394425

  11. National population based HIV prevalence surveys in sub‐Saharan Africa: results and implications for HIV and AIDS estimates

    PubMed Central

    García‐Calleja, J M; Gouws, E; Ghys, P D

    2006-01-01

    Background Sentinel surveillance among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANCs) has been the main source of information on HIV trends in sub‐Saharan Africa. These data have also been used to generate national HIV and AIDS estimates. New technologies and resources have allowed many countries to conduct national population based surveys that include HIV prevalence measurement, as an additional source of information on the AIDS epidemic. Methods The authors reviewed the reports of 20 national population based surveys from 19 countries carried out in sub‐Saharan Africa since 2001. They examined the sampling methodology, HIV testing and response rates, and female:male and urban:rural prevalence ratios. They also constructed adjusted prevalence scenarios assuming different relative risks for survey non‐responders. Results The national population based surveys vary considerably in quality, as reflected in the household response rate (ranging from 75.4% to 99.7%), women's testing rate (ranging from 68.2% to 97.3%), and men's testing rate (ranging from 62.2% to 95.4%), while for some surveys detailed response information is lacking. While 95% confidence intervals around the female:male and urban:rural prevalence ratios in individual countries are large, the median female:male ratio of the combined set of surveys results is 1.5 and the median urban:rural ratio 1.7. A scenario assuming that non‐responders have twice the HIV prevalence of those who fully participated in the survey suggests that individual non‐response could result in an adjusted HIV prevalence 1.03 to 1.34 times higher than the observed prevalence. Conclusions Population based surveys can provide useful information on HIV prevalence levels and distribution. This information is being used to improve national HIV and AIDS estimates. Further refinements in data collection, analysis, and reporting, combined with high participation rates, can further improve HIV and AIDS estimates at national and

  12. Prevalence of Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tics in the Population-Based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Miller, Laura L.; Mathews, Carol A.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CT) are more common than previously recognized. However, few population-based studies have examined the prevalence of co-occurring neuropsychiatric conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and…

  13. Population Based Study of 12 Autoimmune Diseases in Sardinia, Italy: Prevalence and Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Sardu, Claudia; Cocco, Eleonora; Mereu, Alessandra; Massa, Roberta; Cuccu, Alessandro; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Contu, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background The limited availability of prevalence data based on a representative sample of the general population, and the limited number of diseases considered in studies about co-morbidity are the critical factors in study of autoimmune diseases. This paper describes the prevalence of 12 autoimmune diseases in a representative sample of the general population in the South of Sardinia, Italy, and tests the hypothesis of an overall association among these diseases. Methods Data were obtained from 21 GPs. The sample included 25,885 people. Prevalence data were expressed with 95% Poisson C.I. The hypothesis of an overall association between autoimmune diseases was tested by evaluating the co-occurrence within individuals. Results Prevalence per 100,000 are: 552 rheumatoid arthritis, 124 ulcerative colitis, 15 Crohn's disease, 464 type 1 diabetes, 81 systemic lupus erythematosus, 124 celiac disease, 35 myasthenia gravis, 939 psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis, 35 systemic sclerosis, 224 multiple sclerosis, 31 Sjogren's syndrome, and 2,619 autoimmune thyroiditis . An overall association between autoimmune disorders was highlighted. Conclusions The comparisons with prevalence reported in current literature do not show outlier values, except possibly for a few diseases like celiac disease and myasthenia gravis. People already affected by a first autoimmune disease have a higher probability of being affected by a second autoimmune disorder. In the present study, the sample size, together with the low overall prevalence of autoimmune diseases in the population, did not allow us to examine which diseases are most frequently associated with other autoimmune diseases. However, this paper makes available an adequate control population for future clinical studies aimed at exploring the co-morbidity of specific pairs of autoimmune diseases. PMID:22396771

  14. Incidence and Prevalence of Myasthenia Gravis in Korea: A Population-Based Study Using the National Health Insurance Claims Database

    PubMed Central

    Park, Su-Yeon; Lee, Jin Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose There have been a few national population-based epidemiological studies of myasthenia gravis (MG) with wide variation of incidence and prevalence rates worldwide. Herein we report the first nationwide population-based epidemiological study of MG in Korea. Methods We attempted to estimate the incidence and prevalence rates of MG using the Korean National Health Insurance claims database for 2010 to 2013. Cases with MG were defined as those having claim records with a principal diagnosis of MG and the prescription of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or immunosuppressive agents including corticosteroids and azathioprine within 2 years after the diagnosis. The year 2010 was set as a washout period, such that patients were defined as incident cases if their first records of MG were observed in 2011. Results In 2011 there were 1,236 incident cases, and the standardized incidence rate was 2.44 per 100,000 person-years. The standardized prevalence rates were 9.67 and 10.66 per 100,000 persons in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The incidence and prevalence rates peaked in the elderly population aged 60 to 69 years for both sexes. Conclusions This is one of the largest national population-based epidemiological studies of MG, and it has confirmed the high incidence and prevalence rates of MG in the elderly population of South Korea. PMID:27165426

  15. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in scholars from Bucaramanga, Colombia: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Villa-Roel, Cristina; Buitrago, Adriana; Rodríguez, Diana C; Cano, Diana J; Martínez, María P; Camacho, Paul A; Ruiz, Álvaro J; Durán, Álvaro E

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity and metabolic syndrome are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, thus the increasing trend in their prevalence among children and adolescents from developing countries requires a further understanding of their epidemiology and determinants. Methods and design A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among 6–10 year-old children from Bucaramanga, Colombia. A two-stage random-cluster (neighborhoods, houses) sampling process was performed based on local city maps and local statistics. The study involves a domiciliary survey; including a comprehensive socio-demographic, nutritional and physical activity characterization of the children that participated in the study, followed by a complete clinical examination; including blood pressure, anthropometry, lipid profile determination, fasting glucose and insulin levels. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome will be determined using definitions and specific percentile cut-off points for this population. Finally, the association between components of metabolic syndrome and higher degrees of insulin resistance will be analyzed through a multivariable logistic regression model. This study protocol was designed in compliance with the Helsinki declaration and approved by the local ethics board. Consent was obtained from the children and their parents/guardians. Discussion A complete description of the environmental and non-environmental factors underlying the burden of metabolic syndrome in children from a developing country like Colombia will provide policy makers, health care providers and educators from similar settings with an opportunity to guide primary and secondary preventive initiatives at both individual and community levels. Moreover, this description may give an insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms mediating the development of cardio-metabolic diseases early in life. PMID:19383169

  16. Prevalence of tics in schoolchildren in central Spain: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Cubo, Esther; Gabriel y Galán, José María Trejo; Villaverde, Vanesa Ausín; Velasco, Sara Sáez; Benito, Vanesa Delgado; Macarrón, Jesús Vicente; Guevara, José Cordero; Louis, Elan D; Benito-León, Julián

    2011-08-01

    Tic disorders constitute a neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. This study sought to determine the prevalence of tic disorders in a school-based sample. A randomized sample of 1158 schoolchildren, based on clusters (classrooms) in the province of Burgos (Spain), was identified on a stratified sampling frame combining types of educational center and setting (mainstream schools and special education), using a two-phase approach (screening and diagnosis ascertainment by a neurologist). Tics with/without impairment criterion were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. In mainstream schools, tics were observed in 125/741 students (16.86%; 95% confidence interval, 14.10-19.63), and were more frequent in boys (87/448, 19.42%; 95% confidence interval, 15.64-23.19) compared with girls (38/293, 12.96%; 95% confidence interval, 8.95-16.98; P = 0.03). In special education centers, tics disorders were observed in 11/54 of children (20.37%; 95% confidence interval, 8.70-32.03). Overall, tics with impairment criteria were less frequent than tics without impairment criteria (4.65% vs 11.85%, P < 0.0001). The most frequent diagnoses involved chronic motor tics (6.07%) and Tourette syndrome (5.26%). Tic disorders are common in childhood, and the use or nonuse of impairment criteria exerts a significant impact on tic prevalence estimates. PMID:21763950

  17. Comparison of adult HIV prevalence from national population-based surveys and antenatal clinic surveillance in countries with generalised epidemics: implications for calibrating surveillance data

    PubMed Central

    Gouws, E; Mishra, V; Fowler, T B

    2008-01-01

    Background: Estimates of the impact of HIV in countries with generalised epidemics are generally based on antenatal clinic surveillance data collected over time. In an attempt to obtain geographically more representative estimates of HIV prevalence, many countries are now also conducting national population-based surveys in which HIV testing is included. We compare adult HIV prevalence estimates from antenatal clinic surveillance to those from national population-based surveys to assess the implications for calibrating surveillance data. Methods: HIV prevalence estimates derived from fitting prevalence curves to antenatal clinic surveillance data are statistically compared to prevalence from national population-based surveys using data from 26 countries with generalised epidemics for the year in which the survey was conducted. Appropriate transformations are applied to inform the correction factors needed to adjust prevalence in countries where population-based surveys have not been conducted. Results: HIV prevalence derived from antenatal clinic surveillance data generally overestimate population-based survey prevalence by about 20% (95% confidence interval: 10% to 30%) in both urban and rural areas. Conclusions: In countries where national population-based HIV surveys have been conducted, survey estimates of HIV prevalence (adjusted for potential survey biases as appropriate) can be used directly to calibrate antenatal clinic surveillance data. In countries where national HIV surveys have not been conducted, HIV prevalence derived from antenatal clinic surveillance data should be multiplied by about 0.8 to adjust for overestimation. PMID:18647861

  18. Variations in Incidence and Prevalence of Parkinson's Disease in Taiwan: A Population-Based Nationwide Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chih-Ching; Li, Chung-Yi; Lee, Pei-Chen; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Demographic, socioeconomic, and urbanization level variations in Parkinson's disease (PD) are rarely investigated, especially in Asia. This study describes an eight-year trend in PD incidence and prevalence in Taiwan as well as assessing the effects of sociodemographics and urbanization on the incidence and prevalence of PD. The data analyzed were acquired from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) entries between 2002 and 2009. The calendar year, sex, and age-specific rates were standardized, and the effects of the sociodemographics and urbanization on PD were assessed using Poisson regression analysis. PD incidence and prevalence showed a significantly increasing trend, with a greater magnitude noted for prevalence than for incidence (87.3% versus 9.2%). The PD incidence and prevalence increased with age and were slightly higher in men than in women. The people who were not under the labor force (i.e., dependents) or with lower monthly incomes were at significantly increased adjusted incidence rate ratio (1.50–1.56) and adjusted prevalence rate ratio (1.66–1.71) of PD. Moreover, significantly higher PD incidence and prevalence were noted in areas with lesser urbanization. This information emphasizes the need for preventive and clinical care strategies targeting the segment of Taiwanese population that exhibited a greater incidence and prevalence of PD. PMID:26904358

  19. Variations in Incidence and Prevalence of Parkinson's Disease in Taiwan: A Population-Based Nationwide Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chih-Ching; Li, Chung-Yi; Lee, Pei-Chen; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Demographic, socioeconomic, and urbanization level variations in Parkinson's disease (PD) are rarely investigated, especially in Asia. This study describes an eight-year trend in PD incidence and prevalence in Taiwan as well as assessing the effects of sociodemographics and urbanization on the incidence and prevalence of PD. The data analyzed were acquired from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) entries between 2002 and 2009. The calendar year, sex, and age-specific rates were standardized, and the effects of the sociodemographics and urbanization on PD were assessed using Poisson regression analysis. PD incidence and prevalence showed a significantly increasing trend, with a greater magnitude noted for prevalence than for incidence (87.3% versus 9.2%). The PD incidence and prevalence increased with age and were slightly higher in men than in women. The people who were not under the labor force (i.e., dependents) or with lower monthly incomes were at significantly increased adjusted incidence rate ratio (1.50-1.56) and adjusted prevalence rate ratio (1.66-1.71) of PD. Moreover, significantly higher PD incidence and prevalence were noted in areas with lesser urbanization. This information emphasizes the need for preventive and clinical care strategies targeting the segment of Taiwanese population that exhibited a greater incidence and prevalence of PD. PMID:26904358

  20. Population-Based Prevalence of Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorders in Western Australia: A Comparison With Previous Estimates.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Smith, Timothy; Leonard, Helen

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) and/or autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Western Australia (WA).A cohort of children born from 1983 to 2010 in WA with an ID and/or ASD were identified using the population-based IDEA (Intellectual Disability Exploring Answers) database, which ascertains cases through the Disability Services Commission (DSC) as well as education sources. Information on race, gender, mother's residence at birth and deaths was obtained through linkage to the Midwives Notification System and the Mortality Register. Diagnostic information on the cause of ID was obtained through review of medical records where available and children were classified as biomedical cause, ASD, or unknown cause.An overall prevalence of ID of 17.0/1000 livebirths (95% CI: 16.7, 17.4) showed an increase from the 10-year previous prevalence of 14.3/1000. The prevalence for mild or moderate ID was 15.0 (95% CI: 14.6, 15.3), severe ID was 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.3), and unknown level of ID was 0.9 (95% CI: 0.8, 1.0)/1000 livebirths. The prevalence for Aboriginal children was 39.0/1000 compared with 15.7/1000 for non-Aboriginal children, giving a prevalence ratio of 2.5 (95% CI: 2.4, 2.6). Prevalence of all ASD was 5.1/1000 of which 3.8/1000 had ASD and ID.The prevalence of ID has risen in WA over the last 10 years with most of this increase due to mild or moderate ID. Whilst the prevalence of ASD has also increased over this time this does not fully explain the observed increase. Aboriginal children are at a 2.5-fold risk of ID but are less likely to be accessing disability services. PMID:27227936

  1. Prevalence of Self-Reported Diabetes and Its Associated Factors: A Population-Based Study in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Da-Mata, Fabiana A F; Galvao, Tais F; Pereira, Mauricio G; Silva, Marcus T

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and its associated risk factors in adults from Brasilia, Brazil. Methods. The present cross-sectional population-based study consisted of interviews with individuals aged 18-65 years. Participants were selected through two-stage probability sampling by clusters and stratified by sex and age. Demographic and clinical data were collected directly with participants from February to May 2012. Self-reported diabetes prevalence was calculated at a 95% confidence interval (CI). Prevalence ratios (PR) were adjusted by Poisson regression with robust variance. Results. In all, 1,820 individuals were interviewed. Diabetes prevalence in the adult population of Brasilia was 10.1% (95% CI, 8.5%-11.6%). Variables associated with diabetes were an age between 35 and 49 years (PR = 1.83; 95% CI, 1.19-2.82) or 50 and 65 years (PR = 1.95; 95% CI, 1.17-3.23), hypertension (PR = 4.04; 95% CI, 2.66-6.13), respiratory disease (PR = 1.67; 95% CI, 1.11-2.50), cardiovascular disease (PR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.15-2.63), and pain/discomfort (PR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.21-2.41). Conclusion. Diabetes is a prevalent condition in adults living in Brasilia, and disease risk increases with age and comorbidities. Future health policies should focus on screening programs and prevention for the more vulnerable groups. PMID:26089888

  2. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: A Population-Based Study in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liang; Guo, Xiaofan; Chang, Ye; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Limin; Li, Tan; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has attracted increasing attention worldwide. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of HFpEF and analyze its correlates in a sample of residents of northeast China; Methods: A population-based study of 2230 participants ≥35 years old was conducted in rural areas of Liaoning Province from January 2012 through August 2013. Information about lifestyle and other potential risk factors was obtained. HFpEF was diagnosed according to the recommendations of European Society of Cardiology; Results: The overall prevalence of HFpEF was 3.5% (1.8% in men and 4.9% in women). The prevalence of HFpEF increased with age in both genders and was greater in women than in men for every age group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that female gender (OR, 3.575; 95% CI, 1.761–7.256), hypertension (OR, 3.711; 95% CI, 2.064–6.674), and history of heart disease (2.086; 95% CI, 1.243–3.498) were associated factors for prevalent HFpEF; Conclusions: In a general population from rural northeast China, we found that female gender, hypertension, and history of heart disease were risk factors for prevalent HFpEF. PMID:27483300

  3. The Prevalence of Scabies and Impetigo in the Solomon Islands: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael; Sokana, Oliver; Solomon, Anthony W.; Mabey, David C.; Romani, Lucia; Kaldor, John; Steer, Andrew C.; Engelman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background Scabies and impetigo are common, important and treatable skin conditions. Reports from several Pacific island countries show extremely high prevalence of these two conditions, but for many countries, including the Solomon Islands, there is a paucity of epidemiological data. Methodology Ten rural villages in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands were included in the study, chosen so that data collection could be integrated with an existing project investigating clinical and serological markers of yaws. All residents were eligible to participate, and 1908 people were enrolled. Participants were interviewed and examined by a paediatric registrar, who recorded relevant demographic information, and made a clinical diagnosis of scabies and/or impetigo, severity and distribution. Principal Findings The total unweighted prevalence of scabies was 19.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.5–21.0), and age and gender weighted prevalence 19.2% (95%CI 16.7–21.9). The adult prevalence of scabies was 10.4% (95%CI 8.2–13.2), and the highest prevalence was found in infants < 1 year of age (34.1%, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] compared with adults: 3.6, 95%CI 2.2–6.0) and children aged 1–4 years (25.7%, AOR 2.6, 95%CI 1.7–3.9). Scabies affected two or more body regions in 80.9% of participants, and 4.4% of scabies cases were classified as severe. The total unweighted prevalence of active impetigo was 32.7% (95%CI 30.6–34.8), and age and gender weighted prevalence 26.7% (95%CI 24.2–29.5). The highest prevalence was found in children aged 1–4 years (42.6%, AOR compared with adults: 4.1, 95%CI 2.9–5.8). Scabies infestation was associated with active impetigo infection (AOR 2.0, 95%CI 1.6–2.6); with 41.1% of active impetigo cases also having scabies. Conclusions and Significance Scabies and impetigo are very common in the rural Western Province of the Solomon Islands. Scabies infestation is strongly associated with impetigo. Community control strategies

  4. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction in Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela: a population-based study (DENSA).

    PubMed

    Morillo, L E; Díaz, J; Estevez, E; Costa, A; Méndez, H; Dávila, H; Medero, N; Rodriguez, N; Chaves, M; Vinueza, R; Ortiz, J A; Glasser, D B

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. A 49-item questionnaire was completed by 1946 men aged 40 years and older. The age-adjusted combined prevalence of minimal, moderate, and complete ED for all three countries was 53.4%, with 19.8% of all men reporting moderate to complete ED. Age was the variable most strongly linked to ED; the prevalence of complete ED increased markedly in men older than 79 y of age (31.9%) and 70-79 y (17.2%) compared with men aged 40-49 y (<3%). Several medical conditions, such as hypertension, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and diabetes, and the use of medications to treat these conditions were correlated with the prevalence of ED. This study corroborates earlier studies demonstrating that ED is very common, increases dramatically with age, and has multiple correlates, including some that are also risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:12161763

  5. Prevalence of Intellectual Disability: A Meta-Analysis of Population-Based Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maulik, Pallab K.; Mascarenhas, Maya N.; Mathers, Colin D.; Dua, Tarun; Saxena, Shekhar

    2011-01-01

    Intellectual disability is an extremely stigmatizing condition and involves utilization of large public health resources, but most data about its burden is based on studies conducted in developed countries. The aim of this meta-analysis was to collate data from published literature and estimate the prevalence of intellectual disability across all…

  6. Population Based National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey among Adults (>15 Years) in Pakistan, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Qadeer, Ejaz; Fatima, Razia; Yaqoob, Aashifa; Tahseen, Sabira; Ul Haq, Mahboob; Ghafoor, Abdul; Asif, Muhammad; Straetemans, Masja; Tiemersma, Edine W.

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) amongst the adult population in 2010–2011 in Pakistan. Method A nationwide cross-sectional survey with multistage cluster sampling was conducted among adults (≥15 years) in 95 clusters in 2010–2011. All consenting participants were screened for cough and by chest X-ray. Participants with presumptive TB submitted two sputum samples for smear microscopy, culture, and molecular testing if needed. The TB prevalence estimates were adjusted for missing data and the cluster design. Result Of 131,329 eligible individuals, 105,913 (81%) participated in the survey, of whom 10,471 (9.9%) were eligible for sputum examination. We found 341 bacteriologically positive TB cases of whom 233 had sputum smear-positive TB. The adjusted prevalence estimates for smear and bacteriologically positive TB were 270/100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 217–323), and 398/100,000 (95% CI 333–463), respectively. Only 61% of the diagnosed TB cases screened positive on symptoms (cough >2wks), whereas the other TB cases were detected based on X-ray abnormalities. The TB prevalence increased with age and was 1.8 times higher among men than women. The prevalence-to-notification ratio of smear-positive TB was 3.1 (95% CI 2.5–3.7), was higher among men than women, and increased with age. Conclusion Our data suggest that there is under-detection and/or -notification of TB, especially among men and elderly. TB control should be strengthened specifically in these risk groups. X-ray examination should be combined with symptom screening to enhance case detection. PMID:26863617

  7. Hepatitis C Virus in Mexican Americans: a population-based study reveals relatively high prevalence and negative association with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    WATT, G. P.; VATCHEVA, K. P.; BERETTA, L.; PAN, J. J.; FALLON, M. B.; MCCORMICK, J. B.; FISHER-HOCH, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection in Mexican Americans living in South Texas. We tested plasma for the presence of HCV antibody from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC), a randomized, population-based cohort in an economically disadvantaged Mexican-American community on the United States/Mexico border with high rates of chronic disease. A weighted prevalence of HCV antibody of 2.3% (n=1131, 95% CI 1.2%–3.4%) was found. Participants with diabetes had low rates of HCV antibody (0.4%, 95% CI 0.0%–0.9%) and logistic regression revealed a statistically significant negative association between HCV and diabetes (OR 0.20 95% CI 0.05–0.77) after adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors. This conflicts with reported positive associations of diabetes and HCV infection. No classic risk factors were identified, but important differences between genders emerged in analysis. This population-based study of HCV in Mexican-Americans suggests that national studies do not adequately describe the epidemiology of HCV in this border community and that unique risk factors may be involved. PMID:26088260

  8. Prevalence of hepatitis A antibodies in Eastern Bolivia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    C, Masuet-Aumatell; J M, Ramon-Torrell; A, Casanova-Rituerto; M, Banqué-Navarro; M, Dávalos-Gamboa; S L, Montaño-Rodríguez

    2013-10-01

    The seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) is changing from high to intermediate endemicity in several Latin American countries, but the pattern in the Andean Latin American countries is unknown. A seroepidemiological survey (n = 436) of HAV in schoolchildren living in the Cochabamba region of Bolivia was conducted in 2010. A questionnaire was completed by parents to obtain demographic, socio-economic, and housing data, and blood samples were collected. The overall prevalence of HAV IgG was 95.4% (95% CI 93.5-97.4). The prevalence was higher in children aged 5-10 years (97%) and pre-adolescents aged 10-13 years (97.9%). The prevalence was also higher in subjects whose parents had a low level of education (99.4-99.5%), who lived in rural areas (98.7%), lived in municipalities with low urban development (99.1-100%), had water delivered at home from a tanker (99.4%), and spoke Quechua at home (99.5%). The descriptive and bivariate analysis suggested that no change in HAV epidemiology has occurred in Cochabamba. PMID:23861034

  9. Prevalence of Hypertension and Associated Factors in an Indigenous Community of Central Brazil: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Geraldo F.; Oliveira, Teresinha R. R.; Ikejiri, Adauto T.; Andraus, Mariela P.; Galvao, Tais F.; Silva, Marcus T.; Pereira, Maurício G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors among the native indigenous of Jaguapiru village in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Method A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted with adult indigenous aged 18 years or more. The subjects' blood pressure was measured twice, and the mean of the two measurements was calculated. Body weight, height, capillary blood glucose and waist circumference were measured. Pregnant women, individuals using glucocorticoids, and non-indigenous villagers and their offspring were excluded. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted on the socio-demographic and clinical independent variables. Interactions between independent variables were also tested. Results We included 1,608 native indigenous eligible to the research. The prevalence of hypertension was 29.5% (95% CI: 27–31.5), with no significant difference between the genders. For both men and women, diastolic hypertension was more common than systolic hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among obese, diabetic, and older participants, as well as those who consumed alcohol, had a lower educational level, or had a family history of hypertension. There was no association between hypertension and tobacco smoking or family income. Conclusion Hypertension among the indigenous from Jaguapiru village was similar to the prevalence in the Brazilians, but may have a more negative effect in such disadvantaged population. The associated factors we found can help drawing prevention policies. PMID:24489710

  10. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Diabetes Mellitus-A Population Based Study in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuchen; Wang, Rui; Ma, Xiuqiang; Zhao, Yanfang; Lu, Jian; Wu, Cheng; He, Jia

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes in Shanghai, China. A sample of 3600 residents aged from 18 to 80 years selected by a randomized stratified multiple-stage sampling method in Shanghai was investigated, with blood samples collected. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 7.0 mmol/L, or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol), or previous diagnosis by a physician. Adequate control of diabetes was taken as a level of HbA1c < 7.0% (53 mmol/mol) among people with treated diabetes. Multivariable regression analysis was used to explore associated factors for diabetes and prediabetes. In the 3136 participants suitable for analysis, the prevalences of diabetes, prediabetes, and previously diagnosed diabetes were 15.91%, 37.37%, and 4.46%, respectively. Among those with diabetes, only 28.06% were aware of their condition, 25.85% were currently undergoing medication treatment, and 12.42% achieved glycaemic control. Logistic regression showed that old age, preobesity, obesity, elevated triglyceride (TG), elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), and lower education level were associated with an increased risk of diabetes; old age, obesity, elevated TG, and elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were associated with an increased risk of prediabetes, while male sex and rural residence were associated with a decreased risk of prediabetes. In summary, the state of diabetes in China is alarming; the rates of awareness, treatment, and control were relatively low. More efforts should be made to promote the prevention and control of diabetes in china. PMID:27213415

  11. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Diabetes Mellitus—A Population Based Study in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yuchen; Wang, Rui; Ma, Xiuqiang; Zhao, Yanfang; Lu, Jian; Wu, Cheng; He, Jia

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes in Shanghai, China. A sample of 3600 residents aged from 18 to 80 years selected by a randomized stratified multiple-stage sampling method in Shanghai was investigated, with blood samples collected. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 7.0 mmol/L, or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol), or previous diagnosis by a physician. Adequate control of diabetes was taken as a level of HbA1c < 7.0% (53 mmol/mol) among people with treated diabetes. Multivariable regression analysis was used to explore associated factors for diabetes and prediabetes. In the 3136 participants suitable for analysis, the prevalences of diabetes, prediabetes, and previously diagnosed diabetes were 15.91%, 37.37%, and 4.46%, respectively. Among those with diabetes, only 28.06% were aware of their condition, 25.85% were currently undergoing medication treatment, and 12.42% achieved glycaemic control. Logistic regression showed that old age, preobesity, obesity, elevated triglyceride (TG), elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), and lower education level were associated with an increased risk of diabetes; old age, obesity, elevated TG, and elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were associated with an increased risk of prediabetes, while male sex and rural residence were associated with a decreased risk of prediabetes. In summary, the state of diabetes in China is alarming; the rates of awareness, treatment, and control were relatively low. More efforts should be made to promote the prevention and control of diabetes in china. PMID:27213415

  12. Ambient Temperature and Prevalence of Obesity: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hae Kyung; Han, Kyungdo; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Cha, Bong-Yun; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested a possible association between outdoor or indoor temperature and obesity. We aimed to examine whether ambient temperature is associated with the prevalence of obesity or abdominal obesity in the Korean population. Methods Data on anthropometric, socio-demographic, laboratory and lifestyle factors were retrieved from National Health Insurance System data obtained in 2009–2010. Thirty years (1981 to 2010) of meteorological parameters for 71 observation areas were acquired from the Korea Meteorological Administration. Included in this analysis were 124,354 individuals. A body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 and a waist circumference (WC) ≥ 90 cm (men) or 85 cm (women) were considered to represent obesity and abdominal obesity, respectively. Results The mean annual temperature (MAT) ranged from 6.6°C to 16.6°C, and BMI was positively correlated with MAT (r = 0.0078, P = 0.0065). WC was positively correlated with MAT (r = 0.0165, P < 0.0001) and negatively correlated with the number of days with mean temperature < 0°C (DMT0; r = –0.0129, P = 0.0002). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, exercise, income, residential area and altitude, the odds ratios (95% CI) for obesity and abdominal obesity in the highest quintile MAT group were 1.045 (1.010, 1.081) and 1.082 (1.042, 1.124), respectively, compared with the lower four quintiles of the MAT group. Similarly, subjects in the area of the lowest quintile of DMT0 had significantly higher odds of abdominal obesity compared with the higher four quintile groups of DMT0. Conclusion This study finds an association between ambient temperature and prevalence of obesity in the Korean population when controlling for several confounding factors. Adaptive thermogenesis might be a possible explanation for this phenomenon. PMID:26524686

  13. Anthropometric measurements and prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adult Malawians: nationwide population based NCD STEPS survey

    PubMed Central

    Msyamboza, Kelias P; Kathyola, Damson; Dzowela, Titha

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Overweight and obesity are significant causes of increased morbidity and premature mortality from non-communicable diseases, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, although local high quality population-based data to inform policies and strategies are lacking. Methods Using the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance, population-based nationwide survey was conducted on participants aged 25-64 years in Malawi. A multi-stage cluster sample design and weighting were used to produce a national representative data for that age range. Results A total of 4845 participants (65.7% females, 87.6% from rural areas) had complete anthropometric data and included in this analysis. Overall (both sexes) population-based mean body weight, height, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose and cholesterol were estimated at 58.7 kg, 159.9 cm, 133.4 mmHg, 79.5 mmHg, 4.3 mmol/L, 4.4 mmol/L respectively. Prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity, overweight and/ or obesity and central adiposity were 6.5%, 17.3%, 4.6%, 21.9% and 28.8% respectively. Overweight, obesity, overweight and/ or obesity and central adiposity were more frequent in females than males (20.7% vs 14.1%, 7.4% vs 2.0%, 28.1% vs 16.1% and 52.8% vs 5.6%), in urban than rural areas (23.2% vs 16.6%, 12.0% vs 3.7%, 35.2% vs 20.2%) respectively. Conclusion This study demonstrated that overweight and/ or obesity is the major public health problem affecting at least one in five adults in Malawi. The problem is more frequent in females than males and urban than rural. Implementation of primary health care approaches such as WHO package for essential non-communicable diseases could reduce the problem. PMID:24244794

  14. Prevalence of Self-Reported Diabetes and Its Associated Factors: A Population-Based Study in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Da-Mata, Fabiana A. F.; Galvao, Tais F.; Pereira, Mauricio G.; Silva, Marcus T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and its associated risk factors in adults from Brasilia, Brazil. Methods. The present cross-sectional population-based study consisted of interviews with individuals aged 18–65 years. Participants were selected through two-stage probability sampling by clusters and stratified by sex and age. Demographic and clinical data were collected directly with participants from February to May 2012. Self-reported diabetes prevalence was calculated at a 95% confidence interval (CI). Prevalence ratios (PR) were adjusted by Poisson regression with robust variance. Results. In all, 1,820 individuals were interviewed. Diabetes prevalence in the adult population of Brasilia was 10.1% (95% CI, 8.5%–11.6%). Variables associated with diabetes were an age between 35 and 49 years (PR = 1.83; 95% CI, 1.19–2.82) or 50 and 65 years (PR = 1.95; 95% CI, 1.17–3.23), hypertension (PR = 4.04; 95% CI, 2.66–6.13), respiratory disease (PR = 1.67; 95% CI, 1.11–2.50), cardiovascular disease (PR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.15–2.63), and pain/discomfort (PR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.21–2.41). Conclusion. Diabetes is a prevalent condition in adults living in Brasilia, and disease risk increases with age and comorbidities. Future health policies should focus on screening programs and prevention for the more vulnerable groups. PMID:26089888

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Anemia in a Population-Based Study of Octogenarians and Centenarians in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Haslam, Alyson; Johnson, Mary Ann; Davey, Adam; Poon, Leonard W.; Allen, Robert H.; Stabler, Sally P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Anemia has been associated with increased physical and financial costs and occurs more frequently in older individuals. Therefore, the primary objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence and possible predictors of anemia in the very old. Methods. Hemoglobin was used to identify those with anemia in a group of centenarians and near centenarians (98+, n = 185) and octogenarians (n = 69), who were recruited as part of the population-based multidisciplinary Georgia Centenarian Study. Blood markers, including ferritin, vitamin B12, red blood cell folate, methylmalonic acid, creatinine, and C-reactive protein, demographic variables, and medication and/or supplement usage were used to determine possible predictors of anemia. Results. The prevalence of anemia was 26.2% in octogenarians and 52.1% in centenarians. Low serum albumin (<3.6 g/dL) and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (<45 mL/min/m2) were predictors of anemia in centenarians. Conclusions. Anemia is a major health issue, particularly as people age. Because of the high prevalence of anemia in older individuals, awareness of the predictors associated with anemia becomes increasingly important so as to reduce the negative consequences associated with it and allow for the identification of steps that can be taken to correct anemia, including managing chronic disease. PMID:21896502

  16. Declining HIV Prevalence in Parallel With Safer Sex Behaviors in Burkina Faso: Evidence From Surveillance and Population-Based Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, Fati; Nagot, Nicolas; Samadoulougou, Sekou; Sokey, Mamadou; Guiré, Abdoulaye; Sombié, Issiaka; Meda, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate trends in HIV prevalence and changes in reported sexual behaviors between 1998 and 2014 in Burkina Faso. Methods: We obtained data on HIV prevalence from antenatal care (ANC) surveillance sites (N = 9) that were consistently included in surveillance between 1998 and 2014. We also analyzed data on HIV prevalence and reported sex behaviors from 3 population-based surveys from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), conducted in 1998–99, 2003, and 2010. Sex behavior indicators comprised never-married youth who have never had sex; sex with more than 1 partner; sex with a nonmarital, non-cohabiting partner; condom use at last sex with a nonmarital, non-cohabiting partner; and sex before age 15. We calculated survey-specific HIV prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and used the chi-square test or chi-square test for trend to compare HIV prevalence across survey years and to analyze trends in reported sex behaviors. Results: HIV prevalence among pregnant women ages 15–49 decreased by 72% in urban areas, from 7.1% in 1998 to 2.0% in 2014, and by 75% in rural areas, from 2.0% in 2003 to 0.5% in 2014. HIV declined most in younger age groups, which is a good reflection of recent incidence, with declines of 55% among 15–19-year-olds, 72% among 20–24-year-olds, 40% among 25–29-year-olds, and 7% among those ≥30 years old (considering urban and rural data combined). Data reported in the DHS corroborated these declines in HIV prevalence: between 2003 and 2010, HIV prevalence dropped significantly—by 89% among girls ages 15–19, from 0.9% (95% CI, 0.2 to 1.6) to 0.1% (95% CI, 0.0 to 0.4), and by 78% among young women ages 20–24, from 1.8% (95% CI, 1.6 to 3.0) to 0.4% (95% CI, 0.0 to 0.7). During the same time period, people reported safer sex behaviors. For example, significantly higher percentages of never-married youth reported they had never had sex, lower percentages of sexually active youth reported multiple

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for anaemia in pregnant women: a population-based prospective cohort study in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiaoyi; Li, Zhu; Ananth, Cande V

    2009-07-01

    Maternal anaemia is a common pregnancy complication in developing countries; however, its epidemiology remains largely unexplored in China. This study was designed to explore the epidemiology and risk factors of anaemia during pregnancy. A prospective cohort study was conducted, using data from a population-based pregnancy-monitoring system in 13 counties in East China (1993-96). Women who delivered singleton infants at 20-44 weeks with at least one haemoglobin assessment during pregnancy were included (n = 164 667). The prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin < 10 g/dL) during pregnancy as well as in each trimester was estimated. Multivariable log-binomial regression models were used to evaluate risk factors. The overall prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy was 32.6%, with substantial variations across trimesters (11.2%, 20.1% and 26.2% in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters respectively). Risk factors for anaemia included older maternal age, education below junior high school (prevalence rate ratio [RR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08, 1.12), farming occupation (1.05, 95% CI 1.03, 1.06), and mild pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.05, 1.13) and severe PIH (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06, 1.19). Peri-conception folic acid use was associated with a reduced risk for anaemia in the 1st trimester (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.72, 0.78). Initiating prenatal care after the 1st trimester was associated with increased risk of anaemia in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Our study found anaemia during pregnancy is highly prevalent in this indigenous Chinese population. The risk increases with the severity of hypertensive disorders. Folic acid supplementation during the peri-conception period is associated with reduced risk of 1st trimester anaemia. PMID:19523075

  18. Prevalence and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding among women in Kilimanjaro region, Northern Tanzania: a population based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is a simple and cost-effective intervention to improve child health and survival. Effective EBF has been estimated to avert 13% - 15% of under-five mortality and contribute to reduce mother to child transmission of HIV. The prevalence of EBF for infant less than six months is low in most developing countries, including Tanzania (50%). While the Tanzania Demographic Health Survey collects information on overall EBF prevalence, it does not evaluate factors influencing EBF. The aim of this paper was to determine the prevalence and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding in urban and rural areas in Kilimanjaro region. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2010 to March 2011 among women with infants aged 6–12 months in Kilimanjaro. Multi-stage proportionate to size sampling was used to select participants from all the seven districts of the region. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, reproductive, alcohol intake, breastfeeding patterns and nutritional data during the interviews. Estimation on EBF was based on recall since birth. Multivariable logistic regression was used to obtain independent predictors of EBF. Results A total of 624 women participated, 77% (483) from rural areas. The prevalence of EBF up to six months in Kilimanjaro region was 20.7%, without significant differences in the prevalence of EBF up to six months between urban (22.7%) and rural areas (20.1%); (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5,1.4). In multivariable analysis, advice on breastfeeding after delivery (Adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.5, 4.6) was positively associated with EBF up to six months. Compared to married/cohabiting and those who do not take alcohol, single mothers (AOR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.9) and mothers who drank alcohol (AOR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.3, 0.7) had less odds to practice EBF up to six months. Conclusion Prevalence of EBF up to six months is still low in

  19. Prevalent Intravenous Abuse of Methylphenidate Among Treatment-Seeking Patients With Substance Abuse Disorders: A Descriptive Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Haraldsson, Haraldur M.; Rafnar, Bjarni O.; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Steingrimsson, Steinn; Johannsson, Magnus; Bragadottir, Helena; Magnusson, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Prescription rates of methylphenidate (MPH) are sharply rising in most Western countries. Although it has been reported that MPH has abuse potential, little is known about the prevalence of intravenous (IV) abuse of MPH. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of IV MPH abuse among treatment-seeking IV substance abusers in Iceland. Methods: This is a descriptive population-based study using a semistructured interview assessing sociodemographics, substance abuse history, and the method of administration of 108 IV substance abusers. During 1 year, consecutively admitted adult inpatients with substance use disorder at any detoxification center in Iceland that reported any IV substance abuse in the past 30 days were invited to participate. Abuse was defined as nontherapeutic use of a substance to gain psychological or physiological effect. Results: Prevalence of any IV MPH abuse among participants was 88% in the last 30 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-0.94) and MPH was the most commonly abused substance (65%) and the preferred substance (63%). Around one third (30%) reported MPH as the first IV substance ever abused. However, among those reporting a shorter history than 10 years of IV abuse, 42% reported MPH as the first IV substance ever abused. Conclusions: This first nationwide study on IV abuse of MPH shows that it is common among treatment-seeking IV abusers in Iceland and suggests that MPH has high abuse potential. Therefore, both the use and possible abuse of MPH in those with high abuse potential should be monitored, especially in countries where MPH prescriptions rates are on the rise. PMID:25748561

  20. Meckel-Gruber Syndrome: a population-based study on prevalence, prenatal diagnosis, clinical features, and survival in Europe.

    PubMed

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Boban, Ljubica; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana; Calzolari, Elisa; Dolk, Helen; Addor, Marie-Claude; Bergman, Jorieke Eh; Braz, Paula; Draper, Elizabeth S; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; Pierini, Anna; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine

    2015-06-01

    Meckel-Gruber Syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive lethal ciliopathy characterized by the triad of cystic renal dysplasia, occipital encephalocele and postaxial polydactyly. We present the largest population-based epidemiological study to date using data provided by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) network. The study population consisted of 191 cases of MKS identified between January 1990 and December 2011 in 34 European registries. The mean prevalence was 2.6 per 100,000 births in a subset of registries with good ascertainment. The prevalence was stable over time, but regional differences were observed. There were 145 (75.9%) terminations of pregnancy after prenatal diagnosis, 13 (6.8%) fetal deaths, 33 (17.3%) live births. In addition to cystic kidneys (97.7%), encephalocele (83.8%) and polydactyly (87.3%), frequent features include other central nervous system anomalies (51.4%), fibrotic/cystic changes of the liver (65.5% of cases with post mortem examination) and orofacial clefts (31.8%). Various other anomalies were present in 64 (37%) patients. As nowadays most patients are detected very early in pregnancy when liver or kidney changes may not yet be developed or may be difficult to assess, none of the anomalies should be considered obligatory for the diagnosis. Most cases (90.2%) are diagnosed prenatally at 14.3 ± 2.6 (range 11-36) gestational weeks and pregnancies are mainly terminated, reducing the number of LB to one-fifth of the total prevalence rate. Early diagnosis is important for timely counseling of affected couples regarding the option of pregnancy termination and prenatal genetic testing in future pregnancies. PMID:25182137

  1. Prevalence of Periodontitis in Patients with Established Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Swedish Population Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Kaja; Nise, Lena; Kats, Anna; Luttropp, Elin; Catrina, Anca Irinel; Askling, Johan; Jansson, Leif; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars; Lundberg, Karin; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The possible hypothesis of a link between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), specifically anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positive RA, prompted us to investigate the prevalence of periodontitis in the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation of RA (EIRA), a well-characterised population-based RA case-control cohort. Methods Periodontal status of 2,740 RA cases and 3,942 matched controls was retrieved through linking EIRA with the National Dental Health Registry (DHR), where dental diagnostic- and treatment codes on the adult Swedish population have been registered. Dental records from 100 cases and controls were reviewed to validate the periodontal diagnostic codes in DHR. Results The reviewed dental records confirmed 90% of the periodontitis diagnoses in DHR among RA cases, and 88% among controls. We found the positive predictive value of periodontitis diagnoses in the DHR to be 89% (95% CI 78 to 95%) with a sensitivity of 77% (95% CI: 65 to 86%). In total, 86% of EIRA participants were identified in DHR. The risk for periodontitis increased by age and current smoking status in both cases as well as controls. No significant differences in prevalence of periodontal disease in terms of gingivitis, periodontitis, peri-implantitis or increased risk for periodontitis or peri-implantitis were observed between RA cases and controls. In addition, there was no difference on the basis of seropositivity, ACPA or rheumatoid factor (RF), among patients with RA. Conclusions Our data verify that smoking and ageing are risk factors for periodontitis, both in RA and controls. We found no evidence of an increased prevalence of periodontitis in patients with established RA compared to healthy controls, and no differences based on ACPA or RF status among RA subjects. PMID:27203435

  2. Meckel–Gruber Syndrome: a population-based study on prevalence, prenatal diagnosis, clinical features, and survival in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Boban, Ljubica; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana; Calzolari, Elisa; Dolk, Helen; Addor, Marie-Claude; Bergman, Jorieke EH; Braz, Paula; Draper, Elizabeth S; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; Pierini, Anna; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Meckel–Gruber Syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive lethal ciliopathy characterized by the triad of cystic renal dysplasia, occipital encephalocele and postaxial polydactyly. We present the largest population-based epidemiological study to date using data provided by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) network. The study population consisted of 191 cases of MKS identified between January 1990 and December 2011 in 34 European registries. The mean prevalence was 2.6 per 100 000 births in a subset of registries with good ascertainment. The prevalence was stable over time, but regional differences were observed. There were 145 (75.9%) terminations of pregnancy after prenatal diagnosis, 13 (6.8%) fetal deaths, 33 (17.3%) live births. In addition to cystic kidneys (97.7%), encephalocele (83.8%) and polydactyly (87.3%), frequent features include other central nervous system anomalies (51.4%), fibrotic/cystic changes of the liver (65.5% of cases with post mortem examination) and orofacial clefts (31.8%). Various other anomalies were present in 64 (37%) patients. As nowadays most patients are detected very early in pregnancy when liver or kidney changes may not yet be developed or may be difficult to assess, none of the anomalies should be considered obligatory for the diagnosis. Most cases (90.2%) are diagnosed prenatally at 14.3±2.6 (range 11–36) gestational weeks and pregnancies are mainly terminated, reducing the number of LB to one-fifth of the total prevalence rate. Early diagnosis is important for timely counseling of affected couples regarding the option of pregnancy termination and prenatal genetic testing in future pregnancies. PMID:25182137

  3. A population-based survey of prevalence of diabetes and correlates in an urban slum community in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Urban slum populations in Africa continue to grow faster than national populations. Health strategies that focus on non-communicable diseases (NCD) in this segment of the population are generally lacking. We determined the prevalence of diabetes and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors correlates in Kibera, Nairobi’s largest slum. Methods We conducted a population-based household survey utilising cluster sampling with probability proportional to size. Households were selected using a random walk method and consenting residents aged 18 years and above were recruited. The WHO STEPS instrument was administered. A random capillary blood sugar (RCBS) was obtained; known persons with diabetes and subjects with a RCBS >11.1 had an 8 hours fasting blood sugar (FBS) drawn. Diabetes was defined as a RCBS of ≥ 11.1 mmol/l and a FBS of ≥ 7.0 mmol/l, or a prior diagnosis or receiving diabetes drug treatment. Results Out of 2061 enrolled; 50.9% were males, mean age was 33.4 years and 87% had a minimum of primary education. Only 10.6% had ever had a blood sugar measurement. Age adjusted prevalence of diabetes was 5.3% (95% CI 4.2-6.4) and prevalence increased with age peaking at 10.5% (95% CI 6.8-14.3%) in the 45–54 year age category. Diabetes mellitus (DM) correlates were: 13.1% smoking, 74.9% alcohol consumption, 75.7% high level of physical activity; 16.3% obese and 29% overweight with higher rates in women. Among persons with diabetes the odds of obesity, elevated waist circumference and hypertension were three, two and three fold respectively compared to those without diabetes. Cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with diabetes were high and mirrored that of the entire sample; however they had a significantly higher use of tobacco. Conclusions This previously unstudied urban slum has a high prevalence of DM yet low screening rates. Key correlates include cigarette smoking and high alcohol consumption. However high

  4. Urinary incontinence, fecal incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse in a population-based, racially diverse cohort. Prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    RORTVEIT, Guri; SUBAK, Leslee L.; THOM, David H.; CREASMAN, Jennifer M.; VITTINGHOFF, Eric; VAN DEN EEDEN, Stephen K.; BROWN, Jeanette S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the prevalence of and risk factors for combinations of urinary incontinence (UI), fecal incontinence (FI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in racially diverse women over age 40. Methods The Reproductive Risks for Incontinence Study at Kaiser (RRISK) is a population-based study with data from 2106 women > 40 years. Pelvic floor conditions were determined by self-report. Risk factors were assessed by self-report, interview and record review. Independent risk factors were identified by multinomial logistic regression analysis. Results At least one pelvic floor condition was reported by 714 (34%) women. Of these, 494 (69%) had UI only, 60 (8%) POP only, and 46 (6%) had FI only. Both UI and FI were reported by 64 (9%), both UI and POP by 51 (7%). Among women with FI, 60% reported more than one condition. Corresponding figures for POP and UI were 49% and 18%. Estrogen use and constipation were shared risk factors for UI, FI and POP. BMI was a unique risk factor for UI only, diabetes for FI only and parity for POP only. No clear pattern could be found to support the hypothesis that risk factors for single conditions are more strongly associated with combined conditions. Conclusions Patients with FI or POP often have concomitant UI. These diseases both share and have unique risk factors in a complex pattern. PMID:22453506

  5. Sunbed Use Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Survey among Austrian Residents

    PubMed Central

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    Recreational sunbed use accounts for the main non-solar source of exposure to ultraviolet radiation in fair-skinned Western populations. Indoor tanning is associated with increased risks for acute and chronic dermatological diseases. The current community-based study assessed the one-year prevalence of sunbed use and associated skin health habits among a representative, gender-balanced sample of 1500 Austrian citizens. Overall one-year prevalence of sunbed use was 8.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.5%–10.4%), with slightly higher prevalence in females (9.2%, 95% CI 7.3%–11.2%) compared to males (8.6%, 95% CI 6.7%–10.6%). Factors predicting sunbed use were younger age (by trend decreasing with older age), place of living, smoking, skin type (by trend increasing with darker skin), sun exposure, motives to tan, and use of UV-free tanning products. Despite media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight and sunbed exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunbed use among Austrian citizens. From a Public (Skin) Health perspective, the current research extends the understanding of prevailing leisure time skin health habits in adding data on prevalence of sunbed use in the general Austrian population. PMID:26907308

  6. So-Eum Type as an Independent Risk Factor for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Population-Based Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Yi, Hyeryeon; Lee, Si Woo; Kim, Jong Yeol; Kim, Jin Kwan; Hong, Jeong Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: It has been hypothesized that Sasang constitutional types (SCTs) have a specific hypoactive organ, which can account for vulnerability to related diseases or symptoms. This study examined the relationship between SCTs and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Design: Cross-sectional study in a population-based cohort study in Korea. Participants: 1362 individuals (705 men and 657 women) who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Outcome measures: The participants were classified into SCTs by the integrated diagnostic model and asked about symptoms related to IBS using the Rome II criteria. Results: The prevalence of IBS differed significantly among the SCTs, with 33 (18.3%) of the So-eum (SE) type, 74 (9.9%) of the Tae-eum (TE) type, and 57 (13.2%) of the So-yang (SY) type having IBS. Even after adjustment for possible confounders, the SE type for both sexes continued to show 1.82-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–3.16) excess odds of having IBS. Men with SE type had a 2.97 times (95% CI, 1.34–6.58) and a 2.50 times (95% CI, 1.15–5.47) significantly higher odds of having IBS than the TE and SY types, respectively. In analysis for the joint effect of SCT and psychological stress, the multivariate odds ratio of IBS was 3.21 (95% CI, 1.33–7.75) for the SE type and Psychological Well-Being Index-Short Form (PWI-SF) score (<27), and 5.83 (95% CI, 1.80–18.88) for the SE type and PWI-SF (≥27) compared with the TE type and PWI-SF score (<27). Conclusions: The SE type of SCT is an independent risk factor for IBS. The findings support the hypothesis that persons with SE type are vulnerable to gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25148474

  7. Prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of chronic morbidity among elderly people in Kosovo: a population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Our aim was to assess the prevalence and demographic and socioeconomic correlates of chronic morbidity in the elderly population of transitional Kosovo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kosovo in 2011 including a representative sample of 1890 individuals aged ≥65 years (949 men, mean age 73 ± 6 years; 941 women, mean age 74 ± 7 years; response rate: 83%). A structured questionnaire inquired about the presence and the number of self-reported chronic diseases among elderly people, and their access to medical care. Demographic and socioeconomic data were also collected. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics with chronic conditions. Results In this nationwide population-based sample in Kosovo, 42% of elderly people were unable to access medical care, of whom 88% due to unaffordable costs. About 83% of the elderly people reported at least one chronic condition (63% cardiovascular diseases), and 45% had at least two chronic diseases. In multivariable-adjusted models, factors associated with the presence of chronic conditions and/or multimorbidity were female sex, older age, self-perceived poverty and the inability to access medical care. Conclusion This study provides important evidence on the magnitude and distribution of chronic conditions among the elderly population of Kosovo. Our findings suggest that, in this sample of elderly people from Kosovo, the oldest-old (especially women) and the poor endure the vast majority of chronic conditions. These findings point to the urgent need to establish a social health insurance scheme including the marginalized segments of elderly people in this transitional country. PMID:23452830

  8. Prevalence of physical violence against children in Haiti: A national population-based cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Flynn-O'Brien, Katherine T; Rivara, Frederick P; Weiss, Noel S; Lea, Veronica A; Marcelin, Louis H; Vertefeuille, John; Mercy, James A

    2016-01-01

    Although physical violence against children is common worldwide, there are no national estimates in Haiti. To establish baseline national estimates, a three-stage clustered sampling design was utilized to administer a population-based household survey about victimization due to physical violence to 13-24 year old Haitians (n=2,916), including those residing in camps or settlements. Descriptive statistics and weighted analysis techniques were used to estimate national lifetime prevalence and characteristics of physical violence against children. About two-thirds of respondents reported having experienced physical violence during childhood (67.0%; 95% CI 63.4-70.4), the percentage being similar in males and females. More than one-third of 13-17 year old respondents were victimized in the 12 months prior to survey administration (37.8%; 95% CI 33.6-42.1). The majority of violence was committed by parents and teachers; and the perceived intent was often punishment or discipline. While virtually all (98.8%; 95% CI 98.0-99.3) victims of childhood physical violence were punched, kicked, whipped or beaten; 11.0% (95% CI 9.2-13.2) were subject to abuse by a knife or other weapon. Injuries sustained from violence varied by victim gender and perpetrator, with twice as many females (9.6%; 95% CI 7.1-12.7) than males (4.0%; 95% CI 2.6-6.1) sustaining permanent injury or disfigurement by a family member or caregiver (p-value<.001). Our findings suggest that physical violence against children in Haiti is common, and may lead to severe injury. Characterization of the frequency and nature of this violence provides baseline estimates to inform interventions. PMID:26612595

  9. Furthering the understanding of olfaction, prevalence of loss of smell and risk factors: a population-based survey (OLFACAT study)

    PubMed Central

    Mullol, Joaquim; Alobid, Isam; Mariño-Sánchez, Franklin; Quintó, Llorenç; de Haro, Josep; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Valero, Antonio; Picado, Cèsar; Marin, Concepció

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate olfaction in general population, prevalence of olfactory dysfunction and related risk factors. Design Cross-sectional population-based survey, distributing four microencapsulated odorants (rose, banana, musk and gas) and two self-administered questionnaires (odour description; epidemiology/health status). Setting The survey was distributed to general population through a bilingual (Catalan, Spanish) newspaper in Catalonia (Spain), on December 2003. Participants Newspaper readers of all ages and gender; 9348 surveys were analysed from the 10 783 returned. Main outcome measures Characteristics of surveyed population, olfaction by age and gender, smell self-perception and smell impairment risk factors. Terms normosmia, hyposmia and anosmia were used when participants detected, recognised or identified all four, one to three or none of the odours, respectively. Results Survey profile was a 43-year-old woman with medium–high educational level, living in a city. Olfaction was considered normal in 80.6% (detection), 56% (recognition/memory) and 50.7% (identification). Prevalence of smell dysfunction was 19.4% for detection (0.3% anosmia, 19.1% hyposmia), 43.5% for recognition (0.2% anosmia, 43.3% hyposmia) and 48.8% for identification (0.8% anosmia, 48% hyposmia). Olfaction was worse (p<0.0001) in men than in women through all ages. There was a significant age-related smell detection decline however smell recognition and identification increased up to fourth decade and declined after the sixth decade of life. Risk factors for anosmia were: male gender, loss of smell history and poor olfactory self-perception for detection; low educational level, poor self-perception and pregnancy for recognition; and older age, poor self-perception and history of head trauma and loss of smell for identification. Smoking and exposure to noxious substances were mild protective factors for smell recognition. Conclusions Sense of smell in women is better than in

  10. Early Cognitive Deficits in Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Marseglia, Anna; Fratiglioni, Laura; Laukka, Erika J.; Santoni, Giola; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Bäckman, Lars; Xu, Weili

    2016-01-01

    Evidence links type 2 diabetes to dementia risk. However, our knowledge on the initial cognitive deficits in diabetic individuals and the factors that might promote such deficits is still limited. This study aimed to identify the cognitive domains initially impaired by diabetes and the factors that play a role in this first stage. Within the population-based Swedish National Study on Aging and Care–Kungsholmen, 2305 cognitively intact participants aged ≥60 y were identified. Attention/working memory, perceptual speed, category fluency, letter fluency, semantic memory, and episodic memory were assessed. Diabetes (controlled and uncontrolled) and prediabetes were ascertained by clinicians, who also collected information on vascular disorders (hypertension, heart diseases, and stroke) and vascular risk factors (VRFs, including smoking and overweight/obesity). Data were analyzed with linear regression models. Overall, 196 participants (8.5%) had diabetes, of which 144 (73.5%) had elevated glycaemia (uncontrolled diabetes); 571 (24.8%) persons had prediabetes. In addition, diabetes, mainly uncontrolled, was related to lower performance in perceptual speed (β – 1.10 [95% CI – 1.98, – 0.23]), category fluency (β – 1.27 [95% CI – 2.52, – 0.03]), and digit span forward (β – 0.35 [95% CI – 0.54, – 0.17]). Critically, these associations were present only among APOE ɛ4 non–carriers. The associations of diabetes with perceptual speed and category fluency were present only among participants with VRFs or vascular disorders. Diabetes, especially uncontrolled diabetes, is associated with poorer performance in perceptual speed, category fluency, and attention/primary memory. VRFs, vascular disorders, and APOE status play a role in these associations. PMID:27314527

  11. Prevalence and correlates of dizziness in community-dwelling older people: a cross sectional population based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dizziness is a common complaint among older adults and has been linked to a wide range of health conditions, psychological and social characteristics in this population. However a profile of dizziness is still uncertain which hampers clinical decision-making. We therefore sought to explore the relationship between dizziness and a comprehensive range of demographic data, diseases, health and geriatric conditions, and geriatric syndromes in a representative sample of community-dwelling older people. Methods This is a cross-sectional, population-based study derived from FIBRA (Network for the Study of Frailty in Brazilian Elderly Adults), with 391 elderly adults, both men and women, aged 65 years and older. Elderly participants living at home in an urban area were enrolled through a process of random cluster sampling of census regions. The outcome variable was the self-report of dizziness in the last year. Several feelings of dizziness were investigated including vertigo, spinning, light or heavy headedness, floating, fuzziness, giddiness and instability. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the adjusted odds ratios and build the probability model for dizziness. Results The complaint of dizziness was reported by 45% of elderly adults, from which 71.6% were women (p=0.004). The multivariate regression analysis revealed that dizziness is associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 2.08; 95% CI 1.29–3.35), perceived fatigue (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.21-3.10), recurring falls (OR = 2.01; 95% CI 1.11-3.62) and excessive drowsiness (OR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.11–3.29). The discrimination of the final model was AUC = 0.673 (95% CI 0.619-0.727) (p< 0.001). Conclusions The prevalence of dizziness in community-dwelling elderly adults is substantial. It is associated with other common geriatric conditions usually neglected in elderly adults, such as fatigue and drowsiness, supporting its possible multifactorial manifestation. Our findings

  12. Prevalence of and risk factors for high-risk human papillomavirus infection: A population-based study from Hetian, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Niyazi, Mayinuer; Husaiyin, Sulaiya; Han, Lili; Mamat, Huduyum; Husaiyin, Kundus; Wang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection contributes to most cases of cervical cancer, and HPV genotypes exhibit different distributions according to geographic region. This study evaluates the prevalence of HPV infection in Hetian Prefecture, Xinjiang, and establishes risk factors associated with high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) genotypes in this region. In this cross-sectional, population-based study, 883 healthy women 15-54 years of age were enrolled. All participants completed a questionnaire regarding sociocultural and sexual activity characteristics. Visual inspections with acetic acid, colposcopies and biopsies were performed using the Preventive Oncology International microbiopsy protocol for pathological diagnosis. Cervical epithelial tissue specimens were collected and tested for HPV using linear array assays. According to the results of HR-HPV infection status, individuals infected with HR-HPV were classified into one group, and the remaining individuals were classified into the control group. The risk factors for HR-HPF infection were analyzed. The participants included 66 women (7.47%) with HR-HPV, 10 women (1.13%) with low-risk HPV, and 14 women (1.59%) with HPV of unknown risk. The five most prevalent types of HR-HPV were HPV-16 (0.31%), HPV-51 (0.08%), HPV-31 (0.07%), HPV-58 (0.07%), and HPV-39 (0.06%). Vulvovaginal ulcers and vulvovaginal inflammation were found in 190 participants (21.52%) and 256 participants (28.99%), respectively. The HR-HPV and control groups significantly differed with respect to age at first marriage, number of marriages, and the presence of vulvovaginal ulcers and vulvovaginal inflammation (p<0.05). Based on this study, an immunization strategy targeting HPV-16 should be prioritized in Hetian Prefecture. These findings contribute to the understanding of HPV infection. PMID:26773182

  13. Prevalence of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis increases significantly with level of urbanisation and suggests targeted screening approaches: results from the first national population based study in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, J; Gotz, H; Richardus, J; Hoebe, C; Broer, J; Coenen, A; t for

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Chlamydia trachomatis (Chlamydia) is the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacterial infection and can cause considerable reproductive morbidity in women. Chlamydia screening programmes have been considered but policy recommendations are hampered by the lack of population based data. This paper describes the prevalence of Chlamydia in 15–29 year old women and men in rural and urban areas, as determined through systematic population based screening organised by the Municipal Public Health Services (MHS), and discusses the implications of this screening strategy for routine implementation. Methods: Stratified national probability survey according to "area address density" (AAD). 21 000 randomly selected women and men in four regions, aged 15–29 years received a home sampling kit. Urine samples were returned by mail and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Treatment was via the general practitioner, STI clinic, or MHS clinic. Results: 41% (8383) responded by sending in urine and questionnaire. 11% (2227) returned a refusal card. Non-responders included both higher and lower risk categories. Chlamydia prevalence was significantly lower in rural areas (0.6%, 95% CI 0.1 to 1.1) compared with very highly urbanised areas (3.2%, 95% CI 2.4 to 4.0). Overall prevalence was 2.0% (95% CI 1.7 to 2.3): 2.5% (95% CI 2.0 to 3.0%) in women and 1.5% (95% CI 1.1 to 1.8) in men. Of all cases 91% were treated. Infection was associated with degree of urbanisation, ethnicity, number of sex partners, and symptoms. Conclusion: This large, population based study found very low prevalence in rural populations, suggesting that nationwide systematic screening is not indicated in the Netherlands and that targeted approaches are a better option. Further analysis of risk profiles will contribute to determine how selective screening can be done. PMID:15681716

  14. Change in prevalence status for children with developmental delay in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Huang-Tsung; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Chin-Kai

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of children aged 0–6 years with developmental delay (DD) and to examine age-period trends in the prevalence of DD diagnosis in Taiwan. For the study population, we selected children aged <6 years at baseline (in 1997–2002, N=2,308,790) from the National Health Insurance Research Database (a longitudinal database with annual medical records of children in Taiwan) to estimate the prevalence of DD. All study subjects were followed up until they were 5 years old; the study period was from 1997 to 2008. The prevalence of DD by year gradually increased from 0.16% to 3.25% from 1997 to 2008 with an increasing ratio of prevalence of 20% over the 12-year study period. The prevalence of DD in boys was 2.13 times (2.09–2.18 from 1997 to 2008) that in girls. The prevalence of DD increased by year of study. The effect of sex on the prevalence of DD was significant. Understanding the trend of prevalence in the study period and the gap between the rate of early treatment and DD prevalence are critical concerns for future research. PMID:26203248

  15. The Co-Occurrence of Autism and Birth Defects: Prevalence and Risk in a Population-Based Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, Diana E.; Autry, Andrew; Wines, Roberta; Moore, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the prevalence of major birth defects among children with autism, the prevalence of autism in children with birth defects, and the risk for autism associated with having birth defects. Method: Retrospective cohort including all children born in Atlanta, GA, USA, 1986 to 1993, who survived to age 3 years and were identified through…

  16. The effects of household wealth on HIV prevalence in Manicaland, Zimbabwe – a prospective household census and population-based open cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Schur, Nadine; Mylne, Adrian; Mushati, Phyllis; Takaruza, Albert; Ward, Helen; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intensified poverty arising from economic decline and crisis may have contributed to reductions in HIV prevalence in Zimbabwe. Objectives To assess the impact of the economic decline on household wealth and prevalent HIV infection using data from a population-based open cohort. Methods Household wealth was estimated using data from a prospective household census in Manicaland Province (1998 to 2011). Temporal trends in summed asset ownership indices for sellable, non-sellable and all assets combined were compared for households in four socio-economic strata (small towns, agricultural estates, roadside settlements and subsistence farming areas). Multivariate logistic random-effects models were used to measure differences in individual-level associations between prevalent HIV infection and place of residence, absolute wealth group and occupation. Results Household mean asset scores remained similar at around 0.37 (on a scale of 0 to 1) up to 2007 but decreased to below 0.35 thereafter. Sellable assets fell substantially from 2004 while non-sellable assets continued increasing until 2008. Small-town households had the highest wealth scores but the gap to other locations decreased over time, especially for sellable assets. Concurrently, adult HIV prevalence fell from 22.3 to 14.3%. HIV prevalence was highest in better-off locations (small towns) but differed little by household wealth or occupation. Initially, HIV prevalence was elevated in women from poorer households and lower in men in professional occupations. However, most recently (2009 to 2011), men and women in the poorest households had lower HIV prevalence and men in professional occupations had similar prevalence to unemployed men. Conclusions The economic crisis drove more households into extreme poverty. However, HIV prevalence fell in all socio-economic locations and sub-groups, and there was limited evidence that increased poverty contributed to HIV prevalence decline. PMID:26593453

  17. What is the impact of different spirometric criteria on the prevalence of spirometrically defined COPD and its comorbidities? Results from the population-based KORA study

    PubMed Central

    Karrasch, Stefan; Brüske, Irene; Smith, Maia P; Thorand, Barbara; Huth, Cornelia; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Kronenberg, Florian; Heinrich, Joachim; Holle, Rolf; Peters, Annette; Schulz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing debate about the appropriate spirometric criterion for airway obstruction to detect COPD. Furthermore, the association of different criteria with comorbidity prevalence and inflammatory biomarkers in advanced age is unclear. Materials and methods Spirometry was performed in a population-based study (n=2,256) covering an age range of 41–90 years. COPD was spirometrically determined either by a fixed ratio (FR) of <0.7 for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) or by FEV1/FVC below the lower limit of normal (LLN). Comorbidity prevalences and circulating biomarker levels (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin [IL]-6) were compared between subjects with or without COPD by the two criteria using logistic and multiple regression models, adjusting for sex and age. Results The prevalence of spirometrically defined COPD by FR increased with age from 10% in subjects aged <65 years to 26% in subjects aged ≥75 years. For LLN-defined COPD, it remained below 10% for all age groups. Overall, COPD diagnosis was not associated with specific comorbidities, except for a lower prevalence of obesity in both FR- and LLN-defined cases. Both CRP and IL-6 tended to be higher in cases by both criteria. Conclusion In a population-based cohort of adults up to the age of 90 years, the prevalence of spirometrically defined COPD was higher for the FR criterion than for the LLN criterion. This difference increased with age. Neither prevalences of common comorbidities nor levels of the biomarkers, CRP or IL-6, were conclusively associated with the selection of the COPD criterion. Results have to be considered in light of the predominantly mild cases of airway obstruction in the examined study population. PMID:27574413

  18. Assessing the Validity of a Stage Measure on Physical Activity in a Population-Based Sample of Individuals with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lippke, Sonia; Reinbold-Matthews, Melissa; Courneya, Kerry S.; Karunamuni, Nandini; Sigal, Ronald J.; Birkett, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to test the validity of a transtheoretical model's physical activity (PA) stage measure with intention and different intensities of behavior in a large population-based sample of adults living with diabetes (Type 1 diabetes, n = 697; Type 2 diabetes, n = 1,614) and examine different age groups. The overall "specificity"…

  19. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction among subjects with late-onset hypogonadism: a population-based study in China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wen-Hao; Zhuang, Xin-Jie; Shu, Ru-Ming; Guan, Di; Ji, Yu-Dang; Zhang, Bao-Long; Wang, Can-Gang; Zhuang, Li-Hua; Yang, Zhuo; Hong, Kai; Ma, Lu-Lin; Jiang, Hui; Zhou, Shan-Jie; Gu, Yi-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The concurrence of chronic diseases and some well-defined risk factors significantly impacts the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED). Aim: To determine whether late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) impacts the prevalence of ED using investigation reproductive health data of middle-aged and aging males in China. Methods: The reproductive health status of 1498 males, aged 40-69 years, was evaluated using questionnaires of LOH based on the Androgen Deficiency in Aging Males (ADAM) and Aging Male Symptoms scale (AMS), as well as the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) assessment. The 10th percentile of serum total testosterone (TT) and calculated free testosterone (cFT) levels of controls were set as cut-off levels of AD. The main outcome measures were used to assess the prevalence of LOH and ED according to different subject characteristics. Results: Of the 1472 subjects who completed the questionnaires who supplied hormone measurements, the prevalence of self-reported ED and identified by the IIEF-5 assessment were 11.28% and 77.85%, respectively. The IIEF-5 assessment revealed a prevalence of ED of 55.34%, 88.20%, and 91.77%, respectively, among those aged 40-49, 50-59, and 60-69 years. AD rates of ED subjects were 13.73% and 40.69% according to the TT and cFT cut-off levels. The prevalence of ED among subjects positive for LOH (ADAM+ and AMS+) were 88.81% and 95.80%, respectively. The prevalence of ED among the AD subjects (TT and cFT cut-off levels) with LOH (ADAM+ and AMS+) were 86.67%/81.82%. And the prevalence of ED among clinical LOH subjects (ADAM+ and AMS+) were 89.51%/98.48%. Conclusions: We found that middle-aged and aging Chinese males were at a relatively high risk of ED. The prevalence of ED among subjects with LOH symptoms was greater than in all recruited subjects. The effect of LOH on the prevalence of ED far outweighed the risk of decreased testosterone levels. PMID:26550346

  20. Prevalence of Dementia and Cognitive Complaints in the Context of High Cognitive Reserve: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Perquin, Magali; Diederich, Nico; Pastore, Jessica; Lair, Marie-Lise; Stranges, Saverio; Vaillant, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the prevalence of dementia and cognitive complaints in a cross-sectional sample of Luxembourg seniors, and to discuss the results in the societal context of high cognitive reserve resulting from multilingualism. Methods A population sample of 1,377 people representative of Luxembourg residents aged over 64 years was initially identified via the national social insurance register. There were three different levels of contribution: full participation in the study, partial participation, and non-participation. We examined the profiles of these three different samples so that we could infer the prevalence estimates in the Luxembourgish senior population as a whole using the prevalence estimates obtained in this study. Results After careful attention to the potential bias and of the possibility of underestimation, we considered the obtained prevalence estimates of 3.8% for dementia (with corresponding 95% confidence limits (CL) of 2.8% and 4.8%) and 26.1% for cognitive complaints (CL = [17.8–34.3]) as trustworthy. Conclusion Based on these findings, we postulate that high cognitive reserve may result in surprisingly low prevalence estimates of cognitive complaints and dementia in adults over the age of 64 years, which thereby corroborates the longer disability-free life expectancy observed in the Luxembourg population. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report such Luxembourgish public health data. PMID:26390288

  1. Prevalence of Family History of Breast, Colorectal, Prostate, and Lung Cancer in a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mai, P.L.; Wideroff, L.; Greene, M.H.; Graubard, B.L.

    2010-01-01

    Background A positive family history is a known risk factor for several cancers; thus, obtaining a thorough family cancer history is essential in cancer risk evaluation and prevention management. Methods The Family Health Study, a telephone survey in Connecticut, was conducted in 2001. A total of 1,019 participants with demographic information and family cancer history were included in this study. Prevalence of a positive family history of breast, colorectal, prostate, and lung cancer for first- and second-degree relatives was estimated. Logistic regression was used to compare prevalence by demographic factors. Results A positive family history among first-degree relatives was reported by 10.9% (95% Confidence Interval, CI = 8.8–13.3) of respondents for breast cancer, 5.1% (95% CI = 3.9–6.7) for colorectal cancer, 7.0% (95% CI = 5.2–9.4) for prostate cancer, and 6.4% (95% CI = 4.9–8.3) for lung cancer. The reported prevalence of family history of specific cancers varied by sex, age and race/ethnicity of the respondents. Conclusion Family history prevalence for 4 of the most common adult solid tumors is substantial and the reported prevalence varied by respondent characteristics. Additional studies are needed to evaluate tools to promote accurate reporting of family history of cancer. PMID:20389042

  2. Population-based prevalence of CDKN2A and CDK4 mutations in patients with multiple primary melanomas.

    PubMed

    Helsing, Per; Nymoen, Dag Andre; Ariansen, Sarah; Steine, Solrun J; Maehle, Lovise; Aamdal, Steinar; Langmark, Frøydis; Loeb, Mitchell; Akslen, Lars A; Molven, Anders; Andresen, Per Arne

    2008-02-01

    The presence of multiple primary cutaneous melanomas (MPM) has been advocated as guidance to identifying melanoma families. Frequencies of CDKN2A mutations in materials of sporadic MPM cases from pigmented lesion clinics vary between 8 and 15%. Patients with MPM have therefore been regarded as good candidates for CDKN2A mutational screening. We describe a population-based study where all persons in Norway diagnosed with MPM between 1953 and 2004 (n = 738 alive per April 2004) were invited to participate. Three-hundred-and-ninety patients (52.8%) responded confidentially. Mutations in CDKN2A were found in 6.9% of the respondents. Eighty-one MPM patients (20.8%) reported that they belonged to melanoma families, and 17 (21.0%) of these harboured a CDKN2A mutation, compared to 3.2% of the nonfamilial cases. The probability of finding a CDKN2A mutation increased when the patients had three or more melanomas, or a young age of onset of first melanoma. We identified five novel CDKN2A variants (Ala57Gly, Pro81Arg, Ala118Val, Leu130Val, and Arg131Pro) and four that previously have been reported in melanoma families (Glu27X, Met53Ile, Arg87Trp, and Ala127Pro). A large deletion (g.13623_23772del10150) encompassing exon 1alpha and the 5' part of exon 2 was detected in six patients with a family history of melanoma. Three patients, belonging to the same family, had the CDK4 Arg24His mutation. The frequency of CDKN2A mutations was lower than previously reported in other studies, an observation which probably is due to the population-based design of our study. PMID:18023021

  3. Prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in Peru: report from PERUDIAB, a national urban population-based longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Seclen, Segundo N; Rosas, Moises E; Arias, Arturo J; Huayta, Ernesto; Medina, Cecilia A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to estimate the prevalences of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in a national sample in Peru and assess the relationships with selected sociodemographic variables. Methods We estimated prevalence in PERUDIAB study participants, a nationwide, stratified urban and suburban population selected by random cluster sampling. Between 2010 and 2012, questionnaires were completed and blood tests obtained from 1677 adults ≥25 years of age. Known diabetes was defined as participants having been told so by a doctor or nurse and/or receiving insulin or oral antidiabetic agents. Newly diagnosed diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL determined during the study and without a previous diabetes diagnosis. IFG was defined as fasting plasma glucose of 100–125 mg/dL. Results The estimated national prevalence of diabetes was 7.0% (95% CI 5.3% to 8.7%) and it was 8.4% (95% CI 5.6% to 11.3%) in metropolitan Lima. No gender differences were detected. Known and newly diagnosed diabetes prevalences were estimated as 4.2% and 2.8%, respectively. A logistic regression response surface model showed a complex trend for an increased prevalence of diabetes in middle-aged individuals and in those with no formal education. Diabetes prevalence was higher in coastal (8.2%) than in highlands (4.5%; p=0.03), and jungle (3.5%; p<0.02) regions. The estimated national prevalence of IFG was 22.4%, higher in males than in females (28.3% vs 19.1%; p<0.001), and higher in coastal (26.4%) than in highlands (17.4%; p=0.03), but not jungle regions (14.9%; p=0.07). Conclusions This study confirms diabetes as an important public health problem, especially for middle-aged individuals and those with no formal education. 40% of the affected individuals were undiagnosed. The elevated prevalence of IFG shows that nearly a quarter of the adult population of Peru has an increased risk of diabetes. PMID:26512325

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension in Urban Areas of Cameroon: A Nationwide Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kingue, Samuel; Ngoe, Constant Ndong; Menanga, Alain Patrick; Jingi, Ahmadou M; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Fesuh, Betrand; Nouedoui, Christophe; Andze, Gervais; Muna, Walinjom F T

    2015-10-01

    Accurate estimates of the prevalence rate of hypertension and determinants in Cameroon are crucial to inform efficient prevention and control policies. The authors carried out a cluster-specific cross-sectional survey in urban areas of the 10 regions of Cameroon to assess the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension in Cameroonian adults using the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS). Sociodemographic data were collected and blood pressure and glycemia were measured using standardized methods. Participants were adults of both sexes aged 16 years or older. A total of 15,470 participants were surveyed. The age-standardized prevalence rate of hypertension was 29.7%. The awareness rate was 14.1%. Independent correlates of hypertension included higher age, male sex, obesity, hyperglycemia, and living in the Savannah zone. The prevalence of hypertension is high in urban areas of Cameroon, with very low awareness. Prevention and control strategies should emphasize on improvement and vulgarization of population opportunistic screening and education. PMID:26140673

  5. Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Low Bone Mass in Older Chinese Population Based on Bone Mineral Density at Multiple Skeletal Sites.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Chien; Lin, Ying Chin; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Liu, Yi-Jui; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Chieng, Poon-Ung; Chan, Wing P

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on bone mineral density (BMD) measurement, which is site dependent and commonly discordant between measurement sites. We aimed to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis diagnosed based on BMD T-scores measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at different sites: the lumbar spine (LS) alone, femoral neck (FN) alone, or both. A total of 1712 women and 2028 men with LS and FN BMD measurements were enrolled. Over 50% discordance was found between osteoporosis classifications based on T-scores measured at the LS and FN. Use of the lowest T-scores measured at both the LS and right and left FN (rather than one site) significantly increased the prevalence of osteoporosis from 4.03 to 10.75% in postmenopausal women and 1.82 to 4.29% in men aged ≧50 years (p < 0.001). The trends of overall and age-adjusted prevalence of osteoporosis were similar in women and men. Osteoporosis was diagnosed at a higher rate if the USA reference rather than the Asia reference was used to calculate the T-score (26.64% vs. 10.75%). In conclusion, diagnosis based on the lowest T-score from multiple site BMD measurement can increase the prevalence of osteoporosis, demonstrating the higher sensitivity of the multiple site measurement strategy. PMID:27143609

  6. Prevalence, incidence, and comorbidity of clinically diagnosed obsessive-compulsive disorder in Taiwan: a national population-based study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Chung; Tsai, Kuen-Jer; Wang, Hao-Kuang; Sung, Pi-Shan; Wu, Ming-Hsiu; Hung, Kuo-Wei; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang

    2014-12-15

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic debilitating anxiety disorder significant in intrusive thoughts and compensation repetitive behaviors. Few studies have reported on this condition Asia. This study estimated the prevalence, incidence and psychiatric comorbidities of OCD in Taiwan. We identified study subjects for 2000-2008 with a principal diagnosis of OCD according to the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnostic criteria by using National Health Research Institute database. These patients received either outpatient or inpatient care for their condition. Rates were directly age- and sex-adjusted to the 2004 Taiwan population distribution. The estimated mean annual incidence was 27.57 per 10(5) inhabitants and the one year prevalence was 65.05 per 10(5) inhabitants. Incidence and prevalence increased with age, peaking at age 18-24 years in males and at 35-44 years in females. About 53% of adults (≥18 years) and 48% of child and adolescent patients (6-17 years) had one or more comorbid psychiatric conditions. The most common comorbid diagnosis was depressive disorders for both adult and child-adolescent patients. We found a lower prevalence and incidence of clinically diagnosed OCD than that of community studies. Many Asian patients with OCD also had various psychiatric comorbidities, a clinically relevant finding. PMID:25169892

  7. A Population-Based Study of Childhood Sexual Contact in China: Prevalence and Long-Term Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Ye; Parish, William L.; Laumann, Edward O.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study provides national estimates of the prevalence of childhood sexual contact and its association with sexual well-being and psychological distress among adults in China. Method: A national stratified probability sample of 1,519 women and 1,475 men aged 20-64 years in urban China completed a computer-administered survey in…

  8. Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Low Bone Mass in Older Chinese Population Based on Bone Mineral Density at Multiple Skeletal Sites

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi-Chien; Lin, Ying Chin; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Liu, Yi-Jui; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Chieng, Poon-Ung; Chan, Wing P.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on bone mineral density (BMD) measurement, which is site dependent and commonly discordant between measurement sites. We aimed to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis diagnosed based on BMD T-scores measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at different sites: the lumbar spine (LS) alone, femoral neck (FN) alone, or both. A total of 1712 women and 2028 men with LS and FN BMD measurements were enrolled. Over 50% discordance was found between osteoporosis classifications based on T-scores measured at the LS and FN. Use of the lowest T-scores measured at both the LS and right and left FN (rather than one site) significantly increased the prevalence of osteoporosis from 4.03 to 10.75% in postmenopausal women and 1.82 to 4.29% in men aged ≧50 years (p < 0.001). The trends of overall and age-adjusted prevalence of osteoporosis were similar in women and men. Osteoporosis was diagnosed at a higher rate if the USA reference rather than the Asia reference was used to calculate the T-score (26.64% vs. 10.75%). In conclusion, diagnosis based on the lowest T-score from multiple site BMD measurement can increase the prevalence of osteoporosis, demonstrating the higher sensitivity of the multiple site measurement strategy. PMID:27143609

  9. High prevalence, low awareness, treatment and control rates of hypertension in Guinea: results from a population-based STEPS survey.

    PubMed

    Camara, A; Baldé, N M; Diakité, M; Sylla, D; Baldé, E H; Kengne, A P; Baldé, M D

    2016-04-01

    Hypertension is a major and fast-growing public health problem in Africa. We determined the prevalence of hypertension and assessed the levels of awareness, treatment and control in Guinea. A cross-sectional study based on a stratified cluster random sampling was conducted. In all, 2491 adults (1351 women) aged 15-64 years were selected and screened during September-December 2009. Hypertension (systolic (and/or diastolic) blood pressure ⩾140 (90) mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medications) and diabetes mellitus (fasting capillary glucose ⩾110  mg dl(-1) or use of antidiabetic medications) were determined. Logistic regressions were used to investigate the determinants of hypertension. The mean body mass index was 22.4  kg m(-2) (s.d.=4.5). The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes was, respectively, 29.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 29.8-30.0) and 3.5% (95%CI 3.4-3.5). The prevalence of hypertension was 29.4% (29.3-29.5) in men and 30.4% (30.4-30.6) in women. The prevalence was 62.5% in the 44-64 years age group. Overall, 75.8% of hypertensive participants were undetected before the survey and 34.9% of those aware of their hypertensive status were receiving treatment, of whom 16.3% were at target control levels. Age, education, diabetes and obesity were the main factors associated with hypertension. There was a high prevalence of hypertension among the adults in Guinea, but with low awareness, treatment and control rates. Urgent response is needed in the form of integrated and comprehensive action targeting major non-communicable diseases in the country. PMID:26310186

  10. Increasing proportion of female patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a population-based study of trends in the incidence and prevalence of AS

    PubMed Central

    Haroon, Nisha N; Paterson, J Michael; Li, Ping; Haroon, Nigil

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the introduction of MRI in diagnosis and tumour necrosis factor inhibitors for treatment, the field of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has undergone significant changes. We carried out a population-based study of the trends in incidence and prevalence of AS over the past 15 years. Methods This is a retrospective analysis of provincial health administrative databases. Residents of Ontario, Canada aged 15 years or older diagnosed with AS between 1995 and 2010 were included in the study. Crude as well as age-standardised and sex-standardised incidence and prevalence of AS between 1995 and 2010 were calculated. Trends in prevalence and incidence of male and female patients with AS were separately analysed. Results We identified 24 976 Ontarians with AS. Age/sex-standardised AS prevalence increased from 79/100 000 in 1995 to 213/100 000 in 2010. Men had higher prevalence than women, but the male/female prevalence ratio decreased from 1.70 in 1995 to 1.21 by 2010. A higher proportion of male compared with female patients with AS were diagnosed in the 15–45 age group. Annual incidence rates revealed increasing diagnosis of AS among women after 2003. Conclusions The prevalence of AS in Ontario has nearly tripled over the past two decades. The proportion of women with new diagnosis of AS is increasing, a trend that began around the year 2003. A higher proportion of male compared with female patients with AS are diagnosed at an earlier age. PMID:25510888

  11. Population-based HIV prevalence and associated factors in male-to-female transsexuals from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Jacinto, Michelle Moraes; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Lorencetti, Emilaine Karine; da Rosa Filho, Heitor Tomé; Mueller, Andressa; de Garcia, Claudia Garcia; Nardi, Henrique Caetano; Koller, Silvia Helena; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed HIV prevalence and associated factors in 284 male-to-female transsexuals from southern Brazil. Seroprevalence was 25 %. Seroprevalence was higher and associated with older age, residence in the metropolitan area, history of diagnosis of other STDs, and reported history of sex work. The year of diagnosis showed no significant relationship with the prevalence of HIV nor the fact of being in a stable relationship, a history of drug use, years of education, and race/ethnicity. The odds of HIV infection compared with the general Brazilian population was 55.55 (95 % CI 38.39-80.39). Changes in the views of the vulnerable groups to HIV/AIDS in Brazil and efforts in the construction of strategies of prevention and in the guarantee of human rights are required. PMID:25245931

  12. Factors associated with the prevalence of anterior open bite among preschool children: A population-based study in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Daniella Borges; Brizon, Valéria Silva Cândido; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Madureira, Davidson Fróis; Gomes, Viviane Elisângela; de Oliveira, Ana Cristina Borges

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with the prevalence of anterior open bite among five-year-old Brazilian children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken using data from the National Survey of Oral Health (SB Brazil 2010). The outcome variable was anterior open bite classified as present or absent. The independent variables were classified by individual, sociodemographic and clinical factors. Data were analyzed through bivariate and multivariate analysis using SPSS statistical software (version 18.0) with a 95% level of significance. RESULTS: The prevalence of anterior open bite was 12.1%. Multivariate analysis showed that preschool children living in Southern Brazil had an increased chance of 1.8 more times of having anterior open bite (CI 95%: 1.16 - 3.02). Children identified with alterations in overjet had 14.6 times greater chances of having anterior open bite (CI 95%: 8.98 - 24.03). CONCLUSION: There was a significant association between anterior open bite and the region of Brazil where the children lived, the presence of altered overjet and the prevalence of posterior crossbite. PMID:25715723

  13. Prevalence and correlates of sexual dysfunction among young adult married women in rural China: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lau, J T F; Cheng, Y; Wang, Q; Yang, X

    2006-01-01

    The study investigates prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD), sexual satisfaction and their correlates in the rural female population in China. An anonymous cross-sectional study was carried out in a random sample of 1178 married of age 20-39 years in Dengfeng County, Henan, China. The prevalence of having at least one SD was 43 and 38% of the respondents were satisfied with their sexual life; 64.0% thought that sex was not important to them; and 85.7% believed that they do not have adequate sex-related knowledge. Having SD and high sexual satisfaction were associated with high mental health or vitality quality of life scores and better perceived health status. Other independent predictors of SD included sociodemographic variables, biological variables, life style factors and masturbation. It is concluded that SD was prevalent among the studied women and were associated with mental health. The sexual health among married women needs to be improved in rural China. PMID:15944726

  14. Prevalence and Perceived Preventability of Self-Reported Adverse Drug Events – A Population-Based Survey of 7099 Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hakkarainen, Katja Marja; Andersson Sundell, Karolina; Petzold, Max; Hägg, Staffan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Adverse drug events (ADEs) are common and often preventable among inpatients, but self-reported ADEs have not been investigated in a representative sample of the general public. The objectives of this study were to estimate the 1-month prevalence of self-reported ADEs among the adult general public, and the perceived preventability of 2 ADE categories: adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and sub-therapeutic effects (STEs). Methods In this cross-sectional study, a postal survey was sent in October 2010 to a random sample of 13 931 Swedish residents aged ≥18 years. Self-reported ADEs experienced during the past month included ADRs, STEs, drug dependence, drug intoxications and morbidity due to drug-related untreated indication. ADEs could be associated with prescription, non-prescription or herbal drugs. The respondents estimated whether ADRs and STEs could have been prevented. ADE prevalences in age groups (18–44, 45–64, or ≥65 years) were compared. Results Of 7099 respondents (response rate 51.0%), ADEs were reported by 19.4% (95% confidence interval, 18.5–20.3%), and the prevalence did not differ by age group (p>0.05). The prevalences of self-reported ADRs, STEs, and morbidities due to drug-related untreated indications were 7.8% (7.2–8.4%), 7.6% (7.0–8.2%) and 8.1% (7.5–8.7%), respectively. The prevalence of self-reported drug dependence was 2.2% (1.9–2.6%), and drug intoxications 0.2% (0.1–0.3%). The respondents considered 19.2% (14.8–23.6%) of ADRs and STEs preventable. Although reported drugs varied between ADE categories, most ADEs were attributable to commonly dispensed drugs. Drugs reported for all and preventable events were similar. Conclusions One-fifth of the adult general public across age groups reported ADEs during the past month, indicating a need for prevention strategies beyond hospitalised patients. For this, the underlying causes of ADEs should increasingly be investigated. The high burden of ADEs and preventable ADEs

  15. The Incidence and Prevalence of Thromboangiitis Obliterans in Taiwan: A Nationwide, Population-based Analysis of Data Collected from 2002 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie-Fu; Chen, Yi-Ming; Chen, Der-Yuan; Lin, Ching-Heng; Chen, Hsin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and prevalence of thromboangiitis obliterans in Taiwan in the period spanning from 2002 to 2011. METHODS: We identified all incident and prevalent cases with a diagnosis of thromboangiitis obliterans (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 443.1) in the period spanning from 2002 to 2011 using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. We calculated the age- and sex-specific incidence and prevalence rates of thromboangiitis obliterans during the study period. RESULTS: From 2002 to 2011, 158 patients were diagnosed with thromboangiitis obliterans; of these, 76% were men. Most (63%) of the patients were <50 years old when they were first diagnosed. After reaching 20 years of age, the incidence rate increased with age and peaked among those aged ≥60 years. The average incidence rate of thromboangiitis obliterans during the 2002–2011 period was 0.068 per 105 years. The incidence of thromboangiitis obliterans decreased with time, from 0.10 per 105 years in 2002 to 0.04 per 105 years in 2011. The prevalence increased from 0.26 × 10−5 in 2002 to 0.65 × 10−5 in 2011. CONCLUSION: This is the first epidemiologic study of thromboangiitis obliterans using claims data from a general population in Taiwan. This nationwide, population-based study found that the incidence and prevalence of thromboangiitis obliterans in Taiwan in the 2002–2011 period were lower than those in other countries before 2000. This study also revealed a trend of decreasing incidence with simultaneous increasing prevalence of thromboangiitis obliterans in Taiwan from 2002 to 2011. PMID:27464297

  16. Prevalence, nature and potential preventability of adverse drug events – a population-based medical record study of 4970 adults

    PubMed Central

    Hakkarainen, Katja M; Gyllensten, Hanna; Jönsson, Anna K; Andersson Sundell, Karolina; Petzold, Max; Hägg, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Aims To estimate the 3 month prevalence of adverse drug events (ADEs), categories of ADEs and preventable ADEs, and the preventability of ADEs among adults in Sweden. Further, to identify drug classes and organ systems associated with ADEs and estimate their seriousness. Methods A random sample of 5025 adults in a Swedish county council in 2008 was drawn from the Total Population Register. All their medical records in 29 inpatient care departments in three hospitals, 110 specialized outpatient clinics and 51 primary care units were reviewed retrospectively in a stepwise manner, and complemented with register data on dispensed drugs. ADEs, including adverse drug reactions (ADRs), sub-therapeutic effects of drug therapy (STEs), drug dependence and abuse, drug intoxications from overdose, and morbidities due to drug-related untreated indication, were detected during a 3 month study period, and assessed for preventability. Results Among 4970 included individuals, the prevalence of ADEs was 12.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 11.1, 12.9%), and preventable ADEs 5.6% (95% CI 5.0, 6.2%). ADRs (6.9%; 95% CI 6.2, 7.6%) and STEs (6.4%; 95% CI 5.8, 7.1%) were more prevalent than the other ADEs. Of the ADEs, 38.8% (95% CI 35.8–41.9%) was preventable, varying by ADE category and seriousness. ADEs were frequently associated with nervous system and cardiovascular drugs, but the associated drugs and affected organs varied by ADE category. Conclusions The considerable burden of ADEs and preventable ADEs from commonly used drugs across care settings warrants large-scale efforts to redesign safer, higher quality healthcare systems. The heterogeneous nature of the ADE categories should be considered in research and clinical practice for preventing, detecting and mitigating ADEs. PMID:24372506

  17. Prevalence and Costs of Multimorbidity by Deprivation Levels in the Basque Country: A Population Based Study Using Health Administrative Databases

    PubMed Central

    Orueta, Juan F.; García-Álvarez, Arturo; García-Goñi, Manuel; Paolucci, Francesco; Nuño-Solinís, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity is a major challenge for healthcare systems. However, currently, its magnitude and impact in healthcare expenditures is still mostly unknown. Objective To present an overview of the prevalence and costs of multimorbidity by socioeconomic levels in the whole Basque population. Methods We develop a cross-sectional analysis that includes all the inhabitants of the Basque Country (N = 2,262,698). We utilize data from primary health care electronic medical records, hospital admissions, and outpatient care databases, corresponding to a 4 year period. Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of two or more chronic diseases out of a list of 52 of the most important and common chronic conditions given in the literature. We also use socioeconomic and demographic variables such as age, sex, individual healthcare cost, and deprivation level. Predicted adjusted costs were obtained by log-gamma regression models. Results Multimorbidity of chronic diseases was found among 23.61% of the total Basque population and among 66.13% of those older than 65 years. Multimorbid patients account for 63.55% of total healthcare expenditures. Prevalence of multimorbidity is higher in the most deprived areas for all age and sex groups. The annual cost of healthcare per patient generated for any chronic disease depends on the number of coexisting comorbidities, and varies from 637 € for the first pathology in average to 1,657 € for the ninth one. Conclusion Multimorbidity is very common for the Basque population and its prevalence rises in age, and unfavourable socioeconomic environment. The costs of care for chronic patients with several conditions cannot be described as the sum of their individual pathologies in average. They usually increase dramatically according to the number of comorbidities. Given the ageing population, multimorbidity and its consequences should be taken into account in healthcare policy, the organization of care and medical research

  18. Acne scars in 18-year-old male adolescents: a population-based study of prevalence and associated factors*

    PubMed Central

    Lauermann, Fernanda Tcatch; de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar

    2016-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous follicle disorder affecting over 85% of adolescents to some degree. It frequently causes psychological distress that may persist into adulthood due to scarring. Little information about post-acne scarring epidemiology is available. Objectives To describe prevalence, distribution patterns and associated factors of acne scarring in young males, drawing on a representative population sample from a southern Brazilian city. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken during presentation for military service, which is compulsory for all 18-year-old males. A questionnaire was applied, covering topics like diet, smoking habits, ethnicity, family structure, socio-economic level, as well as specific questions about active acne and resulting scars. Dermatologists conducted the clinical examination. Results A total of 2,201 male adolescents were interviewed and examined. The overall prevalence of acne scarring was 22%. The malar region was the most frequently involved, present in 80% of affected individuals, followed by the frontal region (31.5%), back (17%), anterior chest (8.2%) and mentonian region (6.4%). Correlation between the intensity of clinical acne and the presence of scars was found, but no association was observed with educational level, smoking, ethnicity, obesity or socio-economic status. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of acne scars among this population. This is the first study to ascertain a correlation between acne scarring and factors such as socio-economic status and educational level. The direct relation between acne severity and scarring indicates that prompt and effective treatment is the best way to reduce scarring. PMID:27438194

  19. Copeptin is associated with kidney length, renal function, and prevalence of simple cysts in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ponte, Belen; Pruijm, Menno; Ackermann, Daniel; Vuistiner, Philippe; Guessous, Idris; Ehret, Georg; Alwan, Heba; Youhanna, Sonia; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Vogt, Bruno; Burnier, Michel; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Devuyst, Olivier; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-06-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has a key role in osmoregulation by facilitating water transport in the collecting duct. Recent evidence suggests that AVP may have additional effects on renal function and favor cyst growth in polycystic kidney disease. Whether AVP also affects kidney structure in the general population is unknown. We analyzed the association of copeptin, an established surrogate for AVP, with parameters of renal function and morphology in a multicentric population-based cohort. Participants from families of European ancestry were randomly selected in three Swiss cities. We used linear multilevel regression analysis to explore the association of copeptin with renal function parameters as well as kidney length and the presence of simple renal cysts assessed by ultrasound examination. Copeptin levels were log-transformed. The 529 women and 481 men had median copeptin levels of 3.0 and 5.2 pmol/L, respectively (P<0.001). In multivariable analyses, the copeptin level was associated inversely with eGFR (β=-2.1; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], -3.3 to -0.8; P=0.002) and kidney length (β=-1.2; 95% CI, -1.9 to -0.4; P=0.003) but positively with 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (β=0.11; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.20; P=0.03) and urine osmolality (β=0.08; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.10; P<0.001). A positive association was found between the copeptin level and the presence of renal cysts (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.4; P=0.02). These results suggest that AVP has a pleiotropic role in renal function and may favor the development of simple renal cysts. PMID:25270071

  20. Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis: a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331 288 participants

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA1c. We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes and the classification of previously undiagnosed individuals as having diabetes versus not having diabetes in a pooled analysis of data from population-based health examination surveys in different regions. Methods We used data from 96 population-based health examination surveys that had measured at least two of the biomarkers used for defining diabetes. Diabetes was defined using HbA1c (HbA1c ≥6·5% or history of diabetes diagnosis or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs) compared with either FPG only or FPG-or-2hOGTT definitions (FPG ≥7·0 mmol/L or 2hOGTT ≥11·1 mmol/L or history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated diabetes prevalence, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights. We compared the prevalences of diabetes using different definitions graphically and by regression analyses. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of diabetes diagnosis based on HbA1c compared with diagnosis based on glucose among previously undiagnosed individuals (ie, excluding those with history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated sensitivity and specificity in each survey, and then pooled results using a random-effects model. We assessed the sources of heterogeneity of sensitivity by meta-regressions for study characteristics selected a priori. Findings Population prevalence of diabetes based on FPG-or-2hOGTT was correlated with prevalence based on FPG alone (r=0·98), but was higher by 2–6 percentage points at different prevalence levels. Prevalence based on HbA1c was lower than prevalence based on FPG in 42·8% of age–sex–survey groups and higher in another 41·6%; in

  1. The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Gallstone Among Adults in South-East of Iran: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Khorram, Alireza; Miri-Bonjar, Mahmodreza; Mohammadi, Mahdi; Ansari, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and possible risk factors of gallstone disease in the general population. Patients and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out on a total of 1522 males and females aged ≥30 years in Zahedan district, South-East of Iran. Data were collected by a validated questionnaire and gallstone diagnosis was assessed by an experienced radiologist using ultrasonography. Logistic regression model was used to identify the association between selected variables and gallstone disease. Results: The overall prevalence of gallstone in participants was 2.4%. The risk of gallstone was 2.60 times higher in people age 45 and older than those aged 30 - 44 years (Odds Ratio = 2.60, 95% CI; 1.22 - 5.55). Females were 2.73 (95% CI; 1.34 - 5.56) times more likely to have disease compared to males as well. The risk in unmarried individuals was also three times higher than married ones (OR = 2.99: 95% CI 1.02 - 9.16). Additionally, daily physical activity reduced the risk of gallstone disease by 66% (95% CI; 0.18 - 0.86). Conclusion: In conclusion, increasing age and female gender were risk factors, whereas daily physical activity and marriage identified as protective factors in aetiology of gallstone disease. PMID:26573029

  2. Prevalence and intensity of chronic pain and self-perceived health among elderly people: a population-based study1

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Lilian Varanda; de Vasconcelos, Patrícia Pereira; Souza, Layz Alves Ferreira; Pereira, Gilberto de Araújo; Nakatani, Adélia Yaeko Kyosen; Bachion, Maria Márcia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the prevalence and intensity of chronic pain among elderly people of the community and to analyze associations with the self-perceived health status. METHOD: cross-sectional study with a populational sample (n=934), conducted through household interviews in the city of Goiânia, Brazil. The intensity of chronic pain (existing for 6 months or more) was measured using a numerical scale (0-10) and the self-perceived health through a verbal scale (very good, good, fair, poor, very poor). For the statistical analysis, the absolute frequency and percentage, CI (95%), Chi-square test, Odds ratio, and regression analysis were used. Significance of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic pain was 52.8% [CI (95%):49.4-56.1]; most frequently located in the lower limbs (34.5%) and lumbar region (29.5%); with high or the worst possible intensity for 54.6% of the elderly people. The occurrence of chronic pain was associated with (p<0.0001) a worse self-perception of health (OR=4.2:2.5-7.0), a greater number of chronic diseases (OR=1.8:1.2-2.7), joint disease (OR=3.5:2.4-5.1) and the female gender (OR=2.3:1.7-3.0). A lower intensity of chronic pain was associated with a better self-perception of health (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: the majority of the elderly people of the community reported chronic pain, of a severe intensity, and located in areas related to movement activities, thus influencing the morbidity and mortality of this population. PMID:25296151

  3. Population based study of prevalence of islet cell autoantibodies in monozygotic and dizygotic Danish twin pairs with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, J. S.; Kyvik, K. O.; Bingley, P. J.; Gale, E. A.; Green, A.; Dyrberg, T.; Beck-Nielsen, H.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the comparative importance of environment and genes in the development of islet cell autoimmunity associated with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Population based study of diabetic twins. SETTING: Danish population. SUBJECTS: 18 monozygotic and 36 dizygotic twin pairs with one or both partners having insulin dependent diabetes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence of islet cell antibodies, insulin autoantibodies, and autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) in serum samples from twin pairs 10 years (range 0-30 years) and 9.5 years (2-30 years) after onset of disease. RESULTS: In those with diabetes the prevalence of islet cell antibodies, insulin autoantibodies, and autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase in the 26 monozygotic twins was 38%, 85%, and 92%, respectively, and in the dizygotic twins was 57%, 70%, and 57%, respectively. In those without diabetes the proportions were 20%, 50%, and 40% in the 10 monozygotic twins and 26%, 49%, and 40% in the 35 dizygotic twins. CONCLUSION: There is no difference between the prevalence of islet cell autoantibodies in dizygotic and monozygotic twins without diabetes, suggesting that islet cell autoimmunity is environmentally rather than genetically determined. Furthermore, the prevalence of islet cell antibodies was higher in the non-diabetic twins than in other first degree relatives of patients with insulin dependent diabetes. This implies that the prenatal or early postnatal period during which twins are exposed to the same environment, in contrast with that experienced by first degree relatives, is of aetiological importance. PMID:9169400

  4. Prevalence of a positive screen for PTSD among OEF/OIF and OEF/OIF-era veterans in a large population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Dursa, Erin K; Reinhard, Matthew J; Barth, Shannon K; Schneiderman, Aaron I

    2014-10-01

    Multiple studies have reported the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans; however, these studies have been limited to populations who use the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) for health care, specialty clinic populations, or veterans who deployed. The 3 aims of this study were to report weighted prevalence estimates of a positive screen for PTSD among OEF/OIF and nondeployed veterans, demographic subgroups, and VA health care system users and nonusers. The study analyzed data from the National Health Study for a New Generation of U.S. Veterans, a large population-based cohort of OEF/OIF and OEF/OIF-era veterans. The overall weighted prevalence of a positive screen for PTSD in the study population was 13.5%: 15.8% among OEF/OIF veterans and 10.9% in nondeployed veterans. Among OEF/OIF veterans, there was increased risk of a positive screen for PTSD among VA health care users (OR = 2.71), African Americans (OR = 1.61), those who served in the Army (OR = 2.67), and those on active duty (OR = 1.69). The same trend with decreased magnitude was observed in nondeployed veterans. PTSD is a significant public health problem in OEF/OIF-era veterans, and should not be considered an outcome solely related to deployment. PMID:25267288

  5. Prevalence and predictors of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in a population-based sample of women in rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Asiimwe, Stephen; Whalen, Christopher C; Tisch, Daniel J; Tumwesigye, Elioda; Sethi, Ajay K

    2010-01-01

    Summary High-risk genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is aetiologically linked to cervical cancer; however, data on the prevalence and determinants of high-risk HPV infection in Uganda are limited. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey among 18–49-year-old women in rural Southwest Uganda. The primary outcome was presence or absence of high-risk HPV DNA (for genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 or 68) in the genital secretions as determined by HPV DNA Hybrid Capture 2 assay (Digene Corp, Beltsville, MD, USA). In 314 women who participated, the prevalence of high-risk HPV was 17.2% (54/314; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 13–21). Older women had a lower proportion of high-risk HPV infection; with a 9% decrease in the odds ratio (OR) of high-risk HPV infection per year increase in age (OR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.96). The odds of detecting high-risk HPV infection was higher among women who were previously tested positive for HIV (OR = 12.1; 95% CI: 2.8, 52.3). In this population of rural Ugandan women, the prevalence of high-risk cervical HPV infection was high. Information on predictors of high-risk HPV infection and intention to receive a vaccine can guide future immunization initiatives for young sexually active women. PMID:18725551

  6. Prevalence of Germline BAP1, CDKN2A, and CDK4 Mutations in an Australian Population-Based Sample of Cutaneous Melanoma Cases.

    PubMed

    Aoude, Lauren G; Gartside, Michael; Johansson, Peter; Palmer, Jane M; Symmons, Judith; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-04-01

    Mutations in Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 (CDK4) contribute to susceptibility in approximately 40% of high-density cutaneous melanoma (CMM) families and about 2% of unselected CMM cases. BRCA-1 associated protein-1 (BAP1) has been more recently shown to predispose to CMM and uveal melanoma (UMM) in some families; however, its contribution to CMM development in the general population is unreported. We sought to determine the contribution of these genes to CMM susceptibility in a population-based sample of cases from Australia. We genotyped 1,109 probands from Queensland families and found that approximately 1.31% harbored mutations in CDKN2A, including some with novel missense mutations (p.R22W, p.G35R and p.I49F). BAP1 missense variants occurred in 0.63% of cases but no CDK4 variants were observed in the sample. This is the first estimate of the contribution of BAP1 and CDK4 to a population-based sample of CMM and supports the previously reported estimate of CDKN2A germline mutation prevalence. PMID:25787093

  7. Cancer among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A population-based cohort study in northeastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Gini, Andrea; Bidoli, Ettore; Zanier, Loris; Clagnan, Elena; Zanette, Giorgio; Gobbato, Michele; De Paoli, Paolo; Serraino, Diego

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with an elevated risk of cancer. The aim of this study was to assess cancer risk and survival in individuals with type 2 DM (T2DM) in Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy. A retrospective population-based cohort study of 32,247 T2DM patients aged 40-84 years was conducted through a record linkage of local healthcare databases and cancer registry for the period 2002-2009. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) and 5-year survival probabilities after T2DM and cancer diagnosis were computed. The SIRs for all cancers (n=2069) was 1.28 (95%CI: 1.23-1.34). The highest SIRs were observed for cancers of the liver, female genital organs, small intestine, and pancreas. After 3 years from T2DM diagnosis, a reduced risk of prostate cancer (SIR=0.73, 95%CI: 0.54-0.96) was found in men aged 65-74 years, and a higher risk for breast cancer (SIR=1.24, 95%CI: 1.00-1.52) was found among T2DM female patients. The overall 5-year survival after T2DM was 88.7%. Furthermore, T2DM appeared to have a negative effect on survival of women with breast cancer. This population-based study confirmed that T2DM patients are at increased risk of several cancers, and of premature death in women with breast cancer. PMID:26851751

  8. Alternative Methods for Defining Osteoarthritis and the Impact on Estimating Prevalence in a US Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cisternas, Miriam G.; Murphy, Louise; Sacks, Jeffrey J.; Solomon, Daniel H.; Pasta, David J.; Helmick, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Provide a contemporary estimate of osteoarthritis (OA) by comparing accuracy and prevalence of alternative definitions of OA. Methods The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) household component (HC) records respondent-reported medical conditions as open-ended responses; professional coders translate these responses into ICD-9-CM codes for the medical conditions files. Using these codes and other data from the MEPS-HC medical conditions files, we constructed three case definitions of OA and assessed them against medical provider diagnoses of ICD-9-CM 715 [osteoarthrosis and allied disorders] in a MEPS subsample. The three definitions were: 1) strict = ICD-9-CM 715; 2) expanded = ICD-9-CM 715, 716 [other and unspecified arthropathies], OR 719 [other and unspecified disorders of joint]); and 3) probable = strict OR expanded + respondent-reported prior diagnosis of OA or other arthritis excluding rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Results Sensitivity and specificity of the three definitions were: strict – 34.6% and 97.5%; expanded – 73.8% and 90.5%; and probable – 62.9% and 93.5%. Conclusion The strict definition for OA (ICD-9-CM 715) excludes many individuals with OA. The probable definition of OA has the optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity relative to the two other MEPS-based definitions and yields a national annual estimate of 30.8 million adults with OA (13.4% of US adult population) for 2008 – 2011. PMID:26315529

  9. Prevalence and predictors of refractive error and spectacle coverage in Nakuru, Kenya: a cross-sectional, population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bastawrous, Andrew; Mathenge, Wanjiku; Foster, Allen; Kuper, Hannah

    2013-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken in Nakuru, Kenya to assess the prevalence of refractive error and the spectacle coverage in a population aged ≥50 years. Of the 5,010 subjects who were eligible, 4,414 underwent examination (response rate 88.1 %). LogMAR visual acuity was assessed in all participants and refractive error was measured in both eyes using a Topcon auto refractor RM8800. Detailed interviews were undertaken and ownership of spectacles was assessed. Refractive error was responsible for 51.7 % of overall visual impairment (VI), 85.3 % (n = 191) of subjects with mild VI, 42.7 % (n = 152) of subjects with moderate VI, 16.7 % (n = 3) of subjects with severe VI and no cases of blindness. Myopia was more common than hyperopia affecting 59.5 % of those with refractive error compared to 27.4 % for hyperopia. High myopia (<-5.0 DS) was also more common than extreme hyperopia (>+5.0 DS). Of those who needed distance spectacles (spectacle coverage), 25.5 % owned spectacles. In conclusion, the oldest, most poor and least educated are most likely to have no spectacles and they should be specifically targeted when refractive services are put in place. PMID:23440405

  10. Sex prevalence of major congenital anomalies in the United Kingdom: A national population-based study and international comparison meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sokal, Rachel; Tata, Laila J; Fleming, Kate M

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess sex differences in major congenital anomaly (CA) diagnoses within a national population sample; to examine the influence of sociodemographic and maternal factors on these risks; and to conduct a meta-analysis using estimates from other population-based studies. Methods We conducted a population-based study in a United Kingdom research database of prospectively collected primary care data (The Health Improvement Network) including children born 1990 to 2009 (n = 794,169) and identified major CA diagnoses using EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) classification. Prevalence ratios (PR) were used to estimate the risk of CA in males compared with females for any CA, system-specific subgroups and specific CA diagnoses. In a subpopulation of children whose medical records were linked to their mothers', we assessed the effect of adjusting for sociodemographic and maternal factors on sex odds ratios. PRs were pooled with measures from previously published studies. Results The prevalence of any CA was 307/10,000 in males (95% CI, 302–313) and 243/10,000 in females (95% CI, 238–248). Overall the risk of any CA was 26% greater in males (PR (male: female) 1.26, 95% CI, 1.23–1.30) however there was considerable variation across specific diagnoses. The magnitude and direction of risk did not change for any specific CA upon adjustment for sociodemographic and maternal factors. Our PRs were highly consistent with those from previous studies. Conclusion The overall risk of CA is greater in males than females, although this masked substantial variation by specific diagnoses. Sociodemographic and maternal factors do not appear to affect these risks. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 100:79–91, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24523198

  11. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome In Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease; A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Fattahi, Mohammad Reza; Niknam, Ramin; Safarpour, Alireza; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Lotfi, Mehrzad

    2016-04-01

    BACKGROUND Some evidence, not in large study populations, suggests that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) share common interactions. We aimed to determine the prevalence of NAFLD and MetS in a large population registered to Kavar Cohort Study center. We also assessed the role of each component of MetS in NAFLD existence. METHODS Data were obtained from 3415 volunteers who called and refereed to our center. Complete anthropometric and laboratory measurement and abdominal ultrasonography was done for these individuals to screen NAFLD and its grade. A questionnaire was also used to obtain information on demographical and medical history and alcohol consumption. MetS was defined in all participants based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (2001) (NCEP/ATP-III) and criteria for clinical diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in Iranian adults (CCDMIA). RESULTS Among the refereed individuals, 2980 peoples were aged ≥18 years with male to women ratio of 1:2.45. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasound in 32.9% and 27.4% of men and women, respectively. MetS was detected in 65.9 and 64.6 of the patients with NAFLD (based on NCEP/ATP-III) and in 30.1% and 73.7% (based on CCDMIA) of men and women, respectively. There were no significant differences between two gender in none of the components (p>0.05). Although, OR for hyperglycemia and abdominal obesity were approximately high in CCDMIA criteria (0.9613 and 1.2082, respectively), the differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION NAFLD was associated with MetS. However, it was not possible to determine whether NAFLD predating the development of MetS. PMID:27252820

  12. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome In Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease; A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi, Mohammad Reza; Niknam, Ramin; Safarpour, Alireza; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Lotfi, Mehrzad

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Some evidence, not in large study populations, suggests that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) share common interactions. We aimed to determine the prevalence of NAFLD and MetS in a large population registered to Kavar Cohort Study center. We also assessed the role of each component of MetS in NAFLD existence. METHODS Data were obtained from 3415 volunteers who called and refereed to our center. Complete anthropometric and laboratory measurement and abdominal ultrasonography was done for these individuals to screen NAFLD and its grade. A questionnaire was also used to obtain information on demographical and medical history and alcohol consumption. MetS was defined in all participants based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (2001) (NCEP/ATP-III) and criteria for clinical diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in Iranian adults (CCDMIA). RESULTS Among the refereed individuals, 2980 peoples were aged ≥18 years with male to women ratio of 1:2.45. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasound in 32.9% and 27.4% of men and women, respectively. MetS was detected in 65.9 and 64.6 of the patients with NAFLD (based on NCEP/ATP-III) and in 30.1% and 73.7% (based on CCDMIA) of men and women, respectively. There were no significant differences between two gender in none of the components (p>0.05). Although, OR for hyperglycemia and abdominal obesity were approximately high in CCDMIA criteria (0.9613 and 1.2082, respectively), the differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION NAFLD was associated with MetS. However, it was not possible to determine whether NAFLD predating the development of MetS PMID:27252820

  13. Thirty-day prevalence of delirium among very old people: a population-based study of very old people living at home and in institutions.

    PubMed

    Mathillas, Johan; Olofsson, Birgitta; Lövheim, Hugo; Gustafson, Yngve

    2013-01-01

    Delirium has mainly been studied in various patient samples and in people living in institutions. The present study investigates the 30-day prevalence of delirium in a population-based sample of very old people in northern Sweden and Finland. Seven hundred and eight persons aged 85 years and older from the GErontological Regional DAtabase (GERDA) were assessed. Information was also collected from relatives, carers and medical records. Assessments performed were among others the Organic Brain Syndrome (OBS) scale, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15). Delirium, depression and dementia diagnoses were based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria. The prevalence of delirium was 17% among 85 year-olds, 21% among 90 year-olds and 39% among participants aged 95 years and older (p<0.001). Delirium prevalence among individuals without dementia was lower than among those with dementia (5% vs. 52%, p<0.001). Factors independently associated with delirium superimposed on dementia in a multivariate logistic regression model were depression (Odds Ratio (OR)=2.0, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.2-3.3), heart failure (OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.7), institutional living (OR 4.4, 95% CI=2.4-8.2) and prescribed antipsychotics (OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.5-6.0). Delirium is highly prevalent among very old people with dementia. Depression, heart failure, institutional living and prescribed antipsychotic medication seem to be associated with delirium. PMID:23711428

  14. Japanese secular trends in birthweight and the prevalence of low birthweight infants during the last three decades: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, Yo; Ota, Erika; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Mori, Rintaro; Takeda, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Since low birthweight has been correlated with both neonatal and long-term health, we performed this epidemiological study to evaluate the Japanese secular trends in mean birthweight and the prevalence of preterm/term low birthweight infants during the last three decades. We used population-based birth certificate data from January 1979 to December 2010. Time trends were analysed using a linear regression model. During the study period, we observed a significant decrease in the mean birthweight for singleton live births (3,152 ± 436 g in 1979 and 3,018 ± 421 g in 2010 p < 0.001) and an increase in the prevalence of preterm/term low birthweight infants. A 96.3% increase in the proportion of term low birthweight infants was observed during the study period (2.7% in 1979 and 5.3% in 2010). In addition, an increased proportion of preterm/low birthweight infants born to younger women was observed (<35 years vs. ≥35 years). These trends may be related to changing patterns in Japanese women’s nutritional status and the relatively strict recommended limit on weight gain during pregnancy. Understanding the long-term trends for singleton births may allow us to identify the associated risk factors and reduce the future socioeconomic burden that is associated with low birthweight infants. PMID:27503177

  15. Japanese secular trends in birthweight and the prevalence of low birthweight infants during the last three decades: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Yo; Ota, Erika; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Mori, Rintaro; Takeda, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Since low birthweight has been correlated with both neonatal and long-term health, we performed this epidemiological study to evaluate the Japanese secular trends in mean birthweight and the prevalence of preterm/term low birthweight infants during the last three decades. We used population-based birth certificate data from January 1979 to December 2010. Time trends were analysed using a linear regression model. During the study period, we observed a significant decrease in the mean birthweight for singleton live births (3,152 ± 436 g in 1979 and 3,018 ± 421 g in 2010 p < 0.001) and an increase in the prevalence of preterm/term low birthweight infants. A 96.3% increase in the proportion of term low birthweight infants was observed during the study period (2.7% in 1979 and 5.3% in 2010). In addition, an increased proportion of preterm/low birthweight infants born to younger women was observed (<35 years vs. ≥35 years). These trends may be related to changing patterns in Japanese women's nutritional status and the relatively strict recommended limit on weight gain during pregnancy. Understanding the long-term trends for singleton births may allow us to identify the associated risk factors and reduce the future socioeconomic burden that is associated with low birthweight infants. PMID:27503177

  16. Population-based cohort studies of type 2 diabetes and stomach cancer risk in Chinese men and women

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong-Li; Tan, Yu-Ting; Epplein, Meira; Li, Hong-Lan; Gao, Jing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2015-01-01

    Although positive associations have been found for diabetes and a number of cancer sites, investigations of stomach cancer are limited and the results lack consistency. In this prospective study we investigated the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and stomach cancer risk in mainland China. We assessed the associations among T2DM, T2DM duration, and stomach cancer risk in two prospective population-based cohorts, the Shanghai Women's Health Study and the Shanghai Men's Health Study. Included in the study were 61 480 men and 74 941 women. Stomach cancer cases were identified through annual record linkage to the Shanghai Cancer Registry, and verified through home visits and review of medical charts. After a median follow-up of 7.5 years for the Shanghai Men's Health Study and 13.2 years for the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a total of 755 incident cases of stomach cancer (376 men and 379 women) were identified through to September 2013. Overall, we did not find any evidence that T2DM was associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer either in men (multi-adjusted hazard ratio = 0.83, 95% confidence interval, 0.59–1.16) or in women (multi-adjusted hazard ratio = 0.92, 95% confidence interval, 0.68–1.25). Our findings from two large prospective population-based cohorts suggest that T2DM was not associated with stomach cancer risk. PMID:25557005

  17. The Lililwan Project: study protocol for a population-based active case ascertainment study of the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Elizabeth J; Latimer, Jane; Carter, Maureen; Oscar, June; Ferreira, Manuela; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Lucas, Barbara; Doney, Robyn; Salter, Claire; Peadon, Elizabeth; Hawkes, Genevieve; Hand, Marmingee

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Anecdotal reports suggest that high-risk drinking in pregnancy is common in some remote Australian communities. Alcohol is teratogenic and may cause a range of lifelong conditions termed ‘fetal alcohol spectrum disorders’ (FASD). Australia has few diagnostic services for FASD, and prevalence of these neurodevelopmental disorders remains unknown. In 2009, Aboriginal leaders in the remote Fitzroy Valley in North Western Australia identified FASD as a community priority and initiated the Lililwani Project in partnership with leading research organisations. This project will establish the prevalence of FASD and other health and developmental problems in school-aged children residing in the Fitzroy Valley, providing data to inform FASD prevention and management. Methods and analysis This is a population-based active case ascertainment study of all children born in 2002 and 2003 and residing in the Fitzroy Valley. Participants will be identified from the Fitzroy Valley Population Project and Communicare databases. Parents/carers will be interviewed using a standardised diagnostic questionnaire modified for local language and cultural requirements to determine the demographics, antenatal exposures, birth outcomes, education and psychosocial status of each child. A comprehensive interdisciplinary health and neurodevelopmental assessment will be performed using tests and operational definitions adapted for the local context. Internationally recognised diagnostic criteria will be applied to determine FASD prevalence. Relationships between pregnancy exposures and early life trauma, neurodevelopmental, health and education outcomes will be evaluated using regression analysis. Results will be reported according to STROBE guidelines for observational studies. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee, the Western Australian Aboriginal Health Information and Ethics Committee, the Western

  18. Disappointing reliability of pulsatility indices to identify candidates for magnetic resonance imaging screening in population-based studies assessing prevalence of cerebral small vessel disease

    PubMed Central

    Del Brutto, Oscar H.; Mera, Robertino M.; Andrade, María de la Luz; Castillo, Pablo R.; Zambrano, Mauricio; Nader, Juan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a challenge in remote areas where magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not available. Hospital-based studies in high-risk or stroke patients have found an association between the pulsatility index (PI) of intracranial arteries – as derived from transcranial Doppler (TCD) – and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin. We aimed to assess the reliability of cerebral pulsatility indices to identify candidates for MRI screening in population-based studies assessing prevalence of SVD. Methods: A representative sample of stroke-free Atahualpa residents aged ≥65 years investigated with MRI underwent TCD. Using generalized linear models, we evaluated whether the PI of major intracranial arteries correlate with WMH (used as a proxy of diffuse SVD), after adjusting for demographics and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: Out of 70 participants (mean age 70.6 ± 4.6 years, 57% women), 28 (40%) had moderate-to-severe WMH. In multivariate models, there were no differences across categories of WMH in the mean PI of middle cerebral arteries (1.10 ± 0.16 vs. 1.22 ± 0.24, β: 0.065, 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.084–0.177, P = 0.474) or vertebrobasilar arteries (1.11 ± 0.16 vs. 1.29 ± 0.27, β: 0.066, 95% CI: −0.0024–0.156, P = 0.146). Conclusions: Cerebral PI should not be used to identify candidates for MRI screening in population-based studies assessing the burden of SVD. PMID:26167015

  19. Human Papillomavirus prevalence and probable first effects of vaccination in 20 to 25 year-old women in Germany: a population-based cross-sectional study via home-based self-sampling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Estimates of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in a population prior to and after HPV vaccine introduction are essential to evaluate the short-term impact of vaccination. Methods Between 2010 and 2012 we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Germany to determine HPV prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors for HPV-infection in women aged 20-25 years. Women were recruited by a two-step cluster sampling approach. A home-based self-collection of cervicovaginal lavages was used. Specimens were analysed using a general primer GP5+/GP6+-based polymerase chain reaction and genotyped for 18 high-risk and 6 low-risk HPV- strains by Luminex-based multiplexed genotyping. Results Among 787 included women, 512 were not vaccinated against HPV. In the non-vaccinated population, HPV prevalence of any type was 38.1%, with HPV 16 (19.5%) being the most prevalent genotype. Prevalence of any high-risk type was 34.4%, and in 17.4% of all women, more than one genotype was identified. A higher number of lifetime sexual partners and low educational status were independently associated with HPV-infection. In 223 vaccinated women, prevalence of HPV 16/18 was significantly lower compared to non-vaccinated women (13.9% vs. 22.5%, p = 0.007). When stratifying by age groups, this difference was only significant in women aged 20-21 years, who at time of vaccination were on average younger and had less previous sexual contacts than women aged 22-25 years. Conclusion We demonstrate a high prevalence of high-risk HPV genotypes in non-vaccinated women living in Germany that can be potentially prevented by vaccination. Probable first vaccination effects on the HPV prevalence were observed in women who were vaccinated at younger age. This finding reinforces the recommendation to vaccinate girls in early adolescence. PMID:24552260

  20. The Prevalence, Clinical, and Molecular Characteristics of Congenital Hypothyroidism Caused by DUOX2 Mutations: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Guangzhou.

    PubMed

    Tan, M; Huang, Y; Jiang, X; Li, P; Tang, C; Jia, X; Chen, Q; Chen, W; Sheng, H; Feng, Y; Wu, D; Liu, L

    2016-09-01

    Thyroid dyshormonogenesis (DH) has recently been reported to be more frequently associated with mutations in the dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) gene. The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence, clinical, and molecular characteristics of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) caused by DUOX2 mutations in Guangzhou. A population-based cohort of 156 patients with CH was recruited based on neonatal screening among 433 578 newborns born in Guangzhou from 2011 to 2012. Genetic analysis of DUOX2 was performed in 96 patients with suspected thyroid dyshormonogenesis (SDH) by PCR-amplified direct sequencing. Apart from 2 cases without ultrasonographic data, 118 (76.6%) of the 156 patients were classified as SDH and 36 (23.4%) as thyroid dysgenesis (TD) according to thyroid ultrasound at diagnosis. Genetic analysis revealed 23 different variants in 60 unrelated individuals (60/96, 62.5%), including 13 novel variants that were absent from HGMD, dbSNP databases, and the 50 normal controls. The novel missense variants were predicted to be pathogenic by SIFT and PolyPhen-2. The p.K530X was the most common mutation. Ninety-three percent of mutant alleles occurred in exons 5, 6, 9, 14, 17, 20, 25, 27, and 28. There were no significant differences in phenotypes between biallelic and monoallelic variants cases or between with-DUOX2 and non-DUOX2 variants cases. Most patients with DUOX2 defects (78.2%) were transient CH. In conclusion, the prevalence of DUOX2 pathogenic variants was high (62.5%) in this cohort. Thirteen novel probably pathologic variants were reported. The p.K530X was the most common mutation in the Chinese population. There was no correlation between DUOX2 genotypes and clinical phenotypes. PMID:27557340

  1. Estimating the prevalence and burden of major disorders of the brain in Nepal: methodology of a nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The major disorders of the brain (MDBs), in terms of their prevalence and the burdens of ill health, disability and financial cost that they impose on individuals and society, are headache, depression and anxiety. No population-based studies have been conducted in Nepal. Aim Our purpose was to assess the prevalence and burden attributable to MDBs in Nepal in order to inform health policy. Here we report the methodology. Methods The unusual sociocultural diversity and extreme geographical variation of the country required adaptation of standard methodology. We ran pre-pilot and pilot studies before embarking on the main study. The study design was cross-sectional. The population of interest were adults aged 18–65 years who were Nepali speaking and living in Nepal. We selected, employed and trained groups of interviewers to visit randomly selected households by cold-calling. Households were selected from 15 representative districts out of 75 in the country through multistage cluster sampling. One participant was selected randomly from each household. We used structured questionnaires (the HARDSHIP questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire -Neuroticism), culturally adapted and translated into Nepali. We recorded blood pressure, weight, height and waist circumference, and altitude of each household. We implemented various quality-assurances measures. Results We completed the survey in one month, prior to onset of the monsoon. Among 2,210 selected households, all were contacted, 2,109 were eligible for the study and, from these, 2,100 adults participated. The participation rate was 99.6%. Conclusion Standard methodology was successfully applied in Nepal, with some adaptations. The sociocultural and extraordinary geographic diversity were challenging, but did not require us to compromise the scientific quality of the study. PMID:25146939

  2. Population-Based Cohort Study of Anti-Infective Medication Use before and after the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli Farsani, Soulmaz; Souverein, Patrick C.; van der Vorst, Marja M. J.; Knibbe, Catherijne A. J.; de Boer, Anthonius

    2014-01-01

    A population-based cohort study was conducted in the Dutch PHARMO database to investigate prevalence and patterns of anti-infective medication use in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) before and after the onset of this disease. All patients <19 years with at least 2 insulin prescriptions (1999 to 2009) were identified (T1D cohort) and compared with an age- and sex-matched (ratio: 1 up to 4) diabetes-free reference group. The prevalence and average number of anti-infective use was studied from (up to) 8 years before until a maximum of 4 years after the onset of T1D. A total of 925 patients with T1D and 3,591 children and adolescents in the reference cohort (51% boys, mean age of 10.1 [standard deviation, 4.5] years) were included. The overall prevalence of anti-infective use (62.6 compared to 52.6%, P < 0.001) and average number of prescriptions (2.71 compared to 1.42 per child, P < 0.001) in the T1D cohort were significantly higher than those in the reference cohort after the onset of diabetes. This pattern was consistent across sex and age categories and already observed in the year before the onset of type 1 diabetes. Patients in the T1D cohort received more antibacterials (49.8 compared to 40%, P < 0.001), antimycotics (4.0 compared to 1.3%, P < 0.001), antivirals (2.5 compared to 0.4%, P < 0.001), and second-line antibiotics, such as aminoglycosides, quinolones, and third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems. Our findings that elevated anti-infective use in the T1D cohort exists in the period before the onset of type 1 diabetes and the consumption of more second-line anti-infective compounds in this time period warrant further research. PMID:24890584

  3. Does Sitagliptin Affect the Rate of Osteoporotic Fractures in Type 2 Diabetes? Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Josse, Robert G.; Lin, Mu; Eurich, Dean T.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis are both common, chronic, and increase with age, whereas type 2 diabetes is also a risk factor for major osteoporotic fractures (MOFs). However, different treatments for type 2 diabetes can affect fracture risk differently, with metaanalyses showing some agents increase risk (eg, thiazolidinediones) and some reduce risk (eg, sitagliptin). Objective: To determine the independent association between new use of sitagliptin and MOF in a large population-based cohort study. Design, Setting, and Subjects: A sitagliptin new user study design employing a nationally representative Unites States claims database of 72 738 insured patients with type 2 diabetes. We used 90-day time-varying sitagliptin exposure windows and controlled confounding by using multivariable analyses that adjusted for clinical data, comorbidities, and time-updated propensity scores. Main Outcomes: We compared the incidence of MOF (hip, clinical spine, proximal humerus, distal radius) in new users of sitagliptin vs nonusers over a median 2.2 years follow-up. Results: At baseline, the median age was 52 years, 54% were men, and median A1c was 7.5%. There were 8894 new users of sitagliptin and 63 834 nonusers with a total 181 139 person-years of follow-up. There were 741 MOF (79 hip fractures), with 53 fractures (4.8 per 1000 person-years) among new users of sitagliptin vs 688 fractures (4.0 per 1000 person-years) among nonusers (P = .3 for difference). In multivariable analyses, sitagliptin was not associated with fracture (adjusted hazard ratio 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.8–1.4; P = .7), although insulin (P < .001), sulfonylureas (P < .008), and thiazolidinedione (P = .019) were each independently associated with increased fracture risk. Conclusions: Even in a young population with type 2 diabetes, osteoporotic fractures were not uncommon. New use of sitagliptin was not associated with fracture, but other commonly used second-line agents for type 2 diabetes

  4. Racial disparities in the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathies: a population-based study of 12,482 persons from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Landgren, O; Graubard, B I; Katzmann, J A; Kyle, R A; Ahmadizadeh, I; Clark, R; Kumar, S K; Dispenzieri, A; Greenberg, A J; Therneau, T M; Melton, L J; Caporaso, N; Korde, N; Roschewski, M; Costello, R; McQuillan, G M; Rajkumar, S V

    2014-07-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) incidence is markedly higher in blacks compared with whites, which may be related to a higher prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Our objective was to define the prevalence and risk factors of MGUS in a large cohort representative of the US population. Stored serum samples from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) III or NHANES 1999-2004 were available for 12,482 individuals of age ⩾50 years (2331 'blacks', 2475 Hispanics, 7051 'whites' and 625 'others') on which agarose-gel electrophoresis, serum protein immunofixation, serum-free light-chain assay and M-protein typing were performed. MGUS was identified in 365 participants (2.4%). Adjusted prevalence of MGUS was significantly higher (P<0.001) in blacks (3.7%) compared with whites (2.3%) (P=0.001) or Hispanics (1.8%), as were characteristics that posed a greater risk of progression to MM. The adjusted prevalence of MGUS was 3.1% and 2.1% for the North/Midwest versus South/West regions of the United States, respectively (P=0.052). MGUS is significantly more common in blacks, and more often has features associated with higher risk of progression to MM. A strong geographic disparity in the prevalence of MGUS between the North/Midwest versus the South/West regions of the United States was found, which has etiologic implications. PMID:24441287

  5. Factors associated with type-specific persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Stensen, Signe; Kjaer, Susanne K; Jensen, Signe M; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Junge, Jette; Iftner, Thomas; Munk, Christian

    2016-01-15

    Persistent genital infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) is a prerequisite for cervical cancer development. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with type-specific persistence of HR HPV infections. From a population-based cohort of 40,399 women participating in cervical cancer screening established during 2002-2005, we selected all HR HPV-positive women (N = 7,778). During follow-up (2005-2008), we collected cervical samples from these women and tested them for HPV DNA to determine type-specific HR HPV persistence in the interval 1-4.5 years after enrolment. Data on hospitalisations, prescriptions and socioeconomic factors were obtained from nationwide registers. Women with abnormal cytology at baseline or who had undergone conisation during follow-up were excluded. Factors associated with persistence were identified by logistic regression analysis. The overall rate of HR HPV persistence was 31.4%. The risk for persistence was significantly increased among women with a previous episode of genital warts (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.04-1.74), current use of oral contraceptives (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.13-1.63) or use of systemic glucocorticoids (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.16-3.56). The number of pregnancies or births or use of a hormonal intrauterine device, hormonal therapy or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was not associated with risk for HR HPV persistence. A history of genital warts and current use of oral contraceptives or systemic glucocorticoids increased the risk, potentially indicating a decreased immune response to HPV infection. These findings suggest that host immune response characteristics are important in HR HPV persistence and consequently in cervical cancer development. PMID:26238558

  6. Pericranial tenderness in chronic tension-type headache: the Akershus population-based study of chronic headache

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most knowledge on chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) is based on data from selected clinic populations, while data from the general population is sparse. Since pericranial tenderness is found to be the most prominent finding in CTTH, we wanted to explore the relationship between CTTH and pericranial muscle tenderness in a population-based sample. Methods An age- and gender-stratified random sample of 30,000 persons aged 30-44 years from the general population received a mailed questionnaire. Those with a self-reported chronic headache were interviewed and examined by neurological residents. The questionnaire response rate was 71% and the interview participation rate was 74%. The International Classification of Headache Disorders II was used. Pericranial muscle tenderness was assessed by a total tenderness score (TTS) involving 8 pairs of muscles and tendon insertions. Cross-sectional data from the Danish general population using the same scoring system were used for comparison. Results The tenderness scores were significantly higher in women than men in all muscle groups. The TTS was significantly higher in those with co-occurrence of migraine compared with those without; 19.3 vs. 16.8, p = 0.02. Those with bilateral CTTH had a significantly higher TTS than those with unilateral CTTH. The TTS decreased significantly with age. People with CTTH had a significantly higher TTS compared to the general population. Conclusions People with CTTH have increased pericranial tenderness. Elevated tenderness scores are associated with co-occurrence of migraine, bilateral headache and low age. Whether the increased muscle tenderness is primary or secondary to the headache should be addressed by future studies. PMID:25193401

  7. Blood pressure and complications in individuals with type 2 diabetes and no previous cardiovascular disease: national population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia; Manhem, Karin; Rosengren, Annika; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Miftaraj, Mervete; Franzén, Stefan; Björck, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the risk associated with systolic blood pressure that meets current recommendations (that is, below 140 mm Hg) with the risk associated with lower levels in patients who have type 2 diabetes and no previous cardiovascular disease. Design Population based cohort study with nationwide clinical registries, 2006-12. The mean follow-up was 5.0 years. Setting 861 Swedish primary care units and hospital outpatient clinics. Participants 187 106 patients registered in the Swedish national diabetes register who had had type 2 diabetes for at least a year, age 75 or younger, and with no previous cardiovascular or other major disease. Main outcome measures Clinical events were obtained from the hospital discharge and death registers with respect to acute myocardial infarction, stroke, a composite of acute myocardial infarction and stroke (cardiovascular disease), coronary heart disease, heart failure, and total mortality. Hazard ratios were estimated for different levels of baseline systolic blood pressure with clinical characteristics and drug prescription data as covariates. Results The group with the lowest systolic blood pressure (110-119 mm Hg) had a significantly lower risk of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.91; P=0.003), total acute myocardial infarction (0.85, 0.72 to 0.99; P=0.04), non-fatal cardiovascular disease (0.82, 0.72 to 0.93; P=0.002), total cardiovascular disease (0.88, 0.79 to 0.99; P=0.04), and non-fatal coronary heart disease (0.88, 0.78 to 0.99; P=0.03) compared with the reference group (130-139 mm Hg). There was no indication of a J shaped relation between systolic blood pressure and the endpoints, with the exception of heart failure and total mortality. Conclusions Lower systolic blood pressure than currently recommended is associated with significantly lower risk of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. The association between low

  8. National surveillance for type 1, type 2 diabetes and prediabetes among children and adolescents: a population-based study (SAUDI-DM)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data on the national prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes among youth. The Saudi Abnormal Glucose Metabolism and Diabetes Impact Study (SAUDI-DM) was used to assess the prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes as well as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) among children and adolescents. Methods Sociodemographic, anthropometric and clinical data were collected through a nationwide household randomly selected 23 523 children and adolescents aged ≤18 years. Known participants with diabetes were classified according to their diabetes type, while participants without diabetes were subjected to fasting plasma glucose assessment and patients with diabetes were identified using the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. All the studied participants were tested for lipid parameters. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess different risk factors. Results The overall prevalence of diabetes was 10.84%, of which 0.45% were known type 1 and type 2 patients with diabetes and 10.39% were either newly identified cases of diabetes (4.27%) or IFG (6.12%) with more than 90% of the participants with diabetes being unaware of their disease. The prevalence of known type 1 and type 2 diabetes as well as the newly identified cases was higher than what has been reported internationally. Age, male gender, obesity, urban residency, high family income and presence of dyslipidaemia were found to be significant risk factors for diabetes and IFG. Conclusions Diabetes and IFG are highly prevalent in this society with the majority of the patients being unaware of their disease, which warrants urgent adoption of early detection, treatment and prevention programmes. PMID:26085648

  9. Somatic Symptoms: Prevalence, Co-Occurrence and Associations with Self-Perceived Health and Limitations Due To Physical Health – A Danish Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Eliasen, Marie; Kreiner, Svend; Ebstrup, Jeanette F.; Poulsen, Chalotte H.; Lau, Cathrine J.; Skovbjerg, Sine; Fink, Per K.; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    A high number of somatic symptoms have been associated with poor health status and increased health care use. Previous studies focused on number of symptoms without considering the specific symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate 1) the prevalence of 19 somatic symptoms, 2) the associations between the symptoms, and 3) the associations between the somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health accounting for the co-occurrence of symptoms. Information on 19 somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health was achieved from a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark in 2006/07. Chain graph models were used to transparently identify and describe the associations between symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health. In total, 94.9% of the respondents were bothered by one or more of the 19 somatic symptoms. The symptoms were associated in a complex structure. Still, recognisable patterns were identified within organ systems/body parts. When accounting for symptom co-occurrence; dizziness, pain in legs, respiratory distress and tiredness were all strongly directly associated with both of the outcomes (γ>0.30). Chest pain was strongly associated with self-perceived health, and other musculoskeletal symptoms and urinary retention were strongly associated with limitations due to physical health. Other symptoms were either moderate or not statistically associated with the health status outcomes. Opposite, almost all the symptoms were strongly associated with the two outcomes when not accounting for symptom co-occurrence. In conclusion, we found that somatic symptoms were frequent and associated in a complex structure. The associations between symptoms and health status measures differed between the symptoms and depended on the co-occurrence of symptoms. This indicates an importance of considering both the specific

  10. Prevalence and contribution of BRCA1 mutations in breast cancer and ovarian cancer: Results from three US population-based case-control studies of ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Whittemore, A.S.; Gong, G.; Itnyre, J.

    1997-03-01

    We investigate the familial risks of cancers of the breast and ovary, using data pooled from three population-based case-control studies of ovarian cancer that were conducted in the United States. We base estimates of the frequency of mutations of BRCA1 (and possibly other genes) on the reported occurrence of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in the mothers and sisters of 922 women with incident ovarian cancer (cases) and in 922 women with no history of ovarian cancer (controls). Segregation analysis and goodness-of-fit testing of genetic models suggest that rare mutations (frequency .0014; 95% confidence interval .0002-.011) account for all the observed aggregation of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in these families. The estimated risk of breast cancer by age 80 years is 73.5% in mutation carriers and 6.8% in noncarriers. The corresponding estimates for ovarian cancer are 27.8% in carriers and 1.8% in noncarriers. For cancer risk in carriers, these estimates are lower than those obtained from families selected for high cancer prevalence. The estimated proportion of all U.S. cancer diagnoses, by age 80 years, that are due to germ-line BRCA1 mutations is 3.0% for breast cancer and 4.4% for ovarian cancer. Aggregation of breast cancer and ovarian cancer was less evident in the families of 169 cases with borderline ovarian cancers than in the families of cases with invasive cancers. Familial aggregation did not differ by the ethnicity of the probands, although the number of non-White and Hispanic cases (N = 99) was sparse. 14 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Prevalence of Off-Label Use and Spending in 2010 Among Patent-Protected Chemotherapies in a Population-Based Cohort of Medical Oncologists

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Rena M.; Bernstein, Arielle C.; Villaflor, Victoria M.; Schilsky, Richard L.; Rosenthal, Meredith B.; Bach, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of off-label anticancer drug use is not well characterized. The extent of off-label use is a policy concern because the clinical benefits of such use to patients may not outweigh costs or adverse health outcomes. Methods Prescribing data from IntrinsiQ Intellidose data systems, a pharmacy software provider maintaining a population-based cohort database of medical oncologists, was analyzed. Use of the most commonly prescribed anticancer drugs (“chemotherapies”) that were patent protected and administered intravenously to patients in 2010 was examined. Use was classified as “on-label” if the cancer site, stage, and therapy line met the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved indication. All other use was “off-label.” Off-label use was divided by whether it conformed to National Comprehensive Care Network (NCCN) Compendium recommendations, a basis of insurer coverage policies. IMS Health National Sales Perspectives was used to estimate national spending by use category. Results Ten chemotherapies met inclusion criteria. On-label use amounted to 70%, and off-label use amounted to 30%. Fourteen percent of use conformed to an NCCN-supported off-label indication, and 10% of off-label use was associated with an FDA-approved cancer site, but an NCCN-unsupported cancer stage and/or line of therapy. Total national spending on these chemotherapies amounted to $12 billion (B; $7.3B on-label, $2B off-label and NCCN supported; $2.5B off-label and NCCN unsupported). Conclusion Commonly used, novel chemotherapies are more often used on-label than off-label in contemporary practice. Off-label use is composed of a roughly equal mix of chemotherapy applied in clinical settings supported by the NCCN and those that are not. PMID:23423747

  12. Prevalence and predictors of hospitalization in Crohn’s disease in a prospective population-based inception cohort from 2000-2012

    PubMed Central

    Golovics, Petra A; Lakatos, Laszlo; Mandel, Michael D; Lovasz, Barbara D; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Kurti, Zsuzsanna; Szita, Istvan; Kiss, Lajos S; Pandur, Tunde; Lakatos, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the prevalence, length and predictors of hospitalization in the biological era in the population-based inception cohort from Veszprem province. METHODS: Data of 331 incident Crohn’s disease (CD) patients diagnosed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 were analyzed (median age at diagnosis: 28; IQR: 21-40 years). Both in- and outpatient records were collected and comprehensively reviewed. RESULTS: Probabilities of first CD-related hospitalization and re-hospitalization were 32.3%, 45.5%, 53.7% and 13.6%, 23.9%, 29.8%, respectively after one, three and five years of follow-up in Kaplan-Meier analysis. First-year hospitalizations were related to diagnostic procedures (37%), surgery or disease activity (27% and 21%). Non-inflammatory disease behavior at diagnosis (HR = 1.32, P = 0.001) and perianal disease (HR = 1.47, P = 0.04) were associated with time to first CD-related hospitalization, while disease behavior change (HR = 2.38, P = 0.002) and need for steroids (HR = 3.14, P = 0.003) were associated with time to first re-hospitalization in multivariate analyses. Early CD-related hospitalization (within the year of diagnosis) was independently associated with need for immunosuppressives (OR = 2.08, P = 0.001) and need for surgeries (OR = 7.25, P < 0.001) during the disease course. CONCLUSION: Hospitalization and re-hospitalization rates are still high in this cohort, especially during the first-year after the diagnosis. Non-inflammatory disease behavior at diagnosis was identified as the pivotal predictive factor of both hospitalization and re-hospitalization. PMID:26109815

  13. High prevalence of oncogenic HPV-16 in cervical smears of asymptomatic women of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shikha; Gupta, Sadhana; Roy, Jagat Kumar

    2012-03-01

    In developing countries like India, occurrence of Human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer as well as in the asymptomatic population was observed to be very high. Studies on HPV prevalence have been conducted in different parts of the country but no data were available from the eastern region of Uttar Pradesh (UP). The present study aimed to determine the status of HPV prevalence and its association with different socio-demographic factors in this population. Prevalence of HPV was investigated in a total of 2424 cervical scrape samples of asymptomatic women. Primer sets from L1 consensus region of viral genome were used to detect the presence of HPV, and the positive samples were genotyped by sequencing. Univariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate association of socio-demographic factors with HPV. 9.9% of the clinically asymptomatic women were found to be infected with HPV comprising 26 different genotypes. Among HPV-positive women, 80.8% showed single infection, while 15.4% harboured multiple infections. HPV-16 (63.7%) was the most prevalent, followed by HPV-31 (6.7%), HPV-6 (5.4%), HPV-81 (4.6%) and HPV-33 (4.2%). Significant association of HPV with non-vegetarian diet (P less than 0.05) and rural residential areas (P less than 0.01) were observed. High prevalence of HPV-16 in asymptomatic women of this population, a frequency comparable to invasive cervical cancers, highlights an urgent need for a therapeutic HPV vaccine covering HPV-16 and other high-risk types to provide protection against the disease. PMID:22357204

  14. Intentional Weight Loss and Longevity in Overweight Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Simonsen, Mette Kildevæld; Siersma, Volkert; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; de Fine Olivarius, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined the influence of weight loss on long-term morbidity and mortality in overweight (BMI≥25kg/m2) patients with type 2 diabetes, and tested the hypothesis that therapeutic intentional weight loss supervised by a medical doctor prolongs life and reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease in these patients. Methods This is a 19 year cohort study of patients in the intervention arm of the randomized clinical trial Diabetes Care in General Practice. Weight and prospective intentions for weight loss were monitored every third month for six years in 761 consecutive patients (≥40 years) newly diagnosed with diabetes in general practices throughout Denmark in 1989–92. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate the association between weight change during the monitoring period (year 0 to 6) and the outcomes during the succeeding 13 years (year 6 to 19) in 444 patients who were overweight at diagnosis and alive at the end of the monitoring period (year 6). The analysis was adjusted for age, sex, education, BMI at diagnosis, change in smoking, change in physical activity, change in medication, and the Charlson comorbidity 6-year score. Outcomes were from national registers. Results Overall, weight loss regardless of intention was an independent risk factor for increased all-cause mortality (P<0.01). The adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and cardiovascular morbidity attributable to an intentional weight loss of 1 kg/year was 1.20 (95%CI 0.97–1.50, P = 0.10), 1.26 (0.93–1.72, P = 0.14), and 1.06 (0.79–1.42, P = 0.71), respectively. Limiting the analysis to include only those patients who survived the first 2 years after the monitoring period did not substantially change these estimates. A non-linear spline estimate indicated a V-like association between weight change and all-cause mortality, suggesting the best prognosis for those who maintained their weight. Conclusions In this population-based

  15. Validating prediction scales of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spain: the SPREDIA-2 population-based prospective cohort study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Mostaza Prieto, José; Lahoz Rallo, Carlos; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Laguna Cuesta, Fernando; Estirado De Cabo, Eva; García Iglesias, Francisca; González Alegre, Teresa; Fernández Puntero, Belén; Montesano Sánchez, Luis; Vicent López, David; Cornejo Del Río, Víctor; Fernández García, Pedro J; Sabín Rodríguez, Concesa; López López, Silvia; Patrón Barandío, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide. When diagnosed, many patients already have organ damage or advance subclinical atherosclerosis. An early diagnosis could allow the implementation of lifestyle changes and treatment options aimed at delaying the progression of the disease and to avoid cardiovascular complications. Different scores for identifying undiagnosed diabetes have been reported, however, their performance in populations of southern Europe has not been sufficiently evaluated. The main objectives of our study are: to evaluate the screening performance and cut-off points of the main scores that identify the risk of undiagnosed T2DM and prediabetes in a Spanish population, and to develop and validate our own predictive models of undiagnosed T2DM (screening model), and future T2DM (prediction risk model) after 5-year follow-up. As a secondary objective, we will evaluate the atherosclerotic burden of the population with undiagnosed T2DM. Methods and analysis Population-based prospective cohort study with baseline screening, to evaluate the performance of the FINDRISC, DANISH, DESIR, ARIC and QDScore, against the gold standard tests: Fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance and/or HbA1c. The sample size will include 1352 participants between the ages of 45 and 74 years. Analysis: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, likelihood ratio positive, likelihood ratio negative and receiver operating characteristic curves and area under curve. Binary logistic regression for the first 700 individuals (derivation) and last 652 (validation) will be performed. All analyses will be calculated with their 95% CI; statistical significance will be p<0.05. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Carlos III Hospital (Madrid). The score performance and predictive model will be presented in medical conferences, workshops

  16. Increased Risk of Dementia in Patients with Tension-Type Headache: A Nationwide Retrospective Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fu-Chi; Lin, Te-Yu; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Lin, Chun-Chieh; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The association between primary headaches, including tension-type headache (TTH) as one of the most common primary headache disorders, and dementia remains controversial. In this nationwide, population-based, retrospective, cohort study, we explored the potential association between TTH and dementia and examined sex, age, and comorbidities as risk factors for dementia. Methods Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) claims data, the sample included 13908 subjects aged ≥20 years with newly-diagnosed TTH in 2000–2006. The non-TTH group included 55632 randomly selected sex- and age-matched TTH-free individuals. All subjects were followed until dementia diagnosis, death, or the end of 2011. Patients with dementia, including vascular and non-vascular (including Alzheimer’s) subtypes, were identified using International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the risk of dementia and dementia-associated risk factors, such as migraine and other medical comorbidities. Results During the average follow-up of 8.14 years, the incidence density rates of dementia were 5.30 and 3.68/1,000 person-years in the TTH and non-TTH groups, respectively. Compared with the non-TTH group, the risks of dementia were 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11–1.42) and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.01–1.27) times higher in the women and >65-year-old TTH group, respectively. TTH patients with comorbidities had a higher risk of dementia. TTH patients had a greater risk of non-vascular dementia (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.09–1.34) than the non-TTH group. Conclusion TTH patients have a future risk of dementia, indicating a potentially linked disease pathophysiology that warrants further study. The association between TTH and dementia is greater in women, older adults, and with comorbidities. Clinicians should be aware of potential dementia comorbidity in

  17. Type 2 diabetes and the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a report from two population-based cohort studies in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wan-Shui; Li, Hong-Lan; Xu, Hong-Li; Yang, Gong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2016-03-01

    Coinciding with the increased incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) during the past decades, there has been a significant increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in mainland China. We therefore evaluated whether type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with the risk of NHL using data from the Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS) and the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS). The SMHS and SWHS are two on-going, prospective, population-based cohorts of more than 130 000 Chinese adults in urban Shanghai. Self-reported diabetes was recorded on the baseline questionnaire and updated in follow-up surveys. Cox regression models with T2D as a time-varying exposure were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for covariates. After a median follow-up of 12.9 years for SWHS and 7.4 years for SMHS, 172 NHL cases were identified. Patients with T2D have a higher risk of incident NHL with a hazard ratio of 2.00 (95% confidence interval: 1.32-3.03) compared with those without diabetes. This positive association remained when the analysis was restricted to untreated diabetes or after excluding NHL cases that occurred within 3 years after the onset of diabetes. No interaction effect was found in the development of NHL between T2D and other potential risk factors. A linear inverse association was found between T2D duration and the risk of NHL in both men and women (Pfor linearity<0.01), with a highest risk of incident NHL in the first 5 years after the diagnosis of diabetes. Our study suggested that T2D might be associated with an increased risk of NHL. PMID:25793918

  18. Ovulation Prevalence in Women with Spontaneous Normal-Length Menstrual Cycles – A Population-Based Cohort from HUNT3, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Jerilynn C.; Naess, Marit; Langhammer, Arnulf; Forsmo, Siri

    2015-01-01

    Background Ovulatory menstrual cycles are essential for women’s fertility and needed to prevent bone loss. There is a medical/cultural expectation that clinically normal menstrual cycles are inevitably ovulatory. Currently within the general population it is unknown the proportion of regular, normal-length menstrual cycles that are ovulatory. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the population point prevalence of ovulation in premenopausal, normally menstruating women. The null hypothesis was that such cycles are ovulatory. Methods This is a single-cycle, cross-sectional, population-based study—a sub-study of the HUNT3 health study in the semi-rural county (Nord Trøndelag) in mid-Norway. Participants included >3,700 spontaneously (no hormonal contraception) menstruating women, primarily Caucasian, ages 20–49.9 from that county. Participation rate was 51.9%. All reported the date previous flow started. A single, random serum progesterone level was considered ovulatory if ≥9.54 nmol/L on cycle days 14 to -3 days before usual cycle length (CL). Results Ovulation was assessed in 3,168 women mean age 41.7 (interquartile range, [IQR] 36.8 to 45.5), cycle length 28 days (d) (IQR 28 to 28) and body mass index (BMI) 26.3 kg/m2 (95% CI 26.1 to 26.4). Parity was 95.6%, 30% smoked, 61.3% exercised regularly and 18% were obese. 1,545 women with a serum progesterone level on cycle days 14 to -3 were presumed to be in the luteal phase. Of these, 63.3% of women had an ovulatory cycle (n = 978) and 37% (n = 567) were anovulatory. Women with/ without ovulation did not differ in age, BMI, cycle day, menarche age, cigarette use, physical activity, % obesity or self-reported health. There were minimal differences in parity (96.7% vs. 94.5%, P = 0.04) and major differences in progesterone level (24.5 vs. 3.8 nmol/L, P = 0.001). Conclusion Anovulation in a random population occurs in over a third of clinically normal menstrual cycles. PMID:26291617

  19. Psychotropic drugs and driving: prevalence and types

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Some psychotropic medications (e.g., benzodiazepines, sedative antidepressants, etc.) may impair cognitive and psychomotor functions and, therefore, endanger traffic safety (Ravera, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 72(3):505–513, 2011). They affect detection, registration, and information processing, problem solving, and decision-making processes, and they also affect emotional and social aspects. The objective of this research was to clarify three closely related issues that are significant for traffic safety: the prevalence of psychotropic drugs on driving, the most frequently used psychotropic drugs to treat depression, anxiety, insomnia, or any tranquilizers (whether it is a medical prescription or self-medication), and finally, provide a further understanding of the socio-demographic and psycho-social characteristics of drivers related to the psychotropic drugs consumption in Spain. Methods A sample of 1,200 Spanish drivers ranging from 18 to 64 years was used, 666 men and 534 women were asked to answer a questionnaire composed by a set of questions structured in different sections. The only selection criteria were to be in possession of any type of driving license for vehicles other than motorcycles and drive frequently. Results The results showed that 15% of the participants were consuming psychotropic drugs to treat depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, insomnia, or tranquilizers; 13.5% were using drugs to treat one of these disorders; while 1.5% used them for several of these disorders. A 2.5% of drivers were using medicines to treat depression, 2.6% to treat anxiety, and 3.7% to treat insomnia. The 8.3% of those drivers who were not using any drugs to treat these three disorders were occasionally using some type of tranquilizers. Benzodiazepines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were the most used type of medicines among drivers. Benzodiazepines were the most used medicines to treat anxiety, while SSRIs were the most used to treat

  20. A population-based screening of type 2 diabetes in high-risk population of Yasuj, Iran.

    PubMed

    Safari, Mitra; Yazdanpanah, Behrouz; Yazdanpanah, Behzad; Mobasheri, Ali

    2014-12-01

    Complications associated with diabetes can be prevented by early diagnostics. A high-risk population was screened for diabetes, and the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) were used for examining the impacts of lifestyle, social and anthropometric features, and other risk factors. The target population comprised 30-65 years old residents from the western suburbs of Yasuj. Homes were approached, and a standard questionnaire was used for collecting information on sex, blood pressure, weight, height, and BMI for each participant. The high-risk participants were recognized according to the National Diabetes Prevention and Control Committee criteria and were introduced to an assigned laboratory. Blood samples were collected after 12-hour fasting for the measurement of total cholesterol, triglycerides and fasting glucose levels. The statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS statistical package, using a logistic regression model. Out of 2,569 individuals, 1,336 (52%) were with high-risk diabetes, 71.5% were female, and 28.5% were male. Of 191 (7.4%) individuals with known diabetes, 5 (2.6%) had type 1 diabetes; 881 (66.9%) out of 1,336 high-risk individuals were referred to assigned laboratory. Of 881 high-risk individuals, 157 (17.8%) had fasting blood sugar (FBS) 126 mg/dL and 118 (13.4%) had FBS between110 and 125 mg/dL. Percentages of participants with triglyceride ?150 mg/dL and cholesterol ?200 mg/dL were 298 (33.8%) and 207 (23.5%) respectively. Diabetes was associated with ageing, dyslipidaemia, family history of diabetes, lower physical activity on occupation, intake of lower dietary fibre, and non-literacy in the sampled population. This study suggests that diabetes is a common health problem in this area. Furthermore, considerable rate of newly-diagnosed diabetes signifies the importance of the screening programme. PMID:25895201

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Sibling Victimization Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne M.; Turner, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to document the prevalence and correlates of any past year sibling victimization, including physical, property, and psychological victimization, by a co-residing juvenile sibling across the spectrum of childhood from one month to 17 years of age. Methods: The National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence…

  2. Secular Trends in Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Adults in Rural Tianjin, China from 1991 to 2011: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Xianjia; Zhan, Changqing; Yang, Yihe; Yang, Li; Tu, Jun; Gu, Hongfei; Su, Ta-Chen; Wang, Jinghua

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Obesity is associated with cardiovascular diseases and has become the main public health issue in western countries and urban China. However, the prevalence and secular trends of obesity in rural China are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate secular trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among rural adults in northern China between 1991 and 2011. Method The prevalence of overweight and obesity was assessed in adults aged 35–74 years living in a rural area in northern China by comparing two surveys that were conducted in 1991 and 2011, respectively. Result The age-adjusted prevalence of overweight increased from 24.5% in 1991 to 42.0% in 2011, and the prevalence of obesity increased from 5.7% in 1991 to 19.6% in 2011. Over the 21-year period, there were significant increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity for both men and women in all age groups; however, the greatest increase was observed in men aged 35–44 years, with an 10.3-fold increase in obesity prevalence. The prevalence of obesity increased significantly in all risk factors categories, including education levels, blood pressure categories, diabetes previous history, current smoking situation and alcohol drinking situation over the past 21 years overall (p<0.05). The greatest increase in obesity prevalence appeared among those who consumed alcohol (increased by 8.0-fold). Next, there was a 5.3-fold increase in the prevalence of obesity in illiterate residents. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased rapidly among rural adults in Tianjin over the past 21 years, with the most dramatic increase observed in young men. Therefore, the burden of obesity should serve as a call for action. PMID:25544990

  3. The prevalence of inflammatory back pain: population-based estimates from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–10

    PubMed Central

    Weisman, Michael H; Witter, James P; Reveille, John D

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the current US inflammatory back pain (IBP) prevalence using four published case definitions. Methods Analysis of an IBP data collection instrument specifically designed for the 2009–10 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Subjects were 5103 US adults ages 20–69 with complete data. IBP prevalence as determined by Calin et al criteria, European Spondylarthropathy Study Group (ESSG) criteria, and Berlin criteria 8a and 7b. Results Age-adjusted US prevalence of IBP by Calin criteria was 5.0% (95% CI 4.2% to 5.8%). Prevalence of IBP was 5.6% (95% CI 4.7% to 6.5%) by ESSG criteria, and 5.8% (95% CI 5.2% to 6.4%) and 6.0% (95% CI 4.9% to 7.1%) by Berlin Criteria 8a and 7b, respectively. IBP prevalence did not differ significantly by age groups or between men and women. IBP prevalence was significantly lower among non-Hispanic black persons compared with non-Hispanic white persons for the Calin and ESSG IBP criteria. For the ESSG and Berlin 7b criteria, non-Hispanic white persons had significantly higher IBP prevalences compared with Mexican Americans. Conclusions IBP is associated with spondyloarthritis. Awareness of the prevalence of IBP may be useful for planning future epidemiological studies as well as development and validation of diagnostic and classification criteria for specific clinically defined diseases. PMID:22791746

  4. Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Patients With Nonapnea Sleep Disorders in Using Different Types of Hypnotics: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Ling; Yeh, Mei-Chang; Harnod, Tomor; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-09-01

    There has been insufficient evidence on whether exposure to hypnotics affects the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim of this study was to examine patients with nonapnea sleep disorders using zolpidem, benzodiazepines (BZDs), or a combination of both, and their risk of T2DM. This was a population-based retrospective cohort study using data from 1997 to 2011. Data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were employed for this study. A total of 45,602 patients with nonapnea sleep disorders and use of hypnotics were identified as the study cohort. The control cohort comprised 40,799 age- and sex-matched patients. We conducted a Cox proportional hazard regression analysis to estimate the effects of hypnotics on risk of T2DM. The overall incidence of T2DM was 20.1 per 1000 person-years for patients using zolpidem, which was significantly higher than that of the control group (11.9 per 1000 person-years). Overall, patients with nonapnea sleep disorders using zolpidem had a higher risk of T2DM compared with patients not using zolpidem and the control cohort (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.35-1.48). We also observed a significantly higher risk of T2DM in patients with both zolpidem and BZD use (adjusted HR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.64-1.91) than that of those without zolpidem use and BZD use. Compared with patients not using hypnotics, patients using zolpidem had a higher risk of developing T2DM; the risk was particularly pronounced in those using both zolpidem and BZDs. PMID:26402831

  5. Population prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the Netherlands. should asymptomatic persons be tested during Population-based chlamydia Screening also for gonorrhoea or only if chlamydial infection is found?

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, Jan EAM; Spaargaren, Joke; Götz, Hannelore M; Veldhuijzen, Irene K; Bindels, Patrick JE; Coenen, Ton J; Broer, Jan; de Groot, Fetzen; Hoebe, Christian JPA; Richardus, Jan-Hendrik; van Schaik, Daniel; Verhooren, Marije

    2006-01-01

    Background Screening and active case finding for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is recommended to prevent reproductive morbidity. However insight in community prevalence of gonococcal infections and co-infections with Neisseria gonorrhoea (NG) is lacking. Methods Nested study within a large population-based Chlamydia Screening Pilot among 21.000 persons 15–29 year. All CT-positive (166) and a random sample of 605 CT-negative specimens were as well tested for gonococcal infection. Results Overall Chlamydia prevalence in the Pilot was 2.0% (95% CI: 1.7–2.3), highest in very urban settings (3.2%; 95% CI: 2.4–4.0) and dependent of several risk factors. Four gonococcal infections were found among 166 participants with CT infection (4/166 = 2.4%; 95% CI: 0.1%–4.7%). All four had several risk factors and reported symptoms. Among 605 CT-negative persons, no infection with NG could be confirmed. Conclusion A low rate of co-infections and a very low community prevalence of gonococcal infections were found in this population based screening programme among young adults in the Netherlands. Population screening for asymptomatic gonococcal infections is not indicated in the Netherlands. Although co-infection with gonorrhoea among CT-positives is dependent on symptoms and well-known algorithms for elevated risks, we advise to test all CT-positives also for NG, whether symptomatic or asymptomatic. PMID:16522201

  6. The Prevalence, Correlates, Detection and Control of Diabetes among Older People in Low and Middle Income Countries. A 10/66 Dementia Research Group Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Aquiles; Acosta, Daisy; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K. S.; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z.; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J.; Sosa, Ana L.; Uwakwe, Richard; Williams, Joseph D.; Jotheeswaran, A. T.; Liu, Zhaorui; Lopez Medina, A. M.; Salinas-Contreras, Rosa Maria; Prince, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known of the epidemiology of diabetes among older people in low and middle income countries. We aimed to study and compare prevalence, social patterning, correlates, detection, treatment and control of diabetes among older people in Latin America, India, China and Nigeria. Methods Cross-sectional surveys in 13 catchment area sites in nine countries. Diagnosed diabetes was assessed in all sites through self-reported diagnosis. Undiagnosed diabetes was assessed in seven Latin American sites through fasting blood samples (glucose > = 7mmol/L). Results Total diabetes prevalence in catchment sites in Cuba (prevalence 24.2%, SMR 116), Puerto Rico (43.4%, 197), and urban (27.0%, 125), and rural Mexico (23.7%, 111) already exceeds that in the USA, while that in Venezuela (20.9%, 100) is similar. Diagnosed diabetes prevalence varied very widely, between low prevalences in sites in rural China (0.9%), rural India (6.6%) and Nigeria (6.0%). and 32.1% in Puerto Rico, explained mainly by access to health services. Treatment coverage varied substantially between sites. Diabetes control (40 to 61% of those diagnosed) was modest in the Latin American sites where this was studied. Diabetes was independently associated with less education, but more assets. Hypertension, central obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia, but not hypercholesterolaemia were consistently associated with total diabetes. Conclusions Diabetes prevalence is already high in most sites. Identifying undiagnosed cases is essential to quantify population burden, particularly in least developed settings where diagnosis is uncommon. Metabolic risk factors and associated lifestyles may play an important part in aetiology, but this requires confirmation with longitudinal data. Given the high prevalence among older people, more population research is indicated to quantify the impact of diabetes, and to monitor the effect of prevention and health system strengthening on prevalence, treatment and control

  7. Asthma, Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease amongst South Asian Immigrants to Canada and Their Children: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Benchimol, Eric I.; Manuel, Douglas G.; To, Teresa; Mack, David R.; Nguyen, Geoffrey C.; Gommerman, Jennifer L.; Croitoru, Kenneth; Mojaverian, Nassim; Wang, Xuesong; Quach, Pauline; Guttmann, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is a high and rising rate of immune-mediated diseases in the Western world. Immigrants from South Asia have been reported to be at higher risk upon arrival to the West. We determined the risk of immune-mediated diseases in South Asian and other immigrants to Ontario, Canada, and their Ontario-born children. METHODS Population-based cohorts of patients with asthma, type 1 diabetes (T1DM), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were derived from health administrative data. We determined the standardized incidence, and the adjusted risk of these diseases in immigrants from South Asia, immigrants from other regions, compared with non-immigrant residents of Ontario. The risk of these diseases in the Ontario-born children of immigrants were compared to the children of non-immigrants. RESULTS Compared to non-immigrants, adults from South Asia had higher risk of asthma (IRR 1.56, 95%CI 1.51-1.61) and T2DM (IRR 2.59, 95%CI 2.53-2.65). Adults from South Asia had lower incidence of IBD than non-immigrants (IRR 0.32, 95%CI 0.22-0.49), as did immigrants from other regions (IRR 0.29, 95%CI 0.20-0.42). Compared to non-immigrant children, the incidence of asthma (IRR 0.66, 95%CI 0.62-0.71) and IBD (IRR 0.47, 95%CI 0.33-0.67) was low amongst immigrant children from South Asia. However, the risk in Ontario-born children of South Asian immigrants relative to the children of non-immigrants was higher for asthma (IRR 1.75, 95%CI 1.69-1.81) and less attenuated for IBD (IRR 0.90, 95%CI 0.65-1.22). CONCLUSION Early-life environmental exposures may trigger a genetic predisposition to the development of asthma and IBD in South Asian immigrants and their Canada-born children. PMID:25849480

  8. Socioeconomic Disparities in the Prevalence of Blepharoptosis in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rha, Eun Young; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yongkyu; Yoo, Gyeol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence of blepharoptosis in a representative South Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. In total, 17,178 Korean adults (7,261 men and 9,917 women) aged 19 years or older were enrolled. Blepharoptosis was defined as a marginal reflex distance 1 (MDR 1) lower than 2 mm. Household income and education level were used as indicators of SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the relationship between SES and the prevalence of blepharoptosis. Results Household income was inversely associated with the prevalence of blepharoptosis in women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 1.894 (1.336, 2.685)], and educational level was inversely associated with blepharoptosis in both men and women [aORs and 95% CIs were 1.572 (1.113, 2.219) and 1.973 (1.153, 3.376), respectively]. After adjusting for household income and educational level, low SES was associated with a high prevalence of blepharoptosis in women only. Conclusions Socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of blepharoptosis were found among women. Indeed, future research using a prospective design to determine the causal relationship between SES and blepharoptosis may identify SES as a risk factor for this condition. PMID:26727468

  9. Implications of Type1/2 Diabetes Mellitus in Breast Cancer Development: A General Female Population-based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Liaw, Yung-Po; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Jan, Shiou-Rung; Huang, Jing-Yang; Nfor, Oswald Ndi; Lung, Chia-Chi; Chiang, Yi-Chen; Yeh, Liang-Tsai; Chou, Ming-Chih; Tsai, Horng-Der; Hsiao, Yi-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The current study assessed the potential impact of diabetes type 1 and type 2 for female breast cancer risk. Materials and Methods: The health information and medical record of the entire adult female residents in Taiwan were retrieved from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models and descriptive statistics were used to identify potential correlations between type 1/2 diabetes and breast cancer. In addition, this study statistically assessed the possible association of diabetes and breast cancer risk with age, insurance amount (quality of care), and regions. Results: The diabetic status of the entire adult female population was assessed between 2001 and 2003. Of 10,827,079 adult females, 4,738 (0.04%) were diagnosed with type 1 and 830,546 (7.7%) with type 2 diabetes, and 9, 991,795 (92.3%) were free of diabetes. From 2004 to 2010, a total of 57,283 cases of breast cancer were detected, with an average breast cancer incidence rate of 0.53% in the generation population. The actual breast cancer incidence rate was 0.30% (14 of 4,738) in patients with type 1 diabetes, 1.10% (9,105 of 830,546) in patients with type 2 diabetes, and 0.48% (48,164 of 9,991,795) in patients free of diabetes. The breast cancer incidence rate is significantly higher (p < 0.001) in patients with type 2 diabetes than that in patients with type 1 diabetes and in patients free of diabetes. After adjusting for the covariates of age, insurance cost, and region, hazard ratios (HRs) for the association between breast cancer risk and types 1 and 2 DM were 1.01 (CI = 0.60-1.71) and 1.13 (CI = 1.10-1.16), respectively. Women with type 2 diabetes were at a significantly higher risk for development of breast cancer compared with those free of diabetes, but there appeared to have no significant increase in risk for those with type 1 diabetes. Our study also revealed that age, insurance amount (quality of care), and region are

  10. Shift in prevalence of HPV types in cervical cytology specimens in the era of HPV vaccination

    PubMed Central

    FISCHER, SONJA; BETTSTETTER, MARCUS; BECHER, ANDREA; LESSEL, MARLENE; BANK, CYRIL; KRAMS, MATTHIAS; BECKER, INGRID; HARTMANN, ARNDT; JAGLA, WOLFGANG; GAUMANN, ANDREAS

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present population-based cohort study was to analyze the association between the prevalence of 32 types of human papilloma virus (HPV) in 615 female patients with abnormal cervical cytopathology findings. In total, 32 HPV types were screened by DNA array technology. HPV infection was detected in 470 women (76.42%), 419 of whom (89.15%) were infected with ≥1 high-risk (HR)-HPV type. HPV16, which is recognized as the main HR-HPV type responsible for the development of cervical cancer, was observed in 32.98% of HPV+ participants, followed by HPV42 (18.09%), HPV31 (17.66%), HPV51 (13.83%), HPV56 (10.00%), HPV53 (8.72%) and HPV66 (8.72%). The prevalence of HR-HPV types, which may be suppressed directly (in the case of HPV16 and 18), or possibly via cross-protection (in the case of HPV31) following vaccination, was considerably lower in participants ≤22 years of age (HPV16, 28.57%; HPV18, 2.04%; HPV31, 6.12%), compared with participants 23–29 years of age (HPV16, 45.71%; HPV18, 7.86%; HPV31, 22.86%), who were less likely to be vaccinated. Consequently, the present study hypothesizes that there may be a continuous shift in the prevalence of HPV types as a result of vaccination. Furthermore, the percentage of non-vaccine HR-HPV types was higher than expected, considering that eight HPV types formerly classified as ‘low-risk’ or ‘probably high-risk’ are in fact HR-HPV types. Therefore, it may be important to monitor non-vaccine HPV types in future studies, and an investigation concerning several HR-HPV types as risk factors for the development of cervical cancer is required. PMID:27347187

  11. Prevalence, Characteristics, and Associations of Sexual Abuse with Sociodemographics and Consensual Sex in a Population-Based Sample of Swedish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate lifetime prevalence and characteristics of self-reported child sexual abuse and associations between child sexual abuse, gender, sociodemographic data, and consensual sexual experiences. A questionnaire was completed by 4,339 Swedish high school seniors. Three categories of child sexual abuse were…

  12. Changes in the incidence, prevalence and mortality of bronchiectasis in the UK from 2004-2013: a population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Quint, Jennifer K.; Millett, Elizabeth R. C.; Joshi, Miland; Navaratnam, Vidya; Thomas, Sara L.; Hurst, John R.; Smeeth, Liam; Brown, Jeremy S.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data on incidence, prevalence and mortality associated with non-CF bronchiectasis. Methods Using Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) for participants registered between 1st January 2004 and 31st December 2013, we determined incidence, prevalence and mortality associated with bronchiectasis in the UK and investigated changes over time. Results The incidence and point prevalence of bronchiectasis increased yearly during the study period. Across all age groups, the incidence in women increased from 21.2/100,000 person-years in 2004 to 35.2/100,000 person-years in 2013, and in men from 18.2/100,000 person-years in 2004 to 26.9/100,000 person-years in 2013. The point prevalence in women increased from 350.5/100,000 in 2004 to 566.1/100,000 in 2013 and in men from 301.2/100,000 to 485.5/100,000 in 2013. Comparing morality rates in women and men with bronchiectasis in England and Wales (n=11,862) to mortality rates in the general population from ONS data, showed that in women the age adjusted mortality rate for the bronchiectasis population was 1437.7/100,000 and for the general population 635.9/100,000; (comparative mortality figure of 2.26). In men, the age adjusted mortality rate for the bronchiectasis population was 1914.6/100,000 and for the general population 895.2/100,000; (comparative mortality figure of 2.14). Conclusion Bronchiectasis is surprisingly common and is increasing in incidence and prevalence in the UK, particularly in older age groups. Bronchiectasis is associated with a markedly increased mortality. PMID:26541539

  13. Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis Among Adults in Urban and Rural Areas of China: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ming; Wang, Xiangdong; Bo, Mingyu; Wang, Kuiji; Zhao, Yan; He, Fei; Cao, Feifei; Bachert, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported and confirmable allergic rhinitis (AR) with positive skin prick test (SPT) results among adults living in urban and rural areas of China. Methods Adults from a community in Beijing and a village in Baoding were selected as representative urban and rural dwellers, respectively. All eligible residents were enrolled from the population register and received a face-to-face interview using modified validated questionnaires. Equal sets of randomly selected self-reporting AR-positive and AR-negative participants who responded to the questionnaires were also investigated using skin prick tests. Results A total of 803 participants in the rural area and a total of 1,499 participants in the urban area completed the questionnaires, with response rates being 75.9% and 81.5% respectively. The prevalence of self-reported AR of the rural area (19.1%) was significantly higher than that of the urban area (13.5%). The elementary school of educational level increased the risk of having AR (adjusted OR=2.198, 95% CI=1.072-2.236) .The positive SPT rates among subjects with self-reported AR in the rural and urban areas were 32.5% and 53.3%, respectively; the confirmable AR prevalence of 6.2% and 7.2% among the rural and urban adults, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of confirmable AR is similar between rural and urban areas in China, although there is a higher prevalence of self-reported AR in the former. PMID:25729622

  14. Neighborhood walkability, deprivation and incidence of type 2 diabetes: a population-based study on 512,061 Swedish adults

    PubMed Central

    Sundquist, Kristina; Eriksson, Ulf; Mezuk, Briana; Ohlsson, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Neighborhood walkability has been associated with increased physical activity, but only a few studies have explored the association between walkability and health outcomes related to physical activity, such as type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between objectively assessed neighborhood walkability and the 4-year incidence of type 2 diabetes in a sample of 512,061 Swedish adults aged 18 years and older. Neighborhoods were defined by 408 administratively defined geographical areas in the city of Stockholm. We found a negative association between walkability and type 2 diabetes (OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.13–1.55) that remained significant after adjusting for neighborhood deprivation. This association, however, no longer remained statistically significant after adjusting for individual socio-demographic factors. These results were also confirmed using a co-sibling design. Future studies are encouraged to further explore the potential effect of a broader array of the neighborhood built environment on health outcomes related to physical activity. PMID:25463914

  15. [Prevalence of intimate partner physical violence in men and women from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil: a population-based study].

    PubMed

    Lindner, Sheila Rubia; Coelho, Elza Berger Salema; Bolsoni, Carolina Carvalho; Rojas, Paulo Fernando; Boing, Antonio Fernando

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the association between gender and intimate partner physical violence. A random cluster sample was chosen as the baseline cohort population in a cross-sectional design. Lifetime prevalence rates were as follows: any physical violence (17%), moderate physical violence (16.6%), and severe physical violence (7.3%). There were no significant differences between genders in moderate physical violence, but women were more likely to suffer severe abuse. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between violence and gender, adjusting for exploratory variables. Women that were older, widowed/separated, had less schooling or lower income, and African-descendants were all more likely to have suffered intimate partner violence. Prevalence of severe physical violence experienced by men only changed significantly according to marital status. Alcohol abuse by women increased the odds of suffering physical violence. PMID:25945990

  16. The Prevalence of Dry Eye Syndrome’s and the Likelihood to Develop Sjögren’s Syndrome in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Ju-Chuan; Hsu, Chia-An; Li, Yu-Chuan (Jack); Hsu, Min-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dry eye syndrome (DES) is one of the key clinical features and possibly an early clinical presentation of Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). We explore DES prevalence and assess the likelihood of DES patients to develop SS in Taiwan through the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Methods: Through a cohort comparison study, longitudinal data from the NHIRD (2000 to 2008) in Taiwan was used to probe the prevalence of DES and the odds that DES patients would later develop SS. Results: The prevalence of DES in the present study is 4.87%. The incidence rates of developing SS were 4.8% for the DES group and 1.5% for comparison group. The median age and interquartile range of DES and comparison patients was 49.8 (10) and 48.7 (15) years old, respectively. The crude hazard ratio (with 95% confidence interval) for DES patients to develop SS was 3.13 (3.10–3.50) for the DES group, and the adjusted hazard ratio (with 95% confidence interval) was 3.64 (3.43–3.87). The observation period and interquartile range for DES and comparison patients to develop SS later were 1418 (781–2316) versus 1641 (971–2512) days respectively. Conclusions: DES patients carried a higher risk for developing SS (hazard ratio 3.13) and presented for SS 3.88 years earlier than comparison group patients in this study. PMID:26184245

  17. Stroke Risk among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Zhejiang: A Population-Based Prospective Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Min; Zhong, Jieming; Wu, Haibin; Pan, Jin; Gong, Weiwei; Wang, Meng; Fei, Fangrong

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to explore the incidence of stroke and stroke subtypes among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) based on the long-term surveillance data in Zhejiang, China, during 2007 to 2013. Materials and Methods. During January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2013, a total of 327,268 T2DM and 307,984 stroke patients were registered on Diabetes and Stroke Surveillance System, respectively. Stroke subtypes were classified according to standard definitions of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and ischemic stroke. The incidence of stroke and stroke subtypes was calculated by standardized incidence ratio (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) compared with general population. Results. The incidence of stroke and stroke subtypes among patients with T2DM was significantly higher than in general population. Stroke risk was found significantly increased with an SIR of 3.87 (95% CI 3.76–3.99) and 3.38 (95% CI 3.27–3.48) in females and males, respectively. The excess risk of stroke was mainly attributable to the significantly higher risk of cerebral infarctions with the risk for T2DM being four times that for general population. Conclusions. The relationship between stroke and T2DM was strong, especially in female. The incidence of stroke and stroke subtypes among patients with T2DM was up to 3-fold higher than in general population in Zhejiang province, especially the subtype of cerebral infarctions. PMID:27403161

  18. Effects of Type of Health Insurance Coverage on Colorectal Cancer Survival in Puerto Rico: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Ortiz, Karen J.; Ramírez-García, Roberto; Cruz-Correa, Marcia; Ríos-González, Moraima Y.; Ortiz, Ana Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer represents a major health problem and an important economic burden in Puerto Rico. In the 1990's, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico implemented a health care reform through the privatization of the public health system. The goal was to ensure access to health services, eliminate disparities for medically indigent citizens and provide special coverage for high-risk conditions such as cancer. This study estimates the 5-year relative survival rate of colorectal cancer and the relative excess risk of death in Puerto Rico for 2004–2005, by type of health insurance coverage; Government Health Plan vs. Non-Government Health Plan. Colorectal cancer in advanced stages was more common in Government Health Plan patients compared with Non-Government Health Plan patients (44.29% vs. 40.24 had regional extent and 13.58% versus 10.42% had distant involvement, respectively). Government Health Plan patients in the 50–64 (RR = 6.59; CI: 2.85–15.24) and ≥65 (RR = 2.4; CI: 1.72–4.04) age-groups had the greater excess risk of death compared with Non-Government Health Plan patients. Further studies evaluating the interplay of access to health services and the barriers affecting the Government Health Plan population are warranted. PMID:24796444

  19. Prevalence of Sexual Dysfunction and its Associated Factors in Women Aged 40–65 Years with 11 Years or More of Formal Education: A Population-Based Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Valadares, Ana L. R.; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M.; Osis, Maria J.; Sousa, Maria H.; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Conde, Délio M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and its associated factors in middle-aged women with 11 years or more of formal education. METHODS A cross-sectional, population-based study was carried out using an anonymous, self-response questionnaire. A total of 315 Brazilian-born women, 40–65 years of age with 11 years or more of schooling, participated in the study. The instrument used in the evaluation was based on the Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire. Sexual dysfunction was calculated from the mean score of sexual responsiveness (pleasure in sexual activities, excitation and orgasm), frequency of sexual activities and libido. Sociodemographic and clinical factors were evaluated. Poisson multiple regression analysis was carried out and the prevalence ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated. RESULTS The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was 35.9% among our study population. Multiple regression analysis showed that sexual dysfunction was positively associated with older age (prevalence ratios=1.04; 95%CI:1.01–1.07) and with the presence of hot flashes (prevalence ratios=1.37; 95%CI:1.04–1.80). Having a sexual partner (PR=0.47; 95%CI:0.34–0.65) and feeling well or excellent (prevalence ratios= 0.68; 95%CI: 0.52–0.88) were factors associated with lower sexual dysfunction scores. CONCLUSIONS Sexual dysfunction was present in more than one-third of women that were 40–65 years of age with 11 years or more of formal education. Within that age group, older age and hot flashes were associated with higher sexual dysfunction scores, whereas feeling well and having a sexual partner were associated with better sexuality. PMID:19061000

  20. Musculoskeletal pain in Arctic indigenous and non-indigenous adolescents, prevalence and associations with psychosocial factors: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pain is common in otherwise healthy adolescents. In recent years widespread musculoskeletal pain, in contrast to single site pain, and associating factors has been emphasized. Musculoskeletal pain has not been examined in Arctic indigenous adolescents. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of widespread musculoskeletal pain and its association with psychosocial factors, with emphasis on gender- and ethnic differences (Sami vs. non-Sami), and the influence of pain related functional impairment. Methods This is a cross-sectional study based on The Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study; a school-based survey responded by 4,881 10th grade students (RR: 83%) in North Norway, in 2003–2005. 10% were indigenous Sami. Musculoskeletal pain was based on reported pain in the head, shoulder/neck, back and/or arm/knee/leg, measured by the number of pain sites. Linear multiple regression was used for the multivariable analyses. Results The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was high, and significantly higher in females. In total, 22.4% reported 3–4 pain sites. We found a strong association between musculoskeletal pain sites and psychosocial problems, with a higher explained variance in those reporting pain related functional impairment and in females. There were no major differences in the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in Sami and non-Sami, however the associating factors differed somewhat between the indigenous and non-indigenous group. The final multivariable model, for the total sample, explained 21.2% of the variance of musculoskeletal pain. Anxiety/depression symptoms was the dominant factor associated with musculoskeletal pain followed by negative life events and school-related stress. Conclusions Anxiety/depression, negative life events, and school-related stress were the most important factors associated with musculoskeletal pain, especially in those reporting pain related functional impairment. The most important sociocultural aspect

  1. Cancer risk among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a population-based prospective study in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Hu, Ru-Ying; Wu, Hai-Bin; Pan, Jin; Gong, Wei-Wei; Guo, Li-Hua; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Fei, Fang-Rong; Yu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates an increased cancer risk among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. Based on Diabetes Surveillance System linking to Cancer Surveillance System of Zhejiang Province in China, we explored the cancer risk among T2DM patients. Totally, 327,268 T2DM patients were identified and followed from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2013. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Overall cancer risk was found significantly increased with an SIR of 1.15 (95% CI 1.12–1.19) and 1.25 (95% CI 1.21–1.30) in males and females, respectively. Regarding specific cancer sites, risks of liver, colon, rectum, pancreas, and kidney were significantly increased with SIRs of 1.26 (95% CI 1.16–1.36), 1.47 (95% CI 1.29–1.67), 1.25 (95% CI 1.09–1.43), 2.81 (95% CI 2.50–3.16) and 1.61 (95% CI 1.28–2.03) in males, 1.53 (95% CI 1.35–1.73), 1.33 (95% CI 1.15–1.54), 1.29 (95% CI 1.10–1.51), 3.62 (95% CI 3.20–4.09) and 1.71 (95% CI 1.28–2.29) in females, respectively. A significant increased SIR was noted for prostate (1.80, 95% CI 1.58–2.06). Significant increased SIRs for lung (1.32, 95% CI 1.20–1.44) and stomach (1.16, 95% CI 1.03–1.30) were observed in females. We suggested an increased cancer risk among T2DM patients. PMID:26082067

  2. Regional and neighborhood disparities in the odds of type 2 diabetes: results from 5 population-based studies in Germany (DIAB-CORE consortium).

    PubMed

    Müller, Grit; Kluttig, Alexander; Greiser, Karin Halina; Moebus, Susanne; Slomiany, Uta; Schipf, Sabine; Völzke, Henry; Maier, Werner; Meisinger, Christa; Tamayo, Teresa; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Berger, Klaus

    2013-07-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between residential environment and type 2 diabetes. We pooled cross-sectional data from 5 population-based German studies (1997-2006): the Cardiovascular Disease, Living and Ageing in Halle Study, the Dortmund Health Study, the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg Study, and the Study of Health in Pomerania. The outcome of interest was the presence of self-reported type 2 diabetes. We conducted mixed logistic regression models in a hierarchical data set with 8,879 individuals aged 45-74 years on level 1; 226 neighborhoods on level 2; and 5 study regions on level 3. The analyses were adjusted for age, sex, social class, and employment status. The odds ratio for type 2 diabetes was highest in eastern Germany (odds ratio = 1.98, 95% confidence interval: 1.81, 2.14) and northeastern Germany (odds ratio = 1.58, 95% confidence interval: 1.40, 1.77) and lowest in southern Germany (reference) after adjustment for individual variables. Neighborhood unemployment rates explained a large proportion of regional differences. Individuals residing in neighborhoods with high unemployment rates had elevated odds of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.25, 2.09). The diverging levels of unemployment in neighborhoods and regions are an independent source of disparities in type 2 diabetes. PMID:23648804

  3. Prevalence, Distribution, and Impact of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Latin America, China, and India: A 10/66 Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Blossom C. M.; Dewey, Michael; Acosta, Daisy; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K. S.; Jiménez-Velázquez, Ivonne Z.; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J.; Salas, Aquiles; Williams, Joseph; Acosta, Isaac; González-Viruet, Maribella; Guerra Hernandez, Milagros A.; Shuran, Li; Prince, Martin J.; Stewart, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background Rapid demographic ageing is a growing public health issue in many low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs). Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a construct frequently used to define groups of people who may be at risk of developing dementia, crucial for targeting preventative interventions. However, little is known about the prevalence or impact of MCI in LAMIC settings. Methods and Findings Data were analysed from cross-sectional surveys established by the 10/66 Dementia Research Group and carried out in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Peru, Mexico, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, China, and India on 15,376 individuals aged 65+ without dementia. Standardised assessments of mental and physical health, and cognitive function were carried out including informant interviews. An algorithm was developed to define Mayo Clinic amnestic MCI (aMCI). Disability (12-item World Health Organization disability assessment schedule [WHODAS]) and informant-reported neuropsychiatric symptoms (neuropsychiatric inventory [NPI-Q]) were measured. After adjustment, aMCI was associated with disability, anxiety, apathy, and irritability (but not depression); between-country heterogeneity in these associations was only significant for disability. The crude prevalence of aMCI ranged from 0.8% in China to 4.3% in India. Country differences changed little (range 0.6%–4.6%) after standardization for age, gender, and education level. In pooled estimates, aMCI was modestly associated with male gender and fewer assets but was not associated with age or education. There was no significant between-country variation in these demographic associations. Conclusions An algorithm-derived diagnosis of aMCI showed few sociodemographic associations but was consistently associated with higher disability and neuropsychiatric symptoms in addition to showing substantial variation in prevalence across LAMIC populations. Longitudinal data are needed to confirm findings—in particular, to investigate the predictive

  4. Point prevalence of type B tympanogram in Riyadh.

    PubMed

    el-Sayed, Y; Zakzouk, S

    1995-01-01

    Secretory otitis media (SOM) is primarily a disease of children which can have deleterious effect on their medical, social, educational and psychological welfare. It is well known that SOM is a common disease, but exact figures about its prevalence and incidence are scarce and fragmentary. In this community study, we determined the point prevalence of type B tympanogram as an indication to the prevalence of SOM. The study population consisted of a random sample of 4214 children aged 1-8 years. The point prevalence rates of unilateral and bilateral type B tympanogram among the children were 5.7% and 8.1%, respectively. The point prevalence rate per ears (a total of 8428) was 10.9%. The prevalence was found to be related to the age, the season and to the occurrance of the ear and upper respiratory tract infections. No correlation was found in relation to sex, allergy or the socio-economic condition. The findings are discussed in the light of studies conducted elsewhere. PMID:7729995

  5. Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence and Predictors of Restless Legs Syndrome between Hispanics of Mexican Descent and Non-Hispanic Whites in San Diego County: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Dimsdale, Joel E.; Loredo, José S.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and predictors of RLS in Hispanics of Mexican descent (HMD) and non-Hispanic whites (NHW). Design: A population-based random digit dialing telephone questionnaire. Setting: San Diego County California Participants: 1,754 HMD and 1,913 NHW adults ≥ 18 years of age able to participate in a telephone interview in English or Spanish. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: RLS was defined by the presence of all 4 criteria of the International Restless Legs Study Group. Sleepiness was measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Acculturation was evaluated using the Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics. Risk factors for RLS were by self-report. The survey was conducted in the subject's language of choice. RLS prevalence was significantly lower in HMD than in NHW (14.4% vs.18.3%, p = 0.002). High acculturation HMD had a significantly greater RLS prevalence than the low acculturation group (17.4% vs. 12.8%, p = 0.008). Predictors of RLS varied between HMD and NHW. Female gender (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04, 1.90, p = 0.027), smoking (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.27, 2.61, p = 0.001), and acculturation (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.10, 1.97, p = 0.009) were independent predictors of RLS in HMD, while only older age (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.0, 1.02) was an independent predictor of RLS for NHW. Conclusion: The prevalence of RLS was significantly lower in HMD than in NHW, and significantly greater in high acculturation HMD. Our data suggest that risk factors for RLS vary by race/ethnicity and acculturation is an independent risk for RLS in HMD. Citation: Sawanyawisuth K; Palinkas LA; Ancoli-Israel S; Dimsdale JE; Loredo JS. Ethnic differences in the prevalence and predictors of restless legs syndrome between Hispanics of Mexican descent and non-Hispanic whites in San Diego county: a population-based study. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(1):47-53. PMID:23319904

  6. Prevalence, Correlates, and Prognosis of Peripheral Artery Disease in Rural Ecuador—Rationale, Protocol, and Phase I Results of a Population-Based Survey: An Atahualpa Project-Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Del Brutto, Oscar H.; Sedler, Mark J.; Mera, Robertino M.; Castillo, Pablo R.; Cusick, Elizabeth H.; Gruen, Jadry A.; Phelan, Kelsie J.; Del Brutto, Victor J.; Zambrano, Mauricio; Brown, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Little is known on the prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) in developing countries. Study design. Population-based study in Atahualpa. In Phase I, the Edinburgh claudication questionnaire (ECQ) was used for detection of suspected symptomatic PAD; persons with a negative ECQ but a pulse pressure ≥65 mmHg were suspected of asymptomatic PAD. In Phase II, the ankle-brachial index will be used to test reliability of screening instruments and to determine PAD prevalence. In Phase III, participants will be followed up to estimate the relevance of PAD as a predictor of vascular outcomes. Results. During Phase I, 665 Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years were enrolled (mean age: 59.5 ± 12.6 years, 58% women). A poor cardiovascular health status was noticed in 464 (70%) persons of which 27 (4%) had a stroke and 14 (2%) had ischemic heart disease. Forty-four subjects (7%) had suspected symptomatic PAD and 170 (26%) had suspected asymptomatic PAD. Individuals with suspected PAD were older, more often women, and had a worse cardiovascular profile than those with nonsuspected PAD. Conclusions. Prevalence of suspected PAD in this underserved population is high. Subsequent phases of this study will determine whether prompt detection of PAD is useful to reduce the incidence of catastrophic vascular diseases in the region. PMID:25389500

  7. Exposure to, and searching for, information about suicide and self-harm on the Internet: Prevalence and predictors in a population based cohort of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Becky; Heron, Jon; Biddle, Lucy; Donovan, Jenny L.; Holley, Rachel; Piper, Martyn; Potokar, John; Wyllie, Clare; Gunnell, David

    2015-01-01

    Background There is concern over the potential impact of the Internet on self-harm and suicidal behaviour, particularly in young people. However, little is known about the prevalence and patterns of suicide/self-harm related Internet use in the general population. Methods Cross sectional study of 3946 of the 8525 participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) who were sent a self-report questionnaire including questions on suicide/self-harm related Internet use and self-harm history at age 21 years. Results Suicide/self-harm related Internet use was reported by 22.5% (886/3946) of participants; 11.9% (470/3946) had come across sites/chatrooms discussing self-harm or suicide, 8.2% (323/3946) had searched for information about self-harm, 7.5% (296/3946) had searched for information about suicide and 9.1% (357/3946) had used the Internet to discuss self-harm or suicidal feelings. Suicide/self-harm related Internet use was particularly prevalent amongst those who had harmed with suicidal intent (70%, 174/248), and was strongly associated with the presence of suicidal thoughts, suicidal plans, and history of self-harm. Sites offering help, advice, or support were accessed by a larger proportion of the sample (8.2%, 323/3946) than sites offering information on how to hurt or kill yourself (3.1%, 123/3946). Most individuals (81%) who had accessed these potentially harmful sites had also accessed help sites. Limitations (i) There were differences between questionnaire responders and non-responders which could lead to selection bias and (ii) the data were cross-sectional, and we cannot conclude that associations are causal. Conclusions Suicide/self-harm related Internet use is common amongst young adults, particularly amongst those with suicidal thoughts and behaviour. Both harmful and helpful sites were accessed, highlighting that the Internet presents potential risks but also offers opportunities for suicide prevention. PMID:26150198

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for erectile dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms in Russian Federation men: analysis from a national population-based multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Korneyev, I A; Alexeeva, T A; Al-Shukri, S H; Bernikov, A N; Erkovich, A A; Kamalov, A A; Kogan, M I; Pavlov, V N; Zhuravlev, V N; Pushkar, D Y

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of prevalence and associated common risk factors of ED and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) was performed in Russian Federation by cross-sectional multicenter survey. International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) score and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) were used for data collection in 1225 men between 20 and 77 years interviewed in six regions of Russian Federation. In addition, each participant's social, demographic, lifestyle, sexual and medical history was taken with special emphasis on risk factors for ED. Upon the basis of IIEF erectile domain score interpretation, ED was found in 530 (48.9%) men, consisting of mild and mild to moderate, moderate and severe ED in 375 (34.6%), 78 (7.2%) and 77 (7.1%) respondents, respectively. According to IPSS assessment, LUTSs were present in 649 (59.9%) responders; inclusive 370 (34.2%), 216 (19.9%) and 63 (5.8%) men with mild, moderate and severe LUTS, respectively. Men with both ED and LUTS shared common co-morbidities and lifestyle risk factors with age-adjusted odds ratio between 1.2 and 5.2. In logistic regression model (R(2)=0.361), the strongest associated with ED factor found was IPSS symptom score, followed by hypertension, IPSS-related quality of life, age, diabetes mellitus, obesity and unmotivated fatigue. PMID:26865104

  9. Similar decline in mortality rate of older persons with and without type 2 diabetes between 1993 and 2004 the Icelandic population-based Reykjavik and AGES-Reykjavik cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A decline in mortality rates due to cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality has led to increased life expectancy in the Western world in recent decades. At the same time, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, a disease associated with a twofold excess risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality, has been increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the secular trend of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality rates in two population-based cohorts of older persons, with and without type 2 diabetes, examined 11 years apart. Methods 1506 participants (42% men) from the population-based Reykjavik Study, examined during 1991–1996 (median 1993), mean age 75.0 years, and 4814 participants (43% men) from the AGES-Reykjavik Study, examined during 2002–2006 (median 2004), mean age 77.2 years, age range in both cohorts 70–87 years. The main outcome measures were age-specific mortality rates due to cardiovascular disease and all causes, over two consecutive 5.7- and 5.3-year follow-up periods. Results A 32% decline in cardiovascular mortality rate and a 19% decline in all-cause mortality rate were observed between 1993 and 2004. The decline was greater in those with type 2 diabetes, as illustrated by the decline in the adjusted hazard ratio of cardiovascular mortality in individuals with diabetes compared to those without diabetes, from 1.88 (95% CI 1.24-2.85) in 1993 to 1.46 (95% CI 1.11-1.91) in 2004. We also observed a concurrent decrease in major cardiovascular risk factors in both those with and without diabetes. A higher proportion of persons with diabetes received glucose-lowering, hypertensive and lipid-lowering medication in 2004. Conclusions A decline in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality rates was observed in older persons during the period 1993–2004, in both those with and without type 2 diabetes. This decline may be partly explained by improvements in cardiovascular risk factors and medical treatment over the period

  10. Screening for type 2 diabetes in a high-risk population: study design and feasibility of a population-based randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We describe the design and present the results of the first year of a population-based study of screening for type 2 diabetes in individuals at high risk of developing the disease. High risk is defined as having abdominal obesity. Methods Between 2006 and 2007, 79,142 inhabitants of two Dutch municipalities aged 40–74 years were approached to participate in screening. Eligible participants had a self-reported waist circumference of ≥80 cm for women and ≥94 cm for men, and no known pre-existing diabetes. Of the respondents (n = 20,578; response rate 26%), 16,135 were abdominally obese. In total, 10,609 individuals gave written informed consent for participation and were randomized into either the screening (n = 5305) or the control arm (n = 5304). Participants in the screening arm were invited to have their fasting plasma glucose (FPG) measured and were referred to their general practitioner (GP) if it was ≥6.1 mmol/L. In addition, blood lipids were determined in the screening arm, because abdominal obesity is often associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Participants in both arms received written healthy lifestyle information. Between-group differences were analyzed with Chi-square tests and logistic regression (categorical variables) and unpaired t-tests (continuous variables). Results The screening attendance rate was 84.1%. Attending screening was associated with age at randomization (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.04), being married (OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.33-1.83) and not-smoking currently (OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.44-0.62). Of the individuals screened, 5.6% had hyperglycemia, and a further 11.6% had an estimated absolute cardiovascular disease risk of 5% or higher, according to the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation risk model. These participants were referred to their GP. Conclusions Self-reported home-assessed waist circumference could feasibly detect persons at high risk of hyperglycemia or cardiovascular disease

  11. Importance of population-based studies in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Ronnie, George; Ve, Ramesh Sathyamangalam; Velumuri, Lokapavani; Asokan, Rashima; Vijaya, Lingam

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, there have been reports on the prevalence of glaucoma from the Vellore Eye Survey, Andhra Pradesh Eye Diseases Survey, Aravind Comprehensive Eye Survey, Chennai Glaucoma Study and West Bengal Glaucoma Study. Population-based studies provide important information regarding the prevalence and risk factors for glaucoma. They also highlight regional differences in the prevalence of various types of glaucoma. It is possible to gather important insights regarding the number of persons affected with glaucoma and the proportion with undiagnosed disease. We reviewed the different population-based studies from India and compare their findings. The lacunae in ophthalmic care that can be inferred from these studies are identified and possible reasons and solutions are discussed. We also discuss the clinical relevance of the various findings, and how it reflects on clinical practice in the country. Since India has a significantly high disease burden, we examine the possibility of population-based screening for disease in the Indian context. PMID:21150021

  12. Sitagliptin and risk of heart failure hospitalization in patients with type 2 diabetes on dialysis: A population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Yi-Chih; Lin, Che-Chen; Huang, Wei-Lun; Chang, Man-Ping; Chen, Ching-Chu

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of heart failure hospitalization (HHF) after taking sitagliptin in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis is unclear. In this population-based cohort study, we identified individuals with T2DM and ESRD on dialysis who were treated with sitagliptin between 2009 and 2011 and randomly selected a control cohort matched by age, sex, duration of T2DM, hypertension medications, use of statin and aspirin, sulfonylureas, glinides, and insulin usage, atherosclerotic heart disease, congestive heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at a 1:4 ratio. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to evaluate HHF risk. The overall incidence of HHF was higher in the sitagliptin cohort than in the control cohort (1130 vs. 754 per 10000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 1.52, 95% CI = 1.21–1.90). There was a significant trend towards increased HHF risk associated with increased sitagliptin dose (p for trend < 0.01). Subjects at greater risk of HHF after taking sitagliptin were those without severe hypoglycemia, without ACE inhibitors treatment, with history of heart failure or receiving hemodialysis rather than peritoneal dialysis. In conclusion, use of sitagliptin was associated with an increased risk of HHF in patients with T2DM on dialysis. PMID:27460913

  13. Sitagliptin and risk of heart failure hospitalization in patients with type 2 diabetes on dialysis: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yi-Chih; Lin, Che-Chen; Huang, Wei-Lun; Chang, Man-Ping; Chen, Ching-Chu

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of heart failure hospitalization (HHF) after taking sitagliptin in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis is unclear. In this population-based cohort study, we identified individuals with T2DM and ESRD on dialysis who were treated with sitagliptin between 2009 and 2011 and randomly selected a control cohort matched by age, sex, duration of T2DM, hypertension medications, use of statin and aspirin, sulfonylureas, glinides, and insulin usage, atherosclerotic heart disease, congestive heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at a 1:4 ratio. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to evaluate HHF risk. The overall incidence of HHF was higher in the sitagliptin cohort than in the control cohort (1130 vs. 754 per 10000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 1.52, 95% CI = 1.21-1.90). There was a significant trend towards increased HHF risk associated with increased sitagliptin dose (p for trend < 0.01). Subjects at greater risk of HHF after taking sitagliptin were those without severe hypoglycemia, without ACE inhibitors treatment, with history of heart failure or receiving hemodialysis rather than peritoneal dialysis. In conclusion, use of sitagliptin was associated with an increased risk of HHF in patients with T2DM on dialysis. PMID:27460913

  14. Developing estimates of frequency and intensity of exposure to three types of metalworking fluids in a population-based case-control study of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Melissa C; Park, Dong-Uk; Colt, Joanne S; Baris, Dalsu; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R.; Armenti, Karla R.; Johnson, Alison; Silverman, Debra T; Stewart, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    Background A systematic, transparent, and data-driven approach was developed to estimate frequency and intensity of exposure to straight, soluble, and synthetic/semi-synthetic metalworking fluids (MWFs) within a case-control study of bladder cancer in New England. Methods We assessed frequency using individual-level information from job-specific questionnaires wherever possible, then derived and applied job group-level patterns to likely exposed jobs with less information. Intensity estimates were calculated using a statistical model developed from measurements and determinants extracted from the published literature. Results For jobs with probabilities of exposure ≥0.5, median frequencies were 8 to 10 hours per week, depending on MWF type. Median intensities for these jobs were 2.5, 2.1, and 1.0 mg/m3 for soluble, straight, and synthetic/semi-synthetic MWFs, respectively. Conclusions Compared to case-by-case assessment, these data-driven decision rules are transparent and reproducible and may result in less biased estimates. These rules can also aid future exposure assessments of MWFs in population-based studies. PMID:25060071

  15. Universal HbA1c Measurement in Early Pregnancy to Detect Type 2 Diabetes Reduces Ethnic Disparities in Antenatal Diabetes Screening: A Population-Based Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In response to the type 2 diabetes epidemic, measuring HbA1c with the first-antenatal blood screen was recently recommended in NZ. This would enable prompt treatment of women with unrecognised type 2 diabetes, who may otherwise go undetected until the gestational diabetes (GDM) screen. We compare inter-ethnic antenatal screening practices to examine whether the HbA1c test would be accessed by ethnicities most at risk of diabetes, and we determined the prevalence of unrecognised type 2 diabetes and prediabetes in our pregnant population. This is an observational study of pregnancies in Christchurch NZ during 2008–2010. Utilising electronic databases, we matched maternal characteristics to first-antenatal bloods, HbA1c, and GDM screens (glucose challenge tests and oral glucose tolerance tests). Overall uptake of the first-antenatal bloods versus GDM screening was 83.1% and 53.8% respectively in 11,580 pregnancies. GDM screening was lowest in Māori 39.3%, incidence proportion ratio (IPR) 0.77 (0.71, 0.84) compared with Europeans. By including HbA1c with the first-antenatal bloods, the number screened for diabetes increases by 28.5% in Europeans, 40.0% in Māori, 28.1% in Pacific People, and 26.7% in ‘Others’ (majority of Asian descent). The combined prevalence of unrecognised type 2 diabetes and prediabetes by NZ criteria, HbA1c ≥5.9% (41mmol/mol), was 2.1% in Europeans, Māori 4.7% IPR 2.59 (1.71, 3.93), Pacific People 9.5% IPR 4.76 (3.10, 7.30), and ‘Others’ 6.2% IPR 2.99 (2.19, 4.07). Applying these prevalence data to 2013 NZ national births data, routine antenatal HbA1c testing could have identified type 2 diabetes in 0.44% and prediabetes in 3.96% of women. Routine HbA1c measurement in early pregnancy is an ideal screening opportunity, particularly benefitting vulnerable groups, reducing ethnic disparities in antenatal diabetes screening. This approach is likely to have world-wide relevance and applicability. Further research is underway to establish

  16. HPV DNA prevalence and type distribution in anal carcinomas worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Alemany, L; Saunier, M; Alvarado, I; Quirós, B; Salmeron, J; Shin, HR; Pirog, E; Guimerà, N; Hernández, GA; Felix, A; Clavero, O; Lloveras, B; Kasamatsu, E; Goodman, MT; Hernandez, BY; Laco, J; Tinoco, L; Geraets, DT; Lynch, CF; Mandys, V; Poljak, M; Jach, R; Verge, J; Clavel, C; Ndiaye, C; Klaustermeier, J; Cubilla, A; Castellsagué, X; Bravo, IG; Pawlita, M; Quint, W; Muñoz, N; Bosch, FX; Sanjosé, S

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge about the human papillomaviruses (HPV) types in anal cancers in some world regions is scanty. Here we describe the HPV DNA prevalence and type distribution in a series of invasive anal cancers and anal intraepithelial neoplasias (AIN) grades 2/3 from 24 countries. We analyzed 43 AIN 2/3 cases and 496 anal cancers diagnosed from 1986 to 2011. After histopathological evaluation of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA25 system (version 1). A subset of 116 cancers was further tested for p16INK4a expression, a cellular surrogate marker for HPV-associated transformation. Prevalence ratios were estimated using multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance in cancer dataset. HPV DNA was detected in 88.3% of anal cancers (95%CI:85.1–91.0%) and in 95.4% of AIN 2/3 (95%CI:84.2–99.4%). Among cancers, the highest prevalence was observed in warty-basaloid subtype of squamous cell carcinomas, in younger patients and in North American geographical region. There were no statistically significant differences in prevalence by gender. HPV16 was the most frequent HPV type detected in both cancers (80.7%) and AIN 2/3 lesions (75.4%). HPV18 was the second most common type in invasive cancers (3.6%). p16INK4a overexpression was found in 95% of HPV DNA positive anal cancers. In view of HPV DNA results and high proportion of p16INK4a overexpression, infection by HPV is most likely to be a necessary cause for anal cancers in both men and women. The large contribution of HPV16 reinforces the potential impact of HPV vaccines in the prevention of these lesions. PMID:24817381

  17. The Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Austrians Disease Management Program in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Riedl, Regina; Robausch, Martin; Berghold, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of the Austrian Disease Management Program (DMP) ‘Therapie aktiv—Diabetes im Griff’ for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus concerning patient-relevant outcomes (mortality, myocardial infarction and stroke) and costs. Methods Based on routine health insurance data, we conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using a propensity score (PS) matched control group design. The DMP-group consists of participants enrolled in the program during 2008 and 2009 (n = 7181). Out of 208.532 patients with no participation in the DMP up to 2013, PS-matched controls were selected with a matching ratio 1:3. In the PS-model, patient’s characteristics, form of antidiabetic drug therapy, several prescriptions, the number of hospital admissions and days, main discharge diagnoses and costs at baseline were included. Results Over a follow-up period of four years, we observed a significantly lower mortality rate in the DMP-group (9.4%) in comparison with the control group (15.9%, p<0.001). The cumulative number of hospital days and mean annual hospital costs were lower for DMP-participants resulting in significantly lower mean annual total costs, amounting to € 8226.80 per patient in the DMP-group and € 9231.10 in the control group respectively (p<0.001). Conclusions The evaluation shows a survival benefit and an average reduction of costs for participants in the DMP compared with the control-group. Despite we took great effort to ensure comparable groups, we cannot entirely rule out an influence by residual and unmeasured confounding due to the observational study design and the use of routine data. However, the results indicate that the disease management program implemented in Austria improves quality of care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27532885

  18. Consumption of Lean Fish Reduces the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Population Based Cohort Study of Norwegian Women

    PubMed Central

    Rylander, Charlotta; Sandanger, Torkjel M.; Engeset, Dagrun; Lund, Eiliv

    2014-01-01

    Background The effects of fish consumption and n-3 fatty acids on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have recently been debated. Objective We explored the risk of T2DM in relation to consumption of lean fish, fatty fish, fish products and total fish as well as cod liver oil supplements in a representative sample of Norwegian women. Design This was a prospective population based cohort study in 33740 women free of T2DM, stroke, angina or heart attack and with detailed information on important co-variates and dietary intake at baseline. Risk ratios and corresponding 95% CI were estimated using Poisson regression with log-person time as offset. Results Lean fish consumption was inversely associated with T2DM compared to zero intake. Risk ratios and 95% CI for intake of 75 and 100 g lean fish per day were 0.71 (0.51, 0.98) and 0.67 (0.46, 0.98), respectively. There was no effect of intake of fatty fish, fish products, total fish or use of cod liver oil supplements on the risk of T2DM. Conclusion Lean fish consumption of 75–100 g/d had a beneficial effect on T2DM. It remains unclear whether lean fish in itself has a protective effect on T2DM or that lean fish consumers have a protective life-style that we were not able to take into account in this study. Unfavorable effects of fatty fish consumption or use of cod liver oil supplements on T2DM were not observed. PMID:24587071

  19. Incidence of Depression and Associated Factors in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in Quebec, Canada: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lunghi, Carlotta; Moisan, Jocelyne; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Guénette, Line

    2016-05-01

    It has been reported that the risk of depression is higher among people with type 2 diabetes compared with a nondiabetic population. Among diabetic patients, depression has been associated with worse self-care behaviors, poor glycemic control, and an increased risk of diabetes complications. Identifying factors associated with the occurrence of depression may help physicians identify earlier diabetic patients at a high risk of developing depression, improve prevention, and accelerate proper treatment. To our knowledge, very few population-based studies have reported on the incidence of clinically diagnosed depression as a consequence of type 2 diabetes over a long follow-up period. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of clinically diagnosed depression among type 2 diabetic patients newly treated with oral antidiabetic drugs (ADs) and to identify factors associated with the occurrence of depression.Administrative claims data from the public health insurance plan were used to identify a cohort of new oral AD users aged ≥18 years between 2000 and 2006. Patients were followed from oral AD treatment initiation until the diagnosis of depression, ineligibility for the public drug plan, death, or the end of the study, whichever came first. Incidence rates were determined using person-time analysis. Factors associated with depression were identified using multivariable Cox regression analysis.We identified 114,366 new oral AD users, of which 4808 had a diagnosis of depression. The overall incidence rate of depression was 9.47/1000 person-years (PYs) (10.72/1000 PYs for women and 8.27/1000 PYs for men). The incidence of depression was higher during the year after oral AD treatment initiation. Independent factors associated with depression included having had mental disorders other than depression, hospitalization, a higher number of different drugs taken and of physicians visited during the year before oral AD initiation. Moreover, we observed a

  20. Predictors of Surgery Types after Neoadjuvant Therapy for Advanced Stage Breast Cancer: Analysis from Florida Population-Based Cancer Registry (1996–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Azhri, Jamila; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Miao, Feng; Saclarides, Constantine; Byrne, Margaret M.; Avisar, Eli

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Despite the established guidelines for breast cancer treatment, there is still variability in surgical treatment after neoadjuvant therapy (NT) for women with large breast tumors. Our objective was to identify predictors of the type of surgical treatment: mastectomy versus breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in women with T3/T4 breast cancer who received NT. METHODS Population-based Florida Cancer Data System Registry, Florida’s Agency for Health Care Administration, and US census from 1996 to 2009 were linked for women diagnosed with T3/T4 breast cancer and received NT followed by either BCS or mastectomy. Analysis of multiple variables, such as sociodemographic characteristics (race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, age, marital status, and urban/rural residency), tumor’s characteristics (estrogen/progesterone receptor status, histology, grade, SEER stage, and regional nodes positivity), treatment facilities (hospital volume and teaching status), patients’ comorbidities, and type of NT, was performed. RESULTS Of 1,056 patients treated with NT for T3/T4 breast cancer, 107 (10%) had BCS and 949 (90%) had mastectomy. After adjusting with extensive covariables, Hispanic patients (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = [3.50], 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38–8.84, P = 0.008) were more likely to have mastectomy than BCS. Compared to localized SEER stage, regional stage with direct extension (aOR = [3.24], 95% CI: 1.60–6.54, P = 0.001), regional stage with direct extension and nodes (aOR = [4.35], 95% CI: 1.72–11.03, P = 0.002), and distant stage (aOR = [4.44], 95% CI: 1.81–10.88, P = 0.001) were significantly more likely to have mastectomy than BCS. Compared to patients who received both chemotherapy and hormonal therapy, patients who received hormonal NT only (aOR = [0.29], 95% CI: 0.12–0.68, P = 0.004) were less likely to receive mastectomy. CONCLUSION Our study suggests that Hispanic ethnicity, advanced SEER stage, and type of NT are significant

  1. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Nsiah, Kwabena; Shang, V Owusua; Boateng, K Agyenim; Mensah, FO

    2015-01-01

    Background: The diabetic condition is influenced by several factors, some of which can accelerate the disease's progression to various complications that aggravate the morbidity. Aims: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components and the most critical predictive risk factors of MetS in type 2 diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 150 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and was conducted at the Diabetes Centre of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, the Ashanti Region of Ghana, from February, 2013 to April, 2013. The study involved the use of a questionnaire to obtain some information on the diabetics, undertaking anthropometric measurements, as well as collecting blood samples for the measurement of some biochemical parameters; fasting blood glucose and lipid profile. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results: The prevalence of MetS was 58% in the studied Ghanaian population. Hypertension was the commonest risk factor (60%), followed by central obesity (48.67%) and dyslipidemia (37%). Female type 2 diabetics had a higher prevalence of MetS, and carried more components than their male counterparts. Regression analysis showed three factors; femininity, high body mass index and low educational status were the most critical predictive risk factors of MetS, according to this study. Conclusion: With hypertension being the commonest component, future cardiovascular disease prevention strategies should focus attention on its management and prevention, through education. PMID:26097823

  2. Type 2 diabetes among Asian Americans: Prevalence and prevention.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tam H; Nguyen, Thuc-Nhi; Fischer, Taylor; Ha, Won; Tran, Thanh V

    2015-05-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing problem among Asian Americans. Based on the Centers for Disease Control, the age-adjusted prevalence of T2DM for Asian Americans is 9%, placing them at "moderate risk". However differential patterns of disease burden emerge when examining disaggregated data across Asian American ethnic groups; with Filipino, Pacific Islander, Japanese, and South Asian groups consistently described as having the highest prevalence of T2DM. Disentangling and strengthening prevalence data is vital for on-going prevention efforts. The strongest evidence currently available to guide the prevention of T2DM in the United States comes from a large multicenter randomized clinical control trial called the Diabetes Prevention Program, which targets individual lifestyle behavior changes. It has been translated and adopted for some Asian American groups, and shows promise. However stronger study designs and attention to several key methodological considerations will improve the science. Increased attention has also been directed toward population level downstream prevention efforts. Building an infrastructure that includes both individual and population approaches is needed to prevent T2DM among Asian American populations, and is essential for reducing health disparities. PMID:25987951

  3. Type 2 diabetes among Asian Americans: Prevalence and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tam H; Nguyen, Thuc-Nhi; Fischer, Taylor; Ha, Won; Tran, Thanh V

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing problem among Asian Americans. Based on the Centers for Disease Control, the age-adjusted prevalence of T2DM for Asian Americans is 9%, placing them at “moderate risk”. However differential patterns of disease burden emerge when examining disaggregated data across Asian American ethnic groups; with Filipino, Pacific Islander, Japanese, and South Asian groups consistently described as having the highest prevalence of T2DM. Disentangling and strengthening prevalence data is vital for on-going prevention efforts. The strongest evidence currently available to guide the prevention of T2DM in the United States comes from a large multicenter randomized clinical control trial called the Diabetes Prevention Program, which targets individual lifestyle behavior changes. It has been translated and adopted for some Asian American groups, and shows promise. However stronger study designs and attention to several key methodological considerations will improve the science. Increased attention has also been directed toward population level downstream prevention efforts. Building an infrastructure that includes both individual and population approaches is needed to prevent T2DM among Asian American populations, and is essential for reducing health disparities. PMID:25987951

  4. Association of genetic variants of the α-kinase 1 gene with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a longitudinal population-based genetic epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    YAMADA, YOSHIJI; MATSUI, KOTA; TAKEUCHI, ICHIRO; OGURI, MITSUTOSHI; FUJIMAKI, TETSUO

    2015-01-01

    Previously, our studies identified nine genes and the chromosomal region 3q28 as susceptibility loci for myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke or chronic kidney disease in individuals by genome-wide or candidate gene association studies. The present study examined the possible association of 13 polymorphisms at these 10 loci with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in community-dwelling individuals. Study subjects comprised 6,027 individuals (797 subjects with type 2 DM and 5,230 controls) who were recruited to the Inabe Health and Longevity Study, a longitudinal genetic epidemiological study of atherosclerotic, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The subjects were recruited from individuals who visited for an annual health checkup and they were followed up each year (mean follow-up, 5 years). Longitudinal analysis with a generalized estimating equation and with adjustment for age, gender and body mass index (BMI) revealed that rs2116519 (C→T) of FAM78B (P=0.0188), as well as rs2074379 (G→A, P=0.0121) and rs2074388 (A→G, P=0.0053) of ALPK1 were significantly (P<0.05) associated with the prevalence of type 2 DM. Longitudinal analysis with a generalized linear mixed-effect model and with adjustment for age, gender and BMI among all the individuals revealed that rs2116519, rs2074379 and rs2074388 were significantly associated with fasting plasma glucose level (P=0.0352, 0.0017 and 0.0010, respectively) and to blood glycosylated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c) content (P=0.0065, 0.0090 and 0.0079, respectively). Similar analysis among individuals not taking antidiabetic medication revealed that rs2074379 and rs2074388 were associated with the fasting plasma glucose level (P=0.0073 and 0.0042, respectively) and blood hemoglobin A1c content (P=0.0142 and 0.0126, respectively), whereas rs2116519 was associated with blood hemoglobin A1c content only (P=0.0470). ALPK1 may thus be a susceptibility gene for type 2 DM. PMID:26137234

  5. National HIV prevalence estimates for sub-Saharan Africa: controlling selection bias with Heckman-type selection models

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Daniel R; Salomon, Joshua A; Canning, David; Hammitt, James K; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Bärnighausen, Till

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Population-based HIV testing surveys have become central to deriving estimates of national HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. However, limited participation in these surveys can lead to selection bias. We control for selection bias in national HIV prevalence estimates using a novel approach, which unlike conventional imputation can account for selection on unobserved factors. Methods For 12 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted from 2001 to 2009 (N=138 300), we predict HIV status among those missing a valid HIV test with Heckman-type selection models, which allow for correlation between infection status and participation in survey HIV testing. We compare these estimates with conventional ones and introduce a simulation procedure that incorporates regression model parameter uncertainty into confidence intervals. Results Selection model point estimates of national HIV prevalence were greater than unadjusted estimates for 10 of 12 surveys for men and 11 of 12 surveys for women, and were also greater than the majority of estimates obtained from conventional imputation, with significantly higher HIV prevalence estimates for men in Cote d'Ivoire 2005, Mali 2006 and Zambia 2007. Accounting for selective non-participation yielded 95% confidence intervals around HIV prevalence estimates that are wider than those obtained with conventional imputation by an average factor of 4.5. Conclusions Our analysis indicates that national HIV prevalence estimates for many countries in sub-Saharan African are more uncertain than previously thought, and may be underestimated in several cases, underscoring the need for increasing participation in HIV surveys. Heckman-type selection models should be included in the set of tools used for routine estimation of HIV prevalence. PMID:23172342

  6. Matched population-based study examining the risk of type 2 diabetes in people with and without diagnosed hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Schnier, C; Wild, S; Kurdi, Z; Povey, C; Goldberg, D J; Hutchinson, S J

    2016-08-01

    Meta-analyses have found hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection to be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, we examine this association within a large population-based study, according to HCV RNA status. A data-linkage approach was used to examine the excess risk of diagnosed T2DM in people diagnosed with antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV) in Scotland (21 929 anti-HCV(+ves) ; involving 15 827 HCV RNA(+ves) , 3927 HCV RNA(-ves) and 2175 with unknown RNA-status) compared to that of a threefold larger general population sample matched for gender, age and postcode (65 074 anti-HCV(-ves) ). To investigate effects of ascertainment bias the following periods were studied: up to 1 year before (pre-HCV)/within 1 year of (peri-HCV)/more than 1 year post (post-HCV) the date of HCV-diagnosis. T2DM had been diagnosed in 2.9% of anti-HCV(+ves) (including 3.2% of HCV RNA(+ves) and 2.3% of HCV RNA(-ves) ) and 2.7% of anti-HCV(-ves) . A higher proportion of T2DM was diagnosed in the peri-HCV period (i.e. around the time of HCV-diagnosis) for the anti-HCV(+ves) (22%) compared to anti-HCV(-ves) (10%). In both the pre-HCV and post-HCV periods, only those anti-HCV(+ves) living in less deprived areas (13% of the cohort) were found to have a significant excess risk of T2DM compared to anti-HCV(-ves) (adjusted odds ratio in the pre-HCV period: 4.0 for females and 2.3 for males; adjusted hazard ratio in the post-HCV period: 1.5). These findings were similarly observed for both HCV RNA(+ves) (chronic) and HCV RNA(-ves) (resolved). In the largest study of T2DM among chronic HCV-infected individuals to date, there was no evidence to indicate that infection conveyed an appreciable excess risk of T2DM at the population level. PMID:26910297

  7. Poikilocytosis in Rabbits: Prevalence, Type, and Association with Disease

    PubMed Central

    Christopher, Mary M.; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Burton, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are a popular companion animal, food animal, and animal model of human disease. Abnormal red cell shapes (poikilocytes) have been observed in rabbits, but their significance is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and type of poikilocytosis in pet rabbits and its association with physiologic factors, clinical disease, and laboratory abnormalities. We retrospectively analyzed blood smears from 482 rabbits presented to the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1990 to 2010. Number and type of poikilocytes per 2000 red blood cells (RBCs) were counted and expressed as a percentage. Acanthocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 150/482 (31%) rabbits and echinocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 127/482 (27%) of rabbits, both healthy and diseased. Thirty-three of 482 (7%) rabbits had >30% acanthocytes and echinocytes combined. Mild to moderate (>0.5% of RBCs) fragmented red cells (schistocytes, microcytes, keratocytes, spherocytes) were found in 25/403 (6%) diseased and 0/79 (0%) healthy rabbits (P = 0.0240). Fragmentation and acanthocytosis were more severe in rabbits with inflammatory disease and malignant neoplasia compared with healthy rabbits (P<0.01). The % fragmented cells correlated with % polychromasia, RDW, and heterophil, monocyte, globulins, and fibrinogen concentrations (P<0.05). Echinocytosis was significantly associated with renal failure, azotemia, and acid-base/electrolyte abnormalities (P<0.05). Serum cholesterol concentration correlated significantly with % acanthocytes (P<0.0001), % echinocytes (P = 0.0069), and % fragmented cells (P = 0.0109), but correlations were weak (Spearman ρ <0.02). These findings provide important insights into underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms that appear to affect the prevalence and type of naturally-occurring poikilocytosis in rabbits. Our findings support the need to carefully document poikilocytes in research

  8. Overlap in prevalence between various types of environmental intolerance.

    PubMed

    Palmquist, Eva; Claeson, Anna-Sara; Neely, Gregory; Stenberg, Berndt; Nordin, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Environmental intolerance (EI) is characterized by attribution of several, multisystem symptoms to specific environmental exposures, such as exposure to odorous/pungent chemicals, certain buildings, electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and everyday sounds. The symptoms are medically unexplained, non-specific and the symptoms overlap between different types of EI. To approach the issue of underlying mechanisms the matter of overlap in prevalence between intolerances can provide valuable information. The aim of the study was to examine if the overlap between intolerance to odorous/pungent chemicals, certain buildings, EMFs and sounds is larger than the expected overlap if no association would exist between them. The study was using cross-sectional data from the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study in Sweden; a large questionnaire-based survey. 8520 adults (18-79 years) were randomly selected after stratification for age and sex, of whom 3406 (40%) participated. Individuals with the four types of intolerance were identified either through self-report, or by having been physician-diagnosed with a specific EI. The overlaps between the four EIs were greater than predictions based on coincidence for both self-reported and diagnosed cases (except for the overlap between diagnosed intolerance to sounds and EMFs). The results raise the question whether different types of EI share similar underlying mechanisms, or at least that the sufferers of EI share some predisposition to acquire the conditions. PMID:24029726

  9. Recurrence due to Relapse or Reinfection With Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A Whole-Genome Sequencing Approach in a Large, Population-Based Cohort With a High HIV Infection Prevalence and Active Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Houben, Rein M. G. J.; Crampin, Amelia C.; Mzembe, Themba; Mallard, Kim; Coll, Francesc; Khan, Palwasha; Banda, Louis; Chiwaya, Arthur; Pereira, Rui P. A.; McNerney, Ruth; Harris, David; Parkhill, Julian; Clark, Taane G.; Glynn, Judith R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Recurrent tuberculosis is a major health burden and may be due to relapse with the original strain or reinfection with a new strain. Methods. In a population-based study in northern Malawi, patients with tuberculosis diagnosed from 1996 to 2010 were actively followed after the end of treatment. Whole-genome sequencing with approximately 100-fold coverage was performed on all available cultures. Results of IS6110 restriction fragment-length polymorphism analyses were available for cultures performed up to 2008. Results. Based on our data, a difference of ≤10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was used to define relapse, and a difference of >100 SNPs was used to define reinfection. There was no evidence of mixed infections among those classified as reinfections. Of 1471 patients, 139 had laboratory-confirmed recurrences: 55 had relapse, and 20 had reinfection; for 64 type of recurrence was unclassified. Almost all relapses occurred in the first 2 years. Human immunodeficiency virus infection was associated with reinfection but not relapse. Relapses were associated with isoniazid resistance, treatment before 2007, and lineage-3 strains. We identified several gene variants associated with relapse. Lineage-2 (Beijing) was overrepresented and lineage-1 underrepresented among the reinfecting strains (P = .004). Conclusions. While some of the factors determining recurrence depend on the patient and their treatment, differences in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome appear to have a role in both relapse and reinfection. PMID:25336729

  10. Prevalence of obesity, central obesity and the associated factors in urban population aged 20-70 years, in the north of Iran: a population-based study and regression approach.

    PubMed

    Hajian-Tilaki, K O; Heidari, B

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is an undesirable outcome of changing of lifestyle and behaviours. It is also reversible predisposing factor for the development of several debilitating diseases. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence rate of obesity, overweight, central obesity and their associated factors in the north of Iran. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 1800 women and 1800 men with respective mean ages of 37.5 +/- 13.0 and 38.5 +/- 14.2 years of urban population aged 20-70 years living in the north of Iran. The demographic and lifestyle data, in particular, age, gender, marital status, marriage age, family history of obesity, educational level, occupation, occupational and leisure time physical activity, duration of exercise per week, parity and the number of children were collected with a designed questionnaire. Diagnosis of obesity and central obesity were confirmed by the WHO standard recommended method by determining of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval. Over half of the study subjects were at educational levels of high school or higher; 79.4% of population was married and 35.3% had a family history of parental obesity. The majority of subjects in particular women had none or low levels of physical activity. The overall prevalence rates of obesity and overweight were 18.8% and 34.8% respectively. The overall prevalence rate of central obesity was 28.3%. The rate of obesity in women was higher than men (P < 0.0001). In both genders, particularly in the women, the rate of obesity was raised by increasing age. There was an inverse relation between the risk of obesity and marriage age, the high level of education (OR = 0.19, P < 0.0001), severe occupational activity (OR = 0.44, P < 0.0001), the level of exercise (in subjects with 3-4 h exercise per week, OR = 0.58, P < 0.001) and leisure time activity. Marriage

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of type 2 diabetes in older Vietnam-born Australians.

    PubMed

    Tran, Duong Thuy; Jorm, Louisa R; Johnson, Maree; Bambrick, Hilary; Lujic, Sanja

    2014-02-01

    Vietnamese immigrants in Australia represent the second largest Vietnamese community in developed countries, following the United States. However, limited information is available about prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the relative roles of socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and Vietnamese ethnicity per se in this population. This study investigated the prevalence of T2D and its risk factors in older Vietnam-born Australians, in comparison to native-born Australians. The study used baseline questionnaire data from 787 Vietnam- and 196,866 Australia-born individuals (≥45 years), who participated in the 45 and Up Study, which is Australia's largest population-based cohort study. Country of birth specific prevalence of T2D and its risk factors were age-standardised to the 2006 Australian population (≥45 years). Multivariable logistic regression models were built for each group to assess the relationship between T2D and socio-demographic characteristics, family history of diabetes, lifestyle factors and health status. Compared to Australia-born counterparts, Vietnam-born individuals had significantly (p < 0.001) higher age-standardised prevalence of T2D (14.7 vs 7.4 %) and significantly (p < 0.001) lower levels of vegetable consumption (≥5 serves/day, 19.4 vs 33.5 %), physical activity (≥5 sessions/week, 68.7 vs 78.5 %) and overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2), 21.5 vs 62.7 %). The increased risk of T2D associated with a family history of diabetes for Vietnam-born people [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 7.14, 95 % CI 4.15-12.28] was almost double that for Australia-born people (OR 3.77, 95 % CI 3.63-3.90). The patterns of association between T2D and other factors were similar between the two groups. The findings suggest a genetic predisposition to T2D in people of Vietnamese ethnicity. Reducing lifestyle risk factors for diabetes and better management of diabetes are priorities for Vietnam-born populations. PMID

  12. HLA-DQ primarily confers protection and HLA-DR susceptibility in type I (Insulin-dependent) diabetes studied in population-based affected families and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Kockum, I. Univ. of Lund Karolinska Institute, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm ); Wassmuth, R. ); Holmberg, E. ); Michelsen, B. ); Lernmark, A. Karolinska Institute, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm )

    1993-07-01

    The association between HLA-DR and -DQ and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in a defined high-incidence area was analyzed in a total of 58 population-based patients, representing 77% of IDDM patients with age at onset below 16 years, and in 92 unrelated parents in control families without IDDM. HLA haplotypes were confirmed by analyzing first-degree relatives in both groups. Seven different methods were used to analyze risk: (1) odds ratio, (2) absolute risk, (3) haplotype relative risk, (4) transcomplementation relative risk, (5) relative predisposing effects, (6) stratification analysis, and (7) test of predisposing allele on haplotype. DQB1*0302 indicated somewhat higher risk than did DR4, while DR3 had a higher risk than DQB1*0201; however, the 95% confidence intervals of the risk estimates overlapped. The positive association between IDDM and the DQB1*0201-DQA1*0501-DR3 haplotype seems to be due to DR3 or to an unknown linked gene. More important, DQA1*0301 was present among 93% of the patients, and this allele in various transcomplementation combinations with DQBL alleles showed closer association to IDDM than did any other alleles. The strong negative association of the DQB1*0602 allele also in the presence of either DR4 or DQBI*0302 or both suggests that, in a high-risk population for IDDM, HLA-DQ primarily confers protection, perhaps by induction of tolerance. Consistent with known functions, HLA-DR may primarily confer susceptibility, perhaps by induction of autoreactive T lymphocytes. 67 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Prevalence of hyperthyroidism according to type of vegetarian diet

    PubMed Central

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary E

    2015-01-01

    Objective Vegetarian diets may be associated with low prevalence of autoimmune disease, as observed in rural sub-Saharan Africans. Graves’ disease, an autoimmune disorder, is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. We studied prevalence of hyperthyroidism according to dietary pattern in a population with a high proportion of vegetarians. Design Cross-sectional prevalence study. The association between diet and prevalence of hyperthyroidism was examined using multivariate logistic regression analyses controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and salt use. Setting The Adventist Health Study-2 conducted in the USA and Canada. Subjects Church members (n 65 981) provided demographic, dietary, lifestyle and medical history data by questionnaire. Results The prevalence of self-reported hyperthyroidism was 0·9 %. Male gender (OR=0·32; 95 % CI 0·26, 0·41) and moderate or high income (OR=0·67; 95 % CI 0·52, 0·88 and OR=0·73; 95 % CI 0·58, 0·91, respectively) protected against hyperthyroidism, while obesity and prevalent CVD were associated with increased risk (OR=1·25; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·54 and OR=1·92; 95 % CI 1·53, 2·42, respectively). Vegan, lacto-ovo and pesco vegetarian diets were associated with lower risk compared with omnivorous diets (OR=0·49; 95 % CI 0·33, OR=0·72, 0·65; 95 % CI 0·53, 0·81 and OR=0·74; 95 % CI 0·56, 1·00, respectively). Conclusions Exclusion of all animal foods was associated with half the prevalence of hyperthyroidism compared with omnivorous diets. Lacto-ovo and pesco vegetarian diets were associated with intermediate protection. Further study of potential mechanisms is warranted. PMID:25263477

  14. The Impact of Follow-up Type and Missed Deaths on Population-Based Cancer Survival Studies for Hispanics and Asians

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Cyllene R.; Liu, Lihua; Bungum, Timothy J.; Altekruse, Sean F.

    2014-01-01

    Background The accuracy of cancer survival statistics relies on the quality of death linkages and follow-up information collected by population-based cancer registries. Methodological issues on survival data by race-ethnicity in the United States, in particular for Hispanics and Asians, have not been well studied and may undermine our understanding of survival disparities. Methods Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-18 data, we analyzed existing biases in survival statistics when comparing the four largest racial-ethnic groups in the United States, whites, blacks, Hispanics and Asians. We compared the “reported alive” method for calculation of survival, which is appropriate when date of last alive contact is available for all cases, with the “presumed alive” method used when dates of last contact are unavailable. Cox regression was applied to calculate the likelihood of incomplete follow-up (those with less than 5 years of vital status information) according to racial-ethnic group and stage of diagnosis. Finally, potentially missed deaths were estimated based on the numbers of cases with incomplete follow-up for highly fatal cancers. Results The presumed alive method overestimated survival compared with the reported alive method by as much as 0.9–6.2 percentage points depending on the cancer site among Hispanics and by 0.4–2.7 percentage points among Asians. In SEER data, Hispanics and Asians are more likely to have incomplete follow-up than whites or blacks. The assumption of random censoring across race-ethnicity is not met, as among non-white cases, those who have a worse prognosis are more likely to have incomplete follow-up than those with a better prognosis (P < .05). Moreover, death ascertainment is not equal across racial-ethnic groups. Overall, 3% of cancer deaths were missed among Hispanics and Asians compared with less than 0.5% among blacks and whites. Conclusions Cancer survival studies involving Hispanics and Asians

  15. Baseline assessment of prevalence and geographical distribution of HPV types in Chile using self-collected vaginal samples

    PubMed Central

    Ferreccio, Catterina; Corvalán, Alejandro; Margozzini, Paula; Viviani, Paola; González, Claudia; Aguilera, Ximena; Gravitt, Patti E

    2008-01-01

    Background Chile has broad variations in weather, economics and population from the far desert north (Region 1) to the cold, icy south (Region 12). A home-based self-collected vaginal sampling was nested in the 2003 Chilean population-based health survey in order to explore the possibility of a type-specific geographical variation for human papillomavirus Methods The population was a national probability sample of people 17 years of age and over. Consenting women provided self-collected cervicovaginal swabs in universal collection media (UCM). DNA was extracted and typed to 37 HPV genotypes using PGMY consensus PCR and line blot assay. Weighted prevalence rates and adjusted OR were calculated. Results Of the 1,883 women participating in the health survey, 1,219 (64.7%) provided a cervicovaginal sample and in 1,110 (56.2% of participants and 66.5% of those eligible) the samples were adequate for analysis. Refusal rate was 16.9%. HPV prevalence was 29.2% (15.1% high-risk HPV and 14.1% low-risk HPV). Predominant high-risk types were HPV 16, 52, 51, 56 and 58. Predominant low-risk HPVs were HPV 84, CP6108, 62, 53 and 61. High-risk and low-risk HPV rates were inversely correlated between the regions. High-risk HPV prevalence was highest among the youngest women, whereas low-risk HPV increased slightly with age. Conclusion Self-obtained vaginal sampling is adequate for monitoring HPV in the community, for identifying high-risk areas, and for surveying the long term impact of interventions. PMID:18304362

  16. Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Are at an Increased Risk of Gout But This Is Not Due to Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wijnands, José Maria Andreas; van Durme, Caroline Marie Pierre Ghislaine; Driessen, Johanna Hendrika Maria; Boonen, Annelies; Klop, Corinne; Leufkens, Bert; Cooper, Cyrus; Stehouwer, Coen Dirk Adriaan; de Vries, Frank

    2015-08-01

    The relationship between type 2 diabetes and gout is complex. The objective of this study was to understand the role of diabetes itself and its comorbidities within the association between type 2 diabetes and gout.We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) GOLD. Persons with type 2 diabetes were identified as persons on a noninsulin antidiabetic drug (NIAD) between 2004 and 2012, and were matched to 1 control based on age, sex, and general practice. We estimated gout risk in NIAD users using Cox regression analysis. All analyses were stratified for sex.In total, 221,117 NIAD users were identified. NIAD users had an increased risk of gout (hazard ratio (HR) 1.48; 95% CI 1.41-1.54). This association was stronger in women (HR 2.23; 95% CI 2.07-2.41) compared with men (HR 1.19; 95% CI 1.13-1.26). After adjustments for BMI, eGFR, hypertension, renal transplantation, diuretics, statins, low-dose aspirin, ciclosporin, and tacrolimus, the risk disappeared in women (HR 1.01; 95% CI 0.92-1.11) and reversed in men (HR 0.61; 95% CI 0.58-0.66) (P for interaction <0.001). When stratifying gout risk according to HbA1c in male and female NIAD users, we found an inverse association between raising HbA1c and incident gout in men only. Further adjustment gave similar results.Individuals with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of gout. This is not due to diabetes itself, but to the comorbid conditions. Diabetes itself is apparently associated with a decreased risk of gout, especially in men. PMID:26266391

  17. HbA1c overtesting and overtreatment among US adults with controlled type 2 diabetes, 2001-13: observational population based study

    PubMed Central

    Van Houten, Holly K; Ross, Joseph S; Montori, Victor M; Shah, Nilay D

    2015-01-01

    Study question What is the extent and effect of excessive testing for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among adults with controlled type 2 diabetes? Methods A retrospective analysis of data from a national administrative claims database included commercially insured individuals in the USA, 2001-13. Study patients were aged 18 years or older, had type 2 diabetes with stable glycemic control (two consecutive tests showing HbA1c<7.0% within 24 months), did not use insulin, had no history of severe hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia, and were not pregnant. HbA1c testing frequency was measured within 24 months after the second (index) HbA1c test, and classified as guideline recommended (≤2 times/year), frequent (3-4 times/year), and excessive (≥5 times/year). Changes in treatment regimen were ascertained within three months of the index test. Study answer and limitations Of 31 545 patients in the study cohort (mean age 58 years; mean index HbA1c 6.2%), HbA1c testing frequency was excessive in 6% and frequent in 55%. Despite good glycemic control at baseline, treatment was further intensified by addition of glucose lowering drugs or insulin in 8.4% of patients (comprising 13%, 9%, and 7% of those tested excessively, frequently, and per guidelines, respectively; P<0.001). Compared with guideline recommended testing, excessive testing was associated with treatment intensification (odds ratio 1.35 (95% confidence interval 1.22 to 1.50)). Excessive testing rates remained unchanged in 2001-08, but fell significantly after 2009. The odds of excessive testing was 46% lower in 2011 than in 2001-02. The study population is not representative of all US patients with type 2 diabetes because it was restricted to commercially insured adults with stable and controlled diabetes not receiving insulin treatment. The study design did not capture the underuse of HbA1c testing. What this study adds In this US cohort of adults with stable and controlled type 2 diabetes, more than 60% received

  18. Trends of antidiabetic drug use in adult type 2 diabetes in Korea in 2002-2013: Nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ko, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Jung; Park, Jong-Heon; Park, Cheol-Young; Jung, Chang Hee; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Park, Joong-Yeol; Song, Kee-Ho; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Ki-Up; Ko, Kyung-Soo

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated trends in the prescription of antidiabetic medications for patients with type 2 diabetes, focusing on changing patterns of prescriptions and the cost of drugs during the last 10 years. Retrospective data on patients with type 2 diabetes aged 30 years or older were analyzed using information from the National Health Information Database collected by the National Health Insurance Service in Korea from January 2002 to December 2013. We identified patients with type 2 diabetes who had at least one service claim in each year during the study period. The prescribing information was collected and fixed-dose combination tablets were counted as each of their constituent classes. The total number of adults with type 2 diabetes who were treated using antidiabetic agents increased from 0.87 million in 2002 to 2.72 million in 2013 in Korea. Among antidiabetic medications in 2002, sulfonylurea (SU) was the most commonly used agent (87.2%), and metformin was the second (52.9%). However, in 2013, the use of metformin increased to 80.4% of the total antidiabetic prescriptions. The use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor increased remarkably after release in late 2008 and composed one-third of the market share with 1 million prescriptions (38.4%) in 2013. Among the prescriptions for monotherapy, only 13.0% were metformin in 2002, but the amount increased to 53.2% by 2013. In contrast, the use of SU declined dramatically from 75.2% in 2002 to 30.6% in 2013. Dual and triple combinations steadily increased from 35.0% and 6.6% in 2002 to 44.9% and 15.5% in 2013, respectively. In 2013, SU with metformin (41.7%) and metformin with DPP-4 inhibitor (32.5%) combination were most frequently prescribed. The total antidiabetic medication cost increased explosively from U.S. $70 million (82.5 billion won) in 2002 to U.S. $4 billion (480 billion won) in 2013.The use of antidiabetic agents and their costs have been increasing steadily. Metformin is the most commonly

  19. Mental Health Problems among Adolescents with Early-Onset and Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Quality of Life: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Stahl-Pehe, Anna; Lange, Karin; Bächle, Christina; Castillo, Katty; Holl, Reinhard W.; Rosenbauer, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate mental health problems and associations between mental health problems and health-related quality of life in adolescents with type 1 diabetes in comparison with the general population. Method A total of 629 11- to 17-year-olds with early-onset and long-lasting type 1 diabetes and their parents completed comprehensive questionnaires. Mental health was assessed using the parent- and self-report versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The Revised Children's Quality of Life Questionnaire (KINDL-R) was used to measure quality of life. The comparison group (n = 6,813) was a representative sample from the German KiGGS study. Results The proportion of youths with mental health problems (defined as abnormal SDQ total difficulties score) was, based on self-reports, 4.4% in the patient group and 2.9% in the general population (adjusted OR = 1.61, p = 0.044); and based on proxy reports, 7.9% in the patient group and 7.2% in the general population (OR = 1.05, p = 0.788). Youths with type 1 diabetes and self-reported mental health problems scored worse in the KINDL-R subscales of physical well-being (adjusted average difference β = −16.74, p<0.001) and family (β = −11.09, p = 0.017), and in the KINDL-R total score (β = −8.09, p<0.001), than peers with self-reported mental health problems. The quality of life of diabetic adolescents and proxy-reported mental health problems did not differ from peers with proxy-reported mental health problems adjusted for confounders. Conclusions Compared with the general population with mental health problems, the quality of life of adolescents with type 1 diabetes who report mental health problems is more severely impaired. This observation calls for early prevention and intervention as part of pediatric diabetes long-term care. PMID:24637957

  20. A Population-Based Cohort Study of All-Cause and Site-Specific Cancer Incidence Among Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Pei-Chun; Lin, Wei-Hung; Kuo, Te-Hui; Lee, Hui-Mei; Kuo, Chieh; Li, Chung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and cancer incidence remains unclear. We sought to assess the all-cause and site-specific cancer incidence in patients with T1DM. Methods A retrospective cohort study design was employed, in which 14 619 patients with T1DM were retrieved from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance medical claims between 2000 and 2007. The study subjects were followed to the end of 2008, and cancer incidence was assessed. We calculated age-, sex-, and calendar year-standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of all-cause cancer incidence and site-specific neoplasm incidence, with reference to the general population. Results Seven hundred and sixty patients were identified for all-cause cancer over 86 610 person-years, representing an incidence rate of 87.75 cases per 10 000 person-years. The incidence rate was higher in males than in female patients (109.86 vs 69.75 cases per 10 000 person-years). T1DM was associated with a significantly increased SIR of all-cause cancer (1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.22). The sex-specific SIR was significantly elevated in female patients (1.19; 95% CI, 1.07–1.33), but the SIR for male patients was insignificantly elevated (1.09; 95% CI, 0.99–1.20). Pancreatic cancer showed the greatest increase in SIR among both male and female patients with T1DM. Male patients experienced significantly increased SIRs for kidney, rectum, liver, and colon neoplasm, and significantly increased SIRs were noted for ovarian, bladder, and colon cancer in female patients. Conclusions T1DM was associated with a 13% increase in risk of all-cause cancer incidence. Patients with T1DM should be advised to undergo cancer screening for certain types of cancer. PMID:26212724

  1. Regional Differences of Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes Prevalence Are Not Explained by Known Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tamayo, Teresa; Schipf, Sabine; Meisinger, Christine; Schunk, Michaela; Maier, Werner; Herder, Christian; Roden, Michael; Nauck, Matthias; Peters, Annette; Völzke, Henry; Rathmann, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Background We have previously found regional differences in the prevalence of known type 2 diabetes between northeastern and southern Germany. We aim to also provide prevalence estimates for prediabetes (isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), isolated glucose intolerance (i-IGT), combined IFG and IGT) and unknown type 2 diabetes for both regions. Methods Prevalence (95%CI) of prediabetes (i-IFG: fasting glucose 5.6–6.9 mmol/l; i-IGT: 2 h postchallenge gluose 7.8–11.0 mmol/l, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), ≥8 h overnight fasting) and unknown diabetes were analyzed in two regional population-based surveys (age group 35–79 years): SHIP-TREND (Study of Health in Pomerania (northeast), 2008–2012) and KORA F4 (Cooperative Health Research in the region of Augsburg (south), 2006–2008). Both studies used similar methods, questionnaires, and identical protocols for OGTT. Overall, 1,980 participants from SHIP-TREND and 2,617 participants from KORA F4 were included. Results Age-sex-standardized prevalence estimates (95%CI) of prediabetes and unknown diabetes were considerably higher in the northeast (SHIP-TREND: 43.1%; 40.9–45.3% and 7.1%; 5.9–8.2%) than in the south of Germany (KORA F4: 30.1%; 28.4–31.7% and 3.9%; 3.2–4.6%), respectively. In particular, i-IFG (26.4%; 24.5–28.3% vs. 17.2%; 15.7–18.6%) and IFG+IGT (11.2%; 9.8–12.6% vs. 6.6%; 5.7–7.5%) were more frequent in SHIP-TREND than in KORA. In comparison to normal glucose tolerance, the odds of having unknown diabetes (OR, 95%CI: 2.59; 1.84–3.65) or prediabetes (1.98; 1.70–2.31) was higher in the northeast than in the south after adjustment for known risk factors (obesity, lifestyle). Conclusions The regional differences of prediabetes and unknown diabetes are in line with the geographical pattern of known diabetes in Germany. The higher prevalences in the northeast were not explained by traditional risk factors. PMID:25402347

  2. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection: An Observational Population-Based Study in Spain From 2001 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Trujillo, Isabel; González-Pascual, Montserrat; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; de Miguel-Yanes, José M; Méndez-Bailón, Manuel; de Miguel-Diez, Javier; Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; Perez-Farinos, Napoleón; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; López-de-Andrés, Ana

    2016-05-01

    To describe trends in the rates of discharge due to thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD) among patients with and without type 2 diabetes in Spain (2001-2012).We used national hospital discharge data to select all of the patients who were discharged from the hospital after TAAD. We focused our analysis on patients with TAAD in the primary diagnosis field. Discharges were grouped by diabetes status (diabetic or nondiabetic). Incidence was calculated overall and stratified by diabetes status. We divided the study period into 4 periods of 3 years each. We analyzed diagnostic and surgical procedures, length of stay, and in-hospital mortality.We identified 48,746 patients who were discharged with TAAD. The rates of discharge due to TAAD increased significantly in both diabetic patients (12.65 cases per 100,000 in 2001/2003 to 23.92 cases per 100,000 in 2010/2012) and nondiabetic patients (17.39 to 21.75, respectively). The incidence was higher among nondiabetic patients than diabetic patients in 3 of the 4 time periods.The percentage of patients who underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair increased in both groups, whereas the percentage of patients who underwent open repair decreased. The frequency of hospitalization increased at a higher rate among diabetic patients (incidence rate ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.20) than among nondiabetic patients (incidence rate ratio 1.08, 95% CI 1.07-1.11). The in-hospital mortality was lower in diabetic patients than in nondiabetic patients (odds ratio 0.83, 95% CI 0.69-0.99).The incidence rates were higher in nondiabetic patients. Hospitalizations seemed to increase at a higher rate among diabetic patients. Diabetic patients had a significantly lower mortality, possibly because of earlier diagnoses, and improved and more readily available treatments. PMID:27149499

  3. Differential Cardiovascular Outcomes after Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor, Sulfonylurea, and Pioglitazone Therapy, All in Combination with Metformin, for Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ju-Young; Chang, Yoosoo; Kim, Ye-Jee; Lee, Joongyub; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Byung-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Data on the comparative effectiveness of oral antidiabetics on cardiovascular outcomes in a clinical practice setting are limited. This study sought to determine whether a differential risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) exists for the combination of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor plus metformin versus a sulfonylurea derivative plus metformin or pioglitazone plus metformin. Methods We conducted a cohort study of 349,476 patients who received treatment with a DPP-4 inhibitor, sulfonylurea, or pioglitazone plus metformin for type 2 diabetes using the Korean national health insurance claims database. The incidence of total CVD and individual outcomes of myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure (HF), and ischemic stroke (IS) were assessed using the hazard ratios (HRs) estimated from a Cox proportional-hazards model weighted for a propensity score. Results During follow-up, 3,881 patients developed a CVD, including 428 MIs, 212 HFs, and 1,487 ISs. The adjusted HR with 95% confidence interval (CI) for a sulfonylurea derivative plus metformin compared with a DPP-4 inhibitor plus metformin was 1.20 (1.09-1.32) for total CVD; 1.14 (1.04-1.91) for MI; 1.07 (0.71-1.62) for HF; and 1.51 (1.28-1.79) for IS. The HRs with 95% CI for total CVD, MI, HF, and IS for pioglitazone plus metformin were 0.89 (0.81-0.99), 1.05 (0.76-1.46), 4.81 (3.53-6.56), and 0.81 (0.67-0.99), respectively. Conclusions Compared with a DPP-4 inhibitor plus metformin, treatment with a sulfonylurea drug plus metformin was associated with increased risks of total CVD, MI, and IS, whereas the use of pioglitazone plus metformin was associated with decreased total CVD and IS risks. PMID:25992614

  4. Prevalent vertebral deformities predict increased mortality and increased fracture rate in both men and women: a 10-year population-based study of 598 individuals from the Swedish cohort in the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study.

    PubMed

    Hasserius, R; Karlsson, M K; Nilsson, B E; Redlund-Johnell, I; Johnell, O

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a prevalent vertebral deformity predicts mortality and fractures in both men and women. In the city of Malmö, 598 individuals (298 men, 300 women; age 50-80 years) were selected from the city's population and were included in the Swedish part of the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS). At baseline the participants answered a questionnaire and lateral spine radiographs were performed. The prevalence of subjects with vertebral deformity was assessed using a morphometric method. The mortality during a 10-year follow-up period was determined through the register of the National Swedish Board of Health and Welfare. Eighty-five men and 43 women died during the study period. The subsequent fracture incidence during the follow-up period was ascertained by postal questionnaires, telephone interviews and by a survey of the archives of the Department of Radiology in the city hospital. Thirty-seven men and 69 women sustained a fracture during the study period. Data are presented as hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) within brackets. Prevalent vertebral deformity, defined as a reduction by more than 3 standard deviations (SD) in vertebral height ratio, predicted mortality during the forthcoming decade in both men [age-adjusted HR 2.4 (95% CI 1.6-3.9)] and women [age-adjusted HR 2.3 (95% CI 1.3-4.3)]. In men there was an increased mortality due to cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases and in women due to cancer. Prevalent vertebral deformity predicted an increased risk of any fracture during the forthcoming decade in both men [age-adjusted HR 2.7 (95% CI 1.4-5.3)] and women [age-adjusted HR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1-2.9)]. Prevalent vertebral deformity predicted an increased risk of any subsequent fragility fracture in women [age-adjusted HR 2.0 (95% CI 1.1-3.5)]; however, in men the increased risk was nonsignificant [age-adjusted HR 1.9 (95% CI 0.7-5.1)]. In summary, a prevalent vertebral deformity can predict

  5. Prevalence of the F-type lectin domain.

    PubMed

    Bishnoi, Ritika; Khatri, Indu; Subramanian, Srikrishna; Ramya, T N C

    2015-08-01

    F-type lectins are fucolectins with characteristic fucose and calcium-binding sequence motifs and a unique lectin fold (the "F-type" fold). F-type lectins are phylogenetically widespread with selective distribution. Several eukaryotic F-type lectins have been biochemically and structurally characterized, and the F-type lectin domain (FLD) has also been studied in the bacterial proteins, Streptococcus mitis lectinolysin and Streptococcus pneumoniae SP2159. However, there is little knowledge about the extent of occurrence of FLDs and their domain organization, especially, in bacteria. We have now mined the extensive genomic sequence information available in the public databases with sensitive sequence search techniques in order to exhaustively survey prokaryotic and eukaryotic FLDs. We report 437 FLD sequence clusters (clustered at 80% sequence identity) from eukaryotic, eubacterial and viral proteins. Domain architectures are diverse but mostly conserved in closely related organisms, and domain organizations of bacterial FLD-containing proteins are very different from their eukaryotic counterparts, suggesting unique specialization of FLDs to suit different requirements. Several atypical phylogenetic associations hint at lateral transfer. Among eukaryotes, we observe an expansion of FLDs in terms of occurrence and domain organization diversity in the taxa Mollusca, Hemichordata and Branchiostomi, perhaps coinciding with greater emphasis on innate immune strategies in these organisms. The naturally occurring FLDs with diverse domain organizations that we have identified here will be useful for future studies aimed at creating designer molecular platforms for directing desired biological activities to fucosylated glycoconjugates in target niches. PMID:25943580

  6. Prevalence of Risk for Type 2 Diabetes in School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urrutia-Rojas, Ximena; Menchaca, John

    2006-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1 in 3 children born in 2000 in the United States will become diabetic. The odds are higher for African American and Hispanic children as nearly 50% of them will develop diabetes. Random screening is not effective in identifying children at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM);…

  7. Association between population prevalence of smoking and incidence of meningococcal disease in Norway, Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands between 1975 and 2009: a population-based time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Norheim, Gunnstein; Sadarangani, Manish; Omar, Omar; Yu, Ly-Mee; Mølbak, Kåre; Howitz, Michael; Olcén, Per; Haglund, Margaretha; van der Ende, Arie; Pollard, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the prevalence of smoking in the population and incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) among children under 5 years of age. Design Retrospective, longitudinal, observational study. Poisson regression controlled for confounding factors. Setting Norway, Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands between 1975 and 2009. Population Total population of approximately 35 million people in these four countries. Data sources Data were collected from the Ministries of Health, National Statistics Bureaus and other relevant national institutes. Results In Norway, there was a significant positive relationship between the annual prevalence of daily smokers among individuals aged 25–49 years and the incidence of IMD in children under 5 years of age, unadjusted (RR=1.04–1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.07, p<0.001) and after adjustment for time of year (quarter), incidence of influenza-like illness and household crowding (RR=1.05–1.07, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.09, p<0.001). Depending on age group, the risk of IMD increased by 5.2–6.9% per 1% increase in smoking prevalence among individuals aged 25–49 years in adjusted analyses. Using limited datasets from the three other countries, unadjusted analysis showed positive associations between IMD in children related to older smokers in Sweden and the Netherlands and negative associations related to younger smokers in Sweden. However, there were no demonstrable associations between incidence of IMD and prevalence of smoking, after adjustment for the same confounding variables. Conclusions The reduced incidence of IMD in Norway between 1975 and 2009 may partly be explained by the reduced prevalence of smoking during this period. High-quality surveillance data are required to confirm this in other countries. Strong efforts to reduce smoking in the whole population including targeted campaigns to reduce smoking among adults may have a role to play in the prevention of IMD in children

  8. Histocompatibility antigens in a population based silicosis series.

    PubMed Central

    Kreiss, K; Danilovs, J A; Newman, L S

    1989-01-01

    Individual susceptibility to silicosis is suggested by the lack of a uniform dose response relation and by the presence of immunological epiphenomena, such as increased antibody levels and associated diseases that reflect altered immune regulation. Human leucocyte antigens (HLA) are linked with immune response capability and might indicate a possible genetic susceptibility to silicosis. Forty nine silicotic subjects were identified from chest radiographs in a population based study in Leadville, Colorado. They were interviewed for symptoms and occupational history and gave a blood specimen for HLA-A, -B, -DR, and -DQ typing and for antinuclear antibody, immune complexes, immunoglobulins, and rheumatoid factor. Silicotic subjects had twice the prevalence of B44 (45%) of the reference population and had triple the prevalence of A29 (20%), both of which were statistically significant when corrected for the number of comparisons made. No perturbations in D-region antigen frequencies were detected. B44-positive subjects were older at diagnosis and had less dyspnoea than other subjects. A29-positive subjects were more likely to have abnormal levels of IgA and had higher levels of immune complexes. This study is the first to find significant HLA antigen excesses among a series of silicotic cases and extends earlier reported hypotheses that were based on groups of antigens of which B44 and A29 are components. PMID:2818968

  9. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity in rural Mapuche population from Chile.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bravo, F; Carrasco, E; Santos, J L; Calvillán, M; Larenas, G; Albala, C

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and obesity in the Mapuche natives from rural areas in Chile. This cross-sectional study involved men (n = 95) and women (n = 224) older than 20 y from an aboriginal ethnic group (Mapuches), residing in rural communities from the south of Chile. Prevalence of Type 2 diabetes and IGT was calculated according to the World Health Organization criteria. Data on age, degree of ancestral purity, obesity, and hypertension were also obtained. The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in rural Mapuche natives was estimated as 3.2% (95% CI: 0.7--9.0) in men and 4.5% (95% CI: 2.2--8.1) in women. The overall prevalence of obesity was 56.1% (95% CI: 50.5--61.6): 40.0% (95% CI: 30.1--40.8) in men and 62.9% (95% CI: 56.3--69.3) in women (P value < 0.001). These data suggest that the prevalence of obesity and Type 2 diabetes has been increasing during recent years in the Mapuche communities. The prevalence estimated in this study is higher than that reported 15 y ago. This suggests an important role of lifestyle changes as a possible explanation for epidemiologic transition. PMID:11312066

  10. Type 2 diabetes, but not obesity, prevalence is positively associated with ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R; Heidari-Bakavoli, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Cold exposure stimulates energy expenditure and glucose disposal. If these factors play a significant role in whole body energy balance, and glucose homeostasis, it is predicted that both obesity and type 2 diabetes prevalence would be lower where it is colder. Previous studies have noted connections between ambient temperature and obesity, but the direction of the effect is confused. No previous studies have explored the link of type 2 diabetes to ambient temperature. We used county level data for obesity and diabetes prevalence across the mainland USA and matched this to county level ambient temperature data. Average ambient temperature explained 5.7% of the spatial variation in obesity and 29.6% of the spatial variation in type 2 diabetes prevalence. Correcting the type 2 diabetes data for the effect of obesity reduced the explained variation to 26.8%. Even when correcting for obesity, poverty and race, ambient temperature explained 12.4% of the variation in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, and this significant effect remained when latitude was entered into the model as a predictor. When obesity prevalence was corrected for poverty and race the significant effect of temperature disappeared. Enhancing energy expenditure by cold exposure will likely not impact obesity significantly, but may be useful to combat type 2 diabetes. PMID:27477955

  11. Type 2 diabetes, but not obesity, prevalence is positively associated with ambient temperature

    PubMed Central

    Speakman, John R.; Heidari-Bakavoli, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Cold exposure stimulates energy expenditure and glucose disposal. If these factors play a significant role in whole body energy balance, and glucose homeostasis, it is predicted that both obesity and type 2 diabetes prevalence would be lower where it is colder. Previous studies have noted connections between ambient temperature and obesity, but the direction of the effect is confused. No previous studies have explored the link of type 2 diabetes to ambient temperature. We used county level data for obesity and diabetes prevalence across the mainland USA and matched this to county level ambient temperature data. Average ambient temperature explained 5.7% of the spatial variation in obesity and 29.6% of the spatial variation in type 2 diabetes prevalence. Correcting the type 2 diabetes data for the effect of obesity reduced the explained variation to 26.8%. Even when correcting for obesity, poverty and race, ambient temperature explained 12.4% of the variation in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, and this significant effect remained when latitude was entered into the model as a predictor. When obesity prevalence was corrected for poverty and race the significant effect of temperature disappeared. Enhancing energy expenditure by cold exposure will likely not impact obesity significantly, but may be useful to combat type 2 diabetes. PMID:27477955

  12. Human Papillomavirus Type-Specific Prevalence in the Cervical Cancer Screening Population of Czech Women

    PubMed Central

    Tachezy, Ruth; Smahelova, Jana; Kaspirkova, Jana; Salakova, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Background Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)types has been recognized as a causal factor for the development of cervical cancer and a number of other malignancies. Today, vaccines against HPV, highly effective in the prevention of persistent infection and precancerous lesions, are available for the routine clinical practice. Objectives The data on the prevalence and type-specific HPV distribution in the population of each country are crucial for the surveillance of HPV type-specific prevalence at the onset of vaccination against HPV. Methods Women attending a preventive gynecological examination who had no history of abnormal cytological finding and/or surgery for cervical lesions were enrolled. All samples were tested for the presence of HPV by High-Risk Hybrid Capture 2 (HR HC2) and by a modified PCR-reverse line blot assay with broad spectrum primers (BS-RLB). Results Cervical smears of 1393 women were analyzed. In 6.5% of women, atypical cytological findings were detected. Altogether, 28.3% (394/1393) of women were positive for any HPV type by BS-RLB, 18.2% (254/1393) by HR HC2, and 22.3% (310/1393) by BS-RLB for HR HPV types. In women with atypical findings the prevalence for HR and any HPV types were significantly higher than in women with normal cytological findings. Overall, 36 different HPV types were detected, with HPV 16 being the most prevalent (4.8%). HPV positivity decreased with age; the highest prevalence was 31.5% in the age group 21-25 years. Conclusions Our study subjects represent the real screening population. HPV prevalence in this population in the Czech Republic is higher than in other countries of Eastern Europe. Also the spectrum of the most prevalent HPV types differs from those reported by others but HPV 16 is, concordantly, the most prevalent type. Country-specific HPV type-specific prevalences provide baseline information which will enable to measure the impact of HPV vaccination in the future. PMID:24265750

  13. Temporal trends in socioeconomic inequalities in obesity prevalence among economically-active working-age adults in Scotland between 1995 and 2011: a population-based repeated cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jin; Coombs, Ngaire; Stamatakis, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Obesity has been an alarming public health issue in the UK. Socioeconomic inequalities in obesity have been well-studied, however limited studies addressed inequality trends over time and none of them in Scotland. Methods We used nationally-representative data from the Scottish Health Survey (SHeS) across four time points between 1995 and 2010/2011. Respondents were economically active adults aged 16–65 years (N=27 059, 12 218 men). Socioeconomic position (SEP) was assessed by highest educational qualification, occupational social class and household income (2003 and 2010/2011 only) as well as a composite SEP score. We carried out sex-stratified logistic regression analyses (adjusted for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, self-rated general health and physical activity) and we computed the relative index of inequality (RII). Results Between 1995 and 2010/2011, obesity prevalence increased in both men (from 17% in 1995 to 30.2% in 2010/2011, 2010/2011 OR of obesity compared with 1995=2.07; 95% CI 1.83 to 2.34) and women (from 18.4% to 30.2%; OR=1.85; 95% CI 1.66 to 2.07). Increase in obesity prevalence was observed across all socioeconomic strata, within which the most rapid increase was among males from the highest socioeconomic groups. RII showed that educational inequalities in obesity narrowed for both men (p=0.007) and women (p=0.008). Income inequalities in obesity between 2003 and 2010/2011 in women were also reduced (p=0.046) on the relative scale. Conclusions Obesity prevalence in Scotland increased substantially between 1995 and 2010/2011, although socioeconomic inequalities have decreased due to the more rapid increase in the higher socioeconomic strata. PMID:26088806

  14. Seasonal prevalence of Clostridium botulinum type C in the sediments of the northern California wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandler, Renee J.; Rocke, T.E.; Samuel, M.D.; Yuill, Thomas M.

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of Clostridium botulinum type C (% of positive sediment samples) was determined in 10 marshes at Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), located in the Central Valley of California (USA), where avian botulism epizootics occur regularly. Fifty-two percent of 2,200 sediment samples collected over an 18-mo period contained C. botulinum type C (both neurotoxic and aneurotoxic) which was present throughout the year in all 10 marshes. The prevalence of C. botulinum type C was similar in marshes with either high or low botulism losses in the previous 5 yr. Marshes with avian botulism mortality during the study had similar prevalences as marshes with no mortality. However, the prevalence of C. botulinum type C was higher in marshes that remained flooded all year (permanent) compared with marshes that were drained in the spring and reflooded in the fall (seasonal). The prevalence of C. botulinum type C declined in seasonal marshes during the dry period. Similar declines did not occur in the permanently flooded marshes.

  15. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtypes Prevalence in Central China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhe; Li, Wen-jie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To study the epidemic characteristics, transmission sources and routes of various subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and sequence variations in Henan, central China. To provide theoretical foundation for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) prevention strategy in this region where the primary HIV transmission route was through former paid blood donation. Materials and Methods HIV-1 gene env and gag were amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from uncultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from 1,287 HIV-1 confirmed samples in Henan. Results Among 1,287 samples, 5 HIV-1 strains were found including subtypes B' (95.9%), C (0.47%) and recombinant subtypes CRF 07_BC (1.09%), CRF 08_BC (1.79%) and CRF 01_AE (0.78%). Phylogenetic tree analysis found that 1,234 Henan subtype B' were closely related to those commonly found in Thailand, and were distantly related to other international subtypes. The dominant strain in former blood plasma donors (FPDs) was subtype B', and the dominant strains in sexual transmission were subtype B' and BC. Among HIV patients who were most likely infected through routes other than paid blood donation, the percentage of non-B' subtypes was much higher than those of FPD. Conclusion These findings suggest that the prevailing strain of HIV-1 in Henan is subtype B', similar to the B' subtype found in Thailand. In addition, for the first time we found subtypes C and recombinant subtypes CRF07_BC, CRF08_BC and CRF01_AE in this region. Indicating that the subtype feature of HIV-1 became more complicated than before in central China. PMID:19881967

  16. Celiac disease in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a prevalence study in western Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Greco, Domenico; Pisciotta, Maria; Gambina, Francesco; Maggio, Filippo

    2013-02-01

    The association between celiac disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus is well known. Up to now, celiac disease prevalence in children and adults with type 1 diabetes in Sicily has not been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of celiac disease in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who come from a defined geographical area in western Sicily and to investigate the clinical features of these subjects. The records of 492 consecutive patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus referred in a period of 5 years were analyzed. During the period of the survey, out of 492 patients with type 1 diabetes, 22 (4.5 %) had a previous diagnosis of celiac disease. There were 14 females and 8 males; these patients showed a mean age of 13 years at diabetes onset. Diagnosis of celiac disease was often simultaneous or subsequent to that of diabetes. Autoimmune thyroiditis was coexisting in 8 patients (36 %). Our data confirm, in a Sicilian population, the not unusual association between celiac disease and type 1 diabetes, although prevalence rate is lower than in others Italian studies. Autoimmune thyroiditis is present with high prevalence in these patients. Celiac disease diagnosis often followed onset of type 1 diabetes, particularly in female subjects with a young age at diabetes onset; therefore, in these subjects, an active search for the presence of celiac disease is warranted for many years after appearance of diabetes. PMID:22707396

  17. Prevalence and types of birth defects in Ontario swine determined by mail survey.

    PubMed Central

    Partlow, G D; Fisher, K R; Page, P D; MacMillan, K; Walker, A F

    1993-01-01

    Preweaning mortality in piglets constitutes a major loss to the swine industry. Congenital defects account for a small but significant proportion of these losses. To implement appropriate strategies to reduce such losses, it is necessary to identify the specific causes and their relative importance. Consequently, a mail survey of swine production in Ontario was carried out to determine the prevalence and types of birth defects. Statistical comparisons of the prevalence of overall defects were made between accurate and estimate records, breeds (cross vs. purebred), size of operation (number of sows) and geographic location. The mean litter size of 11 pigs born per sow was not significantly different for those with accurate versus estimate records, but the difference in the prevalence of defective pigs (live and dead) was significant (accurate 3.1% vs. estimate 4.1%). Splayleg (spraddleleg) was the most common defect. The next four defects for both groups were belly rupture, other rupture, ridglings and other, but not in the same ranking. Purebred and small farm operations (< 25 sows) had a significantly higher prevalence of birth defects for estimated data only. Geographic location had no effect. Further work is required to determine whether recording prevalence of birth defects in Ontario swine will provide a useful monitor of environmental stress. The study provides a baseline for the prevalence and type of defects in Ontario swine. PMID:8490809

  18. Metformin and other glucose-lowering drug initiation and rates of community-based antibiotic use and hospital-treated infections in patients with type 2 diabetes: a Danish nationwide population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Irene; Sørensen, Henrik T; Thomsen, Reimar W

    2016-01-01

    Objective Data on early risk of infection in patients receiving their first treatment for type 2 diabetes are limited. We examined rates of community-based antibiotic use and hospital-treated infection in initiators of metformin and other glucose-lowering drugs (GLDs). Design Population-based cohort study using medical databases. Setting General practice and hospitals in Denmark. Participants 131 949 patients with type 2 diabetes who initiated pharmacotherapy with a GLD between 2005 and 2012. Exposure Initial GLD used for pharmacotherapy. Main outcome measures We computed rates and adjusted HRs of community-based antibiotic use and hospital-treated infection associated with choice of initial GLD with reference to metformin initiation, using an intention-to-treat approach. Results The rate of community-based antibiotic use was 362 per 1000 patient-years at risk (PYAR) and that for hospital-treated infection was 51 per 1000 PYAR. Compared with metformin, the risk of hospital-treated infection was slightly higher in sulfonylurea initiators (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.16) and substantially higher in insulin initiators (HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.54 to 1.72) initiators after adjustment for comorbid conditions, comedications and other confounding factors. In contrast, virtually no difference was observed for overall community-based antibiotic use (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.04, for sulfonylurea initiators; and 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.07, for insulin initiators). Conclusions Rates of community-based antibiotic treatment and hospitalisation for infection were high in patients receiving their first treatment for type 2 diabetes and differed with the choice of initial GLD used for pharmacotherapy. PMID:27543589

  19. Prevalence and clinical profile of celiac disease in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rajesh; Madvariya, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (TIDM) in follow-up in a Tertiary Care Referral Centre in Western India and to describe the clinical features indicative of CD in screened patients of TIDM. Study Design: In this single center observational cross-sectional study, 71 children who were diagnosed with TIDM were subjected to screening for CD with tissue transglutaminase antibody testing. Those who tested positive were offered intestinal biopsy for the confirmation of diagnosis. Clinical profiles of both groups of patients were compared and manifestations of CD were delineated. Results: The study revealed the prevalence of CD (based on serology) in children with Type 1 diabetes as 15.49%. The prevalence of biopsy-confirmed CD was 7.04%. Of the diagnosed CD patients, one-third were symptomatic at the time of screening while the majority was asymptomatic. The major clinical features indicative of CD were intestinal symptoms, anemia, rickets, and short stature. Autoimmune thyroid disease was prevalent in 29.6% of the patients with TIDM followed by CD. Conclusions: The high prevalence of CD in children with Type 1 diabetes emphasizes the need for routine screening programs to be in place for these high-risk populations. The clinical profile of patients with CD further elaborates the indicators of CD and the need to screen for them. PMID:26693431

  20. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions among patients with diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2*

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Miguel Franklin Alves; Barbosa, Kevan Guilherme Nóbrega; Pereira, Jozinete Vieira; Bento, Patrícia Meira; Godoy, Gustavo Pina; Gomes, Daliana Queiroga de Castro

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patients with diabetes mellitus have been associated with a number of changes in the oral cavity, such as gingivitis, periodontitis, mucosal diseases, salivary dysfunction, altered taste, and burning mouth. OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in patients with diabetes mellitus. METHODS A cross-sectional observational study between August and October 2012 with a convenience sampling was performed for 51 patients with diabetes mellitus (type 1 and type 2). The study consisted of two phases: 1) a questionnaire application; 2) intraoral clinical examination. For the analysis of data, we used descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact test in bivariate analysis (significance level of 0.05), and Poisson Regression. RESULTS The prevalence of oral lesions was 78.4%. Traumatic ulcers (16.4%) and actinic cheilitis (12.7%) were the most prevalent lesions. The lips (35.3%) and tongue (23.5%) were the most common location. The bivariate analysis showed an association with the type of diabetes, and two variables (age and comorbidity) were quite close to the significance level. In the Poisson Regression analysis, only diabetes type 2 remained significant after adjusting the model. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study show a high prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in diabetic patients. The oral mucosal lesions are mostly associated with diabetes type 2. PMID:25672299

  1. Type, Number or Both? A Population-Based Matched Case-Control Study on the Risk of Fall Injuries among Older People and Number of Medications beyond Fall-Inducing Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Laflamme, Lucie; Monárrez-Espino, Joel; Johnell, Kristina; Elling, Berty; Möller, Jette

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Drug use is a modifiable risk factor for fall-related injuries in older people. Whereas the injurious effect of polypharmacy is established, that of low numbers of medications has not been fully ascertained. Neither do we know whether it is the number per se or the type of medications that actually matters. We assessed this question for fall injuries leading to hospitalization. Design National register-based, population-based, matched case-control study. Setting Community dwellers aged 65+ years living in Sweden between March 2006 and December 2009. Methods Cases (n = 64,399) were identified in the national inpatient register and four controls per case were randomly matched by gender, date of birth and residential area. The association between number of prescribed medications, assessed through linkage with the Swedish prescribed drug register, and the risk of injurious falls was estimated with odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for demographic and health status. Results The number of medications was associated with an increased risk of fall injury in a dose-response fashion, even after adjustment for marital status, comorbidity and number of fall-risk-inducing drugs (FRIDs). Using ten or more medications was associated with an almost two-fold higher risk (adjusted OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.66 to 1.88). When stratified by use (or not) of at least one FRID, the association weakened slightly among both non-users (adjusted OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.34 to 1.67) and users (adjusted OR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.58 to 1.77). Conclusion In older people, not only large but also small numbers of medications may affect the risk for them to sustain injurious falls. Although the mechanisms lying behind this are complex, the finding challenges the prevention strategies targeting either specific types of medications (FRIDs) or high numbers of them. PMID:25815483

  2. Dynapenic Obesity and Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged Japanese Men

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Ryoko; Sawada, Susumu S.; Lee, I-Min; Matsushita, Munehiro; Gando, Yuko; Okamoto, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Koji; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Miyachi, Motohiko; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Background The independent and combined associations of muscle strength and obesity on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men remain unclear. Methods Hand grip strength was cross-sectionally evaluated between 2011 and 2013 to assess muscle strength in 5039 male workers aged 40 to 64 years. Weight and height were measured, and overweight/obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL and/or hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% and/or self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, was evaluated. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the prevalence of type 2 diabetes were obtained using a logistic regression model. Results In total, 611 participants had type 2 diabetes, and 1763 participants were overweight/obese. After adjustment for covariates, we found an inverse association between muscle strength and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (P for trend <0.01). In addition, when the analyses were stratified by obesity status, the multivariable-adjusted OR per 2-standard-deviation increase in muscle strength was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.49–0.83) in the overweight/obese group, compared to a weaker relationship in the normal-weight group (OR 0.79 per 2-standard-deviation increase; 95% CI, 0.60–1.06). Conclusions Dynapenia, an age-related decrease in muscle strength, is associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, and this relationship is stronger in overweight/obese middle-aged Japanese men than in normal-weight men. PMID:26256772

  3. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05), and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis. PMID:26499132

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of gastroparesis-related symptoms among patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Almogbel, Rakan A; Alhussan, Fulwa A; Alnasser, Sulaiman A; Algeffari, Metab A

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of gastroparesis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) vary widely. Our aim is to estimate the prevalence of clinical symptoms of gastroparesis among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and explore the relationship between gastroparesis and other risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional study evaluating 147 type 2 diabetics using the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptoms Index (GCSI). A GCSI Total Score ≥ 1.90 were chosen as having definite symptoms of gastroparesis. All patients completed a demographic questionnaire and interviewed to complete the. Demographic Data, disease duration, Medication, comorbidities, recent blood glucose and HbA1C were collected and investigated. Results The prevalence of clinical symptoms of gastroparesis among type 2 diabetics was 10.8%. Clinical symptoms of gastroparesis were significantly correlated to HbA1c (p=0.001), blood glucose (p= 0.003), duration of diabetes (p= 0.02) and comorbidities (p=0.009). The most common symptoms were bloating, stomach fullness and early satiety (63.94%, 55.1% and 48.3% respectively). In logistic regression analysis, female gender emerged as significant independent predictors of the presence of at least one symptom. Conclusions The prevalence of clinical symptoms of gastroparesis observed in the Saudi patientsdiagnosedwithtype2 diabetes was 10.8% and is independently associated with poor controlled diabetes, hyperglycemia, and long duration of diabetes and history of Co-morbid conditions. PMID:27610063

  5. A National Study of Obesity Prevalence and Trends by Type of Rural County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, J. Elizabeth; Doescher, Mark P.; Jerant, Anthony F.; Hart, L. Gary

    2005-01-01

    Context: Obesity is epidemic in the United States, but information on this trend by type of rural locale is limited. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of and recent trends in obesity among US adults residing in rural locations. Methods: Analysis of data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for the years 1994-1996 (n =…

  6. Prevalence, Types and Determinants of Complementary and Alternative Medications among Health Clinic Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almousa, H.; Rabie, Faten M.; Alsamghan, Awad S.; Alsaluli, Mobarak; Albqami, Sultan; Almusa, Mona; Al-shahrani, Areej

    2015-01-01

    Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) covers a wide range of over 100 healing approaches, philosophies and therapeutic modalities that are not provided by conventional medicine. Objectives: The study was aimed at identifying the prevalence, types and determinants of CAM use, sources of information about CAM that patients usually depend upon…

  7. Prevalence and Types of Aggressive Behaviour among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, A. G.; Mercier, C.; Lachapelle, Y.; Brunet, A.; Morin, D.; Roy, M. -E.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Aggressive behaviours represent major obstacles to the integration into society of individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and pose significant management issues for carers. Methods: The present study assessed the prevalence and severity of five types of aggressive behaviours in 3165 adult men and women with ID receiving services…

  8. High Prevalence of Arcobacter Carriage in Older Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fera, Maria Teresa; Russo, Giuseppina T.; Di Benedetto, Antonino; La Camera, Erminia; Orlando, Angelo; Giandalia, Annalisa; Ruffa, Vincenzo F.; Lanza, Giulia; Lentini, Valeria; Perdichizzi, Giuseppa; Cucinotta, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    Arcobacters are potential pathogens related to diarrheic infections and, rarely, septicaemia. This study evaluated the prevalence of arcobacters in stool samples of subjects with (n = 38) and without (n = 61) type 2 diabetes by using cultural and molecular techniques. Three Arcobacter positive cultures were found, all among diabetic subjects, whereas molecular analysis showed a carriage rate of 79% and 26.2% in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes (P < .001), respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that type 2 diabetes (β = 1.913; 95%CI: 2.378–19.285; P < .0001) and age (β = 1.744; 95%CI: 2.077–15.766; P = .001) were the only factors independently associated with arcobacters colonization in this population. Our study demonstrated a high prevalence of arcobacters colonization in type 2 diabetic and older subjects. The clinical significance and the potential health risk associated with these emerging species remain to be determined. PMID:20508853

  9. Urbanization and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Southern Asia: A systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheema, Arsalan; Adeloye, Davies; Sidhu, Simrita; Sridhar, Devi; Chan, Kit Yee

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is one of the diseases considered to be the main constituents of the global non–communicable disease (NCD) pandemic. Despite the large impact that NCDs are predicted to have, particularly in developing countries, estimates of disease burden are sparse and inconsistent. This systematic review transparently estimates prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Southern Asia, its association with urbanization and provides insight into the policy challenges facing the region. Methods The databases Medline and PubMed were searched for population–based studies providing estimates of diabetes prevalence in the Southern Asia region. Studies using WHO diagnostic criteria of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥7.0mmol/L and/or 2h–plasma glucose (2hPG) ≥11.1mmol/L were included. Data from eligible studies was extracted into bubble graphs, and trend lines were applied to UNPD figures to estimate age–specific prevalence in the regional population. Estimates specific to sex, area of residency, and diagnostic method were compared and trends analysed. Results A total of 151 age–specific prevalence estimates were extracted from 39 studies. Diabetes prevalence was estimated to be 7.47% for 2005 and 7.60% for 2010. Prevalence was strongly associated with increased age, male gender and urban residency (P < 0.001). Conclusion Diabetes prevalence in Southern Asia is high and predicted to increase in the future as life expectancy rises and the region continues to urbanise. Countries in this region need to improve NCD surveillance and monitoring so policies can be informed with the best evidence. Programs for prevention need to be put in place, and health system capacity and access needs to be assessed and increased to deal with the predicted rise in NCD prevalence. PMID:24976963

  10. Gender, trauma type, and PTSD prevalence: a re-analysis of 18 nordic convenience samples

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to examine a possible trauma type related variance in the gender difference of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence. Methods An analysis was conducted on 18 convenience sample studies including data from a total of 5220 participants. The studies all applied the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire – part IV to assess PTSD. Cohen’s d was used to measure variance in gender differences. Trauma types included disasters and accidents, violence, loss, chronic disease and non-malignant diseases. Results The results showed an overall gender difference in PTSD prevalence similar to previous findings. Thus, women had a two-fold higher prevalence of PTSD than men. Besides categorical analyses, dimensional analyses of PTSD severity were also performed; the latter were associated with twice as large effect sizes. Females were more vulnerable to PTSD after disasters and accidents, followed by loss and non-malignant diseases. In violence and chronic disease, the gender differences were smallest. Conclusions The findings support the existence of a trauma type related variance in gender differences in PTSD prevalence. PMID:23107002

  11. Effect of farm type on within-herd Salmonella prevalence, serovar distribution, and antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Rasschaert, G; Michiels, J; Arijs, D; Wildemauwe, C; De Smet, S; Heyndrickx, M

    2012-05-01

    Salmonella represents a major challenge to the pig industry, as pork presents a risk for human salmonellosis. In this study, we have examined the effect of farm type on the prevalence of fattening pigs shedding Salmonella on 12 farms at risk for harboring Salmonella. On six open (grow-to-finish) and six closed (farrow-to-finish) farms, the prevalence of pigs shedding Salmonella was determined on two occasions approximately 2 months apart. The serovar, phage type, and antimicrobial resistance of the obtained Salmonella isolates were determined. On all farms, pigs shedding Salmonella were detected on at least one of the two sampling days. The mean within-herd prevalence was 7.8%. Closed farms were two times less likely to have pigs shedding Salmonella than open farms. On open farms, the odds of finding Salmonella shedding in pigs were 1.9 times higher when sampling was performed at slaughter age than when samples were taken halfway through the fattening period. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was the most predominant serotype, with a prevalence of 62 to 63% on both farm types. Of all the Salmonella Typhimurium isolates, 65% had the tetraresistant profile ASSuT (ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline) with or without additional resistance to trimethoprim-sulfonamide. Phage type DT120 seemed to be especially associated with this antimicrobial-resistant profile. The prevalence of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates showing resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, sulfonamide, trimethoprim-sulfonamide, and lincomycin hydrochloride and spectinomycin sulfate tetrahydrate was significantly higher on open farms than on closed farms. PMID:22564934

  12. Global and Regional Estimates of Prevalent and Incident Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infections in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Looker, Katharine J.; Magaret, Amalia S.; May, Margaret T.; Turner, Katherine M. E.; Vickerman, Peter; Gottlieb, Sami L.; Newman, Lori M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) commonly causes orolabial ulcers, while HSV-2 commonly causes genital ulcers. However, HSV-1 is an increasing cause of genital infection. Previously, the World Health Organization estimated the global burden of HSV-2 for 2003 and for 2012. The global burden of HSV-1 has not been estimated. Methods We fitted a constant-incidence model to pooled HSV-1 prevalence data from literature searches for 6 World Health Organization regions and used 2012 population data to derive global numbers of 0-49-year-olds with prevalent and incident HSV-1 infection. To estimate genital HSV-1, we applied values for the proportion of incident infections that are genital. Findings We estimated that 3709 million people (range: 3440–3878 million) aged 0–49 years had prevalent HSV-1 infection in 2012 (67%), with highest prevalence in Africa, South-East Asia and Western Pacific. Assuming 50% of incident infections among 15-49-year-olds are genital, an estimated 140 million (range: 67–212 million) people had prevalent genital HSV-1 infection, most of which occurred in the Americas, Europe and Western Pacific. Conclusions The global burden of HSV-1 infection is huge. Genital HSV-1 burden can be substantial but varies widely by region. Future control efforts, including development of HSV vaccines, should consider the epidemiology of HSV-1 in addition to HSV-2, and especially the relative contribution of HSV-1 to genital infection. PMID:26510007

  13. Prevalence and Type of BRCA Mutations in Hispanics Undergoing Genetic Cancer Risk Assessment in the Southwestern United States: A Report From the Clinical Cancer Genetics Community Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Clague, Jessica; Martir-Negron, Arelis; Ogaz, Raquel; Herzog, Josef; Ricker, Charité; Jungbluth, Chelsy; Cina, Cheryl; Duncan, Paul; Unzeitig, Gary; Saldivar, J. Salvador; Beattie, Mary; Feldman, Nancy; Sand, Sharon; Port, Danielle; Barragan, Deborah I.; John, Esther M.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Larson, Garrett P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence and type of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) mutations among Hispanics in the Southwestern United States and their potential impact on genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA). Patients and Methods Hispanics (n = 746) with a personal or family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer were enrolled in an institutional review board–approved registry and received GCRA and BRCA testing within a consortium of 14 clinics. Population-based Hispanic breast cancer cases (n = 492) enrolled in the Northern California Breast Cancer Family Registry, negative by sequencing for BRCA mutations, were analyzed for the presence of the BRCA1 ex9-12del large rearrangement. Results Deleterious BRCA mutations were detected in 189 (25%) of 746 familial clinic patients (124 BRCA1, 65 BRCA2); 21 (11%) of 189 were large rearrangement mutations, of which 62% (13 of 21) were BRCA1 ex9-12del. Nine recurrent mutations accounted for 53% of the total. Among these, BRCA1 ex9-12del seems to be a Mexican founder mutation and represents 10% to 12% of all BRCA1 mutations in clinic- and population-based cohorts in the United States. Conclusion BRCA mutations were prevalent in the largest study of Hispanic breast and/or ovarian cancer families in the United States to date, and a significant proportion were large rearrangement mutations. The high frequency of large rearrangement mutations warrants screening in every case. We document the first Mexican founder mutation (BRCA1 ex9-12del), which, along with other recurrent mutations, suggests the potential for a cost-effective panel approach to ancestry-informed GCRA. PMID:23233716

  14. THE PREVALENCE OF NARROW OPTICAL Fe II EMISSION LINES IN TYPE 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Xiaobo; Wang Jianguo; Wang Tinggui; Wang Huiyuan; Zhou Hongyan; Ho, Luis C.; Fan Xiaohui

    2010-10-01

    From detailed spectral analysis of a large sample of low-redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we demonstrate-statistically for the first time-that narrow optical Fe II emission lines, both permitted and forbidden, are prevalent in type 1 AGNs. Remarkably, these optical lines are completely absent in type 2 AGNs, across a wide luminosity range, from Seyfert 2 galaxies to type 2 quasars. We suggest that the narrow Fe II-emitting gas is confined to a disk-like geometry in the innermost regions of the narrow-line region on physical scales smaller than the obscuring torus.

  15. Prevalence of Non-Volitional Sex Types and Associated Factors: A National Sample of Young People

    PubMed Central

    Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.; Somers, Carlijn; de Graaf, Hanneke; Meijer, Suzanne; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-volitional sex (NVS) in young people continues to be a major public health problem with long-term negative health outcomes. For the first time, the prevalence of different types of NVS and associated factors are compared between young people with same-sex sexual activities and those who have not. Methods We obtained data from 10,401 young women and men (aged 12 to 25 years) who participated in a population study on sexual health, the Netherlands. We calculated and compared the prevalence of six types of NVS between women who had sex with men (yWSM) or women (yWSW), and men who had sex with women (yMSW) or men (yMSM). In sexually experienced participants (n = 5986) logistic regression analyses were applied to assess associations with NVS by assault or penetration. Analyses were weighted to represent the Dutch population. Results The prevalence of NVS ranged from 1% to 61%, depending on type. Prevalence was higher for young women (any: 40.6%) than men (any: 20.4%), and highest for yMSM and yWSW. Prevalence of NVS by assault or penetration was related to a range of socio-demographic, behavioral and social factors, which were largely similar regardless of sex or same-sex-experiences. The NVS perpetrators were in over 70% of cases known to the victim; 1 in 4 cases of NVS by penetration were accompanied by violence. Conclusion A substantial proportion of young people in the Netherlands have experienced NVS. Medical professionals, educators and caregivers should integrate services to continue to address NVS by targeting young people’s multifaceted risk profiles and evidenced based interventions for doing so are needed. PMID:26214829

  16. Prevalence of human papillomavirus types in cervical cancerous and precancerous lesions of Ecuadorian women.

    PubMed

    Mejía, Lorena; Muñoz, Diana; Trueba, Gabriel; Tinoco, Leopoldo; Zapata, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide and it is responsible for most cases of uterine cancer. In Ecuador there is limited information about HPV types (and variants) in cancerous lesions; however, identifying the type-specific HPV prevalence in cervical lesions of women living in Ecuador is important to better predict the impact of HPV prophylactic vaccination in this country. We studied the prevalence of HPV types in cervical cancerous or precancerous lesions from 164 Ecuadorian women and found that 86.0% were HPV positive. The most common types were HPV16 (41.8%) and HPV58 (30.5%). Interestingly, HPV18 was detected only in 2.8% of the HPV-positive samples. Fifteen DNA sequences (genes E6 and L1) from 16 samples positive for HPV16 belonged to the European lineage, considered one of the least carcinogenic lineages, and 1 (6.25%) to the Asian-American lineage. Similar analysis in 12 HPV58 positive samples showed that 10 (83.3%) sequences grouped in sublineage A2, which belongs to the oldest HPV58 lineage, 1 belonged to A3 and 1 to lineage C. This study suggests that the currently used HPV vaccines (bivalent and tetravalent) may have lower effectiveness in Ecuador than in other geographic locations where HPV18 is more prevalent. PMID:26113443

  17. Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Type Distribution Among 968 Women in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    So, Kyeong A; Hong, Jin Hwa; Lee, Jae Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Geographic variation in the prevalence of carcinogenic types and human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution is closely associated with the impact of HPV prophylactic vaccines. We determined the prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes among healthy women in Korea. Methods: This study included 968 healthy women who were examined at a health promotion center of the Korea University Guro Hospital between January and June 2013. Each participant had a Pap test and a HPV DNA test using the Anyplex™ II HPV 28 Detection system, which detects 19 high-risk HPVs (HR HPVs) and 9 low-risk HPVs (LR HPVs). Women with abnormal cytology and/or positivity for HR HPVs were referred to colposcopic biopsy. Results: Overall HR HPV prevalence based on the assay was 33.7%. Among them, 225 women had single infection and 101 women had multiple infection. The most frequently occurring HR HPV types were 53 (6.5%), 52 (6.1%), 58 (4.8%), 16 (4.5%), and 68 (4.2%). The most frequently occurring LR HPV types were 54 (5.4%), 70 (3.8%), 42 (3.6%), 61 (3.4%), and 44 (3.1%). The prevalence of HPV 16 was highest (17.6%) among women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and HPV 16 was strongly associated with a diagnosis of CIN2/3 (odds ratio = 20.5; 95% confidence interval: 3.9–107.1; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: HPV 53, 52, 58, 16, and 68 were common HR HPV types among healthy Korean women. HPV16 was the most common type in high-grade CIN lesions, as shown in most studies worldwide. The results might be useful information for cervical cancer prevention in South Korea. PMID:27390739

  18. Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating in Type 1 Diabetes: Prevalence, Screening, and Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Hanlan, Margo E.; Griffith, Julie; Patel, Niral

    2013-01-01

    This review is focused on the prevalence of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Recent research indicates higher prevalence rates of eating disorders among people with type 1 diabetes, as compared to their peers without diabetes. Eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors – especially insulin omission – are associated with poorer glycemic control and serious risk for increased morbidity and mortality. Screening should begin in pre-adolescence and continue through early adulthood, as many disordered eating behaviors begin during the transition to adolescence and may persist for years. Available screening tools and treatment options are reviewed. Given the complexity of diabetes management in combination with eating disorder treatment, it is imperative to screen early and often, in order to identify those most vulnerable and begin appropriate treatment in a timely manner. PMID:24022608

  19. Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 variants and rare HPV types in the central Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Castro, M M; Farias, I P; Borborema-Santos, C M; Correia, G; Astolfi-Filho, S

    2011-01-01

    Infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the primary causes of mortality by cancer in northern Brazil. Sexually active women from Manaus, Amazonas, without cytological alterations and women with pre-malignant and malignant cytological alterations were examined for HPV virus, identified via PCR and sequencing. The target region for this study was part of the L1 capsid gene of HPV. Twenty-three samples that were PCR-positive were sequenced. Analysis of 336 bp demonstrated a high incidence of high-risk HPV types in the population of Manaus, identified as HPVs 16, 33, 58, 66, 68. HPV type 16 was the most prevalent, presenting two variants similar to the Asian-American (AA) and East-Asian type (As) variants. A rare HPV type 13 related to "Heck's disease" was also detected. This preliminary provides important information about the HPV circulating in Amazonas State. PMID:21341210

  20. Prevalence of celiac disease in adult type 1 patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Burcu; Oner, Can; Bayramicli, Oya Uygur; Yorulmaz, Elif; Feyizoglu, Guneş; Oguz, Aytekin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Celiac disease, an autoimmune disease, is related to immune mediated intolerance to gluten. Some studies suggest that Celiac Disease was 20 times more frequent in type 1 patients with diabetes. The objective of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of celiac disease in hospital based type 1 diabetic adults. Methods: Our study was carried out retrospectively in Medeniyet University Goztepe Training and Educational Hospital in Istanbul between 2012–2013. The cohort comprised 482 type 1 patients with diabetes attending the diabetes outpatient clinic. The data were analyzed by SPSS 10.5 package program. Student’s t tests is used for comparative analyses. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The cohort included 482 type 1 patients with diabetes. Fifty seven of them were not evaluated for Endomysium antibody positivity. Fifteen of the remaining 425 patients were positive for anti endomysial antibody (3.5%). The prevalence of biopsy proven celiac disease was 2.3% (10/425). There was no significant difference between Endomysial antibody positive and negative groups in regard of age, sex, or duration of the disease. Conclusion: This study confirms that the celiac disease is common in type 1 diabetic patients. Since a small proportion of celiac patients are symptomatic this disorder should be screened in all adult type 1 patients with diabetes by antiendomysium antibody. PMID:26430419

  1. Anthropometric markers and their association with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: which marker is best for prediction? Pooled analysis of four German population-based cohort studies and comparison with a nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Saskia; Kluttig, Alexander; Tiller, Daniel; Fricke, Julia; Müller, Grit; Schipf, Sabine; Völzke, Henry; Schunk, Michaela; Meisinger, Christa; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Heidemann, Christin; Moebus, Susanne; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Werdan, Karl; Kuss, Oliver; Tamayo, Teresa; Haerting, Johannes; Greiser, Karin Halina

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the association between different anthropometric measurements and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to assess their predictive ability in different regions of Germany. Methods Data of 10 258 participants from 4 prospective population-based cohorts were pooled to assess the association of body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) with incident T2DM by calculating HRs of the crude, adjusted and standardised markers, as well as providing receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. Differences between HRs and ROCs for the different anthropometric markers were calculated to compare their predictive ability. In addition, data of 3105 participants from the nationwide survey were analysed separately using the same methods to provide a nationally representative comparison. Results Strong associations were found for each anthropometric marker and incidence of T2DM. Among the standardised anthropometric measures, we found the strongest effect on incident T2DM for WC and WHtR in the pooled sample (HR for 1 SD difference in WC 1.97, 95% CI 1.75 to 2.22, HR for WHtR 1.93, 95% CI 1.71 to 2.17 in women) and in female DEGS participants (HR for WC 2.24, 95% CI 1.91 to 2.63, HR for WHtR 2.10, 95% CI 1.81 to 2.44), whereas the strongest association in men was found for WHR among DEGS participants (HR 2.29, 95% CI 1.89 to 2.78). ROC analysis showed WHtR to be the strongest predictor for incident T2DM. Differences in HR and ROCs between the different markers confirmed WC and WHtR to be the best predictors of incident T2DM. Findings were consistent across study regions and age groups (<65 vs ≥65 years). Conclusions We found stronger associations between anthropometric markers that reflect abdominal obesity (ie, WC and WHtR) and incident T2DM than for BMI and weight. The use of these measurements in risk prediction should be encouraged. PMID:26792214

  2. Relationship of HbA1c variability, absolute changes in HbA1c, and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes: a Danish population-based prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Skriver, Mette V; Sandbæk, Annelli; Kristensen, Jette K; Støvring, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Objective We assessed the relationship of mortality with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) variability and with absolute change in HbA1c. Design A population-based prospective observational study with a median follow-up time of 6 years. Methods Based on a validated algorithm, 11 205 Danish individuals with type 2 diabetes during 2001–2006 were identified from public data files, with at least three HbA1c measurements: one index measure, one closing measure 22–26 months later, and one measurement in-between. Medium index HbA1c was 7.3%, median age was 63.9 years, and 48% were women. HbA1c variability was defined as the mean absolute residual around the line connecting index value with closing value. Cox proportional hazard models with restricted cubic splines were used, with all-cause mortality as the outcome. Results Variability between 0 and 0.5 HbA1c percentage point was not associated with mortality, but for index HbA1c ≤8% (64 mmol/mol), a variability above 0.5 was associated with increased mortality (HR of 1 HbA1c percentage point variability was 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) for index HbA1c 6.6–7.4%). For index HbA1c≤8%, mortality increased when HbA1c declined, but was stable when HbA1c rose. For index HbA1c>8%, change in HbA1c was associated with mortality, with the lowest mortality for greatest decline (HR=0.9 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.98) for a 2-percentage point decrease). Conclusions For individuals with an index HbA1c below 8%, both high HbA1c variability and a decline in HbA1c were associated with increased mortality. For individuals with index HbA1c above 8%, change in HbA1c was associated with mortality, whereas variability was not. PMID:25664182

  3. Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes and Risk of Progression to Type 2 Diabetes: a Global Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yeyi; Zhang, Cuilin

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing epidemic of diabetes mellitus affecting populations at different life stages, the global burden of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is not well assessed. Systematically synthesized data on global prevalence estimates of GDM are lacking, particularly among developing countries. The hyperglycemic intrauterine environment as exemplified in pregnancies complicated by GDM might not only reflect but also fuel the epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We comprehensively reviewed available data in the past decade in an attempt to estimate the contemporary global prevalence of GDM by country and region. We reviewed the risk of progression from GDM to T2DM as well. Synthesized data demonstrate wide variations in both prevalence estimates of GDM and the risk of progression from GDM to T2DM. Direct comparisons of GDM burden across countries or regions are challenging given the great heterogeneity in screening approaches, diagnostic criteria, and underlying population characteristics. In this regard, collaborative efforts to estimate global GDM prevalence would be a large but important leap forward. Such efforts may have substantial public health implications in terms of informing health policy makers and healthcare providers for disease burden and for developing more targeted and effective diabetes prevention and management strategies globally. PMID:26742932

  4. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Vietnam: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Chung T; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Lee, Andy H; Binns, Colin W

    2015-09-01

    This systematic review examined trends in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and identified its risk factors among adults in Vietnam. PubMed, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, and Scopus databases were searched to identify relevant literature. The search yielded 10 studies, including 2 national surveys and 8 regional investigations. National prevalence estimates of T2DM were 2.7% in 2002 and 5.4% in 2012. The estimates for the northern region were 1.4% in 1994 and 3.7% in 2012 and those for the southern region were 3.8% in 2004, 7.0% in 2008, and 12.4% in 2010. The major determinants of T2DM included older age, urban residence, high levels of body and abdominal fat, physical inactivity, sedentary lifestyle, genetic factors, and hypertension. The prevalence rate by gender was variable in both national and regional studies. There was insufficient information available on some potentially important risk factors such as smoking, dietary intake, income, and educational level. Our review signifies a rapidly growing prevalence of T2DM in Vietnam and suggests that extra effort is required to prevent and control this disease. PMID:26187848

  5. No relevant excess prevalence of myotonic dystrophy type 2 in patients with suspected fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, J; Verrips, A; Tieleman, A A; Scheffer, H; Cats, H A; den Broeder, A A; van Engelen, B G M

    2016-06-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is a rare, autosomal dominant, multisystem disorder with proximal weakness, myotonia, pain and cataract as important symptoms. Given the assumed underreporting of DM2 in the Netherlands combined with the predominant role of pain in DM2 as well as in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), we hypothesized there will be an excess prevalence of DM2 in patients with (suspected) FMS. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of DM2 in patients with suspected FMS. A prevalence of 2% was considered a relevant excess frequency. Between November 2011 and April 2014, 398 patients with suspected FMS who had been assessed by a rheumatologist participated in this cross-sectional study. 95% of the study population was female, with a mean age of 42 years. The final ICD-9 diagnoses were collected, in 96% the diagnosis was FMS. 92% met the 2010 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) diagnostic criteria for FMS. A questionnaire including neuromuscular symptoms was completed. Creatine kinase was determined, and genetic testing for DM2 was conducted in all patients. DM2 was established in only one patient (0.25%, 95% CI 0.04-1.4%), thus disapproving our hypothesis of a relevant prevalence of 2%. Our results suggest that patients with suspected FMS should not routinely be tested for DM2. PMID:27132119

  6. Prevalence, distribution and correlates of endocervical human papillomavirus types in Brazilian women

    PubMed Central

    Lippman, S A; Sucupira, M C A; Jones, H E; Luppi, C G; Palefsky, J; van de Wijgert, J H H M; Oliveira, R L S; Diaz, R S

    2010-01-01

    Summary We determined the prevalence, distribution and correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in 386 mixed-income, sexually active women in São Paulo, Brazil. Endocervical samples were tested for HPV DNA with L1 primers MY09 and MY11; negative and indeterminate samples were retested using GP 5+/6+ consensus primers. HPV was detected in 35% of all women; high-risk/probable high-risk types in 20%; low-risk types in 7%; and an indeterminate type in 10%. Twenty-five HPV types were found overall: 17 (probable) high-risk types and eight low-risk types. Approximately one-third (29%) of women with HPV infection were positive for type 16 or 18 and 36% were positive for types 6, 11, 16 or 18. The presence of (probable) high-risk HPV was associated with younger age, more lifetime sex partners and abnormal vaginal flora. Additional studies mapping the distribution of HPV types worldwide are necessary to prepare for vaccination programmes and direct future vaccine development. PMID:20089995

  7. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes among older people in Africa: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Werfalli, Mahmoud; Engel, Mark E; Musekiwa, Alfred; Kengne, Andre P; Levitt, Naomi S

    2016-01-01

    Little information is available on the prevalence of diabetes in people aged 55 years or older living on the African continent. We did a systematic review of the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in studies reported from Jan 1, 2000, to June 30, 2015, to provide accurate data for monitoring future trends. We did a comprehensive literature search using an African search filter and extracted and synthesised data from full papers. Among 1473 identified citations, 41 studies providing 49 separate data contributions involving 16 086 individuals met the inclusion criteria. The overall prevalence of diabetes was 13·7% (95% CI 11·3-16·3) and was higher in studies based on the oral glucose tolerance test (23·9%, 17·7-30·7, 12 contributions with 3415 participants) than fasting blood glucose criteria (10·9%, 8·9-13·0, 37 contributions with 12 671 participants; p<0·001). Prevalence was also higher in non-STEPS than in STEPS studies (17·1%, 95% CI 13·6-20·9) vs 9·6%, 6·6-13·0, p=0·003) and in urban than in rural settings (19·7%, 15·0-24·9 vs 7·9%, 4·6-12·0, p=0·0002), but did not differ significantly across age groups, sex, sample size, year of publication, region, or population coverage. These data highlight the need to reduce diabetes risk factors and implement adequate management strategies. In addition, they suggest that uniform diagnostic methods should be used across African countries and elsewhere to enable assessment of trends in diabetes prevalence and the success of diabetes prevention strategies. A collaborative initiative is required between key international and national diabetes and geriatric organisations to improve diabetes care for the older population in Africa and worldwide. PMID:26548379

  8. Prevalence and determinants of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Mikaliūkštienė, Aldona; Žagminas, Kęstutis; Juozulynas, Algirdas; Narkauskaitė, Laura; Sąlyga, Jonas; Jankauskienė, Konstancija; Stukas, Rimantas; Šurkienė, Genė

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression is associated with a variety of diabetes complications, including diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and macrovascular complications. The prevalence of the symptoms of anxiety (32%) and depression (22.4%) in patients with diabetes is considerably higher than in general population samples (10%). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Material/Methods This survey was conducted during 2007–2010. In total, 1500 patients were invited to participate in the study. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure depression and anxiety for the evaluation of the depressive state and anxiety. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 17.0. Results More than 70% of all respondents who participated in the study had diabetes mellitus complications (72.2%). The prevalence of mild to severe depression score was 28.5% (95% CI 25.7–31.4). The prevalence of anxiety was 42.4% (95% CI 39.3–45.5). Anxiety was more frequent among females (46.8%) than among males (34.7%) (p<0.001). A significant negative trend was observed between prevalence of anxiety and depression, and age and education (p for trend <0.001). Conclusions A significant association between depression and diabetic complications was identified (p<0.05). Duration of diabetes was a risk factor significantly associated with higher scores of anxiety among the patients with T2DM. PMID:24492643

  9. Prevalence and temporal pattern of hospital readmissions for patients with type I and type II diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqian; Liu, Yuanyuan; Lv, Yuanjun; Li, Changping; Cui, Zhuang; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Repeated hospitalisation for patients is common and costly, yet partly preventable. However, we know little about readmissions for patients with diabetes in China. The current study aims to assess the frequency and temporal pattern of and risk factors for all-cause readmission among hospitalised patients with diabetes in Tianjin, China. Method This retrospective, cohort analysis used the Tianjin Basic Medical Insurance Register System data of 2011. The patterns of and the reasons for all-cause readmissions for patients with diabetes were described. The differences of readmission-free survival (RFS) between newly and previously diagnosed patients were compared. Time-dependent Cox models were established to identify the risk factors for readmission at different time intervals after discharge. Results Readmission rates were approximately 30%, with the most common diagnoses of cerebral infarction (for type I) or diabetes (for type II) for patients with diabetes. The majority of patients were readmitted to the hospital after more than 90 days, followed by 8–30 days (all p=0.002). Approximately 37.2% and 42.8% of readmitted patients with type I and type II diabetes were diagnosed previously, and the RFS rates for previously diagnosed patients were significantly lower than for newly diagnosed patients at any time interval after discharge. Prior history of diabetes (all p<0.05), length of stay (all p<0.01) and reimbursement ratio (90% vs >92%, all p<0.0002) were consistently associated with the RFS for patients readmitted to the hospital at <7, 8–30, 31–60 and 61–90 days. Conclusions Hospital readmissions among patients with diabetes were affected by the diagnosis status. Patient characteristics and the quality of healthcare might regulate short-interval and long-interval hospital readmission, respectively, after discharge. PMID:26525716

  10. Prevalence of Autoantibodies and HLA DR, DQ in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Usha; Singh, Gyanendra; Agrawal, Neeraj Kumar; Singh, Rana Gopal; Kumar, Shashi Bhushan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Type I diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is caused by autoimmune destruction of β-cells of pancreas. Two forms of T1DM are known called as 1A (autoimmune) and 1B (idiopathic). Aim Aim was to study the prevalence of Anti-TTG IgA, Anti-TPO, GADA, ZnT8 and IA-2 autoantibodies and HLA DR and DQ genes and its diagnostic value in T1DM. Materials and Methods Thirty four T1DM patients, 59 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and 28 healthy controls were included in study. Antibodies levels were estimated by ELISA and HLA typing was performed by SSP-PCR method. Result The prevalence of various autoantibodies in T1DM were Anti-TTG 14.7%, Anti-TPO 17.65%, GADA 38.23%, ZnT8 11.76% and IA-2 5.88%. Only GADA and ZnT8 were significantly positive in T1DM. GADA (66.67%) and ZnT8 (33.33%) positivity was more in patients below 15 years age while levels of other antibodies were higher after 15 years age. All autoantibodies were detected in higher frequency in T1DM than in T2DM and controls. HLA DR and DQ typing showed highly significant increase in DRB1*0301 (61.76%, p=0.00) and DQB1*0201 (64.71%, p=0.00) in T1DM. Subjects with HLA DRB1*0301 and DQB1*0201 had 80-100% positive prevalence of GADA, ZnT8, IA-2, Anti-TTG and Anti-TPO autoantibodies. Conclusion Combination of GADA antibody with DRB1 and DQB1 estimation improved diagnosis of T1A than insulin antigen specific antibodies alone.