Science.gov

Sample records for por cisticerco racemoso

  1. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  2. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ~40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ~60%, is found on ~28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (~8% of Asians and ~13% of Caucasians) at ?152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ~30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically-relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  3. Infecci髇 por VIH y el riesgo de c醤cer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que describe el mayor riesgo de ciertos tipos de c醤ceres que presentan las personas con infecci髇 por VIH. Dichos c醤ceres son el sarcoma de Kaposi, los linfomas de Hodgkin y no Hodgkin, y los c醤ceres de ano, de c閞vix, de h韌ado y de pulm髇. Trata tambi閚 de lo que las personas con infecci髇 por VIH pueden hacer para reducir su riesgo de c醤cer o para detectar temprano la enfermedad.

  4. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  5. Centros oncol贸gicos designados por el NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El programa de centros oncol贸gicos designados por el Instituto Nacional del C谩ncer (NCI) reconoce a los centros de todo el pa铆s que cumplen con rigurosos criterios para participar en proyectos avanzados de primer nivel para la investigaci贸n multidisciplinaria del c谩ncer.

  6. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Cancer.gov

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevenci髇 de m醩 de 795 000 muertes por c醤cer de pulm髇 en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este pa韘 hubiera cesado despu閟 de la publicaci髇 d

  7. Disminuyen en los Estados Unidos las infecciones por VPH.

    Cancer.gov

    La infecci贸n por los tipos del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) en el blanco de la vacuna cuadrivalente se redujo en casi dos tercios en las adolescentes desde que se recomend贸 la vacunaci贸n en los Estados Unidos.

  8. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P.聽gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. PMID:23075153

  9. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Cancer.gov

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevenci贸n de m谩s de 795 000 muertes por c谩ncer de pulm贸n en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este pa铆s hubiera cesado despu茅s de la publicaci贸n d

  10. Prenatal Diagnosis of Antley-Bixler Syndrome and POR Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Oldani, Elena; Garel, Catherine; Bucourt, Martine; Carbillon, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, fetus Final Diagnosis: Antley-Bixler syndrome Symptoms: Craniosynostosis midface hypoplasia femoral bowing radiohumeral synostosis Medication: None Clinical Procedure: Prenatal diagnosis of severe fetal bone disease using detailed ultrasonography and computed tomography Specialty: Obstetrics and Gynecology Maternal-Fetal Medicine Objective: Rare disease Background: Prenatal diagnosis of severe bone diseases is challenging and requires complete and precise analysis of fetal anomalies to guide genetic investigation and parental counselling. Case Report: We report a rare case of Antley-Bixler syndrome prenatally diagnosed at 26 weeks gestation by ultrasound and computed tomography in a 28-year-old woman with a history of early termination of pregnancy for 搈alposition of the inferior limbs. The prenatal ultrasound scan showed severe femoral bowing and frontal bossing. Taking into account the high probability of a recurrent severe skeletal disorder, a computed tomography (CT) scan was proposed. CT findings revealed bilateral femora deformation, craniosynostosis, severe midface hypoplasia, and radiohumeral synostosis. These anomalies strongly suggested Antley-Bixler syndrome. Sequencing of the POR gene in the fetus and the parents revealed compound heterozygous mutations in exon 9 and intron 7, both inherited from each parent, and this finding allowed genetic counseling. Conclusions: The first step in the proper prenatal diagnosis of fetal bone disorders is the precise analysis of ultrasonographic images. However, when a severe fetal inherited disorder is strongly suspected in late mid-trimester, CT may be discussed and usefully contribute to diagnosis and prognosis assessment. PMID:26670660

  11. Prenatal Diagnosis of Antley-Bixler Syndrome and POR Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Oldani, Elena; Garel, Catherine; Bucourt, Martine; Carbillon, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prenatal diagnosis of severe bone diseases is challenging and requires complete and precise analysis of fetal anomalies to guide genetic investigation and parental counselling. CASE REPORT We report a rare case of Antley-Bixler syndrome prenatally diagnosed at 26 weeks' gestation by ultrasound and computed tomography in a 28-year-old woman with a history of early termination of pregnancy for "malposition of the inferior limbs". The prenatal ultrasound scan showed severe femoral bowing and frontal bossing. Taking into account the high probability of a recurrent severe skeletal disorder, a computed tomography (CT) scan was proposed. CT findings revealed bilateral femora deformation, craniosynostosis, severe midface hypoplasia, and radiohumeral synostosis. These anomalies strongly suggested Antley-Bixler syndrome. Sequencing of the POR gene in the fetus and the parents revealed compound heterozygous mutations in exon 9 and intron 7, both inherited from each parent, and this finding allowed genetic counseling. CONCLUSIONS The first step in the proper prenatal diagnosis of fetal bone disorders is the precise analysis of ultrasonographic images. However, when a severe fetal inherited disorder is strongly suspected in late mid-trimester, CT may be discussed and usefully contribute to diagnosis and prognosis assessment. PMID:26670660

  12. Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T.M.

    2010-06-25

    PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP-PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction.

  13. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kaelynn

    2012-05-08

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  14. Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

  15. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Ben韙ez, J F; Blomstr鰉, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hern醤dez-Baumgarten, E; Hern醤dez-J醬regui, P; Ram韗ez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge. PMID:26728078

  16. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-?. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  17. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Ense襻 Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Ense襻 por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,

  18. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were as substitutions for other prepositions

  19. Informe a la Naci贸n de mortalidad por c谩ncer sigue bajando

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Naci贸n sobre el Estado del C谩ncer, de 1975 a 2009, indica que los 铆ndices generales de mortalidad por c谩ncer siguen bajando en los Estados Unidos en hombres y mujeres, entre todos los grupos raciales y 茅tnicos principales y para todo

  20. Porcine Corneal Ocular Reversibility Assay (PorCORA) predicts ocular damage and recovery for global regulatory agency hazard categories.

    PubMed

    Piehl, Michelle; Carathers, Micheal; Soda, Rachel; Cerven, Daniel; DeGeorge, George

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examined the capacity of the Porcine Corneal Ocular Reversibility Assay (PorCORA) to classify the reversibility of ocular effects for 32 test compounds (20 reversible, 12 irreversible) from various chemical classes. PorCORA predicted 28 of 32 compounds correctly when compared to historical rabbit eye test data. The correlation coefficient for PorCORA versus historical rabbit test data was 0.84, based on the last day of damaged cornea reversal. These results demonstrate a high correlation between corneal irritation recovery time in the PorCORA and the rabbit eye. When compared to historical Modified Maximal Average Score (MMAS) in rabbit eyes, PorCORA yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.80, demonstrating ability to predict MMAS. PorCORA was highly predictive of regulatory agency ocular hazard classification categories, resulting in 91% accuracy for EU R41 and GHS Category 1. PorCORA was also predictive of EPA Category I (88% accuracy). Overall, the accuracy (88-91%), sensitivity (79-86%), specificity (94%), positive predictivity (94%), and negative predictivity (85-89%) for all three regulatory classifications indicate that ocular irritation hazardous effects were well predicted by the PorCORA. This study suggests that PorCORA could help discriminate between EU R36 and R41, GHS Categories 1 and 2, and EPA Categories I and II. PMID:21708243

  1. Detecci贸n y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por L谩ser de radicales libres formados por Disociaci贸n Multifot贸nica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; D铆az, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociaci贸n multifot贸nica inducidos por radiaci贸n l谩ser infrarroja (DMI) es la producci贸n de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cin茅ticas y espectrosc贸picas. La disociaci贸n de mol茅culas poliat贸micas en el IR con l谩seres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energ铆a molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formaci贸n de fragmentos en el estado electr贸nico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitaci贸n vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifot贸nicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la t茅cnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por L谩ser (LIF) para la detecci贸n y an谩lisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos l谩seres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociaci贸n mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, as铆 como de la distribuci贸n de energ铆a interna con que 茅stas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociaci贸n de, entre otras, las siguientes mol茅culas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la se帽al LIF obtenida con determinaci贸n de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitaci贸n y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formaci贸n, variaci贸n de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los l谩seres de disociaci贸n y prueba, etc.

  2. Aquisi玢o fonol骻ica do portugu阺 brasileiro por crian鏰s ouvintes bil韓gues bimodais e surdas usu醨ias de implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisi玢o fonol骻ica do Portugu阺 Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crian鏰s ouvintes bil韓gues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito L韓gua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crian鏰s surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito Libras. Para a avalia玢o do sistema fonol骻ico das crian鏰s em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomea玢o, do ABFW Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crian鏰s ouvintes bil韓gues bimodais e a crian鏰 surda usu醨ia de IC com acesso irrestrito Libras apresentaram processo de aquisi玢o fonol骻ica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa et醨ia. Considera-se que a aquisi玢o precoce e o acesso irrestrito Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crian鏰s no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

  3. Intermit阯cia alfv阯ica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.

    2003-08-01

    Dados medidos no vento solar r醦ido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanet醨io s鉶 dominados por flutua珲es Alfv阯icas, caracterizadas por uma alta correla玢o entre as varia珲es do campo magn閠ico e da velocidade do plasma. As flutua珲es exibem muitas caracter韘ticas esperadas em turbul阯cia magneto-hidrodin鈓ica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermit阯cia e espectros cont韓uos. Contudo, os mecanismos respons醰eis pela evolu玢o de turbul阯cia Alfv阯ica intermitente n鉶 s鉶 completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos usada para explicar como sistemas Alfv阯icos, modelados pela equa玢o Schr鰀inger n鉶-linear derivativa e pela equa玢o Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente ca髏icos medida em que par鈓etros do plasma s鉶 variados. Pequenas perturba珲es no par鈓etro de dissipa玢o podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime peri骴ico, ou fracamente ca髏ico, para um regime fortemente ca髏ico. As s閞ies temporais das flutua珲es do campo magn閠ico nos regimes fortemente ca髏icos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente ca髏icas s鉶 interrompidas por fortes estouros ca髏icos. mostrado que o regime fortemente ca髏ico atingido quando as solu珲es peri骴icas ou fracamente ca髏icas globalmente est醰eis interagem com solu珲es do sistema que s鉶 fortemente ca髏icas, mas globalmente inst醰eis. Estas solu珲es globalmente inst醰eis s鉶 conjuntos ca髏icos n鉶-atrativos conhecidos como selas ca髏icas, e s鉶 respons醰eis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas ca髏icas t阭 sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo prov醰el que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbul阯cia intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

  4. An醠ise dos Conceitos Astron鬽icos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A raz鉶 para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educa玢o B醩ica (EB) n鉶 lidam com conceitos relacionados astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros did醫icos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como de conhecimento geral a astronomia um dos conte鷇os a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Par鈓etros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de S鉶 Paulo, mas um fato, que v醨ios pesquisadores apontam, a exist阯cia de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o prop髎ito de minimizar algumas dessas defici阯cias foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utiliza玢o de question醨ios pr e p髎 pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extens鉶 Universit醨ia para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mau, Ribeir鉶 Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de S鉶 Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concep珲es alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem ap髎 o curso, adotando-se como refer阯cia, para a an醠ise dos resultados, os dicion醨ios de L韓gua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclop閐ico de Astronomia e Astron醬tica (MOUR?O, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis quest鮡s foram aplicadas antes e ap髎 o curso, assim pode-se verificar ap髎 a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solst韈io, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorr阯cia das esta珲es do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorr阯cia do equin骳io, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram aster骾de, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% gal醲ia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  5. Zinc Finger Nuclease Knock-out of NADPH:Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) in Human Tumor Cell Lines Demonstrates That Hypoxia-activated Prodrugs Differ in POR Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jiechuang; Gu, Yongchuan; Pruijn, Frederik B.; Smaill, Jeff B.; Patterson, Adam V.; Guise, Christopher P.; Wilson, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of POR in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, POR knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and POR-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by POR overexpression. Knocking out POR had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the POR knock-outs. Thus, although POR expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development. PMID:24196959

  6. Diagn贸stico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    Gonz谩lez-Valc谩rcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducci贸n La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un s铆ndrome caracter铆stico de evoluci贸n multif谩sica y diagn贸stico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro cl铆nico t铆pico, pero que inicialmente se帽al贸 otras etiolog铆as. Discusi贸n La afectaci贸n frecuente de pacientes j贸venes con manifestaciones psiqui谩tricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagn贸sticas; las m谩s frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiqui谩tricos y el s铆ndrome neurol茅ptico maligno. Varios s铆ndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pedi谩tricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes j贸venes con manifestaciones psiqui谩tricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones auton贸micas. La caracterizaci贸n cl铆nica e inmunol贸gica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificaci贸n de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  7. Effect of SPM-based cleaning POR on EUV mask performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.

    2011-11-01

    EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning POR and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning POR.

  8. Neutral sphingomyelinase 2 is a key factor for PorB-dependent invasion of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Faulstich, Michaela; Hagen, Franziska; Avota, Elita; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Winkler, Ann-Cathrin; Xian, Yibo; Schneider-Schaulies, Sibylle; Rudel, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI) is a rare but serious complication caused by the spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the human host. Gonococci associated with DGI mainly express the outer membrane protein PorBIA that binds to the scavenger receptor expressed on endothelial cells (SREC-I) and mediates bacterial uptake. We recently demonstrated that this interaction relies on intact membrane rafts that acquire SREC-I upon attachment of gonococci and initiates the signalling cascade that finally leads to the uptake of gonococci in epithelial cells. In this study, we analysed the role of sphingomyelinases and their breakdown product ceramide. Gonococcal infection induced increased levels of ceramide that was enriched at bacterial attachment sites. Interestingly, neutral but not acid sphingomyelinase was mandatory for PorBIA -mediated invasion into host cells. Neutral sphingomyelinase was required to recruit the PI3 kinase to caveolin and thereby activates the PI3 kinase-dependent downstream signalling leading to bacterial uptake. Thus, this study elucidates the initial signalling processes of bacterial invasion during DGI and demonstrates a novel role for neutral sphingomyelinase in the course of bacterial infections. PMID:25224994

  9. Reconstru莽茫o tridimensional de arcos magn茅ticos por tomografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim玫es, P. J. A.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explos茫o solar 茅 uma varia莽茫o s煤bita do brilho que ocorre nas regi玫es ativas da atmosfera solar. Estas regi玫es s茫o constitu铆das por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indu莽茫o magn茅tica e em cen谩rios bem complexos como visto recentemente atrav茅s de experimentos embarcados em sat茅lites operando instrumentos em raios X moles e ultra-violeta distante. A energia magn茅tica, que pode ser armazenada por um per铆odo de horas at茅 dias em configura莽玫es magn茅ticas estressadas, 茅 subitamente lan莽ada na atmosfera solar e transferida para part铆culas como el茅trons, pr贸tons e n煤cleos pesados, que s茫o acelerados e/ou aquecidos, produzindo radia莽茫o eletromagn茅tica. A proposta final deste projeto 茅 determinar as caracter铆sticas espaciais de alta resolu莽茫o da emiss茫o e polariza莽茫o girossincrotr么nica de explos玫es solares em ambientes complexos de campos magn茅ticos. Os recentes resultados da emiss茫o difusa em EUV apresentado pelos sat茅lites TRACE e SOHO dos arcos magn茅ticos conectando as diferentes polaridades magn茅ticas sobre as regi玫es ativas possibilitam novas abordagens sobre o papel do campo magn茅tico na emiss茫o em r谩dio. Nesta etapa apresentamos os resultados da reconstru莽茫o da geometria tridimensional das linhas de for莽a destes arcos utilizando t茅cnicas tomogr谩ficas, a partir de imagens de alta resolu莽茫o espacial obtidas pelo instrumento EIT (Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope), al茅m da modelagem das indu莽玫es magn茅ticas por um campo dipolar e as densidades de part铆culas aceleradas. Utilizamos para a reconstru莽茫o geom茅trica, imagens tomadas em v谩rios 芒ngulos dos arcos devido 脿 rotac茫o solar. Com estes resultados, daremos continuidade ao projeto, com os c谩lculos da transfer锚ncia radiativa nos modos ordin谩rio e extraordin谩rio de propaga莽茫o da radia莽茫o girossincrotr么nica de explos玫es solares.

  10. Using the PORS Problems to Examine Evolutionary Optimization of Multiscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, Zachary; Molian, Vaelan; Bryden, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all systems of practical interest are composed of parts assembled across multiple scales. For example, an agrodynamic system is composed of flora and fauna on one scale; soil types, slope, and water runoff on another scale; and management practice and yield on another scale. Or consider an advanced coal-fired power plant: combustion and pollutant formation occurs on one scale, the plant components on another scale, and the overall performance of the power system is measured on another. In spite of this, there are few practical tools for the optimization of multiscale systems. This paper examines multiscale optimization of systems composed of discrete elements using the plus-one-recall-store (PORS) problem as a test case or study problem for multiscale systems. From this study, it is found that by recognizing the constraints and patterns present in discrete multiscale systems, the solution time can be significantly reduced and much more complex problems can be optimized.

  11. Geometry sensing through POR1 regulates Rac1 activity controlling early osteoblast differentiation in response to nanofiber diameter

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, A. M.; Banik, B. L.; Brown, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Bone grafting procedures in the United States rely heavily upon autografts and allografts, which are donor-dependent, cause donor site pain, and can transmit disease. Synthetic bone grafts can reduce these risks; however, synthetics lack the bone differentiating (osteoinductive) abilities of auto- and allografts. Achieving innate osteoinductive properties of synthetics through surface modifications is currently under investigation. This study focuses on nanofibers, with emphasis on how fiber diameter and the potential curvature sensor POR1 affect the activation of the signalingmoleculesRac1 and Arf1, and leading to expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteoinductive marker. Diameters of 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 ?m were compared against a flat control. The highest level of Rac1 activation was achieved on the smallest fibers (0.1 ?m), a trend that was long in POR1 knockdowns. This supports the hypothesis that on small nanofibers, POR1 favorably binds to highly curved cell membranes, which allows Rac1 to subsequently dissociate and activate. When the curvature is insufficient to bind POR1, POR1 binds to inactive Rac1 and competitively inhibits its activation. Arf1 activation followed an opposite trend, with the largest nanofibers exhibiting the highest activity. This trend reinforces the known interaction between Rac1 and Arf1 through the GIT/PIX complex, an Arf1 GAP and Rac1 GEF, respectively. Large, (1.0?m), nanofibers demonstrated the highest ALP activity, indicating that ALP expression is inversely dependent on Rac1 activation. Knockdown of POR1 resulted in increased ALP activity across the substrates but without regard to the curvature sensing trend seen previously. Thus, POR1 senses curvature and increases Rac1 activity, which negatively regulates bone differentiation. PMID:25539497

  12. Geometry sensing through POR1 regulates Rac1 activity controlling early osteoblast differentiation in response to nanofiber diameter.

    PubMed

    Higgins, A M; Banik, B L; Brown, J L

    2015-02-01

    Bone grafting procedures in the United States rely heavily upon autografts and allografts, which are donor-dependent, cause donor site pain, and can transmit disease. Synthetic bone grafts can reduce these risks; however, synthetics lack the bone differentiating (osteoinductive) abilities of auto- and allografts. Achieving innate osteoinductive properties of synthetics through surface modifications is currently under investigation. This study focuses on nanofibers, with emphasis on how fiber diameter and the potential curvature sensor POR1 affect the activation of the signaling molecules Rac1 and Arf1, and leading to expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteoinductive marker. Diameters of 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 ?m were compared against a flat control. The highest level of Rac1 activation was achieved on the smallest fibers (0.1 ?m), a trend that was lost in POR1 knockdowns. This supports the hypothesis that on small nanofibers, POR1 favorably binds to highly curved cell membranes, which allows Rac1 to subsequently dissociate and activate. When the curvature is insufficient to bind POR1, POR1 binds to inactive Rac1 and competitively inhibits its activation. Arf1 activation followed an opposite trend, with the largest nanofibers exhibiting the highest activity. This trend reinforces the known interaction between Rac1 and Arf1 through the GIT-PIX complex, an Arf1 GAP and Rac1 GEF, respectively. Large, (1.0 ?m), nanofibers demonstrated the highest ALP activity, indicating that ALP expression is inversely dependent on Rac1 activation. Knockdown of POR1 resulted in increased ALP activity across the substrates but without regard to the curvature sensing trend seen previously. Thus, POR1 senses curvature and increases Rac1 activity, which negatively regulates bone differentiation. PMID:25539497

  13. Substrate-specific modulation of CYP3A4 activity by genetic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR)

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vishal; Choi, Ji Ha; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Miller, Walter L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives CYP3A4 receives electrons from P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to metabolize about 50% of clinically used drugs. There is substantial inter-individual variation in CYP3A4 catalytic activity that is not explained by CYP3A4 genetic variants. CYP3A4 is flexible and distensible, permitting it to accommodate substrates varying in shape and size. To elucidate mechanisms of variability in CYP3A4 catalysis, we examined the effects of genetic variants of POR, and explored the possibility that substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4 differentially affect the ability of POR variants to support catalysis. Methods We expressed human CYP3A4 and four POR variants (Q153R, A287P, R457H, A503V) in bacteria, reconstituted them in vitro and measured the Michaelis constant and maximum velocity with testosterone, midazolam, quinidine and erythromycin as substrates. Results POR A287P and R457H had low activity with all substrates; Q153R had 7694% of wild type (WT) activity with midazolam and erythromycin, but 129150% activity with testosterone and quinidine. The A503V polymorphism reduced CYP3A4 activity to 6177% of wild type with testosterone and midazolam, but had nearly wild type activity with quinidine and erythromycin. Conclusion POR variants affect CYP3A4 activities. The impact of a POR variant on catalysis by CYP3A4 is substrate-specific, probably due to substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4. PMID:20697309

  14. Immunogenicity of a combination vaccine containing pneumococcal conjugates and meningococcal PorA OMVs.

    PubMed

    van den Dobbelsteen, Germie P J M; van Dijken, Harry H; Pillai, Subramonia; van Alphen, Loek

    2007-03-22

    The pre-clinical immunogenicity of a combination vaccine containing 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate (13vPnC) vaccine (serotypes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F and 23F conjugated to CRM197) and nine-valent meningococcal B PorA vaccine (NonaMen; serosubtypes P1.7,16; P1.5-1,2-2; P1.19,15-1; P1.5-2,10; P1.12-1,13; P1.7-2,4; P1.22,14; P1.7-1,1 and P1.18-1,3,6), and any potential immunological interference between pneumococcal and MenB components of the vaccine were evaluated. NIH mice were immunized twice subcutaneously with the vaccines combined in one syringe, or given individually. Combining 13vPnC vaccine with NonaMen vaccine in one syringe had no negative effect on the induced antibody response against any MenB serosubtypes compared to separate injection of the vaccines, and the anti-pneumococcal antibody responses were enhanced. Furthermore, co-administration of the combination vaccine with a combined diphtheria/tetanus/acellular pertussis/inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine/Haemophilus influenzae type b-TT conjugate (DTaP/IPV-Hib) vaccine to New Zealand white rabbits at a different injection site did not affect the anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide and anti-PorA antibody titres. We conclude that no immunological interference was observed by combined administration of pneumococcal conjugate and meningococcal B vaccines in one syringe. PMID:17023098

  15. Obtenci髇 de la curva de luz en la ocultaci髇 de 35 Sgr por J鷓iter el 6 de marzo de 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.

    La ocultaci髇 de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr por J鷓iter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso por el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar par醡etros f韘icos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atm髎fera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presi髇) Para lograr 閟to se program la c醡ara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 im醙enes por segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 im醙enes de la inmersi髇 y otras tantas de la emersi髇. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturaci髇 del CCD ya que la observaci髇 se realiz de d韆. En este momento las im醙enes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reducci髇.

  16. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Ense帽谩 Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Ense帽谩 por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,鈥

  17. Functional POR A503V is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xue; Ma, Gaoxiang; Li, Shushu; Wang, Meilin; Liu, Nian; Ma, Lan; Zhang, Zhan; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) plays important roles in the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous sterol hormones. However, few studies have explored the association between POR variants and the risk of bladder cancer. In this study, we first sequenced all 16 POR exons among 50 randomly selected controls, and found three variants, rs1135612, rs1057868 (A503V) and rs2228104, which were then assessed the relation to risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study of 1,050 bladder cancer cases and 1,404 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. People with A503V TT genotype have a decreased risk of bladder cancer in a recessive model (TT vs. CC/CT, OR鈥=鈥0.73, 95% CI鈥=鈥0.57鈥0.93), which was more pronounced among elderly male, non-smoking, subjects. Especially, A503V TT genotype showed a protective effect in the invasive tumor stage. Functional analysis revealed that A503V activity decreased in cytochrome c reduction (50.5 units/mg vs. 135.4 units/mg), mitomycin C clearance (38.3% vs. 96.8%), and mitomycin C-induced colony formation (78.0 vs 34.3 colonies per dish). The results suggested that POR A503V might decrease the risk of bladder cancer by reducing its metabolic activity, and should be a potential biomarker for predicting the susceptibility to human bladder cancer. PMID:26123203

  18. jPOR: An ImageJ macro to quantify total optical porosity from blue-stained thin sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Clayton; Jerram, Dougal A.

    2011-11-01

    A fast and effective method has been developed to measure total optical porosity (TOP) of blue resin-impregnated thin sections. This utilises a macro file (jPOR.txt) for ImageJ, which can be used on digital photomicrographs of thin sections. The method requires no specialised scientific equipment and can be run entirely using free to download software. Digital images are acquired from blue resin-impregnated thin sections using a conventional film scanner in the present study, though the technique can be applied to any high resolution colour digital acquired by different means (e.g., flat bed scanning, digital capture). Images are preprocessed using a newly developed custom 8-bit palette and analysed for porosity in ImageJ using the simple to use jPOR macro. Our method rapidly calculates TOP for batches of images with or without the option of user adjustment. Results are compared with conventional methods (e.g., to point counting), and tested with several users to estimate any user variability. jPOR provided comparable results to more time-consuming point counting, but with significantly less "counting error" and less interoperator variability than published point counting studies. The jPOR macro has been integrated into a macro tool set that can be configured to be run on ImageJ start up.

  19. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la seccion de entrada mediante un mayor o menor aporte de corriente al puente. Como consecuencia, la seccion de entrada del paralelo, ya de por si mas voluminosa que lao del serie por el uso de grandes componentes magneticos (bobinas de filtro o de "alisamiento"), result a tambien mas complicada y costosa debido a la necesidad de ser implementada mediante rectificador controlado. Ademas, la regulacion que ofrece el rectificador es pobre, dada su baja frecuencia de conmutacion. En cambio, el circuito serie puede funcionar por encima de la resonancia manteniendo una secuencia de conmutacion sin riesgos de recuperacion inversa y con una corriente de salida practicamente sinusoidal, lo que permite un control de la potencia por variacion de frecuencia. Puesto que la tarea de regulacion se realiza desde el puente inversor, la regulacion resulta mucho mas eficaz y la seccion de entrada se puede implementar mediante un simple rectificador no controlado y un condensador de filtro. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  20. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por D茅ficit de Atenci贸n con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigaci贸n tuvo como prop贸sito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por D茅ficit de Atenci贸n con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versi贸n en espa帽ol del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje 煤til en una poblaci贸n de ni帽os y ni帽as escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 ni帽os entre 5 y 13 a帽os de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagn贸stico fue confirmado con una entrevista cl铆nica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagn贸stico seg煤n el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje m谩s preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue m谩s baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categoriz贸 correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  1. Flavobacterium johnsoniae PorV Is Required for Secretion of a Subset of Proteins Targeted to the Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Kharade, Sampada S.

    2014-01-01

    Flavobacterium johnsoniae exhibits gliding motility and digests many polysaccharides, including chitin. A novel protein secretion system, the type IX secretion system (T9SS), is required for gliding and chitin utilization. The T9SS secretes the cell surface motility adhesins SprB and RemA and the chitinase ChiA. Proteins involved in secretion by the T9SS include GldK, GldL, GldM, GldN, SprA, SprE, and SprT. Porphyromonas gingivalis has orthologs for each of these that are required for secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors by its T9SS. P. gingivalis porU and porV have also been linked to T9SS-mediated secretion, and F. johnsoniae has orthologs of these. Mutations in F. johnsoniae porU and porV were constructed to determine if they function in secretion. Cells of a porV deletion mutant were deficient in chitin utilization and failed to secrete ChiA. They were also deficient in secretion of the motility adhesin RemA but retained the ability to secrete SprB. SprB is involved in gliding motility and is needed for formation of spreading colonies on agar, and the porV mutant exhibited gliding motility and formed spreading colonies. However, the porV mutant was partially deficient in attachment to glass, apparently because of the absence of RemA and other adhesins on the cell surface. The porV mutant also appeared to be deficient in secretion of numerous other proteins that have carboxy-terminal domains associated with targeting to the T9SS. PorU was not required for secretion of ChiA, RemA, or SprB, indicating that it does not play an essential role in the F. johnsoniae T9SS. PMID:25331433

  2. On an imported case of Taenia saginata.

    PubMed

    Gal谩n Puchades, Mar铆a Teresa

    2016-02-01

    La carta al editor se refiere a un art铆culo recientemente apararecido en la revista titulado "Taenia saginata: an imported case". En mi contribuci贸n aporto informaci贸n sobre el tema de la taeniasis humana ya que en el art铆culo solo se menciona a T. saginata y T. solium como las causantes de tal enfermedad parasitaria, siendo que son 3 y no 2 las especies que la originan. La tercera especie es Taenia asiatica, cuya morfolog铆a es la misma que T. saginata por lo que tan solo por m茅todos moleculares pueden ser distinguidas ambas especies. Es importante distinguir entre ambas ya que la fuente de infecci贸n para el ser humano es distinta (ganado vacuno en el caso de T. saginata y cerdo en el caso de T. asiatica). Y lo que es mas importante, T. saginata no produce cisticercosis humana, mientras que a煤n no se sabe si T. asiatica es capaz de producir esta, a veces, fatal enfermedad, por la fase larvaria del par谩sito (cisticerco). PMID:26838497

  3. Monitoring Shifts in the Conformation Equilibrium of the Membrane Protein Cytochrome P450 Reductase (POR) in Nanodiscs*

    PubMed Central

    Wads盲ter, Maria; Laursen, Tomas; Singha, Aparajita; Hatzakis, Nikos S.; Stamou, Dimitrios; Barker, Robert; Mortensen, Kell; Feidenhans'l, Robert; M酶ller, Birger Lindberg; C谩rdenas, Marit茅

    2012-01-01

    Nanodiscs are self-assembled 鈭50-nm2 patches of lipid bilayers stabilized by amphipathic belt proteins. We demonstrate that a well ordered dense film of nanodiscs serves for non-destructive, label-free studies of isolated membrane proteins in a native like environment using neutron reflectometry (NR). This method exceeds studies of membrane proteins in vesicle or supported lipid bilayer because membrane proteins can be selectively adsorbed with controlled orientation. As a proof of concept, the mechanism of action of the membrane-anchored cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is studied here. This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the transfer of electrons from NADPH to cytochrome P450s and thus is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of numerous primary and secondary metabolites in plants. Neutron reflectometry shows a coexistence of two different POR conformations, a compact and an extended form with a thickness of 44 and 79 鈩, respectively. Upon complete reduction by NADPH, the conformational equilibrium shifts toward the compact form protecting the reduced FMN cofactor from engaging in unspecific electron transfer reaction. PMID:22891242

  4. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolate with a N. meningitidis porA gene and no prolyliminopeptidase activity, Sweden, 2011: danger of false-negative genetic and culture diagnostic results.

    PubMed

    Golparian, D; Johansson, E; Unemo, M

    2012-01-01

    We describe a Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain, found in Sweden in 2011, that harbours a N. meningitidis porA gene causing false-negative results in PCRs targeting the gonococcal porA pseudogene. Furthermore, the strain had no prolyliminopeptidase (PIP) activity that many commercial biochemical kits for species verification in culture rely on. Enhanced awareness of the spread of such strains and screening for them can be crucial. PMID:22401563

  5. Relaci髇 masa-radio para estrellas enanas blancas y la interpretaci髇 de recientes mediciones hechas por Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Recientes mediciones de la masa y el radio hechas por Hipparcos de las estrellas enanas blancas 40 Eri B y Procyon B (Shipman, H. & Provencal, J. - ApJ. 1998, 494, 759), sugieren un n鷆leo compuesto de hierro para dichas estrellas, en lugar de carbono y ox韌eno como predice la teor韆 standard de evoluci髇 estelar. Para interpretar estas observaciones, presentamos aqu, relaciones masa-radio para configuraciones degeneradas a temperatura finita para distintas composiciones qu韒icas centrales. Para tal fin hemos calculado secuencias evolutivas de enanas blancas utilizando el c骴igo de evoluci髇 estelar, desarrollado en el Observatorio de La Plata. Dicho c骴igo resuelve las ecuaciones de estructura y evoluci髇 estelar mediante la t閏nica de relajaci髇 de Henyey, y esta basado en una descripci髇 f韘ica muy detallada y actualizada.

  6. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    Mould materials for injection moulding of polymers and polymer-matrix composites represent a relevant industrial economic sector due to the large quantity of pieces and components processed. The material selection for mould manufacturing, its composition and heat treatment, the hardening procedures and machining and finishing processes determine the service performance and life of the mould. In the first part of the present study, the relationship between the hardness and microstructure and the wear resistance of mould steels from large blocks has been studied by pin-on-disc tests, studying the main wear mechanisms. In order to determine the surface damage on mould steels under real injection conditions, different commercial steels have been studied by measuring the variation of surface roughness with the number of injected pieces with different reinforcement percentages and different mould geometries, by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was important to determine the variation of surface roughness of the moulded pieces with the number of injection operations. The materials used were polybutyleneterephthalate pure and reinforced with either 20% or 50% glass fibre. For the different mould designs, the evolution of the glass fibre orientation with injection flow has been determined by image analysis and related to roughness changes and surface damage, both of the composite parts and of the mould steel surface. Finally, the abrasion resistance of the composite parts has been studied by scratch tests as a function of the number of injected parts and of the scratch direction with respect to injection flow and glass fibre orientation. Los materiales para moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos representan un sector economicamente muy relevante debido al gran aumento del numero de componentes fabricados a partir de materiales polimericos obtenidos mediante moldeo por inyeccion. La seleccion del material para la fabricacion del molde, tienen una gran influencia sobre su comportamiento en servicio a lo largo de la vida util del molde. En la primera parte del presente estudio, a partir de ensayos punzon sobre disco, se ha determinado la relacion entre la resistencia al desgaste y la dureza de aceros para moldes obtenidos a partir de bloques de gran espesor, estudiando los principales mecanismos de desgaste que tienen lugar. A continuacion, con el fin de determinar el dano superficial que sufren los aceros para moldes en condiciones reales de inyeccion, se han estudiado distintos tipos de aceros utilizados comercialmente en moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos, seleccionando las condiciones de operacion para determinar la variacion de la rugosidad superficial del acero en funcion del material inyectado, del numero de operaciones sucesivas de inyeccion y de la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion, mediante tecnicas de perfilometria optica y microscopia electronica de barrido. Ademas del dano superficial sufrido por el acero con el numero de piezas inyectadas, tambien se ha determinado la evolucion de la rugosidad superficial de los materiales inyectados, polibutilentereftalato (PBT) puro y materiales compuestos derivados de PBT por adicion de un 20 o un 50% en peso de fibra de vidrio. En el caso de las piezas inyectadas, se ha caracterizado su microestructura en funcion del flujo de inyeccion y de la densidad de fibra, se han determinado sus propiedades termicas y dinamico-mecanicas, asi como la variacion de la rugosidad superficial de las piezas inyectadas con el numero de operaciones de inyeccion y con la geometria de las distintas secciones de las piezas. Finalmente, se ha evaluado la resistencia a la abrasion de PBT reforzado con un 50% de fibra, en funcion del numero de piezas inyectadas y de la direccion de rayado con respecto a la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion.

  7. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagn髎tico de gastritis atr骹ica multifocal asociada con la infecci髇 por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, Jos Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, Mar蚢 Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducci髇 El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del est髆ago y el n鷐ero de fragmentos de mucosa g醩trica disponibles para evaluaci髇 histopatol骻ica son fuentes importantes de variaci髇 en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradaci髇 de la gastritis cr髇ica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del n鷐ero de fragmentos de mucosa g醩trica necesarios para establecer los diagn髎ticos de gastritis atr骹ica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infecci髇 por Helicobacter pylori. Adem醩 evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificaci髇 de estas lesiones precursoras del c醤cer g醩trico. Materiales y m閠odos En una cohorte de 6 a駉s de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenter髄ogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa g醩trica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un 鷑ico pat髄ogo hizo la interpretaci髇 histol骻ica de las 5 biopsias y proporcion un diagn髎tico definitivo global que se utiliz como patr髇 de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa g醩trica examinado condujo a un diagn髎tico individual para cada biopsia que se compar con el patr髇 de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evalu en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagn髎tico de MI y displasia g醩trica aument de manera significativa con el n鷐ero de fragmentos de mucosa g醩trica evaluados El sitio anat髆ico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagn髎tico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logr alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa g醩trica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtenci髇 de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagn髎tico de gastritis cr髇ica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las biopsias fijadas en alcohol fueron inadecuadas para demostrar H. pylori e interpretar los cambios de displasia. Conclusi髇 El n鷐ero de fragmentos de mucosa g醩trica evaluados, el m閠odo de fijaci髇 y la regi髇 del est髆ago donde se obtienen las biopsias son factores muy importantes para lograr una correcta clasificaci髇 de la gastritis cr髇ica atr骹ica multifocal. PMID:25267864

  8. Cross-reactivity of antibodies against PorA after vaccination with a meningococcal B outer membrane vesicle vaccine.

    PubMed

    Vermont, C L; van Dijken, H H; Kuipers, A J; van Limpt, C J P; Keijzers, W C M; van der Ende, A; de Groot, R; van Alphen, L; van den Dobbelsteen, G P J M

    2003-04-01

    The cross-reactivity of PorA-specific antibodies induced by a monovalent P1.7-2,4 (MonoMen) and/or a hexavalent (HexaMen) meningococcal B outer membrane vesicle vaccine (OMV) in toddlers and school children was studied by serum bactericidal assays (SBA). First, isogenic vaccine strains and PorA-identical patient isolates were compared as a target in SBA, to ensure that the vaccine strains are representative for patient isolates. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) in SBA against patient isolates with subtypes P1.5-2,10 and P1.5-1,2-2 after vaccination with HexaMen were generally lower than those against vaccine strains with the same subtype, although the percentage of vaccine responders (> or =4-fold increase in SBA after vaccination) was not affected. Using various P1.7-2,4 patient isolates, GMTs as well as the number of vaccine responders were higher than for the P1.7-2,4 vaccine strain, indicating that the use of the P1.7-2,4 vaccine strain may have underestimated the immunogenicity of this subtype in HexaMen. Secondly, the cross-reactivity of antibodies induced by MonoMen and HexaMen was studied using several patient isolates that differed from the vaccine subtypes by having minor antigenic variants of one variable region (VR), by having a completely different VR or by having a different combination of VRs. MonoMen induced P1.4-specific antibodies that were cross-reactive with P1.4 variants P1.4-1 and P1.4-3. HexaMen induced a broader cross-reactive antibody response against various patient isolates with one VR identical to a vaccine subtype or a combination of VRs included in HexaMen. Cross-reactivity, measured by a fourfold increase in SBA after vaccination, against these strains ranged from 23 to 92% depending on the subtype of the tested strain and was directed against both VR1 and VR2. The extended cross-reactivity of vaccinee sera induced by HexaMen against antigenic variants has important favorable implications for meningococcal B OMV vaccine coverage. PMID:12654777

  9. Cross-Reactivity of Antibodies against PorA after Vaccination with a Meningococcal B Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Vermont, C. L.; van Dijken, H. H.; Kuipers, A. J.; van Limpt, C. J. P.; Keijzers, W. C. M.; van der Ende, A.; de Groot, R.; van Alphen, L.; van den Dobbelsteen, G. P. J. M.

    2003-01-01

    The cross-reactivity of PorA-specific antibodies induced by a monovalent P1.7-2,4 (MonoMen) and/or a hexavalent (HexaMen) meningococcal B outer membrane vesicle vaccine (OMV) in toddlers and school children was studied by serum bactericidal assays (SBA). First, isogenic vaccine strains and PorA-identical patient isolates were compared as a target in SBA, to ensure that the vaccine strains are representative for patient isolates. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) in SBA against patient isolates with subtypes P1.5-2,10 and P1.5-1,2-2 after vaccination with HexaMen were generally lower than those against vaccine strains with the same subtype, although the percentage of vaccine responders (鈮4-fold increase in SBA after vaccination) was not affected. Using various P1.7-2,4 patient isolates, GMTs as well as the number of vaccine responders were higher than for the P1.7-2,4 vaccine strain, indicating that the use of the P1.7-2,4 vaccine strain may have underestimated the immunogenicity of this subtype in HexaMen. Secondly, the cross-reactivity of antibodies induced by MonoMen and HexaMen was studied using several patient isolates that differed from the vaccine subtypes by having minor antigenic variants of one variable region (VR), by having a completely different VR or by having a different combination of VRs. MonoMen induced P1.4-specific antibodies that were cross-reactive with P1.4 variants P1.4-1 and P1.4-3. HexaMen induced a broader cross-reactive antibody response against various patient isolates with one VR identical to a vaccine subtype or a combination of VRs included in HexaMen. Cross-reactivity, measured by a fourfold increase in SBA after vaccination, against these strains ranged from 23 to 92% depending on the subtype of the tested strain and was directed against both VR1 and VR2. The extended cross-reactivity of vaccinee sera induced by HexaMen against antigenic variants has important favorable implications for meningococcal B OMV vaccine coverage. PMID:12654777

  10. Estudio te髍ico de la desorci髇 de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acci髇 de fotones o electrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dom韓guez Ariza, D.; L髉ez, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

    Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generaci髇 de sodio y potasio at髆ico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando c醠culos basados tanto en la teor韆 del funcional de la densidad como en m閠odos post-Hartree Fock, as como en el m閠odo de cluster para modelar el s髄ido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorci髇, estimulada por la acci髇 de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el 髕ido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicaci髇 a la atm髎fera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of PorM, a subunit of the Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system.

    PubMed

    Stathopulos, Julien; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Roussel, Alain; Leone, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PorM is a membrane protein involved in the assembly of the type IX secretion system (T9SS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major bacterial pathogen responsible for periodontal disease in humans. The periplasmic domain of PorM was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. A fragment of the purified protein was obtained by limited proteolysis. Crystals of this fragment belonged to the tetragonal space group P4(3)2(1)2. Native and MAD data sets were recorded to 2.85 and 3.1鈥吤 resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:25615973

  12. Spectroscopic and kinetic characterization of the light-dependent enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) using monovinyl and divinyl substrates.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Derren J; Kruk, Jerzy; Hunter, C Neil

    2006-02-15

    The enzyme POR [Pchlide (protochlorophyllide) oxidoreductase] catalyses the reduction of Pchlide to chlorophyllide, which is a key step in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. This light-dependent reaction has previously been studied in great detail but recent reports suggest that a mixture of MV (monovinyl) and DV (divinyl) Pchlides may have influenced some of these properties of the reaction. Low-temperature absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy have revealed several spectral differences between MV and DV Pchlides, which were purified from a Rhodobacter capsulatus strain that was shown to contain a mixture of the two pigments. A thorough steady-state kinetic characterization using both Pchlide forms demonstrates that neither pigment appears to affect the kinetic properties of the enzyme. The reaction has also been monitored following illumination at low temperatures and was shown to consist of an initial photochemical step followed by four 'dark' steps for both pigments. However, minor differences were observed in the spectral properties of some of the intermediates, although the temperature dependency of each step was nearly identical for the two pigments. This work provides the first detailed kinetic and spectroscopic study of this unique enzyme using biologically important MV and DV substrate analogues. It also has significant implications for the DV reductase enzyme, which is responsible for converting DV pigments into their MV counterparts, and its position in the sequence of reactions that comprise the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. PMID:16274361

  13. Nuevo sitio web en espa駉l del Instituto Nacional del C醤cer, (NCI, por sus siglas en ingl閟) Cancer.gov en espa駉l - Silvia In閦 Salazar - transcript

    Cancer.gov

    Transmisiones de radio para promover Cancer.gov en espa%XF1ol | Nuevo sitio web en espa%XF1ol del Instituto Nacional del C%XE1ncer, (NCI, por sus siglas en ingl%XE9s) Cancer.gov en espa%XF1ol | Transcripci%XF3n Transmisiones de radio para promover

  14. Informe a la naci贸n indica que los 铆ndices de muertes por c谩ncer siguen bajando

    Cancer.gov

    Los 铆ndices de mortalidad por todos los c谩nceres combinados para hombres, mujeres y ni帽os siguieron bajando en Estados Unidos entre 2004 y 2008, seg煤n el Informe Anual a la Naci贸n sobre el Estado del C谩ncer de 1975 a 2008. El 铆ndice general de diagn贸stico

  15. Adult Student Retention and Achievement with Language-Based Modular Materials. POR FIN: Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bexar County School Board, San Antonio, TX.

    The goal of the POR FIN research design was to develop a language-based curriculum emphasizing the audiolingual approach and integrating academic and social-functioning subject matter. The modular curriculum is designed so that each lesson is independent and complete in itself, and provides a high degree of motivation, retention, and achievement鈥

  16. El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

    "El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the attitudes鈥

  17. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por G茅nero y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, M茅xico: 2006

    PubMed Central

    I帽iguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 a帽os de edad en Tijuana, M茅xico - en la poblaci贸n general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demogr谩ficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construy贸 un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la poblaci贸n general y de acuerdo al g茅nero. El an谩lisis de sensibilidad consisti贸 en estimar errores est谩ndar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada par谩metro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%鈥0.86%, (N = 1,750鈥6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%鈥1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%鈥0.40%) de las mujeres podr铆an ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones m谩s elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El n煤mero de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la poblaci贸n de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevenci贸n en sus necesidades espec铆ficas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podr铆an ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  18. Cell Growth Defect Factor1/CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 Plays a Role in Stabilization of Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Yong; Lee, Ho-Seok; Song, Ji-Young; Jung, Young Jun; Reinbothe, Steffen; Park, Youn-Il; Lee, Sang Yeol; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Angiosperms require light for chlorophyll biosynthesis because one reaction in the pathway, the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide, is catalyzed by the light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). Here, we report that Cell growth defect factor1 (Cdf1), renamed here as CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 (CPP1), an essential protein for chloroplast development, plays a role in the regulation of POR stability and function. Cdf1/CPP1 contains a J-like domain and three transmembrane domains, is localized in the thylakoid and envelope membranes, and interacts with POR isoforms in chloroplasts. CPP1 can stabilize POR proteins with its holdase chaperone activity. CPP1 deficiency results in diminished POR protein accumulation and defective chlorophyll synthesis, leading to photobleaching and growth inhibition of plants under light conditions. CPP1 depletion also causes reduced POR accumulation in etioplasts of dark-grown plants and as a result impairs the formation of prolamellar bodies, which subsequently affects chloroplast biogenesis upon illumination. Furthermore, in cyanobacteria, the CPP1 homolog critically regulates POR accumulation and chlorophyll synthesis under high-light conditions, in which the dark-operative Pchlide oxidoreductase is repressed by its oxygen sensitivity. These findings and the ubiquitous presence of CPP1 in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms suggest the conserved nature of CPP1 function in the regulation of POR. PMID:24151298

  19. Astronomy in the Classroom: Why? (Spanish Title: Astronom铆a en la Clase: 驴Por Qu茅?) Astronomia na Sala de Aula: Por Qu锚?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daros Gama, Leandro; Bagdonas Henrique, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    There are many discussions about the relevance of the topics covered in classes. One subject in particular is the focus of this essay: astronomy. In what sense and to what extent it would be worth to teach it in science or other kind of classes? In this paper we discuss some aspects of the advantages of dealing with this area of knowledge in schools, taking into account the epistemological and axiological dimensions of astronomy, in light of the vision of science as an intelligent dialogue with the world (Bachelard), in addition to the "problematization" knowledge of Paulo Freire. We propose that in fact the Astronomy does not need to be seen as just a new set of contents to be taught, but appears as a set of motivational contents for historical-philosophical discussions, and permit the discussion of concepts of other disciplines. Numerosas discusiones se est谩n llevando a cabo acerca de la pertinencia de los temas tradicionalmente tratados en las clases. Uno de los temas, en particular, es el foco de este ensayo: la astronom铆a. 驴En qu茅 sentido y en qu茅 medida ser铆a conveniente tratarla en clase, ya sea en clases de ciencias naturales, espec铆ficamente en las de astronom铆a o asignaturas afines? Elaboramos en este art铆culo algunos aspectos de las ventajas de tratar esta 谩rea del conocimiento en las escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones epistemol贸gica y axiol贸gica de la astronom铆a, a la luz de la visi贸n de la ciencia como un di谩logo inteligente con el mundo (Bachelard), adem谩s de la propuesta del conocimiento "problematizador" de Paulo Freire. Proponemos que en realidad la astronom铆a no tiene por qu茅 ser vista s贸lo como un nuevo conjunto de contenidos que se ense帽an, sino que aparece como un conjunto de temas de motivaci贸n para el debate hist贸rico-filos贸fico y para permitir la discusi贸n de los conceptos t铆picos de otras disciplinas. Muitas discuss玫es v锚m acontecendo sobre a relev芒ncia dos temas abordados em sala de aula. Um tema, em particular, 茅 foco deste ensaio: a astronomia. Em que sentido e em que medida valeria a pena abord谩-la em aulas, seja de ci锚ncias, seja de astronomia especificamente, ou em disciplinas afins? Discutimos neste texto alguns aspectos das vantagens de se tratar essa 谩rea do conhecimento nas escolas, levando em conta as dimens玫es epistemol贸gica e axiol贸gica da astronomia, 脿 luz da vis茫o da ci锚ncia como um di谩logo inteligente com o mundo, de Bachelard, al茅m da proposta de problematiza莽茫o do conhecimento, de Paulo Freire. Proporemos que de fato a astronomia n茫o precisa ser vista como apenas um novo conjunto de conte煤dos a serem ensinados, mas figura como conjunto de temas motivadores para discuss玫es hist贸rico-filos贸ficas, al茅m de permitir a abordagem de conceitos t铆picos de outras disciplinas.

  20. Study of the interaction mechanisms between absorbed NO{sub 2} and por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V.; Kan, V. E. Makushenko, R. K.; Biryukov, M. Yu.; Ivlev, K. E.; Roslikov, V. E.

    2013-10-15

    The interaction mechanisms between NO{sub 2} molecules and the surface of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposites obtained by magnetron deposition and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance methods. The observed increase in the free carrier concentration in the por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers is explained by a change in the charge state of P{sub b} centers due to the formation of neutral 'surface defect-adsorbed NO{sub 2} molecule' complexes with free carrier generation in the crystallite bulk. In the nanocomposite layers grown by the CVD method, the increase in the free hole concentration during NO{sub 2} adsorption is much less pronounced in comparison with the composite grown by magnetron deposition, which is caused by the competing interaction channel of NO{sub 2} molecules with electrically neutral P{sub b} centers.

  1. Los 铆ndices de mortalidad por c谩ncer de pulm贸n siguen en descenso y contribuyen a la continua reducc

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Naci贸n sobre el Estado del C谩ncer (1975 a 2010), mostr贸 un descenso m谩s acelerado que en a帽os anteriores de los 铆ndices de mortalidad por c谩ncer de pulm贸n. Tambi茅n contiene una secci贸n especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  2. Corynebacterium jeikeium jk0268 Constitutes for the 40 Amino Acid Long PorACj, Which Forms a Homooligomeric and Anion-Selective Cell Wall Channel

    PubMed Central

    Norouzy, Amir; Schulz, Robert; Nau, Werner M.; Kleinekath鰂er, Ulrich; Tauch, Andreas; Benz, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium jeikeium, a resident of human skin, is often associated with multidrug resistant nosocomial infections in immunodepressed patients. C. jeikeium K411 belongs to mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes, the mycolata and contains a channel-forming protein as judged from reconstitution experiments with artificial lipid bilayer experiments. The channel-forming protein was present in detergent treated cell walls and in extracts of whole cells using organic solvents. A gene coding for a 40 amino acid long polypeptide possibly responsible for the pore-forming activity was identified in the known genome of C. jeikeium by its similar chromosomal localization to known porH and porA genes of other Corynebacterium strains. The gene jk0268 was expressed in a porin deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strain. For purification temporarily histidine-tailed or with a GST-tag at the N-terminus, the homogeneous protein caused channel-forming activity with an average conductance of 1.25 nS in 1M KCl identical to the channels formed by the detergent extracts. Zero-current membrane potential measurements of the voltage dependent channel implied selectivity for anions. This preference is according to single-channel analysis caused by some excess of cationic charges located in the channel lumen formed by oligomeric alpha-helical wheels. The channel has a suggested diameter of 1.4 nm as judged from the permeability of different sized hydrated anions using the Renkin correction factor. Surprisingly, the genome of C. jeikeium contained only one gene coding for a cell wall channel of the PorA/PorH type found in other Corynebacterium species. The possible evolutionary relationship between the heterooligomeric channels formed by certain Corynebacterium strains and the homooligomeric pore of C. jeikeium is discussed. PMID:24116064

  3. La doctora Amelie Ram铆rez y la investigaci贸n de desigualdades de salud por c谩ncer en la comunidad la

    Cancer.gov

    La doctora Ram铆rez es la investigadora principal de Redes en Acci贸n, un centro del programa de redes comunitarias subvencionado por el NCI que se propone reducir la incidencia del c谩ncer en la comunidad latina a trav茅s de una red nacional de grupos comunitarios, investigadores, agencias de salud gubernamentales y la poblaci贸n en general.

  4. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infecci贸n por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con 茅xito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) est谩n infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar c贸mo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infecci贸n por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y m茅todos Hemos utilizado el concepto de 芦desviaci贸n positiva禄 aplicado en otros campos de salud p煤blica. Estudiamos las estrategias, pr谩cticas y t谩cticas de prevenci贸n de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado hero铆na durante a帽os. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este art铆culo incluyen el an谩lisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infecci贸n por el VHC y sin infecci贸n por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protecci贸n y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante per铆odos de involuci贸n (per铆odos donde hay un deterioro econ贸mico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infecci贸n: a) evitar 芦el mono禄 (s铆ntomas de abstenci贸n) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) 芦llevarlo bien禄 para no convertirse en un junkie y as铆 evitar la 芦muerte social禄 y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin infectarse por el VIH (s贸lo un doble negativo tuvo un amplio conocimiento sobre la hepatitis C). Estas intencionalidades no son mutuamente excluyentes. La presencia de varias refuerza la puesta en pr谩ctica a diario de comportamientos que pueden ayudar al que se inyecta a mantenerse libre de infecciones durante a帽os. Algunas pr谩cticas que hemos identificado se implementan en grupo y se comunican de UDI a UDI, de esta manera se extienden entre algunas redes sociales de UDI. Conclusiones Los UDI que permanecen sin infectarse planean e implementan estrategias de prevenci贸n en circunstancias donde otros UDI aplican pr谩cticas de riesgo. El mantenimiento de la no infecci贸n no es, por lo tanto, un resultado del azar, sino m谩s bien el resultado del esfuerzo (agencia) de los UDI. Investigar y extender estas estrategias y t谩cticas a trav茅s de programas de prevenci贸n podr铆a contribuir a la prevenci贸n del VIH y el VHC. PMID:21915175

  5. Four-month outbreak of invasive meningococcal disease caused by a rare serogroup B strain, identified through the use of molecular PorA subtyping, England, 2013.

    PubMed

    Chatt, C; Gajraj, R; Hawker, J; Neal, K; Tahir, M; Lawrence, M; Gray, S J; Lucidarme, J; Carr, A D; Clark, S A; Fowler, T

    2014-01-01

    Molecular PorA subtyping provides information that increasingly requires the adaptation of standard public health approaches to outbreak management. We report an outbreak of a rare subtype of meningococcal infection not previously identified in the United Kingdom (UK). The outbreak occurred in the Warwickshire area in England between February and June 2013. Molecular subtyping allowed the identification of additional cases, prompting an enhanced public health response that included efforts to identify potential social networks that might benefit from chemoprophylaxis. It also prompted swabbing to define nasopharyngeal carriage in the focal nursery and helped explain the unusual epidemiological pattern. Without subtyping to identify a link, the additional cases would have been managed as sporadic cases in accordance with current UK guidance. PMID:25394258

  6. Variation in P450 oxidoreductase (POR) A503V and flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)-3 E158K is associated with minor alterations in nicotine metabolism, but does not alter cigarette consumption.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Meghan J; Zhu, Andy Z X; Sanderson Cox, Lisa; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Benowitz, Neal L; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2014-03-01

    The rates of nicotine metabolism differ widely, even after controlling for genetic variation in the major nicotine-metabolizing enzyme, CYP2A6. Genetic variants in an additional nicotine-metabolizing enzyme, flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)-3, and an obligate microsomal CYP-supportive enzyme, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), were investigated. We examined the impact of FMO3 E158K and POR A503V before and after stratifying by CYP2A6 metabolism group. In 130 nonsmokers of African descent who received 4 mg oral nicotine, FMO3 158K trended toward slower nicotine metabolism in reduced CYP2A6 metabolizers (P=0.07) only, whereas POR 503V was associated with faster CYP2A6 activity (nicotine metabolite ratio) in normal (P=0.03), but not reduced, CYP2A6 metabolizers. Neither FMO3 158K nor POR 503V significantly altered the nicotine metabolic ratio (N=659), cigarette consumption (N=667), or urine total nicotine equivalents (N=418) in smokers of African descent. Thus, FMO3 E158K and POR A503V are minor sources of nicotine metabolism variation, insufficient to appreciably alter smoking. PMID:24448396

  7. IgE Reactivity of Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus pelagicus) Tropomyosin, Por p 1, and Other Allergens; Cross-Reactivity with Black Tiger Prawn and Effects of Heating

    PubMed Central

    Varese, Nirupama; Zubrinich, Celia; Lopata, Andreas L.; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Rolland, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Shellfish allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, but the allergens are not well characterized. This study examined the effects of heating on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) allergens in comparison with those of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) by testing reactivity with shellfish-allergic subjects' serum IgE. Cooked extracts of both species showed markedly increased IgE reactivity by ELISA and immunoblotting, and clinical relevance of IgE reactivity was confirmed by basophil activation tests. Inhibition IgE ELISA and immunoblotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the crab and prawn extracts, predominantly due to tropomyosin, but crab-specific IgE-reactivity was also observed. The major blue swimmer crab allergen tropomyosin, Por p 1, was cloned and sequenced, showing strong homology with tropomyosin of other crustacean species but also sequence variation within known and predicted linear IgE epitopes. These findings will advance more reliable diagnosis and management of potentially severe food allergy due to crustaceans. PMID:23840718

  8. IgE Reactivity of Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus pelagicus) Tropomyosin, Por p 1, and Other Allergens; Cross-Reactivity with Black Tiger Prawn and Effects of Heating.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, Jodie B; Kamath, Sandip; Varese, Nirupama; Zubrinich, Celia; Lopata, Andreas L; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Rolland, Jennifer M

    2013-01-01

    Shellfish allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, but the allergens are not well characterized. This study examined the effects of heating on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) allergens in comparison with those of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) by testing reactivity with shellfish-allergic subjects' serum IgE. Cooked extracts of both species showed markedly increased IgE reactivity by ELISA and immunoblotting, and clinical relevance of IgE reactivity was confirmed by basophil activation tests. Inhibition IgE ELISA and immunoblotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the crab and prawn extracts, predominantly due to tropomyosin, but crab-specific IgE-reactivity was also observed. The major blue swimmer crab allergen tropomyosin, Por p 1, was cloned and sequenced, showing strong homology with tropomyosin of other crustacean species but also sequence variation within known and predicted linear IgE epitopes. These findings will advance more reliable diagnosis and management of potentially severe food allergy due to crustaceans. PMID:23840718

  9. FLP-FRT-based method to obtain unmarked deletions of CHU_3237 (porU) and large genomic fragments of Cytophaga hutchinsonii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhiquan; Cao, Jing; Guan, Zhiwei; Lu, Xuemei

    2014-10-01

    Cytophaga hutchinsonii is a widely distributed cellulolytic bacterium in the phylum Bacteroidetes. It can digest crystalline cellulose rapidly without free cellulases or cellulosomes. The mechanism of its cellulose utilization remains a mystery. We developed an efficient method based on a linear DNA double-crossover and FLP-FRT recombination system to obtain unmarked deletions of both single genes and large genomic fragments in C. hutchinsonii. Unmarked deletion of CHU_3237 (porU), an ortholog of the C-terminal signal peptidase of a type IX secretion system (T9SS), resulted in defects in colony spreading, cellulose degradation, and protein secretion, indicating that it is a component of the T9SS and that T9SS plays an important role in cellulose degradation by C. hutchinsonii. Furthermore, deletions of four large genomic fragments were obtained using our method, and the sizes of the excised fragments varied from 9 to 19 kb, spanning from 6 to 22 genes. The customized FLP-FRT method provides an efficient tool for more rapid progress in the cellulose degradation mechanism and other physiological aspects of C. hutchinsonii. PMID:25063660

  10. FLP-FRT-Based Method To Obtain Unmarked Deletions of CHU_3237 (porU) and Large Genomic Fragments of Cytophaga hutchinsonii

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhiquan; Cao, Jing; Guan, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    Cytophaga hutchinsonii is a widely distributed cellulolytic bacterium in the phylum Bacteroidetes. It can digest crystalline cellulose rapidly without free cellulases or cellulosomes. The mechanism of its cellulose utilization remains a mystery. We developed an efficient method based on a linear DNA double-crossover and FLP-FRT recombination system to obtain unmarked deletions of both single genes and large genomic fragments in C. hutchinsonii. Unmarked deletion of CHU_3237 (porU), an ortholog of the C-terminal signal peptidase of a type IX secretion system (T9SS), resulted in defects in colony spreading, cellulose degradation, and protein secretion, indicating that it is a component of the T9SS and that T9SS plays an important role in cellulose degradation by C. hutchinsonii. Furthermore, deletions of four large genomic fragments were obtained using our method, and the sizes of the excised fragments varied from 9 to 19 kb, spanning from 6 to 22 genes. The customized FLP-FRT method provides an efficient tool for more rapid progress in the cellulose degradation mechanism and other physiological aspects of C. hutchinsonii. PMID:25063660

  11. Bifurcaci贸n de las soluciones de vientos impulsados por radiaci贸n en estrellas Be: formaci贸n de l铆neas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cur茅, M.; Rial, D.; Cidale, L.; Venero, R.

    Se ha estudiado la topolog铆a de la ecuaci贸n hidrodin谩mica no-lineal que describe el perfil de velocidades de vientos impulsados por radiaci贸n en estrellas tempranas. Al aplicar este modelo a estrellas Be se encuentra que existen dos tipos De soluciones: la est谩ndar, que describe el viento polar, y una nueva, que describe un viento m谩s denso y lento y que explicar铆a el disco que se encuentra alrededor de estos objetos. Existe una regi贸n de transici贸n en donde ambas soluciones coexisten (bifurcaci贸n}). Ambas soluciones satisfacen en esta regi贸n las mismas condiciones de borde. Para estas dos soluciones se han obtenido los perfiles de l铆neas de hidr贸geno del visible y del IR, resolviendo el transporte de radiaci贸n en el ``comoving frame". Para la soluci贸n est谩ndar, se obtienen perfiles con componentes en emisi贸n, mientras que para la nueva soluci贸n se obtienen perfiles en absorci贸n. Se comparan cualitativamente los resultados con las observaciones.

  12. Phenotypic and Genotypic Analyses of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates That Express Frequently Recovered PorB PIA Variable Region Types Suggest that Certain P1a Porin Sequences Confer a Selective Advantage for Urogenital Tract Infection鈻

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Lotisha E.; Bash, Margaret C.; Keys, Christine; Warner, Douglas M.; Ram, Sanjay; Shafer, William M.; Jerse, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Typing of the porB variable region (VR) is an epidemiological tool that classifies gonococcal strains based on sequence differences in regions of the porB gene that encode surface-exposed loops. The frequent isolation of certain porB VR types suggests that some porin sequences confer a selective advantage during infection and/or transmission. Alternatively, certain porin types may be markers of strains that are successful due to factors unrelated to porin. In support of the first hypothesis, here we show urogenital tract isolates representing the most common PIA VR types identified in an urban clinic in Baltimore, MD, over a 10-year period belonged to several different clonal types, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Serum resistance, which was confirmed by factor H and C4b-binding protein binding studies, was more often associated with gonococcal the most common VR types. In contrast, three porin-independent phenotypes, namely, lactoferrin utilization, 尾-lactamase production, and multiple transferable resistance (Mtr), were segregated with the PFGE cluster and not with the VR type. Data combined with another PIA strain collection showed a strong correlation between serum resistance and the most common VR types. A comparison of VR typing hybridization patterns and nucleotide sequences of 12 porB1a genes suggests that certain porin loop 1, 3, 6, and/or 7 sequences may play a role in the serum resistance phenotype. We conclude that some PorB PIA sequences confer a survival or transmission advantage in the urogenital tract, perhaps via increased resistance to complement-mediated killing. The capacity of some porin types to evade a porin-specific adaptive immune response must also be considered. PMID:18541655

  13. Long-term RNA persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) after an outbreak of a natural infection: the detection of viral mRNA in sentinel pigs suggests viral transmission.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Hern谩ndez-Baumgarten, E; Kennedy, S; Hern谩ndez-J谩uregui, P; Berg, M; Moreno-L贸pez, J

    2014-08-01

    The persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) in five pigs that had survived an outbreak of a natural infection was determined. After the resolution of the outbreak, each animal was housed in an isolation pen together with one sentinel pig. Approximately every 2 months thereafter one group of animals was euthanized and tissue samples taken for virological and serological analysis. Infectious virus was not isolated from any samples; antibodies to PorPV-LPMV were detected in convalescent pigs by virus neutralisation test and blocking ELISA but not in sentinel pigs. PorPV-LPMV mRNA of the nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) genes was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) in samples of trigeminal and optic nerves, cervical spinal cord, tonsils, salivary gland, lung and pancreas from convalescent pigs. mRNA was also detected in the midbrain, corpus callosum, or olfactory bulb in four out of five pigs by nRT-PCR, this result was confirmed by the sequencing of a 260bp PCR product of P gene region. The highest average viral copies/渭g of total RNA occurred in the olfactory bulb and pancreas tissues of convalescent pigs and midbrain, tonsil and pancreas of sentinel pigs housed with the convalescent pigs. Satellitosis and gliosis of the midbrain, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata or choroid plexus were microscopically observed in four convalescent pigs. The control pig remained negative in all tests. The results indicate that PorPV-LPMV mRNA persists and induces a durable humoral immune response in pigs that have recovered from a natural infection. After a possible reactivation of the virus, it was transmitted to sentinel pigs in contact with the convalescent pigs. PMID:24768705

  14. La inserci贸n en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en Espa帽a y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por pa铆s de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este art铆culo compara los resultados econ贸micos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en Espa帽a y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selecci贸n por el que la mayor铆a de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en Espa帽a proceden de Sudam茅rica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayor铆a de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selecci贸n explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los or铆genes y las caracter铆sticas de los latinoamericanos en ambos pa铆ses, los factores demogr谩ficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos pa铆ses; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acent煤an m谩s entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  15. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronm铆a Por Los Alumnos de Educaci贸n B谩sica en Una Escuela P煤blica.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educa莽茫o B谩sica: O Caso de Uma Escola P煤blica Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Igua莽u (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigaci贸n sobre la comprensi贸n de conceptos astron贸micos b谩sicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la ense帽anza primaria y el tercer a帽o de la ense帽anza secundaria de una escuela p煤blica de la ciudad de Foz do Igua莽u (Brasil). Se utiliz贸 un test de 20 preguntas de opci贸n m煤ltiple para identificar las concepciones m谩s comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolecci贸n de datos se desarroll贸 en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trat贸 los siguientes temas: el ciclo d铆a-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del a帽o, las fases de la Luna, el movimiento de la Luna, el movimiento aparente del Sol sobre la esfera celeste, los eclipses, las dimensiones y las distancias en el Universo, el brillo de las estrellas y su observaci贸n de la Tierra. Si bien ha habido un peque帽o progreso en la proporci贸n de respuestas aceptables cient铆ficamente cuando se cotej贸 el octavo grado de la ense帽anza primaria con el quinto, y el 煤ltimo a帽o de la ense帽anza secundaria con el primero, se observ贸 un predominio de las concepciones alternativas en relaci贸n a la mayor铆a de los temas explorados, que continu贸 hasta los 煤ltimos a帽os de la educaci贸n b谩sica. Una comparaci贸n con los datos encontrados en investigaciones realizadas en otros contextos socioculturales revelaron, en muchos aspectos, conceptos y dificultades similares expresadas por los estudiantes. Apresentam-se os resultados de uma investiga莽茫o sobre a compreens茫o de conceitos astron么micos b谩sicos, da qual participaram 561 estudantes da quinta s茅rie do Ensino Fundamental ao terceiro ano do Ensino M茅dio de uma escola p煤blica da cidade de Foz do Igua莽u. Um teste com 20 quest玫es de m煤ltipla escolha foi aplicado para identificar as concep莽玫es mais comuns expressadas pelos alunos. Esse instrumento de coleta de dados foi elaborado com base na literatura sobre concep莽玫es alternativas e abordou os seguintes temas: o ciclo dia-noite; os fusos hor谩rios; as esta莽玫es do ano; as fases da Lua; o movimento da Lua; o movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste; os eclipses; as dimens玫es e dist芒ncias no Universo; o brilho das estrelas e sua observa莽茫o da Terra. Embora se tenha verificado um pequeno progresso na propor莽茫o de respostas cientificamente aceit谩veis ao se cotejar a oitava s茅rie do Ensino Fundamental com a quinta, e a terceira s茅rie do Ensino M茅dio com a primeira, houve o predom铆nio de concep莽玫es alternativas em rela莽茫o 脿 maior parte dos temas explorados, as quais persistiram at茅 o 煤ltimo ano da Educa莽茫o B谩sica. A compara莽茫o com dados encontrados em investiga莽玫es realizadas em outros contextos socioculturais revelaram, em muitos aspectos, no莽玫es e dificuldades similares manifestadas pelos estudantes.

  16. Eficacia de la detecci贸n sistem谩tica de la gripe en las fronteras en los viajeros que llegan por v铆a a茅rea*

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Patricia C.; Jennings, Lance C.; Duncan, Alasdair R.; Brunton, Cheryl R.; Baker, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Se midieron los s铆ntomas y la prevalencia de la gripe (tambi茅n llamada influenza), as铆 como la eficacia del mecanismo de detecci贸n sistem谩tica basado en los s铆ntomas y la temperatura para diagnosticar la gripe en viajeros internacionales que llegaban por v铆a a茅rea. M茅todos. El presente estudio transversal recopil贸 datos de viajeros que llegaron al aeropuerto internacional de Christchurch (Nueva Zelandia) en el invierno del 2008 mediante un cuestionario de salud, medici贸n de la temperatura y toma de muestras de las v铆as respiratorias. Resultados. De los viajeros, 15鈥976 (68%) entregaron los formularios completos. De ellos, 17% notificaron al menos un s铆ntoma de gripe; los s铆ntomas m谩s comunes fueron rinorrea o congesti贸n nasal (10%) y tos (8%). Se tomaron muestras de las v铆as respiratorias de 3鈥769 viajeros. La prevalencia estimada de la gripe fue de 1,1% (4% en las personas sintom谩ticas, 0,2% en las asintom谩ticas). La sensibilidad de los criterios de detecci贸n vari贸 de 84% para 鈥渃ualquier s铆ntoma鈥 a 3% para la fiebre de 37,8 掳C o mayor. El valor predictivo positivo fue bajo para todos los criterios. Conclusiones. El m茅todo de detecci贸n sistem谩tica en las fronteras mediante la autonotificaci贸n de s铆ntomas y la toma de la temperatura presenta limitaciones para impedir que una gripe pand茅mica entre en un pa铆s. Basarse en criterios como 鈥渃ualquier s铆ntoma鈥 o la tos har铆a que se investigara a varias personas no infectadas, mientras que algunas personas infectadas pasar铆an inadvertidas. Si se usaran criterios m谩s espec铆ficos como la fiebre, la mayor铆a de las personas infectadas entrar铆an en el pa铆s a pesar del mecanismo de detecci贸n.

  17. Inducci髇 de brotes de formaci髇 estelar por efectos de marea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scannapieco, C.; Tissera, P.; S醝z, A.; Dom韓guez-Tenreiro, R.

    Hydrodynamical cosmological SPH simulations are used to study the effects of mergers in the star formation history of galactic objects in hierarchical clustering scenarios. We find that during some merger events, gaseous discs can experience two starbursts: the first one during the orbital decay phase, due to gas inflows driven as the satellite approaches, and the second one, when the two baryonic clumps collide. A trend for these first induced starbursts to be more efficient at transforming the gas into stars is also found. We detect that systems which do not experience early gas inflows have well-formed stellar bulges and more concentrated dark matter potential wells, which seem to be responsible for preventing further gas inward transport triggered by tidal forces. The coupled evolution of the dark matter and baryons lead to an evolutionary sequence during which systems with shallower total potential wells suffer early gas inflows during the orbital decay phase that help feed their central mass concentration, pulling in dark matter that contributes to build up more stable systems. We find a clear trend to have major mergers (i.e., similar mass objects) at high redshift as expected in a hierarchical clustering model. Whithin this scenario, massive mergers tends to occur when the systems are more likely to be unstable, and consequently, more suceptable to experiencing early gas inflows and double starbursts events. As double starbursts are more efficient at transforming gas into stars, and tend to occur at higher redshift, their impact on galaxy formation could be very important.

  18. On the Use of "Por" Plus Agent with "Se" Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Mello, George

    1978-01-01

    Two explanations for the role of "se" in such constructions as "Se construyen casas" are given by grammarians; one states that it is a passive interpretation ("Houses are built"), the other advocates an impersonal interpretation ("One builds houses"). Different views are presented and analyzed. (Author/NCR)

  19. POR FIN (Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    A project was undertaken in San Antonio, Texas, to develop a recruitment approach which would be more effective than the traditional mass media approach in recruiting hard-core undereducated individuals into adult education classes. An experiment was designed to test a recruiting method which would employ a personal, face-to-face interview鈥

  20. S铆ndrome del Outlet Tor谩cico: 驴Una Patolog铆a Siempre Quir煤rgica? An谩lisis de una Serie de 31 Cirug铆as Realizadas por V铆a Supraclavicular Serie cl铆nica

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, 脕lvaro; P谩ez, Miguel Dom铆nguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducci贸n: El s铆ndrome de outlet tor谩cico es una compresi贸n del plexo braquial que suscita pol茅mica. Se clasifica en Outlet Tor谩cico Verdadero o neurog茅nico (OTV) y Outlet Tor谩cico Disputado o no neurog茅nico (OTD). El primero presenta s铆ntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo s贸lo s铆ntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirug铆as. M茅todos: Se analizaron las cirug铆as de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagn贸sticos de outlet tor谩cico cuyo per铆odo de seguimiento post-operatorio m铆nimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de s铆ntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificaci贸n, resultado de los estudios neurofisiol贸gicos y de im谩genes, resultado de la cirug铆a, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirug铆as realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 a帽os, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 a帽os de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiol贸gicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenol贸gicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV present贸 una alteraci贸n anat贸mica relacionada con la sintomatolog铆a, hecho observado s贸lo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeor贸. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron m谩s frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusi贸n: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirug铆a, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporci贸n mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patolog铆a. PMID:25165614

  1. See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo por Internet: Ideas por padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeanette

    Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many

  2. PREJUICIO Y DISTANCIA SOCIAL HACIA PERSONAS HOMOSEXUALES POR PARTE DE J脫VENES UNIVERSITARIOS

    PubMed Central

    Fern谩ndez Rodr铆guez, Mar铆a del C.; Squiabro, Jos茅 Calder贸n

    2014-01-01

    Se realiz贸 un estudio descriptivo transversal con el prop贸sito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utiliz贸 una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente m谩s prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron m谩s prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a trav茅s del curr铆culo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

  3. The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Geoffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)

  4. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.

  5. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate

  6. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all

  7. Producao d Dijatos por Dupla Troca de Pomeron Exclusiva no Experimento D0

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, Murilo, Santana; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF

    2008-10-01

    The first search for exclusive diffractive dijet production with invariant mass {approx}> 100 GeV in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is performed. The set of data used is the Run IIa, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV taken with the D0 detector. At 95% CL, an upper limit for the ratio between the number of diffractive exclusive events and the number of non diffractive events is set to be 7.5 x 10{sup -6}, excluding two of the three models proposed to explain this production.

  8. Prospects por practical use of squeezed light and back action evasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levenson, M. D.; Shelby, R. M.

    1989-10-01

    The most powerful method to date of reducing quantum noise桲imble's cavity parametric deamplifier梕liminates 95% of this noise but requires a full optical table of sophisticated equipment. The questions remains whether such methods can be made useful. In some very difficult and esoteric experiments, such as gravity wave detection, even quite laborious techniques may make the overall experiment only marginally more difficult. In other types of measurement, such as infrared spectroscopy and optical data storage and retrieval, much simpler and more flexible devices with similar power will be required.

  9. Abuso sexual por parte de los empleados del colegio (Sexual Misconduct by School Employees). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goorian, Brad

    This digest in Spanish defines sexual misconduct and offers guidelines that school boards and administrators can initiate to protect students from unwanted sexual behavior. The law recognizes two types of sexual misconduct: quid pro quo, when a school employee grants a student a favor in exchange for sexual gratification, and hostile environment,

  10. Renovando la Esperanza por una Educacion sin Exclusiones (Rekindling the Hope for an Education without Exclusion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this issue, written in Spanish, focus on the following: current status and outlook of youth and adult education; opening statement of the 50th anniversary commemoration; regional framework for the education of youth and adults in Latin America and the Caribbean; interculturalism and the education of youth and adults; participation of鈥

  11. "Por Los Ojos De Madres": Latina Mothers' Understandings of College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Laura Jean; Martinez, Melissa Ann; S醗nz, Victor B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, data from six focus groups with 30 Latina mothers in South Texas were analyzed utilizing a "funds of knowledge" approach to uncover their understandings of college readiness and their role in ensuring their children are college ready. Findings indicate that Latina mothers perceived college readiness in a holistic fashion,

  12. Monitoreo 髉tico de eta-Carina durante el pasaje por el periastro en 2014.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fern醤dez-Laj鷖, E.; Salerno, N. E.; Scalia, M. C.; Ramos, X. S.; Giudici, F. N.; Gamen, R. C.

    2015-08-01

    We present the H light curves resulting from the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons of Car as well as its spectral evolution, including the latest ``event'' occurred in mid-2014. The direct CCD observations were made with the telescope ``VS Niemela'' the Observatory of La Plata, and spectroscopic observations were made with the telescope ``J. Sahade'' of Casleo, Argentina.

  13. Language and La Academia, If English Works, Por Que Se Emplea Espanol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonz, Jon G.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of Mexican American nationalism reflected in the publications of the Academia de la Nueva Raza and in a 1971 work by Ricardo Sanchez are examined in this article. The connection between language and ideology is discussed in the context of Chicano nationalist writing. (GC)

  14. Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Teaching the Spanish Prepositions "Por" and "Para"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    L2 prepositions are traditionally taught in a non-explanatory manner by having students learn each use individually. This study examines the effectiveness of an alternative explanatory approach based on cognitive linguistics, which considers the multiple uses of a preposition as related. Consequently, learners can be shown a general schema that

  15. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and

  16. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and鈥

  17. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate鈥

  18. Neuropat铆a perif茅rica inducida por quimioterapia

    Cancer.gov

    Art铆culo sobre un efecto secundario de la quimioterapia que causa dolor y malestar en las manos y los pies. Tambi茅n incluye informaci贸n sobre los esfuerzos para mejorar las opciones de detecci贸n, tratamiento y prevenci贸n.

  19. "Por qu leemos esto en la clase de espa駉l?": The Politics of Teaching Literature in Spanglish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postma, Regan L.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses what is at stake in teaching works written in "Spanglish" in Spanish departments and what teaching such works might mean for students and the scholarly community at large. This article primarily comes out of the author's experiences teaching "Spanglish" works in Spanish courses at a major research

  20. El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing鈥

  1. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.鈥

  2. The PorGrow project: overall cross-national results, comparisons and implications.

    PubMed

    Millstone, E; Lobstein, T

    2007-05-01

    European policymakers need more information on policy responses to obesity that stakeholders judge effective and acceptable. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project gathered such intelligence by interviewing key stakeholder groups in nine countries. Interviews used an innovative multi-criteria mapping (MCM) methodology that gathers quantitative and qualitative information on the stakeholders' perceptions and judgements. Aggregating across all participants, a comprehensive portfolio of policy measures, integrated into a coherent programme, would be well-supported by broad coalitions of stakeholders. Those portfolios should include measures (i) to provide improved educations in schools and to the general adult population; (ii) measures to improve access to and incentives for physical activity; (iii) measures to improve information about both foods and physical activity and (iv) changes to the supply of and demand for foodstuffs. There was little support for fiscal measures and technological 'fixes'; they were judged ineffective and unacceptable. Significant differences were found across European regions, and across different stakeholder perspectives, but not across genders. There is a strong case for improved monitoring of body mass index levels, dietary habits and physical activity. An MCM study can effectively cover several countries, rather than being confined to just one, and generate both national and cross-national policy analyses and proposals. PMID:17371305

  3. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli pat贸genas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    G贸mez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli pat贸genas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en ni帽os menores de 5 a帽os en Am茅rica Latina, 脕frica y Asia y est谩n asociadas a alta mortalidad en ni帽os en las comunidades m谩s pobres de 脕frica y el Sudeste Asi谩tico. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli pat贸genas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros pa铆ses de Am茅rica Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detecci贸n de estos pat贸genos en los laboratorios cl铆nicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detecci贸n de E. coli pat贸genas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxig茅nica la cepa m谩s frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en ni帽os menores de 5 a帽os. Otros pat贸genos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropat贸gena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisi贸n de estos pat贸genos y a la infecci贸n del hu茅sped susceptible. M谩s estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisi贸n, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevenci贸n de estos pat贸genos que afectan la poblaci贸n pedi谩trica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  4. Seizures, cysticercosis and rural-to-urban migration: the PERU MIGRANT study

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Isidro; Miranda, J Jaime; Rodriguez, Silvia; Vargas, Victor; Cjuno, Alfredo; Smeeth, Liam; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tsang, Victor C W; Gilman, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence of seizures, epilepsy and seropositivity to cysticercosis in rural villagers (cysticercosis-endemic setting), rural-to-urban migrants into a non-endemic urban shanty town and urban inhabitants of the same non-endemic shanty town. Methods Three Peruvian populations (n聽=聽985) originally recruited into a study about chronic diseases and migration were studied. These groups included rural inhabitants from an endemic region (n聽=聽200), long-term rural-to-urban migrants (n聽=聽589) and individuals living in the same urban setting (n聽=聽196). Seizure disorders were detected by a survey, and a neurologist examined positive respondents. Serum samples from 981/985 individuals were processed for cysticercosis antibodies on immunoblot. Results Epilepsy prevalence (per 1000 people) was 15.3 in the urban group, 35.6 in migrants and 25 in rural inhabitants. A gradient in cysticercosis antibody seroprevalence was observed: urban 2%, migrant 13.5% and rural group 18% (P聽<聽0.05). A similarly increasing pattern of higher seroprevalence was observed among migrants by age at migration. In rural villagers, there was strong evidence of an association between positive serology and having seizures (P聽=聽0.011) but such an association was not observed in long-term migrants or in urban residents. In the entire study population, compared with seronegative participants, those with strong antibody reactions (鈮ヂ4 antibody bands) were more likely to have epilepsy (P聽<聽0.001). Conclusions It is not only international migration that affects cysticercosis endemicity; internal migration can also affect patterns of endemicity within an endemic country. The neurological consequences of cysticercosis infection likely outlast the antibody response for years after rural-to-urban migration. Objectifs Examiner la pr茅valence des crises d鈥櫭﹑ilepsie, de l鈥櫭﹑ilepsie et de la s茅ropositivit茅 脿 la cysticercose chez les villageois des zones rurales (cadre end茅mique pour la cysticercose), chez les migrants des zones ruraux vers les zones urbaines dans un bidonville urbain non end茅mique et chez les habitants urbains du m锚me bidonville non end茅mique. M茅thodes Trois populations p茅ruviennes (n = 985) recrut茅es initialement dans une 茅tude sur les maladies chroniques et la migration, ont 茅t茅 茅tudi茅es. Ces groupes comprenaient des habitants de zones rurales d'une r茅gion d'end茅mie (n = 200), des migrants de long terme de zones ruraux vers les villes (n = 589) et les personnes vivant dans le m锚me milieu urbain (n = 196). Les troubles 茅pileptiques ont 茅t茅 d茅tect茅s par un sondage et un neurologue a examin茅 les r茅pondants positifs. Des 茅chantillons de s茅rum de 981/985 individus ont 茅t茅 test茅s pour les anticorps de cysticercose par Immunoblot. R茅sultats La pr茅valence de l鈥櫭﹑ilepsie (pour 1000 personnes) 茅tait de 15,3 dans le groupe urbain; 35,6 chez les migrants et 25 dans la population rurale. Un gradient dans la s茅ropr茅valence des anticorps de la cysticercose a 茅t茅 observ茅: dans le groupe urbain 2%, le groupe de migrants 13,5% et le groupe rural 18% (p <0,05). Une tendance croissante similaire de s茅ropr茅valence plus 茅lev茅e a 茅t茅 observ茅e chez les migrants selon l鈥櫭e 脿 la migration. Chez les villageois ruraux, il y avait des preuves solides d'une association entre une s茅rologie positive et le fait d'avoir des crises (p = 0,011), mais une telle association n'a pas 茅t茅 observ茅e chez les migrants de long terme ou chez les r茅sidents urbains. Dans l'ensemble de la population de l鈥櫭﹖ude, ceux avec de fortes r茅actions d'anticorps (鈮 4 bandes d'anticorps) 茅taient plus susceptibles d'avoir l鈥櫭﹑ilepsie (p <0,001) compar茅 aux participants s茅ron茅gatifs. Conclusions La migration internationale n'est pas la seule qui affecte l'end茅micit茅 de la cysticercose; la migration interne peut aussi modifier les profils d'end茅micit茅 au sein d'un m锚me pays d'end茅mie. Les cons茅quences neurologiques de l'infection par la cysticercose sont susceptibles de survivre 脿 la r茅ponse d'anticorps durant des ann茅es apr猫s la migration des zones rurales vers les zones urbaines. Objetivos Examinar la prevalencia de convulsiones, epilepsia, y seropositividad para cisticercosis entre poblaci贸n rural (de zonas end茅micas para cisticercosis), inmigrantes provenientes de zonas rurales a tugurios urbanos no end茅micos, y habitantes urbanos de los mismo tugurios urbanos no end茅micos. M茅todos Se estudiaron tres poblaciones peruanas (n=985) originalmente reclutadas en un estudio de enfermedades cr贸nicas y migraci贸n. Estos grupos inclu铆an habitantes rurales de una regi贸n end茅mica (n=200), inmigrantes de larga duraci贸n de zonas rurales a urbanas (n=589), e individuos que viv铆an en la misma zona urbana (n=196). Las convulsiones se detectaron mediante una encuesta y un neur贸logo examin贸 a quienes hab铆an respondido positivamente. Se procesaron muestras de suero de 981/985 individuos en busca de anticuerpos para cisticercosis mediante inmunoblot. Resultados La prevalencia de epilepsia (por 1,000 personas) era de 15.3 en el grupo urbano, 35.6 en inmigrantes y 25 en habitantes rurales. Se observ贸 un gradiente en la seroprevalencia de los anticuerpos para cisticercosis: grupos urbano 2%, inmigrante 13.5% y rural 18% (p<0.05). Se observ贸 un patr贸n de aumento similar de mayor seroprevalencia entre inmigrantes seg煤n la edad que ten铆an en el momento de emigrar. En pobladores rurales, hab铆a una evidencia importante de asociaci贸n entre tener una serolog铆a positiva y sufrir convulsiones (p=0.011), pero esta asociaci贸n no se observaba en inmigrantes de larga duraci贸n o residentes urbanos. En la poblaci贸n al completo, comparada con los participantes seronegativos, aquellos con una fuerte reactividad de anticuerpos (鈮4 bandas de anticuerpos) ten铆an una mayor probabilidad de sufrir epilepsia (p<0.001). Conclusiones No solo la migraci贸n internacional afecta la endemicidad de cisticercosis; la migraci贸n interna tambi茅n puede afectar los patrones de endemicidad dentro de un pa铆s end茅mico. Las consecuencias neurol贸gicas de la infecci贸n por cisticercos podr铆an durar m谩s que la respuesta a anticuerpos a帽os despu茅s de la migraci贸n de zonas rurales a zonas urbanas. PMID:25581851

  5. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  6. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide鈥

  7. Disponibilidade de nutrientes na fitomassa produzida por cultivares de milho (Zea mays L.) de diferentes niveis tecnologicos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Macronutrient uptake, accumulation, and exportation can be affected by corn genetic selection. The objectives of this study were to quantify macronutrient extraction and to evaluate C/P and C/N ratio. The experiment was established at Rol鈔dia County, Paran State. Ten corn varieties divided into pa...

  8. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide

  9. Evaluacion de que consister y por que se lleva acabo? (Evaluation: What Does it Consist of, and for What Purpose?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    A guide is presented for the evaluation of the bilingual programs in the Austin, Texas, Independent School District. The reasons for an evaluation and a definition of program objectives and evaluation instruments are given. The program components, objectives and evaluation instruments for each grade level (K-4) are listed. The components involved

  10. Como ayudar a los padres a prevenir el envenenamiento por plomo (Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. This Spanish-language Digest summarizes some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies

  11. The effects of the porous buffer layer and doping with dysprosium on internal stresses in the GaInP:Dy/por-GaAs/GaAs(100) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Seredin, P. V.; Gordienko, N. N.; Glotov, A. V.; Zhurbina, I. A.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Arsent'ev, I. N. Shishkov, M. V.

    2009-08-15

    In structures with a porous buffer layer, residual internal stresses caused by a mismatch between the crystal-lattice parameters of the epitaxial GaInP alloy and the GaAs substrate are redistributed to the porous layer that acts as a buffer and is conducive to disappearance of internal stresses. Doping of the epitaxial layer with dysprosium exerts a similar effect on the internal stresses in the film-substrate structure.

  12. Comparacion de modelos de Educacion Sexual en el conocimiento y cambio de actitudes en practicas sexuales por alumnos de nivel superior en la region de Caguas, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD). In addition, it provides activities to increase the self-esteem, the communication and the decision making. This investigation had the intention to compare the SETM and the HBM in the increase of knowledge and change of attitudes of high risk of propagation of the STD using a validated questionnaire (Agency of the United States for the International-USAID Development), named "Endesa 2007" and, adapted to Puerto Rico by the Dra.Marta Collazo to a sample of students between the 17 and 19 years of 2 state schools of San Lorenzo, as a pretest, and, selected by convenience. Then, a 10 hours training was administered to half of the students using the SETM to STD and condom use lessons. The other half of the students received additional lessons using the HBM. Finally, both groups took the questionnaire again as a posttest. The sample of students, in average, did not reach the knowledge and basic levels of attitudes towards the STD in the pretest. This reflected 2 possible implications on the SETM. In first place, that the way in which the STD is implemented as part of the Sexual Education curriculum is inefficient. Secondly, the possibility that the acquired information or attitudes does not have permanence. Culminated the questionnaire, the HBM increase the knowledge of the STD in 0.41 points (average) over the SETM. There was not a significant difference between both models, in attitudes, implying that both models are equally effective. The findings suggests that the HBM is more effective increasing the knowledge on the STD, but equally effective than the SETM in attitude change for the Puerto Rican youth.

  13. Efectos de Campos Magn茅ticos en las Tasas de Consumo de Madera por Coptotermes formosanus, la Termita Subterr谩nea de Formosa.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty groups of 500 workers and 50 soldiers of Coptotermes formosanus were maintained in costume designed containers and fed with a piece of red oak wood (Quercus rubra). Twenty of these groups were exposed to permanent magnets with a flux of 800 G. Another 20 groups were exposed to a permanent mag...

  14. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy (Preguntas por responder en la pol铆tica educativa de lenguas extranjeras en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla Carvajal, Camilo Andr茅s; Tejada-S谩nchez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its鈥

  15. Communicating with Mexican Americans: Por Su Buena Salud = Communicando Con Mexico Americanos: For Their Good Health. Proceedings of the Conference (Houston, TX, September 13-14, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas J., Ed.; And Others

    The conference focused on the role of the Mexican American's cultural language, tradition, life style, health practices, and media utilization in the design of effective health education and information programs. Representing various local, state, and national health, education, and media organizations, the 108 participants attended sessions on鈥

  16. "Pig in a poke (gato por liebre)": the "mota" (Calophysus macropterus) fishery, molecular evidence of commercialization in Colombia and toxicological analyses.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Cristian; Cubillos, Juan Camilo; G贸mez, Rigoberto; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Overfishing has affected the population abundance trends of many commercial fish species. In the Amazon, the fishery of a catfish commonly known as "mota" or "piracatinga" (Calophysus macropterus) has become an important economic activity in the region as this species has replaced a number of other overexploited great catfish species in the markets. Due to this high exploitation, ways in which to increase captures have been identified. One strategy is to use decomposing animal carcasses as bait. Such strategy has increased the hunting pressure on endangered species such as caimans and river dolphins. We investigated which catfish species are currently commercialized in Colombian fish markets using DNA barcoding, and measured mercury concentration in the tissues of fish molecularly identified as C. macropterus. We collected 86 fish samples in markets of four Colombian cities. Sixty-eight of these were identified molecularly as C.macropterus. The mercury concentration of 29 such samples was analyzed. Samples presented total Hg concentrations higher than the limit for human consumption established by the WHO (0.5聽渭g/g). These results are worrisome and suggest that (1) C. macropterus is a widely used fish species for human consumption in Colombia and (2) C. macropterus has high concentrations of total Hg, making its consumption a public health risk. Results presented here suggest that C. macropterus has replaced capaz in most Colombian markets. This fishery threatens wild species of river dolphins and caimans, and is also a public health risk given the high mercury levels we found in a subsample of these fishes. PMID:24419666

  17. Evaluation de la qualit de mod鑜es num閞iques de terrain d閞iv閟 par interf閞om閠rieEvaluaci髇 de la calidad de modelos digitales de elevaci髇 derivados por interferometr韆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gens, R黡iger

    One of the most important uses of SAR interferometry is in the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs). However, a standard procedure for quality estimation of DEMs does not exist. This paper proposes a method of quality estimation using an adapted Monte Carlo simulation, which has the advantage that it could be used in areas where appropriate reference DEMs are not available. This paper also addresses interferometric processing, with special emphasis on the influence of the input parameters. Practical implementation of the proposed technique is shown on a data set from Lower Saxony in Germany. The error map generated, which is a measure of the quality of the DEM, is also presented. For further analysis of the critical aspects of quality, a reference DEM has also been used.

  18. Beneficios y riesgos de la terapia estrog茅nica en la menopausia var铆an por edad, de acuerdo con el e

    Cancer.gov

    Los datos de seguimiento a largo plazo del estudio Iniciativa para la Salud de la Mujer (WHI) proporcionan informaci贸n nueva e importante sobre los posibles riesgos y beneficios de la terapia hormonal para tratar s铆ntomas relacionadas con la menopausia.

  19. Ameiridae Boeck and Argestidae Por revisited, with establishment of Parameiropsidae, a new family of Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda) from deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corgosinho, P. H. C.; Mart韓ez Arbizu, P.

    2010-09-01

    Four new species of Parameiropsis are described from Angola and Guinea Basins and the Arctic Laptev Sea. The male of Parameiropsis poseidonicus sp. n. differs from that of P. neptuni sp. n. and P. senckenbergi sp. n. in antennule segmentation, length of the proximal aesthetasc, length of the outermost seta of the antennary endopod, degree of reduction of the mouthparts, relative length of the inner spine of the basis of thoracopod 1, shape of the furca and body length. The female of P. amphitriteae sp. n. differs from previously described females of other species in the smaller exopod and endpod of thoracopod 1, reduced armature of thoracopods 1-6, length of the outer setae of exopods and endopods of thoracopods 2-4, and mandible exopod weakly developed and fused to the basis. Parameiropsis is redefined by the following autapomorphies: presence of aesthetasc on 3rd segment of female antennule; antenna strong, with endopod curved upwardly, and shape of the outermost (strongly ornamented) spine; triangular labrum; elongated corpus mandibularis, gnathobasis very long; basis of mandibular palp unarmed; elongated maxillule, with long and flexible setae on praecoxal arthrite; basis of the maxilla with strongly modified claw. To discuss the phylogenetic position of Parameiropsis, we revaluated the subfamilies of Ameiridae (viz. Ameirinae and Stenocopiinae) and the family Argestidae. Anoplosomella and Malacopsyllus revealed to be not closely related to Ameiridae and are transferred to Argestidae, sharing with other members of this family the morphology of the mandible gnathobasis, armature of maxilla and armature and length of the first segment of the antennule. Argestoides prehensilis does not show any of the characters that we consider autapomorphic for Argestidae. Instead, it shows many characters in common with several Ameiridae species. Parameiropsis does not have any character that could justify its inclusion within Ameiridae or even within Podogennonta. It also cannot be included satisfactorily within Argestidae nor Exanechentera. Therefore, we here propose a new family for Parameiropsis, with unclear relationships within Harpacticoida. After these taxonomic rearrangements, Ameiridae and Argestidae are considered monophyletic based on certain maxilla characters that we consider autapomorphic for each group. A key to the identification of the known species of Parameiropsis is added at the end.

  20. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Leichliter, Jami S; Sun, Christina J; Bloom, Fred R

    2016-01-01

    Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005-2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men's social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. PMID:26916740

  1. Comparacion de Modelos de Educacion Sexual en El Conocimiento y Cambio de Actitudes en Practicas Sexuales por Alumnos de Nivel Superior en La Region De Caguas, Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    2012-01-01

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of

  2. Library Safari: Tips for Parents of Young Readers and Explorers = De safari por la biblioteca: Consejos para padres de lectores y exploradores jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Aedin

    Visiting the library is a great way for parents to encourage their child's imagination and learning. It gives parents the opportunity to model good reading behavior and to show their child that they value books and reading. No matter how young the child is, a trip to the library can be an enjoyable outing for parents and their children. Most鈥

  3. Comparacion de Modelos de Educacion Sexual en El Conocimiento y Cambio de Actitudes en Practicas Sexuales por Alumnos de Nivel Superior en La Region De Caguas, Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    2012-01-01

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of鈥

  4. Comienza la construcci贸n de instalaci贸n patrocinada por el NCI en Puerto Rico para realizar estudios

    Cancer.gov

    El gobierno de Puerto Rico ha destinado $196 millones de d贸lares para construir un hospital oncol贸gico de 287 000 pies cuadrados en San Juan, que contar谩 con 96 camas. El nuevo hospital es el primero en su clase en la regi贸n caribe帽a y en 茅l se llevar谩n a

  5. Realidades Suburbanas: Latinos en el Condado de Dakota. Una Investigacion Dirigida por HACER = Suburban Realities: Latinos in Dakota County. A Study Conducted by HACER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HACER: Hispanic Advocacy and Community Empowerment through Research, Minneapolis, MN.

    A research project was conducted between April and December of 1998 to learn about the experiences of the sizable numbers of Latinos who live in Dakota County (Minnesota). This diverse group was studied through examining existing demographic information, conducting interviews with 45 Latino and Anglo individuals, and conducting several focus鈥

  6. TECNOLOG脥AS DE INFORMACI脫N Y COMUNICACI脫N PARA LA PREVENCI脫N Y CONTROL DE LA INFECCI脫N POR EL VIH Y OTRAS ITS*

    PubMed Central

    Curioso, Walter H.; Blas, Magaly M.; Kurth, Ann E.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Avances tecnol贸gicos innovadores como Internet, computadoras personales de bolsillo, tel茅fonos celulares y otros equipos son un arsenal en crecimiento en el esfuerzo de impedir y controlar el VIH y otras infecciones de transmisi贸n sexual (ITS). A pesar que existe una diversidad de tecnolog铆as de informaci贸n y comunicaci贸n en diferentes etapas de desarrollo para la prevenci贸n del VIH e ITS, la investigaci贸n en esta 谩rea se encuentra a煤n en crecimiento, y el impacto en la incidencia de enfermedad, las evaluaciones con dise帽os rigurosos y los estudios econ贸micos todav铆a son muy limitados. Sin embargo, algunas de estas evidencias son prometedoras y poseen un gran potencial para su uso en nuestro medio. En este art铆culo hemos realizado una revisi贸n sistem谩tica de la literatura relacionada con el uso de la tecnolog铆a aplicada a la prevenci贸n y control del VIH e ITS. De ser usada apropiadamente, esta tecnolog铆a podr铆a mejorar la vigilancia del VIH y otras ITS, diagn贸stico, notificaci贸n de parejas, prevenci贸n, manejo cl铆nico, y capacitaci贸n de profesionales de la salud. PMID:26339254

  7. Mod鑜e num閞ique de terrain comme outil pour contr鬺er et mesurer l'閞osion de ravinsModelos digitales de elevaci髇 como un instrumento para seguir y medir erosi髇 por c醨cavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Harley D.; DeRose, Ronald C.

    This paper describes the use of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), constructed from sequential aerial photographs, as a tool for measuring gully erosion in a geomorphologically unstable environment. The technique is applied to a case study that examines erosion in 26 gullies in two study areas in the upper Waipaoa catchment, eastern North Island, New Zealand. Changes over two consecutive time periods, ranging in length from 14.0 years to 33.2 years, were studied at each site, drawing on available historical aerial photography. Several key aspects of the method used are described and discussed in detail, and recommendations are made for future application of DEMs for assessment of landscape change. DEM-measured gully degradation rates are directly proportional to the square root of the gully area.From this relationship it should be possible to rapidly estimate gully erosion at a catchment scale on the basis of gully areas alone. DEM-based measurement techniques, together with appropriate consideration for the sensitivity of the method, have significant cost and efficiency advantages over manual approaches to erosion measurements.

  8. Proyecto de Ley por el Cual se Dicta el Estatuto General de Educacion y Pliego de Modificaciones Propuesto (Bill Establishing a General Statute for Education and Explanation of Proposed Modifications).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez Villa, Diego

    This document contains the 1971 Colombian education bill and suggested bill modifications. The bill states educational objectives and establishes the structure of the national education system, the organization for educational administration, financing procedures, regulations for educational personnel, and the means for implementing the

  9. Viajando por la Carretera de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para los Padres para Tener un Viaje Feliz y Seguro (Traveling the Special Education Highway: A Parent's Guide to a Safe and Happy Journey).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Maria, Karen

    Designed for Spanish-speaking parents, this brochure, written in Spanish, uses a car-trip analogy to describe special education services for students with disabilities. It addresses: (1) child find; (2) initial evaluation and eligibility determination; (3) categories of students who receive special education services and related services; (4)鈥

  10. Guiandose por la Intrincada Senda de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para Padres y Maestros. Tercera Edicion. (Negotiating the Special Education Maze: A Guide for Parents & Teachers. Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Winifred; Chitwood, Stephen; Hayden, Deidre

    Designed to assist Spanish-speaking parents and teachers in understanding special education procedures, this book describes the process for obtaining school services for children with disabilities. An introduction reviews six major provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that relate to children's rights to a free,鈥

  11. VISI脫N GENERAL DE LA EVALUACI脫N DEL RIESGO EN SALUD INFANTIL EMPLEANDO UN ENFOQUE POR ETAPAS DE DESARROLLO (American translation is: Overview of a Life Stage Approach to Children's Health Risk Assessment)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  12. Engaging Foreign Language Learners in a Web 2.0-Mediated Collaborative Learning Process (Inclusi髇 de estudiantes de lenguas extranjeras en procesos colaborativos de aprendizaje mediados por la web 2.0)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote Parra, Gabriel Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to explore the types of interactions that foreign language learners experience while using a wiki as a supporting tool for a face-to-face research course. This design allowed me to play a dual role: first, I studied my own classroom setting and students. Second, I implemented a pedagogical intervention based

  13. Less and Less for More and More. Economic Organization Booklet 1. Teacher's Edition=Menos y menos por mas y mas. Organizacion economica libro 1. Manual para El Maestro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and are designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to

  14. Fields without Borders: An Anthology of Documentary Writing and Photography by Student Action with Farmworkers' Interns = Campos sin Fronteras: Una Antologia de Obras Escritas y Fotografia por Estudiantes Internos de Accion Estudiantil con Trabajadores Agricolas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Libby, Ed.; Okie, Alejandra, Ed.; Wiggins, Melinda, Ed.

    In this booklet, essays and poems, presented both in English and in Spanish, portray the feelings, conditions, and economic plight of migrant and seasonal farmworkers in North and South Carolina, often in their own words. A preface describes Student Action with Farmworkers summer internships in which college students spend 10 weeks working with

  15. John Tracy Clinic: Programa de Ensenanza por Correspondencia para Los Padres de Ninos Sordo-Ciegos de Edad Preescolar (John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf-Blind Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thielman, Virginia B.; And Others

    Written in Spanish, the document contains a correspondence learning program for parents of deaf blind preschoolers. An introductory section gives preliminary instructions, an introduction to sign language, and a list of resources for deaf blind children. Twelve lessons follow with information on: the parent's role in teaching the child, visual鈥

  16. Fields without Borders: An Anthology of Documentary Writing and Photography by Student Action with Farmworkers' Interns = Campos sin Fronteras: Una Antologia de Obras Escritas y Fotografia por Estudiantes Internos de Accion Estudiantil con Trabajadores Agricolas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Libby, Ed.; Okie, Alejandra, Ed.; Wiggins, Melinda, Ed.

    In this booklet, essays and poems, presented both in English and in Spanish, portray the feelings, conditions, and economic plight of migrant and seasonal farmworkers in North and South Carolina, often in their own words. A preface describes Student Action with Farmworkers summer internships in which college students spend 10 weeks working with鈥

  17. Por Que Mami No Puede Cambiar una Goma? Tercer Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental. (Why Can't Mommy Change a Flat Tire? Third Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide for teachers, in English and Spanish, examines the role parents play in the socialization of sex roles. A pre-test and post test are included to measure the user's awareness of sexual stereotyping. Five object lessons cover the following topics: (1) stereotypes which exist prior to a baby's birth; (2) behavioral standards on which

  18. Por Que Rosa No Es Valiente? Cuarto Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental (Why Isn't Rosie Brave? Fourth Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide in English and Spanish provides teachers with methods for identifying textbook bias and stereotyping. A pre-test and post-test designed to measure awareness of textbook stereotypes are included. Four object lessons discuss the function of repetition, cumulative effect, omission, and distortion in reinforcing stereotypes, especially

  19. VISI覰 GENERAL DE LA EVALUACI覰 DEL RIESGO EN SALUD INFANTIL EMPLEANDO UN ENFOQUE POR ETAPAS DE DESARROLLO (American translation is: Overview of a Life Stage Approach to Children's Health Risk Assessment)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  20. Vistazos Intimos De Puebla; Una Compilacion De Informes Individuales Preparados Por Los Participantes Del Instituto De Verano (NDEA) (Close-ups on Puebla; A Compilation of Individual Reports Prepared by the Participants of the NDEA Summer Institute).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita State Univ., KS.

    The individual and committee reports on the sociology of Puebla, Mexico, which are collected here, were written by participants in an NDEA Summer Institute program of the University of Wichita, Kansas. The underlying motives of the program, described in the preface, were to provide participants with real language experience and a chance to

  1. About to Graduate from High School? Consider Career Education Opportunities. EdSource Student/Parent Guide = Estas por graduarte de la escuela preparatoria? Considera oportunidades para seguir tu educacion de carrera. EdSource guia de estudiantes y padres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Getting a sound education is important to a student's ability to make a good living in a field they will enjoy. For many students graduating from high school, that includes high quality career technical (or vocational) education tailored to a specific job. In California, such programs are available in a wide range of fields, from healthcare to the鈥

  2. Ingestion Reiterada de Cuerpos Extranos. Forma Inusual de Presentacion del Sindrome de Munchausen por Poderes (Reiterated Ingestion of Foreign Bodies. Unusual Form of Presentation of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terreros, I. Gomez de; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An unusual case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy is reported. A mother with a psychiatric record of behavior disorders and family dysfunction perpetrated the ingestion of foreign bodies (for example, earrings, a screw, sewing needles) on a 10-month-old infant with a history of prematurity, repeated visits to emergency rooms, and nonjustified

  3. The Latinas' Guide to the Information Superhighway: A Bilingual Guide for Latinas by Latinas = Guia para Mujeres Latinas sobre la Supercarretera de la Informacion: Una Guia Bilingue para Latinas por medio de Latinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANA, A National Latina Organization, Washington, DC.

    This guide to the Internet is designed to give Latinas basic information on computers and the information superhighway. Written in both Spanish and English, the guide begins by defining the Internet and making some suggestions about acquiring access to a computer. Among the topics discussed are how to choose an Internet service provider, how to鈥

  4. The Impact of Regional Differences on Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes towards Their Students' Use of Code Switching in a South Texas School District (El impacto de las diferencias regionales en las actitudes de docentes de primaria respecto a la alternancia de c骴igos por parte de los estudiantes en un distrito escolar del sur de Texas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nava G髆ez, Guadalupe Nancy; Garc韆, Hilda

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigating whether the teachers' geographical distribution influences their attitudes towards their students' use of code switching. The study was guided by the following research question: Are there differences between teachers' opinions of the north elementary schools and teachers' opinions of the

  5. Palabras del Secretario de Educacion Publica en la reunion anual de directores de education federal e inspectores generales en los estados que se rigen por el calendario "A". (Address by the Minister of Education at the Annual Meeting of Directors of Federal Education and Inspectors General in Calendar "A" States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanez, Agustin

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a speech by the Mexican Minister of Education at an annual educators meeting. The Minister dealt with the administration and quality of education, the role of the directors and the duties towards them of the inspectors, and the main features of the reform of national

  6. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth

  7. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and

  8. A Visit to the Library: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Una visita a la biblioteca: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions for parents of 3- to

  9. Reading with Children: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = La lectura con los ninos: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and

  10. Words All around Us: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Palabras y palabras a nuestro alrededor: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and

  11. Talking, Singing, Rhyming: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Hablar, cantar, recitar: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and

  12. Exploring with Technology: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Exploremos con tecnologia: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides computer literacy activities for

  13. Lo que los educadores necesitan saber sobre...El agrupamiento por habilidad [y] La compactacion del curriculum [y] Los alumnos dotados y el aprendizaje cooperativo [y] La actividad tutoral. Guias practica (What Educators Need To Know about...Ability Grouping [and] Curriculum Compacting [and] Gifted Students and Cooperative Learning [and] Mentoring. Practitioners' Guides).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del, Ed.

    These four pamphlets in Spanish offer guidelines supported by theory-driven quality research that is problem-based, practice-relevant, and consumer-oriented. Each pamphlet has a section summarizing research from the literature or topic notes as well as implications for the classroom. The first guide offers principles for teachers concerning the

  14. A Visit to the Library: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Una visita a la biblioteca: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions for parents of 3- to鈥

  15. Mitigation of Disagreement in Peer Review among L2 Learners and Native Speakers in a College Writing Class (Mitigaci贸n del Impacto de las Opiniones de Desacuerdo en el Proceso de Revisi贸n por Pares entre Estudiantes de una Segunda Lengua y Hablantes Nativos en una Clase de Escritura a Nivel Universitario)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christoffersen, Katherine O'Donnell

    2015-01-01

    Peer review is now a commonplace practice in process-oriented writing instruction. A crucial aspect of peer review is assessing another classmate's work, which encompasses the act of disagreement. Given its prevalence in the classroom, it is necessary to analyze how L2 learners mitigate disagreement in the context of peer review with other L2鈥

  16. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and鈥

  17. For a Child, Life is a Creative Adventure: Supporting Development and Learning through Art, Music, Movement, and Dialogue. A Guide for Parents and Professionals. = Para los ninos, la vida es una aventura creativa: Como estimular el desarrollo y el aprendizaje por medio de las artes visuales, la musica, el movimiento y el dialogo. Guia para padres de familia y profesionales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elena

    Recognizing that creativity facilitates children's learning and development, the Head Start Program Performance Standards require Head Start programs to include opportunities for creative self-expression. This guide with accompanying videotape, both in English- and Spanish- language versions, encourages and assists adults to support children's鈥

  18. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J; Rhodes, Ryan G; Nakayama, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum. PMID:19966289

  19. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J.; Rhodes, Ryan G.; Nakayama, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum. PMID:19966289

  20. Ultrafast charge separation and charge stabilization in axially linked 'tetrathiafulvalene-aluminum(III) porphyrin-gold(III) porphyrin' reaction center mimics.

    PubMed

    Poddutoori, Prashanth K; Lim, Gary N; Vassiliev, Serguei; D'Souza, Francis

    2015-10-21

    The axial bonding ability of aluminum(III) porphyrin (AlPor) has been exploited to synthesize the vertically linked dyad 'aluminum(III) porphyrin-gold(III) porphyrin' (AlPor-Ph-AuPor(+)) and the two corresponding self-assembled triads 'tetrathiafulvalene-aluminum(III) porphyrin-gold(III) porphyrin' (TTF-py?AlPor-Ph-AuPor(+) and TTF-Ph-py?AlPor-Ph-AuPor(+)). The unique topology of these triads provides an excellent opportunity to investigate the sequential electron transfer in the perpendicular direction to the AlPor plane where the AlPor acts as a photosensitizer and primary electron donor while the AuPor and TTF serve as an electron acceptor and donor, respectively. The ground state properties of the dyad and triad suggest that there are no direct intramolecular interactions between the oppositely disposed AuPor and TTF units of the triad. However, the NMR and UV-visible absorption studies of the dyad reveal intermolecular interactions in non-coordinating solvents due to the coordination of counterion PF6(-) to the Al center of AlPor. Steady-state and femtosecond transient absorption studies of the dyad show that the lowest excited singlet state of AlPor ((1)AlPor*) is strongly quenched by ultrafast electron transfer to AuPor(+) with a time constant of 3.16 ps. The resulting charge separated state (AlPor(+)?-AuPor?) decays to ground state biexponentially with time constants of 27.26 and 2557 ps. Analogously, upon photo-excitation the triads also produce the same primary radical pair (AlPor(+)?-AuPor?). However, the formed radical pair is further involved in a rapid hole transfer from AlPor(+)? to TTF to form a stable final radical pair TTF(+)?-AlPor-AuPor?. The lifetime of the charge separated state exhibits an increase from 27.26 ps in AlPor-Ph-AuPor to 1393 ps in TTF-py?AlPor-Ph-AuPor(+) and 1484 ps in TTF-Ph-py?AlPor-Ph-AuPor(+). These results reveal successful charge stabilization in the self-assembled supramolecular reaction center mimics constructed via the axial linkage strategy. PMID:26388225

  1. Visible light promoted hydroxylation of a Si-C(sp3) bond catalyzed by rhodium porphyrins in water.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mengmeng; Fu, Xuefeng

    2011-10-12

    Catalytic activation of an unstrained, unactivated Si-C(sp(3)) bond in water to form methane and silanol by electrophilic rhodium(III) porphyrin [(por)Rh(III)] in acidic aqueous solutions under visible light (? ? 420 nm) has been developed. Activation of the Si-C(sp(3)) bond occurs through direct Si-C bond cleavage, with methyl group transfer to rhodium to give a porphyrin rhodium methyl complex. Photolysis of (por)Rh-CH(3) in water yields methyl radical and (por)Rh(II). Subsequently, (por)Rh(II) reacts with water rapidly to produce (por)Rh-H and (por)Rh-OH. (por)Rh-OH is then protonated to regenerate (por)Rh(III)-OH(2), and (por)Rh-H undergoes hydrogen atom abstraction by methyl radical to form the observed methane. PMID:21919487

  2. Identification of six novel P450 oxidoreductase missense variants in Ashkenazi and Moroccan Jewish populations

    PubMed Central

    Tomkov, M醨ia; Marohnic, Christopher C; Gurwitz, David; 奺da, Ond?ej; Masters, Bettie Sue Siler; Mart醩ek, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Background The enzyme NADPH朠450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the main electron donor to all microsomal CYPs. The possible contribution of common POR variants to inter- and intra-individual variability in drug metabolism is of great pharmacogenetic interest. Aim To search for POR polymorphic alleles and estimate their frequencies in a Jewish population. Materials & methods We analyzed the POR gene in 301 Ashkenazi and Moroccan Jews. Results A total of 30 POR SNPs were identified, nine in the noncoding regions and 21 in the protein-coding regions (ten synonymous, 11 missense). Six of these missense variants are previously undescribed (S102P, V164M, V191M, D344N, E398A and D648N). Conclusion The data collected in this study on missense POR SNPs, interpreted in light of the crystallographic structure of human POR, indicate that some POR missense variants may be potential biomarkers for future POR pharmacogenetic screening. PMID:22462747

  3. Modulation of Energy Transfer into Sequential Electron Transfer upon Axial Coordination of Tetrathiafulvalene in an Aluminum(III) Porphyrin-Free-Base Porphyrin Dyad.

    PubMed

    Poddutoori, Prashanth K; Bregles, Lucas P; Lim, Gary N; Boland, Patricia; Kerr, Russ G; D'Souza, Francis

    2015-09-01

    Axially assembled aluminum(III) porphyrin based dyads and triads have been constructed to investigate the factors that govern the energy and electron transfer processes in a perpendicular direction to the porphyrin plane. In the aluminum(III) porphyrin-free-base porphyrin (AlPor-Ph-H2Por) dyad, the AlPor occupies the basal plane, while the free-base porphyrin (H2Por) with electron withdrawing groups resides in the axial position through a benzoate spacer. The NMR, UV-visible absorption, and steady-state fluorescence studies confirm that the coordination of pyridine appended tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivative (TTF-py or TTF-Ph-py) to the dyad in noncoordinating solvents afford vertically arranged supramolecular self-assembled triads (TTF-py?AlPor-Ph-H2Por and TTF-Ph-py?AlPor-Ph-H2Por). Time-resolved studies revealed that the AlPor in dyad and triads undergoes photoinduced energy and/or electron transfer processes. Interestingly, the energy and electron donating/accepting nature of AlPor can be modulated by changing the solvent polarity or by stimulating a new competing process using a TTF molecule. In modest polar solvents (dichloromethane and o-dichlorobenzene), excitation of AlPor leads singlet-singlet energy transfer from the excited singlet state of AlPor ((1)AlPor*) to H2Por with a moderate rate constant (k(EnT)) of 1.78 10(8) s(-1). In contrast, excitation of AlPor in the triad results in ultrafast electron transfer from TTF to (1)AlPor* with a rate constant (k(ET)) of 8.33 10(9)-1.25 10(10) s(-1), which outcompetes the energy transfer from (1)AlPor* to H2Por and yields the primary radical pair TTF(+)-AlPor(-)-H2Por. A subsequent electron shift to H2Por generates a spatially well-separated TTF(+)-AlPor-H2Por(-) radical pair. PMID:26270270

  4. Fatiga (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afecci贸n caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energ铆a, que a menudo se observa como una complicaci贸n del c谩ncer y su tratamiento.

  5. Fatiga (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afecci贸n caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energ铆a, que a menudo se observa como una complicaci贸n del c谩ncer y su tratamiento.

  6. Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase: Phylogeny, Regulation, and Catalytic Properties.

    PubMed

    Gabruk, Michal; Mysliwa-Kurdziel, Beata

    2015-09-01

    This Current Topic focuses on light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.3.1.33). POR catalyzes the penultimate reaction of chlorophyll biosynthesis, i.e., the light-triggered reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide. In this reaction, the chlorin ring of the chlorophyll molecule is formed, which is crucial for photosynthesis. POR is one of very few enzymes that are driven by light; however, it is unique in the need for its substrate to absorb photons to induce the conformational changes in the enzyme, which are required for its catalytic activation. Moreover, the enzyme is also involved in the negative feedback of the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway and controls chlorophyll content via its light-dependent activity. Even though it has been almost 70 years since the first isolation of active POR complexes, our knowledge of them has markedly advanced in recent years. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of POR, including the phylogenetic roots of POR, the mechanisms of the regulation of POR genes expression, the regulation of POR activity, the import of POR into plastids, the role of POR in PLB formation, and the molecular mechanism of protochlorophyllide reduction by POR. To the best of our knowledge, no previous review has compiled such a broad set of recent findings about POR. PMID:26230427

  7. A two-component system regulates gene expression of the type IX secretion component proteins via an ECF sigma factor

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Tomoko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Naito, Mariko; Sato, Keiko; Kikuchi, Yuichiro; Kondo, Yoshio; Shoji, Mikio; Nakayama, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes potent pathogenic proteases, gingipains, via the type IX secretion system (T9SS). This system comprises at least 11 components; however, the regulatory mechanism of their expression has not yet been elucidated. Here, we found that the PorY (PGN_2001)-PorX (PGN_1019)-SigP (PGN_0274) cascade is involved in the regulation of T9SS. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis revealed a direct interaction between a recombinant PorY (rPorY) and a recombinant PorX (rPorX). rPorY autophosphorylated and transferred a phosphoryl group to rPorX in the presence of Mn2+. These results demonstrate that PorX and PorY act as a response regulator and a histidine kinase, respectively, of a two component system (TCS), although they are separately encoded on the chromosome. T9SS component-encoding genes were down-regulated in a mutant deficient in a putative extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor, PGN_0274 (SigP), similar to the porX mutant. Electrophoretic gel shift assays showed that rSigP bound to the putative promoter regions of T9SS component-encoding genes. The SigP protein was lacking in the porX mutant. Co-immunoprecipitation and SPR analysis revealed the direct interaction between SigP and PorX. Together, these results indicate that the PorXY TCS regulates T9SS-mediated protein secretion via the SigP ECF sigma factor. PMID:26996145

  8. A two-component system regulates gene expression of the type IX secretion component proteins via an ECF sigma factor.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Tomoko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Naito, Mariko; Sato, Keiko; Kikuchi, Yuichiro; Kondo, Yoshio; Shoji, Mikio; Nakayama, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes potent pathogenic proteases, gingipains, via the type IX secretion system (T9SS). This system comprises at least 11 components; however, the regulatory mechanism of their expression has not yet been elucidated. Here, we found that the PorY (PGN_2001)-PorX (PGN_1019)-SigP (PGN_0274) cascade is involved in the regulation of T9SS. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis revealed a direct interaction between a recombinant PorY (rPorY) and a recombinant PorX (rPorX). rPorY autophosphorylated and transferred a phosphoryl group to rPorX in the presence of Mn(2+). These results demonstrate that PorX and PorY act as a response regulator and a histidine kinase, respectively, of a two component system (TCS), although they are separately encoded on the chromosome. T9SS component-encoding genes were down-regulated in a mutant deficient in a putative extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor, PGN_0274 (SigP), similar to the porX mutant. Electrophoretic gel shift assays showed that rSigP bound to the putative promoter regions of T9SS component-encoding genes. The SigP protein was lacking in the porX mutant. Co-immunoprecipitation and SPR analysis revealed the direct interaction between SigP and PorX. Together, these results indicate that the PorXY TCS regulates T9SS-mediated protein secretion via the SigP ECF sigma factor. PMID:26996145

  9. Altered heme catabolism by heme oxygenase-1 caused by mutations in human NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Amit V.; Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E.

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Mutations in POR identified from patients lead to reduced HO-1 activities. {yields} POR mutation Y181D affecting FMN binding results in total loss of HO-1 activity. {yields} POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F, lost 50-70% activity. {yields} Mutations in FAD binding domain, R457H, Y459H and V492E lost all HO-1 activity. {yields} POR polymorphisms P228L, R316W, G413S, A503V and G504R have normal activity. -- Abstract: Human heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) carries out heme catabolism supported by electrons supplied from the NADPH through NADPH P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Previously we have shown that mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of mutations in POR on HO-1 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified HO-1 to measure heme degradation in a coupled assay using biliverdin reductase. Here we show that mutations in POR found in patients may reduce HO-1 activity, potentially influencing heme catabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had total loss of HO-1 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 50-70% activity. The POR variants P228L, R316W and G413S, A503V and G504R identified as polymorphs had close to WT activity. Loss of HO-1 activity may result in increased oxidative neurotoxicity, anemia, growth retardation and iron deposition. Further examination of patients affected with POR deficiency will be required to assess the metabolic effects of reduced HO-1 activity in affected individuals.

  10. Efficient anti-tumor effect of photodynamic treatment with polymeric nanoparticles composed of polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid block copolymer encapsulating hydrophobic porphyrin derivative.

    PubMed

    Ogawara, Ken-Ichi; Shiraishi, Taro; Araki, Tomoya; Watanabe, Taka-Ichi; Ono, Tsutomu; Higaki, Kazutaka

    2016-01-20

    To develop potent and safer formulation of photosensitizer for cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT), we tried to formulate hydrophobic porphyrin derivative, photoprotoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (PppIX-DME), into polymeric nanoparticles composed of polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid block copolymer (PN-Por). The mean particle size of PN-Por prepared was around 80nm and the zeta potential was determined to be weakly negative. In vitro phototoxicity study for PN-Por clearly indicated the significant phototoxicity of PN-Por for three types of tumor cells tested (Colon-26 carcinoma (C26), B16BL6 melanoma and Lewis lung cancer cells) in the PppIX-DME concentration-dependent fashion. Furthermore, it was suggested that the release of PppIX-DME from PN-Por would gradually occur to provide the sustained release of PppIX-DME. In vivo pharmacokinetics of PN-Por after intravenous administration was evaluated in C26 tumor-bearing mice, and PN-Por exhibited low affinity to the liver and spleen and was therefore retained in the blood circulation for a long time, leading to the efficient tumor disposition of PN-Por. Furthermore, significant and highly effective anti-tumor effect was confirmed in C26 tumor-bearing mice with the local light irradiation onto C26 tumor tissues after PN-Por injection. These findings indicate the potency of PN-Por for the development of more efficient PDT-based cancer treatments. PMID:26593985

  11. Perceptions of risks to children's health from indoor air pollution and an investigation of respiratory illness symptoms from indoor heating with a woodburning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, J.S. III

    1986-01-01

    This study explores perceptions of risks to health (POR), risk taking behavior (RTB), and associated illness from the perspectives of medical anthropology and epidemiology. Specific objectives included investigation of the following: (1) general POR: (2) POR from indoor air pollution (IAP) and parental usage of IAP sources; (3) the relationship between POR and RTB; factors affecting POR and RTB; (4) the construction of risk domains; (5) sources of intracultural variation in POR, RTB, and the partitioning of risk domains; (6) patterns of indoor heating in central Michigan; and (7) respiratory illness symptoms (RIS) in children from exposure to indoor heating with a woodburning stove (WBS). POR and RTB were investigated in random and ethnographic samples, RIS in a random sample with an internal comparison group, and indoor heating in a random sample. Interview schedules were developed for each phase of inquiry. The instrument used to investigate POR and RTB includes both qualitative and quantitative scales for POR assessment. Findings of this study provide an ethnography of risk, an inferential analysis of POR/RTB, and a preliminary assessment of risks of RIS from heating with WBS.

  12. Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian Archipelago: Relating disease to environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aeby, G.S.; Williams, G.J.; Franklin, E.C.; Kenyon, J.; Cox, E.F.; Coles, S.; Work, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing a negative association, but no significant explanatory power was offered for PorTLS. ?? 2011 Aeby et al.

  13. Patterns of Coral Disease across the Hawaiian Archipelago: Relating Disease to Environment

    PubMed Central

    Aeby, Greta S.; Williams, Gareth J.; Franklin, Erik C.; Kenyon, Jean; Cox, Evelyn F.; Coles, Steve; Work, Thierry M.

    2011-01-01

    In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing a negative association, but no significant explanatory power was offered for PorTLS. PMID:21655248

  14. High-Yield Expression of a Catalytically Active Membrane-Bound Protein: Human P450 Oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Sandee, Duanpen

    2011-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is a two-flavin protein that reduces microsomal P450 enzymes and some other proteins. Preparation of active bacterially expressed human POR for biochemical studies has been difficult because membrane-bound proteins tend to interact with column matrices. To reduce column-protein interactions and permit more vigorous washing, human POR lacking 27 N-terminal residues (N-27 POR) was modified to carry a C-terminal Gly3His6-tag (N-27 POR-G3H6). When expressed in Escherichia coli, N-27 POR-G3H6 could be purified to apparent homogeneity by a modified, single-step nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography, yielding 31 mg POR per liter of culture, whereas standard purification of native N-27 POR required multiple steps, yielding 5 mg POR per liter. Both POR proteins had absorption maxima at 375 and 453 nm and both reduced cytochrome c with indistinguishable specific activities. Using progesterone as substrate for bacterially expressed purified human P450c17, the Michaelis constant for 17?-hydroxylase activity supported by N-27 POR or N-27 POR-G3H6 were 1.73 or 1.49 ?m, and the maximal velocity was 0.029 or 0.026 pmol steroids per picomole P450 per minute, respectively. Using 17-hydroxypregnenolone as the P450c17 substrate, the Michaelis constant for 17,20 lyase activity using N-27 POR or N-27 POR-G3H6 was 1.92 or 1.89 ?m and the maximal velocity was 0.041 or 0.042 pmol steroid per picomole P450 per minute, respectively. Thus, N-27 POR-G3H6 is equally active as native N-27 POR. This expression and purification system permits the rapid preparation of large amounts of highly pure, biologically active POR and may be generally applicable for the preparation of membrane-bound proteins. PMID:21586563

  15. High-yield expression of a catalytically active membrane-bound protein: human P450 oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Sandee, Duanpen; Miller, Walter L

    2011-07-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is a two-flavin protein that reduces microsomal P450 enzymes and some other proteins. Preparation of active bacterially expressed human POR for biochemical studies has been difficult because membrane-bound proteins tend to interact with column matrices. To reduce column-protein interactions and permit more vigorous washing, human POR lacking 27 N-terminal residues (N-27 POR) was modified to carry a C-terminal Gly3His6-tag (N-27 POR-G3H6). When expressed in Escherichia coli, N-27 POR-G3H6 could be purified to apparent homogeneity by a modified, single-step nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography, yielding 31 mg POR per liter of culture, whereas standard purification of native N-27 POR required multiple steps, yielding 5 mg POR per liter. Both POR proteins had absorption maxima at 375 and 453 nm and both reduced cytochrome c with indistinguishable specific activities. Using progesterone as substrate for bacterially expressed purified human P450c17, the Michaelis constant for 17?-hydroxylase activity supported by N-27 POR or N-27 POR-G3H6 were 1.73 or 1.49 ?m, and the maximal velocity was 0.029 or 0.026 pmol steroids per picomole P450 per minute, respectively. Using 17-hydroxypregnenolone as the P450c17 substrate, the Michaelis constant for 17,20 lyase activity using N-27 POR or N-27 POR-G3H6 was 1.92 or 1.89 ?m and the maximal velocity was 0.041 or 0.042 pmol steroid per picomole P450 per minute, respectively. Thus, N-27 POR-G3H6 is equally active as native N-27 POR. This expression and purification system permits the rapid preparation of large amounts of highly pure, biologically active POR and may be generally applicable for the preparation of membrane-bound proteins. PMID:21586563

  16. The interactions of superoxide ion(O2-.) with metallo-porphyrins [(C1(8)TPP)M, M = Fe,Mn,Co Zn]; models for biological systems and superoxide dismutases.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, D T; Tsang, P K

    1991-01-01

    In dimethylformamide superoxide ion forms a 1:1 adduct with tetrakis (2,6-dichlorophenyl) porphinato-iron, (C1(8)TPP)FeOO-, as well as with its manganese analogue, (C1(8)TPP)MnOO-. On the basis of their electrochemical, spectroscopic, and magnetic properties these adducts have a metal-oxygen covalent bond (PorM-OO-), oxygen-centered redox chemistry, and reactivities that are similar to the hydroperoxide ion (HOO-). Addition of -OH to a solution of PorFe and O2 results in the formation of PorFe(OH)(OO-), which can be electrochemically oxidized to PorFeOH plus O2 (-0.2 V vs SCE). Addition of protons to the PorM-OO- adducts promotes their rapid decomposition to PorM, HOOH, and O2. This chemistry provides insight to the reactions of biological superoxide and superoxide dismutases. PMID:1649106

  17. Single molecule activity measurements of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase reveal the existence of two discrete functional states.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Tomas; Singha, Aparajita; Rantzau, Nicolai; Tutkus, Marijonas; Borch, Jonas; Hedeg錼d, Per; Stamou, Dimitrios; M鴏ler, Birger Lindberg; Hatzakis, Nikos S

    2014-03-21

    Electron transfer between membrane spanning oxidoreductase enzymes controls vital metabolic processes. Here we studied for the first time with single molecule resolution the function of P450 oxidoreductase (POR), the canonical membrane spanning activator of all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes. Measurements and statistical analysis of individual catalytic turnover cycles shows POR to sample at least two major functional states. This phenotype may underlie regulatory interactions with different cytochromes P450 but to date has remained masked in bulk kinetics. To ensure that we measured the inherent behavior of POR, we reconstituted the full length POR in "native like" membrane patches, nanodiscs. Nanodisc reconstitution increased stability by ?2-fold as compared to detergent solubilized POR and showed significantly increased activity at biologically relevant ionic strength conditions, highlighting the importance of studying POR function in a membrane environment. This assay paves the way for studying the function of additional membrane spanning oxidoreductases with single molecule resolution. PMID:24359083

  18. P450 oxidoreductase deficiency: a disorder of steroidogenesis with multiple clinical manifestations.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L

    2012-10-23

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyze the biosynthesis of steroid hormones and metabolize drugs. There are seven human type I P450 enzymes in mitochondria and 50 type II enzymes in endoplasmic reticulum. Type II enzymes, including both drug-metabolizing and some steroidogenic enzymes, require electron donation from a two-flavin protein, P450 oxidoreductase (POR). Although knockout of the POR gene causes embryonic lethality in mice, we discovered human POR deficiency as a disorder of steroidogenesis associated with the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome and found mild POR mutations in phenotypically normal adults with infertility. Assay results of mutant forms of POR using the traditional but nonphysiologic assay (reduction of cytochrome c) did not correlate with patient phenotypes; assays based on the 17,20 lyase activity of P450c17 (CYP17) correlated with clinical phenotypes. The POR sequence in 842 normal individuals revealed many polymorphisms; amino acid sequence variant A503V is encoded by ~28% of human alleles. POR A503V has about 60% of wild-type activity in assays with CYP17, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4, but nearly wild-type activity with P450c21, CYP1A2, and CYP2C19. Activity of a particular POR variant with one P450 enzyme will not predict its activity with another P450 enzyme: Each POR-P450 combination must be studied individually. Human POR transcription, initiated from an untranslated exon, is regulated by Smad3/4, thyroid receptors, and the transcription factor AP-2. A promoter polymorphism reduces transcription to 60% in liver cells and to 35% in adrenal cells. POR deficiency is a newly described disorder of steroidogenesis, and POR variants may account for some genetic variation in drug metabolism. PMID:23092891

  19. P450 oxidoreductase deficiency: a new disorder of steroidogenesis with multiple clinical manifestations.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L

    2004-09-01

    Combined partial deficiency of 17alpha-hydroxylase and 21-hydroxylase is well-described, but patients' genes for these enzymes lack mutations. Recent work has identified mutations in the gene for P450 oxidoreductase (POR) in such patients. POR-deficient individuals have a broad range of disorders, from infants with congenital malformations to women with the polycysic ovary syndrome. POR transfers electrons to all microsomal P450 enzymes: its deficiency affects steroidogenesis, drug metabolism and other processes. PMID:15350602

  20. Binding of C4b-Binding Protein to Porin

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Sanjay; Cullinane, Meabh; Blom, Anna M.; Gulati, Sunita; McQuillen, Daniel P.; Monks, Brian G.; O'Connell, Catherine; Boden, Ryan; Elkins, Christopher; Pangburn, Michael K.; Dahlb盲ck, Bj枚rn; Rice, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    We screened 29 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and found 16/21 strains that resisted killing by normal human serum and 0/8 serum sensitive strains that bound the complement regulator, C4b-binding protein (C4bp). Microbial surface鈥揵ound C4bp demonstrated cofactor activity. We constructed gonococcal strains with hybrid porin (Por) molecules derived from each of the major serogroups (Por1A and Por1B) of N. gonorrhoeae, and showed that the loop 1 of Por1A is required for C4bp binding. Por1B loops 5 and 7 of serum-resistant gonococci together formed a negatively charged C4bp-binding domain. C4bp鈥Por1B interactions were ionic in nature (inhibited by high salt or by heparin), whereas the C4bp鈥Por1A bond was hydrophobic. Only recombinant C4bp mutant molecules containing the NH2-terminal 伪-chain short consensus repeat (SCR1) bound to both Por1A and Por1B gonococci, suggesting that SCR1 contained Por binding sites. C4bp 伪-chain monomers did not bind gonococci, indicating that the polymeric form of C4bp was required for binding. Using fAb fragments against C4bp SCR1, C4bp binding to Por1A and Por1B strains was inhibited in a complement-dependent serum bactericidal assay. This resulted in complete killing of these otherwise fully serum resistant strains in only 10% normal serum, underscoring the importance of C4bp in mediating gonococcal serum resistance. PMID:11157049

  1. Regulation of P450 oxidoreductase by gonadotropins in rat ovary and its effect on estrogen production

    PubMed Central

    Inaoka, Yoshihiko; Yazawa, Takashi; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Kokame, Koichi; Kangawa, Kenji; Uesaka, Miki; Umezawa, Akihiro; Miyamoto, Kaoru

    2008-01-01

    Background P450 oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes electron transfer to microsomal P450 enzymes. Its deficiency causes Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS), and about half the patients with ABS have ambiguous genitalia and/or impaired steroidogenesis. POR mRNA expression is up-regulated when mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into steroidogenic cells, suggesting that the regulation of POR gene expression is important for steroidogenesis. In this context we examined the regulation of POR expression in ovarian granulosa cells by gonadotropins, and its possible role in steroidogenesis. Methods Changes in gene expression in MSCs during differentiation into steroidogenic cells were examined by DNA microarray analysis. Changes in mRNA and protein expression of POR in the rat ovary or in granulosa cells induced by gonadotropin treatment were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Effects of transient expression of wild-type or mutant (R457H or V492E) POR proteins on the production of estrone in COS-7 cells were examined in vitro. Effects of POR knockdown were also examined in estrogen producing cell-line, KGN cells. Results POR mRNA was induced in MSCs following transduction with the SF-1 retrovirus, and was further increased by cAMP treatment. Expression of POR mRNA, as well as Cyp19 mRNA, in the rat ovary were induced by equine chorionic gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin. POR mRNA and protein were also induced by follicle stimulating hormone in primary cultured rat granulosa cells, and the induction pattern was similar to that for aromatase. Transient expression of POR in COS-7 cells, which expressed a constant amount of aromatase protein, greatly increased the rate of conversion of androstenedione to estrone, in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of mutant POR proteins (R457H or V492E), such as those found in ABS patients, had much less effect on aromatase activity than expression of wild-type POR proteins. Knockdown of endogenous POR protein in KGN human granulosa cells led to reduced estrone production, indicating that endogenous POR affected aromatase activity. Conclusion We demonstrated that the expression of POR, together with that of aromatase, was regulated by gonadotropins, and that its induction could up-regulate aromatase activity in the ovary, resulting in a coordinated increase in estrogen production. PMID:19077323

  2. Cross-Species Analysis of Protein Dynamics Associated with Hydride and Proton Transfer in the Catalytic Cycle of the Light-Driven Enzyme Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Hoeven, Robin; Hardman, Samantha J O; Heyes, Derren J; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2016-02-16

    Experimental interrogation of the relationship between protein dynamics and enzyme catalysis is challenging. Light-activated protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) is an excellent model for investigating this relationship because photoinitiation of the reaction cycle enables coordinated turnover in a "dark-assembled" ternary enzyme-substrate complex. The catalytic cycle involves sequential hydride and proton transfers (from NADPH and an active site tyrosine residue, respectively) to the substrate protochlorophyllide. Studies with a limited cross-species subset of POR enzymes (n = 4) have suggested that protein dynamics associated with hydride and proton transfer are distinct [Heyes, D. J., Levy, C., Sakuma, M., Robertson, D. L., and Scrutton, N. S. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 11849-11854]. Here, we use steady-state assays and single-turnover laser flash spectroscopy to analyze hydride and proton transfer dynamics in an extended series of POR enzymes taken from many species, including cyanobacteria, algae, embryophytes, and angiosperms. Hydride/proton transfer in all eukaryotic PORs is faster compared to prokaryotic PORs, suggesting active site architecture has been optimized in eukaryotic PORs following endosymbiosis. Visible pump-probe spectroscopy was also used to demonstrate a common photoexcitation mechanism for representative POR enzymes from different branches of the phylogenetic tree. Dynamics associated with hydride transfer are localized to the active site of all POR enzymes and are conserved. However, dynamics associated with proton transfer are variable. Protein dynamics associated with proton transfer are also coupled to solvent dynamics in cyanobacterial PORs, and these networks are likely required to optimize (shorten) the donor-acceptor distance for proton transfer. These extended networks are absent in algal and plant PORs. Our analysis suggests that extended networks of dynamics are disfavored, possibly through natural selection. Implications for the evolution of POR and more generally for other enzyme catalysts are discussed. PMID:26807652

  3. Inhibition of the Alternative Pathway of Nonhuman Infant Complement by Porin B2 Contributes to Virulence of Neisseria meningitidis in the Infant Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Vu, David M.; Granoff, Dan M.; Ram, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis utilizes capsular polysaccharide, lipooligosaccharide (LOS) sialic acid, factor H binding protein (fHbp), and neisserial surface protein A (NspA) to regulate the alternative pathway (AP) of complement. Using meningococcal mutants that lacked all four of the above-mentioned molecules (quadruple mutants), we recently identified a role for PorB2 in attenuating the human AP; inhibition was mediated by human fH, a key downregulatory protein of the AP. Previous studies showed that fH downregulation of the AP via fHbp or NspA is specific for human fH. Here, we report that PorB2-expressing quadruple mutants also regulate the AP of baby rabbit and infant rat complement. Blocking a human fH binding region on PorB2 of the quadruple mutant of strain 4243 with a chimeric protein that comprised human fH domains 6 and 7 fused to murine IgG Fc enhanced AP-mediated baby rabbit C3 deposition, which provided evidence for an fH-dependent mechanism of nonhuman AP regulation by PorB2. Using isogenic mutants of strain H44/76 that differed only in their PorB molecules, we confirmed a role for PorB2 in resistance to killing by infant rat serum. The PorB2-expressing strain also caused higher levels of bacteremia in infant rats than its isogenic PorB3-expressing counterpart, thus providing a molecular basis for increased survival of PorB2 isolates in this model. These studies link PorB2 expression with infection of infant rats, which could inform the choice of meningococcal strains for use in animal models, and reveals, for the first time, that PorB2-expressing strains of N. meningitidis regulate the AP of baby rabbits and rats. PMID:24686052

  4. Planificar la transici贸n a la etapa final de la vida (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos sobre la preparaci贸n necesaria por parte de los proveedores de atenci贸n de la salud, los pacientes y sus familias para la transici贸n a la atenci贸n del c谩ncer avanzado en la etapa final de la vida.

  5. 76 FR 34296 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 1040-PR and 1040-SS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... para la Declaraci n de la Contribuci n Federal sobre el Trabajo por Cuenta Propia (Incluyendo el Cr... para la Declaraci n de la Contribuci n Federal sobre el Trabajo por Cuenta Propia (Incluyendo el Cr... report self-employment tax under IRC chapter 2 of Subtitle A, and provide credit to the taxpayer's...

  6. 78 FR 37205 - Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 78 FR 24723 (April 26, 2013... the POR.\\2\\ \\2\\ See Antidumping Duties; Countervailing Duties; Final Rule, 62 FR 27296, 27319 (May 19... case was made long after the end of the POR.\\5\\ \\3\\ See Final Rule, 62 FR at 27319-20 (``The...

  7. Diagn髎tico y estadificaci髇

    Cancer.gov

    El c醤cer puede causar muchos s韓tomas diferentes. El doctor ordenar pruebas para determinar si los s韓tomas son causados por c醤cer o por alg鷑 otro problema. Si se diagnostica c醤cer, el doctor efectuar algunas pruebas para determinar el estadio. Al conocer el estadio, el doctor podr hacer un plan de tratamiento y hablar del pron髎tico.

  8. Un estudio de los NIH indica que el consumo regular de aspirina podr铆a reducir el riesgo de c谩ncer d

    Cancer.gov

    Las mujeres que toman aspirina diariamente podr铆an reducir el riesgo de c谩ncer de ovario en 20 por ciento, de acuerdo con un estudio realizado por cient铆ficos del Instituto Nacional del C谩ncer (NCI), el cual forma parte de los Institutos Nacionales de la

  9. Planificar la transici贸n en la etapa final de la vida (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos sobre la preparaci贸n necesaria por parte de los proveedores de atenci贸n de la salud, los pacientes y sus familas para la transici贸n a la atenci贸n del c谩ncer avanzado en la etapa final de la vida.

  10. Informe Anual a la Naci贸n sobre el C谩ncer de 1975 a 2008: preguntas y respuestas

    Cancer.gov

    Los 铆ndices generales de mortalidad por c谩ncer han seguido disminuyendo desde principios de los noventa entre hombres, mujeres y ni帽os. Los 铆ndices de mortalidad disminuyeron en promedio 1,6% por a帽o entre 2004 y 2008.

  11. Comunicado de prensa del Informe Anual sobre el Estado del C谩ncer 2015

    Cancer.gov

    Por primera vez, los investigadores han usado datos a nivel nacional para determinar la incidencia de los cuatro subtipos moleculares principales de c谩ncer de seno (mama) por edad, raza y grupo 茅tnico, nivel de pobreza y varios otros factores. El informe

  12. Estudio de NIH se帽ala que la sigmoidoscopia reduce los 铆ndices de c谩ncer colorrectal

    Cancer.gov

    Estudio se帽ala que la sigmoidoscopia flexible es efectiva para reducir los 铆ndices de casos nuevos y de muertes por c谩ncer colorrectal. Los investigadores encontraron que la mortalidad general por c谩ncer colorrectal se redujo 26% y que la incidencia se re

  13. Aerodin谩mica y b茅isbol - Duration: 32 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    La NASA es conocida por la astron谩utica y los aviones, pero 驴tambi茅n por el Active b茅isbol? A los investigadores de la NASA les gusta resolver problemas pr谩cticoscomo cu谩n lejos llegar谩 una bola b...

  14. Estudio Nacional de Ex谩menes de Pulm贸n: preguntas y respuestas

    Cancer.gov

    El Estudio Nacional de Ex谩menes de Pulm贸n (National Lung Screening Trial, NLST) es un estudio de ex谩menes selectivos de detecci贸n de c谩ncer de pulm贸n patrocinado por el Instituto Nacional del C谩ncer (NCI) y llevado a cabo por la American College of Radiol

  15. Using MOMP typing as an epidemiological tool to investigate outbreaks caused by milkborne Campylobacter jejuni isolates in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe using major outer membrane protein (MOMP) typing as a screen to compare the C. jejuni porA gene sequences of clinical outbreak strains from human stool with the porA sequences of dairy farm strains isolated during two milkborne campylobacteriosis outbreak investigations in California. Th...

  16. Reduction in hepatic drug metabolizing CYP3A4 activities caused by P450 oxidoreductase mutations identified in patients with disordered steroid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E.; Pandey, Amit V.

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), metabolizes 50% of drugs in clinical use and requires NADPH-P450 reductase (POR). {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. {yields} We are reporting that mutations in POR may reduce CYP3A4 activity. {yields} POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X lost 99%, while A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% CYP3A4 activity. {yields} Reduction of CYP3A4 activity may cause increased risk of drug toxicities/adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major P450 present in human liver metabolizes approximately half the drugs in clinical use and requires electrons supplied from NADPH through NADPH-P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. In this study we examined the effect of mutations in POR on CYP3A4 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified CYP3A4 to perform kinetic studies. We are reporting that mutations in POR identified in patients with disordered steroidogenesis/Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) may reduce CYP3A4 activity, potentially affecting drug metabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had more than 99% loss of CYP3A4 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% activity. Loss of CYP3A4 activity may result in increased risk of drug toxicities and adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations.

  17. Deletion of P399{sub E}401 in NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase results in partial mixed oxidase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Flueck, Christa E.; Mallet, Delphine; Hofer, Gaby; Samara-Boustani, Dinane; Leger, Juliane; Polak, Michel; Morel, Yves; Pandey, Amit V.

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia. {yields} We are reporting a novel 3 amino acid deletion mutation in POR P399{sub E}401del. {yields} POR mutation P399{sub E}401del decreased P450 activities by 60-85%. {yields} Impairment of steroid metabolism may be caused by multiple hits. {yields} Severity of aromatase inhibition is related to degree of in utero virilization. -- Abstract: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the electron donor for all microsomal P450s including steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP21A2. We found a novel POR mutation P399{sub E}401del in two unrelated Turkish patients with 46,XX disorder of sexual development. Recombinant POR proteins were produced in yeast and tested for their ability to support steroid metabolizing P450 activities. In comparison to wild-type POR, the P399{sub E}401del protein was found to decrease catalytic efficiency of 21-hydroxylation of progesterone by 68%, 17{alpha}-hydroxylation of progesterone by 76%, 17,20-lyase action on 17OH-pregnenolone by 69%, aromatization of androstenedione by 85% and cytochrome c reduction activity by 80%. Protein structure analysis of the three amino acid deletion P399{sub E}401 revealed reduced stability and flexibility of the mutant. In conclusion, P399{sub E}401del is a novel mutation in POR that provides valuable genotype-phenotype and structure-function correlation for mutations in a different region of POR compared to previous studies. Characterization of P399{sub E}401del provides further insight into specificity of different P450s for interaction with POR as well as nature of metabolic disruptions caused by more pronounced effect on specific P450s like CYP17A1 and aromatase.

  18. Making the invisible visible: improved electrospray ion formation of metalloporphyrins/-phthalocyanines by attachment of the formate anion (HCOO(-)).

    PubMed

    Hitzenberger, Jakob Felix; Dammann, Claudia; Lang, Nina; Lungerich, Dominik; Garc铆a-Iglesias, Miguel; Bottari, Giovanni; Torres, Tom谩s; Jux, Norbert; Drewello, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    A protocol is developed for the coordination of the formate anion (HCOO(-)) to neutral metalloporphyrins (Pors) and -phthalocyanines (Pcs) containing divalent metals as a means to improve their ion formation in electrospray ionization (ESI). This method is particularly useful when the oxidation of the neutral metallomacrocycle fails. While focusing on Zn(ii)Pors and Zn(ii)Pcs, we show that formate is also readily attached to Mn(ii), Mg(ii) and Co(ii)Pcs. However, for the Co(ii)Pc secondary reactions can be observed. Upon collision-induced dissociation (CID), Zn(ii)Por/Pc路formate supramolecular complexes can undergo the loss of CO2 in combination with transfer of a hydride anion (H(-)) to the zinc metal center. Further dissociation leads to electron transfer and hydrogen atom loss, generating a route to the radical anion of the Zn(ii)Por/Pc without the need for electrochemical reduction, although the Zn(ii)Por/Pc may have a too low electron affinity to allow electron transfer directly from the formate anion. In addition to single Por molecules, multi Por arrays were successfully analyzed by this method. In this case, multiple addition of formate occurs, giving rise to multiply charged species. In these multi Por arrays, complexation of the formate anion occurs by two surrounding Por units (sandwich). Therefore, the maximum attainment of formate anions in these arrays corresponds to the number of such sandwich complexes rather than the number of porphyrin moieties. The same bonding motif leads to dimers of the composition [(Zn(ii)Por/Pc)2路HCOO](-). In these, the formate anion can act as a structural probe, allowing the distinction of isomeric ions with the formate bridging two macrocycles or being attached to a dimer of directly connected macrocycles. PMID:26753183

  19. Interannual variation and long-term trends in proportions of resident individuals in partially migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Meller, Kalle; V盲h盲talo, Anssi V; Hokkanen, Tatu; Rintala, Jukka; Piha, Markus; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2016-03-01

    Partial migration - a part of a population migrates and another part stays resident year-round on the breeding site - is probably the most common type of migration in the animal kingdom, yet it has only lately garnered more attention. Theoretical studies indicate that in partially migratory populations, the proportion of resident individuals (PoR) should increase in high latitudes in response to the warming climate, but empirical evidence exists for few species. We provide the first comprehensive overview of the environmental factors affecting PoR and the long-term trends in PoR by studying 27 common partially migratory bird species in Finland. The annual PoR values were calculated by dividing the winter bird abundance by the preceding breeding abundance. First, we analysed whether early-winter temperature, winter temperature year before or the abundance of tree seeds just before overwintering explains the interannual variation in PoR. Secondly, we analysed the trends in PoR between 1987 and 2011. Early-winter temperature explained the interannual variation in PoR in the waterbirds (waterfowl and gulls), most likely because the temperature affects the ice conditions and thereby the feeding opportunities for the waterbirds. In terrestrial species, the abundance of seeds was the best explanatory variable. Previous winter's temperature did not explain PoR in any species, and thus, we conclude that the variation in food availability caused the interannual variation in PoR. During the study period, PoR increased in waterbirds, but did not change in terrestrial birds. Partially migratory species living in physically contrasting habitats can differ in their annual and long-term population-level behavioural responses to warming climate, possibly because warm winter temperatures reduce ice cover and improve the feeding possibilities of waterbirds but do not directly regulate the food availability for terrestrial birds. PMID:26718017

  20. An ortholog of farA of Aspergillus nidulans is implicated in the transcriptional activation of genes involved in fatty acid utilization in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    SciTech Connect

    Poopanitpan, Napapol; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Akinori

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} POR1 is a Yarrowia lipolytica ortholog of farA involved in fatty acid response in A. nidulans. {yields} Deletion of POR1 caused growth defects on fatty acids. {yields} {Delta}por1 strain exhibited defects in the induction of genes involved in fatty acid utilization. -- Abstract: The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica effectively utilizes hydrophobic substrates such as fatty acids and n-alkanes. To identify a gene(s) regulating fatty acid utilization in Y. lipolytica, we first studied homologous genes to OAF1 and PIP2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but their disruption did not change growth on oleic acid at all. We next characterized a Y. lipolytica gene, POR1 (primary oleate regulator 1), an ortholog of farA encoding a transcriptional activator that regulates fatty acid utilization in Aspergillus nidulans. The deletion mutant of POR1 was defective in the growth on various fatty acids, but not on glucose, glycerol, or n-hexadecane. It exhibited slight defect on n-decane. The transcriptional induction of genes involved in {beta}-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation by oleate was distinctly diminished in the {Delta}por1 strains. These data suggest that POR1 encodes a transcriptional activator widely regulating fatty acid metabolism in Y. lipolytica.

  1. Genetic and clinical features of p450 oxidoreductase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rachel R; Miller, Walter L

    2008-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of steroidogenesis with multiple clinical manifestations. POR is the electron donor for all microsomal P450 enzymes, including the three steroidogenic enzymes P450c17 (17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase), P450c21 (21-hydroxylase), and P450aro (aromatase). Since the first description of POR mutations in 2004, about 50 patients have been reported. Serum steroid profiles indicate partial deficiencies in 21-hydroxylase, 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase. The 17-OH progesterone levels are elevated, as in 21-hydroxylase deficiency, while androgen levels are low; cortisol may be normal but is poorly responsive to adrenocorticotropic hormone. Most patients also have associated skeletal malfor- mations (craniosynostosis, radio-ulnar synostosis, midface hypoplasia, bowed femora) termed Antley-Bixler syndrome. Antley-Bixler syndrome with normal steroidogenesis is caused by autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2. Males with POR deficiency are often undervirilized, while females can be virilized. The prognosis for patients with POR deficiency appears to depend on the severity of the bony malformations and their timely treatment. The potential impact of POR mutations on drug metabolism by other hepatic P450 enzymes requires further investigation. Given the varied physical and biochemical phenotype of POR deficiency and the risk of adrenal insufficiency, clinicians should be alert to this potential diagnosis. PMID:18259105

  2. NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase: roles in physiology, pharmacology, and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Riddick, David S; Ding, Xinxin; Wolf, C Roland; Porter, Todd D; Pandey, Amit V; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Gu, Jun; Finn, Robert D; Ronseaux, Sebastien; McLaughlin, Lesley A; Henderson, Colin J; Zou, Ling; Fl眉ck, Christa E

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on a symposium sponsored by the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and held at the Experimental Biology 2012 meeting in San Diego, California, on April 25, 2012. The symposium speakers summarized and critically evaluated our current understanding of the physiologic, pharmacological, and toxicological roles of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), a flavoprotein involved in electron transfer to microsomal cytochromes P450 (P450), cytochrome b(5), squalene mono-oxygenase, and heme oxygenase. Considerable insight has been derived from the development and characterization of mouse models with conditional Por deletion in particular tissues or partial suppression of POR expression in all tissues. Additional mouse models with global or conditional hepatic deletion of cytochrome b(5) are helping to clarify the P450 isoform- and substrate-specific influences of cytochrome b(5) on P450 electron transfer and catalytic function. This symposium also considered studies using siRNA to suppress POR expression in a hepatoma cell-culture model to explore the basis of the hepatic lipidosis phenotype observed in mice with conditional deletion of Por in liver. The symposium concluded with a strong translational perspective, relating the basic science of human POR structure and function to the impacts of POR genetic variation on human drug and steroid metabolism. PMID:23086197

  3. Transcriptional Regulation of the Human P450 Oxidoreductase Gene: Hormonal Regulation and Influence of Promoter Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Damm, Izabella

    2011-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the flavoprotein that acts as the obligatory electron donor to all microsomal P450 enzymes, including those involved in hepatic drug metabolism as well as three steroidogenic P450 enzymes. The untranslated first exon of human POR was located recently, permitting analysis of human POR transcription. Expression of deletional mutants containing up to 3193 bp of the human POR promoter in human adrenal NCI-H295A and liver Hep-G2 cells located the proximal promoter at ?325/?1 bp from the untranslated exon. Common human POR polymorphisms at ?208 and ?173 had little influence on transcription, but the polymorphism at ?152 reduced transcription significantly in both cell lines. EMSA and supershift assays identified binding of Smad3/Smad4 between ?249 and ?261 and binding of thyroid hormone receptor-? (TR?) at ?240/?245. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Smad3, Smad4, TR?, TR?, and estrogen receptor-? were bound between ?374 and ?149. Cotransfection of vectors for these transcription factors and POR promoter-reporter constructs into both cell types followed by hormonal treatment showed that T3 exerts major tropic effects via TR?, with TR?, estrogen receptor-?, Smad3, and Smad4 exerting lesser, modulatory effects. T3 also increased POR mRNA in both cell lines. Thyroid hormone also is essential for rat liver POR expression but acts via different transcription factor complexes. These are the first data on human POR gene transcription, establishing roles for TR? and Smad3/4 in its expression and indicating that the common polymorphism at ?152 may play a role in genetic variation in steroid biosynthesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21393444

  4. Mol閏ulas org醤icas obtenidas en simulaciones experimentales del medio interestelar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu駉z-Caro, Guillermo Manuel

    Las nubes moleculares son regiones de formaci髇 de estrellas, con temperaturas cin閠icas entre 10-50 K y densidades de 103-106 醫omos cm-3. Su materia est formada por gas y polvo interestelar. Estas part韈ulas de polvo est醤 cubiertas por una fina capa de hielo, de unos 0.01 ?m, que contiene H2O y a menudo CO, CO2, CH3OH y NH3. El hielo es presumiblemente irradiado por fotones ultravioleta y rayos c髎micos en las zonas poco profundas de las nubes moleculares y las regiones circunestelares. En un sistema de vac韔, P 10-7 mbar, simulamos la deposici髇 de hielo a partir de 10 K y la irradiaci髇 ultravioleta por medio de una l醡para de descarga de hidr骻eno activada con microondas. La evoluci髇 del hielo se observa por medio de un espectr髆etro infrarrojo. De este modo es posible determinar la composici髇 del hielo observado en el medio interestelar y predecir la presencia de mol閏ulas a鷑 no detectadas en el espacio, que han sido producto del procesamiento del hielo en nuestros experimentos. Tambi閚 es posible calentar el sistema hasta temperatura ambiente para sublimar el hielo depositado. Cuando el hielo ha sido previamente irradiado, se observa un residuo compuesto por mol閏ulas org醤icas complejas, algunas prebi髏icas, como varios 醕idos carbox韑icos, aminas, amidas, 閟teres y en menor proporci髇 mol閏ulas heteroc韈licas y amino醕idos. Algunas de estas mol閏ulas podr韆n detectarse en estado gaseoso por medio de observaciones milim閠ricas y de radio. Tambi閚 podr韆n estar presentes en el polvo cometario, cuyo an醠isis qu韒ico est planeado por las misiones Stardust y Rosetta. Mientras tanto, nuestro grupo est llevando a cabo el an醠isis de part韈ulas de polvo interplanetario (IDPs), algunas de las cuales pueden ser de origen cometario. Al igual que ocurre con los productos obtenidos por irradiaci髇 del hielo en nuestros experimentos, algunas IDPs son ricas en material org醤ico que contiene ox韌eno.

  5. Characterisation of porin genes from Mycobacterium fortuitum and their impact on growth

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Highly pathogenic mycobacteria like Mycobacterium tuberculosis are characterised by their slow growth and their ability to reside and multiply in the very hostile phagosomal environment and a correlation between the growth rate of mycobacteria and their pathogenicity has been hypothesised. Here, porin genes from M. fortuitum were cloned and characterised to address their impact on the growth rate of fast-growing and pathogenic mycobacteria. Results Two genes encoding porins orthologous to MspA from M. smegmatis, porM1 and porM2, were cloned from M. fortuitum strains, which were originally isolated from human patients. Both porin genes were at least partially able to complement the mutations of a M. smegmatis mutant strain lacking the genes mspA and mspC with respect to the growth rate. PorM1 and porM2 were present in different strains of M. fortuitum including the type strain. Comparative expression analysis of porM genes revealed divergent porin expression among analysed M. fortuitum strains. Repression of the expression of porins by antisense technique decreased the growth rates of different M. fortuitum. The effects of over-expression of porM1 as well as porM2 varied depending on the strain and the concentration of antibiotic added to the medium and indicated that PorM1 and PorM2 enhance the growth of M. fortuitum strains, but also the diffusion of the antibiotic kanamycin into the cells. Conclusion This study demonstrates the important role of porin expression in growth as well as antibiotic susceptibility of the opportunistic bacterium M. fortuitum. PMID:19203364

  6. Clinical, Genetic, and Enzymatic Characterization of P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency in Four Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sahakitrungruang, Taninee; Huang, Ningwu; Tee, Meng Kian; Agrawal, Vishal; Russell, William E.; Crock, Patricia; Murphy, Nuala; Migeon, Claude J.; Miller, Walter L.

    2009-01-01

    Context: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency causes disordered steroidogenesis; severe mutations cause genital ambiguity in both sexes plus the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome, whereas mild mutations can cause adult infertility. Objective: We describe four patients with POR deficiency and identify and characterize the activities of their mutations. A 46,XY male with micropenis and two 46,XX female infants with genital ambiguity presented with skeletal malformations, and a 46,XX adolescent presented with primary amenorrhea, elevated 17伪-hydroxyprogesterone, and low sex steroids. Methods: The coding regions of the POR gene were sequenced, and the identified mutations were recreated in human POR cDNA expression vectors lacking 27 N-terminal residues. POR and human P450c17 were expressed in bacteria. POR activity was measured by four assays: reduction of cytochrome c, oxidation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, and support of the 17伪-hydroxylase and 17,20 lyase activities of P450c17. Results: All four patients were compound heterozygotes for POR mutations, including five novel mutations: L577R, N185K, delE217, and frameshift mutations 1363delC and 697鈥698insGAAC. N185K and delE217 lacked measurable activity in the assays based on P450c17 but retained partial activity in the assays based on cytochrome c. As assessed by Vmax/Km, L577R supported 46% of 17伪-hydroxylase activity but only 27% of 17,20 lyase activity. Computational modeling of these novel mutants revealed the structural basis for their reduced or absent activities. Conclusion: These patients illustrate the broad clinical spectrum of POR deficiency, including amenorrhea and infertility as the sole manifestation. POR assays based on P450c17 correlate well with hormonal and clinical phenotypes. PMID:19837910

  7. Prevenci贸n del c谩ncer de cavidad oral y orofaringe (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de informaci贸n revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar c谩ncer de labio, cavidad oral y orofaringe, y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a prevenir esta enfermedad.

  8. Dotar de precisi髇 a ex醡enes de detecci髇 para c醤cer

    Cancer.gov

    Una conferencia reciente patrocinada por el NCI reuni a investigadores importantes de ex醡enes de detecci髇 y de control de c醤cer para tratar la situaci髇 de la ciencia de ex醡enes de detecci髇 de precisi髇 para cinco c醤ceres.

  9. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radi髆etros instalados en el IAR. Entre las caracter韘ticas m醩 importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resoluci髇 (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y cont韓uo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna t閏nica de s韓tesis digital directa. Por 鷏timo, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisici髇 de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selecci髇 de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  10. Back Cover: NIH MedlinePlus Salud

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues NIH MedlinePlus Salud Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. 隆A su salud! Los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH, por ...

  11. 76 FR 73017 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Return; Form 1040-PR, Planilla Para La Declaracion De La Contribucion Federal Sobre El Trabajo Por Cuenta..., and provide credit to the taxpayer's social security account. Anejo H-PR is used to compute...

  12. Sobre | Smokefree Espa駉l

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan espa駉l y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la Divisi髇 de Investigaci髇 para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del C醤cer.

  13. Las caracter铆sticas m谩s fascinantes del nuevo Robot - Duration: 102 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    impresionante es la palabra que describe perfectamente al nuevo robot Curiosity por su tama帽o, sus instrumentos cient铆ficos y la manera en que la NASA planifica hacerlo aterrizar en Marte de forma ...

  14. Polvo en la Regi髇 de los Troyanos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilhutton, R.; Brunini, A.; Coldwell, G.

    La posible existencia de un anillo de polvo en la resonancia 1:1 con J鷓iter formado por part韈ulas provenientes de colisiones de asteroides fue propuesta por Liou and Zook (Icarus 113, 403, 1995) y estudiada extensamente por Vieira Martins and Gomes (VIII Reuni髇 Regional Latinoamericana de Astronom韆, Montevideo,1995). Si bien las part韈ulas quedar韆n atrapadas s髄o por per韔dos de algunos miles de a駉s, el proceso colisional continuo en el cintur髇 de asteroides mantendr韆 constante la densidad, present醤dose una mayor concentraci髇 en la regi髇 de los troyanos. En el presente trabajo se presentan resultados preliminares sobre observaciones polarim閠ricas realizadas desde CASLEO de la regi髇 de L5 que confirmar韆n la existencia y variaciones de densidad en el anillo de polvo.

  15. Foodborne Illness - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Illness English ?????? - ???? (Chinese - Simplified) PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center Chinese - Traditional (????) Foodborne Illness English ?????? - ???? (Chinese - Traditional) PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center Spanish (espa駉l) Enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos ...

  16. Requisitos para utilizar el enlace | Smokefree Espa駉l

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan espa駉l y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la Divisi髇 de Investigaci髇 para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del C醤cer.

  17. Estudio de Ex醡enes de Detecci髇 de C醤cer de Pr髎tata, Pulm髇, Colorrectal y Ovarios (PLCO): preguntas y respuestas

    Cancer.gov

    El estudio de ex醡enes de detecci髇 PLCO es un estudio a gran escala, aleatorizado, para determinar si el uso de ciertos ex醡enes selectivos de detecci髇 disminuir el riesgo de morir por esos cuatro tipos de c醤cer.

  18. 76 FR 9753 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET film... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic... (``POR''), November 6, 2008, through October 31, 2009. \\1\\ See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film,...

  19. Aspectos relacionados con la sexualidad y la reproducci髇 (PDQ)梀ersi髇 para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci髇 revisada por expertos acerca de los factores que podr韆n afectar el funcionamiento sexual de las personas con c醤cer. Se discuten adem醩 tem醩 sobre la fertilidad relacionados con el tratamiento del c醤cer.

  20. Aspectos relacionados con la sexualidad y la reproducci髇 (PDQ)梀ersi髇 para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci髇 revisada por expertos acerca de los factores que pueden afectar el funcionamiento sexual de las personas con c醤cer. Se discuten adem醩 temas sobre la fecundidad relacionados con el tratamiento del c醤cer.

  1. Streptococcal Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Translations Korean (???) Strep Throat ??? ??? - ??? (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (espa駉l) Infecciones por estreptococo Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  2. Baseline Comorbidities in a Skin Cancer Prevention Trial in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Argos, Maria; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Parvez, Faruque; Dignam, James; Islam, Tariqul; Quasem, Iftekhar; Hore, Samar Kumar; Haider, Ahmed Talat; Hossain, Zahid; Patwary, Tazul Islam; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Sarwar, Golam; La Porte, Paul; Harjes, Judith; Anton, Kristen; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Jasmine, Farzana; Khan, Rashed; Kamal, Mohammed; Shea, Christopher R.; Yunus, Muhammad; Baron, John A.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic research suggests that increased cancer risk due to chronic arsenic exposure persists for several decades even after the exposure has terminated. Observational studies suggest antioxidants exert a protective effect on arsenical skin lesions and cancers among those chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water. This study reports on the design, methods, and baseline analyses from the Bangladesh Vitamin E and Selenium Trial (BEST), a population based chemoprevention study conducted among adults in Bangladesh with visible arsenic toxicity. Materials and methods BEST is a 22 full factorial double-blind randomized controlled trial of 7,000 adults having manifest arsenical skin lesions evaluating the efficacy of 6-year supplementation with alpha-tocopherol (100 mg daily) and L-selenomethionine (200 ?g daily) for the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer. Results In cross-sectional analyses, we observed significant associations of skin lesion severity with male sex (female prevalence odds ratio (POR)=0.87; 95% CI=0.790.96), older age (aged 3645 POR=1.27; 95% CI=1.131.42; aged 4655 POR=1.44; 95% CI=1.271.64; and aged 5665 POR=1.50; 95% CI=1.261.78 compared to aged 2535), hypertension (POR=1.29; 95% CI=1.081.55), diabetes (POR=2.13; 95% CI=1.323.46), asthma (POR=1.55; 95% CI=1.032.32), and peptic ulcer disease (POR=1.20; 95% CI=1.071.35). Conclusions We report novel associations between arsenical skin lesions with several common chronic diseases. With the rapidly increasing burden of preventable cancers in developing countries, efficient and feasible chemoprevention study designs and approaches, such as employed in BEST, may prove both timely and potentially beneficial in conceiving cancer chemoprevention trials in Bangladesh and beyond. PMID:23590571

  3. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the U.S. working population: an analysis of data from the 1997-2004 National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Bang, Ki Moon; Syamlal, Girija; Mazurek, Jacek M

    2009-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence and the population attributable fraction of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the U.S. adult workers, we analyzed data obtained from the National Health Interview Surveys for the period 1997-2004. The overall COPD prevalence was 4.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.9-4.1%). The prevalence was higher in females (5.4%, 95% CI 5.3-5.6%) than in males (2.8%, 95% CI 2.7-2.9%); in Whites (4.2%, 95% CI 4.1-4.3%) than in Blacks (3.4%, 95% CI 3.1-3.7%) and other races (2.4%, 95% CI 2.1-2.8%). Compared with insurance, real estate and other finance industry, the top three industries associated with significantly higher prevalence odds ratios (PORs) (adjusted for age, sex, race, and smoking) were other educational services (POR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.3); transportation equipment (POR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8); and social services, religious and membership organizations (POR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7). Compared with managers and administrators, except public administration occupation, the top three occupations with significantly higher PORs were health service (1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.1), other protective service (POR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2), and material moving equipment operators (POR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3). The overall population attributable fraction for association of COPD with employment was 12.2% for industry and 17.4% for occupation. Further studies are needed to determine specific risk factors associated with COPD in industries and occupations with elevated prevalence and POR. PMID:19863367

  4. Se calcula que los costos del c谩ncer ascender谩n po

    Cancer.gov

    Con base en el crecimiento y en el avance de edad de la poblaci贸n de EE. UU., se proyecta que los gastos m茅dicos por c谩ncer en el a帽o 2020 ascender谩n por lo menos a $158.000 millones (en d贸lares de 2010); lo que significa un aumento de 27% sobre 2010. Si

  5. Electron transfer by human wild-type and A287P mutant P450 oxidoreductase assessed by transient kinetics: functional basis of P450 oxidoreductase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yi; Chen, Mo; Penning, Trevor M; Miller, Walter L

    2015-05-15

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is a 2-flavin protein that transfers electrons from NADPH via its FAD and FMN moieties to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic and drug-metabolizing P450s. Defects in the POR gene can cause POR deficiency (PORD), manifested clinically by disordered steroidogenesis, genital anomalies and skeletal malformations. We examined the POR mutant A287P, which is the most frequent cause of PORD in patients of European ancestry and partially disrupts most P450 activities in vitro. Flavin content analysis showed that A287P is deficient in FAD and FMN binding, although the mutation site is distant from the binding sites of both flavins. Externally added flavin partially restored the cytochrome c reductase activity of A287P, suggesting that flavin therapy may be useful for this frequent form of PORD. Transient kinetic dissection of the reaction of POR with NADPH and the reduction in cytochrome c by POR using stopped-flow techniques revealed defects in individual electron transfer steps mediated by A287P. A287P had impaired ability to accept electrons from NADPH, but was capable of a fast FMN ? cytochrome c electron donation reaction. Thus the reduced rates of P450 activities with A287P may be due to deficient flavin and impaired electron transfer from NADPH. PMID:25728647

  6. Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antiulcer properties of Porphyra vietnamensis

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Saurabh; Sharma, Kiran; Sharma, Ajay; Nagpal, Kalpana; Bera, Tanmoy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Aim of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antiulcer effects of red seaweed Porphyra vietnamensis (P. vietnamenis). Materials and Methods: Aqueous (POR) and alcoholic (PE) fractions were successfully isolated from P. vietnamenis. Further biological investigations were performed using a classic test of paw edema induced by carrageenan, writhing induced by acetic acid, hot plate method and naproxen induced gastro-duodenal ulcer. Results: Among the fractions POR showed better activity. POR and PE significantly (p < 0.05) reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in a dose dependent manner. In the writhing test POR significantly (p < 0.05) reduced abdominal writhes than PE. In hot plate method POR showed better analgesic activity than PE. POR showed comparable ulcers reducing potential (p<0.01) to that of omeprazole, and has more ulcer reducing potential then PE. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that P. vietnamenis aqueous fraction possesses biological activity that is close to the standards taken for the treatment of peripheral painful or/and inflammatory and ulcer conditions. PMID:25767759

  7. Synthesis and solvent-dependent photochromic reactions of porphyrin-spiropyran hybrid compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Dae Young; Park, Tae Jong; Shin, Eun Ju

    2014-01-01

    Porphyrin(Por)-spiropyran(SP) hybrid compounds, including Por-SP dyad, Por-SP2 triad, and Por-SP4 pentad, were prepared and characterized by 1H NMR, MALDI-TOF MS and UV-Vis spectroscopies. Upon 350 nm UV irradiation of Por-SPn (n = 1, 2, 4) in dichloromethane, unusual red-shifted absorption spectra were observed with the colour change from pink into green. Probably due to the protonation of core nitrogens in porphyrin ring, their absorption maxima in dichloromethane were shifted from 418 (Soret band), 515, 550, 590, 645 (four Q bands) nm into 450 and 665 nm. Also, fluorescence maxima were also shifted from 650 and 715 nm to 692 nm. In the other hands, upon irradiation with 350 nm UV light in THF, the colour changed from pink into violet and absorption band at 590 nm increased and the fluorescence spectra showed the decrease of 650 and 715 nm bands and increase of 600-640 nm band, due to the normal ring-opening reaction of spiropyran moiety into merocyanine. In the dark, original absorption and fluorescence spectra were recovered very slowly in dichloromethane, but quickly in THF. The reversible photochromic reactions of Por-SPn (n = 1, 2, 4) in dichloromethane and THF were investigated by observing absorption and fluorescence spectral changes during UV irradiation or standing in the dark.

  8. Lack of a surface layer in Tannerella forsythia mutants deficient in the type IX secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Yuka; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Shoji, Mikio; Nakane, Daisuke; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Naito, Mariko

    2014-01-01

    Tannerella forsythia, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, is an important pathogen in periodontal disease. This bacterium possesses genes encoding all known components of the type IX secretion system (T9SS). T. forsythia mutants deficient in genes orthologous to the T9SS-encoding genes porK, porT and sov were constructed. All porK, porT and sov single mutants lacked the surface layer (S-layer) and expressed less-glycosylated versions of the S-layer glycoproteins TfsA and TfsB. In addition, these mutants exhibited decreased haemagglutination and increased biofilm formation. Comparison of the proteins secreted by the porK and WT strains revealed that the secretion of several proteins containing C-terminal domain (CTD)-like sequences is dependent on the porK gene. These results indicate that the T9SS is functional in T. forsythia and contributes to the translocation of CTD proteins to the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu. PMID:25023245

  9. Photoactive Protochlorophyllide-Enzyme Complexes Reconstituted with PORA, PORB and PORC Proteins of A. thaliana: Fluorescence and Catalytic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Gabruk, Micha?; Stecka, Anna; Strza?ka, Wojciech; Kruk, Jerzy; Strza?ka, Kazimierz; Mysliwa-Kurdziel, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Photoactive Pchlide-POR-NADPH complexes were reconstituted using protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) and recombinant light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) proteins, His?-PORA, His?-PORB and His?-PORC, from Arabidopsis thaliana. We did not observe any differences in the kinetics of the protochlorophyllide photoreduction at room temperature among the PORA, PORB and PORC proteins. In contrast, the PORC protein showed lower yield of Chlide formation than PORA and PORB when preincubated in the dark for 30 min and then illuminated for a short time. The most significant observation was that reconstituted Pchlide-POR-NADPH complexes showed fluorescence maxima at 77 K similar to those observed for highly aggregated Pchlide-POR-NADPH complexes in prolamellar bodies (PLBs) in vivo. Homology models of PORA, PORB and PORC of Arabidopsis thaliana were developed to compare predicted structures of POR isoforms. There were only slight structural differences, mainly in the organisation of helices and loops, but not in the shape of whole molecules. This is the first comparative analysis of all POR isoforms functioning at different stages of A. thaliana development. PMID:25659137

  10. Layer-by-Layer Surface Molecular Imprinting on Polyacrylonitrile Nanofiber Mats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuxuan; Cao, Bing; Jia, Peng; An, Junhu; Luo, Chao; Ma, Lijing; Chang, Jiao; Pan, Kai

    2015-06-25

    Surface molecular imprinting in layer-by-layer (SMI-LbL) film is known as a facile and effective strategy to build imprinting sites that are more accessible to template molecules compared with molecular imprinting in polymers. Herein, we accomplished the formation of SMI-LbL film on electrospun nanofibers for the first time. The SMI-LbL nanofibers were prepared by a template-induced LbL process on the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber substrates, followed by postinfiltrating and photo-cross-linking of photosensitive agent 4,4'-diazostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid disodium salt (DAS). The obtained nanofiber mat maintained the nanofibrous structure and showed rapid absorption and extraction of template molecules of meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)-porphine (Por). The binding capacity of Por reached 2.1 mg/g when 3.5 bilayers were deposited on the nanofibers. After six cycles of extraction and reabsorption, the binding capacity of Por remained at 83%. Moreover, the absorption results of the targeted templated molecule of Por and the control molecule of Fast Green, which had a very similar chemical structure and charge status to Por, indicated the specific absorption for template molecule of Por. Thus, a surface molecular imprinted nanofiber mat with high selectivity of the templated molecule has been demonstrated. PMID:26038802

  11. Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase Influences CYP2B6 Activity in Cyclophosphamide Bioactivation

    PubMed Central

    El-Serafi, Ibrahim; Afsharian, Parvaneh; Moshfegh, Ali; Hassan, Moustapha; Terelius, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cyclophosphamide is commonly used as an important component in conditioning prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, a curative treatment for several hematological diseases. Cyclophosphamide is a prodrug activated mainly by cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) in the liver. A high degree of inter- and intra-individual variation in cyclophosphamide kinetics has been reported in several studies. Materials and Methods Hydroxylation of cyclophosphamide was investigated in vitro using three microsomal batches of CYP2B6*1 with different ratios of POR/CYP expression levels. Twenty patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were also included in the study. All patients received an i.v. infusion of cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg/day, for two days) as a part of their conditioning. Blood samples were collected from each patient before cyclophosphamide infusion, 6 h after the first dose and before and 6 h after the second dose. POR gene expression was measured by mRNA analysis and the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and its active metabolite were determined. Results A strong correlation between the in vitro intrinsic clearance of cyclophosphamide and the POR/CYP ratio was found. The apparent Km for CYP2B6.1 was almost constant (3-4 mM), while the CLint values were proportional to the POR/CYP ratio (3-34 渭L/min/nmol CYP). In patients, the average expression of the POR gene in blood was significantly (P <0.001) up-regulated after cyclophosphamide infusion, with high inter-individual variations and significant correlation with the concentration ratio of the active metabolite 4-hydroxy-cyclophosphamide/cyclophosphamide. Nine patients were carriers for POR*28; four patients had relatively high POR expression. Conclusions This investigation shows for the first time that POR besides CYP2B6 can influence cyclophosphamide metabolism. Our results indicate that not only CYPs are important, but also POR expression and/or activity may influence cyclophosphamide bioactivation, affecting therapeutic efficacy and treatment related toxicity and hence on clinical outcome. Thus, both POR and CYP genotype and expression levels may have to be taken into account when personalizing treatment schedules to achieve optimal therapeutic drug plasma concentrations of cyclophosphamide. PMID:26544874

  12. Predictive modeling of coral disease distribution within a reef system.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gareth J; Aeby, Greta S; Cowie, Rebecca O M; Davy, Simon K

    2010-01-01

    Diseases often display complex and distinct associations with their environment due to differences in etiology, modes of transmission between hosts, and the shifting balance between pathogen virulence and host resistance. Statistical modeling has been underutilized in coral disease research to explore the spatial patterns that result from this triad of interactions. We tested the hypotheses that: 1) coral diseases show distinct associations with multiple environmental factors, 2) incorporating interactions (synergistic collinearities) among environmental variables is important when predicting coral disease spatial patterns, and 3) modeling overall coral disease prevalence (the prevalence of multiple diseases as a single proportion value) will increase predictive error relative to modeling the same diseases independently. Four coral diseases: Porites growth anomalies (PorGA), Porites tissue loss (PorTL), Porites trematodiasis (PorTrem), and Montipora white syndrome (MWS), and their interactions with 17 predictor variables were modeled using boosted regression trees (BRT) within a reef system in Hawaii. Each disease showed distinct associations with the predictors. Environmental predictors showing the strongest overall associations with the coral diseases were both biotic and abiotic. PorGA was optimally predicted by a negative association with turbidity, PorTL and MWS by declines in butterflyfish and juvenile parrotfish abundance respectively, and PorTrem by a modal relationship with Porites host cover. Incorporating interactions among predictor variables contributed to the predictive power of our models, particularly for PorTrem. Combining diseases (using overall disease prevalence as the model response), led to an average six-fold increase in cross-validation predictive deviance over modeling the diseases individually. We therefore recommend coral diseases to be modeled separately, unless known to have etiologies that respond in a similar manner to particular environmental conditions. Predictive statistical modeling can help to increase our understanding of coral disease ecology worldwide. PMID:20174663

  13. Regulation of etioplast pigment-protein complexes, inner membrane architecture, and protochlorophyllide a chemical heterogeneity by light-dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases A and B.

    PubMed

    Franck, F; Sperling, U; Frick, G; Pochert, B; van Cleve, B; Apel, K; Armstrong, G A

    2000-12-01

    The etioplast of dark-grown angiosperms is characterized by the prolamellar body (PLB) inner membrane, the absence of chlorophyll, and the accumulation of divinyl and monovinyl derivatives of protochlorophyll(ide) a [Pchl(ide) a]. Either of two structurally related, but differentially expressed light-dependent NADPH:Pchlide oxidoreductases (PORs), PORA and PORB, can assemble the PLB and form dark-stable ternary complexes containing enzymatically photoactive Pchlide-F655. Here we have examined in detail whether these polypeptides play redundant roles in etioplast differentiation by manipulating the total POR content and the PORA-to-PORB ratio of etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings using antisense and overexpression approaches. POR content correlates closely with PLB formation, the amounts, spectroscopic properties, and photoreduction kinetics of photoactive Pchlide, the ratio of photoactive Pchlide-F655 to non-photoactive Pchl(ide)-F632, and the ratio of divinyl- to monovinyl-Pchl(ide). This last result defines POR as the first endogenous protein factor demonstrated to influence the chemical heterogeneity of Pchl(ide) in angiosperms. It is intriguing that excitation energy transfer between different spectroscopic forms of Pchl(ide) in etiolated cotyledons remains largely independent of POR content. We therefore propose that the PLB contains a minimal structural unit with defined pigment stoichiometries, within which a small amount of non-photoactive Pchl(ide) transfers excitation energy to a large excess of photoactive Pchlide-F655. In addition, our data suggests that POR may bind not only stoichiometric amounts of photoactive Pchlide, but also substoichiometric amounts of non-photoactive Pchl(ide). We conclude that the typical characteristics of etioplasts are closely related to total POR content, but not obviously to the specific presence of PORA or PORB. PMID:11115885

  14. FetA Antibodies Induced by an Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine Derived from a Serogroup B Meningococcal Isolate with Constitutive FetA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Holly; Norheim, Gunnstein; Chan, Hannah; Dold, Christina; Vipond, Caroline; Derrick, Jeremy P.; Pollard, Andrew J.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Feavers, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease causes over 3500 cases each year in Europe, with particularly high incidence among young children. Among serogroup B meningococci, which cause most of the cases, high diversity in the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) is observed in endemic situations; however, comprehensive molecular epidemiological data are available for the diversity and distribution of the OMPs PorA and FetA and these can be used to rationally design a vaccine with high coverage of the case isolates. The aim of this study was to determine whether outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) derived from an isolate with constitutive FetA expression (MenPF-1 vaccine) could be used to induce antibodies against both the PorA and FetA antigens. The immunogenicity of various dose levels and number of doses was evaluated in mice and rabbits, and IgG antibody responses tested against OMVs and recombinant PorA and FetA proteins. A panel of four isogenic mutants was generated and used to evaluate the relative ability of the vaccine to induce serum bactericidal activity (SBA) against FetA and PorA. Sera from mice were tested in SBA against the four target strains. Results demonstrated that the MenPF-1 OMVs were immunogenic against PorA and FetA in both animal models. Furthermore, the murine antibodies induced were bactericidal against isogenic mutant strains, suggesting that antibodies to both PorA and FetA were functional. The data presented indicate that the MenPF-1 vaccine is a suitable formulation for presenting PorA and FetA OMPs in order to induce bactericidal antibodies, and that proceeding to a Phase I clinical trial with this vaccine candidate is justified. PMID:26466091

  15. Postoperative Crohn鈥檚 disease recurrence: A practical approach

    PubMed Central

    Nos, Pilar; Dom猫nech, Eugeni

    2008-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory condition that may involve any segment of the gastrointestinal tract. Although several drugs have proven efficacy in inducing and maintaining disease in remission, resectional surgery remains as a cornerstone in the management of the disease, mainly for the treatment of its stenosing and penetrating complications. However, the occurrence of new mucosal (endoscopic) lesions in the neoterminal ileum early after surgery is almost constant, it is followed in the mid-term by clinical symptoms and, in a proportion of patients, repeated intestinal resections are required. Pathogenesis of postoperative recurrence (POR) is not fully understood, but luminal factors (commensal microbes, dietary antigens) seem to play an important role, and environmental and genetic factors may also have a relevant influence. Many studies tried to identify clinical predictors for POR with heterogeneous results, and only smoking has repeatedly been associated with a higher risk of POR. Ileocolonoscopy remains as the gold standard for the assessment of appearance and severity of POR, although the real usefulness of the available endoscopic score needs to be revisited and alternative techniques are emerging. Several drugs have been evaluated to prevent POR with limited success. Smoking cessation seems to be one of the more beneficial therapeutic measures. Aminosalicylates have only proved to be of marginal benefit, and they are only used in low-risk patients. Nitroimidazolic antibiotics, although efficient, are associated with a high rate of intolerance and might induce irreversible side effects when used for a long-term. Thiopurines are not widely used after ileocecal resection, maybe because some concerns in giving immunomodulators in asymptomatic patients still remain. In the era of biological agents and genetic testing, a well-established preventive strategy for POR is still lacking, and larger studies to identify good clinical, serological, and genetic predictors of early POR as well as more effective drugs (or drug combinations) are needed. PMID:18810773

  16. Predictive Modeling of Coral Disease Distribution within a Reef System

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gareth J.; Aeby, Greta S.; Cowie, Rebecca O. M.; Davy, Simon K.

    2010-01-01

    Diseases often display complex and distinct associations with their environment due to differences in etiology, modes of transmission between hosts, and the shifting balance between pathogen virulence and host resistance. Statistical modeling has been underutilized in coral disease research to explore the spatial patterns that result from this triad of interactions. We tested the hypotheses that: 1) coral diseases show distinct associations with multiple environmental factors, 2) incorporating interactions (synergistic collinearities) among environmental variables is important when predicting coral disease spatial patterns, and 3) modeling overall coral disease prevalence (the prevalence of multiple diseases as a single proportion value) will increase predictive error relative to modeling the same diseases independently. Four coral diseases: Porites growth anomalies (PorGA), Porites tissue loss (PorTL), Porites trematodiasis (PorTrem), and Montipora white syndrome (MWS), and their interactions with 17 predictor variables were modeled using boosted regression trees (BRT) within a reef system in Hawaii. Each disease showed distinct associations with the predictors. Environmental predictors showing the strongest overall associations with the coral diseases were both biotic and abiotic. PorGA was optimally predicted by a negative association with turbidity, PorTL and MWS by declines in butterflyfish and juvenile parrotfish abundance respectively, and PorTrem by a modal relationship with Porites host cover. Incorporating interactions among predictor variables contributed to the predictive power of our models, particularly for PorTrem. Combining diseases (using overall disease prevalence as the model response), led to an average six-fold increase in cross-validation predictive deviance over modeling the diseases individually. We therefore recommend coral diseases to be modeled separately, unless known to have etiologies that respond in a similar manner to particular environmental conditions. Predictive statistical modeling can help to increase our understanding of coral disease ecology worldwide. PMID:20174663

  17. Conditional Deletion of Cytochrome P450 Reductase in Osteoprogenitor Cells Affects Long Bone and Skull Development in Mice Recapitulating Antley-Bixler Syndrome: Role of a Redox Enzyme in Development

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Satya P.; Guntur, Anyonya R.; Polusani, Srikanth R.; Fajardo, Roberto J.; Gakunga, Peter T.; Roman, Linda J.; Masters, Bettie Sue

    2013-01-01

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the primary electron donor for cytochromes P450, dehydrocholesterol reductase, heme oxygenase, and squalene monooxygenase. Human patients with specific mutations in POR exhibit severe developmental malformations including disordered steroidogenesis, sexual ambiguities and various bone defects, similar to those seen in patients with Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS). To probe the role of POR during bone development, we generated a conditional knockout mouse (CKO) by cross breeding Porlox/lox and Dermo1 Cre mice. CKO mice were smaller than their littermate controls and exhibited significant craniofacial and long bone abnormalities. Differential staining of the CKO mice skull bases shows premature fusion of the sphenooccipital and basioccipital-exoccipital synchondroses. Class III malocclusion was noted in adult knockout mice with an unusual overgrowth of the lower incisors. Shorter long bones were observed along with a reduction in the bone volume fraction, measured by microCT, in the Por-deleted mice compared to age- and sex-matched littermate controls. Concerted up- or down-regulation of proteins in the FGF signaling pathway observed by immunohistochemistry in the tibia samples of CKO mice compared to wild type controls shows a decrease in the FGF signaling pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a mouse model that recapitulates both skull and long bone defects upon Por deletion, offering an approach to study the sequelae of POR mutations. This unique model demonstrates that P450 metabolism in bone itself is potentially important for proper bone development, and that an apparent link exists between the POR and FGF signaling pathways, begging the question of how an oxidation-reduction flavoprotein affects developmental and cellular signaling processes. PMID:24086598

  18. Sun exposure and melanoma risk at different latitudes: a pooled analysis of 5700 cases and 7216 controls

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-mei; Barrett, Jennifer H; Bishop, D Timothy; Armstrong, Bruce K; Bataille, Veronique; Bergman, Wilma; Berwick, Marianne; Bracci, Paige M; Elwood, J Mark; Ernstoff, Marc S; Gallagher, Richard P; Green, Ad鑜e C; Gruis, Nelleke A; Holly, Elizabeth A; Ingvar, Christian; Kanetsky, Peter A; Karagas, Margaret R; Lee, Tim K; Le Marchand, Lo颿; Mackie, Rona M; Olsson, H錵an; 豷terlind, Anne; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Sasieni, Peter; Siskind, Victor; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Zens, Michael S; Newton-Bishop, Julia A

    2009-01-01

    Background Melanoma risk is related to sun exposure; we have investigated risk variation by tumour site and latitude. Methods We performed a pooled analysis of 15 case朿ontrol studies (5700 melanoma cases and 7216 controls), correlating patterns of sun exposure, sunburn and solar keratoses (three studies) with melanoma risk. Pooled odds ratios (pORs) and 95% Bayesian confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Bayesian unconditional polytomous logistic random-coefficients models. Results Recreational sun exposure was a risk factor for melanoma on the trunk (pOR?=?1.7; 95% CI: 1.42.2) and limbs (pOR?=?1.4; 95% CI: 1.11.7), but not head and neck (pOR?=?1.1; 95% CI: 0.81.4), across latitudes. Occupational sun exposure was associated with risk of melanoma on the head and neck at low latitudes (pOR?=?1.7; 95% CI: 1.03.0). Total sun exposure was associated with increased risk of melanoma on the limbs at low latitudes (pOR?=?1.5; 95% CI: 1.02.2), but not at other body sites or other latitudes. The pORs for sunburn in childhood were 1.5 (95% CI: 1.31.7), 1.5 (95% CI: 1.31.7) and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.11.7) for melanoma on the trunk, limbs, and head and neck, respectively, showing little variation across latitudes. The presence of head and neck solar keratoses was associated with increased risk of melanoma on the head and neck (pOR?=?4.0; 95% CI: 1.79.1) and limbs (pOR?=?4.0; 95% CI: 1.98.4). Conclusion Melanoma risk at different body sites is associated with different amounts and patterns of sun exposure. Recreational sun exposure and sunburn are strong predictors of melanoma at all latitudes, whereas measures of occupational and total sun exposure appear to predict melanoma predominately at low latitudes. PMID:19359257

  19. Recombinant Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus orientalis are Suitable Antigens to Measure Exposure of Domestic Animals to Sand Fly Bites

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Michal; Ferencova, Blanka; Warburg, Alon; Rohousova, Iva; Volf, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Background Certain salivary proteins of phlebotomine sand flies injected into the host skin during blood-feeding are highly antigenic and elicit strong antibody-mediated immune responses in repeatedly-exposed hosts. These antibodies can be measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISAs) using salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) as the source of antigens and serve as a markers for exposure to biting sand flies. Large-scale screening for anti-sand fly saliva antibodies requires replacement of SGH with recombinant salivary proteins. In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis is the main vector of Leishmania donovani, a trypanosomatid parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis. We tested recombinant salivary proteins derived from Ph. orientalis saliva to study exposure of domestic animals to this sand fly species. Methodology/Principal Findings Antigenic salivary proteins from Ph. orientalis were identified by immunoblot and mass spectrometry. Recombinant apyrase rPorSP15, yellow-related protein rPorSP24, ParSP25-like protein rPorSP65, D7-related protein rPorSP67, and antigen 5-related protein rPorSP76 were tested using ELISA with sera of domestic animals from L. donovani foci in Ethiopia where Ph. orientalis is present. Our results highlighted recombinant yellow-related protein rPorSP24 as the most promising antigen, displaying a high positive correlation coefficient as well as good sensitivity and specificity when compared to SGH. This recombinant protein was the most suitable one for testing sera of dogs, sheep, and goats. In addition, a different antigen, rPorSP65 was found efficacious for testing canine sera. Conclusions/Significance Recombinant salivary proteins of Ph. orientalis, specifically rPorSP24, were shown to successfully substitute SGH in serological experiments to measure exposure of domestic animals to Ph. orientalis, the vector of L. donovani. The results suggest that rPorSP24 might be a suitable antigen for detecting anti-Ph. orientalis antibody-mediated reactions also in other host species. PMID:26986566

  20. Co-infection of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Benitez, Jos茅 Francisco; De la Luz-Armend谩riz, Jazm铆n; Saavedra-Monta帽ez, Manuel; Jasso-Escutia, Miguel 脕ngel; S谩nchez-Betancourt, Ivan; P茅rez-Torres, Armando; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Hern谩ndez, Jes煤s; Mart铆nez-Lara, Atalo; Ram铆rez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2016-02-29

    Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) and swine influenza virus infection causes respiratory disease in pigs. PorPV persistent infection could facilitate the establishment of secondary infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the pathogenicity of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus (swH1N1) in growing pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus. Conventional six-week-old pigs were intranasally inoculated with PorPV, swH1N1, or PorPV/swH1N1. A mock-infected group was included. The co-infection with swH1N1 was at 44 days post-infection (DPI), right after clinical signs of PorPV infection had stopped. The pigs of the co-infection group presented an increase of clinical signs compared to the simple infection groups. In all infected groups, the most recurrent lung lesion was hyperplasia of the bronchiolar-associated lymphoid tissue and interstitial pneumonia. By means of immunohistochemical evaluation it was possible to demonstrate the presence of the two viral agents infecting simultaneously the bronchiolar epithelium. Viral excretion of PorPV in nasal and oral fluid was recorded at 28 and 52 DPI, respectively. PorPV persisted in several samples from respiratory tissues (RT), secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). For swH1N1, the viral excretion in nasal fluids was significantly higher in single-infected swH1N1 pigs than in the co-infected group. However, the co-infection group exhibited an increase in the presence of swH1N1 in RT, SLO, and BALF at two days after co-infection. In conclusion, the results obtained confirm an increase in the clinical signs of infection, and PorPV was observed to impact the spread of swH1N1 in analysed tissues in the early stage of co-infection, although viral shedding was not enhanced. In the present study, the interaction of swH1N1 infection is demonstrated in pigs persistently infected with PorPV. PMID:26854342

  1. Combined evaluation of risk factors predicting poor ovarian responders in Chinese patients undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Wang, Shuyu; Ma, Yanmin

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to explore the parameters associated with poor ovarian response (POR) to develop an early warning score model (EWSM) for detecting POR in Chinese women undergoing in vitro fertilization, in order to improve the outcomes. Between 2005 and 2011, we recruited 736 patients with POR after IVF and 736 individuals with normal ovarian response after IVF as controls. Clinical parameters were determined to evaluate the ovarian reserve. We then compared the clinical parameters between the POR and control groups, and performed a multivariate analysis to determine the independent factors associated with ovarian response. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) was used to analyze the predicted values of individual and combined risk factors. The predicted values were further tested in another cohort of 957 patients. Age, basal follicle-stimulating hormone (bFSH), antral follicle count (AFC), and FSH/luteinizing hormone (LH) ratio were identified as independent factors associated with ovarian response. The EWSM was established using a combination of these parameters. The sensitivity and specificity of the EWSM were 74.6% and 93.6%, respectively. In conclusion, combination of individual risk factors could predict POR with high specificity. The EWSM may help in the evaluation of IVF treatment at an early stage. PMID:26489886

  2. Simultaneous measurements of solvent dynamics and functional kinetics in a light-activated enzyme.

    PubMed

    Durin, Guillaume; Delaunay, Aude; Darnault, Claudine; Heyes, Derren J; Royant, Antoine; Vernede, Xavier; Hunter, C Neil; Weik, Martin; Bourgeois, Dominique

    2009-03-01

    Solvent fluctuations play a key role in controlling protein motions and biological function. Here, we have studied how individual steps of the reaction catalyzed by the light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) couple with solvent dynamics. To simultaneously monitor the catalytic cycle of the enzyme and the dynamical behavior of the solvent, we designed temperature-dependent UV-visible microspectrophotometry experiments, using flash-cooled nanodroplets of POR to which an exogenous soluble fluorophore was added. The formation and decay of the first two intermediates in the POR-catalyzed reaction were measured, together with the solvent glass transition and the buildup of crystalline ice at cryogenic temperatures. We find that formation of the first intermediate occurs below the glass transition temperature (T(g)), and is not affected by changes in solvent dynamics induced by modifying the glycerol content. In contrast, formation of the second intermediate occurs above T(g) and is influenced by changes in glycerol concentration in a manner remarkably similar to the buildup of crystalline ice. These results suggest that internal, nonslaved protein motions drive the first step of the POR-catalyzed reaction whereas solvent-slaved motions control the second step. We propose that the concept of solvent slaving applies to complex enzymes such as POR. PMID:19254549

  3. Synthesis, photochemistry, and electrochemistry of single-wall carbon nanotubes with pendent pyridyl groups and of their metal complexes with zinc porphyrin. Comparison with pyridyl-bearing fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Alvaro, Mercedes; Atienzar, Pedro; de la Cruz, Pilar; Delgado, Juan L; Troiani, Vincent; Garcia, Hermenegildo; Langa, Fernando; Palkar, Amit; Echegoyen, Luis

    2006-05-24

    A soluble, functionalized Py-SWNT has been synthesized and characterized by solution (1)H and (13)C NMR, FT-Raman, and electron microscopy. Experimental data indicate that Py-SWNT has short tubes with pentyl esters at the tips and pyridyl isoxazolino units along the walls. The synthesis of Py-SWNT is based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of a nitrile oxide on the SWNT walls, similar to 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions that are common for fullerene functionalization. The resulting Py-SWNT forms a complex with a zinc porphyrin (ZnPor) in a way similar to that reported for pyridyl-functionalized [60]-fullerenes. Formation of this metal-ligand complex was firmly established by a detailed electrochemical study. However, in contrast to the behavior observed for the ZnPor/Py-C(60) complex, photochemical excitation of the complex between ZnPor/Py-SWNT does not lead to electron transfer with the generation of charge-separated states. Fluorescence and laser flash studies indicate that the main process is energy transfer from the singlet ZnPor excited state to the Py-SWNT with observation of emission from Py-SWNT. Triplet ZnPor excited-state quenching by Py-SWNT is only observed in polar solvents such as DMF, but not in benzonitrile. PMID:16704263

  4. Cholesterol Metabolism: the Main Pathway Acting Downstream of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase in Skeletal Development of the Limb?

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Katy; Hughes, Catherine; Chudek, J. A.; Goodyear, Simon R.; Aspden, Richard M.; Talbot, Richard; Gundersen, Thomas E.; Blomhoff, Rune; Henderson, Colin; Wolf, C. Roland; Tickle, Cheryll

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor for all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, which catalyze the metabolism of a wide spectrum of xenobiotic and endobiotic compounds. Point mutations in POR have been found recently in patients with Antley-Bixler-like syndrome, which includes limb skeletal defects. In order to study P450 function during limb and skeletal development, we deleted POR specifically in mouse limb bud mesenchyme. Forelimbs and hind limbs in conditional knockout (CKO) mice were short with thin skeletal elements and fused joints. POR deletion occurred earlier in forelimbs than in hind limbs, leading additionally to soft tissue syndactyly and loss of wrist elements and phalanges due to changes in growth, cell death, and skeletal segmentation. Transcriptional analysis of E12.5 mouse forelimb buds demonstrated the expression of P450s involved in retinoic acid, cholesterol, and arachidonic acid metabolism. Biochemical analysis of CKO limbs confirmed retinoic acid excess. In CKO limbs, expression of genes throughout the whole cholesterol biosynthetic pathway was upregulated, and cholesterol deficiency can explain most aspects of the phenotype. Thus, cellular POR-dependent cholesterol synthesis is essential during limb and skeletal development. Modulation of P450 activity could contribute to susceptibility of the embryo and developing organs to teratogenesis. PMID:19273610

  5. P450 oxidoreductase deficiency and Antley-Bixler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arlt, Wiebke

    2007-12-01

    Antley-Bixler syndrome is a congenital malformation syndrome that primarily manifests with craniofacial abnormalities but may include skeletal malformations. Some cases have been shown to be caused by fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 mutations and, recently, it was revealed that others are caused by mutations in the electron donor enzyme P450 oxidoreductase (POR). P450 oxidoreductase deficiency, however, is not only associated with the malformations but frequently presents with disordered sex development in affected patients of both sexes. Furthermore, biochemical work-up invariably reveals impairment of 17-hydroxylase and 21-hydroxylase activities, two steroidogenic enzymes dependent on electron transfer from POR. While we begin to gain insight into the pathogenesis of disease, detailed genotype-phenotype studies are still lacking and POR deficiency presents several challenges for research. Firstly, the exact pathogenesis of the skeletal malformations as a consequence of POR mutations is unclear, though impaired sterol biosynthesis has been implicated. Secondly, it needs to be explained, why the external genitalia in affected boys may appear undervirilized while affected girls can be severely virilized. Further evidence is required for the proposed alternative pathway in human androgen synthesis that might explain the apparently contradictory finding of low circulating androgens and severely virilised external genitalia in affected girls. Recent studies have provided evidence for a differential interaction of specific POR mutations with different electron-accepting P450 enzymes and this may provide the key for further understanding of the complex pathogenesis of this complex disease. PMID:17960482

  6. Sensitivity of the cortical pitch onset response to height, time-variance, and directionality of dynamic pitch.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M

    2015-08-31

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) demonstrate that human auditory cortical responses are sensitive to changes in static pitch as indexed by the pitch onset response (POR), a negativity generated at the initiation of acoustic periodicity. Yet, it is still unclear if this brain signature is sensitive to dynamic, time-varying properties of pitch more characteristic of those found in naturalistic speech and music. Neuroelectric PORs were recorded in response to contrastive pitch patterns differing in their pitch height, time-variance, and directionality (i.e., rise vs. fall). Broadband noise followed by contiguous iterated rippled noise (producing salient pitch sweeps) was used to temporally separate neural activity coding the onset of acoustic energy from the onset of time-varying pitch. Analysis of PORs revealed distinct modulations in response latency that distinguished static from time-varying pitch contours (steady-statePORs were insensitive to the direction of pitch sweeps (rise=fall). Our findings suggest that the POR signature provides a useful neural index of auditory cortical pitch processing for some, but not all pitch-evoking stimuli. PMID:26200250

  7. Excited state dynamics and catalytic mechanism of the light-driven enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Scrutton, Nigel S; Groot, Marie Louise; Heyes, Derren J

    2012-07-01

    The reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide, catalysed by the enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR), is the penultimate step in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway and is a key light-driven reaction that triggers a profound transformation in plant development. As POR is light-activated it can provide new information on the way in which light energy can be harnessed to power enzyme reactions. Consequently, POR presents a unique opportunity to study catalysis at low temperatures and on ultrafast timescales, which are not usually accessible for the majority of enzymes. Recent advances in our understanding of the catalytic mechanism of POR illustrate why it is an important model for studying enzyme catalysis and reaction dynamics. The reaction involves the addition of one hydride and one proton, and catalysis is initiated by the absorption of light by the Pchlide substrate. As the reaction involves the Pchlide excited state, a variety of ultrafast spectroscopic measurements have shown that significant parts of the reaction occur on the picosecond timescale. A number of excited state Pchlide species, including an intramolecular charge transfer complex and a hydrogen bonded intermediate, are proposed to be required for the subsequent hydride and proton transfers, which occur on the microsecond timescale. Herein, we review spectroscopic investigations, with a particular focus on time-resolved transient absorption and fluorescence experiments that have been used to study the excited state dynamics and catalytic mechanism of POR. PMID:22419074

  8. Relationships among plant available phosphorus, fertilizer sales, and water quality in northwestern Ohio.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Frank G; Bigham, Jerry M; Slater, Brian K

    2002-01-01

    Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) in northwestern Ohio river water has declined over the past 20 yr in response to decreased applications of fertilizer P. Our objective was to evaluate changes in soluble P (Bray-1 P) levels in the soil over time as influenced by fertilizer P management, cultivation practice, soil properties, and landscape factors. Because soil is the intermediary between added P and SRP measured in river water, we examined the relationship between fertilizer P, soluble soil P, and SRP. Using historical soil survey sample sites as a baseline for original soluble P concentrations (Por), we resampled Ap horizons to establish current levels of soluble P (Pcu). The Por baseline extended from 1953-1982 and Pcu from 1996-1998. Thirty percent of the Pcu values and 17% of the Por values were > or = 40 mg kg(-1). Log-transformed means for Pcu were significantly higher than for Por. The principal determining factors for Por were physiography, soil texture, and soil series. Current P is affected by present tillage practice and drainage class. Change in soluble P in the soil is not as responsive to fertilizer P sales as is SRP in river water. This suggests that as fertilizer P sales decline, a declining percentage of P added as fertilizer is annually dissolved and transported into the drainage system. Soluble P in soil is governed by a combination of fertilizer and tillage management, soil properties, and landscape factors interacting over time. PMID:11837442

  9. Impact of dehydroepiandrosterone on clinical outcome in poor responders: A pilot study in women undergoing in vitro fertilization, using bologna criteria

    PubMed Central

    Jirge, Padma Rekha; Chougule, Shruti Mahesh; Gavali, Vijayamala Gurudas; Bhomkar, Deepali Atul

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation in women with poor ovarian response (POR) undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. SETTING: Private tertiary fertility clinic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 31 infertile women with POR diagnosed as per the Bologna criteria. INTERVENTIONS: DHEA supplementation for 2 months and a subsequent IVF cycle, after two previous IVF cycles with POR. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Dose and duration of gonadotropin therapy, oocyte yield, embryo number and quality, pregnancy and live birth rate. RESULTS: No difference was seen in gonadotropin requirement before and after DHEA supplementation. There was a significant increase in total and metaphase II oocytes (5.9 0.68 vs. 2.73 0.24; 4.45 0.47 vs. 2.09 0.26), fertilization (3.65 0.49 vs. 2.00 0.27), Grade I embryos (1.52 0.25 vs. 0.55 0.18), pregnancy rate (30% vs. 9.1%) and live birth rate (25% vs 0%) in those who completed the cycle, following DHEA supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: Dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation results in an improvement in oocyte yield, embryo quality, and live birth rate in a group of women with POR having undergone at least two previous failures due to POR. PMID:25395742

  10. Resonancias en la regi髇 trans-neptuniana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, T.; Ferraz-Mello, S.

    La expansi髇 de la 髍bita del planeta Neptuno en la etapa de acreci髇 del Sistema Solar exterior (Fern醤dez e Ip 1984, 1996) parece ser un mecanismo eficiente para la captura de planetesimales en las resonancias exteriores con Neptuno (Malhotra 1995). Por otro lado, los estudios din醡icos realizados por varios autores indican que las resonancias son regiones de evoluci髇 estable, en contraste con el comportamiento ca髏ico del resto de la regi髇 trans-neptuniana. Por estas razones, y si bien los datos observacionales son todav韆 muy limitados, se supone que los objetos descubiertos se encuentran en alguna de esas resonancias. En esta comunicaci髇 presentamos un estudio anal韙ico y num閞ico de las principales resonancias exteriores con Neptuno.

  11. Heteroleptic Tetrapyrrole-Fused Dimeric and Trimeric Skeletons with Unusual Non-Frustrated Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuehong; Oh, Juwon; Wang, Kang; Chen, Chao; Cao, Wei; Park, Kyu Hyung; Kim, Dongho; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2016-03-18

    Phthalocyanine (Pc) and porphyrin (Por) chromophores have been fused through the benzo[伪]pyrazine moiety, resulting in unprecedented heteroleptic tetrapyrrole-fused dimers and trimers. The heteroleptic tetrapyrrole nature has been clearly revealed based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of the zinc dimer. Electrochemical analysis, theoretical calculations, and time-resolved spectroscopic results disclose that the two/three-tetrapyrrole-fused skeletons behave as one totally 蟺-conjugated system as a result of the strong conjugative interaction between/among the tetrapyrrole chromophores. In particular, the effectively extended 蟺-electron system through the fused-bridge induced strong electronic communication between the Pc and Por moieties and large transition dipole moments in the Pc-Por-fused systems, providing high fluorescence quantum yields (>0.13) and relatively long excited state lifetimes (>1.3鈥卬s) in comparison with their homo-tetrapyrrole-fused analogues. PMID:26879243

  12. A typing system for neisseria gonorrhoeae based on biotinylated oligonucleotide probes to PIB gene variable regions.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D K; Deal, C D; Ison, C A; Zenilman, J M; Bash, M C

    2000-05-01

    The porin proteins PIA and PIB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae are serotyping antigens for the serovar classification system and leading candidates for gonococcal vaccine development. Although serotyping has been a useful tool, this method can be insensitive to critical sequence changes in the por gene, including those in surface-exposed variable regions (VRs). A sensitive and specific typing system for N. gonorrhoeae has been developed that uses biotin-labeled oligonucleotide probes with chemiluminescence detection to type PIB gene VRs. The PIB VR types of geographically and temporally diverse gonococcal strains and sexual contact isolates were determined. por VR typing discriminated between most unrelated isolates and provided information about individual VR type that was not apparent from serovar designations. PIB VR typing avoids limited monoclonal antibody availability, interlaboratory variation, and the requirement for culture-based surveillance associated with gonococcal serotyping, and provides useful information about the molecular epidemiology of individual por gene VRs. PMID:10823765

  13. Fluorescent nanogel based on four-arm PEG-PCL copolymer with porphyrin core for bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xia; Wei, Chang; Lu, Li; Liu, Tianjun; Lv, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Four-arm PEG-PCL copolymer with porphyrin core (POR-PEG-PCL) exhibits beneficial fluorescence ability in vivo. To further develop an application of thermosensitive porphyrin hydrogel based on four-arm PEG-PCL copolymer as a drug carrier, a POR-PEG-PCL nanogel was tracked and located to tumor tissue with porphyrin as a fluorescence tag via intravenous injection. The structure and function of the nanogel were evaluated by TEM, DLS, H-NMR, UV-vis and fluorescence spectra. The fluorescent nanogel was monitored by an in vivo imaging system with hepatoma tumor-bearing mice. Good biocompatibility and safety in vitro and in vivo show that the POR-PEG-PCL nanogel is a potential drug carrier that targets tumor tissues with fluorescence bioimaging. PMID:26838843

  14. Como Lo Hago Yo: Anomal铆as del Tubo Neural en Guatemala 鈥 Mielomeningocele Unidad de Espina B铆fida e Hidrocefalia

    PubMed Central

    Manucci, Graciela; von Quednow, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    En Guatemala nacen por a帽 786 ni帽os con defectos de tubo neural. Operamos 65 a 70 ni帽os con mielomenigocele por a帽o. Tenemos equipo multidisciplinario. Recomendamos parto por ces谩rea. Infecci贸n antes de la cirug铆a es un problema mayor. Derivaci贸n tard铆a es un problema. Disecamos la plaqueta con la t茅cnica cl谩sica. Suturamos la plaqueta para restituir la forma de la m茅dula. Corpectom铆a en casos de cif贸sis. Hidrocefal铆a: Operamos el 80% de los ni帽os. Chiari II: Operamos basados en los s铆ntomas, primero nos aseguramos que la v谩lvula funciona bien. M茅dula anclada: Operamos basados en los s铆ntomas. PMID:24791216

  15. Global Alfven Waves in Solar Physics: Coronal Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Azevedo, C. A.; de Assis, A. S.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se ha demostrado que Ia onda discreta de Alfven puede generar por lo memos un 20% de la energia coronal requerida con densidad de flujo de lO- erg 5 . Las ondas discretas de Alfven son una nueva clase `de ondas de Alfven las cuales pueden describirse por el modelo con que incluye un i6n finito, con frecuencia ciclotr6nica ( /uci # 0) y los efectos del equilibrio de plasma mostrados por Appert, Vaclavik and Villar 1984. ABSTRACT. It has been shown that the Discrete Alfven wave can power at least 20% of the required coronal energy flux density iO- Discrete Alfven waves are a new class of Alfven waves wich can be described by the model with the inclusion of finite ion cyclotron frequency (w/wci 0) and the equilibrium plasma current effects as shown by Appert, Vaclavik and Villar 1984. o,t :, HYDROMAGNETICS - SUN-CORONA

  16. Movimiento regular y ca髏ico en c鷐ulos globulares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Wachlin, F. C.

    Los c鷐ulos globulares exhiben diferentes grados de elipticidad y se mueven en el campo gravitatorio de la galaxia a la que pertenecen. Las 髍bitas de sus estrellas no necesitan, por ello, conservar la energ韆 ni el momento angular, y resulta probable la presencia de movimientos ca髏icos. Como paso preliminar de una investigaci髇 m醩 extensa, presentamos aqu los resultados de un estudio de 髍bitas estelares en un c鷐ulo globular levemente triaxial que describe una 髍bita circular dentro de una galaxia. Las 髍bitas se investigan utilizando dos m閠odos: 1) La clasificaci髇 por frecuencias de D.D. Carpintero y L.A. Aguilar (1998, MNRAS, en prensa), y 2) Los exponentes de Lyapunov (subrutina LIAMAG, gentilmente suministrada por D. Pfenniger). Utilizando diversos espacios de condiciones iniciales, investigamos las familias de 髍bitas de las estrellas del c鷐ulo. Confirmamos la presencia de 髍bitas ca髏icas, particularmente en las zonas externas del c鷐ulo, y discutimos su importancia para la estructura del c鷐ulo.

  17. Molecular and epidemiological studies of Porcine rubulavirus infection 鈥 an overview

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Romero, Julieta Sandra; Blomstr枚m, Anne-Lie; Berg, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Porcine rubulavirus-La Piedad-Michoacan-Mexico virus (PorPV-LPMV) was identified as the causative agent of a viral disease that emerged spontaneously in Mexican swine in the 1980s. Since the report of the initial outbreak of the disease, only one full-length genome from a strain isolated in 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been sequenced; sequence data are scarce from other isolates. The genetic variation of this virus that has spread throughout the main endemic region of Mexico is almost a complete mystery. The development of molecular techniques for improved diagnostics and to investigate the persistence, molecular epidemiology, and the possible reservoirs of PorPV are needed. Together, this will provide greater knowledge regarding the molecular genetic changes and useful data to establish new strategies in the control of this virus in Mexico. PMID:26584829

  18. 脙聜脗聹NADPH: Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase-Structure, Catalytic Function, and Role in Prolamellar Body Formation and Morphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Michael P. Timko

    2013-02-01

    The biosynthesis of chlorophyll is a critical biochemical step in the development of photosynthetic vascular plants and green algae. From photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) to algae, non-vascular plants, gymnosperms and vascular plants, mechanisms have evolved for protochlorophyllide reduction a key step in chlorophyll synthesis. Protochlorophyllide reduction is carried out by both a light-dependent (POR) and light-independent (LIPOR) mechanisms. NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (EC 1.3.1.33, abbreviated POR) catalyzes the light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide (PChlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide). In contrast, a light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase (LIPOR) involves three plastid gene products (chlL, chlN, and chlB) and several nuclear factors. Our work focused on characterization of both the POR and LIPOR catalyzed processes.

  19. Novel porphyrin-daunomycin hybrids: Synthesis and preferential binding to G-quadruplexes over i-motif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ping; Jin, Shu-fang; Lu, Jia-Zheng; Lv, Jun-liang; Wu, Gong-qing; Chen, Pan-Pan; Tan, Cai-Lian; Chen, Dian-Wen

    2015-02-01

    Encouraged by the enormous importance attributed to the structure and function of human telomeric DNA, herein we focused our attention on the interaction of a serious of newly prepared porphyrin-daunomycin (Por-DNR) hybrids with the guanine-rich single-strand oligomer (G4) and the complementary cytosine-rich strand (i-motif). Various spectral methods such as absorption and fluorescence titration, surface-enhanced Raman and circular dichroism spectrum were integrated in the experiment and it was found that these Por-DNR hybrids could serve as prominent molecules to recognize G4 and i-motif. What is more, interesting results were obtained that the hybrids with longer flexible links are more favorable in binding with both G4 and i-motif than the hybrid with shorter linkage. These Por-DNR hybrids may help to develop new ideas in the research of human telomeric DNA with small molecules.

  20. La edad de las familias Eos, Themis y Koronis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.

    Las familias de asteroides son el producto de la disrupci髇 colisional de objetos destru韉os por impactos ocurridos en el cintur髇 principal. Las colisiones posteriores han modificado los tama駉s y las 髍bitas de los miembros de estas familias, por lo que las distribuciones que vemos hoy en d韆 pueden ser muy diferentes de aquellas producidas inmediatamente despu閟 de la fragmentaci髇 del objeto original. En esta hip髏esis, puede ser dif韈il reconstruir la evoluci髇 colisional de la familia bas醤dose s髄o en las actuales distribuciones y puede ser necesario hacer ciertas suposiciones para obtener informaci髇 sobre las condiciones iniciales. En este trabajo se deriva una estimaci髇 de la edad de las familias Eos, Themis y Koronis obtenida de una simulaci髇 de la evoluci髇 colisional de un cuerpo original te髍ico para cada familia usando un modelo de distribuci髇 para el cintur髇 propuesto por Gil-Hutton (1996).

  1. A variable-temperature direct electrochemical study of metalloproteins from hyperthermophilic microorganisms involves in hydrogen production from pyruvate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.T.; Blamey, J.; Zhou, Z.Z.; Adams, M.W.W.

    1995-05-30

    The hyperthomophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima and the hyperthermolic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus grow optimally at 80{degrees} and 100{degrees}C, respectively, by the fermentation of carbohydrates to organic acids, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}. Pyruvate is a major source of reductant for H{sub 2} production during fermentation, and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR), a 4Fe-type ferredoxin, and hydrogenase have been previously purified from both species. P. furiosus utilizes copper-iron-containing POR and a nickel-iron-containing hydrogenase, whereas the POR of T. maritima lacks copper and its hydrogenase lacks nickel. For all four enzymes and for the two ferredoxins, we have determined their reproduction potentials (E{degrees}` and, where possible, thermodynamic parameters associated with electron transfer {Delta}S{degrees} and {Delta}H{degrees}), using differential pulse voltammetry at temperatures ranging from 25 to 95{degrees}C. 55 refs., 7 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. O-Mycoloylated Proteins from Corynebacterium

    PubMed Central

    Huc, Emilie; Meniche, Xavier; Benz, Roland; Bayan, Nicolas; Ghazi, Alexandre; Tropis, Marielle; Daff, Mamadou

    2010-01-01

    O-Acylation of proteins was known only in a few eukaryotic proteins but never in bacteria. We demonstrate, using a combination of protein chemistry and mass spectrometry, the occurrence of three O-acylated polypeptides in Corynebacterium glutamicum, PorA, PorH, and an unknown small protein. The three polypeptides are O-substituted by mycolic acids, long chain ?-alkyl and ?-hydroxy fatty acids specifically produced by members of the Corynebacterineae suborder. To date these acids were described only as esterifying trehalose and arabinogalactan, and less frequently glycerol, important components of the highly impermeable outer barrier of Corynebacterineae. We show that the post-translational mycoloylation of PorA occurs at Ser-15 and is necessary for the pore-forming activity of C. glutamicum. PMID:20508265

  3. What Number of Oocytes Is Appropriate for Defining Poor Ovarian Response?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seul Ki; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study attempted to derive an objective and sophisticated definition of poor ovarian response (POR). Materials and Methods A total of 176 consecutive in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles (137 patients) with conventional ovarian stimulation during 2009 to 2012 were studied by retrospective analysis. Optimal oocyte number (total or mature) was determined by statistics-based (distribution of oocyte number) and prognosis-based approaches (prediction for IVF outcome). Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was used to show what number of oocytes could predict IVF pregnancy and whether clinical and laboratory variables could predict newly defined POR. Results The 25th percentile of the distribution corresponded to total oocytes ?2 and mature oocyte ?1. The cut-off values for the prediction of IVF outcomes were total oocytes >5 and mature oocyte >1. Considering the incidence of POR (34.1%), a reasonable definition of POR was decided as total oocytes ?2 or mature oocyte ?1. For the prediction of this new definition, the extreme cut-off value (by setting a false positive rate of 5%) of serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) was ?0.76 ng/mL, which was better than serum follicle stimulating hormone or age. A new simple definition of POR was derived as total oocytes ?2 or mature oocyte ?1 in a previous cycle or a serum AMH level of ?0.76 ng/mL. When this simple criterion was re-applied to our data, the predictive performance was similar to the Bologna criteria. Conclusion We here propose a new definition of POR, which is simple and supported by statistical and prognostic analyses. PMID:25683999

  4. A novel meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine with constitutive expression of FetA: A phase I clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Marsay, L.; Dold, C.; Green, C.A.; Rollier, C.S.; Norheim, G.; Sadarangani, M.; Shanyinde, M.; Brehony, C.; Thompson, A.J.; Sanders, H.; Chan, H.; Haworth, K.; Derrick, J.P.; Feavers, I.M.; Maiden, M.C.; Pollard, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines are used against outbreaks of capsular group B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) caused by strains expressing particular PorA outer membrane proteins (OMPs). Ferric enterobactin receptor (FetA) is another variable OMP that induces type-specific bactericidal antibodies, and the combination of judiciously chosen PorA and FetA variants in vaccine formulations is a potential approach to broaden protection of such vaccines. Methods The OMV vaccine MenPF-1 was generated by genetically modifying N. meningitidis strain 44/76 to constitutively express FetA. Three doses of 25?g or 50?g of MenPF-1 were delivered intra-muscularly to 52 healthy adults. Results MenPF-1 was safe and well tolerated. Immunogenicity was measured by serum bactericidal assay (SBA) against wild-type and isogenic mutant strains. After 3 doses, the proportion of volunteers with SBA titres ?1:4 (the putative protective titre) was 98% for the wild-type strain, and 77% for the strain 44/76 FetAonPorAoff compared to 51% in the strain 44/76 FetAoffPorAoff, demonstrating that vaccination with MenPF-1 simultaneously induced FetA and PorA bactericidal antibodies. Conclusion This study provides a proof-of-concept for generating bactericidal antibodies against FetA after OMV vaccination in humans. Prevalence-based choice of PorA and FetA types can be used to formulate a vaccine for broad protection against MenB disease. PMID:25982025

  5. Astronom韆 Gamma desde El Leoncito

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovero, A. C.; Colombo, E.; Sahade, J.; Weekes, T. C.

    La astronom韆 gamma, en el extremo de energ韆s detectadas hasta el presente, se encuentra en desarrollo en muchas partes del mundo y proporciona resultados sorprendentes a medida que la tecnolog韆 avanza en el desarrollo de nuevos detectores. La t閏nica Cherenkov Atmosf閞ica es la utilizada para la detecci髇, mediante telescopios en tierra, del efecto secundario causado por la radiaci髇 gamma de muy altas energ韆s (E ? TeV). Por medio de telescopios o arreglos de detectores y utilizando la t閏nica mencionada, se han podido detectar algunas fuentes puntuales de mucha importancia astrof韘ica como la Nebulosa del Cangrejo y la galaxia de n鷆leo activo Markarian 421. El sistema instalado en San Juan, en cooperaci髇 con el grupo de Radiaci髇 Gamma del Observatorio Whipple, est constitu韉o por tres colectores de 1.5m que registran pulsos de luz generados por las cascadas de part韈ulas producidas por rayos c髎micos de todo tipo al entrar en la atm髎fera terrestre. El sistema opera por barrido en ascenci髇 recta de la fuente observada que, para esta etapa del experimento, es el Centro Gal醕tico. Esta fuente extensa es conocida como emisor gamma de energ韆s inferiores al TeV y ha sido observada anteriormente en este rango de energ韆 desde el hemisferio norte pero con elevaciones bajas, situaci髇 no 髉tima para este tipo de t閏nica. Se presentan los primeros resultados del an醠isis de los datos obtenidos observando la regi髇 del Centro Gal醕tico, luego de dos a駉s de observaciones, as como una descripci髇 de la t閏nica Cherenkov Atmosf閞ica y del equipo utilizado en la experiencia.

  6. H-rev107 Regulates Cytochrome P450 Reductase Activity and Increases Lipid Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Fu-Ming; Chen, Mao-Liang; Wang, Lu-Kai; Lee, Ming-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    H-rev107 is a member of the HREV107 type II tumor suppressor gene family and acts as a phospholipase to catalyze the release of fatty acids from glycerophospholipid. H-rev107 has been shown to play an important role in fat metabolism in adipocytes through the PGE2/cAMP pathway, but the detailed molecular mechanism underlying H-rev107-mediated lipid degradation has not been studied. In this study, the interaction between H-rev107 and cytochrome P450 reductase (POR), which is involved in hepatic lipid content regulation, was determined by yeast two-hybrid screen and confirmed by using in vitro pull down assays and immunofluorescent staining. The expression of POR in H-rev107-expressing cells enhanced the H-rev107-mediated release of arachidonic acid. However, H-rev107 inhibited POR activity and relieved POR-mediated decreased triglyceride content in HtTA and HeLa cervical cells. The inhibitory effect of H-rev107 will be abolished when POR-expressing cells transfected with PLA2-lacking pH-rev107 or treated with PLA2 inhibitor. Silencing of H-rev107 using siRNA resulted in increased glycerol production and reversion of free fatty acid-mediated growth suppression in Huh7 hepatic cells. In summary, our results revealed that H-rev107 is also involved in lipid accumulation in liver cells through the POR pathway via its PLA2 activity. PMID:26381418

  7. Pasado, presente y futuro de la epidemiolog铆a. Una perspective latinoamericana

    PubMed Central

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Este art铆culo intenta contestar tres preguntas. Sobre el pasado: 驴Por qu茅 no existi贸 una epidemiolog铆a precolombina? Sobre el presente: 驴Cu谩les son los or铆genes de la epidemiolog铆a moderna, incluyendo sus ra铆ces sudamericanas? Y sobre el futuro, escog铆 un t铆tulo surrealista para enfatizar el hecho que estoy consciente de que es siempre delicado hacer predicciones: 驴Por qu茅 fen贸menos complejos son los 鈥渙bjetos oscuros del deseo鈥 epidemiol贸gico? PMID:25124247

  8. Paleoenvironmental implications of taxonomic variation among 未 15 N values of chloropigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Meytal B.; Wolfe-Simon, Felisa; Robinson, Rebecca S.; Qin, Yelun; Saito, Mak A.; Pearson, Ann

    2011-11-01

    Natural variations in the ratios of nitrogen isotopes in biomass reflect variations in nutrient sources utilized for growth. In order to use 未 15N values of chloropigments of photosynthetic organisms to determine the corresponding 未 15N values of biomass - and by extension, surface waters - the isotopic offset between chlorophyll and biomass must be constrained. Here we examine this offset in various geologically-relevant taxa, grown using nutrient sources that may approximate ocean conditions at different times in Earth's history. Phytoplankton in this study include cyanobacteria (diazotrophic and non-diazotrophic), eukaryotic algae (red and green), and anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (Proteobacteria), as well as environmental samples from sulfidic lake water. Cultures were grown using N 2, NO 3-, and NH 4+ as nitrogen sources, and were examined under different light regimes and growth conditions. We find surprisingly high variability in the isotopic difference (未 15N biomass - 未 15N chloropigment) for prokaryotes, with average values for species ranging from -12.2鈥 to +11.7鈥. We define this difference as 蓻por, a term that encompasses diagenetic porphyrins and chlorins, as well as chlorophyll. Negative values of 蓻por reflect chloropigments that are 15N-enriched relative to biomass. Notably, this enrichment appears to occur only in cyanobacteria. The average value of 蓻por for freshwater cyanobacterial species is -9.8 卤 1.8鈥, while for marine cyanobacteria it is -0.9 卤 1.3鈥. These isotopic effects group environmentally but not phylogenetically, e.g., 蓻por values for freshwater Chroococcales resemble those of freshwater Nostocales but differ from those of marine Chroococcales. Our measured values of 蓻por for eukaryotic algae (range = 4.7-8.7鈥) are similar to previous reports for pure cultures. For all taxa studied, values of 蓻por do not depend on the type of nitrogen substrate used for growth. The observed environmental control of 蓻por suggests that values of 蓻por could be useful for determining the fractional burial of eukaryotic vs. cyanobacterial organic matter in the sedimentary record.

  9. Metabolic activities of metronidazole-sensitive and -resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori: repression of pyruvate oxidoreductase and expression of isocitrate lyase activity correlate with resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, P S; Goodwin, A; Johnsen, J; Magee, K; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S J

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we compared metronidazole (Mtz)-sensitive and -resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori for metabolic differences that might correlate with drug resistance. Included in this study was an isogenic Mtz(r) strain, HP1107, that was constructed by transforming genomic DNA from Mtz(r) strain HP439 into Mtz(s) strain HP500. Enzyme activities were also measured for Mtz(r) strains grown in the presence or absence of 18 micrograms of metronidazole per ml (ca. one-half of the MIC). These studies confirmed the presence of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas, Entner-Doudoroff, and pentose pathways. H. pylori strains expressed enzymatic activities indicative of a complete and active Krebs cycle. All strains expressed pyruvate oxidoreductase (POR) and alpha-ketoglutarate oxidoreductase (KOR) as measured with the redox-active dye benzyl viologen (30 to 96 nmol/min/mg of protein for POR and 30 nmol/min/mg of protein for KOR). When grown in the presence of Mtz at > or = 3.5 micrograms/ml, Mtz(r) strains expressed no detectable POR or KOR activity. The apparent repression of POR and KOR activities by Mtz affected bacterial growth as manifest by extended lag periods and growth yield reductions of > 30%. A dose-dependent relationship was demonstrated between the metronidazole concentration in the growth medium and the specific activity of POR measured in bacterial cell extracts. The observed repression was not due to inactivation of POR by Mtz. In addition to repression of POR and KOR activities, growth in the presence of Mtz also led to decreases in the activities of various Krebs cycle enzymes, including aconitase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase. All of the Mtz(r) strains examined expressed isocitrate lyase and malate synthase activities indicative of the glyoxylate bypass. No isocitrate lyase activity was detected in Mtz(s) strain HP500. Isocitrate lyase activity was expressed by HP500 following transformation to Mtz resistance (Mtz(r) strain HP1107) with DNA from an Mtz(r) strain. The results of this study suggest that Mtz resistance may be a recessive trait, possibly involving inactivation of a regulatory gene, that results in constitutive expression of isocitrate lyase. Repression of POR and KOR activities in response to low levels of Mtz may be a general response of H. pylori strains to Mtz, but only resistant strains manage to survive via activation of compensatory metabolic pathways. PMID:8759844

  10. La energia geotermica en la actualidad: Geothermal Today (Spanish version - 2003)

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-01

    Por encargo del Secretario Abraham, la Oficina de Eficiencia Energ茅tica y Energ铆a Renovable suministra el liderazgo a nivel nacional para impulsar las tecnolog铆as de eficiencia energ茅tica y energ铆a renovables, para saltar por encima de las limitaciones del status quo, y para alcanzar beneficios ambientales notables. El Programa de Tecnolog铆as Geot茅rmicas, parte cr铆tica de nuestro esfuerzo conjunto, est谩 avanzando a grandes zancadas para aumentar la viabilidad y el despliegue de electricidad ...

  11. Estudio de los Efectos Gravitomagn閠icos en Cuerpos Masivos Rotantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velandia Heredia, N.; Tejeiro, J. M.

    2008-03-01

    A partir del estudio de los Efectos Gravitomagn閠icos en cuerpos masivos rotantes, planteamos la expresi髇 para medir el desfase en el tiempo, para diferentes observadores, que se dan cuando viajan dos rayos de luz por una gu韆 de onda o de manera libre (geod閟icas), en el plano azimutal y en el plano polar. Con lo anterior queremos abordar el experimento tipo Michelson y Morley, de forma que podamos involucrar el valor de la densidad del momento angular (a) en el retraso temporal para los dos haces de luz que viajan por los brazos del interfer髆etro, cuando este 鷏timo es ubicado en el plano ecuatorial.

  12. ?Cuales son las amenazas o peligros volcanicos?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Bobbie; Brantley, Steven R.; Stauffer, Peter; Hendley, James W., II

    2000-01-01

    Los volcanes son capaces de producir numerosos peligros geologicos e hidrologicos. Los cientificos del Servicio Geologico de los EE. UU. (USGS, por sus siglas en ingles) y de otras instituciones alrededor del mundo estan estudiando los peligros de muchos de los centenares de volcanes activos y potencialmente activos del mundo. Estos cientificos vigilan muy de cerca la actividad de algunos de los volcanes mas peligrosos, por lo que estan preparados para alertar a las autoridades y/o a la poblacion en caso de que aumente sustancialmente la probabilidad de que ocurra una erupcion u otro evento peligroso.

  13. Aplicaci髇 del Teorema de Nekhorochev para tiempos de estabilidad en Mec醤ica Celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; Nez, J.; Brunini, A.

    En Mec醤ica Celeste, uno de los problemas centrales consiste en la determinaci髇 de los tiempos de estabilidad. El teorema de Nekhorochev proporciona un m閠odo para dicho estudio, para un sistema determinado por un hamiltoniano descripto en las variables acci髇-醤gulo. El trabajo consiste en la acotaci髇 tanto del potencial perturbador y de la matriz hessiana del hamiltoniano integrable para determinar luego el tiempo de estabilidad de dicho sistema, donde por estabilidad se entiende la separaci髇 en norma infinito en el espacio de las acciones.

  14. Na Cauda do Cometa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Quando viam um cometa, os antigos gregos imaginavam uma estrela com uma vasta cabeleira. N鉶 toa, a palavra deriva do termo koma, que significa cabelo. Constitu韉os por fragmentos de gelo e gases, os cometas possuem um n鷆leo s髄ido, que pode ter v醨ios quil鬽etros de di鈓etro, e uma cauda que sempre aponta na dire玢o contr醨ia ao Sol, devido aos ventos solares. Gra鏰s apar阯cia de pontos luminosos em movimento (ao contr醨io de outros astros, que parecem est醫icos), esses corpos celestes foram interpretados por diferentes povos com muito misticismo, inspirando mitos tanto de boas-novas como de maus press醙ios. Conhe鏰 algumas dessas hist髍ias:

  15. Aprendiendo de los errores del pasado - Duration: 91 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Fernando Abilleira, analista de trayectoria de la NASA para la Oficina de Exploraci贸n de Marte, comenta por qu茅 el aterrizaje de una nave espacial en Marte requiere una precisi贸n incre铆ble y hasta ...

  16. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de c谩ncer: funciones y desaf铆os (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desaf铆os que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con c谩ncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones t铆picas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones 煤tiles para esas personas.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS AND GIARDIA CYSTS IN DRINKING WATER PALL CORPORATION WPM-1 MICROFILTRATION SYSTEM AT PITTSBURGH, PA - NSF 00/09/EPADW395

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Pall Corporation WPM-1 Microfiltration Pilot System was conducted from February 3 to March 5, 1999. The Pall WPM-1 membrane is a hollow fiber type microfiltration membrane made of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF). It has a 0.1 micrometer ( m) nominal por...

  18. Mini-mastoidectom韆 para anastomosis hipogloso-facial con secci髇 parcial del nervio hipogloso

    PubMed Central

    Campero, 羖varo; Ajler, Pablo; Socolovsky, Mariano; Martins, Carolina; Rhoton, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Introducci髇: La anastomosis hipogloso-facial es la t閏nica de elecci髇 para la reparaci髇 de la par醠isis facial cuando no se dispone de un cabo proximal sano del nervio facial. La t閏nica de anastomosis mediante fresado mastoideo y secci髇 parcial del hipogloso minimiza la atrofia lingual sin sacrificar resultados a nivel facial. M閠odo: La porci髇 mastoidea del nervio facial transcurre por la pared anterior de la AM, a un promedio de 18+/-3 mm de profundidad respecto de la pared lateral. Se debe reconocer la cresta supramastoidea, desde la cual se marca una l韓ea vertical paralela al eje mayor de la AM, 1 cm por detr醩 de la pared posterior del CAE El fresado se comienza desde la l韓ea medio mastoidea hasta la pared posterior del CAE. Una vez encontrado el nervio facial en el tercio medio del canal mastoideo, el mismo es seguido hacia proximal y distal. Resultados: El abordaje descripto permite acceder al nervio facial intratemporal en su porci髇 mastoidea, y efectuar un fresado 髎eo sin poner en riesgo al nervio o a estructuras vasculares cercanas. Se trata de un procedimiento t閏nicamente m醩 sencillo que los abordajes amplios habitualmente utilizados al hueso temporal; no obstante su uso debe ser restringido mayormente a la anastomosis hipogloso-facial. Conclusi髇: Esta es una t閏nica relativamente sencilla, que puede ser reproducida por cirujanos sin mayor experiencia en el tema, luego de su paso por el laboratorio de anatom韆. PMID:23596555

  19. Pneumatocele selar a tensi髇: Reporte de un caso y revisi髇 de la literatura

    PubMed Central

    Campero, 羖varo; Ajler, Pablo; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Bendersky, Dami醤; Campero, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Introducci髇: El neumoenc閒alo a tensi髇 luego de la cirug韆 transesfenoidal es poco com鷑. En la literatura existen pocos casos reportados en los cuales el aire se encuentra localizado exclusivamente en las regiones selar y supraselar, constituyendo un pneumatocele selar. En este art韈ulo se describe un caso inusual de pneumatocele selar a tensi髇 de presentaci髇 tard韆. Descripci髇 del caso: Una mujer de 57 a駉s consult por hemianopsia bitemporal. Previamente, ya se le hab韆 realizado una cirug韆 transnasal por un adenoma hipofisario y se le hab韆 colocado una derivaci髇 lumbo-peritoneal por la presencia de una f韘tula de l韖uido cefalorraqu韉eo. Adem醩, se le hab韆 realizado una resecci髇 transcraneal de un componente intracavernoso del tumor y radiocirug韆 debido a la agresividad del mismo. Se llev a cabo una resonancia magn閠ica que demostr un pneumatocele selar y supraselar. Intervenci髇: Se realiz un abordaje transciliar. La regi髇 selar estaba encapsulada por tejido cicatrizal debido a los procedimientos previos. Se abri la cicatriz y el aire fue evacuado. Posteriormente, el piso selar fue cerrado con grasa y cola de fibrina. Despu髎 del procedimiento, su campo visual retorn a la normalidad. Un a駉 despu閟 de su 鷏tima cirug韆, continua asintom醫ica. Conclusi髇: El pneumatocele selar y supraselar a tensi髇 es un hallazgo extremadamente raro luego de una cirug韆 transesfenoidal. Su manifestaci髇w cl韓ica ser韆 la alteraci髇 visual debida a la compresi髇 inferior de la v韆 髉tica. El pneumatocele selar a tensi髇 debe ser evacuado en un corto plazo. PMID:23596554

  20. 76 FR 29192 - Honey From Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... established in the LTFV investigation. See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order; Honey From Argentina, 66 FR 63672... Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 2655 (January 14, 2011... to the Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). Period of Review The POR...

  1. 75 FR 55307 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Intent To Rescind New Shipper Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ...: Initiation of New Shipper Antidumping Duty Reviews, 75 FR 5764 (February 4, 2010). On February 4, 2010, the... Results for New Shipper Review, 75 FR 38980 (July 7, 2010). Expansion of the POR When the sale of the... 19 CFR 351.214(f)(2)(ii). \\4\\ See Antidumping Duties; Countervailing Duties; Final Rule, 62 FR...

  2. 77 FR 28570 - Honey From Argentina: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... period of review (POR) of honey from Argentina. See Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 77 FR... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

  3. Prevenci贸n del c谩ncer de ovario, trompas y peritoneo (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de informaci贸n revisada por expertos sobre factores que influir铆an en el riesgo de presentar c谩ncer de ovario, de trompas de Falopio y primario de peritoneo y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a la prevenci贸n de los mismos.

  4. Genetic Enhancement of Visual Learning by Activation of Protein Kinase C Pathways in Small Groups of Rat Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo-rong; Wang, Xiaodan; Kong, Lingxin; Lu, Xiu-gui; Lee, Brian; Liu, Meng; Sun, Mei; Franklin, Corinna; Cook, Robert G.; Geller, Alfred I.

    2006-01-01

    Although learning and memory theories hypothesize that memories are encoded by specific circuits, it has proven difficult to localize learning within a cortical area. Neural network theories predict that activation of a small fraction of the neurons in a circuit can activate that circuit. Consequently, altering the physiology of a small group of neurons might potentiate a specific circuit and enhance learning, thereby localizing learning to that circuit. In this study, we activated protein kinase C (PKC) pathways in small groups of neurons in rat postrhinal (POR) cortex. We microinjected helper virus-free herpes simplex virus vectors that expressed a constitutively active PKC into POR cortex. This PKC was expressed predominantly in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in POR cortex. This intervention increased phosphorylation of five PKC substrates that play critical roles in neurotransmitter release (GAP-43 and dynamin) or glutamatergic neurotransmission (specific subunits of AMPA or NMDA receptors and myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate). Additionally, activation of PKC pathways in cultured cortical neurons supported activation-dependent increases in release of glutamate and GABA. This intervention enhanced the learning rate and accuracy of visual object discriminations. In individual rats, the numbers of transfected neurons positively correlated with this learning. During learning, neuronal activity was increased in neurons proximal to the transfected neurons. These results demonstrate that potentiating small groups of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in POR cortex enhances visual object learning. More generally, these results suggest that learning can be mediated by specific cortical circuits. PMID:16162929

  5. Live Birth and Cumulative Live Birth Rates in Expected Poor Ovarian Responders Defined by the Bologna Criteria Following IVF/ICSI Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Joyce; Lee, Vivian Chi-Yan; Yeung, Tracy Wing-Yee; Li, Raymond Wun-Hang; Ho, Pak-Chung; Ng, Ernest Hung-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the live birth and cumulative live birth rates of expected poor ovarian responders according to the Bologna criteria and to compare their outcomes with those of expected normal responders Design Retrospective analysis Setting University infertility clinic Patients A total of 1,152 subfertile women undergoing their first in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle Interventions Women were classified into 4 groups according to the Bologna criteria for comparison Main Outcome Measure(s) Live birth and cumulative live birth rates Results Women with expected poor response (POR) had the lowest live birth rate than the other 3 groups (23.8%, p = 0.031). Cumulative live birth rates were significantly lower in those with expected POR than those with expected normal ovarian response (NOR) (35.8% vs 62.8%, p<0.0001). In the subgroup analysis, the cumulative live birth rates in expected PORs were significantly lower in those who had ?3 oocytes retrieved (18.6% for ?3 oocytes vs 44.0% for >3 oocytes, p = 0.006) whereas the live birth rates in fresh cycle did not differ (17.8% vs 30.9%, p = 0.108). Conclusion Women who were expected POR according to the Bologna criteria had lower live birth and cumulative live birth than expected NOR but they still can achieve reasonable treatment outcomes and IVF treatment should not be precluded. PMID:25748478

  6. Tyrosine oxidation in heme oxygenase: examination of long-range proton-coupled electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Valeriy V; Roth, Justine P

    2014-10-01

    Heme oxygenase is responsible for the degradation of a histidine-ligated ferric protoporphyrin IX (Por) to biliverdin, CO, and the free ferrous ion. Described here are studies of tyrosyl radical formation reactions that occur after oxidizing Fe(III)(Por) to Fe(IV)=O(Por(+)) in human heme oxygenase isoform-1 (hHO-1) and the structurally homologous protein from Corynebacterium diphtheriae (cdHO). Site-directed mutagenesis on hHO-1 probes the reduction of Fe(IV)=O(Por(+)) by tyrosine residues within 11 of the prosthetic group. In hHO-1, Y58 is implicated as the most likely site of oxidation, based on the pH and pD dependent kinetics. The absence of solvent deuterium isotope effects in basic solutions of hHO-1 and cdHO contrasts with the behavior of these proteins in the acidic solution, suggesting that long-range proton-coupled electron transfer predominates over electron transfer. PMID:25023856

  7. Modos de produccion cientifica: Culturas y metodologias de investigacion en la Universidad de Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Ramos, Ana M.

    2004-12-01

    Este trabajo de investigacion supone un modelo teorico de caracter aplicado, que proporciona la oportunidad de evaluar la produccion cientifica de los investigadores. Se encuadra dentro de la tradiccion de la estadistica aplicada y la sociologia del conocimiento. Atiende especialmente a dos conjuntos de temas de interes, por una parte, las caracteristicas principales que determinan el nivel y tipo de produccion academica producida por las unidades de investigacion y por los propios investigadores; por otra, la utilizacion que se hace de los metodos y tecnicas de investigacion puesto que de ello tambien depende el modo de produccion cientifica. Los puntos novedosos de esta tesis son: la medicion cuantitativa del objeto de estudio, la suma de los productos y las condiciones externas a la produccion del conocimiento mas otros elementos internos como las caracteristicas de los investigadores y la metodologia utilizada para desarrollar sus trabajos; y, finalmente, el uso de las nuevas tecnologias. El aprovechamiento de los recursos estadisticos y las fuentes de informacion secundarias se complementan con el diseno propio de una encuesta donde se implementa las caracteristicas descritas en un capitulo anterior sobre los metodos cientificos mas idoneos descritos en los principales manuales y articulos cientificos desde distintas disciplinas de conocimiento. Dicha encuesta ha sido desarrollada como un programa propio y en base a los mas innovadores usos de la tecnologia en la metodologia de encuestas.

  8. Prevenci贸n del c谩ncer de est贸mago (g谩strico) (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de informaci贸n revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar c谩ncer de est贸mago y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a la prevenci贸n de esta enfermedad.

  9. Supervivientes de c谩ncer en EE. UU. ascienden casi a 12 millones

    Cancer.gov

    El n煤mero de supervivientes de c谩ncer en Estados Unidos ascendi贸 a 11,7 millones en 2007, de acuerdo a un informe publicado por los Centros para el Control y la Prevenci贸n de Enfermedades, CDC, y el Instituto Nacional del C谩ncer, NCI, el cual forma parte

  10. NCI en el congreso de ASCO: Breve rese帽a de los resultados de investigaciones de c谩nceres en mujeres

    Cancer.gov

    En el congreso anual de la Sociedad Americana de Oncolog铆a Cl铆nica (ASCO) 2014 celebrado en junio en Chicago, se destacaron los resultados de varios estudios cl铆nicos patrocinados por el NCI sobre c谩nceres en la mujer.

  11. 77 FR 40574 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ...On March 5, 2012, the Department of Commerce (the Department) published the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Thailand. The period of review (POR) is February 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. Based on our analysis of the comments received we have made certain changes in the margin calculations.......

  12. Opening Pathways for Vulnerable Young People in Patagonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary Agnes; Hamilton, Stephen F.; Bianchi, Lucia; Bran, Jacqui

    2013-01-01

    New and improved institutions are needed to support the transition to adulthood of vulnerable young people. Existing institutions that should provide that support demonstrate structural lag: they have not adapted to changing circumstances. Action research was conducted in Por un Manana, an employment training program for low-income youth and young

  13. Campylobacter Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Campylobacter Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Campylobacter Infections Print A A A Text Size What's ... to Call the Doctor en espa帽ol Infecciones por campylobacter Campylobacter bacteria, usually transmitted in contaminated food or ...

  14. Complicaciones orales de la quimioterapia y la radioterapia (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de las complicaciones orales, como la mucositis y la disfunci贸n de la gl谩ndula salival, que se presentan en pacientes de c谩ncer tratados con quimioterapia y radioterapia dirigida a la cabeza y el cuello.

  15. Prevenci贸n del c谩ncer de cavidad oral y orofaringe (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de informaci贸n revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar c谩ncer de labio, cavidad oral y orofaringe, y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a la prevenci贸n de esta enfermedad.

  16. Publicaci髇 de Propuesta Presupuestaria del NCI para el A駉 Fiscal 2017

    Cancer.gov

    Ayer, tuve el honor de presentar al Presidente Barack Obama el Plan Anual del NCI y Propuesta Presupuestaria para el A駉 Fiscal 2017. Creo que la 揚ropuesta Presupuestaria, como se conoce ahora, es especialmente importante este a駉 para la investigaci髇 oncol骻ica por dos razones.

  17. 76 FR 76944 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 76 FR 38609... Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 53404 (August 26, 2011). In a letter dated November 22... administrative review of entries of the subject merchandise during the POR from the following companies:...

  18. 75 FR 8301 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ..., 64 FR 46343 (August 25, 1999). See also Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order on Certain Cut-to... Administrative Review, 74 FR 39921 (August 10, 2009) (``Preliminary Results''). The period of review (``POR'') is... of Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of Administrative Review, 74 FR 60237 (November 20,...

  19. Opening Pathways for Vulnerable Young People in Patagonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary Agnes; Hamilton, Stephen F.; Bianchi, Lucia; Bran, Jacqui

    2013-01-01

    New and improved institutions are needed to support the transition to adulthood of vulnerable young people. Existing institutions that should provide that support demonstrate structural lag: they have not adapted to changing circumstances. Action research was conducted in Por un Manana, an employment training program for low-income youth and young鈥

  20. Leyendo con tu hijo: Consejos practicos para los padres... (Reading with Your Child: Practical Advice for Parents...).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This brochure (in Spanish) offers some practical tips for Spanish-speaking parents who wish to read to their young children. The brochure first provides general tips, such as "Lea a su hijo en voz alto por lo menos unos 15 minutos todos los dias" (Read to your child aloud for at least 15 minutes daily), and "Estabeleza una rotina y un lugar para

  1. 75 FR 49888 - Laminated Woven Sacks from the People's Republic of China: Extension of the Time Limit for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Revocation in Part, 74 FR 48224 (September 22, 2009). The period of review (``POR'') is January 31, 2008... of the Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR... Government Closure During the Recent Snowstorm,'' dated February 12, 2010. Extension of Time Limit...

  2. 75 FR 70908 - Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 22107 (April 27, 2010). The period of review (``POR'') is September 5... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic... of the antidumping duty order on circular welded austenitic stainless pressure pipe from the...

  3. Descargo de responsabilidad de Smokefree Espa帽ol | Smokefree Espa帽ol

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan espa帽ol y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la Divisi贸n de Investigaci贸n para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del C谩ncer.

  4. 76 FR 77485 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... FR 47909 (August 12, 2003). \\2\\ See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 76 FR 17837 (March 31, 2011). \\3\\ See... Results of the New Shipper Review, 76 FR 59658 (September 27, 2011). Period of Review The POR is August...

  5. Preguntas y respuestas acerca del Estudio del

    Cancer.gov

    El Estudio del Tamoxifeno y Raloxifeno (STAR, por sus siglas en ingls) es un estudio clnico (un estudio de investigacin conducido con voluntarios) diseado para ver c贸mo el medicamento raloxifeno (Evista) se compara con el medicamento tamoxifeno (Nolvadex)

  6. 78 FR 79665 - Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... Administrative Review; 2011-2012, 78 FR 34340 (June 7, 2013) (Preliminary Results). \\2\\ The Department initiated... during the POR. See Preliminary Results, 78 FR at 34340 n. 4. Furthermore, as we stated in the draft cash... Results, 78 FR at 34341. The Department has conducted this administrative review in accordance...

  7. El espectro de KX TrA entre 1990 y 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandi, E.; Garc韆, L.; Ferrer, O.; Barb, R.

    La estrella simbi髏ica KX TrA = He2-177 fue observada espectrosc髉icamente con el telescopio de 2.15 m del CASLEO entre los a駉s 1990 y 1996, utiliz醤dose resoluciones intermedia y alta. El rango espectral estudiado se extiende desde 4400 臿 7200 . La historia fotom閠rica de KX TrA presenta explosiones del mismo tipo que las mostradas por la nova lenta RR Tel y su espectro de alta excitaci髇, muy rico en l韓eas de emisi髇, es tambi閚 similar al de RR Tel. Por lo tanto, es importante analizar la evoluci髇 espectral de KX TrA en el tiempo, prestando especial atenci髇 a los posibles cambios en los niveles de excitaci髇. Las emisiones presentes corresponden a transiciones permitidas y prohibidas con un amplio rango de ionizaci髇, incluy閚dose las anchas e intensas l韓eas originadas por scattering Raman de O VI en ?? 6825 y 7082 . En el per韔do cubierto por nuestras observaciones se estudia la variaci髇 de la intensidad relativa de las emisiones, el comportamiento de las velocidades radiales y los cambios de perfiles de las l韓eas, especialmente en H? y H?. El cont韓uo de la regi髇 roja observada indica un tipo espectral no m醩 tard韔 que M3 para la componente gigante fr韆 del sistema.

  8. 76 FR 36519 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose from the Netherlands; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Finland, Mexico, the Netherlands, and Sweden, 70 FR 39734 (July 11, 2005) (CMC Order). On July 1, 2010... Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 38074 (July 1, 2010). Pursuant... from Akzo Nobel Functional Chemicals B.V. (ANFC) and CP Kelco B.V. (CP Kelco) during the POR. On...

  9. La espiritualidad en el tratamiento del c谩ncer (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de la influencia que tiene la espiritualidad y la religi贸n en las personas que tienen c谩ncer. Se discuten varios m茅todos sobre manejo e intervenci贸n.

  10. Neighbors United for Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westhoff, Wayne W.; Corvin, Jaime; Virella, Irmarie

    2009-01-01

    Modeled upon the ecclesiastic community group concept of Latin America to unite and strengthen the bond between the Church and neighborhoods, a community-based organization created Vecinos Unidos por la Salud (Neighbors United for Health) to bring health messages into urban Latino neighborhoods. The model is based on five tenants, and incorporates鈥

  11. The effects of telemedicine on racial and ethnic disparities in access to acute stroke care.

    PubMed

    Lyerly, Michael J; Wu, Tzu-Ching; Mullen, Michael T; Albright, Karen C; Wolff, Catherine; Boehme, Amelia K; Branas, Charles C; Grotta, James C; Savitz, Sean I; Carr, Brendan G

    2016-03-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities have been previously reported in acute stroke care. We sought to determine the effect of telemedicine (TM) on access to acute stroke care for racial and ethnic minorities in the state of Texas. Data were collected from the US Census Bureau, The Joint Commission and the American Hospital Association. Access for racial and ethnic minorities was determined by summing the population that could reach a primary stroke centre (PSC) or telemedicine spoke within specified time intervals using validated models. TM extended access to stroke expertise by 1.5 million residents. The odds of providing 60-minute access via TM were similar in Blacks and Whites (prevalence odds ratios (POR) 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000), even after adjustment for urbanization (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.001). The odds of providing access via TM were also similar for Hispanics and non-Hispanics (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000), even after adjustment for urbanization (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000). We found that telemedicine increased access to acute stroke care for 1.5 million Texans. While racial and ethnic disparities exist in other components of stroke care, we did not find evidence of disparities in access to the acute stroke expertise afforded by telemedicine. PMID:26116854

  12. 76 FR 24857 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Intent To Rescind New Shipper Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews, 75 FR 38986 (July 7, 2010... of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews, 75 FR 74002 (November 30, 2010). On February 11, 2011, the... flexibility to extend the POR. See Antidumping Duties; Countervailing Duties; Final Rule, 62 FR 27296,...

  13. La ingenier铆a de la Estaci贸n Espacial Internacional - Duration: 30 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    La Estaci贸n Espacial Internacional es del tama帽o de un campo de f煤tbol americano y pesa 827.794 libras. Entonces, 驴c贸mo hicimos para colocar algo tan grande en el espacio? Pieza por pieza. Quince p...

  14. A study on exposure to cyanide among a community living near a gold mine in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Noor Artika; Sahani, Mazrura; Hod, Rozita; Yahya, Noral' Asyikin

    2015-01-01

    Cyanidation in gold extraction has detrimental impacts on the ecosystem and the population in surrounding areas. The research described in this article aimed to assess the health effects of environmental exposure to cyanide in a community near a gold mining area in Malaysia. A total of 255 members of the exposed community and 117 members of the control community answered questionnaires on their exposure to a gold mine and health outcomes. Urine samples were collected for biomarker assessment (i.e., urinary thiocyanate). The authors found that the mean level of urinary thiocyanate was significantly higher among the exposed community (0.30 0.26 mg/dL) than the control community (0.24 0.23 mg/dL) (p = .0021). The exposed community had a significantly higher prevalence of headaches (prevalence odds ratio [pOR] = 2.6, p = .001), dizziness (pOR = 3.7, p < .001), skin irritation (pOR = 2.1, p = .040), and eye irritation (pOR = 5.1, p = .004). No association occurred between dietary exposure and urinary biomarkers. Smokers living near a gold mine had a higher urinary thiocyanate level (0.56 mg/dL) than smokers in the control community (0.49 mg/dL). PMID:25619035

  15. Tensi贸n postraum谩tica relacionada con el c谩ncer (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de la tensi贸n postraum谩tica y s铆ntomas relacionados en los pacientes con c谩ncer, sobrevivientes del c谩ncer y miembros de la familia. Se discuten la evaluaci贸n y tratamiento de estos s铆ntomas.

  16. Tensi贸n postraum谩tica relacionada con el c谩ncer (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de la tensi贸n postraum谩tica y los s铆ntomas relacionados en los pacientes con c谩ncer, sobrevivientes del c谩ncer y miembros de la familia. Se discuten la evaluaci贸n y el tratamiento de estos s铆ntomas.

  17. Estudio muestra reducci贸n de mortalidad en hombres con c谩ncer de pr贸stata de grado intermedio

    Cancer.gov

    Terapia hormonal por corto tiempo administrada en combinaci贸n con radioterapia a hombres con c谩ncer de pr贸stata en estadio inicial aument贸 sus posibilidades de vivir m谩s en comparaci贸n con tratamiento de radioterapia sola, seg煤n un estudio cl铆nico patroci

  18. 75 FR 76700 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ...On August 13, 2010, the Department of Commerce (the Department) published the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip in coils (SSSSC) from Taiwan. This review covers twenty producers/ exporters of the subject merchandise to the United States. The period of review (POR) is July 1, 2008, through June 30, 2009. Based on......

  19. The Migrant Intellectual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noriega, Chon A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides some background of Efrain Gutierrez's "story" and its relationship to film historiography. Gutierrez is a self-taught filmmaker from San Antonio, Texas, who wrote, directed, starred in, and distributed the first three U.S. feature films produced by a Chicano: "Please, Don't Bury Me Alive!/Por favor, no me鈥

  20. Molecular and biochemical characterization of bifunctional pyruvate decarboxylases and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductases from Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga hypogea.

    PubMed

    Eram, Mohammad S; Wong, Alton; Oduaran, Erica; Ma, Kesen

    2015-12-01

    Hyperthermophilic bacteria Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga hypogea produce ethanol as a metabolic end product, which is resulted from acetaldehyde reduction catalysed by an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). However, the enzyme that is involved in the production of acetaldehyde from pyruvate is not well characterized. An oxygen sensitive and coenzyme A-dependent pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) activity was found to be present in cell free extracts of T. maritima and T. hypogea. Both enzymes were purified and found to have pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR) activity, indicating their bifunctionality. Both PDC and POR activities from each of the purified enzymes were characterized in regards to their optimal assay conditions including pH dependency, oxygen sensitivity, thermal stability, temperature dependency and kinetic parameters. The close relatedness of the PORs that was shown by sequence analysis could be an indication of the presence of such bifunctionality in other hyperthermophilic bacteria. This is the first report of a bifunctional PDC/POR enzyme in hyperthermophilic bacteria. The PDC and the previously reported ADHs are most likely the key enzymes catalysing the production of ethanol from pyruvate in bacterial hyperthermophiles. PMID:26032540

  1. 75 FR 49893 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ...In response to requests from interested parties, the Department of Commerce (``the Department'') is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The period of review (``POR'') is November 6, 2008, through October 31, 2009. This administrative review covers two......

  2. Comunicaci贸n en la atenci贸n del c谩ncer (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos sobre la comunicaci贸n con el paciente de c谩ncer y su familia, incluso los aspectos distintivos de la comunicaci贸n con pacientes de c谩ncer, los factores que afectan la comunicaci贸n y el entrenamiento de las aptitudes para la comunicaci贸n.

  3. Preguntas para hacerle al doctor acerca del c谩ncer

    Cancer.gov

    Serie de preguntas, organizadas por tema, que los pacientes con c谩ncer pueden hacer al m茅dico o a otros miembros de su equipo de atenci贸n m茅dica para conocer m谩s acerca de su tipo de c谩ncer y lo que pueden esperar.

  4. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  5. Do you really know where this SNP goes?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The release of build 10.2 of the swine genome was a marked improvement over previous builds and has proven extremely useful. However, as most know, there are regions of the genome that this particular build does not accurately represent. For instance, nearly 25% of the 62,162 SNP on the Illumina Por...

  6. Aflatoxinas

    Cancer.gov

    Las aflatoxinas son un tipo de toxinas producidas por ciertos hongos en cultivos agr铆colas como el ma铆z, los cacahuates o el man铆, la semilla de algod贸n y los frutos secos (de c谩scara dura como las nueces).

  7. 77 FR 12801 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results, Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ...The Department of Commerce (``Department'') is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), covering the period of review (``POR'') of February 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. As discussed below, the Department preliminarily determines that the respondents in this review did......

  8. 76 FR 2883 - Folding Metal Tables and Chairs From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of 2007-2008...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ...The Department of Commerce (``Department'') published its preliminary results of the 2007-2008 deferred and 2008-2009 administrative reviews of the antidumping duty order on folding metal tables and chairs (``FMTCs'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') on July 14, 2010.\\1\\ The periods of review (``POR'') are June 1, 2007, through May 31, 2008, for the deferred administrative review,......

  9. The Migrant Intellectual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noriega, Chon A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides some background of Efrain Gutierrez's "story" and its relationship to film historiography. Gutierrez is a self-taught filmmaker from San Antonio, Texas, who wrote, directed, starred in, and distributed the first three U.S. feature films produced by a Chicano: "Please, Don't Bury Me Alive!/Por favor, no me

  10. 78 FR 65272 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand, 51 FR 8341 (March 11, 1986). Notifications This notice serves... of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012, 78 FR 21105 (April 9, 2013) (Preliminary... during the POR.\\5\\ \\5\\ See Preliminary Results, 78 FR at 21105. Analysis of Comments Received All...

  11. 76 FR 6603 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... Review, 72 FR 52065 (Sept. 12, 2007). The period of review (POR) is August 4, 2004, through January 31... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Thailand. See Certain Frozen...

  12. Primer registro para Peru del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae: Cicadellini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    En este articulo se reporta por primera vez para el Peru una especies del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977, de material procedente del Departamento de Tumbes. El genero ha sido reportada anteriormente de Ecuador, como unico registro para Sudamerica, y America Central. El unico especimen hembra encontra...

  13. 76 FR 48802 - Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Notice of Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Determination To Revoke in Part, 73 FR 66218 (Nov. 7, 2008). The period of review (POR) is April 1, 2006... Countervailing Duty Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003). This clarification... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Notice of Amended...

  14. 75 FR 7562 - Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ..., Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review in Part, and Determination To Revoke in Part, 70 FR... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey: Notice of Court Decision... certain steel concrete reinforcing bars (rebar) from Turkey covering the period of review (POR) of April...

  15. 78 FR 21107 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey: Preliminary Results... carbon steel pipes and tubes from Turkey (pipes and tubes from Turkey) for the period of review (POR) of..., of any wall thickness (pipe and tube) from Turkey. These products are currently provided for...

  16. 77 FR 1948 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on December 14, 2011, a proposed Consent Decree in United States of America v. International Hospitality Associates, S. en C. por A. (SE.), et al., Civil Action No....

  17. Aquarius: Tour de la salinidad superficial del mar - Duration: 3 minutes, 18 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Recorrido narrado de la informaci脙鲁n sobre la salinidad superficial de los oc脙漏anos recogida por el instrumento Aquarius de la NASA durante su primer a脙卤o de funcionamiento. Algunas de las caracte...

  18. Peer Observation Reports and Student Evaluations of Teaching: Who Are the Experts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, David; Gross, Barbara L.; Vigneron, Franck

    2009-01-01

    This study is an exploratory inquiry into the perceptions of university faculty regarding two forms of teaching evaluations, student evaluations of teaching (SET), and peer observation reports (POR). Which, if either, better assesses the quality of instruction? Who are the real experts in judging teaching quality: peers who are experts in their鈥

  19. Determinaci髇 de par醡etros Post-Newtonianos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, R. B.; Vucetich, H.

    Icaro es un asteroide que, debido a su gran excentricidad, (0.83), puede ser utilizado para verificar la relatividad general. Tiene acercamientos peri骴icos a la Tierra cada 18 a駉s aproximadamente. Los ocurridos en 1949 y 1968 permitieron realizar una primera determinaci髇 de la variaci髇 de su perihelio por efectos relativistas. En 1987 tuvo un nuevo acercamiento que permitir mejorar los resultados existentes.

  20. 78 FR 36524 - Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ...On December 10, 2012, the Department of Commerce (the Department) published the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on diamond sawblades and parts thereof (diamond sawblades) from the Republic of Korea (Korea). The period of review (POR) is November 1, 2010, through October 23, 2011. For the final results, we continue to find that certain companies......

  1. Significado de los cambios en los senos: Gu韆 para la salud de la mujer

    Cancer.gov

    Informaci髇 sobre los cambios y padecimientos espec韋icos del seno, y sobre c髆o se detectan, diagnostican y tratan estos cambios. Explica que todos los cambios en el seno deben ser revisados por un m閐ico, a pesar de que la mayor韆 de estos cambios no son c醤cer.

  2. C髆o interpretar los n鷐eros: lo que verdaderamente nos dicen las estad韘ticas de los ex醡enes de detecci髇 del c醤cer

    Cancer.gov

    Los estudios sobre los ex醡enes de detecci髇 del c醤cer han mostrado que la realizaci髇 de una mayor cantidad de ex醡enes no se traduce necesariamente en un menor n鷐ero de muertes por c醤cer. Este art韈ulo explica c髆o interpretar las estad韘ticas utilizadas para describir los resultados de los ex醡enes de detecci髇.

  3. 75 FR 53953 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 48204 (August 9, 2004). On... Review, 75 FR 23673 (May 4, 2010), and Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time...: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 34122, 34123 (June 18, 2004). The POR is August 1,...

  4. BIOPOLYMERS FROM POLYLACTIC ACID AND MILK PROTEINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a commercially available biodegradable polymer derived from lactic acid and is used in many nonfood products as an alternative to petrochemical-derived polymers. However, its physical properties limit its use in many applications. Using dairy proteins to substitute for por...

  5. Good Nutrition Promotes Health: Guide for Parent Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    The purpose of this manual is to guide users of the nutrition education project produced by Padres Hispanos en Accion por Una Sana Generacion (Hispanic Parents in Action for a Healthy Generation). The project provides nutrition education materials to trainers who provide nutrition counseling to parents of Head Start children. The project has two鈥

  6. C谩nceres poco comunes en la ni帽ez (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca del tratamiento de los c谩nceres poco comunes en la ni帽ez como los c谩nceres de la cabeza y el cuello, el t贸rax, el abdomen, el aparato reproductor, la piel y otros.

  7. Estudio del NCI revela que la obesidad extrema puede acortar la esperanza de vida hasta en 14 a帽os

    Cancer.gov

    Los adultos con obesidad extrema tienen mayor riesgo de morir a edad m谩s joven por c谩ncer y muchas otras causas entre ellas, enfermedades card铆acas, accidentes cerebrovasculares, diabetes y enfermedades del h铆gado y los ri帽ones, seg煤n estudio del NCI.

  8. Resultados de estudio para c谩ncer de pulm贸n indica

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del C谩ncer (NCI) da a conocer hoy resultados iniciales de un estudio de gran envergadura sobre m茅todos de detecci贸n para reducir el n煤mero de muertes por c谩ncer de pulm贸n al detectar c谩nceres en estadios relativamente iniciales.

  9. Estudio de NIH indica que la actividad f铆sica en tiempo libre alarga la vida tanto como 4,5 a帽os

    Cancer.gov

    La actividad f铆sica en tiempo libre est谩 asociada con una expectativa de vida m谩s larga, aun en un grado de actividad relativamente bajo e independientemente del peso corporal, de acuerdo con un estudio llevado a cabo por un equipo de investigadores del I

  10. Estudio de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud indica que quienes toman caf茅 tienen un riesgo meno

    Cancer.gov

    Los adultos mayores que tomaron caf茅, con o sin cafe铆na, tuvieron un riesgo menor de muerte en general que quienes no tomaron caf茅, seg煤n un estudio llevado a cabo por investigadores del Instituto Nacional del C谩ncer (NCI), parte de los Institutos Naciona

  11. To the Barricades: The Department Head Role in Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannay, Lynne M.; Erb, Cathy Smeltzer

    This paper examines the role of individuals in positions of responsibility (POR) during the implementation of two different curriculum innovations: curriculum integration and performance-based assessment. In addition to addressing the lack of knowledge of department heads' role in implementing innovations, the report explores the effectiveness of鈥

  12. Peer Observation Reports and Student Evaluations of Teaching: Who Are the Experts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, David; Gross, Barbara L.; Vigneron, Franck

    2009-01-01

    This study is an exploratory inquiry into the perceptions of university faculty regarding two forms of teaching evaluations, student evaluations of teaching (SET), and peer observation reports (POR). Which, if either, better assesses the quality of instruction? Who are the real experts in judging teaching quality: peers who are experts in their

  13. Lifelines-Pancreatic-Cancer-SPA-2013

    Cancer.gov

    LOS HISPANOS Y EL C罭CER DE P罭CREAS: COSAS PARA SABER por el Instituto Nacional del C醤cer Una de las causas principales de muerte relacionadas con el c醤cer en los hispanos o latinos de los Estados Unidos es una enfermedad poco com鷑 pero con frecuencia

  14. Prevenci贸n del c谩ncer de est贸mago (g谩strico) (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de informaci贸n revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar c谩ncer de est贸mago y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a la prevenci贸n de esta enfermedad.

  15. Prevenci贸n del c谩ncer de ovario (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de informaci贸n revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar c谩ncer de ovario, de trompas de Falopio y primario de peritoneo y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a prevenir los mismos.

  16. Ex谩menes de detecci贸n del c谩ncer de pr贸stata (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de los factores que pueden influir en el desarrollo del c谩ncer de pr贸stata y sobre la investigaci贸n dirigida a la prevenci贸n de esta enfermedad.

  17. The Development of Grammatical Competence through Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiori, Melissa L.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the findings of a study which set out to examine the role that consciousness raising (CR) plays in grammatical development in synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC). Students participated in weekly SCMC sessions. Spanish L2 forms "por/para" and "ser/estar" were chosen, and the data from two groups--form-and-meaning鈥

  18. An Analysis of Interlanguage Development over Time: Part II, "ser" and "estar."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntermann, Gail

    1992-01-01

    Follow up to a previous study of the use of "por" and "para," this study analyzes "ser,""estar," and "haber" for lexical selection in relation to their functions and also for errors in tense, mode, aspect, agreement, and invented forms and uses of copula in simplified or reduced utterances. Data were from 20 oral examinations of Peace Corps鈥

  19. Prurito (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca del prurito (picaz贸n de la piel) como complicaci贸n a causa del c谩ncer y su tratamiento. Se discuten los enfoques del manejo y tratamiento del prurito.

  20. Cuidados m茅dicos de apoyo en ni帽os (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de la peculiaridad de los asuntos que surgen durante y despu茅s del tratamiento en los ni帽os con c谩ncer, y como sobrevivientes adultos de c谩ncer.

  1. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of selenomethionine-labelled progesterone 5尾-reductase from Digitalis lanata Ehrh

    SciTech Connect

    Egerer-Sieber, Claudia; Herl, Vanessa; M眉ller-Uri, Frieder; Kreis, Wolfgang; Muller, Yves A.

    2006-03-01

    Progesterone 5尾-reductase is the first stereospecific enzyme in the pathway for the synthesis of cardenolides. To elucidate the structural mechanism of this reaction, we crystallized the selenomethionine-labelled enzyme from D. lanata and report the preliminary analysis of a MAD data set collected from these crystals. Progesterone 5尾-reductase (5尾-POR) catalyzes the reduction of progesterone to 5尾-pregnane-3,20-dione and is the first stereospecific enzyme in the putative biosynthetic pathway of Digitalis cardenolides. Selenomethionine-derivatized 5尾-POR from D. lanata was successfully overproduced and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 71.73, c = 186.64 脜. A MAD data set collected at 2.7 脜 resolution allowed the identification of six out of eight possible Se-atom positions. A first inspection of the MAD-phased electron-density map shows that 5尾-POR is a Rossmann-type reductase and the quality of the map is such that it is anticipated that a complete atomic model of 5尾-POR will readily be built.

  2. Fumar relacionado con la mitad de c谩nceres de vejiga en mujeres

    Cancer.gov

    Los fumadores actuales de cigarrillos tienen un mayor riesgo de padecer c谩ncer de vejiga que lo que se inform贸 anteriormente, y ahora el riesgo de las mujeres es comparable al riesgo de los hombres, de acuerdo a un estudio llevado a cabo por cient铆ficos d

  3. 78 FR 15696 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ...In response to requests from interested parties, the Department of Commerce (``Department'') is conducting the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), covering the period of review (``POR'') from February 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012. As discussed below, the Department preliminarily......

  4. Delirio (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicaci贸n a causa del c谩ncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten los enfoques de los cuidados m茅dicos de apoyo, asi como farmacol贸gicos para el manejo del delirio.

  5. 75 FR 14574 - Lightweight Thermal Paper From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of the 2008-2009...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... FR 56573 (November 2, 2009). The period of review (``POR'') is November 20, 2008, through October 31..., 74 FR 68229 (December 23, 2009). Rescission of Administrative Review Pursuant to 19 CFR 351.213(d)(1... International Trade Administration Lightweight Thermal Paper From the People's Republic of China: Rescission...

  6. Observaci髇 solar desde el espacio, resultados recientes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. E.

    Presentaremos un resumen de los resultados m醩 recientes sobre la f韘ica del sol, obtenidos por medio del an醠isis de datos de sat閘ites artificiales como el Yohkoh, SOHO y COMPTON/GRO. En particular, nos referiremos a la acci髇 y din醡ica de los campos magn閠icos en la generaci髇 de fen髆enos activos y el calentamiento coronal.

  7. Accesibilidad | Smokefree Espa帽ol

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan espa帽ol y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la Divisi贸n de Investigaci贸n para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del C谩ncer.

  8. Ver Archivos | Smokefree Espa帽ol

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan espa帽ol y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la Divisi贸n de Investigaci贸n para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del C谩ncer.

  9. 78 FR 48415 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ...The Department of Commerce (``the Department'') is amending the final results of a new shipper review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') to correct a ministerial error.\\1\\ The period of review (``POR'') is August 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012.......

  10. Cold Water Fish Gelatin Films: Effects of Cross-linking on Thermal, Mechanical, Barrier, and Biodegradation Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gelatin was extracted from Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) and Alaska pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) skins and cast into films. The fish gelatin films鈥 tensile, thermal, water vapor permeability, oxygen permeability, and biodegradation properties were compared to those of bovine and por...

  11. OLFACTORY DISCRIMINATION OF SEX PHEROMONE STEREOISOMERS: CHIRALITY RECOGNITION BY PINK HIBISCUS MEALYBUG MALES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our previous field studies suggested that the two chiral centers that existed in sex pheromone of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, could elicit different male attractive responses. The chiral center in the acidic moiety of the ester seemed to be more critical than the alcoholic por...

  12. Cometas - Duration: 30 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    驴Sab铆as que los cometas que vemos por el cielo nocturno pueden haber tra铆do hace miles de millones de a帽os, los elementos b谩sicos para la vida a nuestro planeta? 脷nete a la NASA para aprender m谩s a...

  13. 75 FR 34100 - Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ...In response to timely requests, the Department of Commerce (the Department) is conducting an administrative review and a new- shipper review of the antidumping duty order on freshwater crawfish tail meat from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The period of review (POR) is September 1, 2008, through August 31, 2009. With respect to the administrative review, we have preliminarily determined......

  14. Complicaciones gastrointestinales (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca del estre帽imiento, la retenci贸n fecal, la obstrucci贸n intestinal y la diarrea como complicaciones del c谩ncer o su tratamiento. Se discute el manejo de estos problemas.

  15. 76 FR 41452 - Certain Tissue Paper Products From the People's Republic of China; Notice of Rescission of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) is rescinding the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain tissue paper products from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the period of review (POR) of March 1, 2010, to February 28, 2011, with respect to Max Fortune Industrial Limited (Max Fortune Industrial), Max Fortune (FZ) Paper Products Co., Ltd. (formerly known as......

  16. 75 FR 51015 - Sorbitol From France: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ..., Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 16426 (April 1.... See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 75 FR 29976 (May 28... France, 75 FR 42380 (July 21, 2010). Consequently, the POR for the administrative review became April...

  17. A Road Map for Empowering Undergraduates to Practice Service Leadership through Service-Learning in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Robin Stanley; Chan, Maureen Yin Lee; Ma, Carol Hok Ka; Chan, Carman Ka Man

    2015-01-01

    We present a road map for providing course-embedded service-learning team projects as opportunities for undergraduates to practice as service leaders in Asia and beyond. Basic foundations are that projects address authentic problems or needs, partner organization representatives (PORs) indicate availability for ongoing consultation, students鈥

  18. 77 FR 73424 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Giang Fisheries Import & Export Joint Stock Company (``Agifish''). The period of review (``POR'') is... Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR 47909 (August 12, 2003). DATES: Effective Date... Requests for Revocation, 76 FR 61076 (October 3, 2011). \\3\\ See Agifish's submission dated January 3,...

  19. 77 FR 14495 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... To Rescind, in Part, 76 FR 62356 (October 7, 2011) (``Preliminary Results''). We invited interested... United States during the POR. See Preliminary Results, 76 FR at 62358. The Department did not receive any... Republic of China, 56 FR 20588 (May 6, 1991), as amplified by Notice of Final Determination of Sales...

  20. 78 FR 4126 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 77 FR 55808 (September 11, 2012). ] Methodology The... Revocation in Part, and Deferral of Administrative Review, 77 FR 19179, 19182 (March 30, 2012). Cash Deposit... Yinfeng Rare Fungus Corporation Ltd. (Yinfeng) for the period of review (POR) February 1, 2011,...

  1. 78 FR 35245 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET film... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic... review (``POR'') is November 1, 2010, through October 31, 2011. \\1\\ See Polyethylene Terephthalate...

  2. Host preference between saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and native non-target Frankenia spp. within the Diorhabda elongata species complex (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since its release in 2001 for the biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp., Tamaricaceae), the leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata (Brull茅) from China, has become successfully established in many locations in the western United States. However, it failed to establish in the southern and western por...

  3. C谩ncer que regresa

    Cancer.gov

    El c谩ncer puede regresar cuando el tratamiento no elimina o destruye por completo todas las c茅lulas cancerosas. Aprenda acerca de los diferentes tipos de recurrencia -recidiva- y c贸mo se vuelve a asignar un estadio al c谩ncer y se da tratamiento.

  4. Cat Scratch Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Allergy Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Cat Scratch Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Cat Scratch Disease Print A A A Text Size ... Doctor en espa駉l Enfermedad por ara馻zo de gato Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection that a ...

  5. Six-coordinate nitro complexes of iron(III) porphyrins with trans S-donor ligands. Oxo-transfer reactivity in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Hovhannisyan, Astghik A; Iretskii, Alexei V; Ford, Peter C

    2009-12-01

    Spectroscopic studies demonstrate that the 5-coordinate O-nitrito complexes Fe(Por)(eta(1)-ONO) (Por--meso-tetraphenyl- or meso-tetra-p-tolyl-porphyrinato dianions) react with the thioethers (R(2)S) dimethylsulfide and tetrahydrothiophene to give the 6-coordinate N-nitrito complexes Fe(Por)(R(2)S)(NO(2)). These reactions were conducted in low-temperature porous layered solids formed in a cryostat; however, with excess R(2)S in the atmosphere, the same species are moderately stable at room temperature. Six-coordinate O-nitrito isomers were not observed with the R(2)S proximal ligands, even though DFT calculations for the Fe(P)(DMS)(eta(1)-ONO) and Fe(P)(DMS)(NO(2)) models (P = porphinato dianion, DMS = dimethyl sulfide) show the latter to be only modestly lower energy (approximately 8 kJ/mol) than the former. Leaving this system at room temperature in the presence of excess R(2)S leads eventually to the appearance in the FTIR spectra of the nu(NO) band characteristic of the ferrous nitrosyl Fe(Por)(NO). Concomitantly, the mass spectrum of the gas phase demonstrated the molecular peaks of the sulfoxides R(2)SO, indicating oxygen atom transfer reactivity for the ferric porphryinato complexes of nitrite. PMID:19886653

  6. El dolor y el c谩ncer (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca del dolor como una complicaci贸n a causa del c谩ncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten enfoques sobre el manejo y tratamiento del dolor relacionado con el c谩ncer.

  7. Los LGBT y fumar | Smokefree Espa帽ol

    Cancer.gov

    En Estados Unidos, las personas lesbianas, gays, bisexuales y transexuales (LGBT) tienen el doble de probabilidades de empezar a fumar que los heterosexuales. Sepa por qu茅 los miembros de la comunidad LGBT fuman y aprenda estrategias para dejar de fumar definitivamente.

  8. A Road Map for Empowering Undergraduates to Practice Service Leadership through Service-Learning in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Robin Stanley; Chan, Maureen Yin Lee; Ma, Carol Hok Ka; Chan, Carman Ka Man

    2015-01-01

    We present a road map for providing course-embedded service-learning team projects as opportunities for undergraduates to practice as service leaders in Asia and beyond. Basic foundations are that projects address authentic problems or needs, partner organization representatives (PORs) indicate availability for ongoing consultation, students

  9. Complicaciones orales de la quimioterapia y la radioterapia (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de las complicaciones orales, como la mucositis y la disfunci贸n de la gl谩ndula salival, que se presentan en pacientes de c谩ncer tratados con quimioterapia y radioterapia a la cabeza y el cuello.

  10. Adaptaci贸n al c谩ncer: ansiedad y sufrimiento (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de las dif铆ciles respuestas emocionales que se presentan en muchos de los pacientes con c谩ncer. Este sumario se enfoca en asuntos de la adaptaci贸n normal, alteraci贸n psicosocial y trastornos de adaptaci贸n.

  11. Soluble Synthetic Analogs of Malaria Pigment: Structure of Mesohematin Anhydride [FeIII(MP-IX)]2 and Solution Interaction with Chloroquine

    SciTech Connect

    D Bohle; E Dodd; A Kosar; L Sharma; P Stephens; L Suarez; D Tazoo

    2011-12-31

    Changing the vinyl groups of hematin anhydride to either ethyl or hydrogen groups results in increased solubility (Por=porphyrin). Determination of the weak binding constants of the antimalarial drug chloroquine to dimers of these hematin anhydride analogues suggests that solution-phase heme/drug interactions alone are unlikely to be the origin of the action of the drug.

  12. 78 FR 34986 - Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ...The Department of Commerce (``the Department'') is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on aluminum extrusions from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ The period of review (``POR'') is November 12, 2010, through April 30, 2012. The review covers two exporters of subject merchandise who are mandatory respondents: Kromet International, Inc. (``Kromet'');......

  13. 78 FR 9368 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ...The Department of Commerce (``the Department'') is conducting an administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain oil country tubular goods (``OCTG'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The period of review (``POR'') is January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2011. We preliminarily determine that Wuxi Seamless Oil Pipe Co., Ltd. (``Wuxi'') and Jiangsu Chengde Steel......

  14. 75 FR 63814 - Certain Lined Paper Products From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... POR. See Antidumping Duties; Countervailing Duties, 62 FR 27296, 27393 (May 19, 1997), and Oil Country... Rescission of Review, 70 FR 53161, 53162 (September 7, 2005), unchanged in Oil Country Tubular Goods from... Paper Products From the People's Republic of China, 71 FR 53079 (September 8, 2006); Final...

  15. 77 FR 2700 - Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... International Trade Administration Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Extension of... order on oil country tubular goods from the People's Republic of China covering 53 companies for the... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781 (June 28, 2011). The POR was corrected...

  16. 77 FR 24464 - Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... International Trade Administration Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Extension of... order on oil country tubular goods from the People's Republic of China covering 53 companies for the... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781 (June 28, 2011). The POR was corrected...

  17. 77 FR 13534 - Silicon Metal From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...-2011 POR.\\4\\ \\1\\ See Antidumping Duty Order: Silicon Metal from the People's Republic of China, 56 FR... Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 76 FR 31586 (June 1, 2011). \\3\\ See letter from... Reviews, 76 FR 45227 (July 28, 2011) (``Initiation Notice''). On August 2, 2011, the Department issued...

  18. Complicaciones gastrointestinales (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca del estre帽imiento, impacci贸n, obstrucci贸n intestinal y diarrea como complicaciones del c谩ncer o su tratamiento. Se discute el manejo de estos problemas.

  19. C谩nceres poco comunes en la ni帽ez (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca del tratamiento de los c谩nceres poco comunes en la ni帽ez como los c谩nceres de la cabeza y el cuello, el t贸rax, el abdomen, el aparato reproductor, la piel y otros.

  20. Ten Ways Hispanics and Latinos Can Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... la diabetes tipo 2 El Programa Nacional de Educaci贸n sobre la Diabetes (NDEP, por sus siglas en ... http://ndep.nih.gov. El Programa Nacional de Educaci贸n sobre la Diabetes (NDEP) del Departamento de Salud ...

  1. Untitled

    Cancer.gov

    Le cuesta trabajo no fumar por m醩 de algunas horas. Incluso si est cayendo una tormenta, si se le acabaran los cigarrillos, probablemente ir韆 a la tienda a comprar m醩. Cuando no ha fumado durante algunas horas, siente ansias de fumar.

  2. El nuevo panorama de la Din谩mica Gal谩ctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivovaroff, Michael James

    En general, la tendencia imperante en Din谩mica Gal谩ctica ha sido considerar que los movimientos estelares son b谩sicamente regulares y que el caos no tiene mayor relevancia en los sistemas estelares. Sin embargo, en el 煤ltimo lustro se vienen acumulando pruebas de la importancia del movimiento ca贸tico en ciertos sistemas estelares que existen en la naturaleza. Por una parte, sobre todo el grupo de David Merritt, lo ha mostrado en los casos de galaxias el铆pticas con concentraciones centrales de materia; por otra parte, en nuestro propio grupo, lo hemos mostrado para el caso de los sat茅lites gal谩cticos. Las consecuencias de estos hallazgos son tanto de tipo t茅cnico, por la necesidad de construir modelos que contengan 贸rbitas ca贸ticas, como astrof铆sico, por los efectos del caos sobre la estacionariedad y evoluci贸n de los sistemas estelares en los que se presenta.

  3. Fumar durante el tratamiento de c谩ncer (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de la influencia de seguir fumando sobre el tratamiento del c谩ncer y el riesgo de segundos c谩nceres. Se mencionan las intervenciones que estimulan dejar el h谩bito de fumar.

  4. Fumar durante el tratamiento de c谩ncer (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de la influencia de seguir fumando sobre el tratamiento del c谩ncer y el riesgo de segundos c谩nceres. Se mencionan las intervenciones que estimulan dejar el h谩bito de fumar.

  5. La espiritualidad en el tratamiento del c谩ncer (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de la influencia que tiene la espiritualidad y la religi贸n en las personas que tienen c谩ncer. Se discuten varios m茅todos sobre manejo e intervenci贸n.

  6. Monitoring and inhibition of Plk1: amphiphilic porphyrin conjugated Plk1 specific peptides for its imaging and anti-tumor function.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongguang; Chan, Chi-Fai; Chan, Wai-Lun; Lear, Sam; Cobb, Steven L; Mak, Nai-Ki; Lau, Terrence Chi-Kong; Lan, Rongfeng; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Wong, Ka-Leung

    2014-08-21

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is well-known for taking part in cell cycle progression and regulation. Using small molecules for Plk inhibition has been well documented in the literature. However, there are several intrinsic and intractable problems associated with this approach. For example monitoring small molecule Plk inhibitors as anti-tumor agents in vitro/in vivo is often ineffective, they can have poor cell internalization and be susceptible to enzymatic degradation. Herein, we report the synthesis of cell-permeable, water-soluble amphiphilic porphyrin Plk1 specific peptide bioconjugates, Por-P1 and Por-P2. In addition to resolving the aforementioned problems of the small molecule inhibitors Por-P2 manifests responsive emission enhancement upon binding with Plk1 in aqueous medium and in vitro, while potently triggering G2-M phase arrest and then apoptosis selectively in the cancer cells tested. In combination our findings make Por-P2 a promising candidate for the preparation of a new generation of smart chemotherapeutic targeting agents (imaging and inhibition) for Plk1 in particular cancer cell lines. PMID:24977405

  7. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de c醤cer: funciones y desaf韔s (PDQ)梀ersi髇 para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desaf韔s que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con c醤cer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones t韕icas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones 鷗iles para esas personas.

  8. Livestock air treatment using PVA-coated powdered activated carbon biofilter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) biofilters was studied using bench-scale biofilters and air from aerobically-treated swine manure. The PVA-coated powdered activated carbon particles showed excellent properties as a biofiltration medium: water holding capacity of 1.39 g H2O/g-dry PVA; wet por...

  9. 78 FR 20890 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... established in the Antidumping Duty Order: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan, 76 FR 13982 (March 15, 2011). These... International Trade Administration Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... the antidumping duty order on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from Taiwan. The period of review (POR)...

  10. Prurito (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca del prurito (picaz贸n de la piel) como complicaci贸n a causa del c谩ncer y su tratamiento. Se discuten los enfoques del manejo y tratamiento del prurito.

  11. Delirio (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicaci贸n del c谩ncer o su tratamiento. Se tratan enfoques de los cuidados m茅dicos de apoyo y los abordajes farmacol贸gicos para el manejo del delirio.

  12. N谩useas y v贸mitos (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de las n谩useas y los v贸mitos como complicaciones a causa del c谩ncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten enfoques sobre el manejo de las n谩useas y los v贸mitos.

  13. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del c谩ncer como la n谩usea y el v贸mito.

  14. N谩useas y v贸mitos (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de las n谩useas y los v贸mitos como complicaciones a causa del c谩ncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten enfoques sobre el manejo de las n谩useas y los v贸mitos.

  15. J贸venes con c谩ncer y supervivientes participan en estudio de oncofertilidad

    Cancer.gov

    Art铆culo sobre los esfuerzos que se realizan para conectar con pacientes j贸venes y lograr su participaci贸n en estudios cl铆nicos para evaluar y remediar la esterilidad causada por el c谩ncer y su tratamiento.

  16. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del c谩ncer como la n谩usea y el v贸mito.

  17. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT XRF TECHNOLOGIES FOR MEASURING TRACE ELEMENTS IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT OXFORD X-MTE 3000TX XRF ANALYZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Elvatech, Ltd. ElvaX (ElvaX) x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer distributed in the United States by Xcalibur XRF Services (Xcalibur), was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The field por...

  18. El equilibrio correcto: c贸mo ayudar a los supervivientes de c谩ncer a tener un peso saludable

    Cancer.gov

    Art铆culo sobre las intervenciones que buscan ayudar a los supervivientes a mantener un peso saludable para reducir la recidiva y la muerte por c谩ncer, y disminuir la probabilidad de padecer efectos tard铆os y cr贸nicos del tratamiento.

  19. Accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad y el riesgo de c谩ncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa acerca de los riesgos del c谩ncer asociados con accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad. Incluye informaci贸n para pacientes con c谩ncer que viven en una zona que puede haber sido afectada por un accidente en una planta nuclear.

  20. El dolor y el c谩ncer (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca del dolor como una complicaci贸n a causa del c谩ncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten enfoques sobre el manejo y tratamiento del dolor relacionado con el c谩ncer.

  1. Informe Anual a la Naci髇 sobre el Estado del C醤cer con una secci髇 especial sobre la prevalencia d

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Naci髇 sobre el Estado del C醤cer (1975 a 2010), mostr un descenso m醩 acelerado que en a駉s anteriores de los 韓dices de mortalidad por c醤cer de pulm髇. Tambi閚 contiene una secci髇 especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  2. Edades relativas de c鷐ulos globulares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller Bertolami, M.; Forte, J. C.

    El trabajo de Rossemberg et al (1999), estudia las edades relativas de c鷐ulos globulares gal醕ticos mediante el an醠isis de ciertos par醡etros morfol骻icos de los diagramas color-magnitud de dichos c鷐ulos. Este trabajo se centra en tres puntos: analizar la consistencia de los resultados obtenidos por Rossemberg et al (1999) al emplear observaciones en el sistema fotom閠rico de Washington, m醩 precisamente, las magnitudes C y T1 en lugar de las magnitudes V e I utilizadas por dichos autores. De la existencia de colores integrados, metalicidad y edad (relativa) para 21 de los c鷐ulos utilizados en dicho trabajo, se analiza la consistencia de estos resultados con las dependencias de color integrado como funci髇 de la edad y la metalicidad que se desprenden de los modelos te髍icos de luz integrada por Worthey (1994), Schulz (2002) y Lee et al (2002). Por 鷏timo se lleva a cabo una breve comparaci髇 de la morfolog韆 de los diagramas color-magnitud de los c鷐ulos globulares y de las isocronas utilizadas, a fin de intentar identificar algunas de las posibles causas de las diferencias observadas en los incisos anteriores.

  3. 78 FR 7395 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar (SSB) from India. The period of review (POR) is February 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012. This review covers one exporter/producer of the subject merchandise, Ambica Steels Limited (Ambica). We preliminarily find that subject merchandise has not been sold at......

  4. 77 FR 32517 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel plate in coils (steel plate) from Belgium covering the period of review (POR) May 1, 2010, through April 30, 2011. This review covers one producer/exporter of subject merchandise, Aperam Stainless Belgium N.V. (AS Belgium).\\1\\......

  5. Las propiedades de las estrellas extra馻s en el marco de una nueva ecuaci髇 de estado para la materia extra馻

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugones, G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Se estudian las propiedades generales de las estrellas constitu韉as por materia extra馻 (ME) en el marco de una nueva ecuaci髇 de estado (EOS) en la que consideramos la masa de los quarks como dependiente del n鷐ero medio de bariones por unidad de volumen. Se asume esta dependencia de forma que los quarks sean livianos (pesados) a densidades altas (bajas). En esta aproximaci髇, la EOS de la ME es similar a la predicha por el modelo de la Bolsa del MIT, pero es significativamente mas dura a bajas densidades. Esta propiedad modifica las propiedades de las estrellas extra馻s en forma notable. Encontramos que, con esta nueva EOS, los objetos pueden ser m醩 masivos que en el caso de la EOS de la bolsa del MIT y que, adem醩, pueden presentar mayores redshifts gravitatorios en hasta un 10%. En el caso de las oscilaciones radiales de estos objetos, calculamos la relaci髇 per韔do vs. redshift gravitacional y encontramos una expresi髇 anal韙ica simple para el caso de las oscilaciones de objetos de baja masa. Encontramos que, a鷑 con hip髏esis muy diferentes en cuanto a la ecuaci髇 de estado de la materia extra馻, las propiedades generales de estos objetos no se ve afectada en forma fundamental, y, por lo tanto, no deber韆n ser muy diferentes de las aqu expuestas.

  6. First report of sooty mold of longan (Dimocarpus longan L.) caused by Tripospermum porosporiferum Matsushima and T. variabile Matsushima in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sooty mold disease on longan (Dimocarpus longan L.) was found on trees growing close to bodies of water in Puerto Rico. On the basis of the morphological characters the fungi associated with this disease were identified as Tripospermum porosporiferum Matsushima and T. variabile Matsushima. T. por...

  7. Red Cooperativa de Tejido Humano del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    Bioespec铆menes de calidad son un recurso de investigaci贸n oncol贸gica. Uno de los programas de bioespec铆menes que han operado por m谩s tiempo es la Red Cooperativa de Tejido Humano, ara descubrimientos b谩sicos e investigaci贸n inicial de transferencia.

  8. Ciencia, Sociedad, Soluciones: Una Introduccion al USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2001-01-01

    El USGS sirve a la nacion de los Estados Unidos proveyendo informacion fidedigna para ? Describir y comprender la Tierra; ? Minimizar la perdida de vidas y propiedades por desastres naturales; ? Manejar los recursos hidrologicos, biologicos, energeticos y minerales; y ? Mejorar y proteger nuestra calidad de vida.

  9. Cat Scratch Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Cat Scratch Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Cat Scratch Disease Print A A A Text Size ... Doctor en espa帽ol Enfermedad por ara帽azo de gato Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection that a ...

  10. Neuropat铆a persistente aumenta el riesgo de ca铆das entre supervivientes de c谩ncer

    Cancer.gov

    Muchas mujeres supervivientes de c谩ncer tienen problemas de movilidad y de otras funciones f铆sicas como resultado de la neuropat铆a perif茅rica persistente causada por el tratamiento de quimioterapia, seg煤n un estudio nuevo.

  11. S铆ntesis: Resultados iniciales del Estudio Nacional de Ex

    Cancer.gov

    El 4 de noviembre de 2010, el Estudio Nacional de Ex谩menes de Pulm贸ndio a conocer resultados iniciales que indican que hubo 20% menos muertes por c谩ncer de pulm贸n entre los participantes del estudio evaluados con tomograf铆a computarizada espiral de baja d

  12. Dos dosis de vacuna contra los VPH pueden proteger

    Cancer.gov

    Dos dosis de Cervarix, la vacuna contra virus del papiloma humano (VPH), fueron tan efectivas como la pauta normal actual de tres dosis despu茅s de cuatro a帽os de seguimiento. El estudio de vacuna en Costa Rica, patrocinado por el NCI, fue dise帽ado para ev

  13. Atenci贸n m茅dica m谩s importante que la biolo

    Cancer.gov

    Los 铆ndices m谩s altos de incidencia y mortalidad por c谩ncer colorrectal que experimentan los afroamericanos pueden deberse principalmente a las diferencias en la utilizaci贸n de servicios m茅dicos y en menor proporci贸n a la biolog铆a, seg煤n un nuevo estudio

  14. Biocombustibles - Duration: 31 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    驴Qu茅 es verde, viscoso y lleno de energ铆a? Las algas, 隆por supuesto! Este biocombustible es apenas una de las muchas energ铆as renovables que estudia la NASA. Los biocombustibles podr铆an generar y a...

  15. DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLE-INDUCED EPITHELIAL TOXICITY IS MODULATED BY UV-IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways affecting nearly 20 million individuals in the U.S alone. Asthmatic symptoms can be exacerbated by environmental insults like exposure to particulate matter (PM). Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) account for a significant por...

  16. Biofortified Carrot Intake Enhances Liver Antioxidant Capacity and Vitamin A Status in Mongolian Gerbils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofortification efforts have increased concentrations of bioactive compounds in carrots. Vitamin A bioefficacy and antioxidant potential of four biofortified carrot varieties [purple/orange (PO), purple/orange/red (POR), orange/red (OR) and orange (O)] were measured in Mongolian gerbils (n = 73). ...

  17. "The Way to a Man's Heart." Journey and War Metaphors. Metaphorical Conceptualisations of the Western Romance Model in English and Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Maria Angeles Navarrete

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines two examples of the Western model of romance in English and Spanish discourse: the English metaphor, "the (best) way to a man's heart is through his stomach" (journey metaphor) and its Spanish counterpart, "Al hombre se le conquista por el estomago" (war metaphor). Both central metaphors entail a number of perceptual,

  18. Aspirina y el riesgo de c谩ncer

    Cancer.gov

    Los resultados de muchos estudios en las 煤ltimas dos d茅cadas permiten suponer que tomar aspirina con regularidad podr铆a disminuir en forma considerable el riesgo de padecer c谩ncer o morir por la enfermedad, pero hacen falta m谩s estudios de investigaci贸n.

  19. 78 FR 55057 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products from the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... Requests for Revocation in Part, 77 FR 59168 (September 26, 2012). \\2\\ The period of review (POR) ends on... of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders, 78 FR 16832 (March 19, 2013) (CORE Revocation). \\3...; Final Modification, 77 FR 8101 (February 14, 2012). \\14\\ See 19 CFR 351.106(c)(2). The...

  20. 75 FR 13490 - Certain Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products from the Republic of Korea: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ...: Notice of Preliminary Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 46110 (September 8... Time Limit for the Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 58945 (November 16... assessment''' regulation on May 6, 2003 (68 FR 23954). This clarification applies to POR entries of...

  1. 78 FR 56861 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the Fourth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ...The Department of Commerce (``Department'') is conducting the fourth administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain steel nails (``nails'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ The Department has preliminarily determined that sales have been made below normal value (``NV'') by the respondents examined during the period of review (``POR''), August 1, 2011, through......

  2. Nuevas oportunidades de inmunoterapia dirigida

    Cancer.gov

    Un equipo de investigadores del NCI ha informado que varios tipos de c谩nceres gastrointestinales tienen mutaciones espec铆ficas al tumor que pueden ser reconocidas por el sistema inmunitario, lo que ofrece una posible oportunidad terap茅utica para pacientes

  3. Bis axial ligation of simple imine and methyleneamido groups by ruthenium porphyrins

    PubMed

    Huang; Leung; Cheung; Che

    2000-08-18

    Bis(N-ethylideneethanamine)ruthenium(ii) porphyrins, [Ru11(Por)(N(Et)=CHMe)2] (Por=TTP, 4-Cl-TPP), were prepared by the reaction of dioxoruthenium(VI) porphyrins with triethylamine in approximately 85% yields. The reaction between dioxoruthenium(VI) porphyrins and benzophenone imine afforded bis(diphenylmethyleneamido)ruthenium(IV) porphyrins, [Ru(IV)(Por)(N=CPh2)2] (Por=TTP, 3,4,5-MeO-TPP), in approximately 65% yields. These new classes of metalloporphyrins were characterized by 1H NMR, UV/Vis, and IR spectroscopy as well as by mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. The X-ray crystallographic structures of [Ru(II)(TTP)(N(Et)=CHMe)2] and [Ru(IV)(3,4,5-MeO-TPP)(N=CPh2)2] revealed an axial Ru-N bond length of 2.115(6) A for the imine complex and 1.896(8) A for the methyleneamido complex. Each of the N=CPh2 axial groups in [Ru(IV)(3,4,5-MeO-TPP)(N=CPh2)2] adopts a linear coordination mode with a corresponding Ru-N-C angle of 175.9(9)degrees. Spectral and structural studies revealed essentially single bonding character for the bis(imine) complexes but a multiple bonding character for the bis(methyleneamido) complexes with respect to their axial Ru-N bonds. PMID:10993258

  4. Consistent pattern of elevated symptoms in air-conditioned office buildings: a reanalysis of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed Central

    Mendell, M J; Smith, A H

    1990-01-01

    Published studies of the relation between type of building ventilation system and work-related symptom prevalence in office workers have been contradictory. A reanalysis was performed of six studies meeting specific eligibility criteria, combining published data with unpublished information obtained from study authors. Five eligible studies were from the United Kingdom, and one was from Denmark. Standardized categories of building ventilation type were created to allow comparison of effects across studies. Within each study, prevalence odds ratios (PORs) were calculated for symptoms in each ventilation category relative to a baseline category of naturally ventilated buildings. Air-conditioned buildings were consistently associated with increased prevalence of work-related headache (POR = 1.3-3.1), lethargy (POR = 1.4-5.1), and upper respiratory/mucus membrane symptoms (POR = 1.3-4.8). Humidification was not a necessary factor for the higher symptom prevalence associated with air-conditioning. Mechanical ventilation without air-conditioning was not associated with higher symptom prevalence. The consistent associations found between type of building ventilation and reported symptom prevalence have potentially important public health and economic implications. PMID:2400029

  5. Etapa final de la vida (PDQ)梀ersi髇 para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci髇 revisada por expertos sobre lo que debe ser el cuidado desde los 鷏timos d韆s hasta las 鷏timas horas de vida, esto incluye los s韓tomas comunes, dilemas 閠icos que podr韆n surgir, y la funci髇 que desempe馻 el onc髄ogo en proveer cuidados al paciente y su familia durante este tiempo.

  6. 78 FR 55680 - Small Diameter Graphite Electrodes From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ...On March 8, 2013, the Department of Commerce (the Department) published the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on small diameter graphite electrodes from the People's Republic of China (the PRC). The period of review (POR) is February 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012. For the final results, we continue to find that certain companies covered by this......

  7. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de c谩ncer (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desaf铆os que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con c谩ncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones t铆picas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones 煤tiles para esas personas.

  8. La Ciencia y el Laboratorio Cient铆fico de Marte - Duration: 31 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    el robot m谩s nuevo fabricado para Marte es el Laboratorio Cient铆fico de Marte o Curiosity. 隆Se encuentra listo para deambular por el planeta rojo con el mayor y m谩s avanzado conjunto de instrumento...

  9. Adaptaci贸n al c谩ncer: ansiedad y sufrimiento (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de las dif铆ciles respuestas emocionales que se presentan en muchos de los pacientes con c谩ncer. Este sumario se enfoca en asuntos de la adaptaci贸n normal, alteraci贸n psicosocial y trastornos de adaptaci贸n.

  10. Cuidados m茅dicos de apoyo en ni帽os (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de la peculiaridad de los asuntos que surgen durante y despu茅s del tratamiento en los ni帽os con c谩ncer y como sobrevivientes adultos de c谩ncer.

  11. Neoplasias mielodispl谩sicas o mieloproliferativas (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca del tratamiento de las neoplasias mielodispl谩sicas o mieloproliferativas, incluso las leucemias mielomonoc铆ticas cr贸nicas o juveniles, y la LMC at铆pica.

  12. Neoplasias mielodispl谩sicas o mieloproliferativas (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca del tratamiento de las neoplasias mielodispl谩sicas o mieloproliferativas, incluso las leucemias mielomonoc铆tica cr贸nica o juvenil y la LMC at铆pica.

  13. La necesidad de cohetes m谩s veloces - Duration: 31 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Los cohetes utilizados por la NASA son excelentes, pero no nos pueden llevar muy lejos ni muy r谩pido a aquellos lugares a los que todav铆a no llegamos, como Marte, o m谩s lejos. Una soluci贸n posible ...

  14. Dairy maturation of milk used in the manufacture of Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese: effects on physico-chemical characteristics, rennet-coagulation aptitude and rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Malacarne, Massimo; Summer, Andrea; Formaggioni, Paolo; Franceschi, Piero; Sandri, Sandro; Pecorari, Mauro; Vecchia, Paola; Mariani, Primo

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effects of dairy maturation on the physico-chemical characteristics and technological properties of milk used for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese manufacture. Three different operating conditions (CF1, CF2 and CF3) were considered. Full cream milk from the evening milking was stored on the farm and delivered to the cheese factory in churns (CF1) or in thermoregulated tanks at a temperature not lower than 18 degrees C (CF2 and CF3). The natural creaming (10-12 h overnight) was performed in a traditional large flat vat containing 10-12 hl (CF1 and CF2) or in thermoregulated large flat vats containing 60 hl at about 15 degrees C (CF3). Twenty-four, 24 and 22 maturation trials were performed in CF1, CF2, and CF3, respectively, during 2 consecutive years. A significant increase (P=0.05) in pH during the maturation of milk was observed in CF1 and CF2. The increase of pH was higher (P=0.05) in CF1 than CF2 and CF3. The values of titratable acidity were higher (P=0.05) in partially skimmed evening (PS) milk than in full cream (FC) milk in each operative condition. The increase observed in CF2 was higher than those reported in CF1 and CF3. Compared with FC milk, PS milk showed lower values (P=0.05) of casein and casein number and higher contents (P=0.05) of whey proteins and, particularly, proteose-peptone. The increase of proteose-peptone--per 100 g SNF or 100 g casein--was significantly higher (P=0.05) in CF1 than in CF2 and, in particular, than in CF3. A higher increase (P=0.05) of resistance to compression was observed in CF1 with respect to CF3. CF2 variation was not different with respect to either CF1 or CF3. Variation of the difference between PS and FC milks (PS-FC) in pH, TBC and fat were clearly lower in CF3 than CF1. This means that the control of milk temperature throughout the whole maturation phase offers a greater control of both microbial development and extent of creaming. PMID:18474140

  15. A Diagnostic Assessment for the Teaching of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Una Evaluaci髇 Diagn髎tica Para la Ense馻nza de la Astronomia.) Uma Avalia玢o Diagn髎tica Para o Ensino da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacifico Ribeiro de Assis Silveira, Felipa; Soares Gomes de Sousa, C閘ia Maria; Moreira, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    This article aims to present the results of a diagnostic evaluation, used as a tool for collecting data on prior knowledge of scientific concepts needed to understand the topic "Earth and Universe", from a group comprised of 47 students of 6th grade. The educational method of diagnosing the student's prior knowledge before teaching them is founded on the Meaningful Learning theory, proposed by David Ausubel. The diagnostic evaluation consisted of 25 questions; the answers were analyzed and categorized, making possible their interpretation, which allows us to understand the meanings assigned by the student to these concepts. It follows from the diagnostic evaluation, that the majority of students surveyed had difficulties in exposing scientific concepts on the topic "Earth and Universe" when starting the 6th grade. However, we identified relevant ideas and representations that contributed to the re-signification of scientific concepts proposed for the teaching of the subject in this grade. The results of diagnostic evaluation served as reference to the organization of the syllabus, making possible the learning process by matching the sequence of teaching to the students" characteristics and context of the classroom. It is expected that other researchers in this topic can also use the instrument presented in this paper. Este art韈ulo tiene como objetivo presentar los resultados de una evaluaci髇 diagn髎tica, utilizada como una herramienta para recoger datos sobre el conocimiento previo de los conceptos cient韋icos necesarios para comprender el tema "Tierra y Universo", de un grupo compuesto por 47 alumnos de 6 grado de la escuela primaria. La acci髇 pedag骻ica del diagn髎tico de los conocimientos previos del estudiante antes de ense馻rles est justificada por la teor韆 del Aprendizaje Significativo, propuesta por David Ausubel. La evaluaci髇 de diagn髎tico consisti en 25 preguntas, las respuestas fueron analizadas y clasificadas objetivando-se su interpretaci髇, lo que nos permite comprender los significados asignados por el estudiante a estos conceptos. Se desprende de la evaluaci髇 diagn髎tica que la mayor韆 de los encuestados ha tenido dificultades para exponer los conceptos cient韋icos sobre el Universo y la Tierra, para iniciar el 6 grado. Sin embargo, se identificaron ideas relevantes y las representaciones que contribuyeron a la re-significaci髇 de los conceptos cient韋icos propuestos para la ense馻nza del tema en esta serie. Los resultados de la evaluaci髇 diagn髎tica han servido como referencia para la organizaci髇 del Programa, facilitando el proceso de aprendizaje, haciendo coincidir la secuencia did醕tica a las caracter韘ticas de los estudiantes y el contexto del aula. Se espera que el instrumento presentado en este documento tambi閚 pueda ser utilizado por otros investigadores en investigaciones relacionadas con el tema. Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar os resultados de uma avalia玢o diagn髎tica, utilizada como instrumento para a coleta de dados sobre o conhecimento pr関io de conceitos cient韋icos, necess醨ios compreens鉶 do tema Terra e Universo, de um grupo composto por 47 estudantes, da 6 s閞ie do Ensino Fundamental. A a玢o pedag骻ica de diagnosticar os conhecimentos pr関ios, do estudante, antes de ensin-los, tem fundamento na teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa, proposta por David Ausubel. Essa avalia玢o diagn髎tica foi composta por 25 quest鮡s, cujas respostas foram analisadas e categorizadas visando sua interpreta玢o, o que permitiu compreender os significados atribu韉os pelo estudante a esses conceitos. Conclui-se, a partir da avalia玢o diagn髎tica, que a maioria dos estudantes pesquisados apresentou dificuldades em expor conceitos cient韋icos sobre o tema Terra e Universo ao iniciar a 6 s閞ie. Entretanto, foram identificadas ideias e representa珲es relevantes que contribu韗am para a (re)significa玢o dos conceitos cient韋icos propostos para o ensino do tema nessa s閞ie. Os resultados da avalia玢o diagn髎tica serviram como refer阯cia para a organiza玢o do plano de ensino, viabilizando o processo de aprendizagem, por adequar a sequ阯cia did醫ica 鄐 caracter韘ticas dos estudantes e ao contexto da sala de aula. esperado que o instrumento apresentado nesse artigo possa ser utilizado tamb閙 por outros pesquisadores em investiga珲es relacionadas ao tema.

  16. Molecular Assay for Detection of Genetic Markers Associated with Decreased Susceptibility to Cephalosporins in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, S. W.; Martin, I.; Demczuk, W.; Bharat, A.; Hoang, L.; Wylie, J.; Allen, V.; Lefebvre, B.; Tyrrell, G.; Horsman, G.; Haldane, D.; Garceau, R.; Wong, T.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae continues to rise in Canada; however, antimicrobial resistance data are lacking for approximately 70% of gonorrhea infections that are diagnosed directly from clinical specimens by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). We developed a molecular assay for surveillance use to detect mutations in genes associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins that can be applied to both culture isolates and clinical samples. Real-time PCR assays were developed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ponA, mtrR, penA, porB, and one N. gonorrhoeae-specific marker (porA). We tested the real-time PCR assay with 252 gonococcal isolates, 50 nongonococcal isolates, 24 N. gonorrhoeae-negative NAAT specimens, and 34 N. gonorrhoeae-positive NAAT specimens. Twenty-four of the N. gonorrhoeae-positive NAAT specimens had matched culture isolates. Assay results were confirmed by comparison with whole-genome sequencing data. For 252 N. gonorrhoeae strains, the agreement between the DNA sequence and real-time PCR was 100% for porA, ponA, and penA, 99.6% for mtrR, and 95.2% for porB. The presence of 鈮2 SNPs correlated with decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (sensitivities of >98%) and cefixime (sensitivities of >96%). Of 24 NAAT specimens with matched cultures, the agreement between the DNA sequence and real-time PCR was 100% for porB, 95.8% for ponA and mtrR, and 91.7% for penA. We demonstrated the utility of a real-time PCR assay for sensitive detection of known markers for the decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins in N. gonorrhoeae. Preliminary results with clinical NAAT specimens were also promising, as they correlated well with bacterial culture results. PMID:25878350

  17. Identifica玢o de vari醰eis catacl韘micas eruptivas na dire玢o do bojo gal醕tico e Nuvens de Magalh鉫s usando dados do OGLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieslinski, D.; Diaz, M. P.; Mennickent, R.; Pietrzyski, G.

    2003-08-01

    Na d閏ada de 90 iniciaram-se v醨ios programas para a pesquisa de mat閞ia escura na Gal醲ia usando o efeito de microlentes gravitacionais. Entre os projetos mais bem conhecidos podemos mencionar o OGLE (Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment) e o MACHO (MAssive Compact Halo Objects). A estrat間ia usada por eles consiste em fazer fotometria de banda larga (normalmente B, R e I) de um grande n鷐ero de estrelas (dezenas de milh鮡s) t鉶 freq黣ntemente quanto poss vel e por longos per odos de tempo (anos). Uma tal sistem醫ica de observa玢o, al閙 de descobrir in鷐eras lentes gravitacionais, tamb閙 muito apropriada para a descoberta de estrelas vari醰eis. De fato, in鷐eras novas vari醰eis de v醨ios tipos foram descobertas como subproduto. Exemplos podem ser encontrados nos endere鏾s http://bulge.princeton.edu/~ogle/ e http://wwwmacho.mcmaster.ca/. As vari醰eis catacl smicas eruptivas (novas cl醩sicas, novas recorrentes e novas an鉺) s鉶 objetos que apresentam variabilidade de grande amplitude com escalas de tempo de dias a centenas de dias e, por esta raz鉶, devem ter sido detectadas em grande n鷐ero nestes "surveys". Para testar esta possibilidade n髎 procuramos nos dados do OGLE por tais sistemas e o presente trabalho mostra os resultados desta pesquisa. Os objetos foram selecionados entre as vari醰eis detectadas usando a amplitude de varia玢o de brilho como crit閞io principal. Este crit閞io forneceu 13756 objetos, sendo 2169 na dire玢o da Grande Nuvem de Magalh鉫s, 1162 na dire玢o da Pequena Nuvem de Magalh鉫s e o restante na dire玢o do Bojo Gal醕tico. A an醠ise foi feita inspecionando-se visualmente cada curva de luz por erup珲es com as caracter韘ticas acima mencionadas. Os resultados obtidos podem ser sumarizados como: descoberta de duas novas cl醩sicas e 33 novas an鉺. Al閙 disso, pode-se mencionar a identifica玢o de candidatas a outros tipos de vari醰eis como: estrelas simbi髏icas, RV Tauri, R Coronae Borealis, Miras, etc.

  18. Gender Differences in Smoking Among U.S. Working Adults

    PubMed Central

    Syamlal, Girija; Mazurek, Jacek M.; Dube, Shanta R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Although gender differences in cigarette smoking in the U.S. population have been documented, information on these differences among working adults is limited. Purpose To describe the current smoking prevalence by gender among working U.S. adults and examine gender differences in smoking by occupation. Methods The 20042011 National Health Interview Survey data for adults aged ?18 years that were working in the week prior to the interview (N=132,215) were analyzed in 2013. Current cigarette smokers were those who smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and currently smoke every day or some days. Results During 20042011, an estimated 22.8% of men workers and 18.3% of women workers were current smokers. Of the current smokers, women workers had higher odds of being an everyday smoker (prevalence OR [POR]=1.17, 95% CI=1.09, 1.26); having poor self-rated emotional health (POR=1.28, 95% CI=1.15, 1.41); and having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (POR=2.45, 95% CI=2.14, 2.80), heart disease (POR=1.27, 95% CI=1.12, 1.45), and current asthma (POR=2.21, 95% CI=1.96, 2.49) compared with men workers. Women in 搒upervisors, construction, and extraction (38.9%) occupations and men in 揺xtraction (40.5%) occupations had the highest smoking prevalence. Conclusion Among working adults, women had lower prevalence of smoking than men, yet women who smoke were more likely than men to have adverse health outcomes, including self-rated poorer physical and emotional health. PMID:25049215

  19. Preventing the Reintroduction of Malaria in Mauritius: A Programmatic and Financial Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Tatarsky, Allison; Aboobakar, Shahina; Cohen, Justin M.; Gopee, Neerunjun; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Moonasar, Devanand; Phillips, Allison A.; Kahn, James G.; Moonen, Bruno; Smith, David L.; Sabot, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Sustaining elimination of malaria in areas with high receptivity and vulnerability will require effective strategies to prevent reestablishment of local transmission, yet there is a dearth of evidence about this phase. Mauritius offers a uniquely informative history, with elimination of local transmission in 1969, re-emergence in 1975, and second elimination in 1998. Towards this end, Mauritius's elimination and prevention of reintroduction (POR) programs were analyzed via a comprehensive review of literature and government documents, supplemented by program observation and interviews with policy makers and program personnel. The impact of the country's most costly intervention, a passenger screening program, was assessed quantitatively using simulation modeling. On average, Mauritius spent $4.43 per capita per year (pcpy) during its second elimination campaign from 1982 to 1988. The country currently spends $2.06 pcpy on its POR program that includes robust surveillance, routine vector control, and prompt and effective treatment and response. Thirty-five percent of POR costs are for a passenger screening program. Modeling suggests that the estimated 14% of imported malaria infections identified by this program reduces the annual risk of indigenous transmission by approximately 2%. Of cases missed by the initial passenger screening program, 49% were estimated to be identified by passive or reactive case detection, leaving an estimated 3.1 unidentified imported infections per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The Mauritius experience indicates that ongoing intervention, strong leadership, and substantial predictable funding are critical to consistently prevent the reestablishment of malaria. Sustained vigilance is critical considering Mauritius's enabling conditions. Although the cost of POR is below that of elimination, annual per capita spending remains at levels that are likely infeasible for countries with lower overall health spending. Countries currently embarking on elimination should quantify and plan for potentially similar POR operations and costs. PMID:21912645

  20. Evolu玢o rotacional de corpos reacumulados

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penteado, P.; Lazzaro, D.; Roig, F.; Duffard, R.; Kodama, T.

    2003-08-01

    Aster骾des reacumulados (rubble-piles) s鉶 corpos formados por um conjunto de fragmentos agregados primariamente pela sua gravidade. A import鈔cia do estudo de corpos reacumulados para a compreens鉶 da evolu玢o do Cintur鉶 de Aster骾des tem sido bastante evidenciada, n鉶 apenas pela constata玢o de que estes devem corresponder a uma grande parcela da popula玢o de aster骾des, mas tamb閙 por recentes estudos da estrutura e evolu玢o colisional deste tipo de aster骾de. A evolu玢o rotacional de corpos reacumulados e a forma玢o de fam韑ias t阭 sido estudadas pelo nosso grupo, com base no modelo de elips骾des interagentes. Este modelo foi desenvolvido recentemente pelo grupo, e baseia-se na integra玢o num閞ica das equa珲es de movimento para transla玢o e rota玢o de corpos formados por um conjunto de elips骾des que interagem entre si pela sua gravidade, for鏰 de contato e dissipa玢o de energia por atrito. Considerar a rota玢o de cada fragmento a principal diferencia玢o do nosso modelo em rela玢o aos que t阭 sido desenvolvidos recentemente. Apresentamos aqui os resultados obtidos para a evolu玢o da rota玢o de popula珲es de corpos reacumulados. Estes foram submetidos a s閞ies de colis鮡s com proj閠eis de altas velocidades (5Km/s, t韕icas do Cintur鉶 atual), distribu韉os em uma lei de pot阯cias de tamanhos. Estes resultados s鉶 comparados com os de Harris (1979), um dos poucos trabalhos anal韙icos existentes para evolu玢o rotacional de aster骾des. O principal resultado obtido por Harris foi a distribui玢o final de velocidades de rota玢o como uma lei de pot阯cias para corpos pequenos, passando de forma bem definida para rota玢o constante para os grandes. Nas nossas simula珲es observamos que as distribui珲es de velocidades de rota玢o resultantes tendem a leis de pot阯cia, com a inclina玢o evoluindo no decorrer de colis鮡s subsequentes.

  1. Field-resolved measurement of reaction-induced spectral densities by polarizability response spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Andrew M.; Nome, Rene A.; Scherer, Norbert F.

    2007-11-01

    The experimental design and theoretical description of a novel five-pulse laser spectroscopy is presented with an application to a pyridinium charge transfer complex in acetonitrile and methanol. In field-resolved polarizability response spectroscopy (PORS), an electronically resonant laser pulse first excites a solvated chromophore (reactant) and off-resonant Raman spectra of the resulting nuclear motions are measured as a function of the reaction time. The present apparatus differs from our earlier design by performing the Raman probe measurement (with fixed pulse delays) in the frequency domain. In addition, the full electric fields of the signals are measured by spectral interferometry to separate nonresonant and Raman responses. Our theoretical model shows how the PORS signal arises from nuclear motions that are displaced/driven by the photoinduced reaction. The field-resolved off-resonant (of the solute's electronic transitions) probing favors detection of solvent (as opposed to solute) dynamics coupled to the reaction. The sign of the signal represents the relative strengths of polarization responses associated with the ground and photoexcited solutions. Signatures of nonresonant and PORS signal contributions to the experimental results are analyzed with numerical calculations based on a theoretical model we have developed for reaction-induced PORS. Our model identifies two mechanisms of PORS signal generation: (i) structural relaxation induced resonance; (ii) dephasing induced resonance. In the charge transfer reaction investigated, the solvent-dependent and time-evolving (solvent) polarizability spectral density (PSD) is readily obtained. The general trend of an initial broadband inertial nuclear response followed by a decrease in the linewidth of the PSD establishes that the measured PSD is inconsistent with the approximation of a linear response. Furthermore, the explicit time evolution of the PSD is important for properly describing solvent control of reactions that do not satisfy the time-scale separability inherent to nonadiabatic kinetic models.

  2. Expression of P450c17 in the Human Fetal Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Schonemann, Marcus D.; Muench, Marcus O.; Tee, Meng Kian; Miller, Walter L.

    2012-01-01

    P450c17 catalyzes steroid 17?-hydroxylase and 17,20 lyase activities. P450c17 is expressed in human fetal and postnatal adrenals and gonads and in the developing mouse nervous system, but little is known about its expression in the human nervous system. We obtained portions of 9-, 10-, and 11-wk gestation human fetuses and delineated the pattern of expression of P450c17 in their peripheral nervous systems by immunocytochemistry using the P450c17 antiserum previously used to characterize P450c17 in the mouse brain. P450c17 was readily detected in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord. Neural structures were identified with antisera to the cytoskeletal protein neural cell adhesion molecule; DRG were identified with antisera to the neuronal transcription factor BRN3A and neurotrophin receptor tropomyosin-receptor-kinase B. The identification of P450c17 was confirmed using commercial antisera directed against different domains of P450c17 and by using antisera immunodepleted with authentic human P450c17. We also found expression of the P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) in the spinal cord and DRG. Expression of P450scc is limited to cell bodies; unlike P450c17, we never detected P450scc in fiber tracts. Catalysis by P450c17 requires electron donation from P450 oxidoreductase (POR). Dual-label immunohistochemistry detected P450c17 and POR colocalized in DRG bundles, but some fibers containing P450c17 lacked POR. These data suggest that neurosteroids synthesized via these two enzymes may act in the developing human nervous system. The expression of P450c17 in structures lacking POR means that P450c17 may not be steroidogenic in those locations, suggesting that P450c17 may have additional functions that do not require POR. PMID:22434081

  3. Basic Concepts of Astronomy: a Methodological Proposal. (Spanish Title: Conceptos B谩sicos de Astronom铆a: Una Propuesta Metodol贸gica.) Conceitos B谩sicos de Astronomia: Uma Proposta Metodol贸gica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Heineck, Renato; Samudio P茅rez, Carlos Ariel

    2011-12-01

    In this report, the development of a methodological proposal which approaches basic concepts of astronomy-grounded pedagogically on Meaningful Learning is described. The proposal, which consists of four meetings, was developed by teachers and academics of the course of Professor in Physics of the University of Passo Fundo (UPF), through an extension course to a group of highschool students of a public school of the town of Passo Fundo, RS. The work was focused into basic concepts of astronomy. The signs of Meaningful Learning have been obtained by means of research and evaluation tools that were applied at the end of each meeting. The evaluation of the proposal has been conducted by means of a final questionnaire which was answered by the participants at the end ofthe development of activities. By means of the results obtained from the different instruments, and the comments made by the participants during the activities and by means of the high rates of approval obtained in the final questionnaire, we think that the proposal reached the established goals and it may be repeated with the certainty of success. En este relato se describe una propuesta de desarrollo metodol贸gico que aborda conceptos b谩sicos de astronom铆a fundamentada pedag贸gicamente en el Aprendizaje Significativo. La propuesta que comprende cuatro encuentros, fue desarrollada por profesores y acad茅micos del curso de Licenciatura en F铆sica de la Universidad de Passo Fundo (UPF), a trav茅s de un curso de extensi贸n para un grupo de Liceo del 6潞 a帽o de una Escuela P煤blica de la ciudad de Passo Fundo/RS. El trabajo tuvo como eje principal los "conceptos b谩sicos de astronom铆a". Los indicios de Aprendizaje Significativo fueron obtenidos por instrumentos de pesquisa y evaluaci贸n, siempre aplicados despu茅s de cada encuentro. La evaluaci贸n de la propuesta fue hecha a trav茅s de un cuestionario final y contestado por los participantes al finalizar el desarrollo de actividades. Por los resultados obtenidos en diferentes momentos, por los comentarios efectuados por los participantes durante las actividades y por los altos 铆ndices de aprobaci贸n al final de la etapa, consideramos que la propuesta atingi贸 los objetivos establecidos y puede ser repetida con certeza de 茅xito. Neste relato, descreve-se o desenvolvimento de uma proposta metodol贸gica que aborda conceitos b谩sicos de astronomia fundamentada pedagogicamente na Aprendizagem Significativa. A proposta, que compreende quatro encontros, foi desenvolvida por professores e acad锚micos do curso de Licenciatura em F铆sica da Universidade de Passo Fundo (UPF), atrav茅s de um curso de extens茫o, a um grupo de dez estudantes do ensino m茅dio de uma escola p煤blica da cidade de Passo Fundo, RS. O trabalho centrou-se em conceitos b谩sicos de astronomia. Os ind铆cios da aprendizagem significativa foram obtidos por instrumentos de pesquisa e avalia莽茫o aplicados ao t茅rmino de cada encontro. A avalia莽茫o da proposta foi efetuada atrav茅s de um question谩rio final respondido pelos participantes ao t茅rmino do desenvolvimento das atividades. Pelos resultados obtidos nos diferentes instrumentos, pelos coment谩rios efetuados pelos participantes durante as atividades e pelos altos 铆ndices de aprova莽茫o alcan莽ados no question谩rio final, consideramos que a proposta atingiu os objetivos estabelecidos e pode ser repetida com convic莽茫o de sucesso.

  4. PubMed

    Rivera, Souhail Malav茅; D铆az, Nelson Varas

    2006-01-01

    Las profesiones de la salud tienen un papel social dual. Por un lado, velan por el mantenimiento de la salud de la poblaci贸n protegiendo el bien com煤n. Por el otro, dictaminan las formas saludables, y por lo tanto socialmente apropiadas, de ser, actuar y pensar. Este 煤ltimo papel, est谩 m谩s ligado al control social de la poblaci贸n que a una preocupaci贸n altruista hacia la misma. A trav茅s de esta supervisi贸n y control, se construyen los sujetos a los cuales todos/as debemos aspirar a ser para gozar de aceptaci贸n social. Los/as profesionales de la salud han jugado un rol protag贸nico en dicho proceso, siendo los agentes que delimitan y definen lo que es enfermo vs. saludable, 煤til vs. in煤til, apropiado vs. inapropiado. En el caso de la epidemia del VIH, este esfuerzo se ha hecho cada vez m谩s vigente ya que estos/as profesionales juegan un papel importante en el tratamiento de las personas que viven con VIH/SIDA (PVVS). Sin embargo, su funci贸n est谩 plasmada de definiciones que sirven para criminalizar a las PVVS. El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar la manera en que una muestra de profesionales de la salud en Puerto Rico construyen a las PVVS. Con este prop贸sito, entrevistamos 80 profesionales de la salud y estudiantes de estas profesiones. Estas entrevistas fueron grabadas, transcritas y sometidas a un an谩lisis de discurso. Los resultados reflejaron que seg煤n las personas participantes: 1) la PVVS no es una persona "normal" o funcional bajo los est谩ndares sociales debido a que su salud no se los permite, 2) representa una carga para la sociedad incluyendo familiares, amigos/as, el mundo del trabajo, e incluso para el gobierno, 3) debe ser vigilada porque representa un riesgo para la persona seronegativa que es descrita como saludable y productiva, y 4) necesita que su salud y conducta sexual sean controladas por v铆a legal y/o por las personas que representan las instituciones sociales, como lo son los/as profesionales de la salud. En este art铆culo abordamos el potencial rol de la psicolog铆a para servir como veh铆culo de reconstrucci贸n de dichas nociones, tomando en consideraci贸n su propio rol en la formaci贸n y mantenimiento de dicho sujeto socialmente deseable. PMID:22025907

  5. A protocol for storage and long-distance shipment of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs. 1. Effect of temperature, embryo age , and storage time on survival and quality

    SciTech Connect

    Caceres, C.; Wornoayporn, V.; Islam, S.M.; Ahmad, S.

    2007-03-15

    The operational use of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), genetic sexing strains in Sterile Insect Technique applications can be maximized by developing methods for effective shipment of eggs. This would enable a central production facility to maintain the relevant mother stocks and large colonies to supply eggs to satellite centers that would mass produce only males for irradiation and release. In order to achieve this, the survival of medfly embryos of different ages was assessed after storage at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 deg. C in water for different periods of time. Survival was affected by all 3 variables, i.e., embryo age, water temperature, and length of storage. Storage of embryos at any temperature for 120 h resulted in almost no survival. Controlling the age of the embryo at the time of the temperature treatment is crucial for the success of this procedure. Embryos collected between 0 to 12 h after oviposition and pre-incubated at 25 deg. C for 12 h provide a suitable 72 h window for shipment when maintained between 10 to 15 deg. C. Under these conditions, no significant reductions in survival during all the developmental stages were observed. (author) [Spanish] El uso operacional de cepas de la mosca del mediterraneo Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) en las cuales es posible separar los sexos a traves de mecanismos geneticos para su utilizacion en la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE), puede ser maximizado con el desarrollo de metodos efectivos para el envio y transporte de huevos. Esto permite que un laboratorio de produccion centralizada mantenga las respectivas colonias responsables por la produccion de huevos para este abastecer laboratorios satelites responsables por la produccion masiva de solamente machos para subsiguiente irradiacion y liberacion. Para ser posible esta alternativa fue evaluada la supervivencia de embriones de diferentes edades despues de su almacenamiento en agua a 5, 10, 15, 20 y 25 deg. C por diferentes periodos de tiempo. La supervivencia fue afectada por las 3 variables evaluadas, la edad del embrion, la temperatura del agua y el periodo de almacenamiento. El almacenamiento de los embriones a cualquier temperatura por 120 horas dio como resultado la casi no supervivencia. Una edad controlada de los embriones a tratar es crucial para el exito de este protocolo. Embriones colectados entre 0 a 12 horas despues de la oviposicion y su previa incubacion a 25 deg. C por 12 horas brinda un margen de hasta de 72 horas de duracion del almacenamiento y transporte, siempre y cuando estos se mantengan en una temperatura de entre 10 a 15{sup o}C. En estas condiciones, fue registrada una reduccion no significante de la supervivencia de los diferentes estados de desarrollo. (author)

  6. Regulando la Enfermedad a trav茅s de la Definici贸n y la Restricci贸n: Profesionales de la Salud Hablan sobre el VIH/SIDA1

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Souhail Malav茅; D铆az, Nelson Varas

    2009-01-01

    Resumen Las profesiones de la salud tienen un papel social dual. Por un lado, velan por el mantenimiento de la salud de la poblaci贸n protegiendo el bien com煤n. Por el otro, dictaminan las formas saludables, y por lo tanto socialmente apropiadas, de ser, actuar y pensar. Este 煤ltimo papel, est谩 m谩s ligado al control social de la poblaci贸n que a una preocupaci贸n altruista hacia la misma. A trav茅s de esta supervisi贸n y control, se construyen los sujetos a los cuales todos/as debemos aspirar a ser para gozar de aceptaci贸n social. Los/as profesionales de la salud han jugado un rol protag贸nico en dicho proceso, siendo los agentes que delimitan y definen lo que es enfermo vs. saludable, 煤til vs. in煤til, apropiado vs. inapropiado. En el caso de la epidemia del VIH, este esfuerzo se ha hecho cada vez m谩s vigente ya que estos/as profesionales juegan un papel importante en el tratamiento de las personas que viven con VIH/SIDA (PVVS). Sin embargo, su funci贸n est谩 plasmada de definiciones que sirven para criminalizar a las PVVS. El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar la manera en que una muestra de profesionales de la salud en Puerto Rico construyen a las PVVS. Con este prop贸sito, entrevistamos 80 profesionales de la salud y estudiantes de estas profesiones. Estas entrevistas fueron grabadas, transcritas y sometidas a un an谩lisis de discurso. Los resultados reflejaron que seg煤n las personas participantes: 1) la PVVS no es una persona 鈥渘ormal鈥 o funcional bajo los est谩ndares sociales debido a que su salud no se los permite, 2) representa una carga para la sociedad incluyendo familiares, amigos/as, el mundo del trabajo, e incluso para el gobierno, 3) debe ser vigilada porque representa un riesgo para la persona seronegativa que es descrita como saludable y productiva, y 4) necesita que su salud y conducta sexual sean controladas por v铆a legal y/o por las personas que representan las instituciones sociales, como lo son los/as profesionales de la salud. En este art铆culo abordamos el potencial rol de la psicolog铆a para servir como veh铆culo de reconstrucci贸n de dichas nociones, tomando en consideraci贸n su propio rol en la formaci贸n y mantenimiento de dicho sujeto socialmente deseable. PMID:22025907

  7. Estudio comparativo de las mol茅culas isovalentes de inter茅s atmosf茅rico CF3Cl y CF3Br y sus correspondientes hal贸genos aislados Cl y Br.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Mart铆n, I.; Lav铆n, C.

    Los estados Rydberg moleculares han suscitado en los 煤ltimos a帽os un creciente inter茅s entre los espectroscopistas experimentales, motivado en parte por el desarrollo de nuevas t茅cnicas espectrosc贸picas capaces de investigar estos estados altamente excitados electr贸nicamente. Los procesos de fotoabsorci贸n que implican estados Rydberg en los derivados halogenados del metano son de gran importancia, debido a su abundancia en la atm贸sfera y a sus implicaciones medioambientales. Por ello, la obtenci贸n de datos relativos a sus fuerzas de oscilador es de gran inter茅s. En este trabajo se aborda el estudio de dichas propiedades para las mol茅culas isovalentes CF3Cl y CF3Br. Ambas mol茅culas presentan id茅ntica estructura electr贸nica para el estado fundamental por lo que se espera que sus espectros Rydberg presenten grandes similitudes, en ausencia de perturbaciones. Por ello y dada la escasez de datos relativos a fuerzas de oscilador, hemos establecido la correcci贸n de nuestros resultados en base a las analog铆as esperadas en las intensidades espectrales correspondientes a transiciones an谩logas. Por otro lado, Novak y col. [1] han encontrado experimentalmente un marcado car谩cter at贸mico en el espectro correspondiente a estas mol茅culas, siendo muy similar a los de los 谩tomos de Cl y Br. Por ello en el presente trabajo, adem谩s de establecer la comparaci贸n entre ambas mol茅culas hemos buscado las similitudes con sus respectivos hal贸genos. Los c谩lculos relativos a las especies moleculares se han realizado utilizando la Metodolog铆a Mol茅cular de Orb铆tales de Defecto Cu谩ntico (MQDO) [2], mientras que para el estudio de los 谩tomos de Cl y Br se emple贸 la versi贸n relativista del m茅todo (RQDO) [3].

  8. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Deutrich Aydos, Maria Eugenia; Alves Fernandes, Sabrina; Feij贸 Nunes, Fl谩via; Bassani, L铆lian; Rigon Leonhardt, Lara; Lazzarotto Harter, Daniele; Pivato, Bianca; Miranda, Daniella; Augusto Marroni, Cl谩udio

    2016-01-01

    Introducci贸n: la elecci贸n del m茅todo para la evaluaci贸n nutricional es fundamental para el correcto seguimiento del estado nutricional de los pacientes sometidos al trasplante de h铆gado.Objetivos: evaluar y comparar el estado nutricional de los pacientes antes y despu茅s del trasplante de h铆gado por el tiempo de un a帽o para los diferentes m茅todos de evaluaci贸n nutricional.M茅todos: se evaluaron los pacientes que se sometieron a un trasplante de h铆gado en diferentes momentos: pretrasplante, 1, 3, 6 y 12 meses despu茅s del procedimiento, en la Hermandad de la Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. Los m茅todos utilizados fueron la antropometr铆a, la fuerza de apret贸n de manos por la fuerza de agarre no dominante (FAM), el espesor del m煤sculo aductor del pulgar y el 谩ngulo de fase (AF) por bioimpedancia el茅ctrica (BIA). En todas las evaluaciones se tomaron las mismas medidas.Resultados: las evaluaciones se llevaron a cabo en 22 pacientes. Los m茅todos que mostraron mayor prevalencia de pacientes desnutridos antes del trasplante fueron la FA por BIA (25%), la circunferencia muscular del brazo (CMB) (21,9%) y la circunferencia del brazo (CB) (18,8%). Al comparar el estado nutricional de los pacientes durante el seguimiento, hubo diferencia significativa en los m茅todos de evaluaci贸n de CB, espesor del pliegue cut谩neo triciptal y AF por la BIA. Al final del seguimiento, los m茅todos de evaluaci贸n nutricional fueron nuevamente comparados y mostraron de diferencias significativas, siendo la FAM el m茅todo de mayor detecci贸n de desnutrici贸n.Conclusiones: se sugiere que podr铆a intensificarse el uso del m茅todo AF por la BIA en esta poblaci贸n, ya que los resultados est谩n en consonancia con los encontrados en la literatura, siendo significativos, fiables y reproducibles. PMID:27019235

  9. Flavobacterium johnsoniae sprB Is Part of an Operon Spanning the Additional Gliding Motility Genes sprC, sprD, and sprF 鈻 鈥

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Ryan G.; Nelson, Shawn S.; Pochiraju, Soumya; McBride, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    Cells of Flavobacterium johnsoniae move rapidly over surfaces by a process known as gliding motility. Gld proteins are thought to comprise the gliding motor that propels cell surface adhesins, such as the 669-kDa SprB. A novel protein secretion apparatus called the Por secretion system (PorSS) is required for assembly of SprB on the cell surface. Genetic and molecular analyses revealed that sprB is part of a seven-gene operon spanning 29.3 kbp of DNA. In addition to sprB, three other genes of this operon (sprC, sprD, and sprF) are involved in gliding. Mutations in sprB, sprC, sprD, and sprF resulted in cells that failed to form spreading colonies on agar but that exhibited some motility on glass in wet mounts. SprF exhibits some similarity to Porphyromonas gingivalis PorP, which is required for secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors via the P. gingivalis PorSS. F. johnsoniae sprF mutants produced SprB protein but were defective in localization of SprB to the cell surface, suggesting a role for SprF in secretion of SprB. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is involved in secretion of extracellular chitinase in addition to its role in secretion of SprB. SprF was not needed for chitinase secretion and may be specifically required for SprB secretion by the PorSS. Cells with nonpolar mutations in sprC or sprD produced and secreted SprB and propelled it rapidly along the cell surface. Multiple paralogs of sprB, sprC, sprD, and sprF are present in the genome, which may explain why mutations in sprB, sprC, sprD, and sprF do not result in complete loss of motility and suggests the possibility that semiredundant SprB-like adhesins may allow movement of cells over different surfaces. PMID:21131497

  10. Indoor Air Pollutants and Health in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    El-Sadig, Mohamed; Leith, David; Kalsbeek, William; Al-Maskari, Fatma; Couper, David; Funk, William E.; Zoubeidi, Taoufik; Chan, Ronna L.; Trent, Chris B.; Davidson, Christopher A.; Boundy, Maryanne G.; Kassab, Maamoon M.; Hasan, Mohamed Y.; Rusyn, Ivan; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald; Olshan, Andrew F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive global data on the health effects of indoor air pollutants are lacking. There are few large population-based multi朼ir pollutant health assessments. Further, little is known about indoor air health risks in the Middle East, especially in countries undergoing rapid economic development. Objectives: To provide multifactorial indoor air exposure and health data, we conducted a population-based study of indoor air pollution and health in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a population-based sample of 628 households in the UAE. Indoor air pollutants [sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), formaldehyde (HCHO), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter] were measured using passive samplers over a 7-day period. Health information was collected from 1,590 household members via in-person interviews. Results: Participants in households with quantified SO2, NO2, and H2S (i.e., with measured concentrations above the limit of quantification) were twice as likely to report doctor-diagnosed asthma. Participants in homes with quantified SO2 were more likely to report wheezing symptoms {ever wheezing, prevalence odds ratio [POR] 1.79 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05, 3.05]; speech-limiting wheeze, POR 3.53 (95% CI: 1.06, 11.74)}. NO2 and H2S were similarly associated with wheezing symptoms. Quantified HCHO was associated with neurologic symptoms (difficulty concentrating POR 1.47; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.13). Burning incense daily was associated with increased headaches (POR 1.87; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.21), difficulty concentrating (POR 3.08; 95% CI: 1.70, 5.58), and forgetfulness (POR 2.68: 95% CI: 1.47, 4.89). Conclusions: This study provides new information regarding potential health risks from pollutants commonly found in indoor environments in the UAE and other countries. Multipollutant exposure and health assessments in cohort studies are needed to better characterize health effects of indoor air pollutants. PMID:22357138

  11. Luminescence quenching in low doped polymer light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhifeng; Wang, Hui; Li, Aizhen; Shen, Yong; Wang, Yaxue; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Hancheng; Huang, Jinwang; Lai, Tianshu; Ji, Liangnian

    2008-11-01

    Transient luminescent dynamics in low doped porphyrin side-chain polymer film, poly(porphyrin acrylate-styrene) (P[(por)A-S]), were measured by using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopic technology. At relative higher intrachain porphyrin comonomer concentration (0.27%), the transient luminescence relaxation becomes more rapid with the increase in the interchain polymer concentration, resulting in low luminescence efficiency. The origin has been analyzed according to the F枚rster-type bimolecular annihilation theory. However, at the porphyrin comonomer concentration (0.1%), the luminescence relaxation of the P[(por)A-S] film becomes faster with the decrease in the interchain polymer concentration, inducing lower luminescence efficiency. The luminescence quenching has been analyzed according to the theory of MM+ force field and exciton rotational diffusion. The theoretical analyses are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Produccion Gaseosa del Cometa Halley: Erupciones Y Fotodisociacion del Radical OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN:En este trabajo informamos la detecci6n de 20 erupciones en la li'nea de =18cm (1667MHz) del radical OH en el Cometa Halley.Las observaciones incluyen todos los monitoreos existentes y se extienden desde 120 dias antes del perihelio hasta 90 dias despues.Se detectan bruscos crecimientos en el flujo medido,hasta un factor 1O,seguidos por decaimientos lentos asociados con la fotodisociaci6n del OH. Se obtuvieron valores para el tiempo de vida fotoquimico del OH y del H2O basandose en el modelo desarrollado previamente por Silva(1988). Esos tiempos de vida estan de acuerdo con predicciones teoricas y con las observaciones en el Ultravioleta, y los resultados, los que son fuertemente dependientes de la velocidad heliocentrica del Coineta (variando hasta un factor 6), han sido calculados para varios rangos de velocidad entre +28 y -28 km/seg. Key wo'L :

  13. Estudio espectrosc髉ico de la simbi髏ica CD-43o14304

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garc韆, L. G.; Brandi, E.; Ferrer, O. E.; Barb, R.

    En base a un monitoreo espectrosc髉ico de estrellas simbi髏icas del hemisferio sur, realizado entre 1990 y 1997, se han reunido espectros en intermedia y alta resoluci髇 de la simbi髏ica CD-43o14304. Se trata de un sistema binario compuesto por una enana blanca y una gigante tipo K5 con un per韔do orbital recientemente determinado, de 1448 d韆s. Por primera vez se analiza el comportamiento espectral del objeto en un amplio rango espectral (3700-10000 ) y en funci髇 de las fases orbitales observadas. Se interpretan las velocidades radiales de las emisiones y absorciones presentes y las variaciones en los perfiles estructurados de las l韓eas de Balmer y en el resto de las emisiones.

  14. Campo de velocidade peculiar na teoria linear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, N.

    2003-08-01

    Aglomerados e superaglomerados de gal醲ias s鉶 respons醰eis pela chamada velocidade peculiar (movimentos relativos expans鉶 pura do universo) das gal醲ias. A amplitude destas perturba珲es depende da densidade de mat閞ia do universo e do contraste de densidade no interior do volume onde est localizada a gal醲ia. Em 1980, Peebles introduziu o fator "f", que relaciona a amplitude das perturba珲es da velocidade com o campo gravitacional peculiar, no contexto da teoria linear. No presente trabalho obtemos uma solu玢o geral anal韙ica para o fator "f" de Peebles do campo de velocidades peculiares, em termos de fun珲es hipergeom閠ricas, v醠ida para qualquer geometria do universo. Como um teste de nossa solu玢o, os resultados encontrados originalmente por Peebles em 1980 e os resultados mais gerais encontrados por O. Lahav e colaboradores em 1991, s鉶 reobtidos.

  15. U.S. Emergency Department Admissions for Non-Traumatic Dental Conditions for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Donald Leslie

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) are more likely to have an emergency department (ED) admission for non-traumatic dental conditions (NTDCs). We analyzed 2009 U.S. National Emergency Department Sample data and ran logistic regression models for children ages 3-17 years and adults ages 18+ years. The prevalence of NTDC-related ED admissions was 0.8% for children and 2.0% for adults. Children with IDDs were at increased odds of NTDC-related ED admission, but this difference was not statistically significant (pOR=1.06; 95% CI=0.91,1.23). Adults with IDDs had significantly lower odds of an ED admission for NTDCs (pOR=0.49;95% CI=0.44,0.54). Children with IDDs are not at increased odds of NTDC-related ED admissions whereas adults with IDDs are at significantly reduced odds. PMID:24937745

  16. Ouality and performance measurement: national efforts to improve quality of care through measurement development.

    PubMed

    Quraishi, Jihan; Jordan, Lorraine

    2014-06-01

    The US Department of Health and Human Services created the National Quality Strategy to provide a framework to focus providers and organizations in achieving greater impact around better care, healthy people and communites, and affordable care. Providing incentive programs around quality measurement is one mechanism used to achieve these aims. Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs) should begin to familiarize themselves with the consensus development process used in measurement development and the importance of measurement endorsement through the National Quality Forum. Additionally, CRNAs should become familiar with what Physician Quality Reporting System (PORS) measures CRNAs are currently using in anesthesia and the 2015 payment adjustments one may face if not currently reporting to the PORS. PMID:25109155

  17. Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectra of Five-Coordinate Imidazole-ligated Iron(II) Porphyrinates

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chuanjiang; Barabanschikov, Alexander; Ellison, Mary K.; Zhao, Jiyong; Alp, E. Ercan; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Zgierski, Marek Z.; Sage, J. Timothy; Scheidt, W. Robert

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear resonance vibrational spectra have been obtained for six five-coordinate imidazole-ligated iron(II) porphyrinates, [Fe(Por)(L)] (Por = tetraphenylporphyrinate, octaethylporphyrinate, tetratolylporphyrinate or protoporphyrinate IX and L = 2-methylimidazole or 1,2-dimethylimidazole). Measurements have been made on both powder and oriented crystal samples. The spectra are dominated by strong signals around 200300 cm?1. Although the in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations are seriously overlapped, oriented crystal spectra allow their deconvolution. Thus, oriented crystal experimental data, along with DFT calculations, enable the assignment of key vibrations in the spectra. Molecular dynamics are also discussed. The nature of the Fe朜Im vibrations has been elaborated further than was possible from resonance Raman studies. Our study suggests that the Fe motions are coupled with the porphyrin core and peripheral groups motions. Both peripheral groups and their conformations have significant influence on the vibrational spectra (position and shape). PMID:22243131

  18. Abundancias qu韒icas de las estrellas CP del grupo HgMn ? Leporis y 53 Tauri. II. Boro, Berilio, Carbono, Magnesio, Aluminio y Silicio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L髉ez Garc韆, Z.; Malaroda, S. M.; Faraggiana, R.

    Se determinan las abundancias qu韒icas de los elementos m醩 livianos presentes en dos estrellas CP del grupo HgMn, ? Lep y 53 Tau, utilizando espectros IUE de alta resoluci髇 y t閏nicas de c醠culo de espectros sint閠icos. Para el c醠culo de las l韓eas se utiliza la lista mas completa de datos at髆icos disponible y el programa SYNTHE. Para el c醠culo de la abundancia de un elemento se comparan, para cada imagen, los perfiles observados del mayor n鷐ero de l韓eas presentes con los perfiles calculados obtenidos por variaci髇 de las abundancias iniciales, reteniendo la abundancia para la cual el acuerdo entre las l韓eas observadas y calculadas es considerado visualmente el mejor. Los resultados obtenidos son comparados con los estimados por la teor韆 de la difusi髇.

  19. Medici髇 de densidades medias de meteoritos: test del m閠odo de inmersi髇

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steren, G.

    Se evalu una t閏nica simple para medir las densidades medias de meteoritos, basada en el M閠odo de Arqu韒edes y que utiliza cuentas de vidrio de 40? en lugar de un flu韉o esto presenta la ventaja de no ser intrusivo ni qu韒icamente reactivo (D.Britt and G.Consolmagno, 1996, B.A.A.S.28,1106). El estudio, realizado en junio de este a駉 por participantes de la VI Escuela de Verano del Observatorio del Vaticano, emple 37 muestras de la colecci髇 del Observatorio del Vaticano, de las cuales 26 eran Condritas, 1 Pallasita y 1 Howardita; algunas de ellas ya habian sido estudiadas por otras t閏nicas aunque tambi閚 se incluyeron muestras no estudiadas anteriormente.

  20. The Effect of Nano and Micro Porosity on the Schottky Barrier Height and Ideality Factor in the I-V Characteristics of PtSi/p-Si IR Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshghi, H.; Mohammadi, M.

    In this paper, the effect of porosity on reverse bias current-voltage characteristics of PtSi/por-Si (p-type) IR detector as a function of temperature is investigated. Our experimental data for two samples with different porosities (50% and 10%) at 300 K and 77 K are reported by Raissi et al.1 These data indicates a breakdown-like behavior. Our analytical model is based on hole thermionic emission with large ideality factor (n ? 200). Our calculations show that at each temperature, the Schottky barrier height, as well as the ideality factor, in sample with 10% porosity is bigger than that of 50%. These variations could be due to band gap variations of Si size effect using quantum dot model, and the presence of the relatively high (~1015 cm-2 eV-1) density of states at the silicide/por-silicon interface, respectively.

  1. Analytical specificity and sensitivity of the novel dual-target GeneProof Neisseria gonorrhoeae PCR kit for detection of N. gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Golparian, Daniel; Hellmark, Bengt; Unemo, Magnus

    2015-11-01

    Detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae relies increasingly on nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). The specificity of many gonococcal NAATs has been suboptimal and supplementary testing remains recommended in Europe and several additional countries. The novel dual-target GeneProof Neisseria gonorrhoeae PCR kit, targeting porA pseudogene and 16S rRNA gene, showed a high specificity and sensitivity when isolates of non-gonococcal Neisseria and related species (n = 144), and gonococci (n = 104) were tested. However, rare gonococcal porA mutants were only detected in the 16S rRNA gene target and two non-gonococcal isolates showed a low-level cross-reactivity in the 16S rRNA gene target. The detection limit for both targets was 1.5 copies per reaction. PMID:26332192

  2. Din醡ica de planetas extrasolares resonantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauge, C.

    Actualmente se han detectado 117 planetas alrededor de estrellas de Secuencia Principal, incluyendo 12 sistemas planetarios, cada uno con dos o tres miembros. De estos 鷏timos, ocho poseen planetas en 髍bitas pr髕imas y sus perturbaciones gravitacionales se convierten en un factor fundamental para la estabilidad orbital del sistema. Todos se encuentran en configuraciones resonantes, desde la conmensurabilidad de movimientos 2/1 de Gliese 876, hasta la resonancia secular de Ups And. En esta presentaci髇 analizamos varios aspectos de la din醡ica resonante de los planetas extrasolares, incluyendo la existencia de soluciones de equilibrio, construcci髇 de modelos anal骻icos y m閠odos para la determinaci髇 de masas individuales. Tambi閚 discutimos por qu las resonancias son tan frecuentes en estos sistemas, comparado con nuestro propio Sistema Solar. Por 鷏timo, intentamos relacionar estos modelos con la hip髏esis de migraci髇 planetaria, buscando l韒ites en su extensi髇 y en los posibles mecanismos que le dieron origen.

  3. EUV patterning improvement toward high-volume manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Yuhei; Matsunaga, Koichi; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Nafus, Kathleen; Foubert, Philippe; Goethals, Anne-Marie

    2015-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) technology is a promising candidate for a semiconductor process for 18nm half pitch and beyond. So far, the studies of EUV for manufacturability have been focused on particular aspects. It still requires fine resolution, uniform and smooth patterns, and low defectivity, not only after lithography but also after the etch process. Tokyo Electron Limited and imec are continuously collaborating to improve manufacturing quality of the process of record (POR) on a CLEAN TRACKTM LITHIUS ProTMZ-EUV. This next generation coating/developing system has been upgraded with defectivity reduction enhancements which are applied along with TELTM best known methods. We have evaluated process defectivity post lithography and post etch. Apart from defectivity, FIRMTM rinse material and application compatibility with sub 18nm patterning is improved to prevent line pattern collapse and increase process window on next generation resist materials. This paper reports on the progress of defectivity and patterning performance optimization towards the NXE:3300 POR.

  4. Cin閠ica Qu韒ica: el laboratorio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caba馻s Gal醤, B.

    La interpretaci髇 de las transformaciones qu韒icas que se producen en la atm髎fera requiere un profundo conocimiento de la cin閠ica, productos y mecanismos de reacci髇 de las posibles interacciones que pueden ocurrir entre las distintas especies presentes en ella. Informaci髇 cuantitativa de este tipo es un prerrequisito para la construcci髇 de modelos num閞icos adecuados que expliquen el comportamiento qu韒ico-f韘ico de la atm髎fera. Esta informaci髇 se obtiene a partir de experimentos realizados en laboratorios y por tanto independiente de medidas atmosf閞icas, por lo que los modelos atmosf閞icos derivados de ellos, pueden usarse para diagnosticar y predecir adecuadamente el comportamiento atmosf閞ico. En esta exposici髇 se recogen las t閏nicas experimentales m醩 extendidas para la obtenci髇 de datos cin閠icos as como los m閠odos de an醠isis de datos m醩 utilizados en el estudio de las distintas reacciones de inter閟 atmosf閞ico. Se analizan sus caracter韘ticas generales as como su adecuaci髇 a los distintos tipos de reacciones.

  5. Progresos recientes en Astronom铆a de Rayos Gamma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, G. E.

    Tras la exitosa misi贸n del Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory durante los a帽os 1990, la astronom铆a de rayos gamma ha entrado en una etapa de madurez, convirti茅ndose en una de las principales herramientas para el estudio de procesos relativistas en el universo. En este reporte, presentar茅 una revisi贸n de los principales t贸picos abordados a trav茅s de estudios con rayos gamma en los 煤ltimos a帽os, con particular 茅nfasis en los intentos m谩s recientes por establecer la naturaleza de las fuentes de rayos gamma no identificadas, detectadas por el instrumento EGRET.

  6. Como Lo Hago Yo: Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Lazareff, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Fortificaci贸n con 谩dico f贸lico es efectiva, pero a煤n falta conciencia en los j贸venes. La legalidad del aborto aumenta la importancia de la consulta prenatal. Realizo la cirug铆a bajo microcoscopio por razones did谩cticas. Irrigaci贸n continua para reducir la temperatura del tejido. Trato a la plaqueta como tejido viable. No suturo la plaqueta. No cierro m煤sculo. ATB por una semana despu茅s de cirug铆a. Hidrocefalia: V谩lvula en todos los casos de ventriculomegalia. M茅dula anclada: Desanclar una sola vez. Chiari II: Revisar la v谩lvula. Incluir en el seguimiento rendimiento escolar, puede indicar obstrucci贸n de la v谩lvula o m茅dula anclada. PMID:24791217

  7. 觬bitas ca髏icas en satelites gal醕ticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Vergne, M. M.; Wachlin, F. C.

    En trabajos anteriores investigamos las 髍bitas de estrellas que forman los satelites gal醕ticos utilizando an醠isis de frecuencias. Su uso estaba plenamente justificado por su velocidad y la gran informaci髇 que brinda, am閚 de haber dado resultados muy concordantes con los exponentes de Liapunov. Sin embargo, m醩 recientemente, encontramos algunos problemas en la utilizaci髇 del an醠isis de frecuencias en sistemas de referencia rotantes (como se utilizan para los sat閘ites), por lo que en este trabajo rehicimos nuestras investigaciones previas utilizando exclusivamente exponentes de Liapunov. Algunas conclusiones anteriores se han confirmado, en tanto que otras deben modificarse. Adem醩, los nuevos resultados muestran que las escalas de tiempo de los procesos ca髏icos en los sat閘ites gal醕ticos son comparables a, o m醩 cortas que, las escalas de tiempo de otros procesos din醡icos caracter韘ticos de estos objetos.

  8. Estudio din谩mico de un potencial perturbador dependiente de dos par谩metros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; Brunini, A.

    El objeto del presente trabajo consiste en el estudio din谩mico de un sistema din谩mico caracterizado por la funci贸n hamiltoniana correspondiente a un sat茅lite planetario perturbado por la acci贸n del Sol y del achatamiento del planeta madre. Cuando dicha Hamiltoniana se promedia respecto de los t茅rminos de corto per铆odo, esta queda con dos grados de libertad, y su estudio puede ser realizado con las herramientas cl谩sicas de la din谩mica no-lineal. Se tratar谩 de determinar regiones regulares y ca贸ticas de movimiento. En el caso de estas 煤ltimas, es de particular inter茅s la determinaci贸n de su or铆gen.

  9. Quality Control of Wind Data from 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vacek, Austin

    2016-01-01

    Upper-level wind profiles obtained from a 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) instrument at Kennedy Space Center are incorporated in space launch vehicle design and day-of-launch operations to assess wind effects on the vehicle during ascent. Automated and manual quality control (QC) techniques are implemented to remove spurious data in the upper-level wind profiles caused from atmospheric and non-atmospheric artifacts over the 2010-2012 period of record (POR). By adding the new quality controlled profiles with older profiles from 1997-2009, a robust database will be constructed of upper-level wind characteristics. Statistical analysis will determine the maximum, minimum, and 95th percentile of the wind components from the DRWP profiles over recent POR and compare against the older database. Additionally, this study identifies specific QC flags triggered during the QC process to understand how much data is retained and removed from the profiles.

  10. Quality Control of Wind Data from 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vacek, Austin

    2015-01-01

    Upper-level wind profiles obtained from a 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) instrument at Kennedy Space Center are incorporated in space launch vehicle design and day-of-launch operations to assess wind effects on the vehicle during ascent. Automated and manual quality control (QC) techniques are implemented to remove spurious data in the upper-level wind profiles caused from atmospheric and non-atmospheric artifacts over the 2010-2012 period of record (POR). By adding the new quality controlled profiles with older profiles from 1997-2009, a robust database will be constructed of upper-level wind characteristics. Statistical analysis will determine the maximum, minimum, and 95th percentile of the wind components from the DRWP profiles over recent POR and compare against the older database. Additionally, this study identifies specific QC flags triggered during the QC process to understand how much data is retained and removed from the profiles.

  11. [Regulation of continuing medical education].

    PubMed

    Lifhshitz, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Dentro de las etapas de la educaci髇 m閐ica, sin duda la de educaci髇 continua es la m醩 larga pues dura aproximadamente 30 a駉s, aunque curiosamente es la que menos regulaci髇 tiene. Todas las etapas anteriores (pre-m閐ica, licenciatura, posgrado) tienen su regulaci髇 por parte de escuelas y facultades de medicina, pero la educaci髇 continua suele ser de menor inter閟 para estas entidades, que la abordan acaso de manera muy parcial y espor醖ica y no como un verdadero continuum de la educaci髇 que impartieron, aun cuando toda la formaci髇 por m醩 excelsa que haya sido se puede malograr si no tiene mantenimiento. Pocas escuelas tienen un programa para que sus egresados se mantengan permanentemente actualizados y aptos. PMID:26581527

  12. Relevamiento total del hemisferio sur celeste en la frecuencia de 1420 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bava, J. A.; Colomb, F. R.; Hurrel, E.; Larrarte, J. J.; Sanz, A. J.; Testori, J. C.; Reich, P.; Reich, W.; Wielebinski, R.

    En el presente art韈ulo se describe el relevamiento del cielo en el Hemisferio Sur Celeste en la frecuencia de 1420 MHz para declinaciones ?<= -19o realizado con la Antena II de 30 metros de di醡etro del IAR. Este relevamiento posee igual sensibilidad (3xr.m.s=50 mK) que el realizado en el Hemisferio Norte con el radiotelescopio de 25 metros de Stockert de la Universidad de Bonn, operado por el Max-Planck Institute f黵 Radioastronomie ( Reich W., 1982, A&ASS 48, 219; Reich P. and Reich W., 1986, A&ASS 63, 205). Con los datos obtenidos por ambos radiotelescopios se posee una base de datos de todo el cielo en esta frecuencia. En esta publicaci髇 presentamos los detalles del sistema receptor, t閏nicas de observaci髇 y reducci髇 de datos, calibraci髇 y discusi髇 de los errores en los resultados.

  13. El Proyecto Sismico "LARSE" - Trabajando Hacia un Futuro con Mas Seguridad para Los Angeles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Criley, Edward E.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W., II; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Simila, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    La region de Los Angeles contiene una red de fallas activas, incluyendo muchas fallas por empuje que son profundas y no rompen la superficie de la tierra. Estas fallas ocultas incluyen la falla anteriormente desconocida que fue responsable por la devastacion que ocurrio durante el terremoto de Northridge en enero de 1994, el terremoto mas costoso en la historia de los Estados Unidos. El Experimento Sismico en la Region de Los Angeles (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, LARSE), esta localizando los peligros ocultos de los terremotos debajo de la region de Los Angeles para mejorar la construccion de las estructuras que pueden apoyar terremotos que son inevitables en el futuro, y que ayudaran a los cientificos determinar donde occurira el sacudimento mas fuerte y poderoso.

  14. Los grandes telescopios 贸pticos e infrarrojos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodr铆guez-Espinosa, J. M.

    Recientemente se han puesto en funcionamiento telescopios de 8 y 10 metros de di谩metro de su espejo primario que est谩n significando un gran avance en las capacidades observacionales de la Astronom铆a moderna. Igualmente en nuestro pa铆s se est谩 construyendo el Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC) que situar谩 a la Astronom铆a espa帽ola en la vanguardia de esta disciplina. En mi charla hablar茅 de las oportunidades observacionales que suponen estos grandes telescopios para la Astronom铆a moderna. Hablar茅 del GTC y del esfuerzo espa帽ol por ser actores principales del desarrollo de la Astronom铆a moderna. Por 煤ltimo, mostrar茅 brevemente los proyectos futuros de grandes telescopios que se est谩n proponiendo a ambos lados del Atl谩ntico.

  15. La historia orbital de Deimos y la oblicuidad de Marte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Yokoyama, T.

    Recientemente, se ha demostrado mediante extensas integraciones num閞icas, que la rotaci髇 de Marte pas repetidamente por estados ca髏icos de movimiento, debido al pasaje por zonas de resonancia spin - 髍bita. En dichas circunstancias, la oblicuidad marciana pudo haber sufrido grandes excursiones de varias decenas de grados. Las consecuencias de dichas variaciones son de extrema importancia en el contexto de la b鷖queda de manifestaciones de vida f髎il en dicho planeta. El estudio de la din醡ica orbital del sat閘ite m醩 exterior de Marte, Deimos, nos ha permitido comprobar, en el marco de las distintas teor韆s sobre su or韌en, que la oblicuidad de Marte dificilmente pudo haber sufrido variaciones que la aparten m醩 de 10o respecto de actual valor. Este resultado parece ser mucho m醩 robusto que las simulaciones num閞icas de Touma y Wisdom asi como las de Laskar y Robutel, lo que permite poner cotas m醩 severas a la evoluci髇 paleoclim醫ica de Marte.

  16. Din谩mica global en galaxias el铆pticas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P茅rez, M. J.; Cincotta, P. M.; Giordano, C. M.

    Con el prop贸sito de determinar propiedades din谩micas globales en sistemas triaxiales no integrables, utilizamos una nueva herramienta conocida como ``Mean Exponential Growth factor of Nearby Orbits'' (MEGNO), introducida por Cincotta y Sim贸 (2000). Esta t茅cnica no s贸lo resulta eficiente para investigar ambas componentes del espacio fase, regular y ca贸tica, sino que tambi茅n, provee una medida de la hiperbolicidad en el dominio ca贸tico que coincide con la dada por el Lyapunov Characteristic Number (LCN). Previamente este m茅todo ha sido aplicado al estudio de modelos simples, y 煤ltimamente en el campo de la Mec谩nica Celeste, al estudio de sistemas planetarios extrasolares. En esta presentaci贸n, ilustraremos algunas de las propiedades m谩s importantes del MEGNO, aplic& acute;andolo al potencial tridimensional de St盲ckel perturbado.

  17. Etapa final de la vida (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos sobre el tratamiento y la atenci贸n del paciente de c谩ncer desde los 煤ltimos d铆as hasta las 煤ltimas horas de vida; esto incluye los s铆ntomas comunes, los dilemas 茅ticos que pueden surgir y la funci贸n que desempe帽a el onc贸logo en proveer cuidados al paciente y su familia durante este per铆odo.

  18. On efeito do achatamento nos pontos de equil韇rio e na din鈓ica de sistemas coorbitais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mour鉶, D. C.; Winter, O. C.; Yokoyama, T.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho analisamos o efeito do achatamento do corpo principal nos pontos de equil韇rio lagrangianos e na configura玢o de 髍bitas girino-ferradura. Enfatizamos os sistemas coorbitais de sat閘ites de Saturno, pois se encontram em relativa proximidade com o planeta, em que o efeito do achatamento se torna mais evidente. O estudo dividido em tr阺 etapas independentes. Na primeira fase analisamos as equa珲es de movimento do problema restrito de tr阺 corpos considerando o efeito do achatamento, e atrav閟 do balanceamento de for鏰s buscamos a nova configura玢o dos pontos de equil韇rio lagrangianos. Conclu韒os, nesta etapa, que os pontos de equil韇rio est醰eis apresentam um pequeno deslocamento definido pelo par鈓etro de achatamento, n鉶 podendo ser mais representados por tri鈔gulos eq黫l醫eros. Aplicamos este resultado aos sat閘ites coorbitais de Tetis e Dione, encontrando as posi珲es de equil韇rio levemente deslocadas em rela玢o ao caso sem achatamento. Na segunda fase visamos o sistema Saturno-Jano-Epimeteu, que por se tratar de um sistema de massas compar醰eis, optamos por desenvolver as equa珲es de Yoder et al (Icarus 53, p醙 431-443, 1983), que permitem determinar os pontos de equil韇rio e a amplitude de oscila玢o angular das 髍bitas girino-ferradura para o problema n鉶-restrito de tr阺 corpos, por閙, no nosso estudo consideramos o efeito do achatamento do corpo principal nestas equa珲es. Encontramos que a dist鈔cia angular entre sat閘ites, quando em posi玢o de equil韇rio est醰el, diminui quanto maior for o par鈓etro de achatamento do corpo principal. Al閙 disso, a 髍bita de transi玢o girino-ferradura possui largura angular menor em rela玢o ao caso sem achatamento. Por fim, realizamos integra珲es num閞icas para os casos reais de coorbitais de Saturno comparando com os resultados anal韙icos. Nestas integra珲es simulamos diversas 髍bitas girino-ferradura com diferentes par鈓etros de achatamento, utilizando condi珲es iniciais corrigidas para a presen鏰 do achatamento.

  19. Estudio de la fotoabsorci贸n y fotoionizaci贸n de la mol茅cula de alta relevancia atmosf茅rica no a trav茅s de los estados Rydberg con la metodolog铆a MQDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Mart铆n, I.; Lav铆n, C.

    Los procesos de fotoionizaci贸n son de una importancia fundamental [1] y encuentran aplicaci贸n en un gran n煤mero de contextos cient铆ficos: Astrof铆sica [2], qu铆mica de las radiaciones, biolog铆a. Los investigadores de dichos campos, necesitan de valores de fiables de secciones eficaces para la fotoionizaci贸n parcial, la Fotoabsorci贸n, as铆 como para los procesos de fotofragmentaci贸n en amplios intervalos espectrales, particularmente en estudios de modelizaci贸n [3-5]. En este trabajo se ha centrado la atenci贸n sobre el oxido n铆trico, que se ha considerado apropiado y relevante por varios motivos: por el trascendental papel que representa en la f铆sica y qu铆mica de la alta atmosfera [6], aparte de por estar 铆ntimamente relacionado con los problemas de contaminaci贸n. Los procesos de recombinaci贸n disociativa [7] del NO, donde los estados Rydberg se encuentran directamente implicados, son relevantes, por ejemplo, en las regiones E y F de la ionosfera [7]. En este trabajo se estudia la fotoionizaci贸n del NO desde el estado fundamental con la versi贸n molecular del m茅todo del orbital de defecto cu谩ntico (MQDO). Para ello se calcula el diferencial de las fuerzas de oscilador parciales que constituyen los canales de fotoionizaci贸n del NO desde el estado fundamental. La continuidad del diferencial de fuerza de oscilador calculada a trav茅s del umbral de fotoionizaci贸n, esto es, en las regiones del espectro discreta y del continua, se adopta como criterio de calidad la escasez de datos comparativos [8].

  20. Atlas del Genoma del C醤cer - Estudio de caso: c醤cer cerebral

    Cancer.gov

    Cuando no se encuentra en el quir骹ano o est ayudando a pacientes, el doctor Brennan dirige un laboratorio que estudia la forma m醩 com鷑 de c醤cer de cerebro, el glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), el primer tipo de c醤cer analizado por el TCGA. La mayor韆 de los pacientes con esta forma mortal de c醤cer viven de 12 a 15 meses despu閟 de ser diagnosticados; menos de 10 % llegan al umbral de los cinco a駉s de supervivencia.