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Sample records for por cisticerco racemoso

  1. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  2. Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Apiales - POR 1 is missing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bj酶rn; Laursen, Tomas; Weitzel, Corinna; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-05-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor to eukaryotic microsomal cytochromes P450 enzymes. The number of PORs within plant species is limited to one to four isoforms, with the most common being two PORs per plant. These enzymes provide electrons to a huge number of different cytochromes P450s (from 50 to several hundred within one plant). Within the eudicotyledons, PORs can be divided into two major clades, POR 1 and POR 2. Based on our own sequencing analysis and publicly available data, we have identified 45 PORs from the angiosperm order Apiales. These were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis along with 237 other publicly available (NCBI and oneKP) POR sequences found within the clade Asterids. Here, we show that the order Apiales only harbor members of the POR 2 clade, which are further divided into two distinct subclades. This is in contrast to most other eudicotyledon orders that have both POR 1 and POR 2. This suggests that through gene duplications and one gene deletion, Apiales only contain members of the POR 2 clade. Three POR 2 isoforms from Thapsia garganica L., Apiaceae, were all full-length in an Illumina root transcriptome dataset (available from the SRA at NCBI). All three genes were shown to be functional upon reconstitution into nanodiscs, confirming that none of the isoforms are pseudogenes. PMID:26854662

  3. Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

  4. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  5. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Cancer.gov

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevenci髇 de m醩 de 795 000 muertes por c醤cer de pulm髇 en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este pa韘 hubiera cesado despu閟 de la publicaci髇 d

  6. Disminuyen en los Estados Unidos las infecciones por VPH.

    Cancer.gov

    La infecci贸n por los tipos del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) en el blanco de la vacuna cuadrivalente se redujo en casi dos tercios en las adolescentes desde que se recomend贸 la vacunaci贸n en los Estados Unidos.

  7. Centros oncol贸gicos designados por el NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El programa de centros oncol贸gicos designados por el Instituto Nacional del C谩ncer (NCI) reconoce a los centros de todo el pa铆s que cumplen con rigurosos criterios para participar en proyectos avanzados de primer nivel para la investigaci贸n multidisciplinaria del c谩ncer.

  8. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P.聽gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. PMID:23075153

  9. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Cancer.gov

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevenci贸n de m谩s de 795 000 muertes por c谩ncer de pulm贸n en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este pa铆s hubiera cesado despu茅s de la publicaci贸n d

  10. Arabidopsis protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA) restores bulk chlorophyll synthesis and normal development to a porB porC double mutant.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Troy N; Mason, Mary E; Lima, Daniel F; Armstrong, Gregory A

    2010-03-01

    In angiosperms the strictly light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide is catalyzed by NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes three structurally related but differentially regulated POR genes, PORA, PORB and PORC. PORA is expressed primarily early in development-during etiolation, germination and greening. In contrast, PORB and PORC are not only expressed during seedling development but also throughout the later life of the plant, during which they are responsible for bulk chlorophyll synthesis. The Arabidopsis porB-1 porC-1 mutant displays a severe xantha (highly chlorophyll-deficient) phenotype characterized by smaller prolamellar bodies in etioplasts and decreased thylakoid stacking in chloroplasts. Here we have demonstrated the ability of an ectopic PORA overexpression construct to restore prolamellar body formation in the porB-1 porC-1 double mutant background. In response to illumination, light-dependent chlorophyll production, thylakoid stacking and photomorphogenesis are also restored in PORA-overexpressing porB-1 porC-1 seedlings and adult plants. An Arabidopsis porB-1 porC-1 double mutant can therefore be functionally rescued by the addition of ectopically expressed PORA, which suffices in the absence of either PORB or PORC to direct bulk chlorophyll synthesis and normal plant development. PMID:20012672

  11. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    This document describes Acceptance Testing performed on Portable Exhauster POR-007/Skid E. It includes measurements of bearing vibration levels, pressure decay testing, programmable logic controller interlocks, high vacuum, flow and pressure control functional testing. The purpose of Acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-0490, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  12. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located 藴35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of 藴20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  13. Typing and surface charges of the variable loop regions of PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Paola; Neri, Arianna; Tanabe, Mikio; Fazio, Cecilia; Massari, Paola

    2016-06-01

    PorB is a pan-Neisserial major outer membrane protein with a trimeric 尾-barrel structure. Each monomer presents eight periplasmic turns and eight surface exposed loop regions with sequence variability. PorB induces activation of host cell responses via a TLR2-dependent mechanism likely mediated by electrostatic interactions between TLR2 and PorB surface exposed loops. Variability in the loop amino acid sequence is known to influence cell responses to PorB in vitro, particularly for the residues in L5 and L7. In this work, the sequence of the porB gene and the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from 35 invasive meningococcal isolates belonging to the main clonal complexes identified in Italy and from five carriage genomes available on the website http://pubmlst.org/neisseria/ were examined. Analysis of the porB encoding regions from the invasive meningococci has identified four new alleles and a potential association between porB alleles, serogroup, and clonal complexes. Through computer-based modeling and analysis of the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from these strains, loop charge segregation between PorB from invasive serogroups B and C was observed. Specifically, loops 1, 4, and 7 were negatively charged and L2 and L8 were mostly neutral in serogroup B isolates, while an overall homogeneous positive surface charge was present in PorB from invasive serogroup C strains. A higher PorB sequence variability was observed among carriage genomes, and a general prevalence of negative loop surface charges. The surface charge differences in PorB from serogroups B and C invasive and carriage strains may, in part, influence the outcomes of Neisseriae interactions with host cells. 漏 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(6):488-495, 2016. PMID:27156582

  14. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    Portable Exhauster POR-008 was procured via HNF-0490, Specification for a Portable Exhausted System for Waste Tank Ventilation. Prior to taking ownership, acceptance testing was performed at the vendors. However at the conclusion of testing a number of issues remained that required resolution before the exhausters could be used by Project W-320. The purpose of acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-O49O, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  15. Prenatal Diagnosis of Antley-Bixler Syndrome and POR Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Oldani, Elena; Garel, Catherine; Bucourt, Martine; Carbillon, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, fetus Final Diagnosis: Antley-Bixler syndrome Symptoms: Craniosynostosis 鈥 midface hypoplasia 鈥 femoral bowing 鈥 radiohumeral synostosis Medication: None Clinical Procedure: Prenatal diagnosis of severe fetal bone disease using detailed ultrasonography and computed tomography Specialty: Obstetrics and Gynecology 鈥 Maternal-Fetal Medicine Objective: Rare disease Background: Prenatal diagnosis of severe bone diseases is challenging and requires complete and precise analysis of fetal anomalies to guide genetic investigation and parental counselling. Case Report: We report a rare case of Antley-Bixler syndrome prenatally diagnosed at 26 weeks鈥 gestation by ultrasound and computed tomography in a 28-year-old woman with a history of early termination of pregnancy for 鈥渕alposition of the inferior limbs鈥. The prenatal ultrasound scan showed severe femoral bowing and frontal bossing. Taking into account the high probability of a recurrent severe skeletal disorder, a computed tomography (CT) scan was proposed. CT findings revealed bilateral femora deformation, craniosynostosis, severe midface hypoplasia, and radiohumeral synostosis. These anomalies strongly suggested Antley-Bixler syndrome. Sequencing of the POR gene in the fetus and the parents revealed compound heterozygous mutations in exon 9 and intron 7, both inherited from each parent, and this finding allowed genetic counseling. Conclusions: The first step in the proper prenatal diagnosis of fetal bone disorders is the precise analysis of ultrasonographic images. However, when a severe fetal inherited disorder is strongly suspected in late mid-trimester, CT may be discussed and usefully contribute to diagnosis and prognosis assessment. PMID:26670660

  16. Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T.M.

    2010-06-25

    PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP-PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction.

  17. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kaelynn

    2012-05-08

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  18. Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

  19. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Ben铆tez, J F; Blomstr枚m, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hern谩ndez-Baumgarten, E; Hern谩ndez-J谩uregui, P; Ram铆rez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge. PMID:26728078

  20. Gliding Motility and Por Secretion System Genes Are Widespread among Members of the Phylum Bacteroidetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yongtao

    2013-01-01

    The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, 鈥淕ramella forsetii,鈥 Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility. PMID:23123910

  1. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-纬. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  2. Informe a la Naci贸n de mortalidad por c谩ncer sigue bajando

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Naci贸n sobre el Estado del C谩ncer, de 1975 a 2009, indica que los 铆ndices generales de mortalidad por c谩ncer siguen bajando en los Estados Unidos en hombres y mujeres, entre todos los grupos raciales y 茅tnicos principales y para todo

  3. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were as substitutions for other prepositions鈥

  4. Verification of a topology model of PorT as an integral outer membrane protein in Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ky-Anh; 呕ylicz, Jasiek; Szczesny, Pawel; Sroka, Aneta; Hunter, Neil; Potempa, Jan

    2009-01-01

    PorT is a membrane-associated protein shown to be essential for the maturation and secretion of a class of cysteine proteinases, the gingipains, from the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. It was previously reported that PorT is located on the periplasmic surface of the inner membrane to function as a chaperone for the maturing proteinases. Our modeling suggested it to be an integral outer membrane protein with eight anti-parallel, membrane-traversing 尾-strands. In this report, the outer membrane localization model was confirmed by the structural and functional tolerance of PorT to hexa-histidine (6脳His) tag insertions at selected locations within the protein using site-directed mutagenesis. Interestingly, those PorT mutations adversely affecting gingipain secretion enhanced expression of the porT gene but at the same time suppressed the transcription of the gingipain rgpB gene. Further, PorT mutants deficient in gingipain activities produced significantly more di- and tri-aminopeptidase activities. PorT homologues have been found in restricted members of the Bacteroidetes phylum where there is potential for PorT to participate in the maturation and secretion of proteins with characteristic C-terminal domains (CTD). Knowledge of the cellular localisation of PorT will enable analysis of the role of this protein in a new secretory pathway for the export of gingipains and other CTD-class proteins. PMID:19202082

  5. Detecci贸n y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por L谩ser de radicales libres formados por Disociaci贸n Multifot贸nica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; D铆az, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociaci贸n multifot贸nica inducidos por radiaci贸n l谩ser infrarroja (DMI) es la producci贸n de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cin茅ticas y espectrosc贸picas. La disociaci贸n de mol茅culas poliat贸micas en el IR con l谩seres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energ铆a molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formaci贸n de fragmentos en el estado electr贸nico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitaci贸n vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifot贸nicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la t茅cnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por L谩ser (LIF) para la detecci贸n y an谩lisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos l谩seres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociaci贸n mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, as铆 como de la distribuci贸n de energ铆a interna con que 茅stas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociaci贸n de, entre otras, las siguientes mol茅culas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la se帽al LIF obtenida con determinaci贸n de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitaci贸n y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formaci贸n, variaci贸n de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los l谩seres de disociaci贸n y prueba, etc.

  6. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-004 skid B

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-05-06

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-004 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  7. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-006 skid D

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-07-29

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  8. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-06-27

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-005 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  9. Meningococcal PorA/C1, a channel that combines high conductance and high selectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Song, J; Minetti, C A; Blake, M S; Colombini, M

    1999-01-01

    Class 1 porins (PorA/C1) from Neisseria meningitidis achieve both high selectivity and high conductance. The channel is highly selective (24:1 Na+ over Cl-), suggesting a highly negatively charged selectivity filter. The trimeric nature of PorA/C1 accounts for part of the enormous conductance in 200 mM NaCl (0.97nS). However, the currents that can be achieved exceed the simple infinite-sink calculation for a pore 0.7 nm in radius (estimated from nonelectrolyte permeability). The conductance is linear with salt activity from 20 mM to 2.0 M NaCl with no sign of saturation at low salt. Impermeant polymers reduce the conductance in a manner consistent with their ability to reduce bulk conductivity. Extrapolating from the known structure of homologous porins, the selectivity filter is likely to be small and localized. If small and highly negatively charged ( approximately 9 charges), the predicted conductance would be an order of magnitude higher than that observed. The rate at which ions reach the selectivity filter seems to limit overall ionic flux. PorA/C1 rectifies strongly, and this rectification can be accounted for by calculated differences in the voltage and concentration profiles in the access regions. Thus, it appears that the conductance of this channel is determined by the access resistance and the selectivity by a highly-conductive filter. PMID:9929482

  10. Application of POR-Tveks to the radiochemical recovery of yttrium-90

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimova, A.M.; Kvasnitskii, I.B.

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe a method for the radiochemical analysis of fish bones for the accumulation of strontium 90 and yttrium 90 from power plant contamination of surface waters which involves labelling the sample with isotopes and subsequent adsorption of the yttrium component with the use of POR-Tveks, an adsorbent based on a copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene with heteroradical phosphine oxide. The yield of yttrium is determined from the mass of the oxide and from the half-life of the yttrium isotope.

  11. Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Mikio; Iverson, Tina M.

    2010-01-28

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from inclusion bodies by denaturation in urea followed by refolding in buffered LDAO on a size-exclusion column. PorB has been crystallized in three different crystal forms: C222, R32 and P6{sub 3}. The C222 crystal form may contain either one or two PorB monomers in the asymmetric unit, while both the R32 and P6{sub 3} crystal forms contained one PorB monomer in the asymmetric unit. Of the three, the P6{sub 3} crystal form had the best diffraction quality, yielding data extending to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution.

  12. Effect of SPM-based cleaning POR on EUV mask performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.

    2011-11-01

    EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning POR and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning POR.

  13. Neutral sphingomyelinase 2 is a key factor for PorB-dependent invasion of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Faulstich, Michaela; Hagen, Franziska; Avota, Elita; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Winkler, Ann-Cathrin; Xian, Yibo; Schneider-Schaulies, Sibylle; Rudel, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI) is a rare but serious complication caused by the spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the human host. Gonococci associated with DGI mainly express the outer membrane protein PorBIA that binds to the scavenger receptor expressed on endothelial cells (SREC-I) and mediates bacterial uptake. We recently demonstrated that this interaction relies on intact membrane rafts that acquire SREC-I upon attachment of gonococci and initiates the signalling cascade that finally leads to the uptake of gonococci in epithelial cells. In this study, we analysed the role of sphingomyelinases and their breakdown product ceramide. Gonococcal infection induced increased levels of ceramide that was enriched at bacterial attachment sites. Interestingly, neutral but not acid sphingomyelinase was mandatory for PorBIA -mediated invasion into host cells. Neutral sphingomyelinase was required to recruit the PI3 kinase to caveolin and thereby activates the PI3 kinase-dependent downstream signalling leading to bacterial uptake. Thus, this study elucidates the initial signalling processes of bacterial invasion during DGI and demonstrates a novel role for neutral sphingomyelinase in the course of bacterial infections. PMID:25224994

  14. Diagn贸stico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    Gonz谩lez-Valc谩rcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducci贸n La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un s铆ndrome caracter铆stico de evoluci贸n multif谩sica y diagn贸stico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro cl铆nico t铆pico, pero que inicialmente se帽al贸 otras etiolog铆as. Discusi贸n La afectaci贸n frecuente de pacientes j贸venes con manifestaciones psiqui谩tricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagn贸sticas; las m谩s frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiqui谩tricos y el s铆ndrome neurol茅ptico maligno. Varios s铆ndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pedi谩tricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes j贸venes con manifestaciones psiqui谩tricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones auton贸micas. La caracterizaci贸n cl铆nica e inmunol贸gica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificaci贸n de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  15. Reconstru莽茫o tridimensional de arcos magn茅ticos por tomografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim玫es, P. J. A.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explos茫o solar 茅 uma varia莽茫o s煤bita do brilho que ocorre nas regi玫es ativas da atmosfera solar. Estas regi玫es s茫o constitu铆das por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indu莽茫o magn茅tica e em cen谩rios bem complexos como visto recentemente atrav茅s de experimentos embarcados em sat茅lites operando instrumentos em raios X moles e ultra-violeta distante. A energia magn茅tica, que pode ser armazenada por um per铆odo de horas at茅 dias em configura莽玫es magn茅ticas estressadas, 茅 subitamente lan莽ada na atmosfera solar e transferida para part铆culas como el茅trons, pr贸tons e n煤cleos pesados, que s茫o acelerados e/ou aquecidos, produzindo radia莽茫o eletromagn茅tica. A proposta final deste projeto 茅 determinar as caracter铆sticas espaciais de alta resolu莽茫o da emiss茫o e polariza莽茫o girossincrotr么nica de explos玫es solares em ambientes complexos de campos magn茅ticos. Os recentes resultados da emiss茫o difusa em EUV apresentado pelos sat茅lites TRACE e SOHO dos arcos magn茅ticos conectando as diferentes polaridades magn茅ticas sobre as regi玫es ativas possibilitam novas abordagens sobre o papel do campo magn茅tico na emiss茫o em r谩dio. Nesta etapa apresentamos os resultados da reconstru莽茫o da geometria tridimensional das linhas de for莽a destes arcos utilizando t茅cnicas tomogr谩ficas, a partir de imagens de alta resolu莽茫o espacial obtidas pelo instrumento EIT (Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope), al茅m da modelagem das indu莽玫es magn茅ticas por um campo dipolar e as densidades de part铆culas aceleradas. Utilizamos para a reconstru莽茫o geom茅trica, imagens tomadas em v谩rios 芒ngulos dos arcos devido 脿 rotac茫o solar. Com estes resultados, daremos continuidade ao projeto, com os c谩lculos da transfer锚ncia radiativa nos modos ordin谩rio e extraordin谩rio de propaga莽茫o da radia莽茫o girossincrotr么nica de explos玫es solares.

  16. Intermit锚ncia alfv锚nica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.

    2003-08-01

    Dados medidos no vento solar r谩pido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanet谩rio s茫o dominados por flutua莽玫es Alfv锚nicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correla莽茫o entre as varia莽玫es do campo magn茅tico e da velocidade do plasma. As flutua莽玫es exibem muitas caracter铆sticas esperadas em turbul锚ncia magneto-hidrodin芒mica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermit锚ncia e espectros cont铆nuos. Contudo, os mecanismos respons谩veis pela evolu莽茫o de turbul锚ncia Alfv锚nica intermitente n茫o s茫o completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos 茅 usada para explicar como sistemas Alfv锚nicos, modelados pela equa莽茫o Schr枚dinger n茫o-linear derivativa e pela equa莽茫o Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente ca贸ticos 脿 medida em que par芒metros do plasma s茫o variados. Pequenas perturba莽玫es no par芒metro de dissipa莽茫o podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime peri贸dico, ou fracamente ca贸tico, para um regime fortemente ca贸tico. As s茅ries temporais das flutua莽玫es do campo magn茅tico nos regimes fortemente ca贸ticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente ca贸ticas s茫o interrompidas por fortes estouros ca贸ticos. 脡 mostrado que o regime fortemente ca贸tico 茅 atingido quando as solu莽玫es peri贸dicas ou fracamente ca贸ticas globalmente est谩veis interagem com solu莽玫es do sistema que s茫o fortemente ca贸ticas, mas globalmente inst谩veis. Estas solu莽玫es globalmente inst谩veis s茫o conjuntos ca贸ticos n茫o-atrativos conhecidos como selas ca贸ticas, e s茫o respons谩veis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas ca贸ticas t锚m sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo prov谩vel que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbul锚ncia intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

  17. Fabrication of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers for gas microsensors and nanosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V. Korusenko, P. M.; Nesov, S. N.; Povoroznyuk, S. N.; Roslikov, V. E.; Kurdyukova, E. A.; Sten'kin, Yu. A.; Shelyagin, R. V.; Knyazev, E. V.; Kan, V. E.; Ponomareva, I. V.

    2011-05-15

    Two-phase nanocomposite layers based on porous silicon and nonstoichiometric tin oxide were fabricated by various methods. The structure, as well as elemental and phase composition, of the obtained nanocomposites were studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results obtained confirm the formation of nanocomposite layers with a thickness as large as 2 {mu}m thick and SnO{sub x} stoichiometry coefficients x = 1.0-2.0. Significant tin diffusion into the porous silicon matrix with D{sub eff} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} was observed upon annealing at 770 K. Test sensor structures based on por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers grown by magnetron deposition showed fairly high stability of properties and sensitivity to NO{sub 2}.

  18. Using the PORS Problems to Examine Evolutionary Optimization of Multiscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, Zachary; Molian, Vaelan; Bryden, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all systems of practical interest are composed of parts assembled across multiple scales. For example, an agrodynamic system is composed of flora and fauna on one scale; soil types, slope, and water runoff on another scale; and management practice and yield on another scale. Or consider an advanced coal-fired power plant: combustion and pollutant formation occurs on one scale, the plant components on another scale, and the overall performance of the power system is measured on another. In spite of this, there are few practical tools for the optimization of multiscale systems. This paper examines multiscale optimization of systems composed of discrete elements using the plus-one-recall-store (PORS) problem as a test case or study problem for multiscale systems. From this study, it is found that by recognizing the constraints and patterns present in discrete multiscale systems, the solution time can be significantly reduced and much more complex problems can be optimized.

  19. Impact of PPARA and POR polymorphisms on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics and new-onset diabetes in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Kurzawski, Mateusz; Malinowski, Damian; Dziewanowski, Krzysztof; Dro藕dzik, Marek

    2014-08-01

    Recent efforts have been made to identify genetic markers of CYP3A4 enzymatic activity within genes encoding for regulatory elements. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of polymorphism of PPARA and POR genes on tacrolimus (TAC) dose-adjusted trough concentration and risk of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). A total of 241 White kidney transplant patients were genotyped for three functional single nucleotide polymorphisms: rs1057868 (*28) in POR, rs4253728:G>A, and rs4823613:A>G in PPARA. No significant genotype-dependent differences in TAC dose-adjusted trough concentration were observed for either POR or PPARA variants. No significant differences in the incidence of NODAT were observed between patients stratified by PPARA and POR genotypes. The frequency of NODAT among PPARA rs4253728 AA homozygotes (42%) was higher compared with heterozygotes (22%) and GG homozygotes (19%), but the difference was not significant. Testing TAC-medicated renal transplant recipients for POR and PPARA variants seems to have limited clinical application. PMID:24921414

  20. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Ense帽谩 Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Ense帽谩 por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,鈥

  1. [Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD, students at Budapest and Prague Faculties of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Mydl铆k, M; Derzsiov谩, K

    2010-11-01

    Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD were contemporaries, both born in 1899, one in Zvolen, the other in Dombovar, at the time of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Prof. Por attended the Faculty of Medicine in Budapest from 1918 to 1920, and Prof. Klopstock studied at the same place between 1917 and 1919. From 1920 until graduation on 6th February 1926, Prof. Por continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Prof. Klopstock had to interrupt his studies in Budapest due to pulmonary tuberculosis; he received treatment at Tatranske Matliare where he befriended Franz Kafka. Later, upon Kafka's encouragement, he changed institutions and continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, where he graduated the first great go. It is very likely that, during their studies in Budapest and Prague, both professors met repeatedly, even though their life paths later separated. Following his graduation, Prof. Por practiced as an internist in Prague, later in Slovakia, and from 1945 in Kosice. In 1961, he was awarded the title of university professor of internal medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, where he practiced until his death in 1980. Prof. Klopstock continued his studies in Kiel and Berlin. After his graduation in 1933, he practiced in Berlin as a surgeon and in 1938 left for USA. In 1962, he was awarded the title of university professor of pulmonary surgery in NewYork, where he died in 1972. PMID:21250499

  2. Functional POR A503V is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xue; Ma, Gaoxiang; Li, Shushu; Wang, Meilin; Liu, Nian; Ma, Lan; Zhang, Zhan; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) plays important roles in the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous sterol hormones. However, few studies have explored the association between POR variants and the risk of bladder cancer. In this study, we first sequenced all 16 POR exons among 50 randomly selected controls, and found three variants, rs1135612, rs1057868 (A503V) and rs2228104, which were then assessed the relation to risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study of 1,050 bladder cancer cases and 1,404 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. People with A503V TT genotype have a decreased risk of bladder cancer in a recessive model (TT vs. CC/CT, OR鈥=鈥0.73, 95% CI鈥=鈥0.57鈥0.93), which was more pronounced among elderly male, non-smoking, subjects. Especially, A503V TT genotype showed a protective effect in the invasive tumor stage. Functional analysis revealed that A503V activity decreased in cytochrome c reduction (50.5 units/mg vs. 135.4 units/mg), mitomycin C clearance (38.3% vs. 96.8%), and mitomycin C-induced colony formation (78.0 vs 34.3 colonies per dish). The results suggested that POR A503V might decrease the risk of bladder cancer by reducing its metabolic activity, and should be a potential biomarker for predicting the susceptibility to human bladder cancer. PMID:26123203

  3. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la seccion de entrada mediante un mayor o menor aporte de corriente al puente. Como consecuencia, la seccion de entrada del paralelo, ya de por si mas voluminosa que lao del serie por el uso de grandes componentes magneticos (bobinas de filtro o de "alisamiento"), result a tambien mas complicada y costosa debido a la necesidad de ser implementada mediante rectificador controlado. Ademas, la regulacion que ofrece el rectificador es pobre, dada su baja frecuencia de conmutacion. En cambio, el circuito serie puede funcionar por encima de la resonancia manteniendo una secuencia de conmutacion sin riesgos de recuperacion inversa y con una corriente de salida practicamente sinusoidal, lo que permite un control de la potencia por variacion de frecuencia. Puesto que la tarea de regulacion se realiza desde el puente inversor, la regulacion resulta mucho mas eficaz y la seccion de entrada se puede implementar mediante un simple rectificador no controlado y un condensador de filtro. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  4. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pedi谩tricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Ver贸nica

    2016-01-01

    Introducci贸n La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez m谩s diagnosticada en edad pedi谩trica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en ni帽os m谩s frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiqui谩tricas. Casos cl铆nicos Presentamos seis casos pedi谩tricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y l铆quido cefalorraqu铆deo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestaci贸n cl铆nica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro cl谩sico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera l铆nea de tratamiento, con los que s贸lo se observ贸 control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requiri贸 inmunomoduladores de segunda l铆nea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar reca铆das y la evoluci贸n fue a la mejor铆a en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoci贸 a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un a帽o, no observamos eventos adversos cl铆nicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurol贸gicas ni reca铆das durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie peque帽a y es deseable incrementar el n煤mero y tiempo de evoluci贸n, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patolog铆a. PMID:24150952

  5. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por D茅ficit de Atenci贸n con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigaci贸n tuvo como prop贸sito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por D茅ficit de Atenci贸n con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versi贸n en espa帽ol del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje 煤til en una poblaci贸n de ni帽os y ni帽as escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 ni帽os entre 5 y 13 a帽os de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagn贸stico fue confirmado con una entrevista cl铆nica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagn贸stico seg煤n el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje m谩s preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue m谩s baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categoriz贸 correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  6. CYP2C9*2 allele increases risk for hypoglycemia in POR*1/*1 type 2 diabetic patients treated with sulfonylureas.

    PubMed

    Ragia, G; Tavridou, A; Elens, L; Van Schaik, R H N; Manolopoulos, V G

    2014-01-01

    It is previously shown that carriers of the defective allele CYP2C9*3 that leads to impaired sulfonylurea metabolism are at increased sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia risk due to diminished drug metabolism, whereas no effect of CYP2C9*2 allele was found. Recently, a polymorphism in P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene, assigned as POR*28 allele, was associated with increased CYP2C9 activity. The aim of this study was to assess i) the effect of POR*28 allele on sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia risk and ii) the association of CYP2C9*2 allele with hypoglycemia risk in non-carriers of POR*28 allele. The study group consisted of 176 patients with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with sulfonylureas, of whom 92 patients had experienced at least one drug-associated hypoglycemic event (cases), while 84 had never experienced a hypoglycemic event (controls). POR*28 allele was detected by use of real-time TaqMan PCR. POR*28 allele was not associated with sulfonyl-urea-induced hypoglycemia. In POR*1/*1 patients, CYP2C9*1/*2 genotype was more common in cases than in controls (32.7 vs. 14.3%, p=0.041). In a model adjusted for age, BMI, duration of T2DM and renal function, and POR*1/*1 entered as a selection variable, CYP2C9*2 allele increased the hypoglycemia risk in response to sulfonylurea (odds ratio: 3.218, p=0.031). In conclusion, our results suggest that POR*28 allele is masking the association of CYP2C9*2 allele with sulfonyl-urea-induced hypoglycemia. Therefore, POR*28 allele is an important source of CYP2C9 activity variability and combined with CYP2C9 gene poly-morphisms may explain individual variability in the effect of sulfonylureas. PMID:24464600

  7. On an imported case of Taenia saginata.

    PubMed

    Gal谩n Puchades, Mar铆a Teresa

    2016-02-01

    La carta al editor se refiere a un art铆culo recientemente apararecido en la revista titulado "Taenia saginata: an imported case". En mi contribuci贸n aporto informaci贸n sobre el tema de la taeniasis humana ya que en el art铆culo solo se menciona a T. saginata y T. solium como las causantes de tal enfermedad parasitaria, siendo que son 3 y no 2 las especies que la originan. La tercera especie es Taenia asiatica, cuya morfolog铆a es la misma que T. saginata por lo que tan solo por m茅todos moleculares pueden ser distinguidas ambas especies. Es importante distinguir entre ambas ya que la fuente de infecci贸n para el ser humano es distinta (ganado vacuno en el caso de T. saginata y cerdo en el caso de T. asiatica). Y lo que es mas importante, T. saginata no produce cisticercosis humana, mientras que a煤n no se sabe si T. asiatica es capaz de producir esta, a veces, fatal enfermedad, por la fase larvaria del par谩sito (cisticerco). PMID:26838497

  8. Monitoring Shifts in the Conformation Equilibrium of the Membrane Protein Cytochrome P450 Reductase (POR) in Nanodiscs*

    PubMed Central

    Wads盲ter, Maria; Laursen, Tomas; Singha, Aparajita; Hatzakis, Nikos S.; Stamou, Dimitrios; Barker, Robert; Mortensen, Kell; Feidenhans'l, Robert; M酶ller, Birger Lindberg; C谩rdenas, Marit茅

    2012-01-01

    Nanodiscs are self-assembled 鈭50-nm2 patches of lipid bilayers stabilized by amphipathic belt proteins. We demonstrate that a well ordered dense film of nanodiscs serves for non-destructive, label-free studies of isolated membrane proteins in a native like environment using neutron reflectometry (NR). This method exceeds studies of membrane proteins in vesicle or supported lipid bilayer because membrane proteins can be selectively adsorbed with controlled orientation. As a proof of concept, the mechanism of action of the membrane-anchored cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is studied here. This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the transfer of electrons from NADPH to cytochrome P450s and thus is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of numerous primary and secondary metabolites in plants. Neutron reflectometry shows a coexistence of two different POR conformations, a compact and an extended form with a thickness of 44 and 79 鈩, respectively. Upon complete reduction by NADPH, the conformational equilibrium shifts toward the compact form protecting the reduced FMN cofactor from engaging in unspecific electron transfer reaction. PMID:22891242

  9. An谩lise dos Conceitos Astron么micos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A raz茫o para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educa莽茫o B谩sica (EB) n茫o lidam com conceitos relacionados 脿 astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros did谩ticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como 茅 de conhecimento geral a astronomia 茅 um dos conte煤dos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Par芒metros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de S茫o Paulo, mas 茅 um fato, que v谩rios pesquisadores apontam, a exist锚ncia de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o prop贸sito de minimizar algumas dessas defici锚ncias foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utiliza莽茫o de question谩rios pr茅 e p贸s pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extens茫o Universit谩ria para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mau谩, Ribeir茫o Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de S茫o Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concep莽玫es alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem ap贸s o curso, adotando-se como refer锚ncia, para a an谩lise dos resultados, os dicion谩rios de L铆ngua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclop茅dico de Astronomia e Astron谩utica (MOUR膧O, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis quest玫es foram aplicadas antes e ap贸s o curso, assim pode-se verificar ap贸s a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar 茅 composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solst铆cio, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorr锚ncia das esta莽玫es do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorr锚ncia do equin贸cio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram aster贸ide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% gal谩xia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of PorM, a subunit of the Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system.

    PubMed

    Stathopulos, Julien; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Roussel, Alain; Leone, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PorM is a membrane protein involved in the assembly of the type IX secretion system (T9SS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major bacterial pathogen responsible for periodontal disease in humans. The periplasmic domain of PorM was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. A fragment of the purified protein was obtained by limited proteolysis. Crystals of this fragment belonged to the tetragonal space group P4(3)2(1)2. Native and MAD data sets were recorded to 2.85 and 3.1鈥吤 resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:25615973

  11. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    Mould materials for injection moulding of polymers and polymer-matrix composites represent a relevant industrial economic sector due to the large quantity of pieces and components processed. The material selection for mould manufacturing, its composition and heat treatment, the hardening procedures and machining and finishing processes determine the service performance and life of the mould. In the first part of the present study, the relationship between the hardness and microstructure and the wear resistance of mould steels from large blocks has been studied by pin-on-disc tests, studying the main wear mechanisms. In order to determine the surface damage on mould steels under real injection conditions, different commercial steels have been studied by measuring the variation of surface roughness with the number of injected pieces with different reinforcement percentages and different mould geometries, by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was important to determine the variation of surface roughness of the moulded pieces with the number of injection operations. The materials used were polybutyleneterephthalate pure and reinforced with either 20% or 50% glass fibre. For the different mould designs, the evolution of the glass fibre orientation with injection flow has been determined by image analysis and related to roughness changes and surface damage, both of the composite parts and of the mould steel surface. Finally, the abrasion resistance of the composite parts has been studied by scratch tests as a function of the number of injected parts and of the scratch direction with respect to injection flow and glass fibre orientation. Los materiales para moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos representan un sector economicamente muy relevante debido al gran aumento del numero de componentes fabricados a partir de materiales polimericos obtenidos mediante moldeo por inyeccion. La seleccion del material para la fabricacion del molde, tienen una gran influencia sobre su comportamiento en servicio a lo largo de la vida util del molde. En la primera parte del presente estudio, a partir de ensayos punzon sobre disco, se ha determinado la relacion entre la resistencia al desgaste y la dureza de aceros para moldes obtenidos a partir de bloques de gran espesor, estudiando los principales mecanismos de desgaste que tienen lugar. A continuacion, con el fin de determinar el dano superficial que sufren los aceros para moldes en condiciones reales de inyeccion, se han estudiado distintos tipos de aceros utilizados comercialmente en moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos, seleccionando las condiciones de operacion para determinar la variacion de la rugosidad superficial del acero en funcion del material inyectado, del numero de operaciones sucesivas de inyeccion y de la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion, mediante tecnicas de perfilometria optica y microscopia electronica de barrido. Ademas del dano superficial sufrido por el acero con el numero de piezas inyectadas, tambien se ha determinado la evolucion de la rugosidad superficial de los materiales inyectados, polibutilentereftalato (PBT) puro y materiales compuestos derivados de PBT por adicion de un 20 o un 50% en peso de fibra de vidrio. En el caso de las piezas inyectadas, se ha caracterizado su microestructura en funcion del flujo de inyeccion y de la densidad de fibra, se han determinado sus propiedades termicas y dinamico-mecanicas, asi como la variacion de la rugosidad superficial de las piezas inyectadas con el numero de operaciones de inyeccion y con la geometria de las distintas secciones de las piezas. Finalmente, se ha evaluado la resistencia a la abrasion de PBT reforzado con un 50% de fibra, en funcion del numero de piezas inyectadas y de la direccion de rayado con respecto a la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion.

  12. Cross-reactivity of antibodies against PorA after vaccination with a meningococcal B outer membrane vesicle vaccine.

    PubMed

    Vermont, C L; van Dijken, H H; Kuipers, A J; van Limpt, C J P; Keijzers, W C M; van der Ende, A; de Groot, R; van Alphen, L; van den Dobbelsteen, G P J M

    2003-04-01

    The cross-reactivity of PorA-specific antibodies induced by a monovalent P1.7-2,4 (MonoMen) and/or a hexavalent (HexaMen) meningococcal B outer membrane vesicle vaccine (OMV) in toddlers and school children was studied by serum bactericidal assays (SBA). First, isogenic vaccine strains and PorA-identical patient isolates were compared as a target in SBA, to ensure that the vaccine strains are representative for patient isolates. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) in SBA against patient isolates with subtypes P1.5-2,10 and P1.5-1,2-2 after vaccination with HexaMen were generally lower than those against vaccine strains with the same subtype, although the percentage of vaccine responders (> or =4-fold increase in SBA after vaccination) was not affected. Using various P1.7-2,4 patient isolates, GMTs as well as the number of vaccine responders were higher than for the P1.7-2,4 vaccine strain, indicating that the use of the P1.7-2,4 vaccine strain may have underestimated the immunogenicity of this subtype in HexaMen. Secondly, the cross-reactivity of antibodies induced by MonoMen and HexaMen was studied using several patient isolates that differed from the vaccine subtypes by having minor antigenic variants of one variable region (VR), by having a completely different VR or by having a different combination of VRs. MonoMen induced P1.4-specific antibodies that were cross-reactive with P1.4 variants P1.4-1 and P1.4-3. HexaMen induced a broader cross-reactive antibody response against various patient isolates with one VR identical to a vaccine subtype or a combination of VRs included in HexaMen. Cross-reactivity, measured by a fourfold increase in SBA after vaccination, against these strains ranged from 23 to 92% depending on the subtype of the tested strain and was directed against both VR1 and VR2. The extended cross-reactivity of vaccinee sera induced by HexaMen against antigenic variants has important favorable implications for meningococcal B OMV vaccine coverage. PMID:12654777

  13. Cross-Reactivity of Antibodies against PorA after Vaccination with a Meningococcal B Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Vermont, C. L.; van Dijken, H. H.; Kuipers, A. J.; van Limpt, C. J. P.; Keijzers, W. C. M.; van der Ende, A.; de Groot, R.; van Alphen, L.; van den Dobbelsteen, G. P. J. M.

    2003-01-01

    The cross-reactivity of PorA-specific antibodies induced by a monovalent P1.7-2,4 (MonoMen) and/or a hexavalent (HexaMen) meningococcal B outer membrane vesicle vaccine (OMV) in toddlers and school children was studied by serum bactericidal assays (SBA). First, isogenic vaccine strains and PorA-identical patient isolates were compared as a target in SBA, to ensure that the vaccine strains are representative for patient isolates. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) in SBA against patient isolates with subtypes P1.5-2,10 and P1.5-1,2-2 after vaccination with HexaMen were generally lower than those against vaccine strains with the same subtype, although the percentage of vaccine responders (鈮4-fold increase in SBA after vaccination) was not affected. Using various P1.7-2,4 patient isolates, GMTs as well as the number of vaccine responders were higher than for the P1.7-2,4 vaccine strain, indicating that the use of the P1.7-2,4 vaccine strain may have underestimated the immunogenicity of this subtype in HexaMen. Secondly, the cross-reactivity of antibodies induced by MonoMen and HexaMen was studied using several patient isolates that differed from the vaccine subtypes by having minor antigenic variants of one variable region (VR), by having a completely different VR or by having a different combination of VRs. MonoMen induced P1.4-specific antibodies that were cross-reactive with P1.4 variants P1.4-1 and P1.4-3. HexaMen induced a broader cross-reactive antibody response against various patient isolates with one VR identical to a vaccine subtype or a combination of VRs included in HexaMen. Cross-reactivity, measured by a fourfold increase in SBA after vaccination, against these strains ranged from 23 to 92% depending on the subtype of the tested strain and was directed against both VR1 and VR2. The extended cross-reactivity of vaccinee sera induced by HexaMen against antigenic variants has important favorable implications for meningococcal B OMV vaccine coverage. PMID:12654777

  14. Double-locus sequence typing using porA and peb1A for epidemiological studies of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Monir U; Dunn, Louise; Valcanis, Mary; Hogg, Geoff; Ivanova, Elena P

    2014-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Bacterial typing schemes play an important role in epidemiological investigations to trace the source and route of transmission of the infectious agent by identifying outbreak and differentiating among sporadic infections. In this study, a double-locus sequence typing (DLST) scheme for C. jejuni based on concatenated partial sequences of porA and peb1A genes is proposed. The DLST scheme was validated using 50 clinical and environmental C. jejuni strains isolated from human (C5, H, H15-H19), chicken (CH1-CH15), water (W2-W17), and ovine samples (OV1-OV6). The scheme was found to be highly discriminatory (discrimination index [DI]=0.964) and epidemiologically concordant based on C. jejuni strains studied. The DLST showed discriminatory power above 0.95 and excellent congruence to multilocus sequence typing and can be recommended as a rapid and low-cost typing scheme for epidemiological investigation of C. jejuni. It is suggested that the DLST scheme is suitable for identification of outbreak strains and differentiation of the sporadic infection strains. PMID:24404778

  15. Adult Student Retention and Achievement with Language-Based Modular Materials. POR FIN: Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bexar County School Board, San Antonio, TX.

    The goal of the POR FIN research design was to develop a language-based curriculum emphasizing the audiolingual approach and integrating academic and social-functioning subject matter. The modular curriculum is designed so that each lesson is independent and complete in itself, and provides a high degree of motivation, retention, and achievement鈥

  16. Informe a la naci贸n indica que los 铆ndices de muertes por c谩ncer siguen bajando

    Cancer.gov

    Los 铆ndices de mortalidad por todos los c谩nceres combinados para hombres, mujeres y ni帽os siguieron bajando en Estados Unidos entre 2004 y 2008, seg煤n el Informe Anual a la Naci贸n sobre el Estado del C谩ncer de 1975 a 2008. El 铆ndice general de diagn贸stico

  17. El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

    "El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the attitudes鈥

  18. Cell Growth Defect Factor1/CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 Plays a Role in Stabilization of Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Yong; Lee, Ho-Seok; Song, Ji-Young; Jung, Young Jun; Reinbothe, Steffen; Park, Youn-Il; Lee, Sang Yeol; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Angiosperms require light for chlorophyll biosynthesis because one reaction in the pathway, the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide, is catalyzed by the light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). Here, we report that Cell growth defect factor1 (Cdf1), renamed here as CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 (CPP1), an essential protein for chloroplast development, plays a role in the regulation of POR stability and function. Cdf1/CPP1 contains a J-like domain and three transmembrane domains, is localized in the thylakoid and envelope membranes, and interacts with POR isoforms in chloroplasts. CPP1 can stabilize POR proteins with its holdase chaperone activity. CPP1 deficiency results in diminished POR protein accumulation and defective chlorophyll synthesis, leading to photobleaching and growth inhibition of plants under light conditions. CPP1 depletion also causes reduced POR accumulation in etioplasts of dark-grown plants and as a result impairs the formation of prolamellar bodies, which subsequently affects chloroplast biogenesis upon illumination. Furthermore, in cyanobacteria, the CPP1 homolog critically regulates POR accumulation and chlorophyll synthesis under high-light conditions, in which the dark-operative Pchlide oxidoreductase is repressed by its oxygen sensitivity. These findings and the ubiquitous presence of CPP1 in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms suggest the conserved nature of CPP1 function in the regulation of POR. PMID:24151298

  19. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por G茅nero y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, M茅xico: 2006

    PubMed Central

    I帽iguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 a帽os de edad en Tijuana, M茅xico - en la poblaci贸n general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demogr谩ficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construy贸 un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la poblaci贸n general y de acuerdo al g茅nero. El an谩lisis de sensibilidad consisti贸 en estimar errores est谩ndar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada par谩metro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%鈥0.86%, (N = 1,750鈥6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%鈥1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%鈥0.40%) de las mujeres podr铆an ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones m谩s elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El n煤mero de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la poblaci贸n de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevenci贸n en sus necesidades espec铆ficas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podr铆an ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  20. Study of the interaction mechanisms between absorbed NO{sub 2} and por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V.; Kan, V. E. Makushenko, R. K.; Biryukov, M. Yu.; Ivlev, K. E.; Roslikov, V. E.

    2013-10-15

    The interaction mechanisms between NO{sub 2} molecules and the surface of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposites obtained by magnetron deposition and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance methods. The observed increase in the free carrier concentration in the por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers is explained by a change in the charge state of P{sub b} centers due to the formation of neutral 'surface defect-adsorbed NO{sub 2} molecule' complexes with free carrier generation in the crystallite bulk. In the nanocomposite layers grown by the CVD method, the increase in the free hole concentration during NO{sub 2} adsorption is much less pronounced in comparison with the composite grown by magnetron deposition, which is caused by the competing interaction channel of NO{sub 2} molecules with electrically neutral P{sub b} centers.

  1. Adjuvant Effects Elicited by Novel Oligosaccharide Variants of Detoxified Meningococcal Lipopolysaccharides on Neisseria meningitidis Recombinant PorA Protein: A Comparison in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Ojas H.; Norheim, Gunnstein; Hoe, J . Claire; Rollier, Christine S.; Nagaputra, Jerry C.; Makepeace, Katherine; Saleem, Muhammad; Chan, Hannah; Ferguson, David J. P.; Jones, Claire; Sadarangani, Manish; Hood, Derek W.; Feavers, Ian; Derrick, Jeremy P.; Pollard, Andrew J.; Moxon, E . Richard

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has adjuvant properties that can be exploited to assist vaccine immunogenicity. The modified penta-acylated LPS retains the adjuvant properties of hexa-acylated LPS but has a reduced toxicity profile. In this study we investigated whether two modified glycoform structures (LgtE and IcsB) of detoxified penta-acylated LPS exhibited differential adjuvant properties when formulated as native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs) as compared to the previously described LgtB variant. Detoxified penta-acylated LPS was obtained by disruption of the lpxL1 gene (LpxL1 LPS), and three different glycoforms were obtained by disruption of the lgtB, lgtE or icsB genes respectively. Mice (mus musculus) were immunized with a recombinant PorA P1.7-2,4 (rPorA) protein co-administered with different nOMVs (containing a different PorA serosubtype P1.7,16), each of which expressed one of the three penta-acylated LPS glycoforms. All nOMVs induced IgG responses against the rPorA, but the nOMVs containing the penta-acylated LgtB-LpxL1 LPS glycoform induced significantly greater bactericidal activity compared to the other nOMVs or when the adjuvant was Alhydrogel. Compared to LgtE or IcsB LPS glycoforms, these data support the use of nOMVs containing detoxified, modified LgtB-LpxL1 LPS as a potential adjuvant for future meningococcal protein vaccines. PMID:25545241

  2. Binding of Complement Factor H to PorB3 and NspA Enhances Resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to Anti-Factor H Binding Protein Bactericidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Giuntini, Serena; Pajon, Rolando; Ram, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Among 25 serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis clinical isolates, we identified four (16%) with high factor H binding protein (FHbp) expression that were resistant to complement-mediated bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with recombinant FHbp vaccines. Two of the four isolates had evidence of human FH-dependent complement downregulation independent of FHbp. Since alternative complement pathway recruitment is critical for anti-FHbp bactericidal activity, we hypothesized that in these two isolates binding of FH to ligands other than FHbp contributes to anti-FHbp bactericidal resistance. Knocking out NspA, a known meningococcal FH ligand, converted both resistant isolates to anti-FHbp susceptible isolates. The addition of a nonbactericidal anti-NspA monoclonal antibody to the bactericidal reaction also increased anti-FHbp bactericidal activity. To identify a role for FH ligands other than NspA or FHbp in resistance, we created double NspA/FHbp knockout mutants. Mutants from both resistant isolates bound 10-fold more recombinant human FH domains 6 and 7 fused to Fc than double knockout mutants prepared from two sensitive meningococcal isolates. In light of recent studies showing functional FH-PorB2 interactions, we hypothesized that PorB3 from the resistant isolates recruited FH. Allelic exchange of porB3 from a resistant isolate to a sensitive isolate increased resistance of the sensitive isolate to anti-FHbp bactericidal activity (and vice versa). Thus, some PorB3 variants functionally bind human FH, which in the presence of NspA enhances anti-FHbp resistance. Combining anti-NspA antibodies with anti-FHbp antibodies can overcome resistance. Meningococcal vaccines that target both NspA and FHbp are likely to confer greater protection than either antigen alone. PMID:25644002

  3. Binding of complement factor H to PorB3 and NspA enhances resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to anti-factor H binding protein bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Serena; Pajon, Rolando; Ram, Sanjay; Granoff, Dan M

    2015-04-01

    Among 25 serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis clinical isolates, we identified four (16%) with high factor H binding protein (FHbp) expression that were resistant to complement-mediated bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with recombinant FHbp vaccines. Two of the four isolates had evidence of human FH-dependent complement downregulation independent of FHbp. Since alternative complement pathway recruitment is critical for anti-FHbp bactericidal activity, we hypothesized that in these two isolates binding of FH to ligands other than FHbp contributes to anti-FHbp bactericidal resistance. Knocking out NspA, a known meningococcal FH ligand, converted both resistant isolates to anti-FHbp susceptible isolates. The addition of a nonbactericidal anti-NspA monoclonal antibody to the bactericidal reaction also increased anti-FHbp bactericidal activity. To identify a role for FH ligands other than NspA or FHbp in resistance, we created double NspA/FHbp knockout mutants. Mutants from both resistant isolates bound 10-fold more recombinant human FH domains 6 and 7 fused to Fc than double knockout mutants prepared from two sensitive meningococcal isolates. In light of recent studies showing functional FH-PorB2 interactions, we hypothesized that PorB3 from the resistant isolates recruited FH. Allelic exchange of porB3 from a resistant isolate to a sensitive isolate increased resistance of the sensitive isolate to anti-FHbp bactericidal activity (and vice versa). Thus, some PorB3 variants functionally bind human FH, which in the presence of NspA enhances anti-FHbp resistance. Combining anti-NspA antibodies with anti-FHbp antibodies can overcome resistance. Meningococcal vaccines that target both NspA and FHbp are likely to confer greater protection than either antigen alone. PMID:25644002

  4. Los 铆ndices de mortalidad por c谩ncer de pulm贸n siguen en descenso y contribuyen a la continua reducc

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Naci贸n sobre el Estado del C谩ncer (1975 a 2010), mostr贸 un descenso m谩s acelerado que en a帽os anteriores de los 铆ndices de mortalidad por c谩ncer de pulm贸n. Tambi茅n contiene una secci贸n especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  5. La doctora Amelie Ram铆rez y la investigaci贸n de desigualdades de salud por c谩ncer en la comunidad la

    Cancer.gov

    La doctora Ram铆rez es la investigadora principal de Redes en Acci贸n, un centro del programa de redes comunitarias subvencionado por el NCI que se propone reducir la incidencia del c谩ncer en la comunidad latina a trav茅s de una red nacional de grupos comunitarios, investigadores, agencias de salud gubernamentales y la poblaci贸n en general.

  6. Obtenci贸n de la curva de luz en la ocultaci贸n de 35 Sgr por J煤piter el 6 de marzo de 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.

    La ocultaci贸n de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr por J煤piter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso por el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar par谩metros f铆sicos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atm贸sfera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presi贸n) Para lograr 茅sto se program贸 la c谩mara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 im谩genes por segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 im谩genes de la inmersi贸n y otras tantas de la emersi贸n. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturaci贸n del CCD ya que la observaci贸n se realiz贸 de d铆a. En este momento las im谩genes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reducci贸n.

  7. Astronomy in the Classroom: Why? (Spanish Title: Astronom铆a en la Clase: 驴Por Qu茅?) Astronomia na Sala de Aula: Por Qu锚?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daros Gama, Leandro; Bagdonas Henrique, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    There are many discussions about the relevance of the topics covered in classes. One subject in particular is the focus of this essay: astronomy. In what sense and to what extent it would be worth to teach it in science or other kind of classes? In this paper we discuss some aspects of the advantages of dealing with this area of knowledge in schools, taking into account the epistemological and axiological dimensions of astronomy, in light of the vision of science as an intelligent dialogue with the world (Bachelard), in addition to the "problematization" knowledge of Paulo Freire. We propose that in fact the Astronomy does not need to be seen as just a new set of contents to be taught, but appears as a set of motivational contents for historical-philosophical discussions, and permit the discussion of concepts of other disciplines. Numerosas discusiones se est谩n llevando a cabo acerca de la pertinencia de los temas tradicionalmente tratados en las clases. Uno de los temas, en particular, es el foco de este ensayo: la astronom铆a. 驴En qu茅 sentido y en qu茅 medida ser铆a conveniente tratarla en clase, ya sea en clases de ciencias naturales, espec铆ficamente en las de astronom铆a o asignaturas afines? Elaboramos en este art铆culo algunos aspectos de las ventajas de tratar esta 谩rea del conocimiento en las escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones epistemol贸gica y axiol贸gica de la astronom铆a, a la luz de la visi贸n de la ciencia como un di谩logo inteligente con el mundo (Bachelard), adem谩s de la propuesta del conocimiento "problematizador" de Paulo Freire. Proponemos que en realidad la astronom铆a no tiene por qu茅 ser vista s贸lo como un nuevo conjunto de contenidos que se ense帽an, sino que aparece como un conjunto de temas de motivaci贸n para el debate hist贸rico-filos贸fico y para permitir la discusi贸n de los conceptos t铆picos de otras disciplinas. Muitas discuss玫es v锚m acontecendo sobre a relev芒ncia dos temas abordados em sala de aula. Um tema, em particular, 茅 foco deste ensaio: a astronomia. Em que sentido e em que medida valeria a pena abord谩-la em aulas, seja de ci锚ncias, seja de astronomia especificamente, ou em disciplinas afins? Discutimos neste texto alguns aspectos das vantagens de se tratar essa 谩rea do conhecimento nas escolas, levando em conta as dimens玫es epistemol贸gica e axiol贸gica da astronomia, 脿 luz da vis茫o da ci锚ncia como um di谩logo inteligente com o mundo, de Bachelard, al茅m da proposta de problematiza莽茫o do conhecimento, de Paulo Freire. Proporemos que de fato a astronomia n茫o precisa ser vista como apenas um novo conjunto de conte煤dos a serem ensinados, mas figura como conjunto de temas motivadores para discuss玫es hist贸rico-filos贸ficas, al茅m de permitir a abordagem de conceitos t铆picos de outras disciplinas.

  8. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infecci贸n por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con 茅xito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) est谩n infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar c贸mo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infecci贸n por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y m茅todos Hemos utilizado el concepto de 芦desviaci贸n positiva禄 aplicado en otros campos de salud p煤blica. Estudiamos las estrategias, pr谩cticas y t谩cticas de prevenci贸n de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado hero铆na durante a帽os. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este art铆culo incluyen el an谩lisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infecci贸n por el VHC y sin infecci贸n por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protecci贸n y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante per铆odos de involuci贸n (per铆odos donde hay un deterioro econ贸mico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infecci贸n: a) evitar 芦el mono禄 (s铆ntomas de abstenci贸n) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) 芦llevarlo bien禄 para no convertirse en un junkie y as铆 evitar la 芦muerte social禄 y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin infectarse por el VIH (s贸lo un doble negativo tuvo un amplio conocimiento sobre la hepatitis C). Estas intencionalidades no son mutuamente excluyentes. La presencia de varias refuerza la puesta en pr谩ctica a diario de comportamientos que pueden ayudar al que se inyecta a mantenerse libre de infecciones durante a帽os. Algunas pr谩cticas que hemos identificado se implementan en grupo y se comunican de UDI a UDI, de esta manera se extienden entre algunas redes sociales de UDI. Conclusiones Los UDI que permanecen sin infectarse planean e implementan estrategias de prevenci贸n en circunstancias donde otros UDI aplican pr谩cticas de riesgo. El mantenimiento de la no infecci贸n no es, por lo tanto, un resultado del azar, sino m谩s bien el resultado del esfuerzo (agencia) de los UDI. Investigar y extender estas estrategias y t谩cticas a trav茅s de programas de prevenci贸n podr铆a contribuir a la prevenci贸n del VIH y el VHC. PMID:21915175

  9. Spatial and stimulus-type tuning in the LEC, MEC, POR, PrC, CA1, and CA3 during spontaneous item recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Beer, Zachery; Chwiesko, Caroline; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Sauvage, Magdalena M

    2013-12-01

    According to the "two streams" hypothesis, the lateral entorhinal (LEC) and the perirhinal (PrC) cortices process information related to items (a "what" stream), the postrhinal (POR) and the medial entorhinal cortices (MEC) process spatial information (a "where" stream), and both types of information are integrated in the hippocampus (HIP). However, within the framework of memory function, only the HIP is reliably shown to preferentially process spatial information, and the PrC items' features. In contrast, the role of the LEC and MEC in memory is virtually unexplored, and conflicting results emerge for the POR. Moreover, the specific contribution of the hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3 to spatial and non-spatial memory is not thoroughly understood. To investigate which of these areas is specifically tuned to spatial demands or stimulus identity (odor or object), we assessed the pattern of activation of these areas during recognition memory by detecting the immediate-early gene Arc, commonly used as a marker of neuronal activation. We report that all MTL areas were recruited during the spatial and the non-spatial tasks. However, the LEC, MEC, POR, and CA1 were activated to a comparable level in spatial and non-spatial tasks, while the PrC was tuned to stimulus-type, not spatial demands, and CA3 to spatial demands but not stimulus-type. Results are discussed within the frame of a recent model suggesting that the MTL could be segregated in terms of memory processes, such as recollection and familiarity, rather than information content. PMID:23966131

  10. Population pharmacokinetic approach to evaluate the effect of CYP2D6, CYP3A, ABCB1, POR and NR1I2 genotypes on donepezil clearance

    PubMed Central

    Noetzli, Muriel; Guidi, Monia; Ebbing, Karsten; Eyer, Stephan; Wilhelm, Laurence; Michon, Agn猫s; Thomazic, Val茅rie; Stancu, Ioana; Alnawaqil, Abdel-Messieh; Bula, Christophe; Zumbach, Serge; Gaillard, Michel; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; von Gunten, Armin; Csajka, Chantal; Eap, Chin B

    2014-01-01

    Aims A large interindividual variability in plasma concentrations has been reported in patients treated with donepezil, the most frequently prescribed antidementia drug. We aimed to evaluate clinical and genetic factors influencing donepezil disposition in a patient population recruited from a naturalistic setting. Methods A population pharmacokinetic study was performed including data from 129 older patients treated with donepezil. The patients were genotyped for common polymorphisms in the metabolic enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A, in the electron transferring protein POR and the nuclear factor NR1I2 involved in CYP activity and expression, and in the drug transporter ABCB1. Results The average donepezil clearance was 7.3 l h鈭1 with a 30% interindividual variability. Gender markedly influenced donepezil clearance (P < 0.01). Functional alleles of CYP2D6 were identified as unique significant genetic covariate for donepezil clearance (P < 0.01), with poor metabolizers and ultrarapid metabolizers demonstrating, respectively, a 32% slower and a 67% faster donepezil elimination compared with extensive metabolizers. Conclusion The pharmacokinetic parameters of donepezil were well described by the developed population model. Functional alleles of CYP2D6 significantly contributed to the variability in donepezil disposition in the patient population and should be further investigated in the context of individual dose optimization to improve clinical outcome and tolerability of the treatment. PMID:24433464

  11. IgE Reactivity of Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus pelagicus) Tropomyosin, Por p 1, and Other Allergens; Cross-Reactivity with Black Tiger Prawn and Effects of Heating.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, Jodie B; Kamath, Sandip; Varese, Nirupama; Zubrinich, Celia; Lopata, Andreas L; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Rolland, Jennifer M

    2013-01-01

    Shellfish allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, but the allergens are not well characterized. This study examined the effects of heating on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) allergens in comparison with those of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) by testing reactivity with shellfish-allergic subjects' serum IgE. Cooked extracts of both species showed markedly increased IgE reactivity by ELISA and immunoblotting, and clinical relevance of IgE reactivity was confirmed by basophil activation tests. Inhibition IgE ELISA and immunoblotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the crab and prawn extracts, predominantly due to tropomyosin, but crab-specific IgE-reactivity was also observed. The major blue swimmer crab allergen tropomyosin, Por p 1, was cloned and sequenced, showing strong homology with tropomyosin of other crustacean species but also sequence variation within known and predicted linear IgE epitopes. These findings will advance more reliable diagnosis and management of potentially severe food allergy due to crustaceans. PMID:23840718

  12. Relaci贸n masa-radio para estrellas enanas blancas y la interpretaci贸n de recientes mediciones hechas por Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Recientes mediciones de la masa y el radio hechas por Hipparcos de las estrellas enanas blancas 40 Eri B y Procyon B (Shipman, H. & Provencal, J. - ApJ. 1998, 494, 759), sugieren un n煤cleo compuesto de hierro para dichas estrellas, en lugar de carbono y ox铆geno como predice la teor铆a standard de evoluci贸n estelar. Para interpretar estas observaciones, presentamos aqu铆, relaciones masa-radio para configuraciones degeneradas a temperatura finita para distintas composiciones qu铆micas centrales. Para tal fin hemos calculado secuencias evolutivas de enanas blancas utilizando el c贸digo de evoluci贸n estelar, desarrollado en el Observatorio de La Plata. Dicho c贸digo resuelve las ecuaciones de estructura y evoluci贸n estelar mediante la t茅cnica de relajaci贸n de Henyey, y esta basado en una descripci贸n f铆sica muy detallada y actualizada.

  13. FLP-FRT-Based Method To Obtain Unmarked Deletions of CHU_3237 (porU) and Large Genomic Fragments of Cytophaga hutchinsonii

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhiquan; Cao, Jing; Guan, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    Cytophaga hutchinsonii is a widely distributed cellulolytic bacterium in the phylum Bacteroidetes. It can digest crystalline cellulose rapidly without free cellulases or cellulosomes. The mechanism of its cellulose utilization remains a mystery. We developed an efficient method based on a linear DNA double-crossover and FLP-FRT recombination system to obtain unmarked deletions of both single genes and large genomic fragments in C. hutchinsonii. Unmarked deletion of CHU_3237 (porU), an ortholog of the C-terminal signal peptidase of a type IX secretion system (T9SS), resulted in defects in colony spreading, cellulose degradation, and protein secretion, indicating that it is a component of the T9SS and that T9SS plays an important role in cellulose degradation by C. hutchinsonii. Furthermore, deletions of four large genomic fragments were obtained using our method, and the sizes of the excised fragments varied from 9 to 19 kb, spanning from 6 to 22 genes. The customized FLP-FRT method provides an efficient tool for more rapid progress in the cellulose degradation mechanism and other physiological aspects of C. hutchinsonii. PMID:25063660

  14. IgE Reactivity of Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus pelagicus) Tropomyosin, Por p 1, and Other Allergens; Cross-Reactivity with Black Tiger Prawn and Effects of Heating

    PubMed Central

    Varese, Nirupama; Zubrinich, Celia; Lopata, Andreas L.; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Rolland, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Shellfish allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, but the allergens are not well characterized. This study examined the effects of heating on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) allergens in comparison with those of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) by testing reactivity with shellfish-allergic subjects' serum IgE. Cooked extracts of both species showed markedly increased IgE reactivity by ELISA and immunoblotting, and clinical relevance of IgE reactivity was confirmed by basophil activation tests. Inhibition IgE ELISA and immunoblotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the crab and prawn extracts, predominantly due to tropomyosin, but crab-specific IgE-reactivity was also observed. The major blue swimmer crab allergen tropomyosin, Por p 1, was cloned and sequenced, showing strong homology with tropomyosin of other crustacean species but also sequence variation within known and predicted linear IgE epitopes. These findings will advance more reliable diagnosis and management of potentially severe food allergy due to crustaceans. PMID:23840718

  15. Bifurcaci贸n de las soluciones de vientos impulsados por radiaci贸n en estrellas Be: formaci贸n de l铆neas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cur茅, M.; Rial, D.; Cidale, L.; Venero, R.

    Se ha estudiado la topolog铆a de la ecuaci贸n hidrodin谩mica no-lineal que describe el perfil de velocidades de vientos impulsados por radiaci贸n en estrellas tempranas. Al aplicar este modelo a estrellas Be se encuentra que existen dos tipos De soluciones: la est谩ndar, que describe el viento polar, y una nueva, que describe un viento m谩s denso y lento y que explicar铆a el disco que se encuentra alrededor de estos objetos. Existe una regi贸n de transici贸n en donde ambas soluciones coexisten (bifurcaci贸n}). Ambas soluciones satisfacen en esta regi贸n las mismas condiciones de borde. Para estas dos soluciones se han obtenido los perfiles de l铆neas de hidr贸geno del visible y del IR, resolviendo el transporte de radiaci贸n en el ``comoving frame". Para la soluci贸n est谩ndar, se obtienen perfiles con componentes en emisi贸n, mientras que para la nueva soluci贸n se obtienen perfiles en absorci贸n. Se comparan cualitativamente los resultados con las observaciones.

  16. Phenotypic and Genotypic Analyses of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates That Express Frequently Recovered PorB PIA Variable Region Types Suggest that Certain P1a Porin Sequences Confer a Selective Advantage for Urogenital Tract Infection鈻

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Lotisha E.; Bash, Margaret C.; Keys, Christine; Warner, Douglas M.; Ram, Sanjay; Shafer, William M.; Jerse, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Typing of the porB variable region (VR) is an epidemiological tool that classifies gonococcal strains based on sequence differences in regions of the porB gene that encode surface-exposed loops. The frequent isolation of certain porB VR types suggests that some porin sequences confer a selective advantage during infection and/or transmission. Alternatively, certain porin types may be markers of strains that are successful due to factors unrelated to porin. In support of the first hypothesis, here we show urogenital tract isolates representing the most common PIA VR types identified in an urban clinic in Baltimore, MD, over a 10-year period belonged to several different clonal types, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Serum resistance, which was confirmed by factor H and C4b-binding protein binding studies, was more often associated with gonococcal the most common VR types. In contrast, three porin-independent phenotypes, namely, lactoferrin utilization, 尾-lactamase production, and multiple transferable resistance (Mtr), were segregated with the PFGE cluster and not with the VR type. Data combined with another PIA strain collection showed a strong correlation between serum resistance and the most common VR types. A comparison of VR typing hybridization patterns and nucleotide sequences of 12 porB1a genes suggests that certain porin loop 1, 3, 6, and/or 7 sequences may play a role in the serum resistance phenotype. We conclude that some PorB PIA sequences confer a survival or transmission advantage in the urogenital tract, perhaps via increased resistance to complement-mediated killing. The capacity of some porin types to evade a porin-specific adaptive immune response must also be considered. PMID:18541655

  17. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagn贸stico de gastritis atr贸fica multifocal asociada con la infecci贸n por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, Jos茅 Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, Mar脥a Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducci贸n El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del est贸mago y el n煤mero de fragmentos de mucosa g谩strica disponibles para evaluaci贸n histopatol贸gica son fuentes importantes de variaci贸n en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradaci贸n de la gastritis cr贸nica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del n煤mero de fragmentos de mucosa g谩strica necesarios para establecer los diagn贸sticos de gastritis atr贸fica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infecci贸n por Helicobacter pylori. Adem谩s evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificaci贸n de estas lesiones precursoras del c谩ncer g谩strico. Materiales y m茅todos En una cohorte de 6 a帽os de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenter贸logos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa g谩strica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un 煤nico pat贸logo hizo la interpretaci贸n histol贸gica de las 5 biopsias y proporcion贸 un diagn贸stico definitivo global que se utiliz贸 como patr贸n de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa g谩strica examinado condujo a un diagn贸stico individual para cada biopsia que se compar贸 con el patr贸n de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evalu贸 en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagn贸stico de MI y displasia g谩strica aument贸 de manera significativa con el n煤mero de fragmentos de mucosa g谩strica evaluados El sitio anat贸mico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagn贸stico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logr贸 alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa g谩strica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtenci贸n de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagn贸stico de gastritis cr贸nica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las biopsias fijadas en alcohol fueron inadecuadas para demostrar H. pylori e interpretar los cambios de displasia. Conclusi贸n El n煤mero de fragmentos de mucosa g谩strica evaluados, el m茅todo de fijaci贸n y la regi贸n del est贸mago donde se obtienen las biopsias son factores muy importantes para lograr una correcta clasificaci贸n de la gastritis cr贸nica atr贸fica multifocal. PMID:25267864

  18. Long-term RNA persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) after an outbreak of a natural infection: the detection of viral mRNA in sentinel pigs suggests viral transmission.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Hern谩ndez-Baumgarten, E; Kennedy, S; Hern谩ndez-J谩uregui, P; Berg, M; Moreno-L贸pez, J

    2014-08-01

    The persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) in five pigs that had survived an outbreak of a natural infection was determined. After the resolution of the outbreak, each animal was housed in an isolation pen together with one sentinel pig. Approximately every 2 months thereafter one group of animals was euthanized and tissue samples taken for virological and serological analysis. Infectious virus was not isolated from any samples; antibodies to PorPV-LPMV were detected in convalescent pigs by virus neutralisation test and blocking ELISA but not in sentinel pigs. PorPV-LPMV mRNA of the nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) genes was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) in samples of trigeminal and optic nerves, cervical spinal cord, tonsils, salivary gland, lung and pancreas from convalescent pigs. mRNA was also detected in the midbrain, corpus callosum, or olfactory bulb in four out of five pigs by nRT-PCR, this result was confirmed by the sequencing of a 260bp PCR product of P gene region. The highest average viral copies/渭g of total RNA occurred in the olfactory bulb and pancreas tissues of convalescent pigs and midbrain, tonsil and pancreas of sentinel pigs housed with the convalescent pigs. Satellitosis and gliosis of the midbrain, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata or choroid plexus were microscopically observed in four convalescent pigs. The control pig remained negative in all tests. The results indicate that PorPV-LPMV mRNA persists and induces a durable humoral immune response in pigs that have recovered from a natural infection. After a possible reactivation of the virus, it was transmitted to sentinel pigs in contact with the convalescent pigs. PMID:24768705

  19. La inserci贸n en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en Espa帽a y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por pa铆s de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este art铆culo compara los resultados econ贸micos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en Espa帽a y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selecci贸n por el que la mayor铆a de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en Espa帽a proceden de Sudam茅rica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayor铆a de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selecci贸n explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los or铆genes y las caracter铆sticas de los latinoamericanos en ambos pa铆ses, los factores demogr谩ficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos pa铆ses; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acent煤an m谩s entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  20. Aquisi莽茫o fonol贸gica do portugu锚s brasileiro por crian莽as ouvintes bil铆ngues bimodais e surdas usu谩rias de implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisi莽茫o fonol贸gica do Portugu锚s Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crian莽as ouvintes bil铆ngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito 脿 L铆ngua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crian莽as surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito 脿 Libras. Para a avalia莽茫o do sistema fonol贸gico das crian莽as em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomea莽茫o, do ABFW 鈥 Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crian莽as ouvintes bil铆ngues bimodais e a crian莽a surda usu谩ria de IC com acesso irrestrito 脿 Libras apresentaram processo de aquisi莽茫o fonol贸gica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa et谩ria. Considera-se que a aquisi莽茫o precoce e o acesso irrestrito 脿 Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crian莽as no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

  1. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronm铆a Por Los Alumnos de Educaci贸n B谩sica en Una Escuela P煤blica.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educa莽茫o B谩sica: O Caso de Uma Escola P煤blica Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Igua莽u (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigaci贸n sobre la comprensi贸n de conceptos astron贸micos b谩sicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la ense帽anza primaria y el tercer a帽o de la ense帽anza secundaria de una escuela p煤blica de la ciudad de Foz do Igua莽u (Brasil). Se utiliz贸 un test de 20 preguntas de opci贸n m煤ltiple para identificar las concepciones m谩s comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolecci贸n de datos se desarroll贸 en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trat贸 los siguientes temas: el ciclo d铆a-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del a帽o, las fases de la Luna, el movimiento de la Luna, el movimiento aparente del Sol sobre la esfera celeste, los eclipses, las dimensiones y las distancias en el Universo, el brillo de las estrellas y su observaci贸n de la Tierra. Si bien ha habido un peque帽o progreso en la proporci贸n de respuestas aceptables cient铆ficamente cuando se cotej贸 el octavo grado de la ense帽anza primaria con el quinto, y el 煤ltimo a帽o de la ense帽anza secundaria con el primero, se observ贸 un predominio de las concepciones alternativas en relaci贸n a la mayor铆a de los temas explorados, que continu贸 hasta los 煤ltimos a帽os de la educaci贸n b谩sica. Una comparaci贸n con los datos encontrados en investigaciones realizadas en otros contextos socioculturales revelaron, en muchos aspectos, conceptos y dificultades similares expresadas por los estudiantes. Apresentam-se os resultados de uma investiga莽茫o sobre a compreens茫o de conceitos astron么micos b谩sicos, da qual participaram 561 estudantes da quinta s茅rie do Ensino Fundamental ao terceiro ano do Ensino M茅dio de uma escola p煤blica da cidade de Foz do Igua莽u. Um teste com 20 quest玫es de m煤ltipla escolha foi aplicado para identificar as concep莽玫es mais comuns expressadas pelos alunos. Esse instrumento de coleta de dados foi elaborado com base na literatura sobre concep莽玫es alternativas e abordou os seguintes temas: o ciclo dia-noite; os fusos hor谩rios; as esta莽玫es do ano; as fases da Lua; o movimento da Lua; o movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste; os eclipses; as dimens玫es e dist芒ncias no Universo; o brilho das estrelas e sua observa莽茫o da Terra. Embora se tenha verificado um pequeno progresso na propor莽茫o de respostas cientificamente aceit谩veis ao se cotejar a oitava s茅rie do Ensino Fundamental com a quinta, e a terceira s茅rie do Ensino M茅dio com a primeira, houve o predom铆nio de concep莽玫es alternativas em rela莽茫o 脿 maior parte dos temas explorados, as quais persistiram at茅 o 煤ltimo ano da Educa莽茫o B谩sica. A compara莽茫o com dados encontrados em investiga莽玫es realizadas em outros contextos socioculturais revelaram, em muitos aspectos, no莽玫es e dificuldades similares manifestadas pelos estudantes.

  2. Characterization of invasive Neisseria meningitidis from Atlantic Canada, 2009 to 2013: With special reference to the nonpolysaccharide vaccine targets (PorA, factor H binding protein, Neisseria heparin-binding antigen and Neisseria adhesin A)

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond SW; Law, Dennis KS; Gad, Rita R; Mailman, Tim; German, Gregory; Needle, Robert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) has always been a major cause of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Canada. With the successful implementation of a meningitis C conjugate vaccine, the majority of IMD in Canada is now caused by MenB. OBJECTIVE: To investigate IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada from 2009 to 2013. Data were analyzed to determine the potential coverage of the newly licensed MenB vaccine. METHODS: Serogroup, serotype and serosubtype antigens were determined from IMD case isolates. Clonal analysis was performed using multilocus sequence typing. The protein-based vaccine antigen genes were sequenced and the predicted peptides were investigated. RESULTS: The majority of the IMD isolates were MenB (82.5%, 33 of 40) and, in particular, sequence type (ST)-154 B:4:P1.4 was responsible for 47.5% (19 of 40) of all IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada. Isolates of this clone expressed the PorA antigen P1.4 and possessed the nhba genes encoding for Neisseria heparin-binding antigen peptide 2, which together matched exactly with two of the four components of the new four-component meningococcal B vaccine. Nineteen MenB isolates had two antigenic matches, another five MenB and one meningitis Y isolate had one antigenic match. This provided 75.8% (25 of 33) potential coverage for MenB, or a 62.5% (25 of 40) overall potential coverage for IMD. CONCLUSION: From 2009 to 2013, IMD in Atlantic Canada was mainly caused by MenB and, in particular, the B:4:P1.4 ST-154 clone, which accounted for 47.5% of all IMD case isolates. The new four-component meningococcal B vaccine appeared to offer adequate coverage against MenB in Atlantic Canada. PMID:26744586

  3. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, Sequence Type (ST), and Genomic Presence of IS1301 in Group B Meningococcal ST269 Clonal Complex Isolates from England and Wales鈻

    PubMed Central

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J.; Kaczmarski, Edward B.; Guiver, Malcolm; Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Vallely, Pamela J.; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Tang, Christoph M.; Borrow, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Highly effective glycoconjugate vaccines exist against four of the five major pathogenic groups of meningococci: A, C, W-135, and Y. An equivalent vaccine against group B meningococci (menB) has remained elusive due to the poorly immunogenic capsular polysaccharide. A promising alternative, the investigational recombinant menB (rMenB)- outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine, contains fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), NadA, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for 90% of meningococcal disease in England and Wales, where the multilocus sequence type (ST) 269 (ST269) clonal complex (cc269) has recently expanded to account for a third of menB cases. To assess the potential cc269 coverage of the rMenB-OMV vaccine, English and Welsh cc269 isolates from the past decade were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, and NadA. All of the isolates harbored fHbp and nhba alleles, while 98% of the cc269 isolates were devoid of nadA. Subvariant profiling of fHbp, nhba, and porA against STs revealed the presence of two broadly distinct and well-defined clusters of isolates, centered around ST269 and ST275, respectively. An additional molecular marker, insertion sequence IS1301, was found to be present in 100% and <2% of isolates of the respective clusters. On the basis of the genetic data, the potential rMenB-OMV coverage of cc269 in England and Wales is high (up to 100%) within both clusters. Expression studies and serum bactericidal antibody assays will serve to enhance predictions of coverage and will augment ongoing studies regarding the significance of IS1301 within the ST269 cluster. PMID:19759227

  4. Eficacia de la detecci贸n sistem谩tica de la gripe en las fronteras en los viajeros que llegan por v铆a a茅rea*

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Patricia C.; Jennings, Lance C.; Duncan, Alasdair R.; Brunton, Cheryl R.; Baker, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Se midieron los s铆ntomas y la prevalencia de la gripe (tambi茅n llamada influenza), as铆 como la eficacia del mecanismo de detecci贸n sistem谩tica basado en los s铆ntomas y la temperatura para diagnosticar la gripe en viajeros internacionales que llegaban por v铆a a茅rea. M茅todos. El presente estudio transversal recopil贸 datos de viajeros que llegaron al aeropuerto internacional de Christchurch (Nueva Zelandia) en el invierno del 2008 mediante un cuestionario de salud, medici贸n de la temperatura y toma de muestras de las v铆as respiratorias. Resultados. De los viajeros, 15鈥976 (68%) entregaron los formularios completos. De ellos, 17% notificaron al menos un s铆ntoma de gripe; los s铆ntomas m谩s comunes fueron rinorrea o congesti贸n nasal (10%) y tos (8%). Se tomaron muestras de las v铆as respiratorias de 3鈥769 viajeros. La prevalencia estimada de la gripe fue de 1,1% (4% en las personas sintom谩ticas, 0,2% en las asintom谩ticas). La sensibilidad de los criterios de detecci贸n vari贸 de 84% para 鈥渃ualquier s铆ntoma鈥 a 3% para la fiebre de 37,8 掳C o mayor. El valor predictivo positivo fue bajo para todos los criterios. Conclusiones. El m茅todo de detecci贸n sistem谩tica en las fronteras mediante la autonotificaci贸n de s铆ntomas y la toma de la temperatura presenta limitaciones para impedir que una gripe pand茅mica entre en un pa铆s. Basarse en criterios como 鈥渃ualquier s铆ntoma鈥 o la tos har铆a que se investigara a varias personas no infectadas, mientras que algunas personas infectadas pasar铆an inadvertidas. Si se usaran criterios m谩s espec铆ficos como la fiebre, la mayor铆a de las personas infectadas entrar铆an en el pa铆s a pesar del mecanismo de detecci贸n.

  5. New halide-centered discrete Ag(I)(8) cubic clusters containing diselenophosphate ligands, [Ag(8)(X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)](PF(6)) (X = Cl, Br; R = Et, Pr, (i)Pr): syntheses, structures, and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Liu, C W; Haia, Hsien-Chung; Hung, Chiu-Mine; Santra, Bidyut Kumar; Liaw, Ben-Jie; Lin, Zhenyang; Wang, Ju-Chun

    2004-07-12

    Six clusters Ag(8)(micro(8)-X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)(PF(6)) (R = Et, X = Cl, 1a, X = Br, 1b; R = Pr, X = Cl, 2a, X = Br, 2b; R = (i)Pr, X = Cl, 3a, X = Br, 3b) were isolated from the reaction of [Ag(CH(3)CN)(4)](PF(6)), NH(4)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)], and Bu(4)NX in a molar ratio of 4:3:1 in CH(2)X(2). Positive FAB mass spectra show m/z peaks at 2573.2 for 1a, 2617.3 for 1b, 2740.9 for 2a, 2786.9 for 2b, 2742.3 for 3a, and 2787.0 for 3b due to respective molecular cation, (M - PF(6))(+). (31)P NMR spectra of 1a-3b display a singlet at delta 82.3, 81.5, 82.9, 81.7, 76.3, and 75.8 ppm with a set of satellites (J(PSe) = 661, 664, 652, 652, 656, and 656 Hz, respectively). The X-ray structure (1a-2b) consists of a discrete cationic cluster in which eight silver ions are linked by six diselenophosphate ligands and a central micro(8)-Cl or micro(8)-Br ion with a noncoordinating PF(6)(-) anion. The shape of the molecule is a halide-centered distorted Ag(8) cubic cluster. The dsep ligand exhibits a tetrametallic tetraconnective (micro(2), micro(2)) coordination pattern, and each caps on a square face of the cube. Each silver atom of the cube is coordinated by three selenium atoms and the central chloride or bromide ion. Additionally, molecular orbital calculations at the B3LYP level of the density functional theory have been carried out to study the Ag-micro(8)-X (X = Cl, Br) interactions for cluster cations [Ag(8)(micro(8)-X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)](+). Calculations show very weak bonding interactions exist between micro(8)-X and Ag atoms of the cube. PMID:15236560

  6. Novel chloride-centered discrete CuI8 cubic clusters containing diselenophosphate ligands. Syntheses and structures of [Cu8(mu8-Cl)[Se2P(OR)2](6)](PF6) (R = Et, Pr, iPr)1.

    PubMed

    Liu, C W; Hung, Chiu-Mine; Santra, Bidyut Kumar; Chen, Hsiu-Chih; Hsueh, Hsin-Hsueh; Wang, Ju-Chung

    2003-05-19

    Three clusters 1-3, Cu(8)(mu8-Cl)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)(PF(6)) (R= Et, Pr, (i)Pr), were synthesized in high yield from the reaction of [Cu(CH(3)CN)(4)](PF(6)), NH(4)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)], and Bu(4)NCl in a molar ratio of 4:3:1 in diethyl ether. FAB mass spectra show m/z peaks at 2218.10 for 1, 2386.10 for 2, and 2387.34 for 3 which are due to molecular cations, [1-PF(6)]+, [2-PF(6)]+, and [3-PF(6)]+, respectively. (31)P NMR spectra of 1-3 display a singlet at delta 76.48, 76.73, and 69.32 ppm with satellites (J(PSe) = 652, 653, and 648 Hz), respectively. The (77)Se NMR spectra of 1-3 exhibit a doublet peak at -21.7, -16.42, and 2.3 ppm, respectively (J(SeP) = 652 Hz for 1, 653 Hz for 2, and 648 Hz for 3). The X-ray structure (1-3) consists of a discrete cationic cluster in which eight copper ions are linked by six diselenophosphate ligands and a central mu8-Cl ion with a noncoordinating PF(6)(-) anion. The shape of the molecule is a chloride-centered distorted Cu(8) cube in clusters 1 and 2 and a near perfect Cu(8) cube for cluster 3. The dsep ligand exhibits a tetrametallic tetraconnective (mu2, mu2)) coordination pattern, and each occupies a square face of the cube. Each copper atom of the cube is coordinated by three selenium atoms with a strong interaction with the central chloride ion. The observed Cu-Cl distances lie in the range 2.649-2.878 A. PMID:12739962

  7. POR FIN (Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    A project was undertaken in San Antonio, Texas, to develop a recruitment approach which would be more effective than the traditional mass media approach in recruiting hard-core undereducated individuals into adult education classes. An experiment was designed to test a recruiting method which would employ a personal, face-to-face interview鈥

  8. Inducci髇 de brotes de formaci髇 estelar por efectos de marea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scannapieco, C.; Tissera, P.; S醝z, A.; Dom韓guez-Tenreiro, R.

    Hydrodynamical cosmological SPH simulations are used to study the effects of mergers in the star formation history of galactic objects in hierarchical clustering scenarios. We find that during some merger events, gaseous discs can experience two starbursts: the first one during the orbital decay phase, due to gas inflows driven as the satellite approaches, and the second one, when the two baryonic clumps collide. A trend for these first induced starbursts to be more efficient at transforming the gas into stars is also found. We detect that systems which do not experience early gas inflows have well-formed stellar bulges and more concentrated dark matter potential wells, which seem to be responsible for preventing further gas inward transport triggered by tidal forces. The coupled evolution of the dark matter and baryons lead to an evolutionary sequence during which systems with shallower total potential wells suffer early gas inflows during the orbital decay phase that help feed their central mass concentration, pulling in dark matter that contributes to build up more stable systems. We find a clear trend to have major mergers (i.e., similar mass objects) at high redshift as expected in a hierarchical clustering model. Whithin this scenario, massive mergers tends to occur when the systems are more likely to be unstable, and consequently, more suceptable to experiencing early gas inflows and double starbursts events. As double starbursts are more efficient at transforming gas into stars, and tend to occur at higher redshift, their impact on galaxy formation could be very important.

  9. On the Use of "Por" Plus Agent with "Se" Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Mello, George

    1978-01-01

    Two explanations for the role of "se" in such constructions as "Se construyen casas" are given by grammarians; one states that it is a passive interpretation ("Houses are built"), the other advocates an impersonal interpretation ("One builds houses"). Different views are presented and analyzed. (Author/NCR)

  10. La busqueda textual por computadora (Textual Search by Computer)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ned J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of the computer program EDIT for textual searches to locate a certain programmed word or word root. In the examples explained here, the vocabulary search is performed on poetry and allows examination of the metaphorical and conceptual poetic atmosphere achieved through word use. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  11. S铆ndrome del Outlet Tor谩cico: 驴Una Patolog铆a Siempre Quir煤rgica? An谩lisis de una Serie de 31 Cirug铆as Realizadas por V铆a Supraclavicular Serie cl铆nica

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, 脕lvaro; P谩ez, Miguel Dom铆nguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducci贸n: El s铆ndrome de outlet tor谩cico es una compresi贸n del plexo braquial que suscita pol茅mica. Se clasifica en Outlet Tor谩cico Verdadero o neurog茅nico (OTV) y Outlet Tor谩cico Disputado o no neurog茅nico (OTD). El primero presenta s铆ntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo s贸lo s铆ntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirug铆as. M茅todos: Se analizaron las cirug铆as de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagn贸sticos de outlet tor谩cico cuyo per铆odo de seguimiento post-operatorio m铆nimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de s铆ntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificaci贸n, resultado de los estudios neurofisiol贸gicos y de im谩genes, resultado de la cirug铆a, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirug铆as realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 a帽os, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 a帽os de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiol贸gicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenol贸gicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV present贸 una alteraci贸n anat贸mica relacionada con la sintomatolog铆a, hecho observado s贸lo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeor贸. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron m谩s frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusi贸n: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirug铆a, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporci贸n mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patolog铆a. PMID:25165614

  12. A Comparison Between PSRK and GERG-2004 Equation of State for Simulation of Non-Isothermal Compressible Natural Gases Mixed with Hydrogen in Pipelines / Por贸wnanie r贸wna艅 stanu opracowanych wed艂ug metody PSRK oraz GERG-2004 wykorzystanych do symulacji zachowania 艣ci艣liwych mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w ruroci膮gach, w warunkach przep艂yw贸w nie-izotermicznych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uilhoorn, Frits E.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the GERG-2004 equation of state based on a multi-fluid approximation explicit in the reduced Helmholtz energy is compared with the predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong group contribution method. In the analysis, both equations of state are compared by simulating a non-isothermal transient flow of natural gas and mixed hydrogen-natural gas in pipelines. Besides the flow conditions also linepack-energy and energy consumption of the compressor station are computed. The gas flow is described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A pipeline section of the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline on Polish territory has been selected for the case study. W artykule dokonano por贸wnania wynik贸w uzyskanych przy wykorzystaniu r贸wnania stanu GERG- 2004 opartego na jawnym przybli偶eniu wynik贸w dla wielu cieczy w oparciu o zredukowan膮 energi臋 Helmhotza oraz wynik贸w uzyskanych w oparciu o metod臋 Soave-Redlich Kwonga. Obydwa r贸wnania stanu por贸wnano poprzez przeprowadzenie symulacji stan贸w przej艣ciowych przep艂yw贸w gazu ziemnego oraz mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w ruroci膮gach w warunkach przep艂yw贸w nie-izotermicznych. Opr贸cz warunk贸w przep艂ywu, okre艣lono energi臋 w nape艂nionym uk艂adzie oraz zu偶ycie energii przez stacj臋 kompresora. Przep艂yw gazu opisano zbiorem r贸wna艅 r贸偶niczkowych cz膮stkowych, wyprowadzonych w oparciu o prawa zachowania masy, p臋du i energii. Jako studium przypadku wybrano fragment ruroci膮gu jamalskiego (Yamal- Europa) przebiegaj膮cego przez terytorium Polski.

  13. See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo por Internet: Ideas por padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeanette

    Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many鈥

  14. Verification and validation interim report for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This Verification and Validation (V/V) interim report summarizes to date the results of the V/V tasks performed in each of the following life cycle phases: concept, requirements, design, implementation, test, installation and checkout, and operation and maintenance. At the end of the installation and checkout phase, the V/V final report will be issued. This interim report contains or references the following for each phase: Description of V/V tasks performed; Summary of task results; Summary of anomalies and resolution; Assessment of system quality; Recommendations.

  15. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate鈥

  16. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and

  17. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and鈥

  18. "Por Los Ojos De Madres": Latina Mothers' Understandings of College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Laura Jean; Martinez, Melissa Ann; S谩enz, Victor B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, data from six focus groups with 30 Latina mothers in South Texas were analyzed utilizing a "funds of knowledge" approach to uncover their understandings of college readiness and their role in ensuring their children are college ready. Findings indicate that Latina mothers perceived college readiness in a holistic fashion,鈥

  19. The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Geoffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)

  20. Language and La Academia, If English Works, Por Que Se Emplea Espanol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonz, Jon G.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of Mexican American nationalism reflected in the publications of the Academia de la Nueva Raza and in a 1971 work by Ricardo Sanchez are examined in this article. The connection between language and ideology is discussed in the context of Chicano nationalist writing. (GC)

  1. Evoluci贸n de una protuberancia observada por el HASTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luoni, M. L.; Francile, C.

    Prominence eruptions are one of the most spectacular manifestations of solar activity; in addition to flares and coronal mass ejections. Both filaments and prominences are chromospheric material suspended in the corona by the magnetic field. Hence their importance as tracers of field ejections. Some parts of their magnetic structure are not well understood; especially with regard to the loss of stability. On 06 December 2010 the H-Alpha Telescope for Argentina (HASTA) observed a prominence in the eastern solar limb including when part of it was ejected. In this paper the evolution of the filament is analyzed; its structure before and after the eruption; determining parameters that characterize it from HASTA data. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  2. Renovando la Esperanza por una Educacion sin Exclusiones (Rekindling the Hope for an Education without Exclusion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this issue, written in Spanish, focus on the following: current status and outlook of youth and adult education; opening statement of the 50th anniversary commemoration; regional framework for the education of youth and adults in Latin America and the Caribbean; interculturalism and the education of youth and adults; participation of鈥

  3. The PorGrow project: overall cross-national results, comparisons and implications.

    PubMed

    Millstone, E; Lobstein, T

    2007-05-01

    European policymakers need more information on policy responses to obesity that stakeholders judge effective and acceptable. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project gathered such intelligence by interviewing key stakeholder groups in nine countries. Interviews used an innovative multi-criteria mapping (MCM) methodology that gathers quantitative and qualitative information on the stakeholders' perceptions and judgements. Aggregating across all participants, a comprehensive portfolio of policy measures, integrated into a coherent programme, would be well-supported by broad coalitions of stakeholders. Those portfolios should include measures (i) to provide improved educations in schools and to the general adult population; (ii) measures to improve access to and incentives for physical activity; (iii) measures to improve information about both foods and physical activity and (iv) changes to the supply of and demand for foodstuffs. There was little support for fiscal measures and technological 'fixes'; they were judged ineffective and unacceptable. Significant differences were found across European regions, and across different stakeholder perspectives, but not across genders. There is a strong case for improved monitoring of body mass index levels, dietary habits and physical activity. An MCM study can effectively cover several countries, rather than being confined to just one, and generate both national and cross-national policy analyses and proposals. PMID:17371305

  4. Phantom of RAMSES (POR): A new Milgromian dynamicsN-body code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L眉ghausen, Fabian; Famaey, Benoit; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    Since its first formulation in 1983, Milgromian dynamics (MOND) has been very successful in predicting the gravitational potential of galaxies from the distribution of baryons alone, including general scaling relations and detailed rotation curves of large statistical samples of individual galaxies covering a large range of masses and sizes. Most predictions however rely on static models, and only a handful of N-body codes have been developed over the years to investigate the consequences of the Milgromian framework for the dynamics of complex evolving dynamical systems. In this work, we present a new Milgromian N-body code, which is a customized version of the RAMSES code (Teyssier 2002) and thus comes with all its features: it includes particles and gas dynamics, and importantly allows for high spatial resolution of complex systems due to the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique. It further allows the direct comparison between Milgromian simulations and standard Newtonian simulations with dark matter particles. We provide basic tests of this customized code and demonstrate its performance by presenting N-body computations of dark-matter-free spherical equilibrium models as well as dark-matter-free disk galaxies in Milgromian dynamics.

  5. Master equipment list 500 CFM portable exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    KRISKOVICH, J.R.

    1999-07-08

    The Master Equipment List (MEL) lists all the major components of the 500 cfm exhauster PORO5. The purpose of this Master Equipment List is to provide basic information and references to other documents for the listed components.

  6. Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Teaching the Spanish Prepositions "Por" and "Para"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    L2 prepositions are traditionally taught in a non-explanatory manner by having students learn each use individually. This study examines the effectiveness of an alternative explanatory approach based on cognitive linguistics, which considers the multiple uses of a preposition as related. Consequently, learners can be shown a general schema that鈥

  7. "Por Los Ojos De Madres": Latina Mothers' Understandings of College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Laura Jean; Martinez, Melissa Ann; S醗nz, Victor B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, data from six focus groups with 30 Latina mothers in South Texas were analyzed utilizing a "funds of knowledge" approach to uncover their understandings of college readiness and their role in ensuring their children are college ready. Findings indicate that Latina mothers perceived college readiness in a holistic fashion,

  8. PREJUICIO Y DISTANCIA SOCIAL HACIA PERSONAS HOMOSEXUALES POR PARTE DE J脫VENES UNIVERSITARIOS

    PubMed Central

    Fern谩ndez Rodr铆guez, Mar铆a del C.; Squiabro, Jos茅 Calder贸n

    2014-01-01

    Se realiz贸 un estudio descriptivo transversal con el prop贸sito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utiliz贸 una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente m谩s prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron m谩s prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a trav茅s del curr铆culo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

  9. Ensenando El Espanol por Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual鈥

  10. Looking for a Job: Step by Step = Buscando Trabajo: Paso por Paso.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patricia

    This bilingual document provides guidelines and learning activities to assist migrant workers in looking for a job. The document covers the following areas: (1) a checklist providing an overview of job search skills; (2) developing a fact sheet of personal information; (3) listing good work qualities; (4) identifying references and securing鈥

  11. Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Teaching the Spanish Prepositions "Por" and "Para"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    L2 prepositions are traditionally taught in a non-explanatory manner by having students learn each use individually. This study examines the effectiveness of an alternative explanatory approach based on cognitive linguistics, which considers the multiple uses of a preposition as related. Consequently, learners can be shown a general schema that

  12. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.鈥

  13. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli pat贸genas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    G贸mez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli pat贸genas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en ni帽os menores de 5 a帽os en Am茅rica Latina, 脕frica y Asia y est谩n asociadas a alta mortalidad en ni帽os en las comunidades m谩s pobres de 脕frica y el Sudeste Asi谩tico. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli pat贸genas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros pa铆ses de Am茅rica Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detecci贸n de estos pat贸genos en los laboratorios cl铆nicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detecci贸n de E. coli pat贸genas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxig茅nica la cepa m谩s frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en ni帽os menores de 5 a帽os. Otros pat贸genos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropat贸gena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisi贸n de estos pat贸genos y a la infecci贸n del hu茅sped susceptible. M谩s estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisi贸n, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevenci贸n de estos pat贸genos que afectan la poblaci贸n pedi谩trica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  14. El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing鈥

  15. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate

  16. Neuropat铆a perif茅rica inducida por quimioterapia

    Cancer.gov

    Art铆culo sobre un efecto secundario de la quimioterapia que causa dolor y malestar en las manos y los pies. Tambi茅n incluye informaci贸n sobre los esfuerzos para mejorar las opciones de detecci贸n, tratamiento y prevenci贸n.

  17. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all鈥

  18. Producao d Dijatos por Dupla Troca de Pomeron Exclusiva no Experimento D0

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, Murilo, Santana; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF

    2008-10-01

    The first search for exclusive diffractive dijet production with invariant mass {approx}> 100 GeV in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is performed. The set of data used is the Run IIa, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV taken with the D0 detector. At 95% CL, an upper limit for the ratio between the number of diffractive exclusive events and the number of non diffractive events is set to be 7.5 x 10{sup -6}, excluding two of the three models proposed to explain this production.

  19. Seizures, cysticercosis and rural-to-urban migration: the PERU MIGRANT study

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Isidro; Miranda, J Jaime; Rodriguez, Silvia; Vargas, Victor; Cjuno, Alfredo; Smeeth, Liam; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tsang, Victor C W; Gilman, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence of seizures, epilepsy and seropositivity to cysticercosis in rural villagers (cysticercosis-endemic setting), rural-to-urban migrants into a non-endemic urban shanty town and urban inhabitants of the same non-endemic shanty town. Methods Three Peruvian populations (n聽=聽985) originally recruited into a study about chronic diseases and migration were studied. These groups included rural inhabitants from an endemic region (n聽=聽200), long-term rural-to-urban migrants (n聽=聽589) and individuals living in the same urban setting (n聽=聽196). Seizure disorders were detected by a survey, and a neurologist examined positive respondents. Serum samples from 981/985 individuals were processed for cysticercosis antibodies on immunoblot. Results Epilepsy prevalence (per 1000 people) was 15.3 in the urban group, 35.6 in migrants and 25 in rural inhabitants. A gradient in cysticercosis antibody seroprevalence was observed: urban 2%, migrant 13.5% and rural group 18% (P聽<聽0.05). A similarly increasing pattern of higher seroprevalence was observed among migrants by age at migration. In rural villagers, there was strong evidence of an association between positive serology and having seizures (P聽=聽0.011) but such an association was not observed in long-term migrants or in urban residents. In the entire study population, compared with seronegative participants, those with strong antibody reactions (鈮ヂ4 antibody bands) were more likely to have epilepsy (P聽<聽0.001). Conclusions It is not only international migration that affects cysticercosis endemicity; internal migration can also affect patterns of endemicity within an endemic country. The neurological consequences of cysticercosis infection likely outlast the antibody response for years after rural-to-urban migration. Objectifs Examiner la pr茅valence des crises d鈥櫭﹑ilepsie, de l鈥櫭﹑ilepsie et de la s茅ropositivit茅 脿 la cysticercose chez les villageois des zones rurales (cadre end茅mique pour la cysticercose), chez les migrants des zones ruraux vers les zones urbaines dans un bidonville urbain non end茅mique et chez les habitants urbains du m锚me bidonville non end茅mique. M茅thodes Trois populations p茅ruviennes (n = 985) recrut茅es initialement dans une 茅tude sur les maladies chroniques et la migration, ont 茅t茅 茅tudi茅es. Ces groupes comprenaient des habitants de zones rurales d'une r茅gion d'end茅mie (n = 200), des migrants de long terme de zones ruraux vers les villes (n = 589) et les personnes vivant dans le m锚me milieu urbain (n = 196). Les troubles 茅pileptiques ont 茅t茅 d茅tect茅s par un sondage et un neurologue a examin茅 les r茅pondants positifs. Des 茅chantillons de s茅rum de 981/985 individus ont 茅t茅 test茅s pour les anticorps de cysticercose par Immunoblot. R茅sultats La pr茅valence de l鈥櫭﹑ilepsie (pour 1000 personnes) 茅tait de 15,3 dans le groupe urbain; 35,6 chez les migrants et 25 dans la population rurale. Un gradient dans la s茅ropr茅valence des anticorps de la cysticercose a 茅t茅 observ茅: dans le groupe urbain 2%, le groupe de migrants 13,5% et le groupe rural 18% (p <0,05). Une tendance croissante similaire de s茅ropr茅valence plus 茅lev茅e a 茅t茅 observ茅e chez les migrants selon l鈥櫭e 脿 la migration. Chez les villageois ruraux, il y avait des preuves solides d'une association entre une s茅rologie positive et le fait d'avoir des crises (p = 0,011), mais une telle association n'a pas 茅t茅 observ茅e chez les migrants de long terme ou chez les r茅sidents urbains. Dans l'ensemble de la population de l鈥櫭﹖ude, ceux avec de fortes r茅actions d'anticorps (鈮 4 bandes d'anticorps) 茅taient plus susceptibles d'avoir l鈥櫭﹑ilepsie (p <0,001) compar茅 aux participants s茅ron茅gatifs. Conclusions La migration internationale n'est pas la seule qui affecte l'end茅micit茅 de la cysticercose; la migration interne peut aussi modifier les profils d'end茅micit茅 au sein d'un m锚me pays d'end茅mie. Les cons茅quences neurologiques de l'infection par la cysticercose sont susceptibles de survivre 脿 la r茅ponse d'anticorps durant des ann茅es apr猫s la migration des zones rurales vers les zones urbaines. Objetivos Examinar la prevalencia de convulsiones, epilepsia, y seropositividad para cisticercosis entre poblaci贸n rural (de zonas end茅micas para cisticercosis), inmigrantes provenientes de zonas rurales a tugurios urbanos no end茅micos, y habitantes urbanos de los mismo tugurios urbanos no end茅micos. M茅todos Se estudiaron tres poblaciones peruanas (n=985) originalmente reclutadas en un estudio de enfermedades cr贸nicas y migraci贸n. Estos grupos inclu铆an habitantes rurales de una regi贸n end茅mica (n=200), inmigrantes de larga duraci贸n de zonas rurales a urbanas (n=589), e individuos que viv铆an en la misma zona urbana (n=196). Las convulsiones se detectaron mediante una encuesta y un neur贸logo examin贸 a quienes hab铆an respondido positivamente. Se procesaron muestras de suero de 981/985 individuos en busca de anticuerpos para cisticercosis mediante inmunoblot. Resultados La prevalencia de epilepsia (por 1,000 personas) era de 15.3 en el grupo urbano, 35.6 en inmigrantes y 25 en habitantes rurales. Se observ贸 un gradiente en la seroprevalencia de los anticuerpos para cisticercosis: grupos urbano 2%, inmigrante 13.5% y rural 18% (p<0.05). Se observ贸 un patr贸n de aumento similar de mayor seroprevalencia entre inmigrantes seg煤n la edad que ten铆an en el momento de emigrar. En pobladores rurales, hab铆a una evidencia importante de asociaci贸n entre tener una serolog铆a positiva y sufrir convulsiones (p=0.011), pero esta asociaci贸n no se observaba en inmigrantes de larga duraci贸n o residentes urbanos. En la poblaci贸n al completo, comparada con los participantes seronegativos, aquellos con una fuerte reactividad de anticuerpos (鈮4 bandas de anticuerpos) ten铆an una mayor probabilidad de sufrir epilepsia (p<0.001). Conclusiones No solo la migraci贸n internacional afecta la endemicidad de cisticercosis; la migraci贸n interna tambi茅n puede afectar los patrones de endemicidad dentro de un pa铆s end茅mico. Las consecuencias neurol贸gicas de la infecci贸n por cisticercos podr铆an durar m谩s que la respuesta a anticuerpos a帽os despu茅s de la migraci贸n de zonas rurales a zonas urbanas. PMID:25581851

  20. Que hay de nuevo acerca de la inmersion? Un Breve Recorrido por sus Fundamentos y por las Investigaciones Actuales (What's New in Immersion? A Brief Overview of Its Bases and Present-Day Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Josu

    This discussion briefly surveys the development of the immersion method of second language teaching, outlining the central program strategies and characteristics using Curtain's and Pesola's descriptions. An overview of recent research focuses on error correction and feedback studies as an example of pedagogical-methodological evolution in this鈥

  1. Structural and Physical Characterization of (Nitrato)iron(III) Porphyrinates [Fe(por)(NO3)] 鈥 Variable Coordination of Nitrate

    PubMed Central

    Wyllie, Graeme R. A.; Munro, Orde Q.; Schulz, Charles E.; Scheidt, W. Robert

    2007-01-01

    We report the X-ray crystal structures of two different iron(III) porphyrinates: [Fe(OEP)(NO3)] and [Fe(TPP)(NO3)]. The first complex has the nitrate ion coordinated by a single oxygen atom while the second derivative has the nitrate coordinated in a symmetric bidentate fashion. This latter structure is a redetermination that shows some differences from an earlier structure; the difference appears to be the result of an unrecognized nitrate ion disorder in the earlier structure determination. Changes in physical properties of three species ([Fe(TPivP)(NO3)], [Fe(OEP)(NO3)], and [Fe(TPP)(NO3)] as a function of coordination mode were examined by M枚ssbauer and EPR spectroscopies; EPR spectra appear to be most sensitive to the change in coordination mode. PMID:18852825

  2. Como ayudar a los padres a prevenir el envenenamiento por plomo (Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. This Spanish-language Digest summarizes some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies鈥

  3. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  4. Distribuci贸n superficial de impactos en Iapetus originada por el remanente de una colisi贸n

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppetti, F. A.; Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.

    2015-08-01

    By means of Circular Restricted Three Body Problem Saturn--Iapetus, we analize potential impact distributions on the surface of Iapetus, originated from considering a low-energy population generated as remnants of a collisional event occurred in the past on the surface of this satellite. The results are analized in order to offer a new approach to explain the origin of the albedo dichotomy observed on Iapetus.

  5. Monitoreo 贸ptico de eta-Carina durante el pasaje por el periastro en 2014.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fern谩ndez-Laj煤s, E.; Salerno, N. E.; Scalia, M. C.; Ramos, X. S.; Giudici, F. N.; Gamen, R. C.

    2015-08-01

    We present the H light curves resulting from the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons of Car as well as its spectral evolution, including the latest ``event'' occurred in mid-2014. The direct CCD observations were made with the telescope ``VS Niemela'' the Observatory of La Plata, and spectroscopic observations were made with the telescope ``J. Sahade'' of Casleo, Argentina.

  6. Medida da razao de ramificacao do Decaimento D+ {right arrow}K- K+ K+ duplamente suprimido por cabibbo

    SciTech Connect

    da Silva Carvalho, H.

    1997-11-01

    In this thesis, we performed a study for the decay D{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup +} and D{sub s}{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup +}, using the data collected by the E791, a hadroproduction of charm experiment at Fermilab. The D{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup +} decay is doubly Cabibbo suppressed while the D{sub s}{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup +} decay is singly Cabibbo suppressed. We found 11.6{+-}3.9 events in the D{sup +} mass region and 8.9{+-}3.3 in the D{sub s}{sup +} mass region. The D{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup +} branching ratio is measured to be (3.7{+-}1.3{+-}0.6)x10{sup -4} while the D{sub s}{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup +} branching ratio relative to D{sub s}{sup +}{yields}{phi}{pi}{sup +} is measured to be (4.2{+-}1.5{+-}0.6)x10{sup -2}.

  7. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide鈥

  8. Evaluacion de que consister y por que se lleva acabo? (Evaluation: What Does it Consist of, and for What Purpose?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    A guide is presented for the evaluation of the bilingual programs in the Austin, Texas, Independent School District. The reasons for an evaluation and a definition of program objectives and evaluation instruments are given. The program components, objectives and evaluation instruments for each grade level (K-4) are listed. The components involved鈥

  9. Disponibilidade de nutrientes na fitomassa produzida por cultivares de milho (Zea mays L.) de diferentes niveis tecnologicos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Macronutrient uptake, accumulation, and exportation can be affected by corn genetic selection. The objectives of this study were to quantify macronutrient extraction and to evaluate C/P and C/N ratio. The experiment was established at Rol鈔dia County, Paran State. Ten corn varieties divided into pa...

  10. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide

  11. Comparacion de Modelos de Educacion Sexual en El Conocimiento y Cambio de Actitudes en Practicas Sexuales por Alumnos de Nivel Superior en La Region De Caguas, Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    2012-01-01

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of鈥

  12. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy (Preguntas por responder en la pol铆tica educativa de lenguas extranjeras en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla Carvajal, Camilo Andr茅s; Tejada-S谩nchez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its鈥

  13. "驴Por qu茅 leemos esto en la clase de espa帽ol?": The Politics of Teaching Literature in Spanglish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postma, Regan L.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses what is at stake in teaching works written in "Spanglish" in Spanish departments and what teaching such works might mean for students and the scholarly community at large. This article primarily comes out of the author's experiences teaching "Spanglish" works in Spanish courses at a major research鈥

  14. Efectos de Campos Magn茅ticos en las Tasas de Consumo de Madera por Coptotermes formosanus, la Termita Subterr谩nea de Formosa.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty groups of 500 workers and 50 soldiers of Coptotermes formosanus were maintained in costume designed containers and fed with a piece of red oak wood (Quercus rubra). Twenty of these groups were exposed to permanent magnets with a flux of 800 G. Another 20 groups were exposed to a permanent mag...

  15. Library Safari: Tips for Parents of Young Readers and Explorers = De safari por la biblioteca: Consejos para padres de lectores y exploradores jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Aedin

    Visiting the library is a great way for parents to encourage their child's imagination and learning. It gives parents the opportunity to model good reading behavior and to show their child that they value books and reading. No matter how young the child is, a trip to the library can be an enjoyable outing for parents and their children. Most鈥

  16. Realidades Suburbanas: Latinos en el Condado de Dakota. Una Investigacion Dirigida por HACER = Suburban Realities: Latinos in Dakota County. A Study Conducted by HACER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HACER: Hispanic Advocacy and Community Empowerment through Research, Minneapolis, MN.

    A research project was conducted between April and December of 1998 to learn about the experiences of the sizable numbers of Latinos who live in Dakota County (Minnesota). This diverse group was studied through examining existing demographic information, conducting interviews with 45 Latino and Anglo individuals, and conducting several focus鈥

  17. Beneficios y riesgos de la terapia estrog茅nica en la menopausia var铆an por edad, de acuerdo con el e

    Cancer.gov

    Los datos de seguimiento a largo plazo del estudio Iniciativa para la Salud de la Mujer (WHI) proporcionan informaci贸n nueva e importante sobre los posibles riesgos y beneficios de la terapia hormonal para tratar s铆ntomas relacionadas con la menopausia.

  18. The effects of the porous buffer layer and doping with dysprosium on internal stresses in the GaInP:Dy/por-GaAs/GaAs(100) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Seredin, P. V.; Gordienko, N. N.; Glotov, A. V.; Zhurbina, I. A.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Arsent'ev, I. N. Shishkov, M. V.

    2009-08-15

    In structures with a porous buffer layer, residual internal stresses caused by a mismatch between the crystal-lattice parameters of the epitaxial GaInP alloy and the GaAs substrate are redistributed to the porous layer that acts as a buffer and is conducive to disappearance of internal stresses. Doping of the epitaxial layer with dysprosium exerts a similar effect on the internal stresses in the film-substrate structure.

  19. Effect of por-SiC buffer layer on the parameters of thin Er2O3 layers on silicon carbide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacherikov, Yu Yu; Konakova, R. V.; Okhrimenko, O. B.; Berezovska, N. I.; Kapitanchuk, L. M.; Svetlichnyi, A. M.; Svetlichnaya, L. A.

    2015-04-01

    Using optical absorption and Auger spectrometry techniques, we studied the effect of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the properties of erbium oxide films deposited onto a porous silicon carbide buffer layer formed on 4H-SiC substrates. An analysis of atomic composition of the films under investigation as a function of RTA duration was performed. It is shown that phase composition of erbium oxide films on silicon carbide substrates with a porous SiC layer can be changed by varying RTA duration.

  20. Comparacion de modelos de Educacion Sexual en el conocimiento y cambio de actitudes en practicas sexuales por alumnos de nivel superior en la region de Caguas, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD). In addition, it provides activities to increase the self-esteem, the communication and the decision making. This investigation had the intention to compare the SETM and the HBM in the increase of knowledge and change of attitudes of high risk of propagation of the STD using a validated questionnaire (Agency of the United States for the International-USAID Development), named "Endesa 2007" and, adapted to Puerto Rico by the Dra.Marta Collazo to a sample of students between the 17 and 19 years of 2 state schools of San Lorenzo, as a pretest, and, selected by convenience. Then, a 10 hours training was administered to half of the students using the SETM to STD and condom use lessons. The other half of the students received additional lessons using the HBM. Finally, both groups took the questionnaire again as a posttest. The sample of students, in average, did not reach the knowledge and basic levels of attitudes towards the STD in the pretest. This reflected 2 possible implications on the SETM. In first place, that the way in which the STD is implemented as part of the Sexual Education curriculum is inefficient. Secondly, the possibility that the acquired information or attitudes does not have permanence. Culminated the questionnaire, the HBM increase the knowledge of the STD in 0.41 points (average) over the SETM. There was not a significant difference between both models, in attitudes, implying that both models are equally effective. The findings suggests that the HBM is more effective increasing the knowledge on the STD, but equally effective than the SETM in attitude change for the Puerto Rican youth.

  1. Comienza la construcci贸n de instalaci贸n patrocinada por el NCI en Puerto Rico para realizar estudios

    Cancer.gov

    El gobierno de Puerto Rico ha destinado $196 millones de d贸lares para construir un hospital oncol贸gico de 287 000 pies cuadrados en San Juan, que contar谩 con 96 camas. El nuevo hospital es el primero en su clase en la regi贸n caribe帽a y en 茅l se llevar谩n a

  2. Communicating with Mexican Americans: Por Su Buena Salud = Communicando Con Mexico Americanos: For Their Good Health. Proceedings of the Conference (Houston, TX, September 13-14, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas J., Ed.; And Others

    The conference focused on the role of the Mexican American's cultural language, tradition, life style, health practices, and media utilization in the design of effective health education and information programs. Representing various local, state, and national health, education, and media organizations, the 108 participants attended sessions on鈥

  3. Comparacion de Modelos de Educacion Sexual en El Conocimiento y Cambio de Actitudes en Practicas Sexuales por Alumnos de Nivel Superior en La Region De Caguas, Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    2012-01-01

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of

  4. "Pig in a poke (gato por liebre)": the "mota" (Calophysus macropterus) fishery, molecular evidence of commercialization in Colombia and toxicological analyses.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Cristian; Cubillos, Juan Camilo; G贸mez, Rigoberto; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Overfishing has affected the population abundance trends of many commercial fish species. In the Amazon, the fishery of a catfish commonly known as "mota" or "piracatinga" (Calophysus macropterus) has become an important economic activity in the region as this species has replaced a number of other overexploited great catfish species in the markets. Due to this high exploitation, ways in which to increase captures have been identified. One strategy is to use decomposing animal carcasses as bait. Such strategy has increased the hunting pressure on endangered species such as caimans and river dolphins. We investigated which catfish species are currently commercialized in Colombian fish markets using DNA barcoding, and measured mercury concentration in the tissues of fish molecularly identified as C. macropterus. We collected 86 fish samples in markets of four Colombian cities. Sixty-eight of these were identified molecularly as C.macropterus. The mercury concentration of 29 such samples was analyzed. Samples presented total Hg concentrations higher than the limit for human consumption established by the WHO (0.5聽渭g/g). These results are worrisome and suggest that (1) C. macropterus is a widely used fish species for human consumption in Colombia and (2) C. macropterus has high concentrations of total Hg, making its consumption a public health risk. Results presented here suggest that C. macropterus has replaced capaz in most Colombian markets. This fishery threatens wild species of river dolphins and caimans, and is also a public health risk given the high mercury levels we found in a subsample of these fishes. PMID:24419666

  5. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Leichliter, Jami S; Sun, Christina J; Bloom, Fred R

    2016-01-01

    Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005-2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men's social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. PMID:26916740

  6. Comparative Analysis of Selected Models of Water Coning in Gas Reservoirs / Analiza Por贸wnawcza Wybranych Modeli Powstawania Sto偶k贸w Wodnych w Z艂o偶ach Gazowych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smulski, Rafa艂

    2012-11-01

    Exploitation of natural gas fields with edge or underlying water is usually defined per analogy to the oil fields. The existing models do not correspond to reality as they do not describe relevant processes related with a turbulent gas flow near the well. The natural gas exploitation with productivity greater than critical may be advantageous in view of summaric depletion and rate of depletion. Article presents: the analysis of the selected critical rates models, determining the influence of specific parameters on the critical rate values, introducing new modified formula for critical rates, and comparative calculations for various configurations with the numerical model.

  7. Comparative assesment of steady-state pipeline gas flow models / Analiza por贸wnawcza modeli przep艂ywu gazu w ruroci膮gu w stanach ustalonych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaczykowski, Maciej; Osiadacz, Andrzej J.

    2012-10-01

    One-dimensional, non-isothermal flow of gas in a straight pipe has been considered to predict pressure and temperature profiles along the horizontal pipeline under steady-state conditions. Selected analytical models for the simplified calculation of these profiles are evaluated on the basis of the numerical solution of the accurate model, which incorporates the convective term in the momentum equation and the kinetic energy term in the energy equation, while treating the enthalpy as a function of pressure and temperature. For closure of the system of the conservation equations, the GERG 2004 equation of state was chosen. In order to present the discrepancies introduced by the models, the results of the numerical and analytical solutions are compared with the field data. The results show that in the case of the high pressure gas transmission system, the effects of the convective term in the momentum equation and the kinetic energy term in the energy equation are negligible for pipeline pressure and temperature calculation accuracies. It also indicates that real gas effects play an important role in the temperature distribution along the pipeline and cannot be neglected from the calculation when approximate analytical equations are used.

  8. The Latinas' Guide to the Information Superhighway: A Bilingual Guide for Latinas by Latinas = Guia para Mujeres Latinas sobre la Supercarretera de la Informacion: Una Guia Bilingue para Latinas por medio de Latinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANA, A National Latina Organization, Washington, DC.

    This guide to the Internet is designed to give Latinas basic information on computers and the information superhighway. Written in both Spanish and English, the guide begins by defining the Internet and making some suggestions about acquiring access to a computer. Among the topics discussed are how to choose an Internet service provider, how to鈥

  9. Viajando por la Carretera de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para los Padres para Tener un Viaje Feliz y Seguro (Traveling the Special Education Highway: A Parent's Guide to a Safe and Happy Journey).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Maria, Karen

    Designed for Spanish-speaking parents, this brochure, written in Spanish, uses a car-trip analogy to describe special education services for students with disabilities. It addresses: (1) child find; (2) initial evaluation and eligibility determination; (3) categories of students who receive special education services and related services; (4)鈥

  10. VISI脫N GENERAL DE LA EVALUACI脫N DEL RIESGO EN SALUD INFANTIL EMPLEANDO UN ENFOQUE POR ETAPAS DE DESARROLLO (American translation is: Overview of a Life Stage Approach to Children's Health Risk Assessment)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  11. Proyecto de Ley por el Cual se Dicta el Estatuto General de Educacion y Pliego de Modificaciones Propuesto (Bill Establishing a General Statute for Education and Explanation of Proposed Modifications).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez Villa, Diego

    This document contains the 1971 Colombian education bill and suggested bill modifications. The bill states educational objectives and establishes the structure of the national education system, the organization for educational administration, financing procedures, regulations for educational personnel, and the means for implementing the鈥

  12. Less and Less for More and More. Economic Organization Booklet 1. Teacher's Edition=Menos y menos por mas y mas. Organizacion economica libro 1. Manual para El Maestro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and are designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to

  13. Guiandose por la Intrincada Senda de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para Padres y Maestros. Tercera Edicion. (Negotiating the Special Education Maze: A Guide for Parents & Teachers. Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Winifred; Chitwood, Stephen; Hayden, Deidre

    Designed to assist Spanish-speaking parents and teachers in understanding special education procedures, this book describes the process for obtaining school services for children with disabilities. An introduction reviews six major provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that relate to children's rights to a free,鈥

  14. Fields without Borders: An Anthology of Documentary Writing and Photography by Student Action with Farmworkers' Interns = Campos sin Fronteras: Una Antologia de Obras Escritas y Fotografia por Estudiantes Internos de Accion Estudiantil con Trabajadores Agricolas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Libby, Ed.; Okie, Alejandra, Ed.; Wiggins, Melinda, Ed.

    In this booklet, essays and poems, presented both in English and in Spanish, portray the feelings, conditions, and economic plight of migrant and seasonal farmworkers in North and South Carolina, often in their own words. A preface describes Student Action with Farmworkers summer internships in which college students spend 10 weeks working with鈥

  15. TECNOLOG脥AS DE INFORMACI脫N Y COMUNICACI脫N PARA LA PREVENCI脫N Y CONTROL DE LA INFECCI脫N POR EL VIH Y OTRAS ITS*

    PubMed Central

    Curioso, Walter H.; Blas, Magaly M.; Kurth, Ann E.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Avances tecnol贸gicos innovadores como Internet, computadoras personales de bolsillo, tel茅fonos celulares y otros equipos son un arsenal en crecimiento en el esfuerzo de impedir y controlar el VIH y otras infecciones de transmisi贸n sexual (ITS). A pesar que existe una diversidad de tecnolog铆as de informaci贸n y comunicaci贸n en diferentes etapas de desarrollo para la prevenci贸n del VIH e ITS, la investigaci贸n en esta 谩rea se encuentra a煤n en crecimiento, y el impacto en la incidencia de enfermedad, las evaluaciones con dise帽os rigurosos y los estudios econ贸micos todav铆a son muy limitados. Sin embargo, algunas de estas evidencias son prometedoras y poseen un gran potencial para su uso en nuestro medio. En este art铆culo hemos realizado una revisi贸n sistem谩tica de la literatura relacionada con el uso de la tecnolog铆a aplicada a la prevenci贸n y control del VIH e ITS. De ser usada apropiadamente, esta tecnolog铆a podr铆a mejorar la vigilancia del VIH y otras ITS, diagn贸stico, notificaci贸n de parejas, prevenci贸n, manejo cl铆nico, y capacitaci贸n de profesionales de la salud. PMID:26339254

  16. Mod鑜e num閞ique de terrain comme outil pour contr鬺er et mesurer l'閞osion de ravinsModelos digitales de elevaci髇 como un instrumento para seguir y medir erosi髇 por c醨cavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Harley D.; DeRose, Ronald C.

    This paper describes the use of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), constructed from sequential aerial photographs, as a tool for measuring gully erosion in a geomorphologically unstable environment. The technique is applied to a case study that examines erosion in 26 gullies in two study areas in the upper Waipaoa catchment, eastern North Island, New Zealand. Changes over two consecutive time periods, ranging in length from 14.0 years to 33.2 years, were studied at each site, drawing on available historical aerial photography. Several key aspects of the method used are described and discussed in detail, and recommendations are made for future application of DEMs for assessment of landscape change. DEM-measured gully degradation rates are directly proportional to the square root of the gully area.From this relationship it should be possible to rapidly estimate gully erosion at a catchment scale on the basis of gully areas alone. DEM-based measurement techniques, together with appropriate consideration for the sensitivity of the method, have significant cost and efficiency advantages over manual approaches to erosion measurements.

  17. Encouraging Students to Enhance Their Listening Performance (C贸mo animar a los estudiantes para que mejoren su desempe帽o en comprensi贸n oral por s铆 mismos)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hern谩ndez-Ocampo, Sonia Patricia; Vargas, Sonia Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Spanish-speaking students constantly complain about the difficulty they have comprehending spoken English. It seems teachers do not often provide them with strategies to alleviate that. This article reports on a pedagogical experience carried out at a Colombian university to help pre-service teachers at an intermediate level of English to improve鈥

  18. VISI覰 GENERAL DE LA EVALUACI覰 DEL RIESGO EN SALUD INFANTIL EMPLEANDO UN ENFOQUE POR ETAPAS DE DESARROLLO (American translation is: Overview of a Life Stage Approach to Children's Health Risk Assessment)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  19. Ingestion Reiterada de Cuerpos Extranos. Forma Inusual de Presentacion del Sindrome de Munchausen por Poderes (Reiterated Ingestion of Foreign Bodies. Unusual Form of Presentation of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terreros, I. Gomez de; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An unusual case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy is reported. A mother with a psychiatric record of behavior disorders and family dysfunction perpetrated the ingestion of foreign bodies (for example, earrings, a screw, sewing needles) on a 10-month-old infant with a history of prematurity, repeated visits to emergency rooms, and nonjustified鈥

  20. John Tracy Clinic: Programa de Ensenanza por Correspondencia para Los Padres de Ninos Sordo-Ciegos de Edad Preescolar (John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf-Blind Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thielman, Virginia B.; And Others

    Written in Spanish, the document contains a correspondence learning program for parents of deaf blind preschoolers. An introductory section gives preliminary instructions, an introduction to sign language, and a list of resources for deaf blind children. Twelve lessons follow with information on: the parent's role in teaching the child, visual鈥

  1. (2.2.2-Cryptand)potassium bis-(cyanato-魏N)(5,10,15,20-tetra-phenyl-por-phy-rin-ato-魏(4)N)cobaltate(III) chloro-benzene hemisolvate.

    PubMed

    Belhaj Ali, Bader; Belkhiria, Mohamed Salah; Daran, Jean-Claude; Nasri, Habib

    2012-10-01

    In the title compound, [K(C(18)H(36)N(2)O(6))][Co(NCO)(2)(C(44)H(28)N(4))]路0.5C(6)H(5)Cl or [K(2,2,2-crypt)(+)][Co(III)(NCO)(2)(TPP)(-)]路0.5C(6)H(5)Cl, the Co(III) ion is octa-hedrally coordin-ated by two axial N-bonded NCO(-) anions and four pyrrole N atoms of the porphyrin. There is a major ruffling distortion of the porphyrin: the dihedral angles between trans pyrrole rings are 34.32鈥(14) and 34.72鈥(14)掳. The potassium ion is coordinated by the six O atoms and two N atoms of the cryptand-222 mol-ecule and a weak K-O [3.407鈥(3)鈥吤匽 bond to one of the cyanate O atoms also occurs. The packing also features weak C-H鈰疧 and C-H鈰 inter-actions. The contribution to the scattering of the disordered chloro-benzene solvent mol-ecules was removed with the SQUEEZE function in PLATON [Spek (2009 鈻). Acta Cryst. D65, 148-155]. PMID:23125591

  2. About to Graduate from High School? Consider Career Education Opportunities. EdSource Student/Parent Guide = Estas por graduarte de la escuela preparatoria? Considera oportunidades para seguir tu educacion de carrera. EdSource guia de estudiantes y padres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Getting a sound education is important to a student's ability to make a good living in a field they will enjoy. For many students graduating from high school, that includes high quality career technical (or vocational) education tailored to a specific job. In California, such programs are available in a wide range of fields, from healthcare to the鈥

  3. Engaging Foreign Language Learners in a Web 2.0-Mediated Collaborative Learning Process (Inclusi贸n de estudiantes de lenguas extranjeras en procesos colaborativos de aprendizaje mediados por la web 2.0)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote Parra, Gabriel Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to explore the types of interactions that foreign language learners experience while using a wiki as a supporting tool for a face-to-face research course. This design allowed me to play a dual role: first, I studied my own classroom setting and students. Second, I implemented a pedagogical intervention based鈥

  4. The comparison of algorithms for key points extraction in simplification of hybrid digital terrain models. (Polish Title: Por贸wnanie algorytm贸w ekstrakcji punkt贸w istotnych w upraszczaniu numerycznych modeli terenu o strukturze hybrydowej)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baku艂a, K.

    2014-12-01

    The presented research concerns methods related to reduction of elevation data contained in digital terrain model (DTM) from airborne laser scanning (ALS) in hydraulic modelling. The reduction is necessary in the preparation of large datasets of geospatial data describing terrain re lief. Its course should not be associated with regular data filtering, which o ften occurs in practice. Such a method leads to a number of important forms important for hydraulic modeling being missed. One of the proposed solutions for the reduction of elevation data contained in DTM is to change the regular grid into the hybrid structure with regularly distributed points and irregularly located critical points. The purpose of this paper is to compare algorithms for extracting these key points from DTM. They are used in hybrid mod el generation as a part of elevation data reduction process that retains DTM accuracy and reduces the size of output files. In experiments, the following algorithms were tested: Topographic Position Index (TPI), Very Important Points (VIP) and Z - tolerance. Their effectiveness in reduction (maintaining the accuracy and reducing datasets) was evaluated in respect to input DTM from ALS. The best results were obtained for the Z - tolerance algorithm, but they do not diminish the capabilities of the other two algorithms: VIP and TPI which can generalize DTM quite well. The results confirm the possibility of obtaining a high degree of reduction reaching only a few percent of the input data with a relatively low decrease of vertical DTM accuracy to a few centimetres.

  5. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J; Rhodes, Ryan G; Nakayama, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum. PMID:19966289

  6. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J.; Rhodes, Ryan G.; Nakayama, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum. PMID:19966289

  7. Exploring with Technology: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Exploremos con tecnologia: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides computer literacy activities for鈥

  8. For a Child, Life is a Creative Adventure: Supporting Development and Learning through Art, Music, Movement, and Dialogue. A Guide for Parents and Professionals. = Para los ninos, la vida es una aventura creativa: Como estimular el desarrollo y el aprendizaje por medio de las artes visuales, la musica, el movimiento y el dialogo. Guia para padres de familia y profesionales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elena

    Recognizing that creativity facilitates children's learning and development, the Head Start Program Performance Standards require Head Start programs to include opportunities for creative self-expression. This guide with accompanying videotape, both in English- and Spanish- language versions, encourages and assists adults to support children's鈥

  9. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth

  10. Evaluation de la qualit茅 de mod猫les num茅riques de terrain d茅riv茅s par interf茅rom茅trieEvaluaci贸n de la calidad de modelos digitales de elevaci贸n derivados por interferometr铆a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gens, R眉diger

    One of the most important uses of SAR interferometry is in the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs). However, a standard procedure for quality estimation of DEMs does not exist. This paper proposes a method of quality estimation using an adapted Monte Carlo simulation, which has the advantage that it could be used in areas where appropriate reference DEMs are not available. This paper also addresses interferometric processing, with special emphasis on the influence of the input parameters. Practical implementation of the proposed technique is shown on a data set from Lower Saxony in Germany. The error map generated, which is a measure of the quality of the DEM, is also presented. For further analysis of the critical aspects of quality, a reference DEM has also been used.

  11. An谩lise de Associa莽茫o por Todo o Genoma para Identificar Locos Relacionados ao Lucro L铆quido, 脿 Vida Produtiva e ao Escore de C茅lulas Som谩ticas na ra莽a Jersey1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome scan was conducted in the US Jersey population to identify QTL affecting net merit, productive life, and somatic cell score. Data used at this study were DHI records from the national database of the Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory, USDA (Beltsville, MD). DNA was acquired for 2,380 a...

  12. A Visit to the Library: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Una visita a la biblioteca: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions for parents of 3- to鈥

  13. Lo que los educadores necesitan saber sobre...El agrupamiento por habilidad [y] La compactacion del curriculum [y] Los alumnos dotados y el aprendizaje cooperativo [y] La actividad tutoral. Guias practica (What Educators Need To Know about...Ability Grouping [and] Curriculum Compacting [and] Gifted Students and Cooperative Learning [and] Mentoring. Practitioners' Guides).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del, Ed.

    These four pamphlets in Spanish offer guidelines supported by theory-driven quality research that is problem-based, practice-relevant, and consumer-oriented. Each pamphlet has a section summarizing research from the literature or topic notes as well as implications for the classroom. The first guide offers principles for teachers concerning the鈥

  14. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and鈥

  15. Mitigation of Disagreement in Peer Review among L2 Learners and Native Speakers in a College Writing Class (Mitigaci贸n del Impacto de las Opiniones de Desacuerdo en el Proceso de Revisi贸n por Pares entre Estudiantes de una Segunda Lengua y Hablantes Nativos en una Clase de Escritura a Nivel Universitario)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christoffersen, Katherine O'Donnell

    2015-01-01

    Peer review is now a commonplace practice in process-oriented writing instruction. A crucial aspect of peer review is assessing another classmate's work, which encompasses the act of disagreement. Given its prevalence in the classroom, it is necessary to analyze how L2 learners mitigate disagreement in the context of peer review with other L2鈥

  16. Words All around Us: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Palabras y palabras a nuestro alrededor: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and鈥

  17. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth鈥

  18. Palabras del Secretario de Educacion Publica en la reunion anual de directores de education federal e inspectores generales en los estados que se rigen por el calendario "A". (Address by the Minister of Education at the Annual Meeting of Directors of Federal Education and Inspectors General in Calendar "A" States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanez, Agustin

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a speech by the Mexican Minister of Education at an annual educators meeting. The Minister dealt with the administration and quality of education, the role of the directors and the duties towards them of the inspectors, and the main features of the reform of national鈥

  19. Reading with Children: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = La lectura con los ninos: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and鈥

  20. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and

  1. A Visit to the Library: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Una visita a la biblioteca: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions for parents of 3- to

  2. Reading with Children: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = La lectura con los ninos: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and

  3. Words All around Us: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Palabras y palabras a nuestro alrededor: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and

  4. Talking, Singing, Rhyming: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Hablar, cantar, recitar: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and

  5. Exploring with Technology: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Exploremos con tecnologia: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides computer literacy activities for

  6. Talking, Singing, Rhyming: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Hablar, cantar, recitar: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and鈥

  7. The Impact of Regional Differences on Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes towards Their Students' Use of Code Switching in a South Texas School District (El impacto de las diferencias regionales en las actitudes de docentes de primaria respecto a la alternancia de c贸digos por parte de los estudiantes en un distrito escolar del sur de Texas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nava G贸mez, Guadalupe Nancy; Garc铆a, Hilda

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigating whether the teachers' geographical distribution influences their attitudes towards their students' use of code switching. The study was guided by the following research question: Are there differences between teachers' opinions of the north elementary schools and teachers' opinions of the鈥

  8. Ultrafast charge separation and charge stabilization in axially linked 'tetrathiafulvalene-aluminum(III) porphyrin-gold(III) porphyrin' reaction center mimics.

    PubMed

    Poddutoori, Prashanth K; Lim, Gary N; Vassiliev, Serguei; D'Souza, Francis

    2015-10-21

    The axial bonding ability of aluminum(III) porphyrin (AlPor) has been exploited to synthesize the vertically linked dyad 'aluminum(III) porphyrin-gold(III) porphyrin' (AlPor-Ph-AuPor(+)) and the two corresponding self-assembled triads 'tetrathiafulvalene-aluminum(III) porphyrin-gold(III) porphyrin' (TTF-py?AlPor-Ph-AuPor(+) and TTF-Ph-py?AlPor-Ph-AuPor(+)). The unique topology of these triads provides an excellent opportunity to investigate the sequential electron transfer in the perpendicular direction to the AlPor plane where the AlPor acts as a photosensitizer and primary electron donor while the AuPor and TTF serve as an electron acceptor and donor, respectively. The ground state properties of the dyad and triad suggest that there are no direct intramolecular interactions between the oppositely disposed AuPor and TTF units of the triad. However, the NMR and UV-visible absorption studies of the dyad reveal intermolecular interactions in non-coordinating solvents due to the coordination of counterion PF6(-) to the Al center of AlPor. Steady-state and femtosecond transient absorption studies of the dyad show that the lowest excited singlet state of AlPor ((1)AlPor*) is strongly quenched by ultrafast electron transfer to AuPor(+) with a time constant of 3.16 ps. The resulting charge separated state (AlPor(+)?-AuPor?) decays to ground state biexponentially with time constants of 27.26 and 2557 ps. Analogously, upon photo-excitation the triads also produce the same primary radical pair (AlPor(+)?-AuPor?). However, the formed radical pair is further involved in a rapid hole transfer from AlPor(+)? to TTF to form a stable final radical pair TTF(+)?-AlPor-AuPor?. The lifetime of the charge separated state exhibits an increase from 27.26 ps in AlPor-Ph-AuPor to 1393 ps in TTF-py?AlPor-Ph-AuPor(+) and 1484 ps in TTF-Ph-py?AlPor-Ph-AuPor(+). These results reveal successful charge stabilization in the self-assembled supramolecular reaction center mimics constructed via the axial linkage strategy. PMID:26388225

  9. A study on the stability of O{sub 2} on oxometalloporphyrins by the first principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Yoshiyuki; Escano, Mary Clare Sison; Dy, Eben Sy; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Kasai, Hideaki

    2007-05-21

    The authors investigated the interaction of oxometalloporphyrins (MO(por))--specifically, MoO(por), WO(por), TiO(por), VO(por), and CrO(por)--with O{sub 2} by using first principles calculations. MoO(por) and WO(por) undergo reactions with O{sub 2}; on the other hand, TiO(por), VO(por), and CrO(por) do not. Next, they compared the interaction of MoO(por) and WO(por) with O{sub 2}. Activation barriers for the reactions of MoO(por) and WO(por) with a side-on O{sub 2} are small. For MoO(por)(O{sub 2}), the activation barrier for the reverse reaction that liberates O{sub 2} is also small; however, that for WO(por)(O{sub 2}) is large. The experimental results that photoirradiation with visible light or heating of Mo {sup VI}O(tmp)(O{sub 2}) regenerates Mo {sup VI}O(tmp) by liberating O{sub 2} while W {sup VI}O(tmp)(O{sub 2}) does not [J. Tachibana, T. Imamura, and Y. Sasaki, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 71, 363 (1998)] are explained by the difference in activation barriers of the reverse reactions. This means that bonds formed between the W atom and O{sub 2} are stronger than those between the Mo atom and O{sub 2}. The bond strengths can be explained by differences in the energy levels between the highest occupied molecular orbital of MoO(por) and WO(por), which are mainly formed from the a orbitals of the central metal atom and {pi}{sup *} orbitals of O{sub 2}.

  10. Visible light promoted hydroxylation of a Si-C(sp3) bond catalyzed by rhodium porphyrins in water.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mengmeng; Fu, Xuefeng

    2011-10-12

    Catalytic activation of an unstrained, unactivated Si-C(sp(3)) bond in water to form methane and silanol by electrophilic rhodium(III) porphyrin [(por)Rh(III)] in acidic aqueous solutions under visible light (? ? 420 nm) has been developed. Activation of the Si-C(sp(3)) bond occurs through direct Si-C bond cleavage, with methyl group transfer to rhodium to give a porphyrin rhodium methyl complex. Photolysis of (por)Rh-CH(3) in water yields methyl radical and (por)Rh(II). Subsequently, (por)Rh(II) reacts with water rapidly to produce (por)Rh-H and (por)Rh-OH. (por)Rh-OH is then protonated to regenerate (por)Rh(III)-OH(2), and (por)Rh-H undergoes hydrogen atom abstraction by methyl radical to form the observed methane. PMID:21919487

  11. Identification of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases A and B: a branched pathway for light-dependent chlorophyll biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, G A; Runge, S; Frick, G; Sperling, U; Apel, K

    1995-01-01

    Illumination releases the arrest in chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis in etiolated angiosperm seedlings through the enzymatic photoreduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide), the first light-dependent step in chloroplast biogenesis. NADPH: Pchlide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.3.1.33), a nuclear-encoded plastid-localized enzyme, mediates this unique photoreduction. Paradoxically, light also triggers a drastic decrease in the amounts of POR activity and protein before the Chl accumulation rate reaches its maximum during greening. While investigating this seeming contradiction, we identified two distinct Arabidopsis thaliana genes encoding POR, in contrast to previous reports of only one gene in angiosperms. The genes, designated PorA and PorB, by analogy to the principal members of the phytochrome photoreceptor gene family, display dramatically different patterns of light and developmental regulation. PorA mRNA disappears within the first 4 h of greening, whereas PorB mRNA persists even after 16 h of illumination, mirroring the behavior of two distinct POR protein species. Experiments designed to help define the functions of POR A and POR B demonstrate exclusive expression of PorA in young seedlings and of PorB both in seedlings and in adult plants. Accordingly, we propose the existence of a branched light-dependent Chl biosynthesis pathway in which POR A performs a specialized function restricted to the initial stages of greening and POR B maintains Chl levels throughout angiosperm development. PMID:7659751

  12. 78 FR 63166 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... and racks (kitchen racks) from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The period of review (POR) is...., Ltd. (NKS) received countervailable subsidies during the POR. We are also rescinding this review...

  13. 25 CFR 900.118 - Do these 鈥渃onstruction contract鈥 regulations apply to construction management services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Secretary to determine compliance with: (i) The POR and design contract during the design stage; or (ii) The... subcontractors to determine compliance with: (i) The POR and the design contract during the design stage; or...

  14. 25 CFR 900.118 - Do these 鈥渃onstruction contract鈥 regulations apply to construction management services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Secretary to determine compliance with: (i) The POR and design contract during the design stage; or (ii) The... subcontractors to determine compliance with: (i) The POR and the design contract during the design stage; or...

  15. 25 CFR 900.118 - Do these 鈥渃onstruction contract鈥 regulations apply to construction management services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Secretary to determine compliance with: (i) The POR and design contract during the design stage; or (ii) The... subcontractors to determine compliance with: (i) The POR and the design contract during the design stage; or...

  16. 25 CFR 900.118 - Do these 鈥渃onstruction contract鈥 regulations apply to construction management services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Secretary to determine compliance with: (i) The POR and design contract during the design stage; or (ii) The... subcontractors to determine compliance with: (i) The POR and the design contract during the design stage; or...

  17. 25 CFR 900.118 - Do these 鈥渃onstruction contract鈥 regulations apply to construction management services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Secretary to determine compliance with: (i) The POR and design contract during the design stage; or (ii) The... subcontractors to determine compliance with: (i) The POR and the design contract during the design stage; or...

  18. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-2 - Returns under Railroad Retirement Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... employer, pursuant to the provisions of 26 CFR (1939) 410.501(b) (Regulations 100) or of 26 CFR (1939) 411... Federal sobre el Trabajo por Cuenta Propia (Incluyendo el Cr茅dito Tributario Adicional por Hijos...

  19. Fatiga (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afecci贸n caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energ铆a, que a menudo se observa como una complicaci贸n del c谩ncer y su tratamiento.

  20. Fatiga (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afecci贸n caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energ铆a, que a menudo se observa como una complicaci贸n del c谩ncer y su tratamiento.

  1. Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase: Phylogeny, Regulation, and Catalytic Properties.

    PubMed

    Gabruk, Michal; Mysliwa-Kurdziel, Beata

    2015-09-01

    This Current Topic focuses on light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.3.1.33). POR catalyzes the penultimate reaction of chlorophyll biosynthesis, i.e., the light-triggered reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide. In this reaction, the chlorin ring of the chlorophyll molecule is formed, which is crucial for photosynthesis. POR is one of very few enzymes that are driven by light; however, it is unique in the need for its substrate to absorb photons to induce the conformational changes in the enzyme, which are required for its catalytic activation. Moreover, the enzyme is also involved in the negative feedback of the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway and controls chlorophyll content via its light-dependent activity. Even though it has been almost 70 years since the first isolation of active POR complexes, our knowledge of them has markedly advanced in recent years. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of POR, including the phylogenetic roots of POR, the mechanisms of the regulation of POR genes expression, the regulation of POR activity, the import of POR into plastids, the role of POR in PLB formation, and the molecular mechanism of protochlorophyllide reduction by POR. To the best of our knowledge, no previous review has compiled such a broad set of recent findings about POR. PMID:26230427

  2. 25 CFR 900.117 - Do these 鈥渃onstruction contract鈥 regulations apply to planning services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and approval the POR documents produced as a part of a model contract under section 108 of the Act or under a construction contract under this subpart. (i) Within 60 days after receipt of the POR from the..., the Secretary shall: (A) Approve the POR; (B) Notify the Indian tribe or tribal organization of...

  3. 25 CFR 900.117 - Do these 鈥渃onstruction contract鈥 regulations apply to planning services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and approval the POR documents produced as a part of a model contract under section 108 of the Act or under a construction contract under this subpart. (i) Within 60 days after receipt of the POR from the..., the Secretary shall: (A) Approve the POR; (B) Notify the Indian tribe or tribal organization of...

  4. 25 CFR 900.117 - Do these 鈥渃onstruction contract鈥 regulations apply to planning services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and approval the POR documents produced as a part of a model contract under section 108 of the Act or under a construction contract under this subpart. (i) Within 60 days after receipt of the POR from the..., the Secretary shall: (A) Approve the POR; (B) Notify the Indian tribe or tribal organization of...

  5. Bladder Control: What Men Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... un goteo constante. Los hombres con este problema por lo general necesitan orinar frecuentemente y solamente eliminan ... s铆ntomas: 鈥 necesidad de orinar ocho o m谩s veces por d铆a o dos o m谩s veces por la ...

  6. 25 CFR 900.117 - Do these 鈥渃onstruction contract鈥 regulations apply to planning services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and approval the POR documents produced as a part of a model contract under section 108 of the Act or under a construction contract under this subpart. (i) Within 60 days after receipt of the POR from the..., the Secretary shall: (A) Approve the POR; (B) Notify the Indian tribe or tribal organization of...

  7. Four Quarters of Football Helmet Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... cabeza con la correa de la barbilla inm贸vil. 驴Por qu茅 es importante el ajuste? Un casco que ... con c谩maras de aire). 鈥 Limpie el casco regularmente por dentro y por fuera con agua tibia y ...

  8. 25 CFR 900.117 - Do these 鈥渃onstruction contract鈥 regulations apply to planning services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and approval the POR documents produced as a part of a model contract under section 108 of the Act or under a construction contract under this subpart. (i) Within 60 days after receipt of the POR from the..., the Secretary shall: (A) Approve the POR; (B) Notify the Indian tribe or tribal organization of...

  9. 75 FR 42485 - Additional Designation of Entities and Individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... is as follows: Individuals 1. ARISTIZABAL MEJIA, Diego, c/o BOSQUES DE AGUA SOCIEDAD POR ACCIONES...); (INDIVIDUAL) . 4. MEJIA MOLINA, Luis Bernardo, c/o BOSQUES DE AGUA SOCIEDAD POR ACCIONES SIMPLIFICADA... (Colombia); (INDIVIDUAL) . Entities 1. BOSQUES DE AGUA SOCIEDAD POR ACCIONES SIMPLIFICADA, Carrera 43A...

  10. Fatiga (PDQ)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afecci贸n caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energ铆a, que a menudo se observa como una complicaci贸n del c谩ncer y su tratamiento.

  11. A two-component system regulates gene expression of the type IX secretion component proteins via an ECF sigma factor

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Tomoko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Naito, Mariko; Sato, Keiko; Kikuchi, Yuichiro; Kondo, Yoshio; Shoji, Mikio; Nakayama, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes potent pathogenic proteases, gingipains, via the type IX secretion system (T9SS). This system comprises at least 11 components; however, the regulatory mechanism of their expression has not yet been elucidated. Here, we found that the PorY (PGN_2001)-PorX (PGN_1019)-SigP (PGN_0274) cascade is involved in the regulation of T9SS. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis revealed a direct interaction between a recombinant PorY (rPorY) and a recombinant PorX (rPorX). rPorY autophosphorylated and transferred a phosphoryl group to rPorX in the presence of Mn2+. These results demonstrate that PorX and PorY act as a response regulator and a histidine kinase, respectively, of a two component system (TCS), although they are separately encoded on the chromosome. T9SS component-encoding genes were down-regulated in a mutant deficient in a putative extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor, PGN_0274 (SigP), similar to the porX mutant. Electrophoretic gel shift assays showed that rSigP bound to the putative promoter regions of T9SS component-encoding genes. The SigP protein was lacking in the porX mutant. Co-immunoprecipitation and SPR analysis revealed the direct interaction between SigP and PorX. Together, these results indicate that the PorXY TCS regulates T9SS-mediated protein secretion via the SigP ECF sigma factor. PMID:26996145

  12. Altered heme catabolism by heme oxygenase-1 caused by mutations in human NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Amit V.; Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E.

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Mutations in POR identified from patients lead to reduced HO-1 activities. {yields} POR mutation Y181D affecting FMN binding results in total loss of HO-1 activity. {yields} POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F, lost 50-70% activity. {yields} Mutations in FAD binding domain, R457H, Y459H and V492E lost all HO-1 activity. {yields} POR polymorphisms P228L, R316W, G413S, A503V and G504R have normal activity. -- Abstract: Human heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) carries out heme catabolism supported by electrons supplied from the NADPH through NADPH P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Previously we have shown that mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of mutations in POR on HO-1 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified HO-1 to measure heme degradation in a coupled assay using biliverdin reductase. Here we show that mutations in POR found in patients may reduce HO-1 activity, potentially influencing heme catabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had total loss of HO-1 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 50-70% activity. The POR variants P228L, R316W and G413S, A503V and G504R identified as polymorphs had close to WT activity. Loss of HO-1 activity may result in increased oxidative neurotoxicity, anemia, growth retardation and iron deposition. Further examination of patients affected with POR deficiency will be required to assess the metabolic effects of reduced HO-1 activity in affected individuals.

  13. A two-component system regulates gene expression of the type IX secretion component proteins via an ECF sigma factor.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Tomoko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Naito, Mariko; Sato, Keiko; Kikuchi, Yuichiro; Kondo, Yoshio; Shoji, Mikio; Nakayama, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes potent pathogenic proteases, gingipains, via the type IX secretion system (T9SS). This system comprises at least 11 components; however, the regulatory mechanism of their expression has not yet been elucidated. Here, we found that the PorY (PGN_2001)-PorX (PGN_1019)-SigP (PGN_0274) cascade is involved in the regulation of T9SS. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis revealed a direct interaction between a recombinant PorY (rPorY) and a recombinant PorX (rPorX). rPorY autophosphorylated and transferred a phosphoryl group to rPorX in the presence of Mn(2+). These results demonstrate that PorX and PorY act as a response regulator and a histidine kinase, respectively, of a two component system (TCS), although they are separately encoded on the chromosome. T9SS component-encoding genes were down-regulated in a mutant deficient in a putative extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor, PGN_0274 (SigP), similar to the porX mutant. Electrophoretic gel shift assays showed that rSigP bound to the putative promoter regions of T9SS component-encoding genes. The SigP protein was lacking in the porX mutant. Co-immunoprecipitation and SPR analysis revealed the direct interaction between SigP and PorX. Together, these results indicate that the PorXY TCS regulates T9SS-mediated protein secretion via the SigP ECF sigma factor. PMID:26996145

  14. Efficient anti-tumor effect of photodynamic treatment with polymeric nanoparticles composed of polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid block copolymer encapsulating hydrophobic porphyrin derivative.

    PubMed

    Ogawara, Ken-ichi; Shiraishi, Taro; Araki, Tomoya; Watanabe, Taka-ichi; Ono, Tsutomu; Higaki, Kazutaka

    2016-01-20

    To develop potent and safer formulation of photosensitizer for cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT), we tried to formulate hydrophobic porphyrin derivative, photoprotoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (PppIX-DME), into polymeric nanoparticles composed of polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid block copolymer (PN-Por). The mean particle size of PN-Por prepared was around 80nm and the zeta potential was determined to be weakly negative. In vitro phototoxicity study for PN-Por clearly indicated the significant phototoxicity of PN-Por for three types of tumor cells tested (Colon-26 carcinoma (C26), B16BL6 melanoma and Lewis lung cancer cells) in the PppIX-DME concentration-dependent fashion. Furthermore, it was suggested that the release of PppIX-DME from PN-Por would gradually occur to provide the sustained release of PppIX-DME. In vivo pharmacokinetics of PN-Por after intravenous administration was evaluated in C26 tumor-bearing mice, and PN-Por exhibited low affinity to the liver and spleen and was therefore retained in the blood circulation for a long time, leading to the efficient tumor disposition of PN-Por. Furthermore, significant and highly effective anti-tumor effect was confirmed in C26 tumor-bearing mice with the local light irradiation onto C26 tumor tissues after PN-Por injection. These findings indicate the potency of PN-Por for the development of more efficient PDT-based cancer treatments. PMID:26593985

  15. Perceptions of risks to children's health from indoor air pollution and an investigation of respiratory illness symptoms from indoor heating with a woodburning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, J.S. III

    1986-01-01

    This study explores perceptions of risks to health (POR), risk taking behavior (RTB), and associated illness from the perspectives of medical anthropology and epidemiology. Specific objectives included investigation of the following: (1) general POR: (2) POR from indoor air pollution (IAP) and parental usage of IAP sources; (3) the relationship between POR and RTB; factors affecting POR and RTB; (4) the construction of risk domains; (5) sources of intracultural variation in POR, RTB, and the partitioning of risk domains; (6) patterns of indoor heating in central Michigan; and (7) respiratory illness symptoms (RIS) in children from exposure to indoor heating with a woodburning stove (WBS). POR and RTB were investigated in random and ethnographic samples, RIS in a random sample with an internal comparison group, and indoor heating in a random sample. Interview schedules were developed for each phase of inquiry. The instrument used to investigate POR and RTB includes both qualitative and quantitative scales for POR assessment. Findings of this study provide an ethnography of risk, an inferential analysis of POR/RTB, and a preliminary assessment of risks of RIS from heating with WBS.

  16. Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian archipelago: relating disease to environment.

    PubMed

    Aeby, Greta S; Williams, Gareth J; Franklin, Erik C; Kenyon, Jean; Cox, Evelyn F; Coles, Steve; Work, Thierry M

    2011-01-01

    In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing a negative association, but no significant explanatory power was offered for PorTLS. PMID:21655248

  17. Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian Archipelago: Relating disease to environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aeby, G.S.; Williams, G.J.; Franklin, E.C.; Kenyon, J.; Cox, E.F.; Coles, S.; Work, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing a negative association, but no significant explanatory power was offered for PorTLS. ?? 2011 Aeby et al.

  18. High-Yield Expression of a Catalytically Active Membrane-Bound Protein: Human P450 Oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Sandee, Duanpen

    2011-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is a two-flavin protein that reduces microsomal P450 enzymes and some other proteins. Preparation of active bacterially expressed human POR for biochemical studies has been difficult because membrane-bound proteins tend to interact with column matrices. To reduce column-protein interactions and permit more vigorous washing, human POR lacking 27 N-terminal residues (N-27 POR) was modified to carry a C-terminal Gly3His6-tag (N-27 POR-G3H6). When expressed in Escherichia coli, N-27 POR-G3H6 could be purified to apparent homogeneity by a modified, single-step nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography, yielding 31 mg POR per liter of culture, whereas standard purification of native N-27 POR required multiple steps, yielding 5 mg POR per liter. Both POR proteins had absorption maxima at 375 and 453 nm and both reduced cytochrome c with indistinguishable specific activities. Using progesterone as substrate for bacterially expressed purified human P450c17, the Michaelis constant for 17?-hydroxylase activity supported by N-27 POR or N-27 POR-G3H6 were 1.73 or 1.49 ?m, and the maximal velocity was 0.029 or 0.026 pmol steroids per picomole P450 per minute, respectively. Using 17-hydroxypregnenolone as the P450c17 substrate, the Michaelis constant for 17,20 lyase activity using N-27 POR or N-27 POR-G3H6 was 1.92 or 1.89 ?m and the maximal velocity was 0.041 or 0.042 pmol steroid per picomole P450 per minute, respectively. Thus, N-27 POR-G3H6 is equally active as native N-27 POR. This expression and purification system permits the rapid preparation of large amounts of highly pure, biologically active POR and may be generally applicable for the preparation of membrane-bound proteins. PMID:21586563

  19. Investigations of porous silicon with deposited 3D-metals by Auger- and ultrasoft X-ray emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Domashevskaya, E P; Lenshin, A S; Kashkarov, V M; Shabanova, I N; Terebova, N A

    2012-11-01

    Nanocomposites based on porous silicon (Por-Si) with 3d-metals incorporated into pores can be used as magnetics. Por-Si layers were obtained by anodic etching of n-type silicon (100) with the use of HF solution in alcohol. Fe, Co, Ni galvanic deposition in por-Si was made from aqueous solutions of corresponding sulphates. We have shown by USXES (Ultrasoft X-ray emission spectroscopy), and Auger spectroscopy that Fe covers the surface of porous silicon uniformly but Co penetrates into pores depth. And Ni nanoparticles similar to Co penetrate into pores depth. The obtained Auger profiles of por-Si(Fe), por-Si(Co), por-Si(Ni) nanocomposites shown that its surface layers (to 40 nm) contain up to 10% Fe and no more than 1% Co and Ni, testifying about Co and Ni penetration into silicon pores depth. PMID:23421291

  20. The interactions of superoxide ion(O2-.) with metallo-porphyrins [(C1(8)TPP)M, M = Fe,Mn,Co Zn]; models for biological systems and superoxide dismutases.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, D T; Tsang, P K

    1991-01-01

    In dimethylformamide superoxide ion forms a 1:1 adduct with tetrakis (2,6-dichlorophenyl) porphinato-iron, (C1(8)TPP)FeOO-, as well as with its manganese analogue, (C1(8)TPP)MnOO-. On the basis of their electrochemical, spectroscopic, and magnetic properties these adducts have a metal-oxygen covalent bond (PorM-OO-), oxygen-centered redox chemistry, and reactivities that are similar to the hydroperoxide ion (HOO-). Addition of -OH to a solution of PorFe and O2 results in the formation of PorFe(OH)(OO-), which can be electrochemically oxidized to PorFeOH plus O2 (-0.2 V vs SCE). Addition of protons to the PorM-OO- adducts promotes their rapid decomposition to PorM, HOOH, and O2. This chemistry provides insight to the reactions of biological superoxide and superoxide dismutases. PMID:1649106

  1. Binding of C4b-Binding Protein to Porin

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Sanjay; Cullinane, Meabh; Blom, Anna M.; Gulati, Sunita; McQuillen, Daniel P.; Monks, Brian G.; O'Connell, Catherine; Boden, Ryan; Elkins, Christopher; Pangburn, Michael K.; Dahlb盲ck, Bj枚rn; Rice, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    We screened 29 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and found 16/21 strains that resisted killing by normal human serum and 0/8 serum sensitive strains that bound the complement regulator, C4b-binding protein (C4bp). Microbial surface鈥揵ound C4bp demonstrated cofactor activity. We constructed gonococcal strains with hybrid porin (Por) molecules derived from each of the major serogroups (Por1A and Por1B) of N. gonorrhoeae, and showed that the loop 1 of Por1A is required for C4bp binding. Por1B loops 5 and 7 of serum-resistant gonococci together formed a negatively charged C4bp-binding domain. C4bp鈥Por1B interactions were ionic in nature (inhibited by high salt or by heparin), whereas the C4bp鈥Por1A bond was hydrophobic. Only recombinant C4bp mutant molecules containing the NH2-terminal 伪-chain short consensus repeat (SCR1) bound to both Por1A and Por1B gonococci, suggesting that SCR1 contained Por binding sites. C4bp 伪-chain monomers did not bind gonococci, indicating that the polymeric form of C4bp was required for binding. Using fAb fragments against C4bp SCR1, C4bp binding to Por1A and Por1B strains was inhibited in a complement-dependent serum bactericidal assay. This resulted in complete killing of these otherwise fully serum resistant strains in only 10% normal serum, underscoring the importance of C4bp in mediating gonococcal serum resistance. PMID:11157049

  2. Heterologous expression of equine CYP3A94 and investigation of a tunable system to regulate co-expressed NADPH P450 oxidoreductase levels.

    PubMed

    Dettwiler, Ramona; Schmitz, Andrea L; Plattet, Philippe; Zielinski, Jana; Mevissen, Meike

    2014-01-01

    The activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes depends on the enzyme NADPH P450 oxidoreductase (POR). The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of the equine CYP3A94 using a system that allows to regulate the POR protein levels in mammalian cells. CYP3A94 and the equine POR were heterologously expressed in V79 cells. In the system used, the POR protein regulation is based on a destabilizing domain (DD) that transfers its instability to a fused protein. The resulting fusion protein is therefore degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Addition of "Shield-1" prevents the DD fusion protein from degradation. The change of POR levels at different Shield-1 concentrations was demonstrated by cytochrome c reduction, Western immunoblot analysis, and immunocytochemistry. The alteration of CYP3A94 activity was investigated using a substrate (BFC) known to detect CYP3A4 activity. Equine CYP3A94 was demonstrated to be metabolically active and its activity could be significantly elevated by co-expression of POR. Cytochrome c reduction was significantly increased in V79-CYP3A94/DD-POR cells compared to V79-CYP3A94 cells. Surprisingly, incubation with different Shield-1 concentrations resulted in a decrease in POR protein shown by Western immunoblot analysis. Cytochrome c reduction did not change significantly, but the CYP3A94 activity decreased more than 4-fold after incubation with 500 nM and 1 碌M Shield-1 for 24 hours. No differences were obtained when V79-CYP3A94 POR cells with and without Shield-1 were compared. The basal activity levels of V79-CYP3A94/DD-POR cells were unexpectedly high, indicating that DD/POR is not degraded without Shield-1. Shield-1 decreased POR protein levels and CYP3A94 activity suggesting that Shield-1 might impair POR activity by an unknown mechanism. Although regulation of POR with the pPTuner system could not be obtained, the cell line V79-CYP3A94/DD-POR system can be used for further experiments to characterize the equine CYP3A94 since the CYP activity was significantly enhanced with co-expressed POR. PMID:25415624

  3. Heterologous Expression of Equine CYP3A94 and Investigation of a Tunable System to Regulate Co-Expressed NADPH P450 Oxidoreductase Levels

    PubMed Central

    Dettwiler, Ramona; Schmitz, Andrea L.; Plattet, Philippe; Zielinski, Jana; Mevissen, Meike

    2014-01-01

    The activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes depends on the enzyme NADPH P450 oxidoreductase (POR). The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of the equine CYP3A94 using a system that allows to regulate the POR protein levels in mammalian cells. CYP3A94 and the equine POR were heterologously expressed in V79 cells. In the system used, the POR protein regulation is based on a destabilizing domain (DD) that transfers its instability to a fused protein. The resulting fusion protein is therefore degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Addition of 鈥淪hield-1鈥 prevents the DD fusion protein from degradation. The change of POR levels at different Shield-1 concentrations was demonstrated by cytochrome c reduction, Western immunoblot analysis, and immunocytochemistry. The alteration of CYP3A94 activity was investigated using a substrate (BFC) known to detect CYP3A4 activity. Equine CYP3A94 was demonstrated to be metabolically active and its activity could be significantly elevated by co-expression of POR. Cytochrome c reduction was significantly increased in V79-CYP3A94/DD-POR cells compared to V79-CYP3A94 cells. Surprisingly, incubation with different Shield-1 concentrations resulted in a decrease in POR protein shown by Western immunoblot analysis. Cytochrome c reduction did not change significantly, but the CYP3A94 activity decreased more than 4-fold after incubation with 500 nM and 1 碌M Shield-1 for 24 hours. No differences were obtained when V79-CYP3A94 POR cells with and without Shield-1 were compared. The basal activity levels of V79-CYP3A94/DD-POR cells were unexpectedly high, indicating that DD/POR is not degraded without Shield-1. Shield-1 decreased POR protein levels and CYP3A94 activity suggesting that Shield-1 might impair POR activity by an unknown mechanism. Although regulation of POR with the pPTuner system could not be obtained, the cell line V79-CYP3A94/DD-POR system can be used for further experiments to characterize the equine CYP3A94 since the CYP activity was significantly enhanced with co-expressed POR. PMID:25415624

  4. Regulation of P450 oxidoreductase by gonadotropins in rat ovary and its effect on estrogen production

    PubMed Central

    Inaoka, Yoshihiko; Yazawa, Takashi; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Kokame, Koichi; Kangawa, Kenji; Uesaka, Miki; Umezawa, Akihiro; Miyamoto, Kaoru

    2008-01-01

    Background P450 oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes electron transfer to microsomal P450 enzymes. Its deficiency causes Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS), and about half the patients with ABS have ambiguous genitalia and/or impaired steroidogenesis. POR mRNA expression is up-regulated when mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into steroidogenic cells, suggesting that the regulation of POR gene expression is important for steroidogenesis. In this context we examined the regulation of POR expression in ovarian granulosa cells by gonadotropins, and its possible role in steroidogenesis. Methods Changes in gene expression in MSCs during differentiation into steroidogenic cells were examined by DNA microarray analysis. Changes in mRNA and protein expression of POR in the rat ovary or in granulosa cells induced by gonadotropin treatment were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Effects of transient expression of wild-type or mutant (R457H or V492E) POR proteins on the production of estrone in COS-7 cells were examined in vitro. Effects of POR knockdown were also examined in estrogen producing cell-line, KGN cells. Results POR mRNA was induced in MSCs following transduction with the SF-1 retrovirus, and was further increased by cAMP treatment. Expression of POR mRNA, as well as Cyp19 mRNA, in the rat ovary were induced by equine chorionic gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin. POR mRNA and protein were also induced by follicle stimulating hormone in primary cultured rat granulosa cells, and the induction pattern was similar to that for aromatase. Transient expression of POR in COS-7 cells, which expressed a constant amount of aromatase protein, greatly increased the rate of conversion of androstenedione to estrone, in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of mutant POR proteins (R457H or V492E), such as those found in ABS patients, had much less effect on aromatase activity than expression of wild-type POR proteins. Knockdown of endogenous POR protein in KGN human granulosa cells led to reduced estrone production, indicating that endogenous POR affected aromatase activity. Conclusion We demonstrated that the expression of POR, together with that of aromatase, was regulated by gonadotropins, and that its induction could up-regulate aromatase activity in the ovary, resulting in a coordinated increase in estrogen production. PMID:19077323

  5. Development of novel cell surface display in Corynebacterium glutamicum using porin.

    PubMed

    Tateno, Toshihiro; Hatada, Kazuki; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-09-01

    We have developed a novel cell surface display in Corynebacterium glutamicum using porin proteins as anchor proteins. Porins are localized at C. glutamicum mycolic acid layer and exist as a hexamer. We used alpha-amylase from Streptococcus bovis 148 (AmyA) as a model protein to be displayed on the C. glutamicum cell surface. AmyA was fused to the C terminus of the porins PorB, PorC, or PorH. Expression vectors using fused proteins under the control of the cspB promoter were constructed and introduced into the C. glutamicum Cm strain. Immunostaining microscopy and flow cytometric analysis revealed that PorB-AmyA, PorC-AmyA, and PorH-AmyA were displayed on the C. glutamicum cell surface. AmyA activity was only detected in the cell fraction of C. glutamicum cells that displayed AmyA fused to PorB, PorC or PorH and AmyA activity was not detected in the supernatants of C. glutamicum culture broths after 72 h cultivation. Thus, we have demonstrated that C. glutamicum porins are very efficient anchor proteins for protein display in C. glutamicum. PMID:19430772

  6. Inhibition of the alternative pathway of nonhuman infant complement by porin B2 contributes to virulence of Neisseria meningitidis in the infant rat model.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Lisa A; Vu, David M; Granoff, Dan M; Ram, Sanjay

    2014-06-01

    Neisseria meningitidis utilizes capsular polysaccharide, lipooligosaccharide (LOS) sialic acid, factor H binding protein (fHbp), and neisserial surface protein A (NspA) to regulate the alternative pathway (AP) of complement. Using meningococcal mutants that lacked all four of the above-mentioned molecules (quadruple mutants), we recently identified a role for PorB2 in attenuating the human AP; inhibition was mediated by human fH, a key downregulatory protein of the AP. Previous studies showed that fH downregulation of the AP via fHbp or NspA is specific for human fH. Here, we report that PorB2-expressing quadruple mutants also regulate the AP of baby rabbit and infant rat complement. Blocking a human fH binding region on PorB2 of the quadruple mutant of strain 4243 with a chimeric protein that comprised human fH domains 6 and 7 fused to murine IgG Fc enhanced AP-mediated baby rabbit C3 deposition, which provided evidence for an fH-dependent mechanism of nonhuman AP regulation by PorB2. Using isogenic mutants of strain H44/76 that differed only in their PorB molecules, we confirmed a role for PorB2 in resistance to killing by infant rat serum. The PorB2-expressing strain also caused higher levels of bacteremia in infant rats than its isogenic PorB3-expressing counterpart, thus providing a molecular basis for increased survival of PorB2 isolates in this model. These studies link PorB2 expression with infection of infant rats, which could inform the choice of meningococcal strains for use in animal models, and reveals, for the first time, that PorB2-expressing strains of N. meningitidis regulate the AP of baby rabbits and rats. PMID:24686052

  7. Inhibition of the Alternative Pathway of Nonhuman Infant Complement by Porin B2 Contributes to Virulence of Neisseria meningitidis in the Infant Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Vu, David M.; Granoff, Dan M.; Ram, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis utilizes capsular polysaccharide, lipooligosaccharide (LOS) sialic acid, factor H binding protein (fHbp), and neisserial surface protein A (NspA) to regulate the alternative pathway (AP) of complement. Using meningococcal mutants that lacked all four of the above-mentioned molecules (quadruple mutants), we recently identified a role for PorB2 in attenuating the human AP; inhibition was mediated by human fH, a key downregulatory protein of the AP. Previous studies showed that fH downregulation of the AP via fHbp or NspA is specific for human fH. Here, we report that PorB2-expressing quadruple mutants also regulate the AP of baby rabbit and infant rat complement. Blocking a human fH binding region on PorB2 of the quadruple mutant of strain 4243 with a chimeric protein that comprised human fH domains 6 and 7 fused to murine IgG Fc enhanced AP-mediated baby rabbit C3 deposition, which provided evidence for an fH-dependent mechanism of nonhuman AP regulation by PorB2. Using isogenic mutants of strain H44/76 that differed only in their PorB molecules, we confirmed a role for PorB2 in resistance to killing by infant rat serum. The PorB2-expressing strain also caused higher levels of bacteremia in infant rats than its isogenic PorB3-expressing counterpart, thus providing a molecular basis for increased survival of PorB2 isolates in this model. These studies link PorB2 expression with infection of infant rats, which could inform the choice of meningococcal strains for use in animal models, and reveals, for the first time, that PorB2-expressing strains of N. meningitidis regulate the AP of baby rabbits and rats. PMID:24686052

  8. Cross-Species Analysis of Protein Dynamics Associated with Hydride and Proton Transfer in the Catalytic Cycle of the Light-Driven Enzyme Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Hoeven, Robin; Hardman, Samantha J O; Heyes, Derren J; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2016-02-16

    Experimental interrogation of the relationship between protein dynamics and enzyme catalysis is challenging. Light-activated protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) is an excellent model for investigating this relationship because photoinitiation of the reaction cycle enables coordinated turnover in a "dark-assembled" ternary enzyme-substrate complex. The catalytic cycle involves sequential hydride and proton transfers (from NADPH and an active site tyrosine residue, respectively) to the substrate protochlorophyllide. Studies with a limited cross-species subset of POR enzymes (n = 4) have suggested that protein dynamics associated with hydride and proton transfer are distinct [Heyes, D. J., Levy, C., Sakuma, M., Robertson, D. L., and Scrutton, N. S. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 11849-11854]. Here, we use steady-state assays and single-turnover laser flash spectroscopy to analyze hydride and proton transfer dynamics in an extended series of POR enzymes taken from many species, including cyanobacteria, algae, embryophytes, and angiosperms. Hydride/proton transfer in all eukaryotic PORs is faster compared to prokaryotic PORs, suggesting active site architecture has been optimized in eukaryotic PORs following endosymbiosis. Visible pump-probe spectroscopy was also used to demonstrate a common photoexcitation mechanism for representative POR enzymes from different branches of the phylogenetic tree. Dynamics associated with hydride transfer are localized to the active site of all POR enzymes and are conserved. However, dynamics associated with proton transfer are variable. Protein dynamics associated with proton transfer are also coupled to solvent dynamics in cyanobacterial PORs, and these networks are likely required to optimize (shorten) the donor-acceptor distance for proton transfer. These extended networks are absent in algal and plant PORs. Our analysis suggests that extended networks of dynamics are disfavored, possibly through natural selection. Implications for the evolution of POR and more generally for other enzyme catalysts are discussed. PMID:26807652

  9. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of pyruvate and 2-ketoisovalerate ferredoxin oxidoreductases from Pyrococcus furiosus and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase from Thermotoga maritima.

    PubMed Central

    Kletzin, A; Adams, M W

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus contains four distinct cytoplasmic 2-ketoacid oxidoreductases (ORs) which differ in their substrate specificities, while the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima contains only one, pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR). These enzymes catalyze the synthesis of the acyl (or aryl) coenzyme A derivative in a thiamine PPi-dependent oxidative decarboxylation reaction with reduction of ferredoxin. We report here on the molecular analysis of the POR (por) and 2-ketoisovalerate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (vor) genes from P. furiosus and of the POR gene from T. maritima, all of which comprise four different subunits. The operon organization for P. furiosus POR and VOR was porG-vorDAB-porDAB, wherein the gamma subunit is shared by the two enzymes. The operon organization for T. maritima POR was porGDAB. The three enzymes were 46 to 53% identical at the amino acid level. Their delta subunits each contained two ferredoxin-type [4Fe-4S] cluster binding motifs (CXXCXXCXXXCP), while their beta subunits each contained four conserved cysteines in addition to a thiamine PPi-binding domain. Amino-terminal sequence comparisons show that POR, VOR, indolepyruvate OR, and 2-ketoglutarate OR of P. furiosus all belong to a phylogenetically homologous OR family. Moreover, the single-subunit pyruvate ORs from mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacteria and from an amitochondriate eucaryote each contain four domains which are phylogenetically homologous to the four subunits of the hyperthermophilic ORs (27% sequence identity). Three of these subunits are also homologous to the dimeric POR from a mesophilic archaeon, Halobacterium halobium (21% identity). A model is proposed to account for the observed phenotypes based on genomic rearrangements of four ancestral OR subunits. PMID:8550425

  10. Informe Anual a la Naci贸n sobre el C谩ncer de 1975 a 2008: preguntas y respuestas

    Cancer.gov

    Los 铆ndices generales de mortalidad por c谩ncer han seguido disminuyendo desde principios de los noventa entre hombres, mujeres y ni帽os. Los 铆ndices de mortalidad disminuyeron en promedio 1,6% por a帽o entre 2004 y 2008.

  11. Comunicado de prensa del Informe Anual sobre el Estado del C谩ncer 2015

    Cancer.gov

    Por primera vez, los investigadores han usado datos a nivel nacional para determinar la incidencia de los cuatro subtipos moleculares principales de c谩ncer de seno (mama) por edad, raza y grupo 茅tnico, nivel de pobreza y varios otros factores. El informe

  12. Aerodin谩mica y b茅isbol - Duration: 32 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    La NASA es conocida por la astron谩utica y los aviones, pero 驴tambi茅n por el Active b茅isbol? A los investigadores de la NASA les gusta resolver problemas pr谩cticoscomo cu谩n lejos llegar谩 una bola b...

  13. 78 FR 37205 - Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 78 FR 24723 (April 26, 2013... the POR.\\2\\ \\2\\ See Antidumping Duties; Countervailing Duties; Final Rule, 62 FR 27296, 27319 (May 19... case was made long after the end of the POR.\\5\\ \\3\\ See Final Rule, 62 FR at 27319-20 (``The...

  14. Using MOMP typing as an epidemiological tool to investigate outbreaks caused by milkborne Campylobacter jejuni isolates in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe using major outer membrane protein (MOMP) typing as a screen to compare the C. jejuni porA gene sequences of clinical outbreak strains from human stool with the porA sequences of dairy farm strains isolated during two milkborne campylobacteriosis outbreak investigations in California. Th...

  15. 78 FR 20615 - Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ...: Countervailing Duty Order, 76 FR 11758 (March 3, 2011) (CVD Order), remains dispositive. A full description of...). The period of review (POR) is March 3, 2011, through December 31, 2011. We preliminary determine that... subsidies during the POR. DATES: Effective Date: April 5, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  16. 19 CFR 351.303 - Filing, document identification, format, translation, service, and certification of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) (CASE NUMBER) or THE (DATES OF POR) (ADMINISTRATIVE OR NEW SHIPPER) REVIEW UNDER THE (ANTIDUMPING OR...) INVESTIGATION OF (PRODUCT) FROM (COUNTRY) (CASE NUMBER) or THE (DATES OF POR) (ADMINISTRATIVE OR NEW SHIPPER... COUNTERVAILING DUTY) INVESTIGATION OF (PRODUCT) FROM (COUNTRY) (CASE NUMBER) or THE (DATES OF...

  17. 19 CFR 351.303 - Filing, document identification, format, translation, service, and certification of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) (CASE NUMBER) or THE (DATES OF POR) (ADMINISTRATIVE OR NEW SHIPPER) REVIEW UNDER THE (ANTIDUMPING OR...) INVESTIGATION OF (PRODUCT) FROM (COUNTRY) (CASE NUMBER) or THE (DATES OF POR) (ADMINISTRATIVE OR NEW SHIPPER... COUNTERVAILING DUTY) INVESTIGATION OF (PRODUCT) FROM (COUNTRY) (CASE NUMBER) or THE (DATES OF...

  18. 78 FR 40428 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... the People's Republic of China, 59 FR 59209 (November 16, 1994). Qingshui and Merry each certified... (PRC) meet the statutory and regulatory requirements for initiation. ] The period of review (POR) is... following the semiannual anniversary month, the POR will be the six-month period immediately preceding...

  19. 77 FR 61396 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ...: Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China, 74 FR 46973 (September... (``POR'') is January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2010. We preliminarily determine that New King Shan (Zhu Hai) Co., Ltd. (``NKS'') received countervailable subsidies during the POR. We are also...

  20. Tips for Protecting Child Athletes from Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vestuarios y ba帽os: estas 谩reas deben estar supervisadas por dos miembros del personal del mismo sexo que ... con discapacidades. Supervisi贸n: los ni帽os deben ser supervisados por al menos dos miembros del personal mientras realizan ...

  1. 76 FR 57713 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... in Part, 76 FR 49729 (August 11, 2011) (``Final Results''). DATES: Effective Date: September 16, 2011... the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ The period of review (``POR'') is January 1, 2009... allegation on August 22, 2011, because it incorrectly identified the POR on its August 17, 2011,...

  2. 78 FR 88 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... Republic of China, 59 FR 59209 (November 16, 1994). Pursuant to the requirements set forth in 19 CFR 351... (POR) is November 1, 2011, through October 31, 2012. DATES: Effective Date: January 2, 2012. FOR... concurrently with this notice. Period of Review In accordance with 19 CFR 351.214(g)(1)(i)(A), the POR for...

  3. 78 FR 59915 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... FR 47909 (August 12, 2003). \\2\\ See Letter from Thanh Hung, re: Request for New Shipper Review... initiation. The period of review (``POR'') for this NSR is August 1, 2012, through July 31, 2013. FOR FURTHER... Vietnam.\\9\\ The POR is August 1, 2012, through July 31, 2013.\\10\\ Absent a determination that the case...

  4. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-1 - Returns under Federal Insurance Contributions Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or Form 1040-PR, 鈥淧lanilla para la Declaraci贸n de la Contribuci贸n Federal sobre el Trabajo por Cuenta Propia (Incluyendo el Cr茅dito Tributario Adicional por Hijos para Residentes Bona Fide de Puerto...

  5. Un estudio de los NIH indica que el consumo regular de aspirina podr铆a reducir el riesgo de c谩ncer d

    Cancer.gov

    Las mujeres que toman aspirina diariamente podr铆an reducir el riesgo de c谩ncer de ovario en 20 por ciento, de acuerdo con un estudio realizado por cient铆ficos del Instituto Nacional del C谩ncer (NCI), el cual forma parte de los Institutos Nacionales de la

  6. Estudio Nacional de Ex谩menes de Pulm贸n: preguntas y respuestas

    Cancer.gov

    El Estudio Nacional de Ex谩menes de Pulm贸n (National Lung Screening Trial, NLST) es un estudio de ex谩menes selectivos de detecci贸n de c谩ncer de pulm贸n patrocinado por el Instituto Nacional del C谩ncer (NCI) y llevado a cabo por la American College of Radiol

  7. Estudio de NIH se帽ala que la sigmoidoscopia reduce los 铆ndices de c谩ncer colorrectal

    Cancer.gov

    Estudio se帽ala que la sigmoidoscopia flexible es efectiva para reducir los 铆ndices de casos nuevos y de muertes por c谩ncer colorrectal. Los investigadores encontraron que la mortalidad general por c谩ncer colorrectal se redujo 26% y que la incidencia se re

  8. Planificar la transici贸n a la etapa final de la vida (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos sobre la preparaci贸n necesaria por parte de los proveedores de atenci贸n de la salud, los pacientes y sus familias para la transici贸n a la atenci贸n del c谩ncer avanzado en la etapa final de la vida.

  9. Planificar la transici贸n en la etapa final de la vida (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos sobre la preparaci贸n necesaria por parte de los proveedores de atenci贸n de la salud, los pacientes y sus familas para la transici贸n a la atenci贸n del c谩ncer avanzado en la etapa final de la vida.

  10. Reduction in hepatic drug metabolizing CYP3A4 activities caused by P450 oxidoreductase mutations identified in patients with disordered steroid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E.; Pandey, Amit V.

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), metabolizes 50% of drugs in clinical use and requires NADPH-P450 reductase (POR). {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. {yields} We are reporting that mutations in POR may reduce CYP3A4 activity. {yields} POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X lost 99%, while A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% CYP3A4 activity. {yields} Reduction of CYP3A4 activity may cause increased risk of drug toxicities/adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major P450 present in human liver metabolizes approximately half the drugs in clinical use and requires electrons supplied from NADPH through NADPH-P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. In this study we examined the effect of mutations in POR on CYP3A4 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified CYP3A4 to perform kinetic studies. We are reporting that mutations in POR identified in patients with disordered steroidogenesis/Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) may reduce CYP3A4 activity, potentially affecting drug metabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had more than 99% loss of CYP3A4 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% activity. Loss of CYP3A4 activity may result in increased risk of drug toxicities and adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations.

  11. Making the invisible visible: improved electrospray ion formation of metalloporphyrins/-phthalocyanines by attachment of the formate anion (HCOO(-)).

    PubMed

    Hitzenberger, Jakob Felix; Dammann, Claudia; Lang, Nina; Lungerich, Dominik; Garc铆a-Iglesias, Miguel; Bottari, Giovanni; Torres, Tom谩s; Jux, Norbert; Drewello, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    A protocol is developed for the coordination of the formate anion (HCOO(-)) to neutral metalloporphyrins (Pors) and -phthalocyanines (Pcs) containing divalent metals as a means to improve their ion formation in electrospray ionization (ESI). This method is particularly useful when the oxidation of the neutral metallomacrocycle fails. While focusing on Zn(ii)Pors and Zn(ii)Pcs, we show that formate is also readily attached to Mn(ii), Mg(ii) and Co(ii)Pcs. However, for the Co(ii)Pc secondary reactions can be observed. Upon collision-induced dissociation (CID), Zn(ii)Por/Pc路formate supramolecular complexes can undergo the loss of CO2 in combination with transfer of a hydride anion (H(-)) to the zinc metal center. Further dissociation leads to electron transfer and hydrogen atom loss, generating a route to the radical anion of the Zn(ii)Por/Pc without the need for electrochemical reduction, although the Zn(ii)Por/Pc may have a too low electron affinity to allow electron transfer directly from the formate anion. In addition to single Por molecules, multi Por arrays were successfully analyzed by this method. In this case, multiple addition of formate occurs, giving rise to multiply charged species. In these multi Por arrays, complexation of the formate anion occurs by two surrounding Por units (sandwich). Therefore, the maximum attainment of formate anions in these arrays corresponds to the number of such sandwich complexes rather than the number of porphyrin moieties. The same bonding motif leads to dimers of the composition [(Zn(ii)Por/Pc)2路HCOO](-). In these, the formate anion can act as a structural probe, allowing the distinction of isomeric ions with the formate bridging two macrocycles or being attached to a dimer of directly connected macrocycles. PMID:26753183

  12. Deletion of P399{sub E}401 in NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase results in partial mixed oxidase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Flueck, Christa E.; Mallet, Delphine; Hofer, Gaby; Samara-Boustani, Dinane; Leger, Juliane; Polak, Michel; Morel, Yves; Pandey, Amit V.

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia. {yields} We are reporting a novel 3 amino acid deletion mutation in POR P399{sub E}401del. {yields} POR mutation P399{sub E}401del decreased P450 activities by 60-85%. {yields} Impairment of steroid metabolism may be caused by multiple hits. {yields} Severity of aromatase inhibition is related to degree of in utero virilization. -- Abstract: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the electron donor for all microsomal P450s including steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP21A2. We found a novel POR mutation P399{sub E}401del in two unrelated Turkish patients with 46,XX disorder of sexual development. Recombinant POR proteins were produced in yeast and tested for their ability to support steroid metabolizing P450 activities. In comparison to wild-type POR, the P399{sub E}401del protein was found to decrease catalytic efficiency of 21-hydroxylation of progesterone by 68%, 17{alpha}-hydroxylation of progesterone by 76%, 17,20-lyase action on 17OH-pregnenolone by 69%, aromatization of androstenedione by 85% and cytochrome c reduction activity by 80%. Protein structure analysis of the three amino acid deletion P399{sub E}401 revealed reduced stability and flexibility of the mutant. In conclusion, P399{sub E}401del is a novel mutation in POR that provides valuable genotype-phenotype and structure-function correlation for mutations in a different region of POR compared to previous studies. Characterization of P399{sub E}401del provides further insight into specificity of different P450s for interaction with POR as well as nature of metabolic disruptions caused by more pronounced effect on specific P450s like CYP17A1 and aromatase.

  13. Interannual variation and long-term trends in proportions of resident individuals in partially migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Meller, Kalle; V盲h盲talo, Anssi V; Hokkanen, Tatu; Rintala, Jukka; Piha, Markus; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2016-03-01

    Partial migration - a part of a population migrates and another part stays resident year-round on the breeding site - is probably the most common type of migration in the animal kingdom, yet it has only lately garnered more attention. Theoretical studies indicate that in partially migratory populations, the proportion of resident individuals (PoR) should increase in high latitudes in response to the warming climate, but empirical evidence exists for few species. We provide the first comprehensive overview of the environmental factors affecting PoR and the long-term trends in PoR by studying 27 common partially migratory bird species in Finland. The annual PoR values were calculated by dividing the winter bird abundance by the preceding breeding abundance. First, we analysed whether early-winter temperature, winter temperature year before or the abundance of tree seeds just before overwintering explains the interannual variation in PoR. Secondly, we analysed the trends in PoR between 1987 and 2011. Early-winter temperature explained the interannual variation in PoR in the waterbirds (waterfowl and gulls), most likely because the temperature affects the ice conditions and thereby the feeding opportunities for the waterbirds. In terrestrial species, the abundance of seeds was the best explanatory variable. Previous winter's temperature did not explain PoR in any species, and thus, we conclude that the variation in food availability caused the interannual variation in PoR. During the study period, PoR increased in waterbirds, but did not change in terrestrial birds. Partially migratory species living in physically contrasting habitats can differ in their annual and long-term population-level behavioural responses to warming climate, possibly because warm winter temperatures reduce ice cover and improve the feeding possibilities of waterbirds but do not directly regulate the food availability for terrestrial birds. PMID:26718017

  14. Porin polypeptide contributes to surface charge of gonococci.

    PubMed

    Swanson, J; Dorward, D; Lubke, L; Kao, D

    1997-06-01

    Each strain of Neisseria gonorrhoeae elaborates a single porin polypeptide, with the porins expressed by different strains comprising two general classes, Por1A and Por1B. In the outer membrane, each porin molecule folds into 16 membrane-spanning beta-strands joined by top- and bottom-loop domains. Por1A and Por1B have similar membrane-spanning regions, but the eight surface-exposed top loops (I to VIII) differ in length and sequence. To determine whether porins, and especially their top loop domains, contribute to bacterial cell surface charge, strain MS11 gonococci that were identical except for expressing a recombinant Por1A, Por1B, or mosaic Por1A-1B polypeptide were compared by whole-cell electrophoresis. These porin variants displayed different electrophoretic mobilities that correlated with the net numbers of charged amino acids within surface-exposed loops of their respective porin polypeptides. The susceptibilities of porin variants to polyanionic sulfated polymers correlated roughly with gonococcal surface charge; those porin variants with diminished surface negativity showed increased sensitivity to the polyanionic sulfated compounds. These observations indicate that porin polypeptides in situ contribute to the surface charge of gonococci, and they suggest that the bacterium's interactions with large sulfated compounds are thereby affected. PMID:9171398

  15. NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase: roles in physiology, pharmacology, and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Riddick, David S; Ding, Xinxin; Wolf, C Roland; Porter, Todd D; Pandey, Amit V; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Gu, Jun; Finn, Robert D; Ronseaux, Sebastien; McLaughlin, Lesley A; Henderson, Colin J; Zou, Ling; Fl眉ck, Christa E

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on a symposium sponsored by the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and held at the Experimental Biology 2012 meeting in San Diego, California, on April 25, 2012. The symposium speakers summarized and critically evaluated our current understanding of the physiologic, pharmacological, and toxicological roles of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), a flavoprotein involved in electron transfer to microsomal cytochromes P450 (P450), cytochrome b(5), squalene mono-oxygenase, and heme oxygenase. Considerable insight has been derived from the development and characterization of mouse models with conditional Por deletion in particular tissues or partial suppression of POR expression in all tissues. Additional mouse models with global or conditional hepatic deletion of cytochrome b(5) are helping to clarify the P450 isoform- and substrate-specific influences of cytochrome b(5) on P450 electron transfer and catalytic function. This symposium also considered studies using siRNA to suppress POR expression in a hepatoma cell-culture model to explore the basis of the hepatic lipidosis phenotype observed in mice with conditional deletion of Por in liver. The symposium concluded with a strong translational perspective, relating the basic science of human POR structure and function to the impacts of POR genetic variation on human drug and steroid metabolism. PMID:23086197

  16. An ortholog of farA of Aspergillus nidulans is implicated in the transcriptional activation of genes involved in fatty acid utilization in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    SciTech Connect

    Poopanitpan, Napapol; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Akinori

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} POR1 is a Yarrowia lipolytica ortholog of farA involved in fatty acid response in A. nidulans. {yields} Deletion of POR1 caused growth defects on fatty acids. {yields} {Delta}por1 strain exhibited defects in the induction of genes involved in fatty acid utilization. -- Abstract: The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica effectively utilizes hydrophobic substrates such as fatty acids and n-alkanes. To identify a gene(s) regulating fatty acid utilization in Y. lipolytica, we first studied homologous genes to OAF1 and PIP2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but their disruption did not change growth on oleic acid at all. We next characterized a Y. lipolytica gene, POR1 (primary oleate regulator 1), an ortholog of farA encoding a transcriptional activator that regulates fatty acid utilization in Aspergillus nidulans. The deletion mutant of POR1 was defective in the growth on various fatty acids, but not on glucose, glycerol, or n-hexadecane. It exhibited slight defect on n-decane. The transcriptional induction of genes involved in {beta}-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation by oleate was distinctly diminished in the {Delta}por1 strains. These data suggest that POR1 encodes a transcriptional activator widely regulating fatty acid metabolism in Y. lipolytica.

  17. Arabidopsis light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA) is essential for normal plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Troy; Lima, Daniel; Mason, Mary E; Apel, Klaus; Armstrong, Gregory A

    2012-03-01

    During skotomorphogenesis in angiosperms, NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) forms an aggregate of photolabile NADPH-POR-protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) ternary complexes localized to the prolamellar bodies within etioplasts. During photomorphogenesis, POR catalyzes the light-dependent reduction of Pchlide a to chlorophyllide (Chlide) a, which is subsequently converted to chlorophyll (Chl). In Arabidopsis there are three structurally related POR genes, denoted PORA, PORB and PORC. The PORA and PORB proteins accumulate during skotomorphogenesis. During illumination, PORA is only transiently expressed, whereas PORB and PORC persist and are responsible for bulk Chl synthesis throughout plant development. Here we have tested whether PORA is important for skotomorphogenesis by assisting in etioplast development, and normal photomorphogenic development. Using reverse genetic approaches, we have identified the porA-1 null mutant, which contains an insertion of the maize Dissociation transposable element in the PORA gene. Additionally, we have characterized PORA RNAi lines. The porA-1 and PORA RNAi lines display severe photoautotrophic growth defects, which can be partially rescued on sucrose-supplemented growth media. Elimination of PORA during skotomorphogenesis results in reductions in the volume and frequency of prolamellar bodies, and in photoactive Pchlide conversion. The porA-1 mutant characterization thus establishes a quantitative requirement for PORA in etioplast development by demonstrating significant membrane ultrastructural and biochemical defects, in addition to suggesting PORA-specific functions in photomorphogenesis and plant development. PMID:22278767

  18. "Spider"-shaped porphyrins with conjugated pyridyl anchoring groups as efficient sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Stangel, Christina; Bagaki, Anthi; Angaridis, Panagiotis A; Charalambidis, Georgios; Sharma, Ganesh D; Coutsolelos, Athanasios G

    2014-11-17

    Two novel "spider-shaped" porphyrins, meso-tetraaryl-substituted 1PV-Por and zinc-metalated 1PV-Zn-Por, bearing four oligo(p-phenylenevinylene) (oPPV) pyridyl groups with long dodecyloxy chains on the phenyl groups, have been synthesized. The presence of four pyridyl groups in both porphyrins, which allow them to act as anchoring groups upon coordination to various Lewis acid sites, the conjugated oPPV bridges, which offer the possibility of electronic communication between the porphyrin core and the pyridyl groups, and the dodecyloxy groups, which offer the advantage of high solubility in a variety of organic solvents of different polarities and could prevent porphyrin aggregation, renders porphyrins 1PV-Por and 1PV-Zn-Por very promising sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Photophysical measurements, together with electrochemistry experiments and density functional theory calculations, suggest that both porphyrins have frontier molecular orbital energy levels that favor electron injection and dye regeneration in DSSCs. Solar cells sensitized by 1PV-Por and 1PV-Zn-Por were fabricated, and it was found that they show power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 3.28 and 5.12%, respectively. Photovoltaic measurements (J-V curves) together with incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency spectra of the two cells reveal that the higher PCE value of the DSSC based on 1PV-Zn-Por is ascribed to higher short-circuit current (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc), and dye loading values. Emission spectra and electrochemistry experiments suggest a greater driving force for injection of the photogenerated electrons into the TiO2 conduction band for 1PV-Zn-Por rather than its free-base analogue. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements prove that the utilization of 1PV-Zn-Por as a sensitizer offers a high charge recombination resistance and, therefore, leads to a longer electron lifetime. PMID:25365138

  19. Clinical, Genetic, and Enzymatic Characterization of P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency in Four Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sahakitrungruang, Taninee; Huang, Ningwu; Tee, Meng Kian; Agrawal, Vishal; Russell, William E.; Crock, Patricia; Murphy, Nuala; Migeon, Claude J.; Miller, Walter L.

    2009-01-01

    Context: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency causes disordered steroidogenesis; severe mutations cause genital ambiguity in both sexes plus the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome, whereas mild mutations can cause adult infertility. Objective: We describe four patients with POR deficiency and identify and characterize the activities of their mutations. A 46,XY male with micropenis and two 46,XX female infants with genital ambiguity presented with skeletal malformations, and a 46,XX adolescent presented with primary amenorrhea, elevated 17伪-hydroxyprogesterone, and low sex steroids. Methods: The coding regions of the POR gene were sequenced, and the identified mutations were recreated in human POR cDNA expression vectors lacking 27 N-terminal residues. POR and human P450c17 were expressed in bacteria. POR activity was measured by four assays: reduction of cytochrome c, oxidation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, and support of the 17伪-hydroxylase and 17,20 lyase activities of P450c17. Results: All four patients were compound heterozygotes for POR mutations, including five novel mutations: L577R, N185K, delE217, and frameshift mutations 1363delC and 697鈥698insGAAC. N185K and delE217 lacked measurable activity in the assays based on P450c17 but retained partial activity in the assays based on cytochrome c. As assessed by Vmax/Km, L577R supported 46% of 17伪-hydroxylase activity but only 27% of 17,20 lyase activity. Computational modeling of these novel mutants revealed the structural basis for their reduced or absent activities. Conclusion: These patients illustrate the broad clinical spectrum of POR deficiency, including amenorrhea and infertility as the sole manifestation. POR assays based on P450c17 correlate well with hormonal and clinical phenotypes. PMID:19837910

  20. Transcriptional Regulation of the Human P450 Oxidoreductase Gene: Hormonal Regulation and Influence of Promoter Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Damm, Izabella

    2011-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the flavoprotein that acts as the obligatory electron donor to all microsomal P450 enzymes, including those involved in hepatic drug metabolism as well as three steroidogenic P450 enzymes. The untranslated first exon of human POR was located recently, permitting analysis of human POR transcription. Expression of deletional mutants containing up to 3193 bp of the human POR promoter in human adrenal NCI-H295A and liver Hep-G2 cells located the proximal promoter at 鈭325/鈭1 bp from the untranslated exon. Common human POR polymorphisms at 鈭208 and 鈭173 had little influence on transcription, but the polymorphism at 鈭152 reduced transcription significantly in both cell lines. EMSA and supershift assays identified binding of Smad3/Smad4 between 鈭249 and 鈭261 and binding of thyroid hormone receptor-尾 (TR尾) at 鈭240/鈭245. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Smad3, Smad4, TR伪, TR尾, and estrogen receptor-伪 were bound between 鈭374 and 鈭149. Cotransfection of vectors for these transcription factors and POR promoter-reporter constructs into both cell types followed by hormonal treatment showed that T3 exerts major tropic effects via TR尾, with TR伪, estrogen receptor-伪, Smad3, and Smad4 exerting lesser, modulatory effects. T3 also increased POR mRNA in both cell lines. Thyroid hormone also is essential for rat liver POR expression but acts via different transcription factor complexes. These are the first data on human POR gene transcription, establishing roles for TR尾 and Smad3/4 in its expression and indicating that the common polymorphism at 鈭152 may play a role in genetic variation in steroid biosynthesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21393444

  1. Purification and kinetic analysis of pea (Pisum sativum L.) NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase expressed as a fusion with maltose-binding protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Martin, G E; Timko, M P; Wilks, H M

    1997-07-01

    NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyses the light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, a key reaction in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. To facilitate structure-function studies, POR from pea (Pisum sativum L.) has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion with maltose-binding protein (MBP) at 5-10% of the total soluble cell protein. The fusion protein (MBP-POR) has been purified to greater than 90% homogeneity by a two-step affinity-purification procedure. This represents the first successful overexpression and purification of a plant POR. MBP-POR was found to be active, and the kinetic properties were determined using a continuous assay in which the rate of chlorophyllide formation was measured. The Vmax was 20.6+/-0.9 nmol.min-1.mg-1 and the Km values for NADPH and protochlorophyllide were 8.7+/-1.9 microM and 0.27+/-0.04 microM respectively. These results represent the first determination of the kinetic properties of a pure POR and the first report on the kinetics of POR from a dicotyledenous plant. The experiments described here demonstrate that the enzyme is not a 'suicide' enzyme, and the only components required for catalysis are NADPH, protochlorophyllide and light. Size-exclusion chromatography on a Superose 6 HR column indicated that MBP-POR has a molecular mass of 155 kDa (compared with the molecular mass of 80 kDa estimated by SDS/PAGE), indicating that it behaves as a dimer in solution. This is the first direct determination of the oligomerization state of POR. PMID:9224639

  2. Characterisation of porin genes from Mycobacterium fortuitum and their impact on growth

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Highly pathogenic mycobacteria like Mycobacterium tuberculosis are characterised by their slow growth and their ability to reside and multiply in the very hostile phagosomal environment and a correlation between the growth rate of mycobacteria and their pathogenicity has been hypothesised. Here, porin genes from M. fortuitum were cloned and characterised to address their impact on the growth rate of fast-growing and pathogenic mycobacteria. Results Two genes encoding porins orthologous to MspA from M. smegmatis, porM1 and porM2, were cloned from M. fortuitum strains, which were originally isolated from human patients. Both porin genes were at least partially able to complement the mutations of a M. smegmatis mutant strain lacking the genes mspA and mspC with respect to the growth rate. PorM1 and porM2 were present in different strains of M. fortuitum including the type strain. Comparative expression analysis of porM genes revealed divergent porin expression among analysed M. fortuitum strains. Repression of the expression of porins by antisense technique decreased the growth rates of different M. fortuitum. The effects of over-expression of porM1 as well as porM2 varied depending on the strain and the concentration of antibiotic added to the medium and indicated that PorM1 and PorM2 enhance the growth of M. fortuitum strains, but also the diffusion of the antibiotic kanamycin into the cells. Conclusion This study demonstrates the important role of porin expression in growth as well as antibiotic susceptibility of the opportunistic bacterium M. fortuitum. PMID:19203364

  3. Electrochemical studies of protonated and deprotonated forms of heteroleptic and homoleptic europium{sup (III)} and dysprosium{sup (III)} porphyrin double-deckers

    SciTech Connect

    Spyroulias, G.A.; Coutsolelos, A.G.; Montauzon, D. de; Poilblanc, R.

    1996-12-31

    Lanthanide {open_quotes}sandwich{close_quotes}-type porphyrins are those with double-decker or triple-decker structures of the form M(por){sub 2} or M{sub 2}(por){sub 3} where (por) is the dianion of the porphyrin ring. The cyclic voltammetric oxidation, of heteroleptic and homoleptic lanthanide porphyrin double-deckers demonstrates the presence of equilibrium protonated/deprotonated species present in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, DMF, and THF. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Las caracter铆sticas m谩s fascinantes del nuevo Robot - Duration: 102 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    impresionante es la palabra que describe perfectamente al nuevo robot Curiosity por su tama帽o, sus instrumentos cient铆ficos y la manera en que la NASA planifica hacerlo aterrizar en Marte de forma ...

  5. Prevenci贸n del c谩ncer de cavidad oral y orofaringe (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de informaci贸n revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar c谩ncer de labio, cavidad oral y orofaringe, y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a prevenir esta enfermedad.

  6. Back Cover: NIH MedlinePlus Salud

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues NIH MedlinePlus Salud Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. 隆A su salud! Los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH, por ...

  7. Descargo de responsabilidad de Smokefree Espa駉l | Smokefree Espa駉l

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan espa駉l y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la Divisi髇 de Investigaci髇 para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del C醤cer.

  8. The genetic structure of Neisseria meningitidis populations in Cuba before and after the introduction of a serogroup BC vaccine.

    PubMed

    Climent, Yanet; Urwin, Rachel; Yero, Daniel; Martinez, Isabel; Mart铆n, Alejandro; Sotolongo, Franklin; Maiden, Martin C J; Paj贸n, Rolando

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the population genetics in collections of meningococci sampled in Cuba during the period 1983-2005, thereby covering a period before and after the introduction of an antimeningococcal B-C vaccine. A total of 163 case isolates and 210 isolates from healthy carriers were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and sequence determination of porA, porB and fetA genes. A total of 56 sequence types (STs) including 28 new STs were identified among these isolates. The analysis of surface antigens revealed variants 3-1 and 3-8 to be prevalent for porB; variant F5-1 was the most common FetA epitope, and variants 19 and 15 corresponded to the prevalent variable regions 1 (VR1) and VR2 PorA epitopes, respectively. The strongest associations between specific surface protein variants and clonal complexes were detected in lineages ST-32 and ST-53. All ST-32 complex isolates possessed porB3 alleles, and the most frequent antigen combination among ST-32 complex isolates was P1.19,15;F5-1. Variants PorB3-64 at PorB and P1.30 at PorA VR2, in combination with the PorA VR1 variants P1.12-1, P1.7 and P1.7-2 as well as the FetA variants F1-2 and F1-7, dominated the ST-53 complex organisms. Furthermore, we observed a statistically significant association between the most frequent porA, porB and fetA alleles and strain invasiveness. Finally, this study showed that the application of VA-MENGOC-BC((R)), the Cuban antimeningococcal vaccine, reduced the number and frequency of the hypervirulent Clonal Complexes ST-32 and ST-41/44, and also impacted on other lineages. The vaccine also affected the genetic composition of the carrier-associated meningococcal isolates. The number of carrier isolates belonging to hypervirulent lineages decreased significantly after vaccination, and ST-53, a sequence type common in carriers, became the predominant ST. PMID:20156598

  9. A DFT study of the regeneration process of zinc porphyrin analogues in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Zhang, Zidan; He, Xuehao

    2013-10-14

    The regeneration reaction of sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells is one of the critical steps in photonic chemical circuits. In this report, the two-step regeneration reaction of a series of zinc porphyrin sensitizers with a variety of substituent groups, i.e., CN-, F-, Cl-, H-, PhCH3-, OH- and NH2- groups, has been studied using density functional theory (DFT). The effects of the substituent groups on the structures of zinc porphyrin sensitizers, the regeneration intermediates and the reaction thermodynamics and kinetics have been explored. It is found that substituent groups at meso-position of zinc porphyrins strongly influenced the mode of two-step regeneration. For Por-CN, Por-F and Por-Cl, the formation of DyeI(Zn) and DyeI(Zn)-I intermediates are dominant, whereas for Por-H, Por-PhCH3 and Por-OH, the formation of DyeI(Py) and DyeI(Py)-I intermediates predominate. Due to the stronger electron-withdrawing effect of CN- and F-, the corresponding Por-CN and Por-F have no energy barrier in reaction. This suggests that their regeneration should be faster than the others. Besides two-step regeneration, alternative regenerations including one-step regeneration and reductive quenching reaction of excited dye and the influences of substituent groups on the electron injection efficiency are also estimated. These results provide valuable information for the design of novel zinc porphyrin analogues for DSCs. PMID:23913241

  10. Dissection of the function of the RmpM periplasmic protein from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, Sunil; Saleem, Muhammad; Feavers, Ian M; Wheeler, Jun X; Care, Rory; Derrick, Jeremy P

    2016-02-01

    RmpM is a periplasmic protein from Neisseria meningitidis that comprises an N-terminal domain (residues 1-47) and a separate globular C-terminal domain (residues 65-219) responsible for binding to peptidoglycan. Here we show, through the use of size exclusion chromatography and pull-down assays, that a recombinant N-terminal fragment of RmpM binds to both the major outer membrane porins, PorA and PorB. Analysis by semi-native SDS-PAGE established that both recombinant full-length RmpM and an N-terminal fragment, but not the C-terminal peptidoglycan-binding domain, were sufficient to stabilize the PorA and PorB oligomeric complexes. Evidence from binding assays indicated that the meso-diaminopimelate moiety plays an important role in peptidoglycan recognition by RmpM. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that two highly conserved residues, Asp120 and Arg135, play an important role in peptidoglycan binding. The yield of outer membrane vesicles, which have been used extensively as a vaccine against N. meningitidis, was considerably higher in an N. meningitidis strain expressing a truncated N-terminal fragment of RmpM (螖C-term rmpM) than in the WT strain. The native oligomeric state of the PorA/PorB complexes was maintained in this strain. We conclude that the dual functions of RmpM are independent, and that it is possible to use this knowledge to engineer a strain with higher yield of outer membrane vesicles, whilst preserving PorA and PorB, which are key protective antigens, in their native oligomeric state. PMID:26678687

  11. Se calcula que los costos del c谩ncer ascender谩n po

    Cancer.gov

    Con base en el crecimiento y en el avance de edad de la poblaci贸n de EE. UU., se proyecta que los gastos m茅dicos por c谩ncer en el a帽o 2020 ascender谩n por lo menos a $158.000 millones (en d贸lares de 2010); lo que significa un aumento de 27% sobre 2010. Si

  12. Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?--Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha.

    PubMed

    Tesch, Tanja; Bannert, Erik; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Renner, Lydia; Kahlert, Stefan; Rothk枚tter, Hermann-Josef; D盲nicke, Sven

    2016-01-01

    We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON)-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR) in pigs. Barrows (n = 44) were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed) and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis) and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna) and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 碌g/kg BW). Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON) and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal) created six groups: CON_CON(jug.)-CON(por.), CON_CON(jug.)-LPS(por.), CON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.), DON_CON(jug.)-CON(por.), DON_CON(jug.)-LPS(por.), DON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.). Blood samples were taken at -30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001), hyperthermia (p < 0.01), and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001). In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05) and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.) resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08) compared to CON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.). In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding. PMID:26703732

  13. First example of a modular porphyrinoid assembly capable of stabilizing different metal ions in a single molecular scaffold.

    PubMed

    Murugavel, Muthuchamy; Reddy, R V Ramana; Dey, Dhananjay; Sankar, Jeyaraman

    2015-10-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of porphyrin-corrole-porphyrin (Por-Cor-Por) hybrids directly linked at the meso-meso positions for the first time. The stability and solubility of the trimer are carefully balanced by adding electron-withdrawing substituents to the corrole ring and sterically bulky groups on the porphyrins. The new hybrids are capable of stabilizing more than one metal ion in a single molecular scaffold. The versatility of the triad has been demonstrated by successfully stabilizing homo- (Ni) and heterotrinuclear (Ni-Cu-Ni) coordination motifs. The solid-state structure of the NiPor-CuCor-PorNi hybrid was revealed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The Ni(II) porphyrins are significantly ruffled and tilted by 83掳 from the plane of corrole. The robustness of the synthesized hybrids was reflected in the electrochemical investigations and the redox behaviour of the hybrids show that the oxidation processes are mostly corrole-centred. In particular it is worth noting that the Por-Cor-Por hybrid can further be manipulated due to the presence of substituent-free meso-positions on both the terminals. PMID:26242294

  14. Lack of a surface layer in Tannerella forsythia mutants deficient in the type IX secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Yuka; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Shoji, Mikio; Nakane, Daisuke; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Naito, Mariko

    2014-01-01

    Tannerella forsythia, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, is an important pathogen in periodontal disease. This bacterium possesses genes encoding all known components of the type IX secretion system (T9SS). T. forsythia mutants deficient in genes orthologous to the T9SS-encoding genes porK, porT and sov were constructed. All porK, porT and sov single mutants lacked the surface layer (S-layer) and expressed less-glycosylated versions of the S-layer glycoproteins TfsA and TfsB. In addition, these mutants exhibited decreased haemagglutination and increased biofilm formation. Comparison of the proteins secreted by the porK and WT strains revealed that the secretion of several proteins containing C-terminal domain (CTD)-like sequences is dependent on the porK gene. These results indicate that the T9SS is functional in T. forsythia and contributes to the translocation of CTD proteins to the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu. PMID:25023245

  15. Synthesis and solvent-dependent photochromic reactions of porphyrin-spiropyran hybrid compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Dae Young; Park, Tae Jong; Shin, Eun Ju

    2014-01-01

    Porphyrin(Por)-spiropyran(SP) hybrid compounds, including Por-SP dyad, Por-SP2 triad, and Por-SP4 pentad, were prepared and characterized by 1H NMR, MALDI-TOF MS and UV-Vis spectroscopies. Upon 350 nm UV irradiation of Por-SPn (n = 1, 2, 4) in dichloromethane, unusual red-shifted absorption spectra were observed with the colour change from pink into green. Probably due to the protonation of core nitrogens in porphyrin ring, their absorption maxima in dichloromethane were shifted from 418 (Soret band), 515, 550, 590, 645 (four Q bands) nm into 450 and 665 nm. Also, fluorescence maxima were also shifted from 650 and 715 nm to 692 nm. In the other hands, upon irradiation with 350 nm UV light in THF, the colour changed from pink into violet and absorption band at 590 nm increased and the fluorescence spectra showed the decrease of 650 and 715 nm bands and increase of 600-640 nm band, due to the normal ring-opening reaction of spiropyran moiety into merocyanine. In the dark, original absorption and fluorescence spectra were recovered very slowly in dichloromethane, but quickly in THF. The reversible photochromic reactions of Por-SPn (n = 1, 2, 4) in dichloromethane and THF were investigated by observing absorption and fluorescence spectral changes during UV irradiation or standing in the dark.

  16. Layer-by-Layer Surface Molecular Imprinting on Polyacrylonitrile Nanofiber Mats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuxuan; Cao, Bing; Jia, Peng; An, Junhu; Luo, Chao; Ma, Lijing; Chang, Jiao; Pan, Kai

    2015-06-25

    Surface molecular imprinting in layer-by-layer (SMI-LbL) film is known as a facile and effective strategy to build imprinting sites that are more accessible to template molecules compared with molecular imprinting in polymers. Herein, we accomplished the formation of SMI-LbL film on electrospun nanofibers for the first time. The SMI-LbL nanofibers were prepared by a template-induced LbL process on the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber substrates, followed by postinfiltrating and photo-cross-linking of photosensitive agent 4,4'-diazostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid disodium salt (DAS). The obtained nanofiber mat maintained the nanofibrous structure and showed rapid absorption and extraction of template molecules of meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)-porphine (Por). The binding capacity of Por reached 2.1 mg/g when 3.5 bilayers were deposited on the nanofibers. After six cycles of extraction and reabsorption, the binding capacity of Por remained at 83%. Moreover, the absorption results of the targeted templated molecule of Por and the control molecule of Fast Green, which had a very similar chemical structure and charge status to Por, indicated the specific absorption for template molecule of Por. Thus, a surface molecular imprinted nanofiber mat with high selectivity of the templated molecule has been demonstrated. PMID:26038802

  17. Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antiulcer properties of Porphyra vietnamensis

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Saurabh; Sharma, Kiran; Sharma, Ajay; Nagpal, Kalpana; Bera, Tanmoy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Aim of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antiulcer effects of red seaweed Porphyra vietnamensis (P. vietnamenis). Materials and Methods: Aqueous (POR) and alcoholic (PE) fractions were successfully isolated from P. vietnamenis. Further biological investigations were performed using a classic test of paw edema induced by carrageenan, writhing induced by acetic acid, hot plate method and naproxen induced gastro-duodenal ulcer. Results: Among the fractions POR showed better activity. POR and PE significantly (p < 0.05) reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in a dose dependent manner. In the writhing test POR significantly (p < 0.05) reduced abdominal writhes than PE. In hot plate method POR showed better analgesic activity than PE. POR showed comparable ulcers reducing potential (p<0.01) to that of omeprazole, and has more ulcer reducing potential then PE. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that P. vietnamenis aqueous fraction possesses biological activity that is close to the standards taken for the treatment of peripheral painful or/and inflammatory and ulcer conditions. PMID:25767759

  18. Electron transfer by human wild-type and A287P mutant P450 oxidoreductase assessed by transient kinetics: functional basis of P450 oxidoreductase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yi; Chen, Mo; Penning, Trevor M; Miller, Walter L

    2015-05-15

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is a 2-flavin protein that transfers electrons from NADPH via its FAD and FMN moieties to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic and drug-metabolizing P450s. Defects in the POR gene can cause POR deficiency (PORD), manifested clinically by disordered steroidogenesis, genital anomalies and skeletal malformations. We examined the POR mutant A287P, which is the most frequent cause of PORD in patients of European ancestry and partially disrupts most P450 activities in vitro. Flavin content analysis showed that A287P is deficient in FAD and FMN binding, although the mutation site is distant from the binding sites of both flavins. Externally added flavin partially restored the cytochrome c reductase activity of A287P, suggesting that flavin therapy may be useful for this frequent form of PORD. Transient kinetic dissection of the reaction of POR with NADPH and the reduction in cytochrome c by POR using stopped-flow techniques revealed defects in individual electron transfer steps mediated by A287P. A287P had impaired ability to accept electrons from NADPH, but was capable of a fast FMN 鈫 cytochrome c electron donation reaction. Thus the reduced rates of P450 activities with A287P may be due to deficient flavin and impaired electron transfer from NADPH. PMID:25728647

  19. Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase Influences CYP2B6 Activity in Cyclophosphamide Bioactivation

    PubMed Central

    El-Serafi, Ibrahim; Afsharian, Parvaneh; Moshfegh, Ali; Hassan, Moustapha; Terelius, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cyclophosphamide is commonly used as an important component in conditioning prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, a curative treatment for several hematological diseases. Cyclophosphamide is a prodrug activated mainly by cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) in the liver. A high degree of inter- and intra-individual variation in cyclophosphamide kinetics has been reported in several studies. Materials and Methods Hydroxylation of cyclophosphamide was investigated in vitro using three microsomal batches of CYP2B6*1 with different ratios of POR/CYP expression levels. Twenty patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were also included in the study. All patients received an i.v. infusion of cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg/day, for two days) as a part of their conditioning. Blood samples were collected from each patient before cyclophosphamide infusion, 6 h after the first dose and before and 6 h after the second dose. POR gene expression was measured by mRNA analysis and the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and its active metabolite were determined. Results A strong correlation between the in vitro intrinsic clearance of cyclophosphamide and the POR/CYP ratio was found. The apparent Km for CYP2B6.1 was almost constant (3-4 mM), while the CLint values were proportional to the POR/CYP ratio (3-34 渭L/min/nmol CYP). In patients, the average expression of the POR gene in blood was significantly (P <0.001) up-regulated after cyclophosphamide infusion, with high inter-individual variations and significant correlation with the concentration ratio of the active metabolite 4-hydroxy-cyclophosphamide/cyclophosphamide. Nine patients were carriers for POR*28; four patients had relatively high POR expression. Conclusions This investigation shows for the first time that POR besides CYP2B6 can influence cyclophosphamide metabolism. Our results indicate that not only CYPs are important, but also POR expression and/or activity may influence cyclophosphamide bioactivation, affecting therapeutic efficacy and treatment related toxicity and hence on clinical outcome. Thus, both POR and CYP genotype and expression levels may have to be taken into account when personalizing treatment schedules to achieve optimal therapeutic drug plasma concentrations of cyclophosphamide. PMID:26544874

  20. Prevalence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Ospina, Maria B; Voaklander, Donald C; Stickland, Michael K; King, Malcolm; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Rowe, Brian H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have considerable potential for inequities in diagnosis and treatment, thereby affecting vulnerable groups. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in asthma and COPD prevalence between adult Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, specialized databases and the grey literature up to October 2011 were searched to identify epidemiological studies comparing asthma and COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adult populations. Prevalence ORs (PORs) and 95% CIs were calculated in a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Of 132 studies, eight contained relevant data. Aboriginal populations included Native Americans, Canadian Aboriginals, Australian Aboriginals and New Zealand Maori. Overall, Aboriginals were more likely to report having asthma than non-Aboriginals (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.23 to 1.60]), particularly among Canadian Aboriginals (POR 1.80 [95% CI 1.68 to 1.93]), Native Americans (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.13 to 1.76]) and Maori (POR 1.64 [95% CI 1.40 to 1.91]). Australian Aboriginals were less likely to report asthma (POR 0.49 [95% CI 0.28 to 0.86]). Sex differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginals and their non-Aboriginal counterparts were not identified. One study compared COPD prevalence between Native and non-Native Americans, with similar rates in both groups (POR 1.08 [95% CI 0.81 to 1.44]). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations exist in a variety of countries. Studies comparing COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations are scarce. Further investigation is needed to identify and account for factors associated with respiratory health inequalities among Aboriginal peoples. PMID:23248798

  1. Addressing Health Disparities among Men: Demographic, Behavioral and Clinical Characteristics of Men who have Sex with Men Living in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Col贸n-L贸pez, Vivian; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Rodr铆guez-D铆az, Carlos; Su谩rez, Erick L.; P茅rez, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics associated with HIV among Men who have sex with Men (MSM) and men who have sex with women (MSW) in Puerto Rico. Data from a population-based cross-sectional study in PR (2005鈥2008) was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study sample and bivariate analyses were performed to identify differences of sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics between MSM and MSW. Exact logistic regression models adjusting for age were constructed for each risk behavior associated to MSM in bivariate analysis. Of the 674 men interviewed, 6.1% (n=41) reported ever having sex with men. Age-adjusted logistic regression models indicated that MSM were significantly more likely than MSW to have first sexual intercourse before the age of 15 (POR=2.6; 95%CI= 1.3, 5.3) and have at least 10 lifetime sex partners (POR=2.8; 95%CI= 1.4,5.9). Also, MSM were significantly more likely to report lifetime use of marihuana (POR=2.7; 95%CI= 1.3,5.8), cocaine (POR=2.5; 95%CI= 1.2,5.0), amphetamines (POR=3.8; 95%CI= 1.4,9.2) and sedatives or tranquilizers (POR=3.3; 95%CI= 1.4,7.2). Also, MSM were 13 times more likely to be HIV seropositive as compared to MSW (POR=13.3; 95%CI=1.7,102.0). In this population-based sample of men living in Puerto Rico, self-reported same-sex behavior is strongly associated with HIV, and other behavioral factors associated with HIV. Future targeted research is still necessary for the development of intervention programs among MSM in Puerto Rico. PMID:24288521

  2. Poor responders in IVF--is there any evidence-based treatment for them?

    PubMed

    Szymusik, Iwona; Marianowski, Piotr; Zygula, Aleksandra; Wielgos, Miroslaw

    2015-01-01

    Despite the vast experience in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, there are still women who respond poorly to gonadotropins, which results in few oocytes at retrieval, reduced number of embryos for transfer and consequently unsatisfactory pregnancy rates. Although such patients are quite common in IVF practice, the exact prevalence of so-called "poor responders" is difficult to estimate due to the variety of applied definitions. The urgent need for an internationally accepted definition of poor ovarian response (POR) was addressed by an ESHRE Workshop held in Bologna in 2010, where the consensus was reached and criteria were finally established. The application of this uniform definition may allow a correct estimate of POR prevalence and, what is more important, designing proper trials to assess and finally compare the interventions used in POR patients. The article describes the possible physiology of POR and patient characteristics, mentions risk factors and laboratory tests of decreased ovarian reserve. Finally it reviews the possible management of POR with different stimulation protocols in the light of EBM. Basing on published meta-analyses, various additional alternatives (such as estradiol priming, the addition of rLH, growth hormone, androgens and androgen-modulating agents, aspirin) are also summarized. Despite the two decades of trying, there is still no consensus on what is best for POR. No single treatment can be recommended over another, as the evidence for all of them is insufficient. It is obvious that interventions used in POR require properly designed large randomized studies, because until now there is no evidence-based treatment for that particular group of patients. PMID:26313385

  3. Postoperative Crohn鈥檚 disease recurrence: A practical approach

    PubMed Central

    Nos, Pilar; Dom猫nech, Eugeni

    2008-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory condition that may involve any segment of the gastrointestinal tract. Although several drugs have proven efficacy in inducing and maintaining disease in remission, resectional surgery remains as a cornerstone in the management of the disease, mainly for the treatment of its stenosing and penetrating complications. However, the occurrence of new mucosal (endoscopic) lesions in the neoterminal ileum early after surgery is almost constant, it is followed in the mid-term by clinical symptoms and, in a proportion of patients, repeated intestinal resections are required. Pathogenesis of postoperative recurrence (POR) is not fully understood, but luminal factors (commensal microbes, dietary antigens) seem to play an important role, and environmental and genetic factors may also have a relevant influence. Many studies tried to identify clinical predictors for POR with heterogeneous results, and only smoking has repeatedly been associated with a higher risk of POR. Ileocolonoscopy remains as the gold standard for the assessment of appearance and severity of POR, although the real usefulness of the available endoscopic score needs to be revisited and alternative techniques are emerging. Several drugs have been evaluated to prevent POR with limited success. Smoking cessation seems to be one of the more beneficial therapeutic measures. Aminosalicylates have only proved to be of marginal benefit, and they are only used in low-risk patients. Nitroimidazolic antibiotics, although efficient, are associated with a high rate of intolerance and might induce irreversible side effects when used for a long-term. Thiopurines are not widely used after ileocecal resection, maybe because some concerns in giving immunomodulators in asymptomatic patients still remain. In the era of biological agents and genetic testing, a well-established preventive strategy for POR is still lacking, and larger studies to identify good clinical, serological, and genetic predictors of early POR as well as more effective drugs (or drug combinations) are needed. PMID:18810773

  4. FetA Antibodies Induced by an Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine Derived from a Serogroup B Meningococcal Isolate with Constitutive FetA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Holly; Norheim, Gunnstein; Chan, Hannah; Dold, Christina; Vipond, Caroline; Derrick, Jeremy P.; Pollard, Andrew J.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Feavers, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease causes over 3500 cases each year in Europe, with particularly high incidence among young children. Among serogroup B meningococci, which cause most of the cases, high diversity in the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) is observed in endemic situations; however, comprehensive molecular epidemiological data are available for the diversity and distribution of the OMPs PorA and FetA and these can be used to rationally design a vaccine with high coverage of the case isolates. The aim of this study was to determine whether outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) derived from an isolate with constitutive FetA expression (MenPF-1 vaccine) could be used to induce antibodies against both the PorA and FetA antigens. The immunogenicity of various dose levels and number of doses was evaluated in mice and rabbits, and IgG antibody responses tested against OMVs and recombinant PorA and FetA proteins. A panel of four isogenic mutants was generated and used to evaluate the relative ability of the vaccine to induce serum bactericidal activity (SBA) against FetA and PorA. Sera from mice were tested in SBA against the four target strains. Results demonstrated that the MenPF-1 OMVs were immunogenic against PorA and FetA in both animal models. Furthermore, the murine antibodies induced were bactericidal against isogenic mutant strains, suggesting that antibodies to both PorA and FetA were functional. The data presented indicate that the MenPF-1 vaccine is a suitable formulation for presenting PorA and FetA OMPs in order to induce bactericidal antibodies, and that proceeding to a Phase I clinical trial with this vaccine candidate is justified. PMID:26466091

  5. Predictive Modeling of Coral Disease Distribution within a Reef System

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gareth J.; Aeby, Greta S.; Cowie, Rebecca O. M.; Davy, Simon K.

    2010-01-01

    Diseases often display complex and distinct associations with their environment due to differences in etiology, modes of transmission between hosts, and the shifting balance between pathogen virulence and host resistance. Statistical modeling has been underutilized in coral disease research to explore the spatial patterns that result from this triad of interactions. We tested the hypotheses that: 1) coral diseases show distinct associations with multiple environmental factors, 2) incorporating interactions (synergistic collinearities) among environmental variables is important when predicting coral disease spatial patterns, and 3) modeling overall coral disease prevalence (the prevalence of multiple diseases as a single proportion value) will increase predictive error relative to modeling the same diseases independently. Four coral diseases: Porites growth anomalies (PorGA), Porites tissue loss (PorTL), Porites trematodiasis (PorTrem), and Montipora white syndrome (MWS), and their interactions with 17 predictor variables were modeled using boosted regression trees (BRT) within a reef system in Hawaii. Each disease showed distinct associations with the predictors. Environmental predictors showing the strongest overall associations with the coral diseases were both biotic and abiotic. PorGA was optimally predicted by a negative association with turbidity, PorTL and MWS by declines in butterflyfish and juvenile parrotfish abundance respectively, and PorTrem by a modal relationship with Porites host cover. Incorporating interactions among predictor variables contributed to the predictive power of our models, particularly for PorTrem. Combining diseases (using overall disease prevalence as the model response), led to an average six-fold increase in cross-validation predictive deviance over modeling the diseases individually. We therefore recommend coral diseases to be modeled separately, unless known to have etiologies that respond in a similar manner to particular environmental conditions. Predictive statistical modeling can help to increase our understanding of coral disease ecology worldwide. PMID:20174663

  6. Co-infection of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Benitez, Jos茅 Francisco; De la Luz-Armend谩riz, Jazm铆n; Saavedra-Monta帽ez, Manuel; Jasso-Escutia, Miguel 脕ngel; S谩nchez-Betancourt, Ivan; P茅rez-Torres, Armando; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Hern谩ndez, Jes煤s; Mart铆nez-Lara, Atalo; Ram铆rez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2016-02-29

    Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) and swine influenza virus infection causes respiratory disease in pigs. PorPV persistent infection could facilitate the establishment of secondary infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the pathogenicity of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus (swH1N1) in growing pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus. Conventional six-week-old pigs were intranasally inoculated with PorPV, swH1N1, or PorPV/swH1N1. A mock-infected group was included. The co-infection with swH1N1 was at 44 days post-infection (DPI), right after clinical signs of PorPV infection had stopped. The pigs of the co-infection group presented an increase of clinical signs compared to the simple infection groups. In all infected groups, the most recurrent lung lesion was hyperplasia of the bronchiolar-associated lymphoid tissue and interstitial pneumonia. By means of immunohistochemical evaluation it was possible to demonstrate the presence of the two viral agents infecting simultaneously the bronchiolar epithelium. Viral excretion of PorPV in nasal and oral fluid was recorded at 28 and 52 DPI, respectively. PorPV persisted in several samples from respiratory tissues (RT), secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). For swH1N1, the viral excretion in nasal fluids was significantly higher in single-infected swH1N1 pigs than in the co-infected group. However, the co-infection group exhibited an increase in the presence of swH1N1 in RT, SLO, and BALF at two days after co-infection. In conclusion, the results obtained confirm an increase in the clinical signs of infection, and PorPV was observed to impact the spread of swH1N1 in analysed tissues in the early stage of co-infection, although viral shedding was not enhanced. In the present study, the interaction of swH1N1 infection is demonstrated in pigs persistently infected with PorPV. PMID:26854342

  7. Recombinant Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus orientalis are Suitable Antigens to Measure Exposure of Domestic Animals to Sand Fly Bites

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Michal; Ferencova, Blanka; Warburg, Alon; Rohousova, Iva; Volf, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Background Certain salivary proteins of phlebotomine sand flies injected into the host skin during blood-feeding are highly antigenic and elicit strong antibody-mediated immune responses in repeatedly-exposed hosts. These antibodies can be measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISAs) using salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) as the source of antigens and serve as a markers for exposure to biting sand flies. Large-scale screening for anti-sand fly saliva antibodies requires replacement of SGH with recombinant salivary proteins. In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis is the main vector of Leishmania donovani, a trypanosomatid parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis. We tested recombinant salivary proteins derived from Ph. orientalis saliva to study exposure of domestic animals to this sand fly species. Methodology/Principal Findings Antigenic salivary proteins from Ph. orientalis were identified by immunoblot and mass spectrometry. Recombinant apyrase rPorSP15, yellow-related protein rPorSP24, ParSP25-like protein rPorSP65, D7-related protein rPorSP67, and antigen 5-related protein rPorSP76 were tested using ELISA with sera of domestic animals from L. donovani foci in Ethiopia where Ph. orientalis is present. Our results highlighted recombinant yellow-related protein rPorSP24 as the most promising antigen, displaying a high positive correlation coefficient as well as good sensitivity and specificity when compared to SGH. This recombinant protein was the most suitable one for testing sera of dogs, sheep, and goats. In addition, a different antigen, rPorSP65 was found efficacious for testing canine sera. Conclusions/Significance Recombinant salivary proteins of Ph. orientalis, specifically rPorSP24, were shown to successfully substitute SGH in serological experiments to measure exposure of domestic animals to Ph. orientalis, the vector of L. donovani. The results suggest that rPorSP24 might be a suitable antigen for detecting anti-Ph. orientalis antibody-mediated reactions also in other host species. PMID:26986566

  8. Mol茅culas org谩nicas obtenidas en simulaciones experimentales del medio interestelar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu帽oz-Caro, Guillermo Manuel

    Las nubes moleculares son regiones de formaci贸n de estrellas, con temperaturas cin茅ticas entre 10-50 K y densidades de 103-106 谩tomos cm-3. Su materia est谩 formada por gas y polvo interestelar. Estas part铆culas de polvo est谩n cubiertas por una fina capa de hielo, de unos 0.01 渭m, que contiene H2O y a menudo CO, CO2, CH3OH y NH3. El hielo es presumiblemente irradiado por fotones ultravioleta y rayos c贸smicos en las zonas poco profundas de las nubes moleculares y las regiones circunestelares. En un sistema de vac铆o, P 藴 10-7 mbar, simulamos la deposici贸n de hielo a partir de 10 K y la irradiaci贸n ultravioleta por medio de una l谩mpara de descarga de hidr贸geno activada con microondas. La evoluci贸n del hielo se observa por medio de un espectr贸metro infrarrojo. De este modo es posible determinar la composici贸n del hielo observado en el medio interestelar y predecir la presencia de mol茅culas a煤n no detectadas en el espacio, que han sido producto del procesamiento del hielo en nuestros experimentos. Tambi茅n es posible calentar el sistema hasta temperatura ambiente para sublimar el hielo depositado. Cuando el hielo ha sido previamente irradiado, se observa un residuo compuesto por mol茅culas org谩nicas complejas, algunas prebi贸ticas, como varios 谩cidos carbox铆licos, aminas, amidas, 茅steres y en menor proporci贸n mol茅culas heteroc铆clicas y amino谩cidos. Algunas de estas mol茅culas podr铆an detectarse en estado gaseoso por medio de observaciones milim茅tricas y de radio. Tambi茅n podr铆an estar presentes en el polvo cometario, cuyo an谩lisis qu铆mico est谩 planeado por las misiones Stardust y Rosetta. Mientras tanto, nuestro grupo est谩 llevando a cabo el an谩lisis de part铆culas de polvo interplanetario (IDPs), algunas de las cuales pueden ser de origen cometario. Al igual que ocurre con los productos obtenidos por irradiaci贸n del hielo en nuestros experimentos, algunas IDPs son ricas en material org谩nico que contiene ox铆geno.

  9. Completing the surrogate motherhood process: parental order reporters' attitudes towards surrogacy arrangements, role ambiguity and role conflict.

    PubMed

    Purewal, Satvinder; Crawshaw, Marilyn; van den Akker, Olga

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of parental order reporters (PORs) towards their work with surrogacy arrangements and their experiences of role conflict and role ambiguity. A questionnaire was used to assess PORs' perceptions of their role in parental order [PO] applications, attitudes towards surrogacy arrangements and the legal process and the influence of role ambiguity or conflict. Questionnaires were distributed to all PORs employed by the Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service in England. Thirty-three PORs participated (response rate 46%) who, on average, had each completed five PO applications (range 1-40). Positive attitudes towards surrogacy and the child's needs for openness about origins were found. Concerns about the inadequacy of preparation and assessment arrangements, overseas arrangements and non-regulation of surrogacy agencies were evident. PORs with high-role ambiguity were more likely to report less positive attitudes towards the emotional consequence of surrogacy on offspring. High scores on role ambiguity and role conflict were reflected in less positive attitudes towards the parties' preparation towards parenthood. These results have implications for training, policy and practice in this area. PMID:22458916

  10. Relationships among plant available phosphorus, fertilizer sales, and water quality in northwestern Ohio.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Frank G; Bigham, Jerry M; Slater, Brian K

    2002-01-01

    Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) in northwestern Ohio river water has declined over the past 20 yr in response to decreased applications of fertilizer P. Our objective was to evaluate changes in soluble P (Bray-1 P) levels in the soil over time as influenced by fertilizer P management, cultivation practice, soil properties, and landscape factors. Because soil is the intermediary between added P and SRP measured in river water, we examined the relationship between fertilizer P, soluble soil P, and SRP. Using historical soil survey sample sites as a baseline for original soluble P concentrations (Por), we resampled Ap horizons to establish current levels of soluble P (Pcu). The Por baseline extended from 1953-1982 and Pcu from 1996-1998. Thirty percent of the Pcu values and 17% of the Por values were > or = 40 mg kg(-1). Log-transformed means for Pcu were significantly higher than for Por. The principal determining factors for Por were physiography, soil texture, and soil series. Current P is affected by present tillage practice and drainage class. Change in soluble P in the soil is not as responsive to fertilizer P sales as is SRP in river water. This suggests that as fertilizer P sales decline, a declining percentage of P added as fertilizer is annually dissolved and transported into the drainage system. Soluble P in soil is governed by a combination of fertilizer and tillage management, soil properties, and landscape factors interacting over time. PMID:11837442

  11. Evaluation of an Internet virtual world chat room for adolescent smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Susan I; Conway, Terry L; Edwards, Christine C; Elliott, Sean P; Crittenden, Jim

    2007-09-01

    The goal of this longitudinal study was to test an innovative approach to smoking cessation that might be particularly attractive to adolescent smokers. The study was a participatory research effort between academic and school partners. The intervention used an Internet-based, virtual reality world combined with motivational interviewing conducted in real-time by a smoking cessation counselor. Participants were 136 adolescent smokers recruited from high schools randomized to the intervention or a measurement-only control condition. Those who participated in the program were significantly more likely than controls to report at the immediate post-intervention assessment that they had abstained from smoking during the past week (p=.01), smoked fewer days in the past week (p=.001), smoked fewer cigarettes in the past week (p=.01), and considered themselves a former smoke (p=.05). Only the number of times quit was statistically significant at a one-year follow-up assessment (p=.05). The lack of longer-term results is discussed, as are methodological challenges in conducting a cluster-randomized smoking cessation study. PMID:17250972

  12. Synthesis, photochemistry, and electrochemistry of single-wall carbon nanotubes with pendent pyridyl groups and of their metal complexes with zinc porphyrin. Comparison with pyridyl-bearing fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Alvaro, Mercedes; Atienzar, Pedro; de la Cruz, Pilar; Delgado, Juan L; Troiani, Vincent; Garcia, Hermenegildo; Langa, Fernando; Palkar, Amit; Echegoyen, Luis

    2006-05-24

    A soluble, functionalized Py-SWNT has been synthesized and characterized by solution (1)H and (13)C NMR, FT-Raman, and electron microscopy. Experimental data indicate that Py-SWNT has short tubes with pentyl esters at the tips and pyridyl isoxazolino units along the walls. The synthesis of Py-SWNT is based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of a nitrile oxide on the SWNT walls, similar to 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions that are common for fullerene functionalization. The resulting Py-SWNT forms a complex with a zinc porphyrin (ZnPor) in a way similar to that reported for pyridyl-functionalized [60]-fullerenes. Formation of this metal-ligand complex was firmly established by a detailed electrochemical study. However, in contrast to the behavior observed for the ZnPor/Py-C(60) complex, photochemical excitation of the complex between ZnPor/Py-SWNT does not lead to electron transfer with the generation of charge-separated states. Fluorescence and laser flash studies indicate that the main process is energy transfer from the singlet ZnPor excited state to the Py-SWNT with observation of emission from Py-SWNT. Triplet ZnPor excited-state quenching by Py-SWNT is only observed in polar solvents such as DMF, but not in benzonitrile. PMID:16704263

  13. Excited state dynamics and catalytic mechanism of the light-driven enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Scrutton, Nigel S; Groot, Marie Louise; Heyes, Derren J

    2012-07-01

    The reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide, catalysed by the enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR), is the penultimate step in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway and is a key light-driven reaction that triggers a profound transformation in plant development. As POR is light-activated it can provide new information on the way in which light energy can be harnessed to power enzyme reactions. Consequently, POR presents a unique opportunity to study catalysis at low temperatures and on ultrafast timescales, which are not usually accessible for the majority of enzymes. Recent advances in our understanding of the catalytic mechanism of POR illustrate why it is an important model for studying enzyme catalysis and reaction dynamics. The reaction involves the addition of one hydride and one proton, and catalysis is initiated by the absorption of light by the Pchlide substrate. As the reaction involves the Pchlide excited state, a variety of ultrafast spectroscopic measurements have shown that significant parts of the reaction occur on the picosecond timescale. A number of excited state Pchlide species, including an intramolecular charge transfer complex and a hydrogen bonded intermediate, are proposed to be required for the subsequent hydride and proton transfers, which occur on the microsecond timescale. Herein, we review spectroscopic investigations, with a particular focus on time-resolved transient absorption and fluorescence experiments that have been used to study the excited state dynamics and catalytic mechanism of POR. PMID:22419074

  14. Sensitivity of the cortical pitch onset response to height, time-variance, and directionality of dynamic pitch.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M

    2015-08-31

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) demonstrate that human auditory cortical responses are sensitive to changes in static pitch as indexed by the pitch onset response (POR), a negativity generated at the initiation of acoustic periodicity. Yet, it is still unclear if this brain signature is sensitive to dynamic, time-varying properties of pitch more characteristic of those found in naturalistic speech and music. Neuroelectric PORs were recorded in response to contrastive pitch patterns differing in their pitch height, time-variance, and directionality (i.e., rise vs. fall). Broadband noise followed by contiguous iterated rippled noise (producing salient pitch sweeps) was used to temporally separate neural activity coding the onset of acoustic energy from the onset of time-varying pitch. Analysis of PORs revealed distinct modulations in response latency that distinguished static from time-varying pitch contours (steady-statePORs were insensitive to the direction of pitch sweeps (rise=fall). Our findings suggest that the POR signature provides a useful neural index of auditory cortical pitch processing for some, but not all pitch-evoking stimuli. PMID:26200250

  15. A comparative study of the interaction of platinum with group 4A (germanium, tin and lead) porphyrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dy, E. S.; Kasai, H.

    2007-09-01

    Because of its vast number of applications and high price many studies have been made on how to reduce the amount of platinum in catalysts. One method includes dispersing platinum nanoparticles in porous support materials. But electrically conductive carbon-based support materials鈥攏eeded for fuel cell electrodes鈥攑ermit nanoparticles to migrate and form larger clusters, leading to reduced catalytic activity over time. To find a solution to this problem, we modelled the interaction of group 4A metal porphyrins (germanium (II) porphyrin (GePor), tin (II) porphyrin (SnPor) and lead (II) porphyrin (PbPor)) with platinum (Pt) using density functional theory. We showed that platinum can bond strongly on both germanium porphyrin and tin porphyrin. More importantly, valence Pt d-orbital characteristics dominate their HOMO and HOMO-1. Our study indicates that dispersing Pt as individual atoms on a SnPor and GePor surface is a good way to minimize platinum load in carbon-based reduction catalysts for reactions involving mainly the HOMO and HOMO-1 of Pt, of which the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells is an example.

  16. Identification of P450 Oxidoreductase as a Major Determinant of Sensitivity to Hypoxia-Activated Prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Francis W; Young, Richard J; Shalev, Zvi; Vellanki, Ravi N; Wang, Jingli; Gu, Yongchuan; Joshi, Naveen; Sreebhavan, Sreevalsan; Weinreb, Ilan; Goldstein, David P; Moffat, Jason; Ketela, Troy; Brown, Kevin R; Koritzinsky, Marianne; Solomon, Benjamin; Rischin, Danny; Wilson, William R; Wouters, Bradly G

    2015-10-01

    Hypoxia is a prevalent feature of many tumors contributing to disease progression and treatment resistance, and therefore constitutes an attractive therapeutic target. Several hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) have been developed, including the phase III candidate TH-302 (evofosfamide) and the preclinical agent SN30000, which is an optimized analogue of the well-studied HAP tirapazamine. Experience with this therapeutic class highlights an urgent need to identify biomarkers of HAP sensitivity, including enzymes responsible for prodrug activation during hypoxia. Using genome-scale shRNA screens and a high-representation library enriched for oxidoreductases, we identified the flavoprotein P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase (POR) as the predominant determinant of sensitivity to SN30000 in three different genetic backgrounds. No other genes consistently modified SN30000 sensitivity, even within a POR-negative background. Knockdown or genetic knockout of POR reduced SN30000 reductive metabolism and clonogenic cell death and similarly reduced sensitivity to TH-302 under hypoxia. A retrospective evaluation of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas showed heterogeneous POR expression and suggested a possible relationship between human papillomavirus status and HAP sensitivity. Taken together, our study identifies POR as a potential predictive biomarker of HAP sensitivity that should be explored during the clinical development of SN30000, TH-302, and other hypoxia-directed agents. PMID:26297733

  17. Simultaneous measurements of solvent dynamics and functional kinetics in a light-activated enzyme.

    PubMed

    Durin, Guillaume; Delaunay, Aude; Darnault, Claudine; Heyes, Derren J; Royant, Antoine; Vernede, Xavier; Hunter, C Neil; Weik, Martin; Bourgeois, Dominique

    2009-03-01

    Solvent fluctuations play a key role in controlling protein motions and biological function. Here, we have studied how individual steps of the reaction catalyzed by the light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) couple with solvent dynamics. To simultaneously monitor the catalytic cycle of the enzyme and the dynamical behavior of the solvent, we designed temperature-dependent UV-visible microspectrophotometry experiments, using flash-cooled nanodroplets of POR to which an exogenous soluble fluorophore was added. The formation and decay of the first two intermediates in the POR-catalyzed reaction were measured, together with the solvent glass transition and the buildup of crystalline ice at cryogenic temperatures. We find that formation of the first intermediate occurs below the glass transition temperature (T(g)), and is not affected by changes in solvent dynamics induced by modifying the glycerol content. In contrast, formation of the second intermediate occurs above T(g) and is influenced by changes in glycerol concentration in a manner remarkably similar to the buildup of crystalline ice. These results suggest that internal, nonslaved protein motions drive the first step of the POR-catalyzed reaction whereas solvent-slaved motions control the second step. We propose that the concept of solvent slaving applies to complex enzymes such as POR. PMID:19254549

  18. Impact of dehydroepiandrosterone on clinical outcome in poor responders: A pilot study in women undergoing in vitro fertilization, using bologna criteria

    PubMed Central

    Jirge, Padma Rekha; Chougule, Shruti Mahesh; Gavali, Vijayamala Gurudas; Bhomkar, Deepali Atul

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation in women with poor ovarian response (POR) undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. SETTING: Private tertiary fertility clinic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 31 infertile women with POR diagnosed as per the Bologna criteria. INTERVENTIONS: DHEA supplementation for 2 months and a subsequent IVF cycle, after two previous IVF cycles with POR. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Dose and duration of gonadotropin therapy, oocyte yield, embryo number and quality, pregnancy and live birth rate. RESULTS: No difference was seen in gonadotropin requirement before and after DHEA supplementation. There was a significant increase in total and metaphase II oocytes (5.9 卤 0.68 vs. 2.73 卤 0.24; 4.45 卤 0.47 vs. 2.09 卤 0.26), fertilization (3.65 卤 0.49 vs. 2.00 卤 0.27), Grade I embryos (1.52 卤 0.25 vs. 0.55 卤 0.18), pregnancy rate (30% vs. 9.1%) and live birth rate (25% vs 0%) in those who completed the cycle, following DHEA supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: Dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation results in an improvement in oocyte yield, embryo quality, and live birth rate in a group of women with POR having undergone at least two previous failures due to POR. PMID:25395742

  19. Hydration of porphyrin and Mg-porphyrin: ab initio quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Moin, Syed Tarique; Hofer, Thomas S

    2014-01-01

    Ab initio QMCF-MD simulations were performed for porphyrin (POR) and magnesium-porphyrin (Mg-POR) immersed in water to study their structural and dynamical properties. The observed hydration behaviour of these solutes representing biomimetic models is in fair agreement with structural and dynamical features of their biological analogues, protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) and chlorophyll (CHl). Structural data obtained from the radial, angular and spatial distribution functions as well as the angular-radial distributions have a consensus on possessing a contrasting hydration behaviour of POR and Mg-POR. Flexibility of the ring in both solutes described by the improper torsional distribution and root mean square fluctuation showed an influence on H-bond interactions between the nitrogen atoms and water molecules that are also reflected in the respective dynamics. An axial water molecule coordinated to the Mg(ii) ion indicates the penta-coordinated Mg-POR to be stable along the simulation. It was also shown that complexation of the Mg(ii) ion to the porphyrin influences the hydration patterns significantly compared to the porphyrin itself, which is further supported by the vibrational power spectra evaluated for both solutes. Free energy of binding and solvent accessible surface area calculations also confirmed that these two solutes have distinct hydration behaviour. Detailed knowledge of the individual hydration patterns is expected to be of particular benefit. PMID:24178832

  20. Estimaci贸n de peque帽as perturbaciones en sat茅lites geoc茅ntricos como un problema inverso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadunaisky, P. E.

    El movimiento geoc茅ntrico de un sat茅lite artificial es simulado autom谩ticamente por un sistema de ecuaciones diferenciales de segundo orden que incluyen dos funciones perturbadoras. La primera representa el segundo t茅rmino del potencial gravitatorio de la Tierra y la segunda corresponde al frenado atmosf茅rico. Asumiendo como conocidas, por hip贸tesis o por mediciones, la posici贸n y velocidad del sat茅lite en instantes sucesivos se estiman las perturbaciones a intervalos sucesivos por un m茅todo determin铆stico. Para ilustrar el m茅todo y comprobar la precisi贸n de nuestros resultados hemos simulado dos ejemplos incluyendo valores conocidos de las perturbaciones que luego comparamos con los resultados de nuestro m茅todo. El m茅todo puede aplicarse por ejemplo para el intervalo de una revoluci贸n satelital lo cual permitir铆a el dise帽o inmediato de una maniobra correctiva de la 贸rbita satelital.

  1. Cytokinin stimulates and abscisic acid inhibits greening of etiolated Lupinus luteus cotyledons by affecting the expression of the light-sensitive protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Kusnetsov, V; Herrmann, R G; Kulaeva, O N; Oelm眉ller, R

    1998-07-01

    Plastid biogenesis in etiolated lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) cotyledons is highly sensitive to cytokinins and abscisic acid. In the presence of the synthetic cytokinin N6-benzylaminopurine, greening and plastid biogenesis is substantially promoted as compared to untreated controls, whereas abscisic acid has an inhibitory effect. Faster greening in cytokinin-treated cotyledons is accompanied by a higher level and slower degradation of the light-sensitive protochlorophyllide-oxidoreductase (POR); while ABA has the opposite effect. The phytohormones appear to modulate POR gene expression, since the steady-state levels of POR mRNA, as well as transcripts of other nuclear genes for plastid proteins, are strongly increased by cytokinin and reduced by abscisic acid treatment. When etiolated lupine cotyledons were illuminated with far-red light prior to phytohormone application, the POR level substantially decreased; this was accompanied by the loss of the phytohormone's effect on greening. Based on these findings it is concluded that the level of POR and the integrity of the prolamellar body is crucial for cytokinin- and abscisic acid-controlled greening following transfer of etiolated lupine cotyledons into the light. PMID:9738876

  2. Nitric oxide interaction with oxy-coboglobin models containing trans-pyridine ligand: two reaction pathways.

    PubMed

    Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Eksuzyan, Shahane R; Goodwin, John A; Hovhannisyan, Gohar Sh

    2013-10-21

    The oxy-cobolglobin models of the general formula (Py)Co(Por)(O2) (Por = meso-tetraphenyl- and meso-tetra-p-tolylporphyrinato dianions) were constructed by sequential low-temperature interaction of Py and dioxygen with microporous layers of Co-porphyrins. At cryogenic temperatures small increments of NO were introduced into the cryostat and the following reactions were monitored by the FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy during slow warming. Similar to the recently studied (NH3)Co(Por)(O2) system (Kurtikyan et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2012, 134, 13671-13680), this interaction leads to the nitric oxide dioxygenation reaction with the formation of thermally unstable nitrato complexes (Py)Co(Por)(畏(1)-ONO2). The reaction proceeds through the formation of the six-coordinate peroxynitrite adducts (Py)Co(Por)(OONO), as was demonstrated by FTIR measurements with the use of isotopically labeled (18)O2, (15)NO, N(18)O, and (15)N(18)O species and DFT calculations. In contrast to the ammonia system, however, the binding of dioxygen in (Py)Co(Por)(O2) is weaker and the second reaction pathway takes place due to autoxidation of NO by rebound O2 that in NO excess gives N2O3 and N2O4 species adsorbed in the layer. This leads eventually to partial formation of (Py)Co(Por)(NO) and (Py)Co(Por)(NO2) as a result of NO and NO2 reactions with five-coordinate Co(Por)(Py) complexes that are present in the layer after the O2 has been released. The former is thermally unstable and at room temperature passes to the five-coordinate nitrosyl complex, while the latter is a stable compound. In these experiments at 210 K, the layer consists mostly of six-coordinate nitrato complexes and some minor quantities of six-coordinate nitro and nitrosyl species. Their relative quantities depend on the experimental conditions, and the yield of nitrato species is proportional to the relative quantity of peroxynitrite intermediate. Using differently labeled nitrogen oxide isotopomers in different stages of the process the formation of the caged radical pair after homolytic disruption of the O-O bond in peroxynitrite moiety is clearly shown. The composition of the layers upon farther warming to room temperature depends on the experimental conditions. In vacuo the six-coordinate nitrato complexes decompose to give nitrate anion and oxidized cationic complex Co(III)(Por)(Py)2. In the presence of NO excess, however, the nitro-pyridine complexes (Py)Co(Por)(NO2) are predominantly formed formally indicating the oxo-transfer reactivity of (Py)Co(Por)(畏(1)-ONO2) with regard to NO. Using differently labeled nitrogen in nitric oxide and coordinated nitrate a plausible mechanism of this reaction is suggested based on the isotope distribution in the nitro complexes formed. PMID:24090349

  3. 脙聜脗聹NADPH: Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase-Structure, Catalytic Function, and Role in Prolamellar Body Formation and Morphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Michael P. Timko

    2013-02-01

    The biosynthesis of chlorophyll is a critical biochemical step in the development of photosynthetic vascular plants and green algae. From photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) to algae, non-vascular plants, gymnosperms and vascular plants, mechanisms have evolved for protochlorophyllide reduction a key step in chlorophyll synthesis. Protochlorophyllide reduction is carried out by both a light-dependent (POR) and light-independent (LIPOR) mechanisms. NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (EC 1.3.1.33, abbreviated POR) catalyzes the light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide (PChlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide). In contrast, a light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase (LIPOR) involves three plastid gene products (chlL, chlN, and chlB) and several nuclear factors. Our work focused on characterization of both the POR and LIPOR catalyzed processes.

  4. Molecular and epidemiological studies of Porcine rubulavirus infection 鈥 an overview

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Romero, Julieta Sandra; Blomstr枚m, Anne-Lie; Berg, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Porcine rubulavirus-La Piedad-Michoacan-Mexico virus (PorPV-LPMV) was identified as the causative agent of a viral disease that emerged spontaneously in Mexican swine in the 1980s. Since the report of the initial outbreak of the disease, only one full-length genome from a strain isolated in 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been sequenced; sequence data are scarce from other isolates. The genetic variation of this virus that has spread throughout the main endemic region of Mexico is almost a complete mystery. The development of molecular techniques for improved diagnostics and to investigate the persistence, molecular epidemiology, and the possible reservoirs of PorPV are needed. Together, this will provide greater knowledge regarding the molecular genetic changes and useful data to establish new strategies in the control of this virus in Mexico. PMID:26584829

  5. Como Lo Hago Yo: Anomal铆as del Tubo Neural en Guatemala 鈥 Mielomeningocele Unidad de Espina B铆fida e Hidrocefalia

    PubMed Central

    Manucci, Graciela; von Quednow, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    En Guatemala nacen por a帽 786 ni帽os con defectos de tubo neural. Operamos 65 a 70 ni帽os con mielomenigocele por a帽o. Tenemos equipo multidisciplinario. Recomendamos parto por ces谩rea. Infecci贸n antes de la cirug铆a es un problema mayor. Derivaci贸n tard铆a es un problema. Disecamos la plaqueta con la t茅cnica cl谩sica. Suturamos la plaqueta para restituir la forma de la m茅dula. Corpectom铆a en casos de cif贸sis. Hidrocefal铆a: Operamos el 80% de los ni帽os. Chiari II: Operamos basados en los s铆ntomas, primero nos aseguramos que la v谩lvula funciona bien. M茅dula anclada: Operamos basados en los s铆ntomas. PMID:24791216

  6. Global Alfven Waves in Solar Physics: Coronal Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Azevedo, C. A.; de Assis, A. S.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se ha demostrado que Ia onda discreta de Alfven puede generar por lo memos un 20% de la energia coronal requerida con densidad de flujo de lO- erg 5 . Las ondas discretas de Alfven son una nueva clase `de ondas de Alfven las cuales pueden describirse por el modelo con que incluye un i6n finito, con frecuencia ciclotr6nica ( /uci # 0) y los efectos del equilibrio de plasma mostrados por Appert, Vaclavik and Villar 1984. ABSTRACT. It has been shown that the Discrete Alfven wave can power at least 20% of the required coronal energy flux density iO- Discrete Alfven waves are a new class of Alfven waves wich can be described by the model with the inclusion of finite ion cyclotron frequency (w/wci 0) and the equilibrium plasma current effects as shown by Appert, Vaclavik and Villar 1984. o,t :, HYDROMAGNETICS - SUN-CORONA

  7. Resonancias en la regi贸n trans-neptuniana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, T.; Ferraz-Mello, S.

    La expansi贸n de la 贸rbita del planeta Neptuno en la etapa de acreci贸n del Sistema Solar exterior (Fern谩ndez e Ip 1984, 1996) parece ser un mecanismo eficiente para la captura de planetesimales en las resonancias exteriores con Neptuno (Malhotra 1995). Por otro lado, los estudios din谩micos realizados por varios autores indican que las resonancias son regiones de evoluci贸n estable, en contraste con el comportamiento ca贸tico del resto de la regi贸n trans-neptuniana. Por estas razones, y si bien los datos observacionales son todav铆a muy limitados, se supone que los objetos descubiertos se encuentran en alguna de esas resonancias. En esta comunicaci贸n presentamos un estudio anal铆tico y num茅rico de las principales resonancias exteriores con Neptuno.

  8. Human VDAC isoforms differ in their capability to interact with minocycline and to contribute to its cytoprotective activity.

    PubMed

    Karachitos, Andonis; Grobys, Daria; Antoniewicz, Monika; Jedut, Sylwia; Jordan, Joaquin; Kmita, Hanna

    2016-05-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that cytoprotective activity displayed by minocycline in the case of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells pretreated with H2O2 requires the presence of functional VDAC (YVDAC1). Thus, we decided to transform YVDAC1-depleted yeast cells (螖por1 cells) with plasmids expressing human VDAC isoforms (HVDAC1, HVDAC2, HVDAC3) to estimate their involvement in the minocycline cytoprotective effect. We observed that only expression of HVDAC3 in 螖por1 cells provided minocycline-mediated cytoprotection against H2O2 although all human isoforms are functional in 螖por1 cells. The observation appears to be important for on-going discussion concerning VDAC isoform roles in mitochondria and cell functioning. PMID:26994639

  9. The chemistry of rhenium and tungsten porphyrin complexes in low oxidation states. Synthesis and characterization of rhenium and tungsten porphyrin dimers containing metal-metal multiple bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Collmann, J.P.; Garner, J.M.; Woo, L.K. )

    1989-10-11

    The coordination chemistry of rhenium and tungsten porphyrin complexes in low oxidation states is presented. W{sup IV}(Por)(Cl){sub 2}, W{sup II}(Por)(H{sub 5}C{sub 6}C{identical to}CC{sub 6}H{sub 5}) and W{sup II}(OEP)(PEt{sub 3}){sub 2} complexes (Por = 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-tolyl)porphyrin (TTP) or 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethylporphyrin (OEP) dianions) were found to be similar to the analogous molybdenum porphyrin complexes by spectroscopic and magnetic measurements. UV-visible and vibrational spectroscopies indicate that these oxidations occur at the metal-metal bond rather than the porphyrin ligand.

  10. Fluorescent nanogel based on four-arm PEG-PCL copolymer with porphyrin core for bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xia; Wei, Chang; Lu, Li; Liu, Tianjun; Lv, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Four-arm PEG-PCL copolymer with porphyrin core (POR-PEG-PCL) exhibits beneficial fluorescence ability in vivo. To further develop an application of thermosensitive porphyrin hydrogel based on four-arm PEG-PCL copolymer as a drug carrier, a POR-PEG-PCL nanogel was tracked and located to tumor tissue with porphyrin as a fluorescence tag via intravenous injection. The structure and function of the nanogel were evaluated by TEM, DLS, H-NMR, UV-vis and fluorescence spectra. The fluorescent nanogel was monitored by an in vivo imaging system with hepatoma tumor-bearing mice. Good biocompatibility and safety in vitro and in vivo show that the POR-PEG-PCL nanogel is a potential drug carrier that targets tumor tissues with fluorescence bioimaging. PMID:26838843

  11. Novel porphyrin-daunomycin hybrids: Synthesis and preferential binding to G-quadruplexes over i-motif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ping; Jin, Shu-fang; Lu, Jia-Zheng; Lv, Jun-liang; Wu, Gong-qing; Chen, Pan-Pan; Tan, Cai-Lian; Chen, Dian-Wen

    2015-02-01

    Encouraged by the enormous importance attributed to the structure and function of human telomeric DNA, herein we focused our attention on the interaction of a serious of newly prepared porphyrin-daunomycin (Por-DNR) hybrids with the guanine-rich single-strand oligomer (G4) and the complementary cytosine-rich strand (i-motif). Various spectral methods such as absorption and fluorescence titration, surface-enhanced Raman and circular dichroism spectrum were integrated in the experiment and it was found that these Por-DNR hybrids could serve as prominent molecules to recognize G4 and i-motif. What is more, interesting results were obtained that the hybrids with longer flexible links are more favorable in binding with both G4 and i-motif than the hybrid with shorter linkage. These Por-DNR hybrids may help to develop new ideas in the research of human telomeric DNA with small molecules.

  12. A variable-temperature direct electrochemical study of metalloproteins from hyperthermophilic microorganisms involves in hydrogen production from pyruvate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.T.; Blamey, J.; Zhou, Z.Z.; Adams, M.W.W.

    1995-05-30

    The hyperthomophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima and the hyperthermolic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus grow optimally at 80{degrees} and 100{degrees}C, respectively, by the fermentation of carbohydrates to organic acids, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}. Pyruvate is a major source of reductant for H{sub 2} production during fermentation, and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR), a 4Fe-type ferredoxin, and hydrogenase have been previously purified from both species. P. furiosus utilizes copper-iron-containing POR and a nickel-iron-containing hydrogenase, whereas the POR of T. maritima lacks copper and its hydrogenase lacks nickel. For all four enzymes and for the two ferredoxins, we have determined their reproduction potentials (E{degrees}` and, where possible, thermodynamic parameters associated with electron transfer {Delta}S{degrees} and {Delta}H{degrees}), using differential pulse voltammetry at temperatures ranging from 25 to 95{degrees}C. 55 refs., 7 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. Structural domains in NADPH: Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases involved in catalysis and substrate binding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Timko, Michael P.

    1999-09-24

    Until recently little direct information was available about specific structural determinants within the light-dependent NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (PORs) required for substrate and cofactor binding, catalytic activity, and thylakoid membrane localization. Based on our previous DOE-funded studies, during the past year we brought to fruition a number of ongoing experiments, initiated several new avenues of investigations, and overall have made considerable progress towards establishing the basic structural parameters governing POR function. Our studies to date have defined residues and domains involved in substrate and cofactor binding and catalysis, and elaborated on the mechanism for membrane localization of POR in developing plastids. Our results and their significance, as well as our work in progress, are detailed.

  14. Heteroleptic Tetrapyrrole-Fused Dimeric and Trimeric Skeletons with Unusual Non-Frustrated Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuehong; Oh, Juwon; Wang, Kang; Chen, Chao; Cao, Wei; Park, Kyu Hyung; Kim, Dongho; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2016-03-18

    Phthalocyanine (Pc) and porphyrin (Por) chromophores have been fused through the benzo[伪]pyrazine moiety, resulting in unprecedented heteroleptic tetrapyrrole-fused dimers and trimers. The heteroleptic tetrapyrrole nature has been clearly revealed based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of the zinc dimer. Electrochemical analysis, theoretical calculations, and time-resolved spectroscopic results disclose that the two/three-tetrapyrrole-fused skeletons behave as one totally 蟺-conjugated system as a result of the strong conjugative interaction between/among the tetrapyrrole chromophores. In particular, the effectively extended 蟺-electron system through the fused-bridge induced strong electronic communication between the Pc and Por moieties and large transition dipole moments in the Pc-Por-fused systems, providing high fluorescence quantum yields (>0.13) and relatively long excited state lifetimes (>1.3鈥卬s) in comparison with their homo-tetrapyrrole-fused analogues. PMID:26879243

  15. Buracos negros primordiais e astrof铆sica observacional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cust贸dio, P. S.; Horvath, J. E.

    2003-02-01

    A hist贸ria da f铆sica contempor芒nea 茅 pr贸diga em grandes descobertas (a Relatividade e a Mec芒nica Qu芒ntica entre as mais importantes) at茅 meados dos anos '30. O peso destes desenvolvimentos 茅 t茫o grande que outros feitos de grande porte (por exemplo, a teoria da nucleoss铆ntese nas estrelas) s茫o geralmente considerados como "filhotes" dos primeiros, ao menos na imagina莽茫o popular. Por茅m, algumas exce莽玫es 脿 regra n茫o-escrita s茫o dignas de men莽茫o. Entre estas 煤ltimas est谩 a descoberta por S.W.Hawking e colaboradores das propriedades de emiss茫o dos buracos negros, trabalho que iniciou uma disciplina com vida pr贸pria denominada Termodin芒mica de Buracos Negros.

  16. What Number of Oocytes Is Appropriate for Defining Poor Ovarian Response?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seul Ki; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study attempted to derive an objective and sophisticated definition of poor ovarian response (POR). Materials and Methods A total of 176 consecutive in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles (137 patients) with conventional ovarian stimulation during 2009 to 2012 were studied by retrospective analysis. Optimal oocyte number (total or mature) was determined by statistics-based (distribution of oocyte number) and prognosis-based approaches (prediction for IVF outcome). Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was used to show what number of oocytes could predict IVF pregnancy and whether clinical and laboratory variables could predict newly defined POR. Results The 25th percentile of the distribution corresponded to total oocytes 鈮2 and mature oocyte 鈮1. The cut-off values for the prediction of IVF outcomes were total oocytes >5 and mature oocyte >1. Considering the incidence of POR (34.1%), a reasonable definition of POR was decided as total oocytes 鈮2 or mature oocyte 鈮1. For the prediction of this new definition, the extreme cut-off value (by setting a false positive rate of 5%) of serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) was 鈮0.76 ng/mL, which was better than serum follicle stimulating hormone or age. A new simple definition of POR was derived as total oocytes 鈮2 or mature oocyte 鈮1 in a previous cycle or a serum AMH level of 鈮0.76 ng/mL. When this simple criterion was re-applied to our data, the predictive performance was similar to the Bologna criteria. Conclusion We here propose a new definition of POR, which is simple and supported by statistical and prognostic analyses. PMID:25683999

  17. H-rev107 Regulates Cytochrome P450 Reductase Activity and Increases Lipid Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Fu-Ming; Chen, Mao-Liang; Wang, Lu-Kai; Lee, Ming-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    H-rev107 is a member of the HREV107 type II tumor suppressor gene family and acts as a phospholipase to catalyze the release of fatty acids from glycerophospholipid. H-rev107 has been shown to play an important role in fat metabolism in adipocytes through the PGE2/cAMP pathway, but the detailed molecular mechanism underlying H-rev107-mediated lipid degradation has not been studied. In this study, the interaction between H-rev107 and cytochrome P450 reductase (POR), which is involved in hepatic lipid content regulation, was determined by yeast two-hybrid screen and confirmed by using in vitro pull down assays and immunofluorescent staining. The expression of POR in H-rev107-expressing cells enhanced the H-rev107-mediated release of arachidonic acid. However, H-rev107 inhibited POR activity and relieved POR-mediated decreased triglyceride content in HtTA and HeLa cervical cells. The inhibitory effect of H-rev107 will be abolished when POR-expressing cells transfected with PLA2-lacking pH-rev107 or treated with PLA2 inhibitor. Silencing of H-rev107 using siRNA resulted in increased glycerol production and reversion of free fatty acid-mediated growth suppression in Huh7 hepatic cells. In summary, our results revealed that H-rev107 is also involved in lipid accumulation in liver cells through the POR pathway via its PLA2 activity. PMID:26381418

  18. A novel meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine with constitutive expression of FetA: A phase I clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Marsay, L.; Dold, C.; Green, C.A.; Rollier, C.S.; Norheim, G.; Sadarangani, M.; Shanyinde, M.; Brehony, C.; Thompson, A.J.; Sanders, H.; Chan, H.; Haworth, K.; Derrick, J.P.; Feavers, I.M.; Maiden, M.C.; Pollard, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines are used against outbreaks of capsular group B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) caused by strains expressing particular PorA outer membrane proteins (OMPs). Ferric enterobactin receptor (FetA) is another variable OMP that induces type-specific bactericidal antibodies, and the combination of judiciously chosen PorA and FetA variants in vaccine formulations is a potential approach to broaden protection of such vaccines. Methods The OMV vaccine MenPF-1 was generated by genetically modifying N. meningitidis strain 44/76 to constitutively express FetA. Three doses of 25聽渭g or 50聽渭g of MenPF-1 were delivered intra-muscularly to 52 healthy adults. Results MenPF-1 was safe and well tolerated. Immunogenicity was measured by serum bactericidal assay (SBA) against wild-type and isogenic mutant strains. After 3 doses, the proportion of volunteers with SBA titres 鈮1:4 (the putative protective titre) was 98% for the wild-type strain, and 77% for the strain 44/76 FetAonPorAoff compared to 51% in the strain 44/76 FetAoffPorAoff, demonstrating that vaccination with MenPF-1 simultaneously induced FetA and PorA bactericidal antibodies. Conclusion This study provides a proof-of-concept for generating bactericidal antibodies against FetA after OMV vaccination in humans. Prevalence-based choice of PorA and FetA types can be used to formulate a vaccine for broad protection against MenB disease. PMID:25982025

  19. Baseline Comorbidities in a Skin Cancer Prevention Trial in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Argos, Maria; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Parvez, Faruque; Dignam, James; Islam, Tariqul; Quasem, Iftekhar; Hore, Samar Kumar; Haider, Ahmed Talat; Hossain, Zahid; Patwary, Tazul Islam; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Sarwar, Golam; La Porte, Paul; Harjes, Judith; Anton, Kristen; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Jasmine, Farzana; Khan, Rashed; Kamal, Mohammed; Shea, Christopher R.; Yunus, Muhammad; Baron, John A.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic research suggests that increased cancer risk due to chronic arsenic exposure persists for several decades even after the exposure has terminated. Observational studies suggest antioxidants exert a protective effect on arsenical skin lesions and cancers among those chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water. This study reports on the design, methods, and baseline analyses from the Bangladesh Vitamin E and Selenium Trial (BEST), a population based chemoprevention study conducted among adults in Bangladesh with visible arsenic toxicity. Materials and methods BEST is a 2脳2 full factorial double-blind randomized controlled trial of 7,000 adults having manifest arsenical skin lesions evaluating the efficacy of 6-year supplementation with alpha-tocopherol (100 mg daily) and L-selenomethionine (200 渭g daily) for the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer. Results In cross-sectional analyses, we observed significant associations of skin lesion severity with male sex (female prevalence odds ratio (POR)=0.87; 95% CI=0.79鈥0.96), older age (aged 36鈥45 POR=1.27; 95% CI=1.13鈥1.42; aged 46鈥55 POR=1.44; 95% CI=1.27鈥1.64; and aged 56鈥65 POR=1.50; 95% CI=1.26鈥1.78 compared to aged 25鈥35), hypertension (POR=1.29; 95% CI=1.08鈥1.55), diabetes (POR=2.13; 95% CI=1.32鈥3.46), asthma (POR=1.55; 95% CI=1.03鈥2.32), and peptic ulcer disease (POR=1.20; 95% CI=1.07鈥1.35). Conclusions We report novel associations between arsenical skin lesions with several common chronic diseases. With the rapidly increasing burden of preventable cancers in developing countries, efficient and feasible chemoprevention study designs and approaches, such as employed in BEST, may prove both timely and potentially beneficial in conceiving cancer chemoprevention trials in Bangladesh and beyond. PMID:23590571

  20. Paleoenvironmental implications of taxonomic variation among 未 15 N values of chloropigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Meytal B.; Wolfe-Simon, Felisa; Robinson, Rebecca S.; Qin, Yelun; Saito, Mak A.; Pearson, Ann

    2011-11-01

    Natural variations in the ratios of nitrogen isotopes in biomass reflect variations in nutrient sources utilized for growth. In order to use 未 15N values of chloropigments of photosynthetic organisms to determine the corresponding 未 15N values of biomass - and by extension, surface waters - the isotopic offset between chlorophyll and biomass must be constrained. Here we examine this offset in various geologically-relevant taxa, grown using nutrient sources that may approximate ocean conditions at different times in Earth's history. Phytoplankton in this study include cyanobacteria (diazotrophic and non-diazotrophic), eukaryotic algae (red and green), and anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (Proteobacteria), as well as environmental samples from sulfidic lake water. Cultures were grown using N 2, NO 3-, and NH 4+ as nitrogen sources, and were examined under different light regimes and growth conditions. We find surprisingly high variability in the isotopic difference (未 15N biomass - 未 15N chloropigment) for prokaryotes, with average values for species ranging from -12.2鈥 to +11.7鈥. We define this difference as 蓻por, a term that encompasses diagenetic porphyrins and chlorins, as well as chlorophyll. Negative values of 蓻por reflect chloropigments that are 15N-enriched relative to biomass. Notably, this enrichment appears to occur only in cyanobacteria. The average value of 蓻por for freshwater cyanobacterial species is -9.8 卤 1.8鈥, while for marine cyanobacteria it is -0.9 卤 1.3鈥. These isotopic effects group environmentally but not phylogenetically, e.g., 蓻por values for freshwater Chroococcales resemble those of freshwater Nostocales but differ from those of marine Chroococcales. Our measured values of 蓻por for eukaryotic algae (range = 4.7-8.7鈥) are similar to previous reports for pure cultures. For all taxa studied, values of 蓻por do not depend on the type of nitrogen substrate used for growth. The observed environmental control of 蓻por suggests that values of 蓻por could be useful for determining the fractional burial of eukaryotic vs. cyanobacterial organic matter in the sedimentary record.

  1. ?Cuales son las amenazas o peligros volcanicos?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Bobbie; Brantley, Steven R.; Stauffer, Peter; Hendley, James W., II

    2000-01-01

    Los volcanes son capaces de producir numerosos peligros geologicos e hidrologicos. Los cientificos del Servicio Geologico de los EE. UU. (USGS, por sus siglas en ingles) y de otras instituciones alrededor del mundo estan estudiando los peligros de muchos de los centenares de volcanes activos y potencialmente activos del mundo. Estos cientificos vigilan muy de cerca la actividad de algunos de los volcanes mas peligrosos, por lo que estan preparados para alertar a las autoridades y/o a la poblacion en caso de que aumente sustancialmente la probabilidad de que ocurra una erupcion u otro evento peligroso.

  2. La energia geotermica en la actualidad: Geothermal Today (Spanish version - 2003)

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-01

    Por encargo del Secretario Abraham, la Oficina de Eficiencia Energ茅tica y Energ铆a Renovable suministra el liderazgo a nivel nacional para impulsar las tecnolog铆as de eficiencia energ茅tica y energ铆a renovables, para saltar por encima de las limitaciones del status quo, y para alcanzar beneficios ambientales notables. El Programa de Tecnolog铆as Geot茅rmicas, parte cr铆tica de nuestro esfuerzo conjunto, est谩 avanzando a grandes zancadas para aumentar la viabilidad y el despliegue de electricidad ...

  3. Metabolic activities of metronidazole-sensitive and -resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori: repression of pyruvate oxidoreductase and expression of isocitrate lyase activity correlate with resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, P S; Goodwin, A; Johnsen, J; Magee, K; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S J

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we compared metronidazole (Mtz)-sensitive and -resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori for metabolic differences that might correlate with drug resistance. Included in this study was an isogenic Mtz(r) strain, HP1107, that was constructed by transforming genomic DNA from Mtz(r) strain HP439 into Mtz(s) strain HP500. Enzyme activities were also measured for Mtz(r) strains grown in the presence or absence of 18 micrograms of metronidazole per ml (ca. one-half of the MIC). These studies confirmed the presence of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas, Entner-Doudoroff, and pentose pathways. H. pylori strains expressed enzymatic activities indicative of a complete and active Krebs cycle. All strains expressed pyruvate oxidoreductase (POR) and alpha-ketoglutarate oxidoreductase (KOR) as measured with the redox-active dye benzyl viologen (30 to 96 nmol/min/mg of protein for POR and 30 nmol/min/mg of protein for KOR). When grown in the presence of Mtz at > or = 3.5 micrograms/ml, Mtz(r) strains expressed no detectable POR or KOR activity. The apparent repression of POR and KOR activities by Mtz affected bacterial growth as manifest by extended lag periods and growth yield reductions of > 30%. A dose-dependent relationship was demonstrated between the metronidazole concentration in the growth medium and the specific activity of POR measured in bacterial cell extracts. The observed repression was not due to inactivation of POR by Mtz. In addition to repression of POR and KOR activities, growth in the presence of Mtz also led to decreases in the activities of various Krebs cycle enzymes, including aconitase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase. All of the Mtz(r) strains examined expressed isocitrate lyase and malate synthase activities indicative of the glyoxylate bypass. No isocitrate lyase activity was detected in Mtz(s) strain HP500. Isocitrate lyase activity was expressed by HP500 following transformation to Mtz resistance (Mtz(r) strain HP1107) with DNA from an Mtz(r) strain. The results of this study suggest that Mtz resistance may be a recessive trait, possibly involving inactivation of a regulatory gene, that results in constitutive expression of isocitrate lyase. Repression of POR and KOR activities in response to low levels of Mtz may be a general response of H. pylori strains to Mtz, but only resistant strains manage to survive via activation of compensatory metabolic pathways. PMID:8759844

  4. Fluctuaciones cu谩nticas y cosmolog铆a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetta, E.

    El objetivo de la charla es repasar 1) los motivos para creer que el Universo pas贸 por una etapa inflacionaria antes del per铆odo dominado por la radiaci贸n, durante la cual se habr铆an formado las fluctuaciones primordiales en la densidad de energ铆a que luego colapsaron para formar estructuras cosmol贸gicas 2) los mecanismos que crearon dichas fluctuaciones a partir de fluctuaciones cu谩nticas del campo del ``inflaton" durante dicho per铆odo y 3) los problemas abiertos en el estudio de modelos inflacionarios, especialmente respecto al inicio y final del mismo.

  5. Aplicaci贸n del Teorema de Nekhorochev para tiempos de estabilidad en Mec谩nica Celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; N煤帽ez, J.; Brunini, A.

    En Mec谩nica Celeste, uno de los problemas centrales consiste en la determinaci贸n de los tiempos de estabilidad. El teorema de Nekhorochev proporciona un m茅todo para dicho estudio, para un sistema determinado por un hamiltoniano descripto en las variables acci贸n-谩ngulo. El trabajo consiste en la acotaci贸n tanto del potencial perturbador y de la matriz hessiana del hamiltoniano integrable para determinar luego el tiempo de estabilidad de dicho sistema, donde por estabilidad se entiende la separaci贸n en norma infinito en el espacio de las acciones.

  6. Pasado, presente y futuro de la epidemiolog铆a. Una perspective latinoamericana

    PubMed Central

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Este art铆culo intenta contestar tres preguntas. Sobre el pasado: 驴Por qu茅 no existi贸 una epidemiolog铆a precolombina? Sobre el presente: 驴Cu谩les son los or铆genes de la epidemiolog铆a moderna, incluyendo sus ra铆ces sudamericanas? Y sobre el futuro, escog铆 un t铆tulo surrealista para enfatizar el hecho que estoy consciente de que es siempre delicado hacer predicciones: 驴Por qu茅 fen贸menos complejos son los 鈥渙bjetos oscuros del deseo鈥 epidemiol贸gico? PMID:25124247

  7. Nuevas oportunidades de inmunoterapia dirigida

    Cancer.gov

    Un equipo de investigadores del NCI ha informado que varios tipos de c谩nceres gastrointestinales tienen mutaciones espec铆ficas al tumor que pueden ser reconocidas por el sistema inmunitario, lo que ofrece una posible oportunidad terap茅utica para pacientes

  8. C谩ncer que regresa

    Cancer.gov

    El c谩ncer puede regresar cuando el tratamiento no elimina o destruye por completo todas las c茅lulas cancerosas. Aprenda acerca de los diferentes tipos de recurrencia -recidiva- y c贸mo se vuelve a asignar un estadio al c谩ncer y se da tratamiento.

  9. 76 FR 76948 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Administrative Review, 76 FR 47558 (August 5, 2011) (Preliminary Results), the following events have occurred... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results... strip (PET Film) from India for Ester Industries Ltd. (Ester), covering the period of review (POR)...

  10. 78 FR 48147 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary... film, sheet and strip (PET film) from India for the period of review (POR) January 1, 2011, through... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip, whether extruded or coextruded. Excluded are metallized...

  11. Consistent pattern of elevated symptoms in air-conditioned office buildings: a reanalysis of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed Central

    Mendell, M J; Smith, A H

    1990-01-01

    Published studies of the relation between type of building ventilation system and work-related symptom prevalence in office workers have been contradictory. A reanalysis was performed of six studies meeting specific eligibility criteria, combining published data with unpublished information obtained from study authors. Five eligible studies were from the United Kingdom, and one was from Denmark. Standardized categories of building ventilation type were created to allow comparison of effects across studies. Within each study, prevalence odds ratios (PORs) were calculated for symptoms in each ventilation category relative to a baseline category of naturally ventilated buildings. Air-conditioned buildings were consistently associated with increased prevalence of work-related headache (POR = 1.3-3.1), lethargy (POR = 1.4-5.1), and upper respiratory/mucus membrane symptoms (POR = 1.3-4.8). Humidification was not a necessary factor for the higher symptom prevalence associated with air-conditioning. Mechanical ventilation without air-conditioning was not associated with higher symptom prevalence. The consistent associations found between type of building ventilation and reported symptom prevalence have potentially important public health and economic implications. PMID:2400029

  12. Aspirina y el riesgo de c谩ncer

    Cancer.gov

    Los resultados de muchos estudios en las 煤ltimas dos d茅cadas permiten suponer que tomar aspirina con regularidad podr铆a disminuir en forma considerable el riesgo de padecer c谩ncer o morir por la enfermedad, pero hacen falta m谩s estudios de investigaci贸n.

  13. Atenci贸n m茅dica m谩s importante que la biolo

    Cancer.gov

    Los 铆ndices m谩s altos de incidencia y mortalidad por c谩ncer colorrectal que experimentan los afroamericanos pueden deberse principalmente a las diferencias en la utilizaci贸n de servicios m茅dicos y en menor proporci贸n a la biolog铆a, seg煤n un nuevo estudio

  14. 75 FR 49900 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from Brazil. This administrative review covers one respondent, Terphane, Inc. (Terphane) and the period of review (POR) is November 6, 2008 through October 31, 2009. Given Terphane's failure to respond to the......

  15. Host preference between saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and native non-target Frankenia spp. within the Diorhabda elongata species complex (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since its release in 2001 for the biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp., Tamaricaceae), the leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata (Brull茅) from China, has become successfully established in many locations in the western United States. However, it failed to establish in the southern and western por...

  16. 76 FR 6603 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... Review, 72 FR 52065 (Sept. 12, 2007). The period of review (POR) is August 4, 2004, through January 31... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Thailand. See Certain Frozen...

  17. Biofortified Carrot Intake Enhances Liver Antioxidant Capacity and Vitamin A Status in Mongolian Gerbils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofortification efforts have increased concentrations of bioactive compounds in carrots. Vitamin A bioefficacy and antioxidant potential of four biofortified carrot varieties [purple/orange (PO), purple/orange/red (POR), orange/red (OR) and orange (O)] were measured in Mongolian gerbils (n = 73). ...

  18. Neoplasias mielodispl谩sicas o mieloproliferativas (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca del tratamiento de las neoplasias mielodispl谩sicas o mieloproliferativas, incluso las leucemias mielomonoc铆ticas cr贸nicas o juveniles, y la LMC at铆pica.

  19. La espiritualidad en el tratamiento del c谩ncer (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de la influencia que tiene la espiritualidad y la religi贸n en las personas que tienen c谩ncer. Se discuten varios m茅todos sobre manejo e intervenci贸n.

  20. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  1. The Development of Grammatical Competence through Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiori, Melissa L.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the findings of a study which set out to examine the role that consciousness raising (CR) plays in grammatical development in synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC). Students participated in weekly SCMC sessions. Spanish L2 forms "por/para" and "ser/estar" were chosen, and the data from two groups--form-and-meaning鈥

  2. 78 FR 65272 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012, 78 FR 21105 (April 9, 2013) (Preliminary... during the POR.\\5\\ \\5\\ See Preliminary Results, 78 FR at 21105. Analysis of Comments Received All issues... Assessment Rate in Certain Antidumping Proceedings: Final Modification, 77 FR 8101, 8102 (February 14,...

  3. 78 FR 79665 - Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... Administrative Review; 2011-2012, 78 FR 34340 (June 7, 2013) (Preliminary Results). \\2\\ The Department initiated... during the POR. See Preliminary Results, 78 FR at 34340 n. 4. Furthermore, as we stated in the draft cash... Results, 78 FR at 34341. The Department has conducted this administrative review in accordance...

  4. 78 FR 67112 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of New Shipper Review of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ...The Department of Commerce (Department) is conducting a new shipper review (NSR) of Shijiazhuang Goodman Trading Co., Ltd. (Goodman) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review (POR) of November 1, 2011, through October 31, 2012. As discussed below, the Department preliminarily determines that Goodman has made sales......

  5. Antigenic Variation of the Class I Outer Membrane Protein in Hyperendemic Neisseria meningitidis Strains in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Bart, Aldert; Dankert, Jacob; van der Ende, Arie

    1999-01-01

    Since 1980, the number of cases of meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B isolates with the P1.4 serosubtype has greatly increased in The Netherlands. Screening for this serosubtype in the strain collection of The Netherlands Reference Laboratory for Bacterial Meningitis revealed that a low number of P1.4 strains had been present in the Dutch meningococcal population since 1965. Genotyping of P1.4 strains showed that one cluster of strains, the hyperendemic lineage III (D. A. Caugant et al., J. Infect. Dis. 162:867鈥874, 1990), is responsible for the increase since 1980. The diversity of the porA genes, which encode the P1 protein on which serosubtyping is based, was studied for genotypically different P1.4 strains and for lineage III strains expressing antigenically different P1 proteins. Sequence analysis showed that porA genes of genotypically distinct strains that express antigenically indistinguishable P1 proteins are identical only in the epitope-encoding region, suggesting that this region has spread through the meningococcal population via horizontal gene transfer. Analysis of porA genes of lineage III strains showed that both horizontal gene transfer and partial deletion of the epitope-encoding region may contribute to the different antigenic properties for P1 of these strains. Phase variation of expression of the porA gene seems to account for most nonreacting strains. These results show that serosubtyping may underestimate the rise of a hyperendemic clone. PMID:10417147

  6. 78 FR 56211 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005... transactions during the POR: Amanda Food (Vietnam) Ltd., Anvifish Joint Stock Company, Bien Dong Seafood Co... Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Administrative Review, 77...

  7. Biocombustibles - Duration: 31 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    驴Qu茅 es verde, viscoso y lleno de energ铆a? Las algas, 隆por supuesto! Este biocombustible es apenas una de las muchas energ铆as renovables que estudia la NASA. Los biocombustibles podr铆an generar y a...

  8. Determinaci髇 de par醡etros Post-Newtonianos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, R. B.; Vucetich, H.

    Icaro es un asteroide que, debido a su gran excentricidad, (0.83), puede ser utilizado para verificar la relatividad general. Tiene acercamientos peri骴icos a la Tierra cada 18 a駉s aproximadamente. Los ocurridos en 1949 y 1968 permitieron realizar una primera determinaci髇 de la variaci髇 de su perihelio por efectos relativistas. En 1987 tuvo un nuevo acercamiento que permitir mejorar los resultados existentes.

  9. 75 FR 56989 - Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ...On May 13, 2010, the Department of Commerce published the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on magnesium metal from the Russian Federation. The review covers two manufacturers/exporters, PSC VSMPO-AVISMA Corporation (AVISMA) and Solikamsk Magnesium Works (SMW). The period of review (POR) is April 1, 2008, through March 31, 2009. Based on our......

  10. Dos dosis de vacuna contra los VPH pueden proteger

    Cancer.gov

    Dos dosis de Cervarix, la vacuna contra virus del papiloma humano (VPH), fueron tan efectivas como la pauta normal actual de tres dosis despu茅s de cuatro a帽os de seguimiento. El estudio de vacuna en Costa Rica, patrocinado por el NCI, fue dise帽ado para ev

  11. Preguntas para hacerle al doctor acerca del c谩ncer

    Cancer.gov

    Serie de preguntas, organizadas por tema, que los pacientes con c谩ncer pueden hacer al m茅dico o a otros miembros de su equipo de atenci贸n m茅dica para conocer m谩s acerca de su tipo de c谩ncer y lo que pueden esperar.

  12. El dolor y el c谩ncer (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca del dolor como una complicaci贸n a causa del c谩ncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten enfoques sobre el manejo y tratamiento del dolor relacionado con el c谩ncer.

  13. Prevenci贸n del c谩ncer de cavidad oral y orofaringe (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de informaci贸n revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar c谩ncer de labio, cavidad oral y orofaringe, y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a la prevenci贸n de esta enfermedad.

  14. Fumar durante el tratamiento de c谩ncer (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de la influencia de seguir fumando sobre el tratamiento del c谩ncer y el riesgo de segundos c谩nceres. Se mencionan las intervenciones que estimulan dejar el h谩bito de fumar.

  15. Red Cooperativa de Tejido Humano del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    Bioespec铆menes de calidad son un recurso de investigaci贸n oncol贸gica. Uno de los programas de bioespec铆menes que han operado por m谩s tiempo es la Red Cooperativa de Tejido Humano, ara descubrimientos b谩sicos e investigaci贸n inicial de transferencia.

  16. 75 FR 49893 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ...In response to requests from interested parties, the Department of Commerce (``the Department'') is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The period of review (``POR'') is November 6, 2008, through October 31, 2009. This administrative review covers two......

  17. La espiritualidad en el tratamiento del c谩ncer (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de la influencia que tiene la espiritualidad y la religi贸n en las personas que tienen c谩ncer. Se discuten varios m茅todos sobre manejo e intervenci贸n.

  18. Resultados de estudio para c谩ncer de pulm贸n indica

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del C谩ncer (NCI) da a conocer hoy resultados iniciales de un estudio de gran envergadura sobre m茅todos de detecci贸n para reducir el n煤mero de muertes por c谩ncer de pulm贸n al detectar c谩nceres en estadios relativamente iniciales.

  19. 78 FR 56861 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the Fourth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ...The Department of Commerce (``Department'') is conducting the fourth administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain steel nails (``nails'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ The Department has preliminarily determined that sales have been made below normal value (``NV'') by the respondents examined during the period of review (``POR''), August 1, 2011, through......

  20. Tensi贸n postraum谩tica relacionada con el c谩ncer (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de la tensi贸n postraum谩tica y los s铆ntomas relacionados en los pacientes con c谩ncer, sobrevivientes del c谩ncer y miembros de la familia. Se discuten la evaluaci贸n y el tratamiento de estos s铆ntomas.

  1. 75 FR 29805 - CSX Transportation, Inc. and Delaware and Hudson Railway Company, Inc.-Joint Use Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... additional information regarding the environmental and passenger service impacts of the proposed transaction... proceeding must be sent (and may be sent by e-mail only if service by e-mail is acceptable to the recipient... other person designated as a POR on the service list notice (as explained below, the service list...

  2. 76 FR 34296 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 1040-PR and 1040-SS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 1040-PR and 1040- SS AGENCY... U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 1040-PR, Planilla... dito Tributario Adicional por Hijos para Residentes Bona Fide de Puerto Rico) and Form 1040-SS,...

  3. 76 FR 73017 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... of Review: Revision of a currently approved collection. Title: Form 1040-SS, U.S. Self-Employment Tax Return; Form 1040-PR, Planilla Para La Declaracion De La Contribucion Federal Sobre El Trabajo Por Cuenta Propia-Puerto Rico; and Anejo H-PR. Forms: 1040-SS, 1040-PR, ANEXO H-PR. Abstract: Form 1040-S...

  4. Regulatory control of high levels of carotenoid accumulation in potato tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers contain a wide range of carotenoid content. To decipher the key factors controlling carotenoid levels in tubers, four potato lines (Atlantic, D茅sir茅e, 91E22, and POR03) were examined by a combination of biochemical, molecular, and genomics approaches. These lines...

  5. 77 FR 79 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of the Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ...The Department of Commerce (``Department'') is conducting the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on honey from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period of review (``POR'') December 1, 2009, to November 30, 2010. As discussed below, we have preliminarily determined to rescind this administrative review because we have found the sales made by Dongtai Peak Honey......

  6. Hacer frente - Los sentimientos y el c谩ncer

    Cancer.gov

    El c谩ncer puede causar una amplia gama de sentimientos, ya sea que usted, un amigo o familiar est茅 en tratamiento ahora o que ya lo haya completado. Sugerencias para superar las muchas emociones causadas por el c谩ncer.

  7. Algunos Resumenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-09-01

    La agenda comienza con un resumen de parte dei Director General: estado de los proyectos de telescopios mas importantes, instrumentaci6n futura y otros asuntos. Luego el Director en Chile y el Jefe de TRS describen las condiciones presentes en que se encuentran los instrumentos, los problemas que han surgido y aquellos que se esperan. Luego estos puntos son disculidos por el Comite.

  8. Prevenci贸n del c谩ncer de ovario (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de informaci贸n revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar c谩ncer de ovario, de trompas de Falopio y primario de peritoneo y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a prevenir los mismos.

  9. Estudio muestra reducci贸n de mortalidad en hombres con c谩ncer de pr贸stata de grado intermedio

    Cancer.gov

    Terapia hormonal por corto tiempo administrada en combinaci贸n con radioterapia a hombres con c谩ncer de pr贸stata en estadio inicial aument贸 sus posibilidades de vivir m谩s en comparaci贸n con tratamiento de radioterapia sola, seg煤n un estudio cl铆nico patroci

  10. The effects of telemedicine on racial and ethnic disparities in access to acute stroke care.

    PubMed

    Lyerly, Michael J; Wu, Tzu-Ching; Mullen, Michael T; Albright, Karen C; Wolff, Catherine; Boehme, Amelia K; Branas, Charles C; Grotta, James C; Savitz, Sean I; Carr, Brendan G

    2016-03-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities have been previously reported in acute stroke care. We sought to determine the effect of telemedicine (TM) on access to acute stroke care for racial and ethnic minorities in the state of Texas. Data were collected from the US Census Bureau, The Joint Commission and the American Hospital Association. Access for racial and ethnic minorities was determined by summing the population that could reach a primary stroke centre (PSC) or telemedicine spoke within specified time intervals using validated models. TM extended access to stroke expertise by 1.5 million residents. The odds of providing 60-minute access via TM were similar in Blacks and Whites (prevalence odds ratios (POR) 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000), even after adjustment for urbanization (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.001). The odds of providing access via TM were also similar for Hispanics and non-Hispanics (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000), even after adjustment for urbanization (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000). We found that telemedicine increased access to acute stroke care for 1.5 million Texans. While racial and ethnic disparities exist in other components of stroke care, we did not find evidence of disparities in access to the acute stroke expertise afforded by telemedicine. PMID:26116854

  11. 75 FR 13490 - Certain Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products from the Republic of Korea: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ...: Notice of Preliminary Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 46110 (September 8... Time Limit for the Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 58945 (November 16... assessment''' regulation on May 6, 2003 (68 FR 23954). This clarification applies to POR entries of...

  12. An Analysis of Interlanguage Development over Time: Part II, "ser" and "estar."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntermann, Gail

    1992-01-01

    Follow up to a previous study of the use of "por" and "para," this study analyzes "ser,""estar," and "haber" for lexical selection in relation to their functions and also for errors in tense, mode, aspect, agreement, and invented forms and uses of copula in simplified or reduced utterances. Data were from 20 oral examinations of Peace Corps鈥

  13. Do you really know where this SNP goes?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The release of build 10.2 of the swine genome was a marked improvement over previous builds and has proven extremely useful. However, as most know, there are regions of the genome that this particular build does not accurately represent. For instance, nearly 25% of the 62,162 SNP on the Illumina Por...

  14. C谩nceres poco comunes en la ni帽ez (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca del tratamiento de los c谩nceres poco comunes en la ni帽ez como los c谩nceres de la cabeza y el cuello, el t贸rax, el abdomen, el aparato reproductor, la piel y otros.

  15. C谩nceres poco comunes en la ni帽ez (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca del tratamiento de los c谩nceres poco comunes en la ni帽ez como los c谩nceres de la cabeza y el cuello, el t贸rax, el abdomen, el aparato reproductor, la piel y otros.

  16. Estudio de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud indica que quienes toman caf茅 tienen un riesgo meno

    Cancer.gov

    Los adultos mayores que tomaron caf茅, con o sin cafe铆na, tuvieron un riesgo menor de muerte en general que quienes no tomaron caf茅, seg煤n un estudio llevado a cabo por investigadores del Instituto Nacional del C谩ncer (NCI), parte de los Institutos Naciona

  17. El equilibrio correcto: c贸mo ayudar a los supervivientes de c谩ncer a tener un peso saludable

    Cancer.gov

    Art铆culo sobre las intervenciones que buscan ayudar a los supervivientes a mantener un peso saludable para reducir la recidiva y la muerte por c谩ncer, y disminuir la probabilidad de padecer efectos tard铆os y cr贸nicos del tratamiento.

  18. 76 FR 41452 - Certain Tissue Paper Products From the People's Republic of China; Notice of Rescission of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) is rescinding the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain tissue paper products from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the period of review (POR) of March 1, 2010, to February 28, 2011, with respect to Max Fortune Industrial Limited (Max Fortune Industrial), Max Fortune (FZ) Paper Products Co., Ltd. (formerly known as......

  19. Comunicaci贸n en la atenci贸n del c谩ncer (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos sobre la comunicaci贸n con el paciente de c谩ncer y su familia, incluso los aspectos distintivos de la comunicaci贸n con pacientes de c谩ncer, los factores que afectan la comunicaci贸n y el entrenamiento de las aptitudes para la comunicaci贸n.

  20. 75 FR 76700 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... Kingdom, Taiwan, and South Korea, 64 FR 40555, 40557 (July 27, 1999). These deposit requirements, when..., 75 FR 49467 (Aug. 13, 2010) (Preliminary Results). We invited parties to comment on our preliminary... of subject merchandise during the POR. See Antidumping Duties; Countervailing Duties, 62 FR...

  1. 76 FR 62364 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ...The Department of Commerce (``the Department'') is conducting an administrative review of the countervailable duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks (``Kitchen Racks'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The period of review (``POR'') is January 7, 2009, through December 31, 2009 (see further explanation in the ``Period of Review'' section of this notice). This......

  2. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de c谩ncer (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desaf铆os que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con c谩ncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones t铆picas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones 煤tiles para esas personas.

  3. 77 FR 28570 - Honey From Argentina: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... period of review (POR) of honey from Argentina. See Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 77 FR... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

  4. 75 FR 55307 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Intent To Rescind New Shipper Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ...: Initiation of New Shipper Antidumping Duty Reviews, 75 FR 5764 (February 4, 2010). On February 4, 2010, the... Results for New Shipper Review, 75 FR 38980 (July 7, 2010). Expansion of the POR When the sale of the... 19 CFR 351.214(f)(2)(ii). \\4\\ See Antidumping Duties; Countervailing Duties; Final Rule, 62 FR...

  5. Prevenci贸n del c谩ncer de est贸mago (g谩strico) (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de informaci贸n revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar c谩ncer de est贸mago y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a la prevenci贸n de esta enfermedad.

  6. Primer registro para Peru del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae: Cicadellini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    En este articulo se reporta por primera vez para el Peru una especies del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977, de material procedente del Departamento de Tumbes. El genero ha sido reportada anteriormente de Ecuador, como unico registro para Sudamerica, y America Central. El unico especimen hembra encontra...

  7. 76 FR 29192 - Honey From Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 2655 (January 14, 2011... to the Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). Period of Review The POR is... 7, 2011. The Department clarified its automatic assessment regulation on May 6, 2003 (68 FR...

  8. First report of sooty mold of longan (Dimocarpus longan L.) caused by Tripospermum porosporiferum Matsushima and T. variabile Matsushima in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sooty mold disease on longan (Dimocarpus longan L.) was found on trees growing close to bodies of water in Puerto Rico. On the basis of the morphological characters the fungi associated with this disease were identified as Tripospermum porosporiferum Matsushima and T. variabile Matsushima. T. por...

  9. Fumar relacionado con la mitad de c谩nceres de vejiga en mujeres

    Cancer.gov

    Los fumadores actuales de cigarrillos tienen un mayor riesgo de padecer c谩ncer de vejiga que lo que se inform贸 anteriormente, y ahora el riesgo de las mujeres es comparable al riesgo de los hombres, de acuerdo a un estudio llevado a cabo por cient铆ficos d

  10. Fumar durante el tratamiento de c谩ncer (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de la influencia de seguir fumando sobre el tratamiento del c谩ncer y el riesgo de segundos c谩nceres. Se mencionan las intervenciones que estimulan dejar el h谩bito de fumar.

  11. Monitoring bird population trends in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Bystrak, D.; Geissler, P.H.

    1983-01-01

    Se ofrece un nuevo metodo para computar las oscilaciones demograficas de las aves a lo largo de los anos. Con los datos suministrados por el proyecto 'Aves nidificantes en Norteamerica' , se indican en la Tabla 1 las pautas de cambio numerico de una serie seleccionada de aves holarticas.

  12. Estudio de NIH indica que la actividad f铆sica en tiempo libre alarga la vida tanto como 4,5 a帽os

    Cancer.gov

    La actividad f铆sica en tiempo libre est谩 asociada con una expectativa de vida m谩s larga, aun en un grado de actividad relativamente bajo e independientemente del peso corporal, de acuerdo con un estudio llevado a cabo por un equipo de investigadores del I

  13. Adaptaci贸n al c谩ncer: ansiedad y sufrimiento (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de las dif铆ciles respuestas emocionales que se presentan en muchos de los pacientes con c谩ncer. Este sumario se enfoca en asuntos de la adaptaci贸n normal, alteraci贸n psicosocial y trastornos de adaptaci贸n.

  14. N谩useas y v贸mitos (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de las n谩useas y los v贸mitos como complicaciones a causa del c谩ncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten enfoques sobre el manejo de las n谩useas y los v贸mitos.

  15. Adaptaci贸n al c谩ncer: ansiedad y sufrimiento (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de las dif铆ciles respuestas emocionales que se presentan en muchos de los pacientes con c谩ncer. Este sumario se enfoca en asuntos de la adaptaci贸n normal, alteraci贸n psicosocial y trastornos de adaptaci贸n.

  16. Prurito (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca del prurito (picaz贸n de la piel) como complicaci贸n a causa del c谩ncer y su tratamiento. Se discuten los enfoques del manejo y tratamiento del prurito.

  17. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del c谩ncer como la n谩usea y el v贸mito.

  18. Delirio (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicaci贸n del c谩ncer o su tratamiento. Se tratan enfoques de los cuidados m茅dicos de apoyo y los abordajes farmacol贸gicos para el manejo del delirio.

  19. Complicaciones gastrointestinales (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca del estre帽imiento, la retenci贸n fecal, la obstrucci贸n intestinal y la diarrea como complicaciones del c谩ncer o su tratamiento. Se discute el manejo de estos problemas.

  20. Complicaciones orales de la quimioterapia y la radioterapia (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de las complicaciones orales, como la mucositis y la disfunci贸n de la gl谩ndula salival, que se presentan en pacientes de c谩ncer tratados con quimioterapia y radioterapia a la cabeza y el cuello.

  1. Complicaciones orales de la quimioterapia y la radioterapia (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de las complicaciones orales, como la mucositis y la disfunci贸n de la gl谩ndula salival, que se presentan en pacientes de c谩ncer tratados con quimioterapia y radioterapia dirigida a la cabeza y el cuello.

  2. Complicaciones gastrointestinales (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca del estre帽imiento, impacci贸n, obstrucci贸n intestinal y diarrea como complicaciones del c谩ncer o su tratamiento. Se discute el manejo de estos problemas.

  3. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del c谩ncer, como la n谩usea y el v贸mito.

  4. Delirio (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicaci贸n a causa del c谩ncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten los enfoques de los cuidados m茅dicos de apoyo, asi como farmacol贸gicos para el manejo del delirio.

  5. N谩useas y v贸mitos (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de las n谩useas y los v贸mitos como complicaciones a causa del c谩ncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten enfoques sobre el manejo de las n谩useas y los v贸mitos.

  6. 76 FR 76944 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 76 FR 38609... Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 53404 (August 26, 2011). In a letter dated November 22... administrative review of entries of the subject merchandise during the POR from the following companies:...

  7. Application of a novel regulatable Cre recombinase system to define the role of liver and gut metabolism in drug oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Colin J; McLaughlin, Lesley A; Osuna-Cabello, Maria; Taylor, Malcolm; Gilbert, Ian; McLaren, Aileen W; Wolf, C Roland

    2015-02-01

    The relative contribution of hepatic compared with intestinal oxidative metabolism is a crucial factor in drug oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. Oxidative metabolism is mediated by the cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase system to which cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is the essential electron donor. In order to study the relative importance of these pathways in drug disposition, we have generated a novel mouse line where Cre recombinase is driven off the endogenous Cyp1a1 gene promoter; this line was then crossed on to a floxed POR mouse. A 40 mg/kg dose of the Cyp1a1 inducer 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) eliminated POR expression in both liver and small intestine, whereas treatment at 4 mg/kg led to a more targeted deletion in the liver. Using this approach, we have studied the pharmacokinetics of three probe drugs--paroxetine, midazolam, nelfinavir--and show that intestinal metabolism is a determinant of oral bioavailability for the two latter compounds. The Endogenous Reductase Locus (ERL) mouse represents a significant advance on previous POR deletion models as it allows direct comparison of hepatic and intestinal effects on drug and xenobiotic clearance using lower doses of a single Cre inducing agent, and in addition minimizes any cytotoxic effects, which may compromise interpretation of the experimental data. PMID:25377919

  8. 77 FR 27425 - Floor-Standing, Metal-Top Ironing Tables and Certain Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ...In response to a request from Home Products International (the Petitioner in this proceeding), the Department of Commerce (the Department) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on floor-standing, metal-top ironing tables and certain parts thereof (ironing tables) from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The period of review (POR) is August 1, 2010, through July......

  9. 77 FR 21527 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To Request Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ...; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 77 FR 63 (April 2, 2012). This notice serves as a correction to... International Trade Administration Ammonium Nitrate From Russia: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To Request... of the antidumping duty orders and inadvertently omitted Ammonium Nitrate from Russia, POR...

  10. Prediabetes: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... prediabetes si tiene sobrepeso y 鈥 no realiza actividad f铆sica 鈥 su madre, su padre o alguno/a de ... calor铆as y grasas que consume y realizar actividad f铆sica al menos entre 30 y 60 minutos por ...

  11. 78 FR 17637 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Mexico: Notice of Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Rescission of Administrative Review in Part, 75 FR 20342 (April 19... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Mexico: Notice of Amended... welded non-alloy steel pipe from Mexico. The period of review (POR) is November 1, 2007, through...

  12. Livestock air treatment using PVA-coated powdered activated carbon biofilter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) biofilters was studied using bench-scale biofilters and air from aerobically-treated swine manure. The PVA-coated powdered activated carbon particles showed excellent properties as a biofiltration medium: water holding capacity of 1.39 g H2O/g-dry PVA; wet por...

  13. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of selenomethionine-labelled progesterone 5尾-reductase from Digitalis lanata Ehrh

    SciTech Connect

    Egerer-Sieber, Claudia; Herl, Vanessa; M眉ller-Uri, Frieder; Kreis, Wolfgang; Muller, Yves A.

    2006-03-01

    Progesterone 5尾-reductase is the first stereospecific enzyme in the pathway for the synthesis of cardenolides. To elucidate the structural mechanism of this reaction, we crystallized the selenomethionine-labelled enzyme from D. lanata and report the preliminary analysis of a MAD data set collected from these crystals. Progesterone 5尾-reductase (5尾-POR) catalyzes the reduction of progesterone to 5尾-pregnane-3,20-dione and is the first stereospecific enzyme in the putative biosynthetic pathway of Digitalis cardenolides. Selenomethionine-derivatized 5尾-POR from D. lanata was successfully overproduced and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 71.73, c = 186.64 脜. A MAD data set collected at 2.7 脜 resolution allowed the identification of six out of eight possible Se-atom positions. A first inspection of the MAD-phased electron-density map shows that 5尾-POR is a Rossmann-type reductase and the quality of the map is such that it is anticipated that a complete atomic model of 5尾-POR will readily be built.

  14. 78 FR 48415 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Shipper Reviews; 2011-2012, 78 FR 39708 (July 2, 2013) (``Final Results''), and accompanying Issues and... Shipper Reviews; 2010-2011, 78 FR 17350, 17353 (March 21, 2013). Reimbursement of Duties This notice also... ministerial error.\\1\\ The period of review (``POR'') is August 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012. \\1\\...

  15. Younger poor ovarian response women achieved better pregnancy results in the first three IVF cycles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yajuan; Sun, Xiuhua; Cui, Linlin; Sheng, Yan; Tang, Rong; Wei, Daimin; Qin, Yingying; Li, Weiping; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-05-01

    This retrospective cohort study observed the live birth rates as well as cumulative live birth rates in women with poor ovarian response (POR) undergoing IVF-embryo transfer treatment, stratified for age and cycle number. Four hundred and one patients with POR diagnosed according to the Bologna criteria were enrolled and 700 IVF-ET cycles were analysed. The overall live-birth rate per cycle was 18.3%. From cycle 1 up to cycle 3, the live-birth rates decreased significantly from 22.2% to 11.1%. The live-birth rate fell to 2.4% in cycles 4 and over. When age advanced, the live birth rates decreased obviously (P < 0.01): 30.0% for women <35 years old, 17.0% for those 35-40 years old, and 9.0% for women older than 40 years. Similarly, the cumulative live birth rates dropped from 48.0% (<35 years) to 16.9% (鈮40 years) accordingly. Younger patients (<35 years old) with POR achieved better pregnancy results compared with patients of advanced age. Extremely low live-birth rates could be anticipated after three unsuccessful cycles; therefore it may not be appropriate to suggest more IVF cycles in POR women. PMID:27013080

  16. Peer Observation Reports and Student Evaluations of Teaching: Who Are the Experts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, David; Gross, Barbara L.; Vigneron, Franck

    2009-01-01

    This study is an exploratory inquiry into the perceptions of university faculty regarding two forms of teaching evaluations, student evaluations of teaching (SET), and peer observation reports (POR). Which, if either, better assesses the quality of instruction? Who are the real experts in judging teaching quality: peers who are experts in their鈥

  17. Cometas - Duration: 30 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    驴Sab铆as que los cometas que vemos por el cielo nocturno pueden haber tra铆do hace miles de millones de a帽os, los elementos b谩sicos para la vida a nuestro planeta? 脷nete a la NASA para aprender m谩s a...

  18. La ingenier铆a de la Estaci贸n Espacial Internacional - Duration: 30 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    La Estaci贸n Espacial Internacional es del tama帽o de un campo de f煤tbol americano y pesa 827.794 libras. Entonces, 驴c贸mo hicimos para colocar algo tan grande en el espacio? Pieza por pieza. Quince p...

  19. Restart 68000 vector remapping

    SciTech Connect

    Gustin, J.

    1984-05-03

    The circuit described allows power-on-reset (POR) vector fetch from ROM for a 68000 microprocessor. It offers programmability of exception vectors, including the restart vector. This method eliminates the need for high-resolution, address-decoder peripheral circuitry.

  20. A Road Map for Empowering Undergraduates to Practice Service Leadership through Service-Learning in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Robin Stanley; Chan, Maureen Yin Lee; Ma, Carol Hok Ka; Chan, Carman Ka Man

    2015-01-01

    We present a road map for providing course-embedded service-learning team projects as opportunities for undergraduates to practice as service leaders in Asia and beyond. Basic foundations are that projects address authentic problems or needs, partner organization representatives (PORs) indicate availability for ongoing consultation, students鈥

  1. How Long Is Mono Contagious?

    MedlinePlus

    ... en espa帽ol 驴Por cu谩nto tiempo es contagiosa la mononucleosis? The way mono works in the body is ... Here's how it works: Mono is short for mononucleosis . It is caused by an infection with the ...

  2. "The Way to a Man's Heart." Journey and War Metaphors. Metaphorical Conceptualisations of the Western Romance Model in English and Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Maria Angeles Navarrete

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines two examples of the Western model of romance in English and Spanish discourse: the English metaphor, "the (best) way to a man's heart is through his stomach" (journey metaphor) and its Spanish counterpart, "Al hombre se le conquista por el estomago" (war metaphor). Both central metaphors entail a number of perceptual,鈥

  3. To the Barricades: The Department Head Role in Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannay, Lynne M.; Erb, Cathy Smeltzer

    This paper examines the role of individuals in positions of responsibility (POR) during the implementation of two different curriculum innovations: curriculum integration and performance-based assessment. In addition to addressing the lack of knowledge of department heads' role in implementing innovations, the report explores the effectiveness of鈥

  4. 77 FR 2700 - Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781 (June 28, 2011). The POR was corrected to... Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 53404 (August 26, 2011) at footnote four. The..., 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul Stolz or Eve Wang, AD/CVD Operations, Office 8,...

  5. 77 FR 24464 - Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781 (June 28, 2011). The POR was corrected to... Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 53404 (August 26, 2011) at footnote four. The... Review, 77 FR 2700 (January 19, 2012). We have subsequently determined that we require additional time...

  6. Tensi贸n postraum谩tica relacionada con el c谩ncer (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de la tensi贸n postraum谩tica y s铆ntomas relacionados en los pacientes con c谩ncer, sobrevivientes del c谩ncer y miembros de la familia. Se discuten la evaluaci贸n y tratamiento de estos s铆ntomas.

  7. DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLE-INDUCED EPITHELIAL TOXICITY IS MODULATED BY UV-IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways affecting nearly 20 million individuals in the U.S alone. Asthmatic symptoms can be exacerbated by environmental insults like exposure to particulate matter (PM). Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) account for a significant por...

  8. 76 FR 48802 - Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Notice of Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Determination To Revoke in Part, 73 FR 66218 (Nov. 7, 2008). The period of review (POR) is April 1, 2006... Countervailing Duty Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003). This clarification... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Notice of Amended...

  9. 75 FR 7562 - Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ..., Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review in Part, and Determination To Revoke in Part, 70 FR... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey: Notice of Court Decision... certain steel concrete reinforcing bars (rebar) from Turkey covering the period of review (POR) of April...

  10. 75 FR 8301 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ..., 64 FR 46343 (August 25, 1999). See also Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order on Certain Cut-to... Administrative Review, 74 FR 39921 (August 10, 2009) (``Preliminary Results''). The period of review (``POR'') is... of Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of Administrative Review, 74 FR 60237 (November 20,...

  11. 77 FR 73616 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ...On August 9, 2012, the Department of Commerce (the ``Department'') published the preliminary results of the administrative review (``AR'') of certain cut-to-length carbon steel plate (``CTL plate'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering the period of review (``POR'') November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011.\\1\\ After analyzing the comments submitted by Nucor Corporation......

  12. 77 FR 13534 - Silicon Metal From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...In response to requests from interested parties, the Department of Commerce (``Department'') is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on silicon metal from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The period of review (``POR'') is June 1, 2010, through May 31, 2011. The Department has preliminarily determined that the mandatory respondent, Shanghai Jinneng......

  13. Fruit ripening: physiology, signalling and genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit development and ripening represent the terminal phase of plant development. It is during this phase that fleshy fruits are enriched with sensory and nutritional quality attributes. Fruits are a dietary source of vitamins, minerals and fibre but, due to their short postharvest life, a large por...

  14. S铆ntesis: Resultados iniciales del Estudio Nacional de Ex

    Cancer.gov

    El 4 de noviembre de 2010, el Estudio Nacional de Ex谩menes de Pulm贸ndio a conocer resultados iniciales que indican que hubo 20% menos muertes por c谩ncer de pulm贸n entre los participantes del estudio evaluados con tomograf铆a computarizada espiral de baja d

  15. 76 FR 17819 - Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ...The Department of Commerce (``the Department'') is conducting the first administrative review of the antidumping duty order on circular welded austenitic stainless pressure pipe (``austenitic pipe'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The period of review (``POR'') is September 5, 2008, through February 28, 2010. The Department has preliminarily determined that sales have not been......

  16. BIOPOLYMERS FROM POLYLACTIC ACID AND MILK PROTEINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a commercially available biodegradable polymer derived from lactic acid and is used in many nonfood products as an alternative to petrochemical-derived polymers. However, its physical properties limit its use in many applications. Using dairy proteins to substitute for por...

  17. Good Nutrition Promotes Health: Guide for Parent Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    The purpose of this manual is to guide users of the nutrition education project produced by Padres Hispanos en Accion por Una Sana Generacion (Hispanic Parents in Action for a Healthy Generation). The project provides nutrition education materials to trainers who provide nutrition counseling to parents of Head Start children. The project has two鈥

  18. Aprendiendo de los errores del pasado - Duration: 91 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Fernando Abilleira, analista de trayectoria de la NASA para la Oficina de Exploraci贸n de Marte, comenta por qu茅 el aterrizaje de una nave espacial en Marte requiere una precisi贸n incre铆ble y hasta ...

  19. 78 FR 21107 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey: Preliminary Results... carbon steel pipes and tubes from Turkey (pipes and tubes from Turkey) for the period of review (POR) of... welded carbon steel pipe and tube with an outside diameter of 0.375 inch or more, but not over 16...

  20. Purification and characterization of pyruvate oxidoreductase from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Yakunin, A F; Hallenbeck, P C

    1998-11-01

    Pyruvate:ferredoxin (flavodoxin) oxidoreductase (POR) was purified 3050-fold to apparent homogeneity from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus using ion-exchange, Reactive Red, and gel filtration chromatography. The isolated enzyme was sensitive to dilution and oxygen (especially when in dilute solution). The molecular mass of the native enzyme was determined by high performance liquid chromatography gel filtration to be 270+/-20 kDa. Since a subunit molecular mass of 130+/-5 kDa was found by denaturing gel electrophoresis, POR from R. capsulatus thus appears to be a homodimer. Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis showed that a free radical was formed upon the addition of pyruvate. This POR is shown to be an indiscriminate electron donor causing the full reduction of R. capsulatus flavodoxin (Fld), R. capsulatus ferredoxin I (FdI), R. capsulatus ferredoxin II (FdII), as well as the major plant-type ferredoxin (FdI) from Anabaena variabilis. The purified enzyme can couple the oxidation of pyruvate to the reduction of nitrogenase in a coupled system with either R. capsulatus ferredoxins or nif-specific flavodoxin, NifF; (Fld>FdI>FdII). Immunoblot analysis shows that R. capsulatus POR is constitutively synthesized, with synthesis augmented under nitrogen-fixing conditions (34+/-13%) and decreased in acetate and aerobically grown cells. PMID:9804883

  1. Prevenci贸n del c谩ncer de est贸mago (g谩strico) (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario de informaci贸n revisada por expertos sobre factores que pueden influir en el riesgo de presentar c谩ncer de est贸mago y sobre las investigaciones dirigidas a la prevenci贸n de esta enfermedad.

  2. 76 FR 45775 - Fourth New Shipper Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ...On April 13, 2011, the Department of Commerce (the ``Department'') published the preliminary results of the fourth new shipper review (``NSR'') on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''), covering the period of review (``POR'') of February 1, 2010-July 31, 2010.\\1\\ The Department received no comments on its Preliminary Results.......

  3. Molecular and biochemical characterization of bifunctional pyruvate decarboxylases and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductases from Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga hypogea.

    PubMed

    Eram, Mohammad S; Wong, Alton; Oduaran, Erica; Ma, Kesen

    2015-12-01

    Hyperthermophilic bacteria Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga hypogea produce ethanol as a metabolic end product, which is resulted from acetaldehyde reduction catalysed by an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). However, the enzyme that is involved in the production of acetaldehyde from pyruvate is not well characterized. An oxygen sensitive and coenzyme A-dependent pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) activity was found to be present in cell free extracts of T. maritima and T. hypogea. Both enzymes were purified and found to have pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR) activity, indicating their bifunctionality. Both PDC and POR activities from each of the purified enzymes were characterized in regards to their optimal assay conditions including pH dependency, oxygen sensitivity, thermal stability, temperature dependency and kinetic parameters. The close relatedness of the PORs that was shown by sequence analysis could be an indication of the presence of such bifunctionality in other hyperthermophilic bacteria. This is the first report of a bifunctional PDC/POR enzyme in hyperthermophilic bacteria. The PDC and the previously reported ADHs are most likely the key enzymes catalysing the production of ethanol from pyruvate in bacterial hyperthermophiles. PMID:26032540

  4. Edades relativas de c煤mulos globulares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller Bertolami, M.; Forte, J. C.

    El trabajo de Rossemberg et al (1999), estudia las edades relativas de c煤mulos globulares gal谩cticos mediante el an谩lisis de ciertos par谩metros morfol贸gicos de los diagramas color-magnitud de dichos c煤mulos. Este trabajo se centra en tres puntos: analizar la consistencia de los resultados obtenidos por Rossemberg et al (1999) al emplear observaciones en el sistema fotom茅trico de Washington, m谩s precisamente, las magnitudes C y T1 en lugar de las magnitudes V e I utilizadas por dichos autores. De la existencia de colores integrados, metalicidad y edad (relativa) para 21 de los c煤mulos utilizados en dicho trabajo, se analiza la consistencia de estos resultados con las dependencias de color integrado como funci贸n de la edad y la metalicidad que se desprenden de los modelos te贸ricos de luz integrada por Worthey (1994), Schulz (2002) y Lee et al (2002). Por 煤ltimo se lleva a cabo una breve comparaci贸n de la morfolog铆a de los diagramas color-magnitud de los c煤mulos globulares y de las isocronas utilizadas, a fin de intentar identificar algunas de las posibles causas de las diferencias observadas en los incisos anteriores.

  5. 76 FR 12044 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Preliminary Results of, and Partial Rescission of, the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...The Department of Commerce (``Department'') is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar (``SS Bar'') from India for the period of review (``POR'') February 1, 2009, through January 31, 2010. The Department initiated this review of Facor Steels Ltd./Ferro Alloys Corporation, Ltd. (``Facor''); Mukand, Ltd. (``Mukand''); India Steel Works, Limited......

  6. 78 FR 13322 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...The Department of Commerce (``Department'') has determined that a request for a new shipper review of the antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') meets the statutory and regulatory requirements for initiation. The period of review (``POR'') for the new shipper review is January 1, 2012 through December 31,...

  7. El dolor y el c谩ncer (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca del dolor como una complicaci贸n a causa del c谩ncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten enfoques sobre el manejo y tratamiento del dolor relacionado con el c谩ncer.

  8. Neoplasias mielodispl谩sicas o mieloproliferativas (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca del tratamiento de las neoplasias mielodispl谩sicas o mieloproliferativas, incluso las leucemias mielomonoc铆tica cr贸nica o juvenil y la LMC at铆pica.

  9. Neuropat铆a persistente aumenta el riesgo de ca铆das entre supervivientes de c谩ncer

    Cancer.gov

    Muchas mujeres supervivientes de c谩ncer tienen problemas de movilidad y de otras funciones f铆sicas como resultado de la neuropat铆a perif茅rica persistente causada por el tratamiento de quimioterapia, seg煤n un estudio nuevo.

  10. NCI en el congreso de ASCO: Breve rese帽a de los resultados de investigaciones de c谩nceres en mujeres

    Cancer.gov

    En el congreso anual de la Sociedad Americana de Oncolog铆a Cl铆nica (ASCO) 2014 celebrado en junio en Chicago, se destacaron los resultados de varios estudios cl铆nicos patrocinados por el NCI sobre c谩nceres en la mujer.

  11. Cold Water Fish Gelatin Films: Effects of Cross-linking on Thermal, Mechanical, Barrier, and Biodegradation Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gelatin was extracted from Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) and Alaska pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) skins and cast into films. The fish gelatin films鈥 tensile, thermal, water vapor permeability, oxygen permeability, and biodegradation properties were compared to those of bovine and por...

  12. Nanodisc Films for Membrane Protein Studies by Neutron Reflection: Effect of the Protein Scaffold Choice.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Nicolas; Laursen, Tomas; Barker, Robert; Bavishi, Krutika; M酶ller, Birger Lindberg; C谩rdenas, Marit茅

    2015-08-01

    Nanodisc films are a promising approach to study the equilibrium conformation of membrane bound proteins in native-like environment. Here we compare nanodisc formation for NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) using two different scaffold proteins, MSP1D1 and MSP1E3D1. Despite the increased stability of POR loaded MSP1E3D1 based nanodiscs in comparison to MSP1D1 based nanodiscs, neutron reflection at the silicon-solution interface showed that POR loaded MSP1E3D1 based nanodisc films had poor surface coverage. This was the case, even when incubation was carried out under conditions that typically gave high coverage for empty nanodiscs. The low surface coverage affects the embedded POR coverage in the nanodisc film and limits the structural information that can be extracted from membrane bound proteins within them. Thus, nanodisc reconstitution on the smaller scaffold proteins is necessary for structural studies of membrane bound proteins in nanodisc films. PMID:26172514

  13. Ex谩menes de detecci贸n del c谩ncer de pr贸stata (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de los factores que pueden influir en el desarrollo del c谩ncer de pr贸stata y sobre la investigaci贸n dirigida a la prevenci贸n de esta enfermedad.

  14. J贸venes con c谩ncer y supervivientes participan en estudio de oncofertilidad

    Cancer.gov

    Art铆culo sobre los esfuerzos que se realizan para conectar con pacientes j贸venes y lograr su participaci贸n en estudios cl铆nicos para evaluar y remediar la esterilidad causada por el c谩ncer y su tratamiento.

  15. Observaci髇 solar desde el espacio, resultados recientes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. E.

    Presentaremos un resumen de los resultados m醩 recientes sobre la f韘ica del sol, obtenidos por medio del an醠isis de datos de sat閘ites artificiales como el Yohkoh, SOHO y COMPTON/GRO. En particular, nos referiremos a la acci髇 y din醡ica de los campos magn閠icos en la generaci髇 de fen髆enos activos y el calentamiento coronal.

  16. Supervivientes de c谩ncer en EE. UU. ascienden casi a 12 millones

    Cancer.gov

    El n煤mero de supervivientes de c谩ncer en Estados Unidos ascendi贸 a 11,7 millones en 2007, de acuerdo a un informe publicado por los Centros para el Control y la Prevenci贸n de Enfermedades, CDC, y el Instituto Nacional del C谩ncer, NCI, el cual forma parte

  17. Soluble Synthetic Analogs of Malaria Pigment: Structure of Mesohematin Anhydride [FeIII(MP-IX)]2 and Solution Interaction with Chloroquine

    SciTech Connect

    D Bohle; E Dodd; A Kosar; L Sharma; P Stephens; L Suarez; D Tazoo

    2011-12-31

    Changing the vinyl groups of hematin anhydride to either ethyl or hydrogen groups results in increased solubility (Por=porphyrin). Determination of the weak binding constants of the antimalarial drug chloroquine to dimers of these hematin anhydride analogues suggests that solution-phase heme/drug interactions alone are unlikely to be the origin of the action of the drug.

  18. Genetic Enhancement of Visual Learning by Activation of Protein Kinase C Pathways in Small Groups of Rat Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo-rong; Wang, Xiaodan; Kong, Lingxin; Lu, Xiu-gui; Lee, Brian; Liu, Meng; Sun, Mei; Franklin, Corinna; Cook, Robert G.; Geller, Alfred I.

    2006-01-01

    Although learning and memory theories hypothesize that memories are encoded by specific circuits, it has proven difficult to localize learning within a cortical area. Neural network theories predict that activation of a small fraction of the neurons in a circuit can activate that circuit. Consequently, altering the physiology of a small group of neurons might potentiate a specific circuit and enhance learning, thereby localizing learning to that circuit. In this study, we activated protein kinase C (PKC) pathways in small groups of neurons in rat postrhinal (POR) cortex. We microinjected helper virus-free herpes simplex virus vectors that expressed a constitutively active PKC into POR cortex. This PKC was expressed predominantly in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in POR cortex. This intervention increased phosphorylation of five PKC substrates that play critical roles in neurotransmitter release (GAP-43 and dynamin) or glutamatergic neurotransmission (specific subunits of AMPA or NMDA receptors and myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate). Additionally, activation of PKC pathways in cultured cortical neurons supported activation-dependent increases in release of glutamate and GABA. This intervention enhanced the learning rate and accuracy of visual object discriminations. In individual rats, the numbers of transfected neurons positively correlated with this learning. During learning, neuronal activity was increased in neurons proximal to the transfected neurons. These results demonstrate that potentiating small groups of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in POR cortex enhances visual object learning. More generally, these results suggest that learning can be mediated by specific cortical circuits. PMID:16162929

  19. 77 FR 14495 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... To Rescind, in Part, 76 FR 62356 (October 7, 2011) (``Preliminary Results''). We invited interested... United States during the POR. See Preliminary Results, 76 FR at 62358. The Department did not receive any... Republic of China, 56 FR 20588 (May 6, 1991), as amplified by Notice of Final Determination of Sales...

  20. The Migrant Intellectual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noriega, Chon A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides some background of Efrain Gutierrez's "story" and its relationship to film historiography. Gutierrez is a self-taught filmmaker from San Antonio, Texas, who wrote, directed, starred in, and distributed the first three U.S. feature films produced by a Chicano: "Please, Don't Bury Me Alive!/Por favor, no me鈥

  1. Requisitos para utilizar el enlace | Smokefree Espa帽ol

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan espa帽ol y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la Divisi贸n de Investigaci贸n para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del C谩ncer.

  2. Accesibilidad | Smokefree Espa帽ol

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan espa帽ol y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la Divisi贸n de Investigaci贸n para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del C谩ncer.

  3. Ver Archivos | Smokefree Espa帽ol

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan espa帽ol y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la Divisi贸n de Investigaci贸n para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del C谩ncer.

  4. Los LGBT y fumar | Smokefree Espa帽ol

    Cancer.gov

    En Estados Unidos, las personas lesbianas, gays, bisexuales y transexuales (LGBT) tienen el doble de probabilidades de empezar a fumar que los heterosexuales. Sepa por qu茅 los miembros de la comunidad LGBT fuman y aprenda estrategias para dejar de fumar definitivamente.

  5. Descargo de responsabilidad de Smokefree Espa帽ol | Smokefree Espa帽ol

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan espa帽ol y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la Divisi贸n de Investigaci贸n para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del C谩ncer.

  6. Sobre | Smokefree Espa帽ol

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan espa帽ol y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la Divisi贸n de Investigaci贸n para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del C谩ncer.

  7. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de c谩ncer: funciones y desaf铆os (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desaf铆os que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con c谩ncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones t铆picas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones 煤tiles para esas personas.

  8. 78 FR 4386 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ...On July 16, 2012, the Department of Commerce (the Department) published the preliminary results of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on chlorinated isocyanurates (chlorinated isos) from the People's Republic of China (PRC).\\1\\ The period of review (POR) for this administrative review was June 1, 2010, through May 31, 2011. We invited interested parties to comment on our......

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS AND GIARDIA CYSTS IN DRINKING WATER PALL CORPORATION WPM-1 MICROFILTRATION SYSTEM AT PITTSBURGH, PA - NSF 00/09/EPADW395

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Pall Corporation WPM-1 Microfiltration Pilot System was conducted from February 3 to March 5, 1999. The Pall WPM-1 membrane is a hollow fiber type microfiltration membrane made of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF). It has a 0.1 micrometer ( m) nominal por...

  10. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT XRF TECHNOLOGIES FOR MEASURING TRACE ELEMENTS IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT OXFORD X-MTE 3000TX XRF ANALYZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Elvatech, Ltd. ElvaX (ElvaX) x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer distributed in the United States by Xcalibur XRF Services (Xcalibur), was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The field por...

  11. 76 FR 77485 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... FR 47909 (August 12, 2003). \\2\\ See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 76 FR 17837 (March 31, 2011). \\3\\ See... Results of the New Shipper Review, 76 FR 59658 (September 27, 2011). Period of Review The POR is August...

  12. Ciencia, Sociedad, Soluciones: Una Introduccion al USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2001-01-01

    El USGS sirve a la nacion de los Estados Unidos proveyendo informacion fidedigna para ? Describir y comprender la Tierra; ? Minimizar la perdida de vidas y propiedades por desastres naturales; ? Manejar los recursos hidrologicos, biologicos, energeticos y minerales; y ? Mejorar y proteger nuestra calidad de vida.

  13. Cat Scratch Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Cat Scratch Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Cat Scratch Disease Print A A A Text Size ... Doctor en espa帽ol Enfermedad por ara帽azo de gato Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection that a ...

  14. Estudio del NCI revela que la obesidad extrema puede acortar la esperanza de vida hasta en 14 a帽os

    Cancer.gov

    Los adultos con obesidad extrema tienen mayor riesgo de morir a edad m谩s joven por c谩ncer y muchas otras causas entre ellas, enfermedades card铆acas, accidentes cerebrovasculares, diabetes y enfermedades del h铆gado y los ri帽ones, seg煤n estudio del NCI.

  15. 75 FR 14574 - Lightweight Thermal Paper From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of the 2008-2009...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... FR 56573 (November 2, 2009). The period of review (``POR'') is November 20, 2008, through October 31..., 74 FR 68229 (December 23, 2009). Rescission of Administrative Review Pursuant to 19 CFR 351.213(d)(1... International Trade Administration Lightweight Thermal Paper From the People's Republic of China: Rescission...

  16. La Ciencia y el Laboratorio Cient铆fico de Marte - Duration: 31 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    el robot m谩s nuevo fabricado para Marte es el Laboratorio Cient铆fico de Marte o Curiosity. 隆Se encuentra listo para deambular por el planeta rojo con el mayor y m谩s avanzado conjunto de instrumento...

  17. Aquarius: Tour de la salinidad superficial del mar - Duration: 3 minutes, 18 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Recorrido narrado de la informaci脙鲁n sobre la salinidad superficial de los oc脙漏anos recogida por el instrumento Aquarius de la NASA durante su primer a脙卤o de funcionamiento. Algunas de las caracte...

  18. El nuevo panorama de la Din谩mica Gal谩ctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivovaroff, Michael James

    En general, la tendencia imperante en Din谩mica Gal谩ctica ha sido considerar que los movimientos estelares son b谩sicamente regulares y que el caos no tiene mayor relevancia en los sistemas estelares. Sin embargo, en el 煤ltimo lustro se vienen acumulando pruebas de la importancia del movimiento ca贸tico en ciertos sistemas estelares que existen en la naturaleza. Por una parte, sobre todo el grupo de David Merritt, lo ha mostrado en los casos de galaxias el铆pticas con concentraciones centrales de materia; por otra parte, en nuestro propio grupo, lo hemos mostrado para el caso de los sat茅lites gal谩cticos. Las consecuencias de estos hallazgos son tanto de tipo t茅cnico, por la necesidad de construir modelos que contengan 贸rbitas ca贸ticas, como astrof铆sico, por los efectos del caos sobre la estacionariedad y evoluci贸n de los sistemas estelares en los que se presenta.

  19. Opening Pathways for Vulnerable Young People in Patagonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary Agnes; Hamilton, Stephen F.; Bianchi, Lucia; Bran, Jacqui

    2013-01-01

    New and improved institutions are needed to support the transition to adulthood of vulnerable young people. Existing institutions that should provide that support demonstrate structural lag: they have not adapted to changing circumstances. Action research was conducted in Por un Manana, an employment training program for low-income youth and young鈥

  20. 75 FR 55568 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ...The Department of Commerce (``the Department'') is conducting the first administrative review of the antidumping duty order on laminated woven sacks (``woven sacks'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period of review (``POR'') January 31, 2008, through July 31, 2009. The Department has preliminarily determined that sales have been made below normal value (``NV'') by the......

  1. 78 FR 19209 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ...On January 29, 2013, the Department of Commerce (the ``Department'') published the Preliminary Results \\1\\ of the 2011-2012 administrative review of the antidumping duty order on laminated woven sacks (``sacks'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The period of review (``POR'') is August 1, 2011, through July 31, 2012. We gave interested parties an opportunity to comment on the......

  2. 78 FR 6069 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ...The Department of Commerce (``the Department'') is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on laminated woven sacks (``sacks'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The period of review (``POR'') is August 1, 2011, through July 31, 2012. The review covers one exporter of subject merchandise, Zibo Aifudi Plastic Packaging Co., Ltd. (``Aifudi''). We have......

  3. Neighbors United for Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westhoff, Wayne W.; Corvin, Jaime; Virella, Irmarie

    2009-01-01

    Modeled upon the ecclesiastic community group concept of Latin America to unite and strengthen the bond between the Church and neighborhoods, a community-based organization created Vecinos Unidos por la Salud (Neighbors United for Health) to bring health messages into urban Latino neighborhoods. The model is based on five tenants, and incorporates鈥

  4. La necesidad de cohetes m谩s veloces - Duration: 31 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Los cohetes utilizados por la NASA son excelentes, pero no nos pueden llevar muy lejos ni muy r谩pido a aquellos lugares a los que todav铆a no llegamos, como Marte, o m谩s lejos. Una soluci贸n posible ...

  5. Preguntas y respuestas acerca del Estudio del

    Cancer.gov

    El Estudio del Tamoxifeno y Raloxifeno (STAR, por sus siglas en ingls) es un estudio clnico (un estudio de investigacin conducido con voluntarios) diseado para ver c贸mo el medicamento raloxifeno (Evista) se compara con el medicamento tamoxifeno (Nolvadex)

  6. Impact of long-term measures of glucose and blood pressure on the retinal microvasculature

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Christy L.; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Monda, Keri L.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Mosley, Thomas H.; Klein, Barbara E.; Cotch, Mary Frances; Wong, Tien Y.; Klein, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Objective Retinopathy and retinal microvascular abnormalities are common in adult populations, yet few long-term predictors have been identified. We therefore examined the association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and fasting plasma glucose, assessed over 18 years, with retinopathy and retinal vascular caliber in 2,066 Carotid MRI participants, an Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities ancillary study. Methods Retinopathy and retinal vascular caliber were assessed by retinal photography. Confounder-adjusted weighted regression models were used to examine exposures defined as cumulative, long-term prospective, concurrent, and 18-year change. Results Long-term prospective (prevalence odds ratio (POR) per 10 mmHg: 1.14 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.30)) and cumulative (POR per 10 mmHg: 1.30 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.56) effects spanning approximately 18 years were found for SBP and retinopathy. The strongest long-term prospective association for plasma glucose and retinopathy was identified at the baseline visit (POR per 10 mg/dl: 1.26 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.38)); sustained glucose elevations over 18 years were also associated with prevalent retinopathy (POR per 10 mg/dl: 1.33 (95% CI: 1.24, 1.43)). Results were robust to the exclusion of participants with diabetes. Conclusions Modest and sustained long-term elevations in glucose and blood pressure are associated with retinopathy and retinal vascular caliber. PMID:23102597

  7. Modos de produccion cientifica: Culturas y metodologias de investigacion en la Universidad de Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Ramos, Ana M.

    2004-12-01

    Este trabajo de investigacion supone un modelo teorico de caracter aplicado, que proporciona la oportunidad de evaluar la produccion cientifica de los investigadores. Se encuadra dentro de la tradiccion de la estadistica aplicada y la sociologia del conocimiento. Atiende especialmente a dos conjuntos de temas de interes, por una parte, las caracteristicas principales que determinan el nivel y tipo de produccion academica producida por las unidades de investigacion y por los propios investigadores; por otra, la utilizacion que se hace de los metodos y tecnicas de investigacion puesto que de ello tambien depende el modo de produccion cientifica. Los puntos novedosos de esta tesis son: la medicion cuantitativa del objeto de estudio, la suma de los productos y las condiciones externas a la produccion del conocimiento mas otros elementos internos como las caracteristicas de los investigadores y la metodologia utilizada para desarrollar sus trabajos; y, finalmente, el uso de las nuevas tecnologias. El aprovechamiento de los recursos estadisticos y las fuentes de informacion secundarias se complementan con el diseno propio de una encuesta donde se implementa las caracteristicas descritas en un capitulo anterior sobre los metodos cientificos mas idoneos descritos en los principales manuales y articulos cientificos desde distintas disciplinas de conocimiento. Dicha encuesta ha sido desarrollada como un programa propio y en base a los mas innovadores usos de la tecnologia en la metodologia de encuestas.

  8. 75 FR 6627 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico; Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Intent Not To Revoke Order in Part, 74 FR 39622... Administrative Review, 74 FR 65100 (December 9, 2009). Period of Review The period of review (POR) is July 1... From Mexico; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 73 FR 45708 (August 6,...

  9. 75 FR 51015 - Sorbitol From France: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ..., Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 16426 (April 1.... See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 75 FR 29976 (May 28... France, 75 FR 42380 (July 21, 2010). Consequently, the POR for the administrative review became April...

  10. A Road Map for Empowering Undergraduates to Practice Service Leadership through Service-Learning in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Robin Stanley; Chan, Maureen Yin Lee; Ma, Carol Hok Ka; Chan, Carman Ka Man

    2015-01-01

    We present a road map for providing course-embedded service-learning team projects as opportunities for undergraduates to practice as service leaders in Asia and beyond. Basic foundations are that projects address authentic problems or needs, partner organization representatives (PORs) indicate availability for ongoing consultation, students

  11. 76 FR 40329 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ...The Department of Commerce (``Department'') is conducting the third administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period of review (``POR'') June 1, 2009, through May 31, 2010. The Department has preliminarily determined that sales have not been made below normal value (``NV'') with respect to Ningbo......

  12. Cuidados m茅dicos de apoyo en ni帽os (PDQ庐)鈥擵ersi贸n para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de informaci贸n revisada por expertos acerca de la peculiaridad de los asuntos que surgen durante y despu茅s del tratamiento en los ni帽os con c谩ncer y como sobrevivientes adultos de c谩ncer.

  13. 75 FR 69415 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of New Shipper Reviews and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ...The Department of Commerce (Department) is conducting new shipper reviews (NSRs) of Jinxiang Chengda Imp & Exp Co., Ltd. (Chengda), Jinxiang Yuanxin Imp & Exp Co., Ltd. (Yuanxin), and Zhengzhou Huachao Industrial Co., Ltd. (Huachao) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review (POR) of November 1, 2008 through October......

  14. 77 FR 32517 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel plate in coils (steel plate) from Belgium covering the period of review (POR) May 1, 2010, through April 30, 2011. This review covers one producer/exporter of subject merchandise, Aperam Stainless Belgium N.V. (AS Belgium).\\1\\......

  15. 78 FR 55680 - Small Diameter Graphite Electrodes From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ...On March 8, 2013, the Department of Commerce (the Department) published the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on small diameter graphite electrodes from the People's Republic of China (the PRC). The period of review (POR) is February 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012. For the final results, we continue to find that certain companies covered by this......

  16. 75 FR 70908 - Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 22107 (April 27, 2010). The period of review (``POR'') is September 5... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic... of the antidumping duty order on circular welded austenitic stainless pressure pipe from the...

  17. Structural and regulatory mutations in Vibrio parahaemolyticus type III secretion systems display variable effects on virulence

    PubMed Central

    Calder, Thomas; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Attah, Victoria; Klimko, John; Fernandez, Jessie; Salomon, Dor; Krachler, Anne-Marie; Orth, Kim

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, is a major cause of sea-food-derived food poisoning throughout the world. The pathogenicity of V. parahaemolyticus is attributed to several virulence factors, including two type III secretion systems (T3SS), T3SS1 and T3SS2. Herein, we compare the virulence of V. parahaemolyticus POR strains, which harbor a mutation in the T3SS needle apparatus of either system, to V. parahaemolyticus CAB strains, which harbor mutations in positive transcriptional regulators of either system. These strains are derived from the clinical RIMD 2210633 strain. We demonstrate that each mutation affects the virulence of the bacterium in a different manner. POR and CAB strains exhibited similar levels of swarming motility and T3SS effector production and secretion, but the CAB3 and CAB4 strains, which harbor a mutation in the T3SS2 master regulator gene, formed reduced biofilm growth under T3SS2 inducing conditions. Additionally, while the cytotoxicity of the POR and CAB strains was similar, the CAB2 (T3SS1 regulatory mutant) strain was strikingly more invasive than the comparable POR2 (T3SS1 structural mutant) strain. In summary, creating structural or regulatory mutations in either T3SS1 or T3SS2 causes differential downstream effects on other virulence systems. Understanding the biological differences of strains created from a clinical isolate is critical for interpreting and understanding the pathogenic nature of V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:25288215

  18. Leyendo con tu hijo: Consejos practicos para los padres... (Reading with Your Child: Practical Advice for Parents...).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This brochure (in Spanish) offers some practical tips for Spanish-speaking parents who wish to read to their young children. The brochure first provides general tips, such as "Lea a su hijo en voz alto por lo menos unos 15 minutos todos los dias" (Read to your child aloud for at least 15 minutes daily), and "Estabeleza una rotina y un lugar para鈥

  19. Polvo en la Regi贸n de los Troyanos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilhutton, R.; Brunini, A.; Coldwell, G.

    La posible existencia de un anillo de polvo en la resonancia 1:1 con J煤piter formado por part铆culas provenientes de colisiones de asteroides fue propuesta por Liou and Zook (Icarus 113, 403, 1995) y estudiada extensamente por Vieira Martins and Gomes (VIII Reuni贸n Regional Latinoamericana de Astronom铆a, Montevideo,1995). Si bien las part铆culas quedar铆an atrapadas s贸lo por per铆odos de algunos miles de a帽os, el proceso colisional continuo en el cintur贸n de asteroides mantendr铆a constante la densidad, present谩ndose una mayor concentraci贸n en la regi贸n de los troyanos. En el presente trabajo se presentan resultados preliminares sobre observaciones polarim茅tricas realizadas desde CASLEO de la regi贸n de L5 que confirmar铆an la existencia y variaciones de densidad en el anillo de polvo.

  20. Appreciating the Wobble: Teacher Research, Professional Development, and Figured Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fecho, Bob; Graham, Peg; Hudson-Ross, Sally

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors--the teacher educators who obtained a grant from the Arthur Vining Davis Foundations (AVD)--explore what it meant for teachers and teacher educators involved in the PorTRAIT (Practitioner or Teacher Researchers As Inquiring Travelers) program to enlarge their views of teacher research and their own classrooms by being鈥