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1

Moraxella catarrhalis – Pathogen or Commensal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Moraxella catarrhalis is an exclusively human commensal and mucosal pathogen. Its role as a disease-causing organism has long been questioned.\\u000a Today, it is recognized as one of the major causes of acute otitis media in children, and its relative frequency of isolation\\u000a from both the nasopharynx and the middle ear cavity has increased since the introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal

Christoph Aebi

2

Moraxella catarrhalis - pathogen or commensal?  

PubMed

Moraxella catarrhalis is an exclusively human commensal and mucosal pathogen. Its role as a disease-causing organism has long been questioned. Today, it is recognized as one of the major causes of acute otitis media in children, and its relative frequency of isolation from both the nasopharynx and the middle ear cavity has increased since the introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, which is associated with a shift in the composition of the nasopharyngeal flora in infants and young children. Although otitis media caused by M. catarrhalis is generally believed to be mild in comparison with pneumococcal disease, numerous putative virulence factors have now been identified and it has been shown that several surface components of M. catarrhalis induce mucosal inflammation. In adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), M. catarrhalis is now a well-established trigger of approximately 10% of acute inflammatory exacerbations.Although the so-called cold shock response is a well-described bacterial stress response in species such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis or - more recently - Staphylococcus aureus, M. catarrhalis is the only typical nasopharyngeal pathogen in which this response has been investigated. Indeed, a 3-h 26°C cold shock, which may occur physiologically, when humans inspire cold air for prolonged periods of time, increases epithelial cell adherence and enhances proinflammatory host responses and may thus contribute to the symptoms referred to as common cold, which typically are attributed to viral infections. PMID:21120723

Aebi, Christoph

2011-01-01

3

Moraxella catarrhalis, a human respiratory tract pathogen.  

PubMed

Moraxella catarrhalis is an exclusively human pathogen and is a common cause of otitis media in infants and children, causing 15%-20% of acute otitis media episodes. M. catarrhalis causes an estimated 2-4 million exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults annually in the United States. M. catarrhalis resembles commensal Neisseria species in culture and, thus, may be overlooked in samples from the human respiratory tract. The prevalence of colonization of the upper respiratory tract is high in infants and children but decreases substantially in adulthood. Most strains produce beta-lactamase and are thus resistant to ampicillin but susceptible to several classes of oral antimicrobial agents. Recent work has elucidated mechanisms of pathogenesis and focused on vaccine development to prevent otitis media in children and respiratory tract infections caused by M. catarrhalis in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:19480579

Murphy, Timothy F; Parameswaran, G Iyer

2009-07-01

4

Moraxella Catarrhalis: A Common Cause of Childhood Illnesses  

MedlinePLUS

... Childhood Illnesses Article Body A number of common childhood illnesses, including some middle ear (otitis media) and sinus infections (sinusitis), are caused by Moraxella catarrhalis bacteria. On rare occasions, this same organism may cause a ...

5

Complement resistance is a virulence factor of Branhamella (Moraxella) catarrhalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate complement resistance in Branhamella (Moraxella) catarrhalis isolated from healthy schoolchildren or sputum-producing adult patients. Two techniques were used: a serum bactericidal assay as the gold standard and an easier ‘culture and spot’ test. Children (age 4–13; n = 303) and patients (n = 1047) showed high colonization\\/infection rates with B. catarrhalis (31%

Cees Hol; Cees M. Verduin; Etienne E. A. Van Dijke; Jan Verhoef; André Fleer; Hans van Dijk

1995-01-01

6

Tissue culture adherence and haemagglutination characteristics of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The haemagglutination and tissue culture adherence properties of 20 isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis obtained from the sputum of elderly patients with lower respiratory tract infections were compared with those of 20 isolates of M. catarrhalis obtained from the nasopharynx of elderly persons colonised by the organism. Eighty percent of isolates from the infected group as opposed to 5% of isolates

Margaret Fitzgerald; Susan Murphy; Riona Mulcahy; Conor Keane; Davis Coakley; Thomas Scott

1999-01-01

7

Molecular pathogenesis of infections caused by Moraxella catarrhalis in children.  

PubMed

Moraxella catarrhalis (M. catarrhalis) is a human-restricted commensal of the normal bacterial flora in the upper respiratory tract of children, and - during the previous two decades - has been recognised as a true human pathogen. M. catarrhalis is the third most common pathogen causing acute otitis media in children, which is the most common reason to visit a paediatrician during childhood. Acute otitis media thus causes a high clinical and economical burden. With the introduction of the conjugate pneumococcal vaccines the microbiomic pattern in the nasopharyngeal flora of children has changed, and the frequency of isolation of M. catarrhalis has increased. Compared to adults, children are more often colonised with M. catarrhalis. Over the last three decades there has been a dramatic increase in the acquisition of ?-lactam resistance in M. catarrhalis. Today 95-100% of clinically isolated M. catarrhalis produce ?-lactamase. It is thus desirable to reduce the burden of M. catarrhalis disease by developing a vaccine. There are several potential vaccine antigen candidates in different stages of development, but none of them has entered clinical trials at the present time. PMID:23136074

Bernhard, Sara; Spaniol, Violeta; Aebi, Christoph

2012-10-29

8

Cloning and Expression of the Moraxella catarrhalis Lactoferrin Receptor Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lactoferrin receptor genes from two strains of Moraxella catarrhalis have been cloned and sequenced. The lfr genes are arranged as lbpB followed by lbpA, a gene arrangement found in lactoferrin and transferrin receptor operons from several bacterial species. In addition, a third open reading frame, orf3, is located one nucleotide downstream of lbpA. The deduced lactoferrin binding protein A

RUN-PAN DU; QIJUN WANG; YAN-PING YANG; ANTHONY B. SCHRYVERS; PELE CHONG; MICHEL H. KLEIN; SHEENA M. LOOSMORE

1998-01-01

9

Differential regulation of Moraxella catarrhalis-induced interleukin-8 response by protein kinase C isoforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moraxella catarrhalis is a major cause of infectious exacerbations of chronic obstructive lung disease. In pulmonary epithelial cells, M. catarrhalis induces release of the pro- inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-8, which plays a pivotal role in orchestrating airway inflammation. The present study demonstrated that protein kinase (PK)C was activated by Moraxella infection and positively regulated M. catarrhalis-triggered nuclear factor (NF)-kB activation

H. Slevogt; L. Maqami; K. Vardarowa; W. Beermann; A. C. Hocke; J. Eitel; B. Schmeck; A. Weimann; B. Opitz; S. Hippenstiel; N. Suttorp; P. D. N'Guessan

2008-01-01

10

Genome sequence of Moraxella catarrhalis RH4, an isolate of seroresistant lineage.  

PubMed

Here we report the annotated genome sequence of Moraxella catarrhalis strain RH4, a seroresistant-lineage strain isolated from the blood of an infected patient. This genome sequence will allow us to gain further insight into the genetic diversity of clinical M. catarrhalis isolates and will facilitate study of M. catarrhalis pathogenesis. PMID:23209224

Zomer, Aldert; de Vries, Stefan P W; Riesbeck, Kristian; Meinke, Andreas L; Hermans, Peter W M; Bootsma, Hester J

2012-12-01

11

Molecular mechanisms of moraxella catarrhalis-induced otitis media.  

PubMed

Moraxella catarrhalis is a Gram-negative bacterium, exclusively present in humans and a leading causative agent of otitis media (OM) in children. Most children (80 %) experience at least one episode of OM by their third birthday and half suffer multiple episodes of infection. Over the last 10 years, increased evidence suggests that M. cat possesses multiple virulence factors which can be carried through biologically active outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that are themselves able to activate host-immune responses. It has also been noted that multiple toll-like receptors are responsible for M. cat recognition. This review is intended to summarize the key findings and progress in recent years of the molecular mechanisms of M. cat-induced otitis media with particular emphasis on adhesion, invasion, and activation of the host immune system, biofilm formation, and vaccine development. PMID:23934577

Hassan, Ferdaus

2013-10-01

12

Genome analysis of Moraxella catarrhalis strain RH4, a human respiratory tract pathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moraxella catarrhalis is an emerging human-restricted respiratory tract pathogen that is a common cause of childhood otitis media and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. Here, we report the first completely assembled and annotated genome sequence of an isolate of M. catarrhalis, strain RH4, which originally was isolated from blood of an infected patient. The RH4 genome consists

S. P. W. de Vries; W. Schueler; K. Riesbeck; J. P. Hays; P. W. M. Hermans; H. J. Bootsma

2010-01-01

13

Mining the Moraxella catarrhalis Genome: Identification of Potential Vaccine Antigens Expressed during Human Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 12 September 2007\\/Returned for modification 2 November 2007\\/Accepted 22 January 2008 Moraxella catarrhalis is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults and otitis media in children. Developing an effective vaccine would reduce the morbidity, mortality, and costs associated with such infec- tions. An unfinished genome sequence of a strain of M. catarrhalis available in the GenBank database was

Elizabeth A. Ruckdeschel; Charmaine Kirkham; Alan J. Lesse; Zihua Hu; Timothy F. Murphy

2008-01-01

14

Characterization of proteins Msp22 and Msp75 as vaccine antigens of Moraxella catarrhalis.  

PubMed

Moraxella catarrhalis is a respiratory tract pathogen causing otitis media in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This study examined two newly identified proteins as potential vaccine antigens. Antisera raised to recombinant purified proteins Msp22 and Msp75 recognized corresponding native proteins in multiple strains of M. catarrhalis. Vaccine formulations individually administered subcutaneously and intranasally showed enhanced clearance of M. catarrhalis in a mouse pulmonary clearance model by both routes of administration. Msp22 and Msp75 are antigenically conserved proteins that induce potentially protective immune responses and should be examined further as vaccine antigens for M. catarrhalis. PMID:19786139

Ruckdeschel, Elizabeth A; Brauer, Aimee L; Johnson, Antoinette; Murphy, Timothy F

2009-09-26

15

Immune Responses to Specific Antigens of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis in the Respiratory Tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis are two common respiratory pathogens, colonizing as many as 54 and 72% of children, respectively, by 1 year of age. The immune responses to surface protein A of S. pneumoniae (PspA) and the high-molecular-weight outer membrane protein of M. catarrhalis (UspA) in the sera of various age groups in the general population and in the

TAKAO SAMUKAWA; NOBORU YAMANAKA; SUSAN HOLLINGSHEAD; KARIN KLINGMAN; HOWARD FADEN

2000-01-01

16

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Promotes Moraxella catarrhalis-Induced Ascending Experimental Otitis Media  

PubMed Central

Otitis media (OM) is a polymicrobial disease wherein prior or concurrent infection with an upper respiratory tract virus plays an essential role, predisposing the middle ear to bacterial invasion. In episodes of acute bacterial OM, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most commonly isolated virus and thus serves as an important co-pathogen. Of the predominant bacterial agents of OM, the pathogenesis of disease due to Moraxella catarrhalis is the least well understood. Rigorous study of M. catarrhalis in the context of OM has been significantly hindered by lack of an animal model. To bridge this gap, we assessed whether co-infection of chinchillas with M. catarrhalis and RSV would facilitate ascension of M. catarrhalis from the nasopharynx into the middle ear. Chinchillas were challenged intranasally with M. catarrhalis followed 48 hours later by intranasal challenge with RSV. Within 7 days, 100% of nasopharynges were colonized with M. catarrhalis and homogenates of middle ear mucosa were also culture-positive. Moreover, within the middle ear space, the mucosa exhibited hemorrhagic foci, and a small volume of serosanguinous effusion was present in one of six ears. To improve upon this model, and based on epidemiologic data, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) was included as an additional bacterial co-pathogen via intranasal administration four days before M. catarrhalis challenge. With this latter protocol, M. catarrhalis was cultured from the nasopharynx and middle ear homogenates of a maximum of 88% and 79% animals, respectively, for up to 17 days after intranasal challenge with M. catarrhalis. Additionally, hemorrhagic foci were observed in 79% of middle ears upon sacrifice. Thus, these data demonstrated that co-infection with RSV and NTHI predisposed to M. catarrhalis-induced ascending experimental OM. This model can be used both in studies of pathogenesis as well as to investigate strategies to prevent or treat OM due to M. catarrhalis.

Brockson, M. Elizabeth; Novotny, Laura A.; Jurcisek, Joseph A.; McGillivary, Glen; Bowers, Martha R.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.

2012-01-01

17

Studies into the Genetic Diversity and Complement Resistance Phenotype of Moraxella catarrhalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this thesis was to help define the contribution of\\u000aMoraxella catarrhalis genetic diversity on the ability of the bacterium to\\u000acolonise and cause infection in the human host, as well as to investigate novel\\u000agenes\\/mechanisms associated with isolates exhibiting the complement resistance\\u000aphenotype.\\u000aIn this respect, we show that M. catarrhalis is a genetically diverse organism\\u000ain

J. P. Hays

2006-01-01

18

Multicomponent Moraxella catarrhalis outer membrane vesicles induce an inflammatory response and are internalized by human epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moraxella catarrhalis is an emerging human respiratory pathogen in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and in children with acute otitis media. The specific secretion machinery known as outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) is a mechanism by which Gram-negative pathogens interact with host cells during infection. We identified 57 proteins in M. catarrhalis OMVs using a proteomics approach combining two-dimensional

V. Schaar; S. P. de Vries; M. L. Perez Vidakovics; H. J. Bootsma; L. Larsson; P. W. M. Hermans; A. Bjartell; M. Morgelin; K. Riesbeck

2011-01-01

19

Superoxol and aminopeptidase tests for identification of pathogenic Neisseria species and Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superoxol test, and prolyl aminopeptidase and gammaglutamyl aminopeptidase tests were evaluated for the detection of pathogenicNeisseria spp. using 317 strains ofNeisseriaceae. The superoxol test was positive for all 116 gonococci and 62Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis strains, but also for three strains ofNeisseria meningitidis, one strain ofNeisseria lactamica and eight saprophytic neisseriae. When using strains grown on Thayer-Martin medium, the positive

J. L. Pérez; A. Pulido; E. Gómez; G. Sauca; R. Martín

1990-01-01

20

Human Antibody Response to Outer Membrane Protein G1a, a Lipoprotein of Moraxella catarrhalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 28 April 2005\\/Returned for modification 31 May 2005\\/Accepted 17 June 2005 Moraxella catarrhalis is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and of otitis media in children. Outer membrane protein (OMP) G1a is an 29-kDa surface lipoprotein and is a potential vaccine candidate. The gene that encodes OMP G1a was expressed and

Diana G. Adlowitz; Sanjay Sethi; Paul Cullen; Ben Adler; Timothy F. Murphy

2005-01-01

21

Identification of Gene Products Involved in Biofilm Production by Moraxella catarrhalis ETSU-9 In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moraxella catarrhalis ETSU-9 was subjected to random transposon insertion mutagenesis to identify genes encoding products involved in the ability of the organism to form biofilms in vitro. Screening of approximately 3,000 transposon insertion mutants in the crystal violet-based biofilm assay system yielded six mutants that exhibited greatly reduced abilities to form biofilms. Three of these mutants had transposon insertions in

Melanie M. Pearson; Eric J. Hansen

2007-01-01

22

The macrophage response to bacteria. Modulation of macrophage functional activity by peptidoglycan from Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis.  

PubMed Central

Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis organisms have been shown to be particularly efficient in inducing in a pure population of bone marrow-derived mononuclear phagocytes secretory and cellular activities. In the present study, the ability of peptidoglycan from this Gram-negative organism to trigger a macrophage response was compared with that elicited by peptidoglycan from Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The results show that the three peptidoglycans were similarly active in triggering the secretion of tumour necrosis factor and tumouricidal activity but differed considerably in their ability to induce the generation of nitrite in macrophages; in this respect, peptidoglycan from M. catarrhalis was particularly potent. The impressive capacity of M. catarrhalis peptidoglycan to induce in low concentration the secretion of tumour necrosis factor and nitrite and tumouricidal activity may, in addition to its lipopolysaccharide, contribute to the extraordinary potential of this organism to trigger the functional activities of macrophages.

Keller, R; Gustafson, J E; Keist, R

1992-01-01

23

Comprehensive Antigen Screening Identifies Moraxella catarrhalis Proteins That Induce Protection in a Mouse Pulmonary Clearance Model  

PubMed Central

Moraxella catarrhalis is one of the three most common causative bacterial pathogens of otitis media, however no effective vaccine against M. catarrhalis has been developed so far. To identify M. catarrhalis vaccine candidate antigens, we used carefully selected sera from children with otitis media and healthy individuals to screen small-fragment genomic libraries that are expressed to display frame-selected peptides on a bacterial cell surface. This ANTIGENome technology led to the identification of 214 antigens, 23 of which were selected by in vitro or in vivo studies for additional characterization. Eight of the 23 candidates were tested in a Moraxella mouse pulmonary clearance model, and 3 of these antigens induced significantly faster bacterial clearance compared to adjuvant or to the previously characterized antigen OmpCD. The most significant protection data were obtained with the antigen MCR_1416 (Msp22), which was further investigated for its biological function by in vitro studies suggesting that Msp22 is a heme binding protein. This study comprises one of the most exhaustive studies to identify potential vaccine candidate antigens against the bacterial pathogen M. catarrhalis.

Verhaegh, Suzanne J. C.; Niebisch, Axel; Hanner, Markus; Selak, Sanja; Schuler, Wolfgang; Morfeldt, Eva; Hellberg, Christel; Nagy, Eszter; Lundberg, Urban; Hays, John P.; Meinke, Andreas; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta

2013-01-01

24

BRO beta-lactamases of Branhamella catarrhalis and Moraxella subgenus Moraxella, including evidence for chromosomal beta-lactamase transfer by conjugation in B. catarrhalis, M. nonliquefaciens, and M. lacunata.  

PubMed Central

Two closely related beta-lactamases, BRO-1 and BRO-2 (formerly called Ravasio and 1908), are found in Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis. We screened strains of B. catarrhalis recovered in the United States since 1952 and identified the first beta-lactamase-positive isolate in August 1976. The prevalence of the enzymes among 394 clinical isolates from one Texas hospital has averaged 75% since testing began in 1983. Screening of isolates of Moraxella subgenus Moraxella revealed the BRO enzymes in two other human respiratory tract species, M. lacunata and M. nonliquefaciens, beginning in 1978. A different beta-lactamase with a pI of 6.4 predominated in other species of subgenus Moraxella. BRO-2 had a different isoelectric focusing pattern and was produced in lesser amounts than BRO-1, but the two enzymes were indistinguishable by substrate or inhibitor profile. BRO enzymes from B. catarrhalis, M. nonliquefaciens, and M. lacunata could be transferred by conjugation and, for B. catarrhalis, also by transformation to B. catarrhalis. Plasmid bands were demonstrated in 90% of M. nonliquefaciens and in one previously reported strain of B. catarrhalis, but no change in plasmid profiles was seen in beta-lactamase-positive recombinants, supporting previous studies that suggested the beta-lactamase genes are chromosomal. Images

Wallace, R J; Steingrube, V A; Nash, D R; Hollis, D G; Flanagan, C; Brown, B A; Labidi, A; Weaver, R E

1989-01-01

25

Passive smoking and nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in daycare children.  

PubMed

Exposure to tobacco smoke may be associated with higher risk of nasopharyngeal colonization and infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), Haemophilus influenzae (HI), and Moraxella catarrhalis (MC). This study was done to determine the influence of passive smoking on S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis colonization rates among children. This is a prospective cross-sectional study. Tertiary referral centers with accredited otorhinolaryngology-head and neck surgery and Microbiology Departments. In this cross-sectional study, 2-6 years old children in 10 randomly selected day-care centers in northeast of Iran (Mashad) were studied. Smoking exposure and medical history were recorded. Carriage rates for aforementioned bacteria were analyzed on the basis of smoking exposure. 1,125 children (Female/Male: 597/528) with the mean age of 5.05 ± 0.98 years were studied. Carriage rates of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis among children were 10.1, 8.8 and 6.7%, respectively. Mixed colonization was found in 2.7%. There was a significant difference in carriage rates between children who live in smoking families compare to those with nonsmoking families for M. catarrhalis (P = 0.001) but not for S. pneumoniae, and H. influenza (P = 0.798 and P = 0.117, respectively). It seems exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with increased carriage rate of M. catarrhalis in day-care children. PMID:22033573

Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Naderi, Hamid Reza; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Sotoudeh, Kambiz; Amali, Amin; Ashtiani, Sara Jafari

2011-10-28

26

Hag mediates adherence of Moraxella catarrhalis to ciliated human airway cells.  

PubMed

Moraxella catarrhalis is a human pathogen causing otitis media in infants and respiratory infections in adults, particularly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The surface protein Hag (also designated MID) has previously been shown to be a key adherence factor for several epithelial cell lines relevant to pathogenesis by M. catarrhalis, including NCIH292 lung cells, middle ear cells, and A549 type II pneumocytes. In this study, we demonstrate that Hag mediates adherence to air-liquid interface cultures of normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE) exhibiting mucociliary activity. Immunofluorescent staining and laser scanning confocal microscopy experiments demonstrated that the M. catarrhalis wild-type isolates O35E, O12E, TTA37, V1171, and McGHS1 bind principally to ciliated NHBE cells and that their corresponding hag mutant strains no longer associate with cilia. The hag gene product of M. catarrhalis isolate O35E was expressed in the heterologous genetic background of a nonadherent Haemophilus influenzae strain, and quantitative assays revealed that the adherence of these recombinant bacteria to NHBE cultures was increased 27-fold. These experiments conclusively demonstrate that the hag gene product is responsible for the previously unidentified tropism of M. catarrhalis for ciliated NHBE cells. PMID:19667048

Balder, Rachel; Krunkosky, Thomas M; Nguyen, Chi Q; Feezel, Lacey; Lafontaine, Eric R

2009-08-10

27

Antigenic heterogeneity and molecular analysis of CopB of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis.  

PubMed Central

Outer membrane protein (OMP) CopB, an iron-repressible 81-kDa major OMP of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis has been a major focus of investigation. To assess CopB as a potential vaccine antigen, we elucidated the degree of antigenic and sequence heterogeneity in this protein among strains of M. catarrhalis. Two monoclonal antibodies, 1F5 and 2.9F, which bind to surface-exposed epitopes on CopB recognized 60 and 70% of the strains, respectively. The degree of sequence heterogeneity in CopB was assessed by cloning and sequencing the CopB gene from two different strains of M. catarrhalis and comparing with the published sequence. There was 92 to 96% homology between the sequences at the nucleotide level and 90 to 95% homology at the amino acid level. The variability in the protein sequence is confined mainly to three moderately variable regions. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the CopB genes obtained from 20 diverse strains by PCR was performed. Ninety percent of the potential restriction sites in the constant regions and 47% of the potential restriction sites in the variable regions were present in the 20 strains, indicating that the pattern of variable and constant areas in the CopB gene is a general pattern among strains of M. catarrhalis. We conclude that the CopB gene is largely conserved among strains of M. catarrhalis and contains discrete regions which show moderate heterogeneity among strains.

Sethi, S; Surface, J M; Murphy, T F

1997-01-01

28

Characterization of the molecular interplay between Moraxella catarrhalis and human respiratory tract epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Moraxella catarrhalis is a mucosal pathogen that causes childhood otitis media and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. During the course of infection, M. catarrhalis needs to adhere to epithelial cells of different host niches such as the nasopharynx and lungs, and consequently, efficient adhesion to epithelial cells is considered an important virulence trait of M. catarrhalis. By using Tn-seq, a genome-wide negative selection screenings technology, we identified 15 genes potentially required for adherence of M. catarrhalis BBH18 to pharyngeal epithelial Detroit 562 and lung epithelial A549 cells. Validation with directed deletion mutants confirmed the importance of aroA (3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyl-transferase), ecnAB (entericidin EcnAB), lgt1 (glucosyltransferase), and MCR_1483 (outer membrane lipoprotein) for cellular adherence, with ?MCR_1483 being most severely attenuated in adherence to both cell lines. Expression profiling of M. catarrhalis BBH18 during adherence to Detroit 562 cells showed increased expression of 34 genes in cell-attached versus planktonic bacteria, among which ABC transporters for molybdate and sulfate, while reduced expression of 16 genes was observed. Notably, neither the newly identified genes affecting adhesion nor known adhesion genes were differentially expressed during adhesion, but appeared to be constitutively expressed at a high level. Profiling of the transcriptional response of Detroit 562 cells upon adherence of M. catarrhalis BBH18 showed induction of a panel of pro-inflammatory genes as well as genes involved in the prevention of damage of the epithelial barrier. In conclusion, this study provides new insight into the molecular interplay between M. catarrhalis and host epithelial cells during the process of adherence. PMID:23936538

de Vries, Stefan P W; Eleveld, Marc J; Hermans, Peter W M; Bootsma, Hester J

2013-08-06

29

Identification of Gene Products Involved in the Oxidative Stress Response of Moraxella catarrhalis ? †  

PubMed Central

Moraxella catarrhalis is subjected to oxidative stress from both internal and environmental sources. A previous study (C. D. Pericone, K. Overweg, P. W. Hermans, and J. N. Weiser, Infect. Immun. 68:3990-3997, 2000) indicated that a wild-type strain of M. catarrhalis was very resistant to killing by exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The gene encoding OxyR, a LysR family transcriptional regulator, was identified and inactivated in M. catarrhalis strain O35E, resulting in an increase in sensitivity to killing by H2O2 in disk diffusion assays and a concomitant aerobic serial dilution effect. Genes encoding a predicted catalase (KatA) and an alkyl hydroperoxidase (AhpCF) showed dose-dependent upregulation in wild-type cells exposed to H2O2. DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analyses identified M. catarrhalis genes whose expression was affected by oxidative stress in an OxyR-dependent manner. Testing of M. catarrhalis O35E katA and ahpC mutants for their abilities to scavenge exogenous H2O2 showed that the KatA catalase was responsible for most of this activity in the wild-type parent strain. The introduction of the same mutations into M. catarrhalis strain ETSU-4 showed that the growth of a ETSU-4 katA mutant was markedly inhibited by the addition of 50 mM H2O2 but that this mutant could still form a biofilm equivalent to that produced by its wild-type parent strain.

Hoopman, Todd C.; Liu, Wei; Joslin, Stephanie N.; Pybus, Christine; Brautigam, Chad A.; Hansen, Eric J.

2011-01-01

30

Temporal development of the humoral immune response to surface antigens of Moraxella catarrhalis in young infants.  

PubMed

The primary Moraxella catarrhalis-specific humoral immune response, and its association with nasopharyngeal colonization, was studied in a cohort of infants from birth to 2 years of age. Results indicated that the levels of antigen-specific IgG, IgA and IgM showed extensive inter-individual variability over time, with IgM and IgA levels to all 9 recombinant domains, from 7 different OMPs, being relatively low throughout the study period. In contrast, the level of antigen-specific IgG was significantly higher for the recombinant domains Hag³?????³, MID?????¹³, MID??²?¹²??, UspA1??????? and UspA2¹???³¹? in cord blood compared to 6 months of age (P ? 0.001). This was a most likely a consequence of maternal transmission of antigen-specific IgG to newborn babies, possibly indicating a future role for these 3 surface antigens in the development of an effective humoral immune response to M. catarrhalis. Finally, at 2 years of age, the levels of antigen-specific IgG still remained far below that obtained from cord blood samples, indicating that the immune response to M. catarrhalis has not matured at 2 years of age. We provide evidence that a humoral antibody response to OMPs UspA1, UspA2 and Hag/MID may play a role in the immune response to community acquired M. catarrhalis colonization events. PMID:21704103

Verhaegh, Suzanne J C; de Vogel, Corné P; Riesbeck, Kristian; Lafontaine, Eric R; Murphy, Timothy F; Verbrugh, Henri A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Moll, Henriëtte A; van Belkum, Alex; Hays, John P

2011-06-23

31

C4-Alkylthiols with activity against Moraxella catarrhalis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial resistance represents a global threat to healthcare. The ability to adequately treat infectious diseases is increasingly under siege due to the emergence of drug-resistant microorganisms. New approaches to drug development are especially needed to target organisms that exhibit broad antibiotic resistance due to expression of ?-lactamases which is the most common mechanism by which bacteria become resistant to ?-lactam antibiotics. We designed and synthesized 20 novel monocyclic ?-lactams with alkyl- and aryl-thio moieties at C4, and subsequently tested these for antibacterial activity. These compounds demonstrated intrinsic activity against serine ?-lactamase producing Mycobacterium tuberculosis wild type strain (Mtb) and multiple (n = 6) ?-lactamase producing Moraxella catarrhalis clinical isolates.

Kostova, Maya B.; Myers, Carey J.; Beck, Tim N.; Plotkin, Balbina J.; Green, Jacalyn M.; Boshoff, Helena I.M.; Barry, Clifton E.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Konaklieva, Monika I.

2013-01-01

32

Moraxella catarrhalis outer membrane vesicles carry ?-lactamase and promote survival of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae by inactivating amoxicillin.  

PubMed

Moraxella catarrhalis is a common pathogen found in children with upper respiratory tract infections and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during exacerbations. The bacterial species is often isolated together with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are released by M. catarrhalis and contain phospholipids, adhesins, and immunomodulatory compounds such as lipooligosaccharide. We have recently shown that M. catarrhalis OMVs exist in patients upon nasopharyngeal colonization. As virtually all M. catarrhalis isolates are ?-lactamase positive, the goal of this study was to investigate whether M. catarrhalis OMVs carry ?-lactamase and to analyze if OMV consequently can prevent amoxicillin-induced killing. Recombinant ?-lactamase was produced and antibodies were raised in rabbits. Transmission electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and Western blotting verified that OMVs carried ?-lactamase. Moreover, enzyme assays revealed that M. catarrhalis OMVs contained active ?-lactamase. OMVs (25 ?g/ml) incubated with amoxicillin for 1 h completely hydrolyzed amoxicillin at concentrations up to 2.5 ?g/ml. In functional experiments, preincubation of amoxicillin (10× MIC) with M. catarrhalis OMVs fully rescued amoxicillin-susceptible M. catarrhalis, S. pneumoniae, and type b or nontypeable H. influenzae from ?-lactam-induced killing. Our results suggest that the presence of amoxicillin-resistant M. catarrhalis originating from ?-lactamase-containing OMVs may pave the way for respiratory pathogens that by definition are susceptible to ?-lactam antibiotics. PMID:21576428

Schaar, Viveka; Nordström, Therése; Mörgelin, Matthias; Riesbeck, Kristian

2011-05-16

33

Genetic requirements for Moraxella catarrhalis growth under iron-limiting conditions.  

PubMed

Iron sequestration by the human host is a first line defence against respiratory pathogens like Moraxella catarrhalis, which consequently experiences a period of iron starvation during colonization. We determined the genetic requirements for M.?catarrhalis BBH18 growth during iron starvation using the high-throughput genome-wide screening technology genomic array footprinting (GAF). By subjecting a large random transposon mutant library to growth under iron-limiting conditions, mutants of the MCR_0996-rhlB-yggW operon, rnd, and MCR_0457 were negatively selected. Growth experiments using directed mutants confirmed the GAF phenotypes with ?yggW (putative haem-shuttling protein) and ?MCR_0457 (hypothetical protein) most severely attenuated during iron starvation, phenotypes which were restored upon genetic complementation of the deleted genes. Deletion of yggW resulted in similar attenuated phenotypes in three additional strains. Transcriptional profiles of ?yggW and ?MCR_0457 were highly altered with 393 and 192 differentially expressed genes respectively. In all five mutants, expression of nitrate reductase genes was increased and of nitrite reductase decreased, suggesting an impaired aerobic respiration. Alteration of iron metabolism may affect nasopharyngeal colonization as adherence of all mutants to respiratory tract epithelial cells was attenuated. In conclusion, we elucidated the genetic requirements for M.?catarrhalis growth during iron starvation and characterized the roles of the identified genes in bacterial growth and host interaction. PMID:23163337

de Vries, Stefan P W; Burghout, Peter; Langereis, Jeroen D; Zomer, Aldert; Hermans, Peter W M; Bootsma, Hester J

2012-11-19

34

Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis: A Prospective Study in Murcia, Spain, 1983-1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prospectively determined the role of commonly used antibiotics in the emergence of antimicrobial resistance among the predominant pathogens associated with the respiratory tract. Clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis from otic exudates, exudates obtained by puncture of the paranasal sinuses, sputum samples or blood cultures obtained from hospital inpatients with symptoms of significant upper or

J. Gómez; J. Ruiz-Gómez; J. L. Hernández-Cardond; M. L. Núnez; M. Canteras; M. Valdés

1994-01-01

35

Moraxella catarrhalis M35 Is a General Porin That Is Important for Growth under Nutrient-Limiting Conditions and in the Nasopharynges of Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moraxella catarrhalis is a gram-negative respiratory pathogen that is an important causative agent for otitis media and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We have previously predicted the outer membrane protein M35 to be a general porin, and in the current study, we have investigated the function of M35 and its importance for survival of M. catarrhalis in vivo. Lipid

Donna M. Easton; Elke Maier; Roland Benz; A. Ruth Foxwell; Allan W. Cripps; Jennelle M. Kyd

2008-01-01

36

Effect of Pneumococcal Vaccination on Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus in Fijian Children  

PubMed Central

The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) reduces carriage of vaccine type Streptococcus pneumoniae but leads to replacement by nonvaccine serotypes and may affect carriage of other respiratory pathogens. We investigated nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus in Fijian infants participating in a pneumococcal vaccine trial using quantitative PCR. Vaccination did not affect pathogen carriage rates or densities, whereas significant differences between the two major ethnic groups were observed.

Manning, Jayne; Russell, Fiona M.; Robins-Browne, Roy M.; Mulholland, E. Kim; Satzke, Catherine

2012-01-01

37

Nasopharyngeal colonization by Moraxella catarrhalis and study of antimicrobial susceptibility in healthy children from Cuban day-care centers.  

PubMed

The prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of Moraxella catarrhalis was determined for the first time in Cuba. One-hundred fifty healthy children attending three day-care centers in the municipality of Marianao, Havana City were studied. The percentage of recovering bacteria in nasal and pharyngeal swabs was compared. Antimicrobial susceptibilities to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, azithromycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, and norfloxacin were determined by the disk diffusion method according to recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Sixty-five percent of the children studied carried Moraxella catarrhalis. The nasal cavity was the main isolation site for this organism (81% of positive cultures). Most strains were highly susceptible to the antimicrobial agents tested, except to ampicillin (53.6% resistance). This study provides evidence of the need for continued surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of Moraxella catarrhali, in order to determine optimal empiric therapy for community-acquired respiratory tract infections produced by this pathogen. PMID:15778001

Quiñones, Dianelys; Llanes, Rafael; Toraño, Gilda; Pérez, Miriam

38

Enhancement of pulmonary clearance of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis following immunization with outer membrane protein CD in a mouse model.  

PubMed

Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis is an important human respiratory tract pathogen. Outer membrane protein (OMP) CD is highly conserved among strains and has characteristics that indicate it may be an effective vaccine antigen. This study investigated the effect of immunization with OMP CD on pulmonary clearance following intratracheal challenge of mice with M. catarrhalis. Two routes of immunization were studied: mucosal immunization (intra-Peyer's patch followed by intratracheal boost) and intramuscular immunization with OMP CD. Both resulted in enhanced pulmonary clearance of M. catarrhalis compared with sham-immunized controls. Immunization with OMP CD induced specific antibodies in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and induced a specific lymphocyte proliferative response in T cells from mesenteric lymph nodes from mice mucosally immunized with OMP CD. On the basis of these results, OMP CD should undergo continued testing to determine whether it will induce a protective immune response in humans. PMID:9815219

Murphy, T F; Kyd, J M; John, A; Kirkham, C; Cripps, A W

1998-12-01

39

Antimicrobial activity of innate immune molecules against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae  

PubMed Central

Background Despite its direct connection to the nasopharynx which harbors otitis media pathogens as part of its normal flora, the middle ear cavity is kept free of these bacteria by as yet unknown mechanisms. Respiratory mucosal epithelia, including those of the middle ear and eustachian tube, secrete antimicrobial effectors including lysozyme, lactoferrin and ? defensins-1 and -2. To elucidate the role of these innate immune molecules in the normal defense and maintenance of sterility of respiratory mucosa such as that of the middle ear, we assessed their effect on the respiratory pathogens nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) 12, Moraxella catarrhalis 035E, and Streptococcus pneumoniae 3, and 6B. Methods Two assay methods, the radial assay and the liquid broth assay, were employed for testing the antimicrobial activity of the molecules. This was done in order to minimize the possibility that the observed effects were artifacts of any single assay system employed. Also, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was employed to evaluate the effect of antimicrobial innate immune molecules on OM pathogens. For the statistical analysis of the data, Student's t-test was performed. Results Results of the radial diffusion assay showed that ? defensin-2 was active against all four OM pathogens tested, while treatment with ? defensin-1 appeared to only affect M. catarrhalis. The radial assay results also showed that lysozyme was quite effective against S. pneumoniae 3 and 6B and was partially bacteriostatic/bactericidal against M. catarrhalis. Lysozyme however, appeared not to affect the growth of NTHi. Thus, lysozyme seems to have a more pronounced impact on the growth of the Gram-positive S. pneumoniae as compared to that of Gram-negative pathogens. Lactoferrin on the other hand, enhanced the growth of the bacteria tested. The results of the radial assays were confirmed using liquid broth assays for antimicrobial activity, and showed that lysozyme and ? defensin-2 could act synergistically against S. pneumoniae 6B. Moreover, in the liquid broth assay, ? defensin-1 showed a modest inhibitory effect on the growth of S. pneumoniae 6B. As assessed by ultrastructural analysis, lysozyme and ? defensin-2, and to a much lesser extent, ? defensin-1, appeared to be able to cause damage to the bacterial membranes. Conclusions Here we report that lysozyme and the ? defensins can inhibit the growth of clinical isolates of otitis media pathogens – namely NTHi strain 12, S. pneumoniae strains 3 and 6B and M. catarrhalis strain 035E – and cause ultrastructural damage to these pathogens. Moreover, we demonstrate that lysozyme and ? defensin-2 can act synergistically against S. pneumoniae. These findings are consistent with the concept that secreted antimicrobial peptides and other components of innate immunity constitute the first line of defense protecting host mucosal surfaces, including the tubotympanal (eustachian tube and middle ear cavity) mucosa, against pathogens.

Lee, Haa-Yung; Andalibi, Ali; Webster, Paul; Moon, Sung-Kyun; Teufert, Karen; Kang, Sung-Ho; Li, Jian-Dong; Nagura, Mitsuyoshi; Ganz, Tomas; Lim, David J

2004-01-01

40

Multicomponent Moraxella catarrhalis outer membrane vesicles induce an inflammatory response and are internalized by human epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Moraxella catarrhalis is an emerging human respiratory pathogen in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and in children with acute otitis media. The specific secretion machinery known as outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) is a mechanism by which Gram-negative pathogens interact with host cells during infection. We identified 57 proteins in M. catarrhalis OMVs using a proteomics approach combining two-dimensional SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis. The OMVs contained known surface proteins such as ubiquitous surface proteins (Usp) A1/A2, and Moraxella IgD-binding protein (MID). Most of the proteins are adhesins/virulence factors triggering the immune response, but also aid bacteria to evade the host defence. FITC-stained OMVs bound to lipid raft domains in alveolar epithelial cells and were internalized after interaction with Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), suggesting a delivery to the host tissue of a large and complex group of OMV-attributed proteins. Interestingly, OMVs modulated the pro-inflammatory response in epithelial cells, and UspA1-bearing OMVs were found to specifically downregulate the reaction. When mice were exposed to OMVs, a pulmonary inflammation was clearly seen. Our findings indicate that Moraxella OMVs are highly biologically active, transport main bacterial virulence factors and may modulate the epithelial pro-inflammatory response. PMID:21044239

Schaar, Viveka; de Vries, Stefan P W; Perez Vidakovics, Maria Laura A; Bootsma, Hester J; Larsson, Lennart; Hermans, Peter W M; Bjartell, Anders; Mörgelin, Matthias; Riesbeck, Kristian

2010-11-24

41

Inactivation of the Moraxella catarrhalis Superoxide Dismutase SodA Induces Constitutive Expression of Iron-Repressible Outer Membrane Proteins  

PubMed Central

Many pathogens produce one or more superoxide dismutases (SODs), enzymes involved in the detoxification of endogenous and exogenous reactive oxygen species that are encountered during the infection process. One detectable cytoplasmic SOD was identified in the human mucosal pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis, and the gene responsible for the SOD activity, sodA, was isolated from a recent pediatric clinical isolate (strain 7169). Sequence analysis of the cloned M. catarrhalis 7169 DNA fragment revealed an open reading frame of 618 bp encoding a polypeptide of 205 amino acids with 48 to 67% identity to known bacterial manganese-cofactored SODs. An isogenic M. catarrhalis sodA mutant was constructed in strain 7169 by allelic exchange. In contrast to the wild-type 7169, the 7169::sodK20 mutant was severely attenuated for aerobic growth, even in rich medium containing supplemental amino acids, and exhibited extreme sensitivity to the redox-active agent methyl viologen. The ability of recombinant SodA to rescue the aerobic growth defects of E. coli QC774, a sodA sodB-deficient mutant, demonstrated the functional expression of SOD activity by cloned M. catarrhalis sodA. Indirect SOD detection assays were used to visualize both native and recombinant SodA activity in bacterial lysates. This study demonstrates that M. catarrhalis SodA plays a critical role in the detoxification of endogenous, metabolically produced oxygen radicals. In addition, the outer membrane protein (OMP) profile of 7169::sodK20 was consistent with iron starvation in spite of growth under iron-replete conditions. This novel observation indicates that M. catarrhalis strains lacking SodA constitutively express immunogenic OMPs previously described as iron repressible, and this potentially attenuated mutant strain may be an attractive vaccine candidate.

Luke, Nicole R.; Karalus, Richard J.; Campagnari, Anthony A.

2002-01-01

42

Differential virulence gene expression of group A Streptococcus serotype M3 in response to co-culture with Moraxella catarrhalis.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus, GAS) and Moraxella catarrhalis are important colonizers and (opportunistic) pathogens of the human respiratory tract. However, current knowledge regarding colonization and pathogenic potential of these two pathogens is based on work involving single bacterial species, even though the interplay between respiratory bacterial species is increasingly important in niche occupation and the development of disease. Therefore, to further define and understand polymicrobial species interactions, we investigated whether gene expression (and hence virulence potential) of GAS would be affected upon co-culture with M. catarrhalis. For co-culture experiments, GAS and M. catarrhalis were cultured in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with 0.2% yeast extract (THY) at 37°C with 5% CO2 aeration. Each strain was grown in triplicate so that triplicate experiments could be performed. Bacterial RNA was isolated, cDNA synthesized, and microarray transcriptome expression analysis performed. We observed significantly increased (?4-fold) expression for genes playing a role in GAS virulence such as hyaluronan synthase (hasA), streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z (smeZ) and IgG endopeptidase (ideS). In contrast, significantly decreased (?4-fold) expression was observed in genes involved in energy metabolism and in 12 conserved GAS two-component regulatory systems. This study provides the first evidence that M. catarrhalis increases GAS virulence gene expression during co-culture, and again shows the importance of polymicrobial infections in directing bacterial virulence. PMID:23626831

Verhaegh, Suzanne J C; Flores, Anthony R; van Belkum, Alex; Musser, James M; Hays, John P

2013-04-23

43

Differential Virulence Gene Expression of Group A Streptococcus Serotype M3 in Response to Co-Culture with Moraxella catarrhalis  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus, GAS) and Moraxella catarrhalis are important colonizers and (opportunistic) pathogens of the human respiratory tract. However, current knowledge regarding colonization and pathogenic potential of these two pathogens is based on work involving single bacterial species, even though the interplay between respiratory bacterial species is increasingly important in niche occupation and the development of disease. Therefore, to further define and understand polymicrobial species interactions, we investigated whether gene expression (and hence virulence potential) of GAS would be affected upon co-culture with M. catarrhalis. For co-culture experiments, GAS and M. catarrhalis were cultured in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with 0.2% yeast extract (THY) at 37°C with 5% CO2 aeration. Each strain was grown in triplicate so that triplicate experiments could be performed. Bacterial RNA was isolated, cDNA synthesized, and microarray transcriptome expression analysis performed. We observed significantly increased (?4-fold) expression for genes playing a role in GAS virulence such as hyaluronan synthase (hasA), streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z (smeZ) and IgG endopeptidase (ideS). In contrast, significantly decreased (?4-fold) expression was observed in genes involved in energy metabolism and in 12 conserved GAS two-component regulatory systems. This study provides the first evidence that M. catarrhalis increases GAS virulence gene expression during co-culture, and again shows the importance of polymicrobial infections in directing bacterial virulence.

Verhaegh, Suzanne J. C.; Flores, Anthony R.; van Belkum, Alex; Musser, James M.; Hays, John P.

2013-01-01

44

Development of a Disk Diffusion Method for Testing Moraxella catarrhalis Susceptibility Using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute Methods: a SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moraxella catarrhalis susceptibility. We examined 318 clinical strains of M. catarrhalis obtained as part of the SENTRY (Asia-Pacific) Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, plus two ATCC strains. MICs were determined by the CLSI standard broth microdilution method, and zone diameters were determined on Mueller-Hinton agar incubated in 5% CO2. All strains were examined for the presence of BRO-1 and BRO-2 -lactamases by

Jan M. Bell; John D. Turnidge; Ronald N. Jones

45

Specific Immune Responses and Enhancement of Murine Pulmonary Clearance of Moraxella catarrhalis by Intranasal Immunization with a Detoxified Lipooligosaccharide Conjugate Vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moraxella catarrhalis is an important human mucosal pathogen. This study investigated the effect of intra- nasal immunization with a detoxified-lipooligosaccharide-cross-reactive mutant of diphtheria toxin (dLOS- CRM) vaccine candidate on pulmonary clearance following an aerosol challenge of mice with M. catarrhalis. Intranasal immunization with dLOS-CRM plus cholera toxin induced a significantly dose-dependent increase of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG in the

Xinan Jiao; Takashi Hirano; Yingchun Hou; Xin-Xing Gu

2002-01-01

46

The Moraxella catarrhalis Immunoglobulin D-Binding Protein MID Has Conserved Sequences and Is Regulated by a Mechanism Corresponding to Phase Variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of the Moraxella catarrhalis immunoglobulin D (IgD)-binding outer membrane protein MID and its gene was determined in 91 clinical isolates and in 7 culture collection strains. Eighty-four percent of the clinical Moraxella strains expressed MID-dependent IgD binding. The mid gene was detected in all strains as revealed by homology of the signal peptide sequence and a conserved area

Andrea Mollenkvist; Therese Nordstrom; Christer Hallden; Jens Jørgen Christensen; Arne Forsgren; Kristian Riesbeck

2003-01-01

47

Evaluation of purified UspA from Moraxella catarrhalis as a vaccine in a murine model after active immunization.  

PubMed Central

Moraxella catarrhalis causes otitis media, laryngitis, and respiratory infections in humans. A high-molecular-weight outer membrane protein from this bacterium named ubiquitous surface protein A (UspA) is present on all isolates. A monoclonal antibody (MAb) to UspA that recognizes a conserved epitope of this protein has been shown to promote pulmonary clearance of bacteria in passively immunized mice. In the present study, M. catarrhalis heterologous isolates were screened by dot blot with a panel of four additional MAbs specific for surface-exposed epitopes of UspA from M. catarrhalis isolate 035E. Three of the MAbs were specific for 035E, and the fourth reacted with 17 (74%) of the 23 isolates tested. Thus, UspA contains highly conserved, semiconserved, and variable surface-exposed epitopes. The UspA was purified from the 035E isolate by ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography, formulated with the adjuvant QS-21, and used to immunize BALB/c mice. Upon pulmonary challenge with either 035E or the heterologous isolate TTA24, significantly fewer bacteria were recovered from the lungs of immunized mice 6 h postchallenge than from control mice. The immune sera from mice or guinea pigs contained high titers of antibodies to the homologous isolate and heterologous isolates in a whole-bacterial-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sera against UspA, whether prepared in mice or guinea pigs, had complement-dependent bactericidal activity toward homologous and 11 heterologous M. catarrhalis isolates. These results indicate that the conserved epitopes of the UspA are highly immunogenic and elicit broadly reactive and biologically functional antibodies. UspA may offer protection against M. catarrhalis infections and is being further evaluated as a vaccine candidate.

Chen, D; McMichael, J C; VanDerMeid, K R; Hahn, D; Mininni, T; Cowell, J; Eldridge, J

1996-01-01

48

Pili play an important role in enhancing the bacterial clearance from the middle ear in a mouse model of acute otitis media with Moraxella catarrhalis.  

PubMed

Moraxella catarrhalis is a Gram-negative aerobic diplococcus that is currently the third most frequent cause of bacterial acute otitis media (AOM) in children. In this study, we developed an experimental murine AOM model by inoculating M. catarrhalis in the middle ear bulla and studied the local response to this inoculation, and modulation of its course by the pili of M. catarrhalis. The pili-positive and pili-negative M. catarrhalis showed differences in bacterial clearance and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the middle ear. Pili-negative M. catarrhalis induced a more delayed and prolonged immune response in the middle ear than that of pili-positive M. catarrhalis. TLR2, -4, -5 and -9 mRNA expression was upregulated in neutrophils that infiltrated the middle ear cavity during AOM caused by both pili-positive and pili-negative bacteria. TLR5 mRNA expression and TLR5 protein in the neutrophils were induced more robustly by pili-positive M. catarrhalis. This immune response is likely to be related to neutrophil function such as toll-like 5-dependent phagocytosis. Our results show that mice may provide a useful AOM model for studying the role of M. catarrhalis. Furthermore, we show that pili play an important role in enhancing M. catarrhalis clearance from the middle ear that is probably mediated through neutrophil-dependent TLR5 signaling. PMID:23620157

Kawano, Toshiaki; Hirano, Takashi; Kodama, Satoru; Mitsui, Marcelo Takahiro; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Nishizono, Akira; Suzuki, Masashi

2013-02-26

49

Antibodies specific to outer membrane antigens of Moraxella catarrhalis in sera and middle ear effusions from children with otitis media with effusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: recent studies have shown that bacterial DNA is present in a significant percentage of middle ear effusions, suggesting that persistent bacterial infection may be more important in pathogenesis and recurrence of otitis media with effusion (OME) than previously considered. Although Moraxella (M.) catarrhalis is one of the most common pathogens of otitis media, relatively little is known about immune

Ryuta Takada; Yasuaki Harabuchi; Tetsuo Himi; Akikatsu Kataura

1998-01-01

50

Moraxella catarrhalis Binding to Host Cellular Receptors Is Mediated by Sequence-Specific Determinants Not Conserved among All UspA1 Protein Variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moraxella catarrhalis ubiquitous surface proteins (UspAs) are autotransporter molecules reported to interact with a variety of different host proteins and to affect processes ranging from serum resistance to cellular adhesion. The role of UspA1 as an adhesin has been confirmed with a number of different human cell types and is mediated by binding to eukaryotic proteins including carcinoembryonic antigen-

Michael J. Brooks; Jennifer L. Sedillo; Nikki Wagner; Wei Wang; Ahmed S. Attia; Henry Wong; Cassie A. Laurence; Eric J. Hansen; Scott D. Gray-Owen

2008-01-01

51

Investigating the potential of conserved inner core oligosaccharide regions of Moraxella catarrhalis lipopolysaccharide as vaccine antigens: accessibility and functional activity of monoclonal antibodies and glycoconjugate derived sera  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the conservation and antibody accessibility of inner core epitopes of Moraxella catarrhalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in order to assess their potential as vaccine candidates. Two LPS mutants, a single mutant designated\\u000a lgt2 and a double mutant termed lgt2\\/lgt4, elaborating truncated inner core structures were generated in order to preclude expression of host-like outer core structures\\u000a and to create an

Andrew D. Cox; Frank St. Michael; Chantelle M. Cairns; Suzanne Lacelle; Amy Lea Filion; Dhamodharan Neelamegan; Cory Q. Wenzel; Heather Horan; James C. Richards

2011-01-01

52

Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in the United States in 1996–1997 respiratory season  

Microsoft Academic Search

A U.S. surveillance study of antimicrobial resistance in respiratory tract pathogens in the respiratory season (1996–1997) is reported that induced 11,368 isolates from 434 institutions in 45 states and the District of Columbia. ?-lactamase was produced by 33.4% of Haemophilus influenzae and 92.7% of Moraxella catarrhalis. Of the 9,190 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates tested, 33.5% were not susceptible to penicillin (MIC

Clyde Thornsberry; Penny Ogilvie; James Kahn; Yolanda Mauriz

1997-01-01

53

Susceptibility of Moraxella catarrhalis to 21 Antimicrobial Drugs: Validity of Current NCCLS Criteria for the Interpretation of Agar Disk Diffusion Antibiograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-four clinical isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis were examined for susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial drugs; 67 isolates (= 71.3%) produced ?lactamase(s). In terms of antibiotic resistance, the number of isolates resistant to penicillin G, ampicillin, and cotrimoxazole were 56, 32, and 1, respectively. The number of isolates with intermediate susceptibility to penicillin G, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, cotrimoxazole, and fosfomycin were 11,

Walter H. Traub; Birgit Leonhard

1997-01-01

54

High prevalence and molecular analysis of macrolide-nonsusceptible Moraxella catarrhalis isolated from nasopharynx of healthy children in China.  

PubMed

Three hundred eighty-three isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis were collected from healthy children aged less than 2 years in China and assessed for antimicrobial resistance. We found that 92.2% (n=353) produced a ?-lactamase. Nonsusceptibility rates to erythromycin and azithromycin, determined using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints, were 40.3% and 22.5%, respectively; nonsusceptibility rates determined using pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics breakpoints, however, were 59% and 60.1%. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)(90) values were >256 ?g/ml. Nonsusceptibility rates varied by region from 9.7% in Dongguan to 75.9% in Jinan. Further, concomitant resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics was also observed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of 27/37 high-level macrolide-resistant M. catarrhalis isolates showed that closely related pulsotypes dominated, with a total of 11 different pulsotypes being observed. The closely related pulsotypes were observed in isolates originating from all six Chinese cities investigated, possibly as a consequence of the mobility of the Chinese population. Sixteen patterns of 23S rRNA mutations were found among 97 selected isolates using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing, but no known ermA, ermB, mefA, or mefE genes could be detected. Mutations A2982T and A2796T in 23S rRNA were related to high-level macrolide resistance (MICs ranging from 24 to >256 ?g/ml), while an A2983T mutation was associated with low-level macrolide resistance (MICs ranging from 0.19 to 16 ?g/ml). PMID:22394083

Liu, Yali; Zhao, Chunjiang; Zhang, Feifei; Chen, Hongbin; Chen, Minjun; Wang, Hui

2012-03-06

55

A Novel Group of Moraxella catarrhalis UspA Proteins Mediates Cellular Adhesion via CEACAMs and Vitronectin  

PubMed Central

Moraxella catarrhalis (Mx) is a common cause of otitis media and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, an increasing worldwide problem. Surface proteins UspA1 and UspA2 of Mx bind to a number of human receptors and may function in pathogenesis. Genetic recombination events in the pathogen can generate hybrid proteins termed UspA2H. However, whether certain key functions (e.g. UspA1-specific CEACAM binding) can be exchanged between these adhesin families remains unknown. In this study, we have shown that Mx can incorporate the UspA1 CEACAM1-binding region not only into rare UspA1 proteins devoid of CEACAM-binding ability, but also into UspA2 which normally lack this capacity. Further, a screen of Mx isolates revealed the presence of novel UspA2 Variant proteins (UspA2V) in ?14% of the CEACAM-binding population. We demonstrate that the expression of UspA2/2V with the CEACAM-binding domain enable Mx to bind both to cell surface CEACAMs and to integrins, the latter via vitronectin. Such properties of UspA2/2V have not been reported to date. The studies demonstrate that the UspA family is much more heterogeneous than previously believed and illustrate the in vivo potential for exchange of functional regions between UspA proteins which could convey novel adhesive functions whilst enhancing immune evasion.

Hill, Darryl J.; Whittles, Cheryl; Virji, Mumtaz

2012-01-01

56

Use of the Chinchilla model to evaluate the vaccinogenic potential of the Moraxella catarrhalis filamentous hemagglutinin-like proteins MhaB1 and MhaB2.  

PubMed

Moraxella catarrhalis causes significant health problems, including 15-20% of otitis media cases in children and ~10% of respiratory infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The lack of an efficacious vaccine, the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates, and high carriage rates reported in children are cause for concern. In addition, the effectiveness of conjugate vaccines at reducing the incidence of otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae suggest that M. catarrhalis infections may become even more prevalent. Hence, M. catarrhalis is an important and emerging cause of infectious disease for which the development of a vaccine is highly desirable. Studying the pathogenesis of M. catarrhalis and the testing of vaccine candidates have both been hindered by the lack of an animal model that mimics human colonization and infection. To address this, we intranasally infected chinchilla with M. catarrhalis to investigate colonization and examine the efficacy of a protein-based vaccine. The data reveal that infected chinchillas produce antibodies against antigens known to be major targets of the immune response in humans, thus establishing immune parallels between chinchillas and humans during M. catarrhalis infection. Our data also demonstrate that a mutant lacking expression of the adherence proteins MhaB1 and MhaB2 is impaired in its ability to colonize the chinchilla nasopharynx, and that immunization with a polypeptide shared by MhaB1 and MhaB2 elicits antibodies interfering with colonization. These findings underscore the importance of adherence proteins in colonization and emphasize the relevance of the chinchilla model to study M. catarrhalis-host interactions. PMID:23844117

Shaffer, Teresa L; Balder, Rachel; Buskirk, Sean W; Hogan, Robert J; Lafontaine, Eric R

2013-07-02

57

Moraxella catarrhalis Activates Murine Macrophages through Multiple Toll Like Receptors and Has Reduced Clearance in Lungs from TLR4 Mutant Mice  

PubMed Central

Moraxella catarrhalis is a Gram negative bacterium and a leading causative agent of otitis media (OM) in children. Several recent reports have provided strong evidence for an association between toll like receptors and OM. It has been found that both Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae activate host protective immune responses through toll like receptors (TLRs), however, the precise mechanism by which Moraxella catarrhalis initiates the host immune response is currently unknown. In this report, using murine macrophages generated from a series of knock-out mice, we have demonstrated that M. catarrhalis lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and either heat killed or live bacteria are recognized by one or more TLRs. LOS activates the host immune response through a membrane bound CD14-TLR4 complex, while both heat killed and live M.cat require recognition by multiple toll like receptors such as TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 without the requirement of CD14. We have also shown that M.cat stimuli are capable of triggering the host innate immune response by both MyD88- and TRIF- dependent signaling pathways. We further showed that M.cat induced activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) is essential in order to achieve optimal secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-?. We finally showed that TLR4 mutant C3H/HeJ mice produce significantly lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-6 in vivo, An increased bacterial loads at 12 and 24 hours (P<0.001) in their lungs upon challenge with live M.cat in an aerosol chamber compared to wild-type (WT) control mice. These data suggest that TLRs are crucial for an effective innate immune response induced by M.cat. The results of these studies contribute to an increased understanding of molecular mechanism and possible novel treatment strategies for diseases caused by M.cat by specifically targeting TLRs and their signaling pathways.

Hassan, Ferdaus; Ren, Dabin; Zhang, Wenhong; Merkel, Tod J.; Gu, Xin-Xing

2012-01-01

58

Comparative analysis of the humoral immune response to Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae surface antigens in children suffering from recurrent acute otitis media and chronic otitis media with effusion.  

PubMed

A prospective clinical cohort study was established to investigate the humoral immune response in middle ear fluids (MEF) and serum against bacterial surface proteins in children suffering from recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM) and chronic otitis media with effusion (COME), using Luminex xMAP technology. The association between the humoral immune response and the presence of Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the nasopharynx and middle ear was also studied. The levels of antigen-specific IgG, IgA, and IgM showed extensive interindividual variation. No significant differences in anti-M. catarrhalis and anti-S. pneumoniae serum and MEF median fluorescence intensity (MFI) values (anti-M. catarrhalis and antipneumococcal IgG levels) were observed between the rAOM or COME groups for all antigens tested. No significant differences were observed for M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae colonization and serum IgG levels against the Moraxella and pneumococcal antigens. Similar to the antibody response in serum, no significant differences in IgG, IgA, and IgM levels in MEF were observed for all M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae antigens between OM M. catarrhalis- or S. pneumoniae-positive and OM M. catarrhalis- or S. pneumonia-negative children suffering from either rAOM or COME. Finally, results indicated a strong correlation between antigen-specific serum and MEF IgG levels. We observed no significant in vivo expressed anti-M. catarrhalis or anti-S. pneumoniae humoral immune responses using a range of putative vaccine candidate proteins. Other factors, such as Eustachian tube dysfunction, viral load, and genetic and environmental factors, may play a more important role in the pathogenesis of OM and in particular in the development of rAOM or COME. PMID:22539468

Verhaegh, Suzanne J C; Stol, Kim; de Vogel, Corné P; Riesbeck, Kristian; Lafontaine, Eric R; Murphy, Timothy F; van Belkum, Alex; Hermans, Peter W M; Hays, John P

2012-04-25

59

Intranasal Vaccination with Recombinant Outer Membrane Protein CD and Adamantylamide Dipeptide as the Mucosal Adjuvant Enhances Pulmonary Clearance of Moraxella catarrhalis in an Experimental Murine Model?  

PubMed Central

Moraxella catarrhalis causes acute otitis media in children and lower respiratory tract infections in adults and elderly. In children the presence of antibodies against the highly conserved outer membrane protein CD correlates with protection against infection, suggesting that this protein may be useful as a vaccine antigen. However, native CD is difficult to purify, and it is still unclear if recombinant CD (rCD) is a valid alternative. We performed a side-by-side comparison of the immunogenicities and efficacies of vaccine formulations containing native CD and rCD with adamantylamide dipeptide as the mucosal adjuvant. Intranasal vaccination of mice stimulated the production of high CD-specific antibody titers in sera and of secretory immunoglobulin A in mucosal lavages, which cross-recognized both antigens. While vaccination with native CD increased the number of interleukin-2 (IL-2)- and gamma interferon-producing cells, rCD mainly stimulated IL-4-secreting cells. Nevertheless, efficient bacterial clearance was observed in the lungs of challenged mice receiving native CD and in the lungs of challenged mice receiving rCD (96% and 99%, respectively). Thus, rCD is a promising candidate for incorporation in vaccine formulations for use against M. catarrhalis.

Becker, Pablo D.; Bertot, Gustavo M.; Souss, David; Ebensen, Thomas; Guzman, Carlos A.; Grinstein, Saul

2007-01-01

60

Genetic Diversity among Strains of Moraxella catarrhalis: Analysis Using Multiple DNA Probes and a Single-Locus PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Method  

PubMed Central

Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, a causative agent of otitis media, sinusitis, and exacerbation of bronchitis, has acquired widespread ability to produce ?-lactamase and can be nosocomially transmitted. The typing methods used in epidemiological analyses of M. catarrhalis are not optimal for genetic analyses. Two methods, a multiple-locus Southern blot (SB) method and a single-locus PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method, were developed and used to assess genetic diversity and potential clinical and geographic relationships in M. catarrhalis. Nine randomly cloned M. catarrhalis DNA fragments were used as probes of SBs containing DNA from 54 geographically and clinically diverse strains. For comparison, a PCR-RFLP method was developed as a quick, inexpensive, and discriminating alternative. A highly variable 3.7-kb genomic region (M46) was cloned and sequenced, and 3.5 kb of the cloned DNA was targeted for PCR amplification. DNAs from the 54 strains were subjected to PCR-RFLP. SB analysis distinguished all strains that had no apparent epidemiological linkage (40 of 54), and PCR-RFLP distinguished fewer strains (21 of 54). Epidemiologically linked strains appeared genetically identical by both methods. PCR-RFLP was compared to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for 8 of the 54 strains and 23 additional strains. PCR-RFLP distinguished fewer strains than PFGE typing (16 of 31 versus 20 of 31 strains), but PCR-RFLP was more useful for inferring interstrain relatedness. Separate cluster analyses of multilocus SB and single locus PCR-RFLP data showed high genetic diversity within and across geographic locations and clinical presentations. The resultant dendrograms were not entirely concordant, but both methods often gave similar strain clusters at the terminal branches. High genetic diversity, nonconcordance of cluster analyses from different genetic loci, and shared genotypes among epidemiologically linked strains support a hypothesis of high recombination relative to spread of clones. Single-locus PCR-RFLP may be suitable for short-term epidemiological studies, but the SB data demonstrate that greater strain discrimination may be obtained by sampling variation at multiple genomic sites.

Walker, Elaine S.; Preston, Robert A.; Post, J. Christopher; Ehrlich, Garth D.; Kalbfleisch, John H.; Klingman, Karin L.

1998-01-01

61

The Levels and Bactericidal Capacity of Antibodies Directed against the UspA1 and UspA2 Outer Membrane Proteins of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis in Adults and Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UspA1 and UspA2 proteins from Moraxella catarrhalis share antigenic epitopes and are promising vaccine candidates. In this study, the levels and bactericidal activities of antibodies in sera from healthy adults and children toward UspA1 and UspA2 from the O35E strain were measured. Human sera contained anti- bodies to both proteins, and the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were

DEXIANG CHEN; VICKI BARNIAK; KARL R. VANDERMEID; JOHN C. MCMICHAEL

1999-01-01

62

Usefulness of gram-stained sputum obtained just after administration of antimicrobial agents as the earliest therapeutic indicator for evaluating the effectiveness of empiric therapy in community-acquired pneumonia caused by pneumococcus or Moraxella catarrhalis.  

PubMed

We present here three cases in which morphological changes and/or a decreased number of Streptococcus pneumoniae or Moraxella catarrhalis could be observed in gram-stained sputum obtained just after the first administration of an antimicrobial agent. Case 1 was a 53-year-old man with pneumonia caused by gram-positive diplococcus, identified as S. pneumoniae, who was administered 2 g of ampicillin over a period of 1 h. Gram-stained sputum showed smaller or gram-negative pneumococci at the completion of administration of the agent, a decreased number of cocci at 1 h after administration, and almost no cocci at 12 h after the completion of administration. Case 2 was a 72-year-old woman with pneumonia caused by diplococcus, identified as S. pneumoniae, who was administered 2 g of ampicillin over a period of 1 h. Gram-stained sputum showed weakly stained, small cocci at the completion of administration of the agent and few cocci at 1 h after the completion of administration. Case 3 was a 58-year-old woman with pneumonia caused by a gram-negative diplococcus, identified as Moraxella catarrhalis, who was administered 1 g of cefotaxime over a period of 30 min. Gram-stained sputum showed few extracellular cocci and some intracellular cocci inside neutrophils 1 h after administration and no cocci 2 h after the completion of administration. These three cases showed that gram-stained sputum obtained just after and/or 1 h after administration of the first antimicrobial agent were suitable as the quickest therapeutic indicator of the effectiveness of empiric therapy, with the effectiveness of the agent being shown much earlier than with markers such as the white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level. PMID:23073648

Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Yamaoka, Toshimori; Yamamura, Michiko; Kawakami, Sayoko; Ono, Yasuo; Miyazawa, Yukihisa; Teramoto, Tamio; Nishiya, Hajime

2012-10-17

63

Acute laryngitis in the rat induced by Moraxella catarrhalis and Bordetella pertussis: number of neutrophils, dendritic cells, and T and B lymphocytes accumulating during infection in the laryngeal mucosa strongly differs in adjacent locations.  

PubMed

Infectious laryngotracheitis results in fulminant respiratory distress. During the disease, the subglottic mucosa is selectively infected and swollen, the reason for this preference being unknown. Therefore, in the present study the immunoreaction of the laryngeal mucosa was studied in the rat after inhalation of either heat-killed Moraxella catarrhalis (PVG rats) or application of viable Bordetella pertussis (BN rats). The number of neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, and T and B lymphocytes was determined in the mucosa of the supraglottic, glottic, and subglottic area of the larynx as well as in the trachea. After application of the pathogens, the mucosa of the subglottic area was significantly more affected than the glottic mucosa. Already 1 h after application of M. catarrhalis, not only neutrophils but also dendritic cells and T and B lymphocytes were found both subepithelially and within the epithelium. They showed a similar kinetic progression, although at a different level. Two hours after application of M. catarrhalis, at the peak of inflammation, dendritic cells (173 +/- 10 cells/0.1 mm2) outnumbered neutrophils (54 +/- 9 cells/0.1 mm2), T lymphocytes (25 +/- 2 cells/0.1 mm2), and B lymphocytes (4.3 cells/0.1 mm2). The subglottic area (and the trachea) contained about three to five times more cells than the glottic area. In contrast, the number of local macrophages was lower in the subglottic area (24 +/- 5 cells/0.1 mm2) compared with that of the glottic area (38 +/- 6 cells/0.1 mm2), and did not change after application of both M. catarrhalis and B. pertussis. Thus, infectious laryngotracheitis in the rat closely resembles the clinical picture in children. In addition, the present results show a major difference in cellular influx in the mucosa of the glottic and subglottic area. This demonstrates that even in two closely adjacent locations, inflammatory responses of different magnitudes can occur, and it underlines the importance of regulatory mechanisms specific for the respective microenvironment. PMID:10590036

Jecker, P; McWilliam, A; Napoli, S; Holt, P G; Pabst, R; Westhofen, M; Westermann, J

1999-12-01

64

Assessment of the Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Flora of Rhesus Macaques: Moraxella, Neisseria, Haemophilus, and Other Genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nasopharyngeal bacterial flora of healthy rhesus macaques was surveyed for the presence of Neisseria and Haemophilus species, as well as Moraxella catarrhalis. M. catarrhalis was found both in healthy rhesus macaques and in possibly immunocompromised rhesus macaques. Several Haemophilus spp. that are part of the normal nasopharyngeal bacterial flora of humans were found in many animals; these Haemophilus species

Lisa C. Bowers; Jeanette E. Purcell; Gail B. Plauche; Philippe A. Denoel; Yves Lobet; Mario T. Philipp

65

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-related cell adhesion molecules are co-expressed in the human lung and their expression can be modulated in bronchial epithelial cells by non-typable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, TLR3, and type I and II interferons  

PubMed Central

Background The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-related cell adhesion molecules CEACAM1 (BGP, CD66a), CEACAM5 (CEA, CD66e) and CEACAM6 (NCA, CD66c) are expressed in human lung. They play a role in innate and adaptive immunity and are targets for various bacterial and viral adhesins. Two pathogens that colonize the normally sterile lower respiratory tract in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are non-typable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) and Moraxella catarrhalis. Both pathogens bind to CEACAMs and elicit a variety of cellular reactions, including bacterial internalization, cell adhesion and apoptosis. Methods To analyze the (co-) expression of CEACAM1, CEACAM5 and CEACAM6 in different lung tissues with respect to COPD, smoking status and granulocyte infiltration, immunohistochemically stained paraffin sections of 19 donors were studied. To address short-term effects of cigarette smoke and acute inflammation, transcriptional regulation of CEACAM5, CEACAM6 and different CEACAM1 isoforms by cigarette smoke extract, interferons, Toll-like receptor agonists, and bacteria was tested in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells by quantitative PCR. Corresponding CEACAM protein levels were determined by flow cytometry. Results Immunohistochemical analysis of lung sections showed the most frequent and intense staining for CEACAM1, CEACAM5 and CEACAM6 in bronchial and alveolar epithelium, but revealed no significant differences in connection with COPD, smoking status and granulocyte infiltration. In NHBE cells, mRNA expression of CEACAM1 isoforms CEACAM1-4L, CEACAM1-4S, CEACAM1-3L and CEACAM1-3S were up-regulated by interferons alpha, beta and gamma, as well as the TLR3 agonist polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). Interferon-gamma also increased CEACAM5 expression. These results were confirmed on protein level by FACS analysis. Importantly, also NTHI and M. catarrhalis increased CEACAM1 mRNA levels. This effect was independent of the ability to bind to CEACAM1. The expression of CEACAM6 was not affected by any treatment or bacterial infection. Conclusions While we did not find a direct correlation between CEACAM1 expression and COPD, the COPD-associated bacteria NTHi and M. catarrhalis were able to increase the expression of their own receptor on host cells. Further, the data suggest a role for CEACAM1 and CEACAM5 in the phenomenon of increased host susceptibility to bacterial infection upon viral challenge in the human respiratory tract.

2013-01-01

66

Molecular cloning and characterization of a 79-kDa iron-repressible outer-membrane protein of Moraxella bovis.  

PubMed

Moraxella bovis expresses an iron-repressible 79-kDa outer-membrane protein, IrpA. DNA and N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis indicate that IrpA is closely related to FrpB of Neisseria meningitidis, FetA of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and CopB of Moraxella catarrhalis. The results of manganese mutagenesis and a gel-shift assay suggested that the transcription of irpA is negatively regulated by the ferric uptake regulator. The insertion of an antibiotic resistance cassette into the irpA gene affected the strain's ability to utilize bovine transferrin and lactoferrin. IrpA was detected in geographically diverse clinical isolates, and the antigenicity of IrpA was conserved in all the isolates tested. Therefore, IrpA may have potential as a candidate vaccine. PMID:12951253

Kakuda, Tsutomu; Oishi, Daiki; Tsubaki, Shiro; Takai, Shinji

2003-08-29

67

Lipids of Branhamella catarrhalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.  

PubMed Central

Three strains of Branhamella catarrhalis and three strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were analyzed with regard to their phospholipid and neutral lipid composition. B. catarrhalis (ATCC 23246) contained 5.12 +/- 0.34% lipid, determined gravimetrically, compared to 8.56 +/- 0.15% and 9.73 +/- 0.06% for two strains of N. gonorrhoeae. Cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine were identified in extracts of both species. In addition, B. catarrhalis contained small amounts of phosphatidylcholine, and N. gonorrhoeae contained small amounts of lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine, which accumulated with autolysis accompanying late cell culture growth. The kinetics of change of relative amounts of phospholipids in both species were measured and found to differ substantially. Neutral lipid accounted for 30.4% of the total lipid of B. catarrhalis (ATCC 23246) and 7.6% of the total lipid of N. gonorrhoeae NYH 002. Hydrocarbons, triglycerides, free fatty acids, coenzyme Q, diglycerides, and free hydroxy fatty acids were identified in the neutral lipid fraction of both species. The three strains of N. gonorrhoeae, sensitive, intermediate, and resistant to penicillin, exhibited no significant difference in the composition or metabolism of phospholipid. Images

Beebe, J L; Wlodkowski, T J

1976-01-01

68

Evaluation of a rapid method for identifying Branhamella catarrhalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The speed and precision of hydrolysis of tributyrin to butyric acid as a test to detect Branhamella catarrhalis were evaluated. The test proved consistently reliable in the identification of strains and correctly differentiated B catarrhalis from Neisseria sp. The combination of Gram stain, oxidase, and catalase tests to tributyrin hydrolysis provides a means of positive same day identification of B

J Richards

1988-01-01

69

Branhamella catarrhalis: epidemiology, surface antigenic structure, and immune response.  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, Branhamella catarrhalis has emerged as an important human pathogen. The bacterium is a common cause of otitis media in children and of lower respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. B. catarrhalis is exclusively a human pathogen. It colonizes the respiratory tract of a small proportion of adults and a larger proportion of children. Studies involving restriction enzyme analysis of genomic DNA show that colonization is a dynamic process, with the human host eliminating and acquiring new strains frequently. The surface of B. catarrhalis contains outer membrane proteins, lipooligosaccharide, and pili. The genes which encode several outer membrane proteins have been cloned, and some of these proteins are being studied as potential vaccine antigens. Analysis of the immune response has been limited by the lack of an adequate animal model of B. catarrhalis infection. New information regarding outer membrane structure should guide studies of the human immune response to B. catarrhalis. Immunoassays which specifically detect antibodies to determinants exposed on the bacterial surface will elucidate the most relevant immune response. The recognition of B. catarrhalis as an important human pathogen has stimulated research on the epidemiology and surface structures of the bacterium. Future studies to understand the mechanisms of infection and to elucidate the human immune response to infection hold promise of developing new methods to treat and prevent infections caused by B. catarrhalis.

Murphy, T F

1996-01-01

70

Branhamella catarrhalis: an organism gaining respect as a pathogen.  

PubMed Central

Branhamella catarrhalis was formerly regarded as a common, essentially harmless inhabitant of the pharynx. This misapprehension was caused, in part, by confusion with another pharyngeal resident, Neisseria cinerea. The two organisms can now be differentiated by the positive reactions of B. catarrhalis in tests for nitrate reduction and hydrolysis of tributyrin and DNase. B. catarrhalis is currently recognized as the third most frequent cause of acute otitis media and acute sinusitis in young children. It often causes acute exacerbations of chronic bronchopulmonary disease in older or immunocompromised adults and is incriminated occasionally in meningitis, endocarditis, bacteremia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and urogenital infections. Virulence-associated factors, such as pili, capsules, outer membrane vesicles, iron acquisition proteins, histamine-synthesizing ability, resistance to the bactericidal action of normal human serum, and binding to the C1q complement component, have been identified in some strains. beta-Lactamase producing strains, first detected in 1976, have risen to approximately 75% worldwide. Thus far, however, practically all American strains of B. catarrhalis remain susceptible to alternative antibiotics. A possible selective advantage of recent isolates is their reportedly heightened tendency for adherence to oropharyngeal cells from patients with chronic bronchopulmonary disease. Images

Catlin, B W

1990-01-01

71

Branhamaceae fam. nov., a Proposed Family To Accommodate the Genera Branhamella and Moraxella  

Microsoft Academic Search

and also of the genera Branhamella, Moraxella, and Acinetobacter. Since these organisms must be excluded from the Neisseriaceae, the new family Branhamaceae is proposed to accommodate the genera Branhamella (including the false neisseriae) and Moraxella. This arrangement acknowledges the phylogenetic relationships of these organisms and resolves controversies concerning (i) the recommendation that the genus Moraxella should be divided into the

B. WESLEY

72

Cellular Fatty Acid Compositions of Moraxella anatipestifer and Legionella pneumophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to results from a recent study, we found the fatty acid composition of Legionella pneumophila to be distinct from the fatty acid composition of Moraxella anatipestifer. M. anatipestifer contained large amounts (50%) of 13-methyltetradecanoic acid and smaller amounts (5 to 22%) of branched-chain hydroxy acids, whereas L. pneumophila contained 14-methylpentadecanoic acid as the major component (30%), with no

MARY ANN LAMBERT; C. WAYNE MOSS

73

Isolation of Moraxella canis from an Ulcerated Metastatic Lymph Node  

PubMed Central

Moraxella canis was isolated in large numbers from an ulcerated supraclavicular lymph node of a terminal patient, who died a few days later. Although the patient presented with septic symptoms and with a heavy growth of gram-negative diplococci in the lymph node, blood cultures remained negative. M. canis is an upper-airway commensal from dogs and cats and is considered nonpathogenic for humans, although this is the third reported human isolate of this species.

Vaneechoutte, Mario; Claeys, Geert; Steyaert, Sophia; De Baere, Thierry; Peleman, Renaat; Verschraegen, Gerda

2000-01-01

74

Outbreaks of Keratoconjunctivitis in a Camel Herd Caused by a Specific Biovar of Moraxella canis?  

PubMed Central

Two tributyrin hydrolysis-negative Moraxella isolates obtained in cases of keratoconjunctivitis in Camelus dromedarius in the Canary Islands showed highest degrees of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Moraxella canis. A level of DNA relatedness to the M. canis type strain of 79% confirmed the identity of the isolates as a tributyrin hydrolysis-negative biovar of M. canis.

Tejedor-Junco, Maria Teresa; Gutierrez, Carlos; Gonzalez, Margarita; Fernandez, Ana; Wauters, Georges; De Baere, Thierry; Deschaght, Pieter; Vaneechoutte, Mario

2010-01-01

75

A comparison of the fine structure of Micrococcus diversus, Neisseria catarrhalis and Neisseria sicca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of thin sections ofMicrococcus diversus, Neisseria catarrhalis andN. sicca reveals a cytoplasmic membrane, nuclear region and ribosomes which correspond to those recognized in other bacteria. Their cell walls are multilayered and resemble those of gram-negative microorganisms. Structures suggestive of mesosomes were observed inM. diversus andN. catarrhalis. These cytological observations concur with the findings of Kocur for the fine structure

A. E. Girard; B. J. Cosenza

1970-01-01

76

Analysis of the expression of the putatively virulence-associated neisserial protein RmpM (class 4) in commensal Neisseria and Moraxella catarrhalis strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RmpM protein has been reported to be present only in pathogenic Neisseria species. In the present study we demonstrate that this protein is also present at least in N. lactamica and N. sicca strains. The N. lactamica protein reacts with a RmpM-specific monoclonal antibody (185,H-8), having a molecular mass (?31 kDa) slightly lower than that of the meningococcal RmpM,

Gemma Troncoso; Sandra Sánchez; Jan Kolberg; Einar Rosenqvist; Manuel Veiga; Carlos M. Ferreirós; Mar??a-Teresa Criado

2001-01-01

77

Injury and Destruction of Moraxella-Acinetobacter in the Radappertization Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some highly radiation-resistant Moraxella-Acinetobacter (M-A) may survive the radappertization process for meat preservation, because these vegetative bacteria are more resistant than spores to radiation. They are, however, more susceptible than spores to...

R. B. Maxcy D. B. Rowley

1981-01-01

78

Moraxella species are primarily responsible for generating malodor in laundry.  

PubMed

Many people in Japan often detect an unpleasant odor generated from laundry that is hung to dry indoors or when using their already-dried laundry. Such an odor is often described as a "wet-and-dirty-dustcloth-like malodor" or an "acidic or sweaty odor." In this study, we isolated the major microorganisms associated with such a malodor, the major component of which has been identified as 4-methyl-3-hexenoic acid (4M3H). The isolates were identified as Moraxella osloensis by morphological observation and biochemical and phylogenetic tree analyses. M. osloensis has the potential to generate 4M3H in laundry. The bacterium is known to cause opportunistic infections but has never been known to generate a malodor in clothes. We found that M. osloensis exists at a high frequency in various living environments, particularly in laundry in Japan. The bacterium showed a high tolerance to desiccation and UV light irradiation, providing one of the possible reasons why they survive in laundry during and even after drying. PMID:22367080

Kubota, Hiromi; Mitani, Asako; Niwano, Yu; Takeuchi, Kohei; Tanaka, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Noriko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Hitomi, Jun

2012-02-24

79

Respiratory symptoms due to Branhamella catarrhalis and other Neisseria species infections--response to erythromycin therapy.  

PubMed

Neisseria microorganisms (Neisseria lactamica, Neisseria sicca, and Neisseria mucosa) are regarded as normal respiratory commensals. Branhamella catarrhalis (formerly Neisseria catarrhalis) has also been regarded as a normal respiratory commensal, but reports indicate that it can be pathogenic. The role of Neisseria spp was studied in 160 patients with chest infections and symptoms and signs of obstructive respiratory disease. Group I patients (n = 140) had a history of asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema. Group II patients (n = 20) had an initially responsive pulmonary tuberculosis but presented with fever and obstructive airway disease. Group I patients had disease that was difficult to control despite increased bronchodilator therapy, but they responded dramatically after two to three days of appropriate antibiotic therapy. Patients in group II showed a similar response to erythromycin. Neisseria infection was responsible for precipitating or exacerbating respiratory distress in both groups. Accordingly, it is concluded that Neisseria can be pathogenic and that patients with fever and obstructive respiratory symptoms require treatment. PMID:2509070

Hamedani, P; Hafiz, S; Ali, J; Memon, R; Ali, S; Ali, M; Ansari, M; Siddique, I; Raza, R

80

Mucoid Nitrate-Negative Moraxella nonliquefaciens from Three Patients with Chronic Lung Disease  

PubMed Central

Mucoid strains of Moraxella nonliquefaciens were recovered from the sputa of three indigenous Australians with chronic lung disease. These atypical strains failed to reduce nitrate, and one strain produced ?-lactamase. While the mucoid phenotype of M. nonliquefaciens has rarely been reported, the mucoid nitrate-negative biovar has never been previously reported.

Davis, Jennifer M.; Whipp, Margaret J.; Ashhurst-Smith, Christopher; DeBoer, Jim C.; Peel, Margaret M.

2004-01-01

81

Minimum inhibitory concentrations of selected antimicrobial agents for Moraxella bovoculi associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.  

PubMed

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) has been associated with ocular infections by Moraxella bovis, the established etiologic agent of IBK, and more recently, Moraxella bovoculi, a recently described species of Moraxella. To assist in designing rational treatment regimens for M. bovoculi infections associated with IBK, the in vitro susceptibilities of 57 M. bovoculi field isolates cultured from eyes of cattle with IBK in California from 2002 through 2007 were determined. The minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms (MIC(90)) of the following 18 antibiotics tested in the present study were: danofloxacin and enrofloxacin: ?0.12 µg/ml; ampicillin and ceftiofur: ?0.25 µg/ml; penicillin: 0.25 µg/ml; gentamicin: ?1 µg/ml; chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and tiamulin: 1 µg/ml; florfenicol: 0.5 µg/ml; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole: ?2/38 µg/ml; clindamycin: 2 µg/ml; neomycin and tilmicosin: ?4 µg/ml; tulathromycin: 4 µg/ml; spectinomycin and tylosin: 16 µg/ml; and sulfadimethoxine: >256 µg/ml. The low MIC(90) of these M. bovoculi isolates suggests that commonly used antibiotics for treatment of IBK associated with M. bovis should also be effective against M. bovoculi. PMID:21908289

Angelos, John A; Ball, Louise M; Byrne, Barbara A

2011-05-01

82

Serotypes and antibiotic sensitivity of Moraxella bovis isolated from an outbreak of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.  

PubMed Central

Samples of conjunctival fluid of four calves, from a herd with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, were collected five times at monthly intervals and from another 16 calves in the initial stages of the disease, were collected only once. Moraxella bovis was recovered from 82.3% of the samples. Twenty-six isolates were typed with polyvalent sera and 25 with monovalent sera. The antibiotic sensitivity of 13 isolates was also studied. Twenty of the 26 isolates reacted with polyvalent sera and 16 of 25 tested isolates, reacted with monovalent sera. The isolates recovered from the same animal in a different collection or from a different animal in the same collection did not always belong to the same serogroup. Different serotypes were prevalent in each collection. Differences in the antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates were also detected.

Gil-Turnes, C; Albuquerque, I M

1984-01-01

83

Selective medium with DNase test agar and a modified toluidine blue O technique for primary isolation of Branhamella catarrhalis in sputum.  

PubMed Central

A selective medium with DNase test agar and incorporating vancomycin (10 micrograms/ml), trimethoprim (8 micrograms/ml), and amphotericin B (2 micrograms/ml) supported the growth of 305 Branhamella catarrhalis isolates. A modified toluidine blue O technique was used after 48 h of incubation in CO2 to overlay suspected B. catarrhalis colonies. A metachromatic color change was observed in 15 min, indicating DNase production. In 200 unselected sputum samples of hospitalized patients, this method was compared with routine microbiologic procedures; 31 B. catarrhalis isolates were recovered with the method, compared with 22 isolated from the clinical laboratory. This medium will be particularly useful for culture of sputum, which shows inflammatory cells and gram-negative diplococci on Gram-stained smears.

Soto-Hernandez, J L; Nunley, D; Holtsclaw-Berk, S; Berk, S L

1988-01-01

84

77 FR 735 - New Animal Drugs; Cephalosporin Drugs; Extralabel Animal Drug Use; Order of Prohibition  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes...

2012-01-06

85

Warning Letter" Ciprodex (ciprofloxacin) sterile otic ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... tubes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

86

Atomic Resolution Crystal Structure of NAD+-Dependent Formate Dehydrogenase from Bacterium Moraxella sp. C-1  

PubMed Central

The crystal structure of the ternary complex of NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase from the methylotrophic bacterium Moraxella sp. C-1 with the cofactor (NAD+) and the inhibitor (azide ion) was established at 1.1 A resolution. The complex mimics the structure of the transition state of the enzymatic reaction. The structure was refined with anisotropic displacitalicents parameters for non-hydrogen atoms to a R factor of 13.4%. Most of the nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon atoms were distinguished based on the analysis of the titalicperature factors and electron density peaks, with the result that side-chain rotamers of histidine residues and most of asparagine and glutamine residues were unambiguously determined. A comparative analysis of the structure of the ternary complex determined at the atomic resolution and the structure of this complex at 1.95 A resolution was performed. In the atomic resolution structure, the covalent bonds in the nicotinamide group are somewhat changed in agreitalicent with the results of quantum mechanical calculations, providing evidence that the cofactor acquires a bipolar form in the transition state of the enzymatic reaction.

Shabalin, I.G.; Polyakov, K.M.; Tishkov, V.I.

2009-01-01

87

Occurrence of two different forms of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase in a Moraxella sp.  

PubMed Central

Two alternative forms of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (PCase) have been purified from Moraxella sp. strain GU2, a bacterium that is able to grow on guaiacol or various other phenolic compounds as the sole source of carbon and energy. One of these forms (PCase-P) was induced by protocatechuate and had an apparent molecular weight of 220,000. The second form (PCase-G) was induced by guaiacol or other phenolic compounds, such as 2-ethoxyphenol or 4-hydroxybenzoate. It appeared to be smaller (Mr 158,000), and its turnover number was about double that of the former enzyme. Both dioxygenases had similar properties and were built from the association of equal amounts of nonidentical subunits, alpha and beta, which were estimated to have molecular weights of 29,500 and 25,500, respectively. The (alpha beta)3 and (alpha beta)4 structures were suggested for PCases G and P, respectively. On the basis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the alpha and beta polypeptides of PCase-G differed from those of PCase-P. Amino acid analysis supported this conclusion. Both PCases, however, had several other properties in common. It is proposed that both isoenzymes were generated from different sets of alpha and beta subunits, and the significance of these data is discussed. Images

Sterjiades, R; Pelmont, J

1989-01-01

88

Evaluation of the Taxonomic Relationship of Micrococcus cryoph ilus, Branhamella catarrhalis, and Neisseriae by Comparative Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of Soluble Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrophoretic profiles of soluble proteins derived from seven strains of Bran ham el la ca tarr halis, Ne isseria perflava, Neisseria sicca, an d the psy c hr o p hile , Micrococcus cry ophilus, were compared. The profiles produced from the strains of Branhamella catarrhalis showed a marked similarity except for that of strain Ne4 (ATCC 23246) which was

RICHARD H. FOX

89

Evaluation of the RIM-N, Gonochek II, and Phadebact systems for the identification of pathogenic Neisseria spp. and Branhamella catarrhalis.  

PubMed Central

Methods for identifying Neisseria spp. include conventional and modified carbohydrate degradation procedures, chromogenic enzyme substrate tests, and immunologic coagglutination tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In this study, we evaluated the abilities of the RIM-N carbohydrate degradation system (American MicroScan, Campbell, Calif.), the Gonochek II enzymatic identification system (Du Pont Co., Wilmington, Del.), and the Phadebact Gonococcus coagglutination test (Pharmacia Diagnostics, Piscataway, N.J.) to identify pathogenic Neisseria spp. and Branhamella catarrhalis. Both stock strains and clinical isolates, including 176 N. gonorrhoeae, 173 Neisseria meningitidis, 48 Neisseria lactamica, and 12 B. catarrhalis strains, were tested. The RIM-N identified 98% of the gonococci, 99% of the meningococci, 94% of the N. lactamica strains, and 100% of the B. catarrhalis strains within 1 h. The Gonochek II system identified 99% of the gonococci, 97% of the meningococci, 100% of the N. lactamica strains, and 100% of the B. catarrhalis strains within 30 min. Phadebact coagglutination provided clearly positive results for only 77% of the N. gonorrhoeae strains, producing negative or equivocal results with 23% of the strains. The RIM-N and Gonocheck II tests generally produced clear-cut reactions. An additional advantage of the Gonocheck II system was the small inoculum required for the performance of the test compared with the other systems, thus allowing the identification of N. gonorrhoeae directly from the primary isolation medium.

Janda, W M; Ulanday, M G; Bohnhoff, M; LeBeau, L J

1985-01-01

90

Endotoxin Activity of Moraxella osloensis against the Grey Garden Slug, Deroceras reticulatum  

PubMed Central

Moraxella osloensis is a gram-negative bacterium associated with Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, a slug-parasitic nematode that has prospects for biological control of mollusk pests, especially the grey garden slug, Deroceras reticulatum. This bacterium-feeding nematode acts as a vector that transports M. osloensis into the shell cavity of the slug, and the bacterium is the killing agent in the nematode-bacterium complex. We discovered that M. osloensis produces an endotoxin(s), which is tolerant to heat and protease treatments and kills the slug after injection into the shell cavity. Washed or broken cells treated with penicillin and streptomycin from 3-day M. osloensis cultures were more pathogenic than similar cells from 2-day M. osloensis cultures. However, heat and protease treatments and 2 days of storage at 22°C increased the endotoxin activity of the young broken cells but not the endotoxin activity of the young washed cells treated with the antibiotics. This suggests that there may be a proteinaceous substance(s) that is structurally associated with the endotoxin(s) and masks its toxicity in the young bacterial cells. Moreover, 2 days of storage of the young washed bacterial cells at 22°C enhanced their endotoxin activity if they were not treated with the antibiotics. Furthermore, purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the 3-day M. osloensis cultures was toxic to slugs, with an estimated 50% lethal dose of 48 ?g per slug, thus demonstrating that the LPS of M. osloensis is an endotoxin that is active against D. reticulatum. This appears to be the first report of a biological toxin that is active against mollusks.

Tan, Li; Grewal, Parwinder S.

2002-01-01

91

Degradation of naphthalene-2,6- and naphthalene-1,6-disulfonic acid by a Moraxella sp  

SciTech Connect

A naphthalene-2,6-disulfonic acid (2,6NDS)-degrading Moraxella strain was isolated from an industrial sewage plant. This culture could also be adapted to naphthalene-1,6-disulfonic acid as growth substrate. Regioselective 1,2-dioxygenation effected desulfonation and catabolism to 5-sulfosalicylic acid (5SS), which also could be used a the sole carbon source. 5SS-grown cells exhibited high gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase activity. Neither 5SS- nor gentisate-grown cells oxidized 2,6NDS; therefore, 2,6NDS or an early metabolite must serve as an inducer of the initial catabolic enzymes(s).

Wittich, R.M.; Tast, H.G.; Knackmuss, H.J.

1988-07-01

92

A direct pathway for the conversion of propionate into pyruvate in Moraxella lwoffi  

PubMed Central

1. The identity of the organism previously known as Vibrio O1 (N.C.I.B. 8250) with a species of Moraxella is established. 2. The ability of cells to oxidize propionate is present only in cells with an endogenous respiration and this ability is increased 80-fold when the organism is grown with propionate. 3. Isocitrate lyase activity in extracts from propionate-grown cells is the same as that in extracts from lactate-grown cells, about tenfold greater than that in extracts from succinate-grown cells and slightly greater than half the activity in extracts from acetate-grown cells. 4. With arsenite as an inhibitor conditions were found in which the organism would catalyse the quantitative oxidation of propionate to pyruvate. When propionate was completely utilized pyruvate was metabolized further to 2-oxoglutarate. 5. The oxidation of propionate by cells was incomplete both in a `closed system' with alkali to trap respiratory carbon dioxide and in an `open system' with an atmosphere of oxygen+carbon dioxide (95:5). Acetate accumulated. Under these conditions [2-14C]- and [3-14C]-propionate gave rise to [14C]acetate. The rate of conversion of [2-14C]propionate into 14CO2, although much less than the rate of conversion of [1-14C]propionate into 14CO2, was slightly greater than the rate of conversion of [3-14C]propionate into 14CO2. 6. The oxidation of propionate by cells was complete in an `open system' with an atmosphere of either oxygen or air. Under these conditions very little [1-14C]propionate was converted into 14C-labelled cell material. The conversion of [2-14C]- and [3-14C]-propionate into 14C-labelled cell material occurred at an appreciable rate, the rate for the incorporation of [3-14C]propionate being slightly more rapid. In the absence of a utilizable nitrogen source part of the [14C]propionate was incorporated into some reserve material, which was oxidized when added substrate had been completely utilized. 7. [14C]-Pyruvate produced from [14C]propionate was chemically degraded. The C(1) of propionate was found only in C(1) of pyruvate. At least 86% of C(2) of pyruvate was derived from C(2) of propionate and at least 92% of C(3) of pyruvate from C(3) of propionate. 8. These results are incompatible with the operation of any of the previously described pathways for propionate metabolism except the direct one, perhaps via an activated acrylate. ImagesPLATE 2PLATE 1

Hodgson, B.; McGarry, J. D.

1968-01-01

93

Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections caused by beta-lactamase-positive Haemophilus influenzae and Branhamella catarrhalis.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-one adult patients hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infections due to Branhamella catarrhalis or Haemophilus influenzae or both were treated with the combination of oral amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate (Augmentin) in an open, noncomparative clinical trial. Diseases included pneumonia, empyema, and exacerbations of bronchiectasis and chronic lung disease. Thirteen of 16 B. catarrhalis and six of nine H. influenzae isolates were beta-lactamase positive. The patients with B. catarrhalis were treated for a mean of 5.3 days, and those with H. influenzae were treated for a mean of 7.0 days. The overall response to therapy was excellent, with 18 of 19 beta-lactamase-producing strains eradicated on therapy. One patient secondarily infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa was a clinical failure, and two patients with H. influenzae who became culture positive again after therapy were considered microbiologic failures. Gastrointestinal side effects (especially nausea) were common, although all patients completed a course of therapy. Sputum levels of amoxicillin were surprisingly low (less than 0.05 to 0.54 micrograms/ml), a finding which may explain the high relapse rate (22%) seen with H. influenzae, as these are below the usual MICs of amoxicillin for this organism. The combination of amoxicillin plus potassium clavulanate appears to be an excellent drug for treatment of beta-lactamase-producing strains of these two species, although mild gastrointestinal side effects are common.

Wallace, R J; Steele, L C; Brooks, D L; Luman, J I; Wilson, R W; McLarty, J W

1985-01-01

94

Using a green fluorescent protein gene-labeled p-nitrophenol-degrading Moraxella strain to examine the protective effect of alginate encapsulation against protozoan grazing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gfp-labeled p-nitrophenol-degrading Moraxella strain G21 was used to study grazing of a Tetrahymena thermophila strain in liquid medium. This allowed visualization of the feeding process. Under an epifluorescent microscope, individual G21 fluorescent cells could be seen in vacuoles within the protozoans. Most of the G21 cells appeared to be lysed by T. thermophila and green fluorescent protein released from

Kam Tin Leung; Jae-Seong So; Magdalena Kostrzynska; Hung Lee; Jack T Trevors

2000-01-01

95

Amino acid sequence homology between Piv, an essential protein in site-specific DNA inversion in Moraxella lacunata, and transposases of an unusual family of insertion elements.  

PubMed Central

Deletion analysis of the subcloned DNA inversion region of Moraxella lacunata indicates that Piv is the only M. lacunata-encoded factor required for site-specific inversion of the tfpQ/tfpI pilin segment. The predicted amino acid sequence of Piv shows significant homology solely with the transposases/integrases of a family of insertion sequence elements, suggesting that Piv is a novel site-specific recombinase. Images

Lenich, A G; Glasgow, A C

1994-01-01

96

Pathogenicity of Moraxella osloensis, a Bacterium Associated with the Nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, to the Slug Deroceras reticulatum  

PubMed Central

Moraxella osloensis, a gram-negative bacterium, is associated with Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, a nematode parasite of slugs. This bacterium-feeding nematode has potential for the biological control of slugs, especially the grey garden slug, Deroceras reticulatum. Infective juveniles of P. hermaphrodita invade the shell cavity of the slug, develop into self-fertilizing hermaphrodites, and produce progeny, resulting in host death. However, the role of the associated bacterium in the pathogenicity of the nematode to the slug is unknown. We discovered that M. osloensis alone is pathogenic to D. reticulatum after injection into the shell cavity or hemocoel of the slug. The bacteria from 60-h cultures were more pathogenic than the bacteria from 40-h cultures, as indicated by the higher and more rapid mortality of the slugs injected with the former. Coinjection of penicillin and streptomycin with the 60-h bacterial culture reduced its pathogenicity to the slug. Further work suggested that the reduction and loss of pathogenicity of the aged infective juveniles of P. hermaphrodita to D. reticulatum result from the loss of M. osloensis from the aged nematodes. Also, axenic J1/J2 nematodes were nonpathogenic after injection into the shell cavity. Therefore, we conclude that the bacterium is the sole killing agent of D. reticulatum in the nematode-bacterium complex and that P. hermaphrodita acts only as a vector to transport the bacterium into the shell cavity of the slug. The identification of the toxic metabolites produced by M. osloensis is being pursued.

Tan, Li; Grewal, Parwinder S.

2001-01-01

97

Assessment of methodological quality and sources of variation in the magnitude of vaccine efficacy: A systematic review of studies from 1960 to 2005 reporting immunization with Moraxella bovis vaccines in young cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review was conducted of all identified literature evaluating Moraxella bovis vaccines efficacy in preventing pinkeye in beef calves. From 292 publications identified by the search, data on 123 unique vaccine-to-control comparisons were extracted from 38 studies published in English from 1960 to 2005. Descriptive analysis was performed and an analysis of sources of variation evaluated. Use of methods to

M. J. Burns; A. M. O’Connor

2008-01-01

98

Antigenic relationships of Moraxella bovis isolates recovered from outbreaks of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay between 1983 and 2000  

PubMed Central

Cross-reactivity indices (CRIs) of 28 isolates of Moraxella bovis recovered from outbreaks of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in Argentina (A, 11 isolates), Brazil (B, 7), and Uruguay (U, 10) between 1983 and 2000 were estimated. Hyperimmune sera were produced in rabbits and antibody titres determined with each isolate. Isolates showing CRIs3 70 were placed in the same group. Group I had 13 isolates (A, 1; B, 6; U, 6); group II had 6 isolates (A, 4; U, 2); groups III, IV, and V had 2 isolates each, recovered in Argentina; group VI had 2 isolates, from Uruguay; and group VII had 1 isolate, from Brazil. The CRIs3 70 between vaccine strains and isolates recovered before and after 1990 were 58% and 42%, 50% and 50%, and 33% and 67% with vaccine strains 2419, 2358, and 2439, respectively. Isolate 273, from Uruguay, showed CRIs > 70 with 78% of the isolates and is recommended as the vaccine strain.

Conceicao, Fabricio Rochedo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Cobo, Ana Lia; Gil-Turnes, Carlos

2003-01-01

99

B Cell Activation by Outer Membrane Vesicles—A Novel Virulence Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secretion of outer membrane vesicles (OMV) is an intriguing phenomenon of Gram-negative bacteria and has been suggested to play a role as virulence factors. The respiratory pathogens Moraxella catarrhalis reside in tonsils adjacent to B cells, and we have previously shown that M. catarrhalis induce a T cell independent B cell response by the immunoglobulin (Ig) D-binding superantigen MID. Here

Maria Laura A. Perez Vidakovics; Johan Jendholm; Matthias Mörgelin; Anne Månsson; Christer Larsson; Lars-Olaf Cardell; Kristian Riesbeck

2010-01-01

100

Antibiotic resistance patterns among respiratory pathogens at a german university children’s hospital over a period of 10 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing antimicrobial resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis is raising major concern worldwide. Strains of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolated from children with respiratory tract as well as invasive infection in a South-Western region of Germany between 1993 and 2002 were tested for susceptibility to common antibiotics including penicillins, cephalosporins and macrolides. A total

Sandra J. Arri; Kirsten Fluegge; Urban Mueller; Reinhard Berner

2006-01-01

101

Gram-negative diplococcal respiratory infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human respiratory tract infections caused by gramnegative diplococci continue to remain significant issues in health care.\\u000a Although not addressed as frequently as the classical diplococcal pneumonia, the gram-positive Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus), infections due to Neisseria meningitidis (the meningococcus), and Moraxella catarrhalis (formerly called both Neisseria catarrhalis and Branhamella catarrhalis) are addressed here including their microbiology, respiratory tract manifestations, antimicrobial

Nargis Naheed; Maqsood Alam; Larry I. Lutwick

2003-01-01

102

Immunoblot analysis of cyanogen bromide-cleaved Moraxella bovis pilin reveals presence of shared antigenic determinants on pili from heterologous strains.  

PubMed

Moraxella bovis pilus proteins, collected and purified from four strains of M. bovis, were cleaved with cyanogen bromide. Two major fragments were produced. Antisera were produced in rabbits to the pilin protein fragments and to whole uncleaved pili from these strains. Immunoblots of whole and cyanogen bromide-cleaved pilin were reacted with the homologous and heterologous antisera to whole pili and cleaved pilin. Antisera to whole pili reacted strongly with homologous pilin. Weaker and inconsistent reactions were detected with heterologous pilin. Antisera produced to cyanogen bromide-cleaved pilin proteins reacted strongly with homologous and heterologous pilin fragments and uncleaved pilin proteins. These findings demonstrate the presence of conserved antigenic determinants on pili from heterologous strains that are non-immunogenic in the intact pilus but are immunogenic after treatment with cyanogen bromide. Cyanogen bromide-treated pilus preparation might have potential as a vaccine because antibodies are induced against heterologous strains of M. bovis, whether these cross-reactive antibodies are protective remains to be determined. PMID:11348773

Greene, W H; Grubbs, S T; Potgieter, L N

2001-06-22

103

Measuring nasal bacterial load and its association with otitis media  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Nasal colonisation with otitis media (OM) pathogens, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, is a precursor to the onset of OM. Many children experience asymptomatic nasal carriage of these pathogens whereas others will progress to otitis media with effusion (OME) or suppurative OM. We observed a disparity in the prevalence of suppurative OM between Aboriginal children living

Heidi Smith-Vaughan; Roy Byun; Mangala Nadkarni; Nicholas A Jacques; Neil Hunter; Stephen Halpin; Peter S Morris; Amanda J Leach

2006-01-01

104

Use of oral cephalosporins in the treatment of acute otitis media in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selection of the most effective antimicrobial to treat acute otitis media (AOM) has become more difficult in recent years because of increasing antibiotic resistance among all AOM pathogens. Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin as well as amoxicillin ranges from 30 to 55% in the USA. Currently, 40–55% of Haemophilus influenzae and 90–100% of Moraxella catarrhalis are resistant to

Itzhak Brook

2004-01-01

105

Bacterial pathogens of otitis media and sinusitis: Detection in the nasopharynx with selective agar media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carriage rates for the bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (Streptococcus pneumoniae [SP], Hemophilus influenzae [HI], and Moraxella catarrhalis [MC]) are of interest. Culture on three selective agars was compared with culture on two standard agars to determine the more accurate method for detection of these species in the nasopharynx of healthy children. Weekly samples were obtained in winter from

Sharon Dudley; Kathleen Ashe; Birgit Winther; J. Owen Hendley

2001-01-01

106

Influenza A Virus-Induced Acute Otitis Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the significance of viral upper respiratory tract infections in the pathogenesis of acute otitis media (OM), 27 adults underwent intranasal inoculation with influenza A virus. Monitoring consisted of antibody titer determination, tympanometry, and otoscopy. Microbiologic analysis consisted of cultures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection for influenza A virus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. All

Craig A. Buchman; William J. Doyle; David P. Skoner; J. Christopher Post; Cuneyt M. Alper; James T. Seroky; Kenneth Anderson; Robert A. Preston; Frederick G. Hayden; Philip Fireman; Garth D. Ehrlich

1995-01-01

107

Vaccination and Otitis media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute otitis media (AOM) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae or Moraxella catarrhalis may induce specific systemic and\\/or local immune responses, which may protect from otitis media caused by the same bacteria. However, earlier clinical trials with pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccines have not been successful in preventing AOM. Recently developed pneumococcal polysaccharide-protein conjugates proved immunogenic even in infants, and a

P. Karma

2002-01-01

108

Antimicrobial activity of advanced-spectrum fluoroquinolones tested against more than 2000 contemporary bacterial isolates of species causing community-acquired respiratory tract infections in the United States (1999)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro activity of four newer fluoroquinolones (clinafloxacin, gemifloxacin, moxifloxacin, sitafloxacin) and an equal number control drugs in the same class (ciprofloxacin, grepafloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin) was determined by reference dilution tests against 2156 recent United States clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. All the fluoroquinolones demonstrated excellent in vitro activity against these pathogens. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates

L. M. Deshpande; R. N. Jones

2000-01-01

109

Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial pathogens associated with community-acquired respiratory tract infections in Asia: report from the Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Infection Pathogen Surveillance (CARTIPS) study, 2009–2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multicentre resistance surveillance study [Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Infection Pathogen Surveillance (CARTIPS)] investigating the susceptibilities of 2963 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and Streptococcus spp. from Asia against 12 antimicrobial agents was undertaken from 2009 to 2010. Based on the breakpoints for oral penicillin V recommended by the Clinical and

Hui Wang; Minjun Chen; Yingchun Xu; Hongli Sun; Qiwen Yang; Yunjian Hu; Bin Cao; Yunzhuo Chu; Yong Liu; Rong Zhang; Yunsong Yu; Ziyong Sun; Chao Zhuo; Yuxing Ni; Bijie Hu; Thean Yen Tan; Po-Ren Hsueh; Jen-Hsien Wang; Wen-Chien Ko; Yen-Hsu Chen; Hendro Wahjono

2011-01-01

110

Antimicrobianoterapia na Otite Média Aguda em Pacientes Pediátricos Antimicrobianoterapia na Otite Média Aguda em Pacientes Pediátricos Antimicrobianoterapia na Otite Média Aguda em Pacientes Pediátricos Antimicrobianoterapia na Otite Média Aguda em Pacientes Pediátricos Antimicrobianoterapia na Otite Média Aguda em Pacientes Pediátricos Antimicrobial Therapy in Pediatric Patients with Acute Otitis Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A otite média aguda (OMA) é uma inflamação do ouvido médio que apresenta um início rápido de sinais e sintomas, tais como otalgia, febre, irritabilidade, anorexia e ou vômito. Conforme estudos de timpanocentese, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae não-tipável e Moraxella catarrhalis são os agentes etiológicos mais freqüentemente associados a esta condição clínica. Apesar da resolução espontânea da maioria dos casos

Ademir Moura Júnior; Alba Cristina; S. Oliveira; Caroline L. Fidalgo; Cristina B. Silva; Douglas N. Santana

2007-01-01

111

The Alexander Project 1998-2000: susceptibility of pathogens isolated from community-acquired respiratory tract infection to commonly used antimicrobial agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The Alexander Project is a continuing surveillance study, begun in 1992, examining the suscep- tibility of pathogens involved in adult community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTI) to a range of antimicrobial agents. Materials and methods: This study tested the susceptibility of isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis collected between 1998 and 2000 to 23 antimicrobials. Minimum inhibitory

Michael R. Jacobs; David Felmingham; Peter C. Appelbaum; Reuben N. Grüneberg

112

Otitis media acuta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common, acute inflammation of the middle ear mucosa especially in toddlers. The etiology is caused by viruses such as Rhino-, RS-, Adeno-, Parainfluenza- und Influenza-viruses in most of the cases (80%). A bacterial superinfection due to Streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus influenza, Moraxella catarrhalis, group-A streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus can be observed in about 20% of

Peter R. Issing

2010-01-01

113

Antimicrobial Action of Nitens® Mouthwash (Cetyltrimethylammonium Naproxenate) on Multiple Isolates of Pharyngeal Microbes: A Controlled Study against Chlorhexidine, Benzydamine, Hexetidine, Amoxicillin, Amoxicillin-Clavulanate, Clarithromycin, and Cefaclor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Acute oropharyngeal and respiratory tract infections are due to a wide spectrum of microorganisms. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the in vitro activity of four antiseptics (cetyltrimethylammonium naproxenate, chlorhexidine, benzydamine, hexetidine) to four antibiotics (amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, clarithromycin, cefaclor) on strains of Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Methods: Susceptibility tests were

A. P. Pilloni; G. Buttini; D. Giannarelli; B. Giordano; M. R. Iovene; F. Montella; R. di Salvo; R. Colantuono; G. Lalli; M. A. Tufano

2002-01-01

114

Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

Nelson, O.D.

1997-09-04

115

Comparative in vitro activity of gemifloxacin against gram-positive and gram-negative clinical isolates in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro activity of gemifloxacin against 1,000 clinical isolates of 147 Streptococcus pneumoniae (115, penicilin susceptible; 26, intermediate penicillin-resistant and 6, penicillin-resistant), 127 Hemophilus influenzae (109, ? lactamasa non-producer; 18, ? lactamase producers), 95 Streptococcus pyogenes (6, azytromycin-resistant), 84 Moraxella catarrhalis (79, ? lactamase producers), 110 Staphilococcus aureus (89, methicillin-susceptible; 21, methicilin-resistant), 98 Eenterococcus faecalis and 339 Enterobacteriacea, (recovered

H Lopez; D Stepanik; V Vilches; S Scarano; B Sarachian; G Mikaelian; J Finlay; A Sucari

2001-01-01

116

Effects of antibiotic treatment in the subset of common-cold patients who have bacteria in nasopharyngeal secretions  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground Upper-respiratory-tract infection is one of the main causes of overuse of antibiotics. We have found previously that bacteria such as Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae can be isolated from the nasopharyngeal secretions of a substantial proportion of adults with upper-respiratory-tract infections. We have assessed the efficacy of co-amoxiclav in patients with common colds but no clinical signs

L Kaiser; D Lew; B Hirschel; R Auckenthaler; A Morabia; A Heald; J Voegli; H Stalder; P Benedict; F Terrier; W Wunderli; L Matter; D Germann

1996-01-01

117

Antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory tract pathogens in Japan during PROTEKT years 1–3 (1999–2002)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented on antimicrobial resistance among isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptoco-ccus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis collected in Japan during years 1–3 (1999–2002) of the Prospective Resistant Organism Tracking and Epidemiology for the Ketolide\\u000a Telithromycin (PROTEKT) surveillance study. In addition to the standard panel of PROTEKT antimicrobial agents, eight other\\u000a agents often used in Japan also were tested

Matsuhisa Inoue; Kenichi Kaneko; Kouji Akizawa; Shinichi Fujita; Mitsuo Kaku; Jun Igari; Keizo Yamaguchi; Shigeru Kohno; Kiyoharu Yamanaka; Yoshitsugu Iinuma; Mitsuharu Murase; Takashi Yokoyama; Seishi Asari; Yoichi Hirakata

2006-01-01

118

Postantibiotic and Post-b-Lactamase Inhibitor Effects of Amoxicillin plus Clavulanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The postantibiotic effect (PAE) of amoxicillin-clavulanate was studied for strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli. A PAE of approxi- mately2hwasseenfor b-lactamase-positiveand-negativestrainsofS.aureusfollowing2hofexposuretotwice the MIC and did not increase at 16 times the MIC. The PAE observed withH. influenzaewas clearly related to the growth rate of the organism. A PAE of 0.8 h was found

CHRISTINE E. THORBURN; SARA J. MOLESWORTH; ROBERT SUTHERLAND; ANDSTEPHEN RITTENHOUSE

1996-01-01

119

Comparative In Vitro Potency of Gemifloxacin and Fluoroquinolones Against Recent European Clinical Isolates from a Global Surveillance Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Gemifloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone with enhanced activity against gram-positive aerobes, was compared to ciprofloxacin,\\u000a levofloxacin and ofloxacin against 21,464 recent isolates from 16 European countries. Gemifloxacin was the most potent fluoroquinolone\\u000a against streptococci including penicillin-, macrolide- and ciprofloxacin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Acinetobacter spp., Haemophilus spp. and Moraxella catarrhalis. This drug was more potent than or comparable

D. J. Hoban; S. K. Bouchillon; J. L. Johnson; G. G. Zhanel; D. L. Butler; L. A. Miller; J. A. Poupard

2001-01-01

120

A review of the comparative in-vitro activities of 12 antimicrobial agents, with a focus on five new 'respiratory quinolones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacies of many antimicrobial agents are being threatened by a global increase in the numbers of resistant bacterial pathogens—microorganisms that were once susceptible to some of these agents. In particular, antimicrobial resistance amongst strains of Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae has limited the usefulness of first-line agents in some clinical settings. Quinolones were introduced in the 1980s

Joseph M. Blondeau

1999-01-01

121

Identification of the Conjugative mef Gene in Clinical Acinetobacter junii and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mef gene, originally described for gram-positive organisms and coding for an efflux pump, has been identified in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter junii and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. These strains could transfer the mef gene at frequencies ranging from 10 26 to 10 29 into one or more of the following recipients: gram-negative Moraxella catarrhalis, Neisseria perflava\\/sicca and Neisseria mucosa and gram-positive

VICKI A. LUNA; SYDNEY COUSIN; WILLIAM L. H. WHITTINGTON; MARILYN C. ROBERTS

2000-01-01

122

Two-Step PCR-Based Assay for Identification of Bacterial Etiology of Otitis Media with Effusion in Infected Lebanese Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed and evaluated a two-step PCR-based assay with universal primers and genus- or species- specific primers for the detection of the most prevalent bacterial etiologies of otitis media with effusion (OME) in children from Lebanese hospitals. These etiologies included Haemophilus, Streptococcus, and Moraxella (Bran- hamella) catarrhalis, which were detected in middle-ear effusion (MEE) samples taken from children with OME.

GHASSAN M. MATAR; NADA SIDANI; MICHEL FAYAD; USAMAH HADI

1998-01-01

123

Use of Multiplex PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Four Bacterial Species in Middle Ear Effusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiplex PCR procedure was developed for the simultaneous detection of Alloiococcus otitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in middle ear effusions (MEEs) from patients with chronic otitis media with effusion. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was chosen as the target, and the procedure used one common lower primer and four species-specific upper primers. The reaction was optimized

PANU H. HENDOLIN; AILA MARKKANEN; JUKKA YLIKOSKI; J. JARMO WAHLFORS

1997-01-01

124

Clinical bacteriology and immunology in acute otitis media in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common disease seen in childhood. Streptococcus pneumoniae, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most frequent pathogens of all AOM episodes. The high prevalence of drug-resistant pathogens such as penicillin-resistant\\u000a S. pneumoniae (PRSP) and betalactamase producing or nonproducing ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae (BLPAR or BLNAR) is causing serious clinical problems worldwide. PRSP

Noboru Yamanaka; Muneki Hotomi; Dewan S. Billal

2008-01-01

125

When Co-Colonizing the Nasopharynx Haemophilus influenzae Predominates over Streptococcus pneumoniae Except Serotype 19A Strains to Cause Acute Otitis Media  

PubMed Central

Of 368 acute otitis media (AOM) cases among 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate (PCV-7) vaccinated children, 43.5% were colonized by multiple otopathogens in the nasopharynx but only 7.1% experienced polymicrobial AOM. When co-colonization occurred, Haemophilus influenzae predominated over all Streptococcus pneumonia strains except 19A strains to cause AOM. Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumonia both predominated over Moraxella catarrhalis to cause AOM.

Xu, Qingfu; Casey, Janet R.; Chang, Arthur; Pichichero, Michael

2012-01-01

126

Cefditoren in vitro activity and spectrum: a review of international studies using reference methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cefditoren, a broad-spectrum orally administered cephalosporin ester, has documented in vitro efficacy against many Gram-positive and -negative pathogens and stability against clinically important ?-lactamases. We have reviewed the microbiology and the pharmacokinetic\\/pharmacodynamic literature regarding the spectrum and potency of this newer agent against the major etiologic agents of community-acquired respiratory infection, (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Hemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis), as well

Ronald N. Jones; Michael A. Pfaller; Michael R. Jacobs; Peter C. Appelbaum; Peter C. Fuchs

2001-01-01

127

In vitro antimicrobial activity of GAR936 tested against antibiotic-resistant gram-positive blood stream infection isolates and strains producing extended-spectrum ?-lactamases  

Microsoft Academic Search

GAR-936, a new, semisynthetic glycylcycline, has shown good antibacterial activity against a wide range of clinically important Gram-positive and –negative aerobic bacteria including Streptococcus pneumoniae,Hemophilus influenzae,Moraxella catarrhalis,Neisseria gonorrhoeae, most Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of GAR-936 against a range of Gram-positive and –negative bloodstream isolates including many strains producing

Douglas J Biedenbach; Mondell L Beach; Ronald N Jones

2001-01-01

128

Mucosal vaccination against bacterial respiratory infections.  

PubMed

Mucosal vaccination offers attractive advantages to conventional systemic vaccination, such as higher levels of antibodies and protection at the airway surface. This review gives an overview of recent experimental and clinical data on nasal, oral and sublingual vaccines against bacterial respiratory pathogens, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae , Neisseria meningitidis , Moraxella catarrhalis , Bordetella pertussis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Subsequently, we discuss further vaccine development that opens the focus to clinical use. PMID:18844598

Baumann, Ulrich

2008-10-01

129

Pharmacokinetic\\/pharmacodynamic modeling of in vitro activity of azithromycin against four different bacterial strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial time–kill curves of azithromycin against four bacterial strains (Streptococcus pneumoniae\\/penicillin-intermediate, S. pneumoniae\\/penicillin-sensitive, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis) were determined by in vitro infection models. Eighteen different pharmacokinetic\\/pharmacodynamic models were fitted to the time–kill data using non-linear regression and compared for best fit. A simple, widely used Emax model was not sufficient to describe the pharmacodynamic effects for the

Wanchai Treyaprasert; Stephan Schmidt; Kenneth H. Rand; Uthai Suvanakoot; Hartmut Derendorf

2007-01-01

130

Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM)-binding recombinant polypeptide confers protection against infection by respiratory and urogenital pathogens.  

PubMed

The human-specific pathogens Neisseria meningitidis, N. gonorrhoea, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis share the property of targeting the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) expressed on human epithelia. CEACAMs are signalling receptors implicated in cell adhesion and regulation of several physiological functions. Their targeting by pathogens can lead to tissue invasion. Although the CEACAM-binding ligands of the bacteria are structurally diverse, they target a common site on the receptor. We have generated a recombinant polypeptide that blocks the interactions of the mucosal pathogens with human epithelial cells and antibodies against it inhibit M. catarrhalis interactions with the receptor. As such, it is a potential antimicrobial agent to prevent infection via a strategy unlikely to promote bacterial resistance and a vaccine candidate against M. catarrhalis. In addition, it could serve more widely as a novel research tool and as a potential therapeutic agent in CEACAM-based physiological disorders. PMID:15720557

Hill, Darryl J; Edwards, Andrew M; Rowe, Helen A; Virji, Mumtaz

2005-03-01

131

Modelling the co-occurrence of Streptococcus pneumoniae with other bacterial and viral pathogens in the upper respiratory tract.  

PubMed

Otitis media (OM) is a major burden for all children, particularly for Australian Aboriginal children. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae and viruses (including rhinovirus and adenovirus) are associated with OM. We investigated nasopharyngeal microbial interactions in 435 samples collected from 79 Aboriginal and 570 samples from 88 non-Aboriginal children in Western Australia. We describe a multivariate random effects model appropriate for analysis of longitudinal data, which enables the identification of two independent levels of correlation between pairs of pathogens. At the microbe level, rhinovirus infection was positively correlated with carriage of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, and adenovirus with M. catarrhalis. Generally, there were positive associations between bacterial pathogens at both the host and microbe level. Positive viral-bacterial associations at the microbe level support previous findings indicating that viral infection can predispose an individual to bacterial carriage. Viral vaccines may assist in reducing the burden of bacterial disease. PMID:17030494

Jacoby, Peter; Watson, Kelly; Bowman, Jacinta; Taylor, Amanda; Riley, Thomas V; Smith, David W; Lehmann, Deborah

2006-09-22

132

DISTENSION ABDOMINAL POR HERPES ZOSTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Se presenta un caso de distensión abdominal por parálisis parietal debida a herpes zoster con erup- ción cutánea a nivel del 11° dermatoma dorsal izquierdo. El déficit motor en el zoster es inusual (2-3% de los casos publicados) y generalmente se observa en las extremidades. La frecuencia del compromiso de los músculos abdominales en series clínicas se estima en

FABIO A. BARROSO

133

Las infecciones emergentes transmitidas por garrapatas  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenLas infecciones transmitidas por garrapatas aparecen por todo el mundo y son bien conocidas desde hace más de 100 años. Algunas enfermedades transmitidas por garrapatas son muy comunes mientras que otras son extremadamente raras. Las técnicas genéticas moleculares modernas (y la mayor disponibilidad de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa) han llevado al descubrimiento y la clasificación de nuevos

Ingomar Mutz

2009-01-01

134

Isolation Of A New Moraxella From A Corneal Abscess  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods and media used were those of Cowan and Steel (1965) with some modifi- cations. Indole, nitrate, methyl-red, Voges-Proskauer and H2S tests were carried out both in the usual media and, because of the poor growth obtained in these media, also in the same media enriched with 0.5 per cent. yeast extract. Carbohydrate fermentation tests were carried out at

R. G. A. Sutton; M. F. O'KEEFFE; M. A. Bundock; J. Jeboult; M. P. Tester

1972-01-01

135

Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan  

SciTech Connect

This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

Nelson, O.D.

1998-07-25

136

Organismos que causan enfermedades transmitidas por los ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... Staphylococcus aureus Envenenamiento por consumo de alimentos con estafilococos De 1 a 6 horas Inicio repentino de náuseas y vómitos ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants

137

One third of middle ear effusions from children undergoing tympanostomy tube placement had multiple bacterial pathogens  

PubMed Central

Background Because previous studies have indicated that otitis media may be a polymicrobial disease, we prospectively analyzed middle ear effusions of children undergoing tympanostomy tube placement with multiplex polymerase chain reaction for four otopathogens. Methods Middle ear effusions from 207 children undergoing routine tympanostomy tube placement were collected and were classified by the surgeon as acute otitis media (AOM) for purulent effusions and as otitis media with effusion (OME) for non-purulent effusions. DNA was isolated from these samples and analyzed with multiplex polymerase chain reaction for Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Alloiococcus otitidis, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Results 119 (57%) of 207 patients were PCR positive for at least one of these four organisms. 36 (30%) of the positive samples indicated the presence of more than one bacterial species. Patient samples were further separated into 2 groups based on clinical presentation at the time of surgery. Samples were categorized as acute otitis media (AOM) if pus was observed behind the tympanic membrane. If no pus was present, samples were categorized as otitis media with effusion (OME). Bacteria were identified in most of the children with AOM (87%) and half the children with OME (51%, p?Moraxella catarrhalis were more frequently identified in middle ear effusions than Streptococcus pneumoniae. Conclusions Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Alloiococcus otitidis, and Moraxella catarrhalis were identified in the middle ear effusions of some patients with otitis media. Overall, we found AOM is predominantly a single organism infection and most commonly from Haemophilus influenzae. In contrast, OME infections had a more equal distribution of single organisms, polymicrobial entities, and non-bacterial agents.

2012-01-01

138

Identification of the conjugative mef gene in clinical Acinetobacter junii and Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates.  

PubMed

The mef gene, originally described for gram-positive organisms and coding for an efflux pump, has been identified in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter junii and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. These strains could transfer the mef gene at frequencies ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-9) into one or more of the following recipients: gram-negative Moraxella catarrhalis, Neisseria perflava/sicca and Neisseria mucosa and gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis. Three Streptococcus pneumoniae strains could transfer the mef gene into Eikenella corrodens, Haemophilus influenzae, Kingella denitrificans, M. catarrhalis, Neisseria meningitidis, N. perflava/sicca, and N. mucosa at similar frequencies. The mef gene can thus be transferred to and expressed in a variety of gram-negative recipients. PMID:10952602

Luna, V A; Cousin, S; Whittington, W L; Roberts, M C

2000-09-01

139

Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms.  

PubMed

P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ?40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ?60%, is found on ?28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (?8% of Asians and ?13% of Caucasians) at -152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ?30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

Miller, Walter L; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M

2010-11-09

140

Cloning and expression of a gene with phospholipase B activity from Pseudomonas fluorescens in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

A gene from Pseudomonasfluorescens BIT-18 encoding a protein with phospholipase B activity (Pf-PLB) was cloned in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The open reading frame consists of 1272 bp and potentially encodes a protein of 423 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 45.8 kDa. The nucleotide sequence of Pf-PLB is 45%, 42%, 41%, 40%, 33%, and 31% identical to that of Bifidobacterium animals, Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum, Acidobacterium capsulatum, Lactobacillus johnsonii, Moraxella bovis, and Moraxella catarrhalis, respectively. The His-tagged protein was purified by affinity chromatography and the eluted protein hydrolyzed both the 1- and 2-ester bond of phosphatidylcholine. The recombinant Pf-PLB had optimal activity at pH 6.0 and 30 °C, and it showed 20.1% higher efficiency in the conversion rate of the phosphorus content than the wild-type. PMID:22078969

Jiang, Fangyan; Huang, Shen; Imadad, Kaleem; Li, Chun

2011-10-07

141

Pneumonia in a nursing home.  

PubMed

The authors studied nursing home residents serologically to determine whether atypical organisms were causes of radiologic pneumonia. The study was conducted at the Wisconsin Veterans Home, a facility with on-site microbiology and x-ray. Over one year, serologic examinations for Legionella, Mycoplasma, and Chlamydia were conducted for the residents who had pneumonia. Cultures and mortality were reviewed. Fifty-six episodes were studied (mean resident age 78 years). There was no fourfold titer change. Seventeen quality sputum specimens revealed Streptococcus pneumoniae (5), normal flora (4), Hemophilus influenzae (4), Moraxella catarrhalis (3), Staphylococcus aureus (1), and beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, not group A (1). The two-month mortality was 21%. This study did not result in serologic confirmation of atypical organisms' causing pneumonia. Antibiotic choice should be based on coverage of prevalent organisms, including Hemophilus influenzae, Moraxella, and Staphylococcus, as well as clinical features. PMID:7853075

Drinka, P J; Gauerke, C; Voeks, S; Miller, J; Schultz, S; Krause, P; Golubjatnikov, R

1994-11-01

142

Viral-bacterial co-infection in Australian Indigenous children with acute otitis media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Acute otitis media with perforation (AOMwiP) affects 40% of remote Indigenous children during the first 18 months of life.\\u000a Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis are the primary bacterial pathogens of otitis media and their loads predict clinical ear state. Our hypothesis is that antecedent\\u000a respiratory viral infection increases bacterial density and progression to perforation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 366

Michael J Binks; Allen C Cheng; Heidi Smith-Vaughan; Theo Sloots; Michael Nissen; David Whiley; Joseph McDonnell; Amanda J Leach

2011-01-01

143

Trauma ocular ocupacional por corpo estranho superficial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objetivo: Estudar a ocorrência de trauma ocular provocado por corpos estranhos superficiais durante a realização de atividades ocupacionais. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo de pacientes portadores de trauma ocular ocupacional atendidos no serviço de urgência do Hospital Getúlio Vargas (HGV) \\/ Universidade Federal do Piauí (UFPI), no período de outubro de 1997 a março de 1999. Os seguintes dados foram coletados: idade,

Fernando Antônio de Macedo Leal; Arthur Pereira da Silva e Filho; Daniela Martins Neiva; Josilene Carvalho Soares Learth; Durwagner Barros da Silveira

2003-01-01

144

Comparative in vitro activity of gemifloxacin against gram-positive and gram-negative clinical isolates in Argentina.  

PubMed

The in vitro activity of gemifloxacin against 1,000 clinical isolates of 147 Streptococcus pneumoniae (115, penicilin susceptible; 26, intermediate penicillin-resistant and 6, penicillin-resistant), 127 Hemophilus influenzae (109, beta lactamasa non-producer; 18, beta lactamase producers), 95 Streptococcus pyogenes (6, azytromycin-resistant), 84 Moraxella catarrhalis (79, beta lactamase producers), 110 Staphilococcus aureus (89, methicillin-susceptible; 21, methicilin-resistant), 98 Eenterococcus faecalis and 339 Enterobacteriacea, (recovered from patients with respiratory tract infection; skin and soft tissue infection and urinary tract infection), was compared with the activities of four fluorquinolones and five other antimicrobial agents. Of the quinolones tested, gemifloxacin was the most potent against Streptococcus pneumoniae, including penicillin intermediate and resistant strains. Mic(90) values obtained for gemifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and trvafloxacin were 0.03, 2, 2, 1 and 0.25 mg/L respectively. Gemifloxacin was 16 fold more potent than ciprofloxacin against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and 32 fold more potent than ciprofloxacin against Streptococcus pyogenes. When tested against Hemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Enterobacteriaceae, all the quinolones showed similar activity. Our results demonstrate that gemifloxacin has similar activity than the other quinolones tested against Gram-negative organisms and is considerably more potent against Gram-positive organisms. PMID:11576792

Lopez, H; Stepanik, D; Vilches, V; Scarano, S; Sarachian, B; Mikaelian, G; Finlay, J; Sucari, A

2001-08-01

145

Concurrent Assay for Four Bacterial Species Including Alloiococcus Otitidis in Middle Ear, Nasopharynx and Tonsils of Children with Otitis Media with Effusion: A Preliminary Report  

PubMed Central

Objectives To detect the prevalences of Alloiococcus otitidis, as well as Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in children with chronic otitis media with effusion (OME) and to simultaneously investigate the colonization of these bacteria in the nasopharynx and palatine tonsils of these patients. Methods The study included 34 pediatric patients with OME, and 15 controls without OME. In the study group, A. otitidis, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis were investigated in the samples obtained from middle ear effusions (MEE), nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and tonsillar swabs (TS), using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and conventional culture methods. Only the samples obtained from NPS and TS were studied with the same techniques in the control group. Results A. otitidis was isolated only in MEE and only with multiplex PCR method. A. otitidis, S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis, H. influenzae were identified in 35%, 8.8%, 8.8%, and 2.9%, respectively, in 34 MEE. A. otitidis was not isolated in NPS or TS of the study and the control groups. Conclusion The prevalence of A.otitidis is high in children with OME and A.otitidis doesn't colonize in the nasopharynx or tonsil.

Tastan, Eren; Yucel, Mihriban; Aydogan, Filiz; Karakoc, Esra; Arslan, Necmi; Kantekin, Yunus; Demirci, Munir

2012-01-01

146

Prulifloxacin in the treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD in cigarette smokers.  

PubMed

Smoking is associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract infection in adults likely because components in the smoke might alter properties of the epithelial cell surface. In studies with smokers suffering from acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD), the most common bacterial pathogens found were mainly Haemophilus influenzae, but also Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Therefore, antibiotics should be effective against such possible pathogens. Prulifloxacin has demonstrated in vitro activity against all these pathogens. We designed the present study to evaluate the efficacy of prulifloxacin in the treatment of AECOPD in cigarette smokers. We enrolled 61 consecutive smokers hospitalized or out-patients of either sex with symptoms and signs compatible with the usual diagnosis criteria for AECOPD. Haemophilus influenzae was the most common bacterial species isolated in the sputum (in 42.6% of the total sample), followed by S. pneumoniae (16.5%), S. aureus (14.7%), M. catarrhalis (11.5%), and others (14.7%). Prulifloxacin 600 mg was given orally once daily for 10 days. Clinical success was observed in 91.8% of patients (67.2% cured and 24.6% improved). Bacteriological eradication rate of H. influenzae was 100%. Persistent pathogens were S. pneumoniae (2 out of 10), S. aureus (1 out of 8), M. catarrhalis (1 out of 7), and P. aeruginosa (1 out of 3). This study seems to indicate that prulifloxacin is of particular value in the treatment of AECOPD in cigarette smokers. PMID:19124373

Pasqua, Franco; Biscione, Gianluca; Crigna, Girolmina; Cazzola, Mario

2008-08-01

147

Immunogenicity of meningococcal PorA antigens in OMV vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the prevention of meningococcal infection caused by group B meningococci, the Netherlands Vaccine Institute (NVI) has developed a hexavalent Porin A (PorA) based Outer Membrane Vesicle (OMV) vaccine (Hexamen). In various clinical studies with HexaMen, differences in the immune responses to the individual PorAs were observed. Factors involved in the development of the PorA specific immune response were studied,

T. A. Luijkx

2006-01-01

148

Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

149

CARACTERIZAÇÃO MOLECULAR DE BUTIAZEIRO POR MARCADORES RAPD1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO- O grupo botânico Arecaceae é de extremo interesse por compreender plantas em extinção e por apresentar um grande potencial de exploração econômica. O butiazeiro (Butia capitata (Mart.) Becc.) ocorre naturalmente no Sul do Brasil. Sua caracterização molecular é de extremo interesse para futuros trabalhos de melhoramento genético. Assim sendo, verificou-se a variabilidade genética existente entre vinte e dois genótipos

ADRISE MEDEIROS NUNES; VALMOR JOÃO BIANCHI; JOSÉ CARLOS FACHINELLO; ALEXANDRE ZANARDO DE CARVALHO; GUILHERME CARDOSO

150

Erythromycin in acute laryngitis in adults.  

PubMed

Moraxella catarrhalis and Hemophilus influenzae are isolated from the nasopharynx in 50% to 55% and 8% to 15%, respectively, of cases of acute laryngitis in adults. This finding indicates that these organisms, M catarrhalis in particular, are in some way involved in the pathogenesis of the disorder. In the present double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the effect of erythromycin ethylsuccinate (0.5 g twice a day for 5 days) on the elimination of nasopharyngeal pathogens and reduction of clinical signs of upper respiratory tract infection, as well as on subjective complaints, was evaluated in 106 adults with acute laryngitis. The bacterial isolation rates at presentation were M catarrhalis 50%, H influenzae 18%, and Streptococcus pneumoniae 4%. In the 99 patients who completed the study, the elimination of M catarrhalis after 1 week was better in the erythromycin group (25 of 30 cases) than in the placebo group (6 of 19 cases; p < or = .00038). The elimination of H influenzae was unaffected by erythromycin. Otolaryngologic examination did not reveal any significant group differences regarding laryngitis, pharyngitis, or rhinitis. Voice quality was improved after 1 week, irrespective of treatment. However, as compared to the placebo group, the erythromycin group reported fewer voice complaints after 1 week and fewer coughing complaints after 2 weeks. As acute laryngitis in adults is self-limiting, and subjective symptoms are spontaneously reduced after 1 week in most cases, antibiotic treatment does not seem warranted as a general policy. However, erythromycin may be justified in patients who are professionally dependent on voice function. PMID:8457123

Schalén, L; Eliasson, I; Kamme, C; Schalén, C

1993-03-01

151

Differences in nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage in preschool children from different socio-economic origins.  

PubMed

A prospective cohort study of preschool healthy children (3-6 years old) from two distinct socio-economic settings in the Brussels area, Belgium, was conducted during the years 2006-2008. The objectives were to evaluate nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae at the time of PCV7 vaccine introduction and to assess the socio-economic level impact on flora composition and antibiotic resistance. Three hundred and thirty-three children were included and a total of 830 nasopharyngeal samples were collected together with epidemiological data. Pneumococcal serotypes and antibiotic resistance profiles were determined. Risk factors for carriage and bacterial associations were analysed by multivariate logistic regression. Carriage rates were high for all pathogens. Fifty per cent of the children were colonized at least once with S. aureus, 69% with S. pneumoniae, 67% with M. catarrhalis and 83% with H. influenzae. PCV7 uptake was higher among children from a higher socio-economic setting and S. pneumoniae serotypes varied accordingly. Children from lower socio-economic schools were more likely to carry M. catarrhalis, S. aureus and antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae, including a high proportion of non-typeable pneumococcal strains. Positive associations between S. pneumoniae and H. Influenza, between H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis and between H. influenzae and S. aureus were detected. Our study indicates that nasopharynx flora composition is influenced not only by age but also by socio-economic settings. A child's nasopharynx might represent a unique dynamic environment modulated by intricate interactions between bacterial species, host immune system and PCV7 immunization. PMID:20977542

Jourdain, S; Smeesters, P R; Denis, O; Dramaix, M; Sputael, V; Malaviolle, X; Van Melderen, L; Vergison, A

2010-12-14

152

System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

Nelson, O.D.

1998-07-25

153

Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.  

PubMed

The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. PMID:23075153

Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

2012-11-08

154

Ulcerative blepharitis and conjunctivitis in adult dairy cows and association with Moraxella bovoculi  

PubMed Central

Nine lactating dairy cows were evaluated because of eye lesions. Examination revealed mild to severe ulceration of the lower and/or upper eyelids, mild to severe swelling surrounding affected eyes, and profuse lacrimation. Lesions typically affected 1 eye, and involved the eyelid skin and conjunctiva. Oxytetracycline treatment led to cure within 2 wk.

Galvao, Klibs N.; Angelos, John A.

2010-01-01

155

Penicillin failure in the treatment of streptococcal pharyngo-tonsillitis.  

PubMed

The inadequate penetration of penicillins into the tonsillar tissues and tonsillar surface fluid and microbiologic interactions between Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) and other pharyngo-tonsillar bacterial flora can account for their failure in eradicating GABHS pharyngo-tonsillitis (PT). These interactions include the presence of beta-lactamase producing bacteria (BLPB) that "shield" GABHS from penicillins, the absence of bacteria that interfere with the growth of GABHS, and the coaggregation between GABHS and Moraxella catarrhalis. In the treatment of acute tonsillitis, the use of cephalosporins can overcome these interactions by eradicating aerobic BLPB, while preserving the potentially interfering organisms and eliminating GABHS. In treatment of recurrent and chronic PT, the administration of clindamycin or amoxicillin-clavulanatecan eradicates both aerobic and anaerobic BLPB, as well as GABHS. PMID:23588893

Brook, Itzhak

2013-06-01

156

In vitro activity of moxifloxacin(BAY 12-8039) against respiratory tract pathogens from six Latin-American countries.  

PubMed

The in vitro antibacterial activity of moxifloxacin (BAY 12-8039) was evaluated against 636 isolates of respiratory tract pathogens. The isolates were collected from July 1997 to August 1998 in the frame of a multinational Latin American study. E-test strips calibrated to read moxifloxacin MIC ranges from 0.002 to 32 microg/ml were used in susceptibility testing. Weekly quality control tests in each laboratory ensured reproducibility. Laboratories from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Uruguay participated. MIC(90) for moxifloxacin were as follows: Streptococcus pneumoniae (304 isolates) 0.25 microg/ml, Haemophilus influenzae (135 isolates) 0.125 microg/ ml, Streptococcus pyogenes (66 isolates) 0.25 microg/ml, Moraxella catarrhalis (62 isolates) 0. 25 microg/ml and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (69 isolates) 0.25 microg/ml. These results agreed with reports from other areas. Moxifloxacin showed excellent activity against respiratory pathogens from participant countries. PMID:11053902

Cardeñosa G, O; Soto-Hernández, J L

157

Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device

D. S. Judson; A. J. Boston; P. J. Coleman-Smith; D. M. Cullen; A. Hardie; L. J. Harkness; L. L. Jones; M. Jones; I. Lazarus; P. J. Nolan; V. Pucknell; S. V. Rigby; P. Seller; D. P. Scraggs; J. Simpson; M. Slee; A. Sweeney

2011-01-01

158

Photodynamic therapy with water-soluble phtalocyanines against bacterial biofilms in teeth root canals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study presents the PDT with metal phthalocyanines on biofilms grown in root canals of ten representatives of the Gram-positive and the Gram-negative bacterial species and a fungus Candida albicans which cause aqute teeth infections in root canals.. The extracted human single-root teeth infected for 48 h with microorganisms in conditions to form biofilms of the above pathogens were PDT treated. The stage of biofilm formation and PDT effect of the samples of the teeth were determined by the scaning electron microscopy and with standard microbial tests. The PDT treating procedure included 10 min incubation with the respected phthalocyanine and irradiated with 660 nm Diode laser for 10 min. The most strongly antibacterial activity was achieved with zinc(II) phthalocyanine (ZnPc) against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis. The other Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans were 10-100 times more resistant than the Gram-positive species. The Gram-negative Moraxella catarrhalis and Acinetobacter baumannii were more sensitive than the enterobacteria, but eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in biofilm was insignificant. The influence of the stage of biofilm formation and the initial conditions (bacterial density, photosensitizer concentration and energy fluence of radiation) to the obtained level of inactivation of biofilms was investigated. The PDT with ZnPc photosensitizers show a powerful antimicrobial activity against the most frequent pathogens in endodontic infections and this method for inactivation of pathogens may be used with sucsses for treatment of the bacterial biofilms in the root canals.

Gergova, Raina; Georgieva, Tzvetelina; Angelov, Ivan; Mantareva, Vanya; Valkanov, Serjoga; Mitov, Ivan; Dimitrov, Slavcho

2012-05-01

159

[Consensus guidelines for the management of upper respiratory tract infections].  

PubMed

Upper respiratory tract infections are the most common source of antibiotic prescriptions. Acute pharyngitis is caused mainly by viruses, viral cases can be distinguished from acute streptococcal pharyngitis using Centor clinical epidemiological criteria, by rapid antigen tests or throat culture. Treatment of choice for streptococcal infection is penicillin V given in two daily doses. In children, acute otitis media (AOM) is the infection for which antibiotics are most often prescribed. Predominant causative pathogens include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae non-type b and Moraxella catarrhalis. Diagnosis is based on history, physical examination and otoscopic exam. Antibiotic treatment should be initiated promptly in all children<2 years of age, and in older children presenting bilateral AOM, otorrhoea, co-morbidities or severe illness. In Argentina, amoxicillin is the drug of choice given the low penicillin resistance rates for S. pneumoniae. In children who fail amoxicillin therapy, amoxicillin/clavulanate provides better coverage against beta-lactamase producing H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. Rhinosinusitis is caused mainly by viruses, secondary bacterial complication occurs in less than 5% of cases. Diagnosis is based on physical examination and additional studies are not usually required. Acute bacterial sinusitis is caused by the same pathogens that cause AOM and amoxicillin is the drug of choice. PMID:23241293

Lopardo, Gustavo; Calmaggi, Aníbal; Clara, Liliana; Levy Hara, Gabriel; Mykietiuk, Analía; Pryluka, Daniel; Ruvinsky, Silvina; Vujacich, Claudia; Yahni, Diego; Bogdanowicz, Elizabeth; Klein, Manuel; López Furst, María J; Pensotti, Claudia; Rial, María J; Scapellato, Pablo

2012-01-01

160

Microbial interactions in the respiratory tract.  

PubMed

Upper respiratory tract infections are caused by the synergistic and antagonistic interactions between upper respiratory tract viruses and 3 predominant bacterial pathogens: Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and Moraxella catarrhalis, which are members of the commensal flora of the nasopharynx. For many bacterial pathogens, colonization of host mucosal surfaces is a first and necessary step in the infectious process. S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae have intricate interactions in the nasopharynx. The host innate immune response may influence these interactions and therefore influence the composition of the colonizing flora and the invading bacteria. S. pneumoniae, nontypeable H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis can behave as opportunistic pathogens of the middle ear when conditions are optimal. Chronic otitis media (OM) and recurrent OM include a biofilm component. Each of the 3 predominant pathogens of OM can form a biofilm and have been shown to comprise biofilms present on middle ear mucosa specimens recovered from children with recurrent or chronic OM. Some of these characterized biofilms are of mixed bacterial etiology, suggesting that progress made on single-microbe directed strategies for treatment and/or prevention of OM, although highly encouraging, are likely to be inadequate. A significantly greater understanding about microbial physiology is required as it relates to the involvement of biofilms in OM, to identify points in the natural course of the disease that are perhaps more amenable to treatment strategies, as well as to identify biofilm-relevant antigenic targets that would be helpful in the rational design of vaccines to prevent OM. PMID:19918134

Murphy, Timothy F; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Smeesters, Pierre R

2009-10-01

161

Restored functional immunogenicity of purified meningococcal PorA by incorporation into liposomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of the conformation, lipooligosaccharide (LOS)-depletion and the presentation form of outer membrane protein PorA from Neisseria meningitidis (PorA) subtype P1.7-2,4 on the immune response in mice was studied. Native PorA was purified from outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) derived from meningococci and reconstituted into liposomes. The conformation of PorA after purification from OMVs and reconstitution in liposomes was monitored

Carmen Arigita; Gideon F. A. Kersten; Ton Hazendonk; Wim E. Henninka; Daan J. A. Crommelin; Wim Jiskoot

2003-01-01

162

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer publica nuevo atlas de mortalidad por cáncer  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI, por sus siglas en inglés) ha publicado un nuevo atlas, el Atlas de Mortalidad por Cáncer en los Estados Unidos, 1950-94, que muestra los patrones geográficos de las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer durante más de cuatro décadas, en más de 3.000 condados a lo largo del país.

163

ZOONOSES CAUSADAS POR PARASITAS INTESTINAIS DE CÃES E O PROBLEMA DO DIAGNÓSTICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Os últimos 20 anos foram marcados por um intenso progresso tecnológico e por importantes alterações culturais e sociais com reflexos tanto em saúde humana como animal. Entretanto, infelizmente, as zoonoses causadas por parasitas intestinais de cães não deixaram de ser um problema permanente de saúde pública nos países em desenvolvimento, e uma preocupação crescente nos países desenvolvidos. A eficácia

S. Katagiri; T. C. G. Oliveira-Sequeira

2007-01-01

164

Bacteriological efficacy of 5-day therapy with telithromycin in acute maxillary sinusitis.  

PubMed

Increasing resistance among the key pathogens responsible for community-acquired respiratory tract infections, namely Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, has the potential to limit the effectiveness of the antibacterial agents available to treat these infections. Moreover, there are regional differences in the susceptibility patterns observed and, as treatment is usually empirical, choosing an effective treatment can be challenging. Telithromycin, the first ketolide to be approved for clinical use, offers an activity profile that covers the key respiratory pathogens including penicillin- and macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae as well as beta-lactamase-producing H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. In a pooled analysis of three large controlled clinical trials involving patients with acute maxillary sinusitis, the bacteriological efficacy of 5- or 10-day treatment with telithromycin and 10-day treatment with comparators was evaluated. Telithromycin administered as a once-daily 800 mg dose for 5 days achieved eradication rates of 91.8, 87.5 and 92.9% for S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, respectively. Bacteriological eradication of 8/10 and 12/14 isolates of S. pneumoniae resistant to penicillin and erythromycin, respectively, was also reported following 5-day treatment with telithromycin. The clinical efficacy of this regimen was equivalent to that of a 10-day regimen of telithromycin or standard 10-day courses of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or cefuroxime axetil. Telithromycin 800mg given for 5 days was well tolerated, with the majority of adverse events being of mild or moderate intensity. These data suggest that telithromycin provides effective first-line therapy for use in patients with acute maxillary sinusitis in a short and convenient once-daily dosage regimen. PMID:15737519

Buchanan, P; Roos, K; Tellier, G; Rangaraju, M; Leroy, B

2005-03-01

165

National and Regional Assessment of Antimicrobial Resistance among Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Pathogens Identified in a 2005-2006 U.S. Faropenem Surveillance Study?  

PubMed Central

Surveillance studies conducted in the United States over the last decade have revealed increasing resistance among community-acquired respiratory pathogens, especially Streptococcus pneumoniae, that may limit future options for empirical therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the scope and magnitude of the problem at the national and regional levels during the 2005-2006 respiratory season (the season when community-acquired respiratory pathogens are prevalent) in the United States. Also, since faropenem is an oral penem being developed for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, another study objective was to provide baseline data to benchmark changes in the susceptibility of U.S. respiratory pathogens to the drug in the future. The in vitro activities of faropenem and other agents were determined against 1,543 S. pneumoniae isolates, 978 Haemophilus influenzae isolates, and 489 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates collected from 104 U.S. laboratories across six geographic regions during the 2005-2006 respiratory season. Among S. pneumoniae isolates, the rates of resistance to penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and cefdinir were 16, 6.4, and 19.2%, respectively. The least effective agents were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) and azithromycin, with resistance rates of 23.5 and 34%, respectively. Penicillin resistance rates for S. pneumoniae varied by region (from 8.7 to 22.5%), as did multidrug resistance rates for S. pneumoniae (from 8.8 to 24.9%). Resistance to ?-lactams, azithromycin, and SXT was higher among S. pneumoniae isolates from children than those from adults. ?-Lactamase production rates among H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates were 27.4 and 91.6%, respectively. Faropenem MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited were 0.5 ?g/ml for S. pneumoniae, 1 ?g/ml for H. influenzae, and 0.5 ?g/ml for M. catarrhalis, suggesting that faropenem shows promise as a treatment option for respiratory infections caused by contemporary resistant phenotypes.

Critchley, Ian A.; Brown, Steven D.; Traczewski, Maria M.; Tillotson, Glenn S.; Janjic, Nebojsa

2007-01-01

166

Upper respiratory tract microbial communities, acute otitis media pathogens, and antibiotic use in healthy and sick children.  

PubMed

The composition of the upper respiratory tract microbial community may influence the risk for colonization by the acute otitis media (AOM) pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. We used culture-independent methods to describe upper respiratory tract microbial communities in healthy children and children with upper respiratory tract infection with and without concurrent AOM. Nasal swabs and data were collected in a cross-sectional study of 240 children between 6 months and 3 years of age. Swabs were cultured for S. pneumoniae, and real-time PCR was used to identify S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis. The V1-V2 16S rRNA gene regions were sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing. Microbial communities were described using a taxon-based approach. Colonization by S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis was associated with lower levels of diversity in upper respiratory tract flora. We identified commensal taxa that were negatively associated with colonization by each AOM bacterial pathogen and with AOM. The balance of these relationships differed according to the colonizing AOM pathogen and history of antibiotic use. Children with antibiotic use in the past 6 months and a greater abundance of taxa, including Lactococcus and Propionibacterium, were less likely to have AOM than healthy children (odds ratio [OR], 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25 to 0.85). Children with no antibiotic use in the past 6 months, a low abundance of Streptococcus and Haemophilus, and a high abundance of Corynebacterium and Dolosigranulum were less likely to have AOM (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.83). An increased understanding of polymicrobial interactions will facilitate the development of effective AOM prevention strategies. PMID:22752171

Pettigrew, Melinda M; Laufer, Alison S; Gent, Janneane F; Kong, Yong; Fennie, Kristopher P; Metlay, Joshua P

2012-06-29

167

Postantibiotic and post-beta-lactamase inhibitor effects of amoxicillin plus clavulanate.  

PubMed Central

The postantibiotic effect (PAE) of amoxicillin-clavulanate was studied for strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli. A PAE of approximately 2 h was seen for beta-lactamase-positive and -negative strains of S. aureus following 2 h of exposure to twice the MIC and did not increase at 16 times the MIC. The PAE observed with H. influenzae was clearly related to the growth rate of the organism. A PAE of 0.8 h was found for amoxicillin (four times the MIC) against a beta-lactamase-negative strain of H. influenzae (generation time, 26.3 min) and a PAE of 1.74 h was found for amoxicillin-clavulanate (twice the MIC) against a beta-lactamase-positive strain (generation time, 32.2 min). When the beta-lactamase-positive strain was growing more slowly (generation time, 120 min), the PAE of amoxicillin-clavulanate increased to > 3.32 h. The PAE of amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2/1 micrograms/ml on a beta-lactamase-producing strain of M. catarrhalis was > 2.9 h, and, as expected, the PAEs of twice the MIC on K. pneumoniae and E. coli were generally short (< 1 h). The post-beta-lactamase inhibitor effect (PLIE), determined after removal of only clavulanate, was also examined for beta-lactamase-positive strains. This was more prolonged (approximately 3 to 4 h) than the corresponding PAE for S. aureus, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis. The PLIE was related to the amount of beta-lactamase produced and required the presence of amoxicillin in the initial exposure period. These data may have implications for reducing the dosage of amoxicillin-clavulanate.

Thorburn, C E; Molesworth, S J; Sutherland, R; Rittenhouse, S

1996-01-01

168

Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E  

SciTech Connect

This document describes Acceptance Testing performed on Portable Exhauster POR-007/Skid E. It includes measurements of bearing vibration levels, pressure decay testing, programmable logic controller interlocks, high vacuum, flow and pressure control functional testing. The purpose of Acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-0490, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

Kriskovich, J.R.

1998-07-24

169

Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

PorGamRays Collaboration Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.

2011-10-01

170

ÓPTIMO DE COBERTURA VEGETAL EN RELACIÓN A LAS PÉRDIDAS DE SUELO POR EROSIÓN HÍDRICA Y LAS PÉRDIDAS DE LLUVIA POR INTERCEPTACIÓN  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Se establece, en una primera aproximación, el óptimo de cobertura en función de las pér- didas de suelo por erosión hídrica y de las pérdidas de lluvia por interceptación, en un mato- rral (romeral), en condiciones ambientales semiáridas mediterráneas, con un mismo tipo de suelo y dos tramos de pendiente de ladera, 11% y 25%. Se utiliza el promedio

Belmonte Serrato; Romero Díaz; López Bermúdez; E. Hernández Laguna

171

Mitochondrial Porin Por1 and Its Homolog Por2 Contribute to the Positive Control of Snf1 Protein Kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Snf1 is a member of the conserved Snf1/AMP-activated protein kinase (Snf1/AMPK) family involved in regulating responses to energy limitation, which is detected by mechanisms that include sensing adenine nucleotides. Mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) proteins, also known as mitochondrial porins, are conserved in eukaryotes from yeast to humans and play key roles in mediating mitochondrial outer membrane permeability to small metabolites, including ATP, ADP, and AMP. We previously recovered the yeast mitochondrial porin Por1 (yVDAC1) from a two-hybrid screen for Snf1-interacting proteins. Here, we present evidence that Snf1 interacts with Por1 and its homolog Por2 (yVDAC2). Cells lacking Por1 and Por2, but not respiratory-deficient rho0 cells lacking the mitochondrial genome, exhibit reduced Snf1 activation loop phosphorylation in response to glucose limitation. Thus, Por1 and Por2 contribute to the positive control of Snf1 protein kinase. Physical proximity to the VDAC proteins and mitochondrial surface could facilitate Snf1's ability to sense energy limitation.

Strogolova, Vera; Orlova, Marianna; Shevade, Aishwarya

2012-01-01

172

Proposed Standardization of Neisseria meningitidis PorA Variable-Region Typing Nomenclature  

PubMed Central

Neisseria meningitidis isolates are conventionally classified by serosubtyping, which characterizes the reactivities of the PorA outer membrane protein variable-region (VR) epitopes with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). A newer method (PorA VR typing) uses predicted amino acid sequences derived from DNA sequence analysis. The resulting classification schemes are not standardized, offering conflicting and sometimes irreconcilable data from the two methods. In this paper, we propose a standardization of the PorA VR typing nomenclature that incorporates serologic information from traditional PorA serosubtyping with molecular data from predicted VR sequences. We performed a comprehensive literature and database search, generating a collection of strains and DNA sequences that reflects the diversity within PorA that exists to date. We have arranged this information in a comprehensive logical model that includes both serosubtype and PorA VR type assignments. Our data demonstrate that the current panel of serosubtype-defining MAbs underestimates PorA VR variability by at least 50%. Our proposal for VR typing is informative because amino acid sequence and serologic information, when serosubtype-defining MAbs are available, can be deduced simultaneously from the PorA VR designation. This scheme will be useful in future classification and applied epidemiologic studies of N. meningitidis, being a systematic way of selecting PorA vaccine candidates and analyzing vaccine coverage and failure.

Sacchi, Claudio T.; Lemos, Ana P. S.; Brandt, Mary E.; Whitney, Anne M.; Melles, Carmo E. A.; Solari, Claude A.; Frasch, Carl E.; Mayer, Leonard W.

1998-01-01

173

Identification of two differentially regulated isoforms of protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase ( POR ) from tobacco revealed a wide variety of light- and development-dependent regulations of POR gene expression among angiosperms  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide a in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. Here, we identified two distinct POR cDNAs from tobacco. Both POR isoforms are encoded by a respective single copy gene in tobacco genome. The overall deduced\\u000a amino acid sequences of two tobacco cDNAs, designated here POR1 and POR2, displayed significant identities (?75%), but showed different

Tatsuru Masuda; Naoki Fusada; Toshihiko Shiraishi; Hirofumi Kuroda; Koichiro Awai; Hiroshi Shimada; Hiroyuki Ohta; Ken-ichiro Takamiya

2002-01-01

174

Gliding motility and Por secretion system genes are widespread among members of the phylum bacteroidetes.  

PubMed

The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, "Gramella forsetii," Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility. PMID:23123910

McBride, Mark J; Zhu, Yongtao

2012-11-02

175

Identification of a cation transport pathway in Neisseria meningitidis PorB.  

PubMed

Neisseria meningitidis is the main causative agent of bacterial meningitis. In its outer membrane, the trimeric Neisserial porin PorB is responsible for the diffusive transport of essential hydrophilic solutes across the bilayer. Previous molecular dynamics simulations based on the recent crystal structure of PorB have suggested the presence of distinct solute translocation pathways through this channel. Although PorB has been electrophysiologically characterized as anion-selective, cation translocation through nucleotide-bound PorB during pathogenesis is thought to be instrumental for host cell death. As a result, we were particularly interested in further characterizing cation transport through the pore. We combined a structural approach with additional computational analysis. Here, we present two crystal structures of PorB at 2.1 and 2.65 Å resolution. The new structures display additional electron densities around the protruding loop 3 (L3) inside the pore. We show that these electron densities can be identified as monovalent cations, in our case Cs(+), which are tightly bound to the inner channel. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal further ion interactions and the free energy landscape for ions inside PorB. Our results suggest that the crystallographically identified locations of Cs(+) form a cation transport pathway inside the pore. This finding suggests how positively charged ions are translocated through PorB when the channel is inserted into mitochondrial membranes during Neisserial infection, a process which is considered to dissipate the mitochondrial transmembrane potential gradient and thereby induce apoptosis. PMID:23255122

Kattner, Christof; Zaucha, Jan; Jaenecke, Frank; Zachariae, Ulrich; Tanabe, Mikio

2013-02-25

176

Porin variation among clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae over a 10-year period, as determined by Por variable region typing.  

PubMed

The Neisseria gonorrhoeae porin protein (Por) is a potential vaccine target and is the antigenic determinant for serovar typing. Two classes of Por, PIA and PIB, and antigenically distinct variants within each class result from sequence variations in the por gene variable regions (VRs) encoding surface-exposed loops. Oligonucleotide probes to 5 VRs of each class were used in checkerboard hybridizations to type 282 clinical gonococcal isolates selected from strains collected over the course of 10 years. PIA strains (n=63) showed limited por diversity, with 90% having 1 of 4 por types. PIB strains (n=219) were more diverse, although several common por types were identified that persisted over time. Variation within individual VRs was found to be limited. The present study provides information about the diversity of Por in strains circulating in a single geographic region over time, illustrates the utility of a novel por typing method, and has implications for vaccine development. PMID:12696000

McKnew, Durrie L; Lynn, Freyja; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Bash, Margaret C

2003-04-02

177

Mutational analysis of the promoter region of the porA gene of Neisseria meningitidis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The porA gene encodes the class 1 outer membrane protein (OMP1) in Neisseria meningitidis and is under transcriptional control. Promoter regions of porA from different clinical isolates were sequenced and were found to differ in the number of guanosine residues in a poly(G) track located upstream of the ?10 region. Isolates that did not express OMP1 had up to nine

R Sawaya; F. F Arhin; F Moreau; J. W Coulton; E. L Mills

1999-01-01

178

A novel porA-based real-time PCR for detection of meningococcal carriage.  

PubMed

Real-time PCR based on the capsule transfer gene (ctrA) is a significant aid in the diagnosis of meningococcal infection but fails to detect a high proportion (60 %) of non-groupable strains associated with nasopharyngeal carriage. This study aimed to design a novel real-time (TaqMan) PCR that would detect more strains of meningococci and be suitable for large-scale carriage studies. Primer and probe sequences were based on the meningococcal porA gene and designed specifically to exclude the highly related porA pseudogene in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The specificity of the assay was confirmed by testing strains of N. gonorrhoeae known to contain the porA pseudogene together with commensal strains of Neisseria lactamica and Neisseria sicca. None of these was detected in the assay. Neisseria meningitidis strains representing a wide range of serogroups together with non-groupable strains isolated from the nasopharynx were tested by ctrA assay and the novel porA-based TaqMan PCR. All carriage strains were detected by the porA-based assay including four that gave weak or no reaction with the ctrA assay. Comparison of ctrA and porA assays on 71 throat swabs obtained from university students showed that the porA assay detected meningococcal DNA in all samples that were ctrA positive plus three that were ctrA negative but culture positive. This novel porA-based TaqMan assay provides a highly specific method for detecting meningococcal DNA that is more sensitive than the ctrA assay for detecting meningococcal carriage and is particularly suitable for carriage studies where non-groupable strains and other Neisseria are present. PMID:15824424

Jordens, J Zoe; Heckels, John E

2005-05-01

179

POR structural domains important for the enzyme activity in R. capsulatus complementation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes hydrogen transfer from NADPH to protochlorophyllide (PChlide) in\\u000a the course of chlorophyll biosynthesis in photosynthetic organisms and is involved in the regulation of the development of\\u000a photosynthetic apparatus in higher plants, algae and cyanobacteria. To approach molecular factors determining the enzyme activity\\u000a in a living cell, several mutants of POR from pea (Pisum sativum) with site-directed

Nikolai Lebedev; Michael P. Timko

2002-01-01

180

Relative Immunogenicity of PorA Subtypes in a Multivalent Neisseria meningitidis Vaccine Is Not Dependent on Presentation Form  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hexavalent meningococcal vaccine HexaMen, containing six PorAs on two vesicles, was tested in clinical studies. Although fourfold increases in serum bactericidal activity (SBA) titers against all of the PorAs were observed, there were significant differences between PorA-specific SBA titers. SBA titers were mainly directed against one PorA from each vesicle, P1.5-2,10 and P1.5-1,2-2, and were lower against the other

Thomas A. Luijkx; Harry van Dijken; Hendrik-Jan Hamstra; Betsy Kuipers; Peter van der Ley; Loek van Alphen; Germie van den Dobbelsteen

2003-01-01

181

An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems  

SciTech Connect

It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

Koch, Kaelynn

2012-05-08

182

Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB  

SciTech Connect

PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP-PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction.

Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T.M. (Weill-Med); (Vanderbilt)

2010-06-25

183

Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35  

PubMed Central

The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study.

Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

2011-01-01

184

Antimicrobial activity of prulifloxacin in comparison with other fluoroquinolones against community-acquired urinary and respiratory pathogens isolated in Greece.  

PubMed

Prulifloxacin, the prodrug of ulifloxacin, is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone rather recently introduced in certain European countries. We compared the antimicrobial potency of ulifloxacin with that of other fluoroquinolones against common urinary and respiratory bacterial pathogens. The microbial isolates were prospectively collected between January 2007 and May 2008 from patients with community-acquired infections in Greece. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin (for respiratory isolates only), and ulifloxacin using the E-test method. The binary logarithms of the MICs [log2(MICs)] were compared by using the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. A total of 409 isolates were studied. Ulifloxacin had the lowest geometric mean MIC for the 161 Escherichia coli, 59 Proteus mirabilis, and 22 Staphylococcus saprophyticus urinary isolates, the second lowest geometric mean MIC for the 38 Streptococcus pyogenes respiratory isolates (after moxifloxacin), and the third lowest geometric mean MIC for the 114 Haemophilus influenzae and the 15 Moraxella catarrhalis respiratory isolates (after ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin). Compared with levofloxacin, ulifloxacin had lower log2(MICs) against E. coli (p?catarrhalis (p?=?0.001). In comparison with other clinically relevant fluoroquinolones, ulifloxacin had the most potent antimicrobial activity against the community-acquired urinary isolates studied and very good activity against the respiratory isolates. PMID:23686506

Karageorgopoulos, D E; Maraki, S; Vatopoulos, A C; Samonis, G; Schito, G C; Falagas, M E

2013-05-19

185

Activity of JNJ-Q2, a new fluoroquinolone, tested against contemporary pathogens isolated from patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia.  

PubMed

JNJ-Q2 is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens and is currently in clinical development for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) and acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections. This study determined the activity of JNJ-Q2 against a worldwide year 2010 collection (89 centres in 27 countries) of three common respiratory pathogens (3757 isolates) from patients with CABP. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were tested by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution method, and susceptibility rates for comparators were assessed using CLSI and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoint criteria. JNJ-Q2 had activity against all three species, with 96.9% of strains inhibited at ?0.015 mg/L. JNJ-Q2 [minimum inhibitory concentration for 50% and 90% of the organisms, respectively (MIC(50/90))=0.008/0.015 mg/L] demonstrated a 16-fold greater potency compared with moxifloxacin (MIC(50/90)=0.12/0.25 mg/L) and at least 128-fold greater activity compared with levofloxacin (MIC(50/90)=1/ 1 mg/L) and ciprofloxacin (MIC(50/90)=1/2 mg/L) against S. pneumoniae. Haemophilus influenzae isolates were 21.9-23.3% resistant to ampicillin, but JNJ-Q2 (MIC(50/90)?0.004/0.015 mg/L) was at least two-fold more active than moxifloxacin (MIC(50/90)=0.015/0.03 mg/L) as well as being potent against M. catarrhalis (MIC(90)=0.015/0.015 mg/L). In conclusion, JNJ-Q2 demonstrated increased potency compared with other marketed fluoroquinolones that have been used to treat CABP pathogens, thus favouring further clinical development. PMID:22306239

Biedenbach, Douglas J; Farrell, David J; Flamm, Robert K; Liverman, Lisa C; McIntyre, Gail; Jones, Ronald N

2012-02-04

186

In vitro antibacterial activity of modithromycin, a novel 6,11-bridged bicyclolide, against respiratory pathogens, including macrolide-resistant Gram-positive cocci.  

PubMed

The in vitro activities of modithromycin against Gram-positive and -negative respiratory pathogens, including macrolide-resistant cocci with different resistance mechanisms, were compared with those of other macrolide and ketolide agents. MICs were determined by the broth microdilution method. All 595 test strains used in this study were isolated from Japanese medical facilities. The erm (ribosome methylase) and/or mef (efflux pump) gene, which correlated with resistance to erythromycin as well as clarithromycin and azithromycin, was found in 81.8%, 21.3%, and 23.2% of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains, respectively. Modithromycin showed MIC(90)s of 0.125 ?g/ml against these three cocci, including macrolide-resistant strains. In particular, the MIC of modithromycin against ermB-carrying S. pyogenes was ? 32-fold lower than that of telithromycin. The activities of modithromycin as well as telithromycin were little affected by the presence of mefA or mefE in both streptococci. Against Gram-negative pathogens, modithromycin showed MIC(90)s of 0.5, 8, and 0.031 ?g/ml against Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Legionella spp., respectively. The MICs of modithromycin against M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae were higher than those of telithromycin and azithromycin. However, modithromycin showed the most potent anti-Legionella activity among the macrolide and ketolide agents tested. These results suggested that the bicyclolide agent modithromycin is a novel class of macrolides with improved antibacterial activity against Gram-positive cocci, including telithromycin-resistant streptococci and intracellular Gram-negative bacteria of the Legionella species. PMID:21220534

Sato, Takafumi; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Soichiro; Iwata, Morihiro; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Yamaguchi, Keizo

2011-01-10

187

Comparative analysis of the antibacterial activity of a novel peptide deformylase inhibitor, GSK1322322.  

PubMed

GSK1322322 is a novel peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibitor being developed for the intravenous and oral treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia. The activity of GSK1322322 was tested against a global collection of clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae (n = 2,370), Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 115), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 947), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 617), and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 940), including strains resistant to one or more marketed antibiotics. GSK1322322 had an MIC(90) of 1 ?g/ml against M. catarrhalis and 4 ?g/ml against H. influenzae, with 88.8% of ?-lactamase-positive strains showing growth inhibition at that concentration. All S. pneumoniae strains were inhibited by ? 4 ?g/ml of GSK1322322, with an MIC(90) of 2 ?g/ml. Pre-existing resistance mechanisms did not affect its potency, as evidenced by the MIC(90) of 1 ?g/ml for penicillin, levofloxacin, and macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae. GSK1322322 was very potent against S. pyogenes strains, with an MIC(90) of 0.5 ?g/ml, irrespective of their macrolide resistance phenotype. This PDF inhibitor was also active against S. aureus strains regardless of their susceptibility to methicillin, macrolides, or levofloxacin, with an MIC(90) of 4 ?g/ml in all cases. Time-kill studies showed that GSK1322322 had bactericidal activity against S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, S. pyogenes, and S. aureus, demonstrating a ? 3-log(10) decrease in the number of CFU/ml at 4× MIC within 24 h in 29 of the 33 strains tested. Given the antibacterial potency demonstrated against this panel of organisms, GSK1322322 represents a valuable alternative therapy for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by drug-resistant pathogens. PMID:23478958

O'Dwyer, Karen; Hackel, Meredith; Hightower, Sarah; Hoban, Daryl; Bouchillon, Samuel; Qin, Donghui; Aubart, Kelly; Zalacain, Magdalena; Butler, Deborah

2013-03-11

188

Comparative Analysis of the Antibacterial Activity of a Novel Peptide Deformylase Inhibitor, GSK1322322  

PubMed Central

GSK1322322 is a novel peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibitor being developed for the intravenous and oral treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia. The activity of GSK1322322 was tested against a global collection of clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae (n = 2,370), Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 115), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 947), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 617), and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 940), including strains resistant to one or more marketed antibiotics. GSK1322322 had an MIC90 of 1 ?g/ml against M. catarrhalis and 4 ?g/ml against H. influenzae, with 88.8% of ?-lactamase-positive strains showing growth inhibition at that concentration. All S. pneumoniae strains were inhibited by ?4 ?g/ml of GSK1322322, with an MIC90 of 2 ?g/ml. Pre-existing resistance mechanisms did not affect its potency, as evidenced by the MIC90 of 1 ?g/ml for penicillin, levofloxacin, and macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae. GSK1322322 was very potent against S. pyogenes strains, with an MIC90 of 0.5 ?g/ml, irrespective of their macrolide resistance phenotype. This PDF inhibitor was also active against S. aureus strains regardless of their susceptibility to methicillin, macrolides, or levofloxacin, with an MIC90 of 4 ?g/ml in all cases. Time-kill studies showed that GSK1322322 had bactericidal activity against S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, S. pyogenes, and S. aureus, demonstrating a ?3-log10 decrease in the number of CFU/ml at 4× MIC within 24 h in 29 of the 33 strains tested. Given the antibacterial potency demonstrated against this panel of organisms, GSK1322322 represents a valuable alternative therapy for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by drug-resistant pathogens.

O'Dwyer, Karen; Hackel, Meredith; Hightower, Sarah; Hoban, Daryl; Bouchillon, Samuel; Qin, Donghui; Aubart, Kelly; Zalacain, Magdalena

2013-01-01

189

Effects of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D-Conjugate Vaccine on Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Colonization in Young Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background.?This study evaluated the effects of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D–conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization compared with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) in young children. Methods.?A randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands, initiated 2 years after 7vCRM introduction, was conducted between 1 April 2008 and 1 December 2010. Infants (N = 780) received either PHiD-CV or 7vCRM (2:1) at 2, 3, 4, and 11–13 months of age. Nasopharyngeal samples taken at 5, 11, 14, 18, and 24 months of age were cultured to detect Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Polymerase chain reaction assays quantified H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae and confirmed H. influenzae as nontypeable (NTHi). Primary outcome measure was vaccine efficacy (VE) against NTHi colonization. Results.?In both groups, NTHi colonization increased with age from 33% in 5-month-olds to 65% in 24-month-olds. Three months postbooster, VE against colonization was 0.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], ?21.8% to 18.4%) and VE against acquisition 10.9% (95% CI, ?31.3% to 38.9%). At each sampling moment, no differences between groups in either NTHi prevalence or H. influenzae density were detected. Streptococcus pneumoniae (range, 39%–57%), M. catarrhalis (range, 63%­–69%), and S. aureus (range, 9%–30%) colonization patterns were similar between groups. Conclusions.?PHiD-CV had no differential effect on nasopharyngeal NTHi colonization or H. influenzae density in healthy Dutch children up to 2 years of age, implying that herd effects for NTHi are not to be expected. Other bacterial colonization patterns were also similar. Clinical Trials Registration?NCT00652951.

van den Bergh, Menno R.; Spijkerman, Judith; Swinnen, Kristien M.; Francois, Nancy A.; Pascal, Thierry G.; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode; IJzerman, Ed P. F.; Bruin, Jacob P.; van der Ende, Arie; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.

2013-01-01

190

Comparison of PorA VR types and porA promoter sequence from Neisseria meningitidis B isolated from non-immunised children and vaccine failures immunised with a serogroup B outer membrane protein vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

PorA protein is an important component of group B meningococcal protein-based vaccines. The goals of this study were: (i) to classify the non-serosubtypable strains recovered from vaccine failures and controls by porA variable region (VR) type; (ii) to investigate if point mutations of VRs of the porA gene are present in P1.19,15 strains recovered from vaccine failures and controls; (iii)

Maria Cec??lia O. Gorla; Ana Paula S. Lemos; Claudio T. Sacchi; José Cássio de Moraes; Lucimar G. Milagres

2003-01-01

191

[Utility of prolonged incubation and terminal subcultures of blood cultures from immunocompromised patients].  

PubMed

The value of blind terminal subcultures (7 and 30 days) and prolonged incubation (30 days) of blood cultures from immunosuppressed patients was analyzed in the Fundación Favaloro, the Fundación para la Lucha contra las Enfermedades Neurológicas de la Infancia and the Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez. A total of 2707 blood cultures and 369 patients were included (transplantation of solid organs 154, oncohematologic disorders 106 and solid tumors 109). Bact-Alert bottles were incubated at 35 degrees C for 30 days in the Bact-Alert System. Bottles with positive signals were routinely removed, and aliquots of the broth were Gram stained and subcultured aerobically in chocolate agar and Sabouraud agar. A total of 136 bacteremic episodes were obtained. The positivization time of blood cultures was 81.6% at 24 h, 93.3% at 48 h, 94.5% at 72 h and 97.7% within 7 days. Only 3 (2.2%) episodes were positive by blind terminal subcultures and 1 (0.75%) by prolonged incubation (14 days). The median time and range of positivization in hours were 13.8 and 2.2-168, respectively. The microorganisms isolated were coagulase negative staphylococci (n = 24), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 22), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 21), Escherichia coli (n = 18), Acinetobacter spp (n = 9), Candida spp (n = 8), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 6), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 5), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 5), Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella spp and Capnocytophaga sputigena (n = 2), Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus faecium, Citrobacter diversus, Candida albicans, Klebsiella oxytoca, Chryseomonas luteola, Serratia marcescens, Abiotrophia spp, Campylobacter jejuni, Moraxella catarrhalis, Moraxella urethralis, Neisseria sicca, beta hemolytic group G streptococci, Rhodococcus equi, Micrococcus spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Streptococcus mitis (n = 1). In our experience, blind terminal subcultures and prolonged incubation of blood cultures from immunosuppressed patients are unnecessary and cost expensive. PMID:11594009

Soloaga, R; Procopio, A; Manganello, S; Ivanovic, V; Romay, N; Pirosanto, Y; Fernández, A; Zudiker, R; Echeverría, A; Nagel, C; del Castillo, M; López, E; Gutfraind, Z; Tokumoto, M; Guelfand, L

192

Trabalho rural e saúde: intoxicações por agrotóxicos no município de Teresópolis - RJ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Este estudo procura avaliar as características do trabalho rural no município de Teresópolis, procurando encontrar associações entre variáveis que indicam o uso indevido de agrotóxicos e a intoxicação por esse tipo de produto entre aplicadores de agrotóxicos. Adicionalmente, pretende-se criar subsídios à discussão das práticas de regulação ao uso desses produtos. Os dados foram obtidos de uma pesquisa realizada

Wagner Lopes Soares; Elpídio Antônio Venturine de Freitas; José Aldo Gonçalves Coutinho

2005-01-01

193

Análise de Alergia e Rinite em Escolares por meio da Shell Orion Data Mining Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - A análise de dados, que compreende a busca de conhecimento, pode tornar-se complexa e exaustiva quando é realizada a partir de um enorme volume de dados. Uma maneira eficaz e inteligente de analisar esses dados pode ser realizada por meio do processo de Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD), que reúne vários passos e tarefas para a descoberta de

Merisandra Côrtes de Mattos; Diana Colombo Pelegrin; Diego Paz Casagrande

194

RECONOCIMIENTO Y NOMINACI~N DE DIVERSAS EXPRESIONES FACIALES DE EMOCIONES POR JÓVENES Y ADULTOS AUTISTAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN: Este trabajo tiene por objeto presentar el alcance y validez de un proce- dimiento de intervención para reconocer y nominar diversas expresiones faciales de las emociones, fundado en las relaciones de equivalencia de estímulos y destinado a jóvenes y adultos Autistas. La habilidad para reconocer exactamente y responder de forma apropiada a las expre- siones faciales de las emociones

Domingo García; Luis Nieto del Rincón

195

Consecuencias de la restricción de peso impuesta por el deporte en la infancia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractoActualmente, los competidores jóvenes emprenden programas de entrenamiento que se basan en un nivel elevado de actividad física desde una temprana edad. Este entrenamiento intensivo (volumen e intensidad) aumenta el gasto de energía, que tiene que ser compensado por una mayor ingesta nutricional. Los bailarines de ballet, los patinadores artísticos, los gimnastas o los gimnastas rítmicos comienzan a entrenar a

Nathalie Boisseau

2006-01-01

196

Kinetic characterisation of the light-driven protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) from Thermosynechococcus elongatus.  

PubMed

The light-driven enzyme NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyses the reduction of the C17-C18 double bond of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide), which is a key regulatory step in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. POR from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus is an attractive system for following the reaction and in the present work we have carried out a detailed steady state kinetic characterisation of this enzyme. The thermophilic POR was shown to have maximal activity at approximately 50 degrees C, which is similar to the growth temperature of the organism. The V(max) was calculated to be 0.53 microM min(-1) and the K(m) values for NADPH and Pchlide were 0.013 microM and 1.8 microM, respectively. The binding properties for both substrates as well as the NADP(+) product have been analysed by using fluorescence emission measurements, which have allowed the dissociation constants for binding to be calculated. These results represent the first steady state kinetic characterisation of a thermophilic version of POR. PMID:16307122

McFarlane, Michael J; Hunter, C Neil; Heyes, Derren J

2005-09-09

197

Immunogenicity of various presentation forms of PorA outer membrane protein of Neisseria meningitidis in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we compare different vaccine formulations containing meningococcal PorA outer membrane protein; purified PorA, outer membrane vesicles (OMV) and immune-stimulating complexes (iscom). Bactericidal antibodies could be generated by the OMV and iscom formulation but not with purified PorA using either AlPO4 or Quil-A as adjuvant. OMV and iscom formulations revealed similar immunogenicity when tested in a dose response

Carla C. A. M Peeters; Ivo J. T. M Claassen; Margje Schuller; Gideon F. A Kersten; Eileene M Rouppe van der Voort; Jan T Poolman

1999-01-01

198

La calidad de los ajustes por devengo no afecta al coste de la deuda de las PYMES españolas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo examina la relación entre el coste de la deuda y la calidad de los ajustes por devengo en una amplia muestra de empresas españolas mayoritariamente no cotizadas. La relación inversa entre ambas variables obtenida por Francis et al. (2005) en un contexto de grandes compañías cotizadas no se aprecia al restringir la muestra a pequeñas y medianas empresas.

Belén Gill de Albornoz Noguer; Manuel Illueca Muñoz

2007-01-01

199

Gestión por competencias: importante para las pymes maquila de pantalón en índigo en la ciudad de Bogotá  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo presenta una revisión de literatura internacional y nacional, sobre temas como el de competencias, los tipos de competencias, competencias laborales y proceso de implementación de la gestión por competencias. Adicionalmente, se muestra la reseña sobre la gestión por competencias en Colombia, así como la metodología utilizada para el trabajo de campo con relación al tema del artículo y

Nathalia Andrea Martínez Valero; Juan Carlos Rincón Gaviria

2010-01-01

200

Associations between Pathogens in the Upper Respiratory Tract of Young Children: Interplay between Viruses and Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background High rates of potentially pathogenic bacteria and respiratory viruses can be detected in the upper respiratory tract of healthy children. Investigating presence of and associations between these pathogens in healthy individuals is still a rather unexplored field of research, but may have implications for interpreting findings during disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We selected 986 nasopharyngeal samples from 433 6- to 24-month-old healthy children that had participated in a randomized controlled trial. We determined the presence of 20 common respiratory viruses using real-time PCR. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Staphylococcus aureus were identified by conventional culture methods. Information on risk factors was obtained by questionnaires. We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses followed by partial correlation analysis to identify the overall pattern of associations. S. pneumoniae colonization was positively associated with the presence of H. influenzae (adjusted odds ratio 1.60, 95% confidence interval 1.18–2.16), M. catarrhalis (1.78, 1.29–2.47), human rhinoviruses (1.63, 1.19–2.22) and enteroviruses (1.97, 1.26–3.10), and negatively associated with S. aureus presence (0.59, 0.35–0.98). H. influenzae was positively associated with human rhinoviruses (1.63, 1.22–2.18) and respiratory syncytial viruses (2.78, 1.06–7.28). M. catarrhalis colonization was positively associated with coronaviruses (1.99, 1.01–3.93) and adenoviruses (3.69, 1.29–10.56), and negatively with S. aureus carriage (0.42, 0.25–0.69). We observed a strong positive association between S. aureus and influenza viruses (4.87, 1.59–14.89). In addition, human rhinoviruses and enteroviruses were positively correlated (2.40, 1.66–3.47), as were enteroviruses and human bocavirus, WU polyomavirus, parainfluenza viruses, and human parechovirus. A negative association was observed between human rhinoviruses and coronaviruses. Conclusions/Significance Our data revealed high viral and bacterial prevalence rates and distinct bacterial-bacterial, viral-bacterial and viral-viral associations in healthy children, hinting towards the complexity and potential dynamics of microbial communities in the upper respiratory tract. This warrants careful consideration when associating microbial presence with specific respiratory diseases.

van den Bergh, Menno R.; Biesbroek, Giske; Rossen, John W. A.; de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A. A.; Bosch, Astrid A. T. M.; van Gils, Elske J. M.; Wang, Xinhui; Boonacker, Chantal W. B.; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Bruin, Jacob P.

2012-01-01

201

National and regional assessment of antimicrobial resistance among community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens identified in a 2005-2006 U.S. Faropenem surveillance study.  

PubMed

Surveillance studies conducted in the United States over the last decade have revealed increasing resistance among community-acquired respiratory pathogens, especially Streptococcus pneumoniae, that may limit future options for empirical therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the scope and magnitude of the problem at the national and regional levels during the 2005-2006 respiratory season (the season when community-acquired respiratory pathogens are prevalent) in the United States. Also, since faropenem is an oral penem being developed for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, another study objective was to provide baseline data to benchmark changes in the susceptibility of U.S. respiratory pathogens to the drug in the future. The in vitro activities of faropenem and other agents were determined against 1,543 S. pneumoniae isolates, 978 Haemophilus influenzae isolates, and 489 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates collected from 104 U.S. laboratories across six geographic regions during the 2005-2006 respiratory season. Among S. pneumoniae isolates, the rates of resistance to penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and cefdinir were 16, 6.4, and 19.2%, respectively. The least effective agents were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) and azithromycin, with resistance rates of 23.5 and 34%, respectively. Penicillin resistance rates for S. pneumoniae varied by region (from 8.7 to 22.5%), as did multidrug resistance rates for S. pneumoniae (from 8.8 to 24.9%). Resistance to beta-lactams, azithromycin, and SXT was higher among S. pneumoniae isolates from children than those from adults. beta-Lactamase production rates among H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates were 27.4 and 91.6%, respectively. Faropenem MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited were 0.5 mug/ml for S. pneumoniae, 1 mug/ml for H. influenzae, and 0.5 mug/ml for M. catarrhalis, suggesting that faropenem shows promise as a treatment option for respiratory infections caused by contemporary resistant phenotypes. PMID:17908940

Critchley, Ian A; Brown, Steven D; Traczewski, Maria M; Tillotson, Glenn S; Janjic, Nebojsa

2007-10-01

202

Diagn?stico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA  

PubMed Central

Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis.

Gonzalez-Valcarcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

2011-01-01

203

Por La Vida model intervention enhances use of cancer screening tests among Latinas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To describe the short-term impact of the intervention known as Por La Vida (PLV) on cancer screening for Latinas in San Diego, California.Methods: Thirty-six lay community workers (consejeras) were recruited and trained to conduct educational group sessions. Each consejera recruited approximately 14 peers from the community to participate in the program. The consejeras were randomly assigned to either a

Ana M Navarro; Karen L Senn; Lori J McNicholas; Robert M Kaplan; Beatriz Roppé; Mary C Campo

1998-01-01

204

Intermitência alfvênica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dados medidos no vento solar rápido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetário são dominados por flutuações Alfvênicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correlação entre as variações do campo magnético e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuações exibem muitas características esperadas em turbulência magneto-hidrodinâmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitência e espectros contínuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsáveis pela evolução de turbulência Alfvênica intermitente não são completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos é usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvênicos, modelados pela equação Schrödinger não-linear derivativa e pela equação Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caóticos à medida em que parâmetros do plasma são variados. Pequenas perturbações no parâmetro de dissipação podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime periódico, ou fracamente caótico, para um regime fortemente caótico. As séries temporais das flutuações do campo magnético nos regimes fortemente caóticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caóticas são interrompidas por fortes estouros caóticos. É mostrado que o regime fortemente caótico é atingido quando as soluções periódicas ou fracamente caóticas globalmente estáveis interagem com soluções do sistema que são fortemente caóticas, mas globalmente instáveis. Estas soluções globalmente instáveis são conjuntos caóticos não-atrativos conhecidos como selas caóticas, e são responsáveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caóticas têm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provável que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulência intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.

2003-08-01

205

Elimination of POR expression correlates with red leaf formation in Amaranthus tricolor.  

PubMed

Amaranthus tricolor L. tricolor cv. Earlysplendor, an ornamental amaranth, generates red leaves instead of green leaves in late summer to early autumn. Red leaf formation was promoted under short-day conditions and delayed by night-break treatments. Red leaves were characterized by lower levels of chlorophyll accumulation rather than higher levels of red pigment (betacyanin) accumulation. However, the metabolic activity toward the production of Mg-protoporphyrin, an intermediate in the biosynthesis pathway for chlorophyll, was detected in red leaves as well as in green leaves. RNA gel blot analysis was performed to assess the expression of nine genes encoding eight enzymes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Among these enzymes, red-leaf-specific reduction of gene expression was observed only for NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR), a key enzyme catalyzing a later step of chlorophyll biosynthesis. In addition, immunoblot analysis showed no accumulation of POR protein(s) in red leaves. These data indicate that the repression of POR gene expression and resultant loss of chlorophyll synthesis activity plays a role in red leaf formation of A. tricolor. PMID:11532173

Iwamoto, K; Fukuda, H; Sugiyama, M

2001-08-01

206

Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOUR?O, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

2011-12-01

207

Bacterial Infection in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in 2000: a State-of-the-Art Review  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. The precise role of bacterial infection in the course and pathogenesis of COPD has been a source of controversy for decades. Chronic bacterial colonization of the lower airways contributes to airway inflammation; more research is needed to test the hypothesis that this bacterial colonization accelerates the progressive decline in lung function seen in COPD (the vicious circle hypothesis). The course of COPD is characterized by intermittent exacerbations of the disease. Studies of samples obtained by bronchoscopy with the protected specimen brush, analysis of the human immune response with appropriate immunoassays, and antibiotic trials reveal that approximately half of exacerbations are caused by bacteria. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most common causes of exacerbations, while Chlamydia pneumoniae causes a small proportion. The role of Haemophilus parainfluenzae and gram-negative bacilli remains to be established. Recent progress in studies of the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis of infection in the human respiratory tract and in vaccine development guided by such studies promises to lead to novel ways to treat and prevent bacterial infections in COPD.

Sethi, Sanjay; Murphy, Timothy F.

2001-01-01

208

Discovery and Analysis of 4H-Pyridopyrimidines, a Class of Selective Bacterial Protein Synthesis Inhibitors?  

PubMed Central

Bacterial protein synthesis is the target for numerous natural and synthetic antibacterial agents. We have developed a poly(U) mRNA-directed aminoacylation/translation protein synthesis system composed of phenyl-tRNA synthetases, ribosomes, and ribosomal factors from Escherichia coli. This system, utilizing purified components, has been used for high-throughput screening of a small-molecule chemical library. We have identified a series of compounds that inhibit protein synthesis with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 3 to 14 ?M. This series of compounds all contained the same central scaffold composed of tetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-4-ol (e.g., 4H-pyridopyrimidine). All analogs contained an ortho pyridine ring attached to the central scaffold in the 2 position and either a five- or a six-member ring tethered to the 6-methylene nitrogen atom of the central scaffold. These compounds inhibited the growth of E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis, with MICs ranging from 0.25 to 32 ?g/ml. Macromolecular synthesis (MMS) assays with E. coli and S. aureus confirmed that antibacterial activity resulted from specific inhibition of protein synthesis. Assays were developed for the steps performed by each component of the system in order to ascertain the target of the compounds, and the ribosome was found to be the site of inhibition.

Ribble, Wendy; Hill, Walter E.; Ochsner, Urs A.; Jarvis, Thale C.; Guiles, Joseph W.; Janjic, Nebojsa; Bullard, James M.

2010-01-01

209

Synthesis and antibacterial activities of N-substituted-glycinyl 1H-1,2,3-triazolyl oxazolidinones.  

PubMed

A series of 1H-1,2,3-triazolyl piperazino oxazolidinone analogs with optionally varied glycinyl substitutions were synthesized and their antibacterial activity assessed against a panel of susceptible and resistant Gram-positive and selected Gram-negative bacteria including clinical isolates. The N-aroyl- and N-heteroaroyl-glycinyl (MIC: 0.06-4 ?g/ml) derivatives were more potent than the N-acylglycinyl (2-8 ?g/ml) derivatives against all Gram-positive bacteria tested. Nitro substitution on aryl and heteroaryl rings significantly enhanced activity against Gram-positive bacteria, as noted with the 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl (6m and 6n) and 5-nitro-2-furoyl (6u and 6v) derivatives with MIC ranges of and 0.25-0.5 and 0.06-0.5 ?g/ml, respectively. These nitro analogs also showed more potent extended activity against Moraxella catarrhalis, with MICs ranges of 0.25-1 ?g/ml, compared to linezolid (MIC: 8 ?g/ml). Hence, the presence of the N-aroyl and/or N-heteroaroyl glycinyl structural motifs as spacer group could significantly enhance the antibacterial activities of 1H-1,2,3-triazolyl oxazolidinone class of compounds. PMID:23811087

Phillips, Oludotun A; Udo, Edet E; Abdel-Hamid, Mohammed E; Varghese, Reny

2013-06-07

210

Antimicrobial Activity of DC-159a, a New Fluoroquinolone, against 1,149 Recently Collected Clinical Isolates?  

PubMed Central

The activity of DC-159a, a novel orally administered fluorinated quinolone, was evaluated by reference broth microdilution or agar dilution methods against 1,149 recently collected clinical isolates from five continents. Against pathogens associated with community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CA-RTIs), the MIC90s were 0.12 ?g/ml for Streptococcus pneumoniae, 0.015 to 0.03 ?g/ml for Haemophilus influenzae, 0.03 ?g/ml for Moraxella catarrhalis, and 0.12 ?g/ml for beta-hemolytic streptococci. Similarly, DC-159a was potent against various types of staphylococci (MIC90 range, 0.03 to 2 ?g/ml), Enterococcus faecalis (MIC90, 4 ?g/ml), wild-type isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae (MIC90 range, 0.06 to 2 ?g/ml), wild-type Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC90, 2 ?g/ml), and Acinetobacter spp. (MIC90, 0.12 ?g/ml). Fluoroquinolone-nonsusceptible organism subsets usually had elevated DC-159a MICs, but the MICs were often two- to fourfold lower than those of levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. In conclusion, DC-159a appears to possess a balanced broad spectrum of activity that exceeds the activities of the currently marketed fluoroquinolones, especially against pathogens that cause CA-RTIs.

Jones, Ronald N.; Fritsche, Thomas R.; Sader, Helio S.

2008-01-01

211

Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Betula aetnensis Rafin. (Betulaceae) leaves extract.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effects, the radical scavenging activity (by DPPH and ABTS tests) and the antioxidant capacity (by ?-carotene bleaching test) of Betula aetnensis leaves extract. The antimicrobial activity was tested against 14 Gram-positive clinical strains, 2 ATCC Gram-positive strains, 10 Gram-negative clinical strains and 4 Gram-negative ATCC strains. Streptococcus pyogenes Ery-S and Ery-R1 were the most sensitive. Betula aetnensis was considerably active against three bacterial strains, namely Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 49247, Amp-R1 and Moraxella catarrhalis ATCC 25238. Standard ATCC strains of Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive than Gram-negative. Betula aetnensis showed also an interesting reducing power with TEAC values of 9.7 and a good inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation with an IC50 value of 22.0?µg?mL(-1) after 30?min of incubation. The total phenol and flavonoid contents were determined with the purpose to evaluate the relationship with the observed bioactivities. PMID:22703292

Acquaviva, Rosaria; Menichini, Francesco; Ragusa, Salvatore; Genovese, Carlo; Amodeo, Andrea; Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica R; Iauk, Liliana

2012-06-18

212

Bacterial pathogens of otitis media and sinusitis: detection in the nasopharynx with selective agar media.  

PubMed

Carriage rates for the bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (Streptococcus pneumoniae [SP], Hemophilus influenzae [HI], and Moraxella catarrhalis [MC]) are of interest. Culture on three selective agars was compared with culture on two standard agars to determine the more accurate method for detection of these species in the nasopharynx of healthy children. Weekly samples were obtained in winter from 18 healthy children (ages 1 through 9 years) as part of a longitudinal study. A 0.1-mL sample of 116 nasopharyngeal aspirate/washes was inoculated onto each of five agars. Two were standard (sheep blood and chocolate), and three were selective (blood with gentamicin for SP; chocolate with vancomycin, bacitracin, and clindamycin for HI; blood with amphotericin B, vancomycin, trimethoprim, and acetazolamide for MC). One technician read the standard plates and another the selective; both were blinded to the results of the other. SP was found in 44% of samples with selective agar versus 25% with standard agar; HI was found in 31% with selective versus 9% with standard; MC was found in 56% with selective versus 37% with standard. Overall, 80% of samples had one or more pathogens detected with selective agars as compared with 58% with standard agars (P =.0004). Selective agars were more accurate than standard agars for detecting otitis pathogens in the nasopharynx, where they are a common part of normal flora in healthy children. PMID:11709658

Dudley, S; Ashe, K; Winther, B; Hendley, J O

2001-11-01

213

In vitro antibacterial activities of PD 138312 and PD 140248, new fluoronaphthyridines with outstanding gram-positive potency.  

PubMed Central

PD 138312 and PD 140248 are new quinolones with high in vitro activities against a wide spectrum of bacterial species, notably including gram-positive isolates. The respective MICs (in micrograms per milliliter) of PD 138312 and PD 140248 capable of inhibiting > or = 90% of the strains were < or = 0.06 and < or = 0.06 for oxacillin-susceptible and -resistant staphylococci, streptococci (including Streptococcus pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. pneumoniae, and viridans group streptococci), Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 0.125 and 0.03 for Legionella pneumophila; 0.25 and 0.125 for Listeria monocytogenes; 0.25 and 0.25 for Enterococcus faecalis; 0.5 and 0.06 for anaerobic gram-positive cocci; 0.5 and 0.25 for Acinetobacter spp.; 0.5 and 0.5 for members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (excluding Serratia marcescens); 2 and 0.5 for Bacteroides fragilis; 2 and 2 for Serratia marcescens and ciprofloxacin-resistant staphylococci; and 8 and 4 for Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Huband, M D; Cohen, M A; Meservey, M A; Roland, G E; Yoder, S L; Dazer, M E; Domagala, J M

1993-01-01

214

Moxifloxacin in the management of exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and COPD  

PubMed Central

Bacteria are isolated in more than 50% of exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (CB) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The most prevalent respiratory pathogens include Gram-positive (Streptococcus pneumoniae) and Gram-negative (Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis) microorganims. Moxifloxacin is a fourth-generation fluoroquinolone that has been shown to be effective against respiratory pathogens, including atypicals and those resistant to most common antibiotics. The bioavailability and half-life of moxifloxacin provides potent bactericidal effects at a dose of 400 mg once daily. Among the fluoroquinolones, the ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) to minimal inhibitory concentration of moxifloxacin is the highest against S. pneumoniae. Moxifloxacin has demonstrated better eradication in exacerbations of CB and COPD compared with standard therapy, in particular, with macrolides. Patients treated with moxifloxacin showed a prolonged time to the next exacerbation and observational studies suggest that moxifloxacin induces a faster release of symptoms of exacerbation. Some guidelines recommend the use of moxifloxacin as first-line therapy in bacterial exacerbations in patients with moderate to severe COPD and in patients with mild COPD with risk factors. The current article reviews the use of moxifloxacin in bacterial exacerbations of CB and COPD.

Miravitlles, Marc

2007-01-01

215

Ceftaroline: A New Cephalosporin with Activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)  

PubMed Central

Microbial resistance has reached alarming levels, threatening to outpace the ability to counter with more potent antimicrobial agents. In particular, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a leading cause of skin and soft-tissue infections and PVL-positive strains have been associated with necrotizing pneumonia. Increasing reports of growing resistance to glycopeptides have been noted, further limiting the efficacy of standard antibiotics, such as vancomycin. Ceftaroline is a novel fifth-generation cephalosporin, which exhibits broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA and extensively-resistant strains, such as vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), heteroresistant VISA (hVISA), and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA). In addition to being an exciting new agent in the anti-MRSA armamentarium, ceftaroline provides efficacy against many respiratory pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Ceftaroline (600 mg intravenously every 12 hours) has been shown effective in phase III studies in the treatment of complicated skin and soft tissue infections and community-acquired pneumonia. To date, this unique antibiotic exhibits a low propensity for inducing resistance and has a good safety profile, although further post-marketing data and clinical experience are needed. In summary, ceftaroline provides an additional option for the management of complex multidrug resistant infections, including MRSA.

Duplessis, Christopher; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.

2011-01-01

216

Prophylaxis with amoxicillin or sulfisoxazole for otitis media: effect on the recovery of penicillin-resistant bacteria from children.  

PubMed

The rate of recovery of oropharyngeal penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and aerobic and anaerobic beta-lactamase-producing bacteria (BLPB) from children who received a 4- to 6-month course of prophylaxis with amoxicillin or sulfisoxazole for otitis media was investigated monthly over 9 months. The BLPB recovered were Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, pigmented Prevotella species, and Fusobacterium species. The recovery rate for all penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates and BLPB increased only after administration of amoxicillin. Before amoxicillin was administered, six BLPB isolates were recovered from four of the children who were to be given this drug (20%). The number of BLPB recovered increased gradually until all of these patients were found to be colonized with BLPB; five (25%) of these patients were found to be colonized with penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae after 5 months of prophylaxis. Three to five months after amoxicillin prophylaxis was discontinued, the number of BLPB recovered gradually declined; only three children (15%) remained colonized with BLPB, and none remained colonized with penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae. These data illustrate that amoxicillin prophylaxis induces an increase in the number of penicillin-resistant bacteria in the oropharynx. PMID:8824982

Brook, I; Gober, A E

1996-01-01

217

Effect of amoxycillin with or without clavulanate on adenoid bacterial flora.  

PubMed

The effect of antimicrobial therapy with amoxycillin (AMX) or co-amoxiclav (AMC) on the adenoid bacterial flora of 45 children with recurrent otitis media (ROM), scheduled for elective adenoidectomy, was studied. Patients were randomized before surgery into three groups of 15, having had either no antibiotic therapy (control), or 10 days of therapy with AMX or AMC. Core adenoid tissues were quantitatively cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Polymicrobial aerobic-anaerobic flora was present in all instances. The predominant aerobes in all groups were alpha-haemolytic and non-haemolytic streptococci, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, group A beta-haemolytic streptococci and Moraxella catarrhalis. The prominent anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus spp., Prevotella spp. and Fusobacterium spp. The number of isolates was significantly reduced in those treated with AMX (110; P < 0.05) or AMC (54; P < 0.001) compared with control (148). The number of bacteria per gram of tissue was lower in those treated with both antibiotics. The number of potential pathogens was lower in those treated with AMC compared with the other two groups (P < 0.001 ). The number of beta-lactamase- producing bacteria (BLPB) was lower in those treated with AMC compared with those treated with AMX (P < 0.025) or no antibiotic (P < 0.001). These data illustrate the ability of AMX and AMC to reduce the bacterial load as well as potential pathogens and BLPB from the adenoids of children with ROM. PMID:11481299

Brook, I; Shah, K

2001-08-01

218

In vitro activity and spectrum of LY333328, a novel glycopeptide derivative.  

PubMed Central

Reference methods were used to determine the potency of LY333328, a semisynthetic glycopeptide derivative with a key N-alkylation substitution, against 833 strains (393 gram-positive strains and representative gram-negative bacilli) with various defined resistance mechanisms. The MICs at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited (MIC90S) (in micrograms per milliliter) of LY333328 and the percentages of strains at < or = 8 micrograms/ml were as follows: for oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, 2 and 100%, and for oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 4 and 100%; for oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermis, 4 and 100%, and for oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 8 and 96%; for Streptococcus serogroups A, B, C, and G, 0.25 to 1 and 100%; for Streptococcus pneumoniae < or = 0.015 to 0.06 and 100%; for Enterococcus faecalis, 2 and 100%; and for vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium, 0.25 and 100%, and for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, 4 and 100%. LY333328 was not active (MIC50, > or = 16 micrograms/ml) against more than 400 representative strains of Enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonads, Acinetobacter spp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, pathogenic Neisseria spp., and anaerobic gram-negative bacilli. Gram-positive anaerobes were LY333328 susceptible (MICs, < or = 2 micrograms/ml). Test methods and conditions may have affected MICs of LY333328, with most (species variation) agar dilution MICs being greater than the broth microdilution MICs.

Jones, R N; Barrett, M S; Erwin, M E

1997-01-01

219

Viruses and bacteria in sputum samples of children with community-acquired pneumonia.  

PubMed

Few comprehensive studies have searched for viruses and bacteria in children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We identified 76 children hospitalized for pneumonia. Induced sputum samples were analysed for 18 viruses by antigen detection and PCR, and for six bacteria by culture and PCR. Viruses were found in 72% of samples, bacteria in 91%, and both in 66%. Rhinovirus (30%), human bocavirus (18%) and human metapneumovirus (14%) were the most commonly detected viruses. Two viruses were found in 22% of samples and three in 8%. The most common bacteria found were Streptococcus pneumoniae (50%), Haemophilus influenzae (38%), and Moraxella catarrhalis (28%). Rhinovirus-S. pneumoniae was the most commonly found combination of virus and bacterium (16%). All six children with treatment failure had both viruses and bacteria detected in the sputum. Otherwise, we found no special clinical characteristics in those with mixed viral-bacterial detections. With modern molecular diagnostic techniques, there are high rates of both viral and bacterial identification in childhood CAP. The clinical significance of mixed viral-bacterial infections remains unclear, although we found a potential association between them and treatment failure. PMID:21851481

Honkinen, M; Lahti, E; Österback, R; Ruuskanen, O; Waris, M

2011-08-18

220

Novel Antibacterial Class  

PubMed Central

We report the discovery and characterization of a novel ribosome inhibitor (NRI) class that exhibits selective and broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Compounds in this class inhibit growth of many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including the common respiratory pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Moraxella catarrhalis, and are nontoxic to human cell lines. The first NRI was discovered in a high-throughput screen designed to identify inhibitors of cell-free translation in extracts from S. pneumoniae. The chemical structure of the NRI class is related to antibacterial quinolones, but, interestingly, the differences in structure are sufficient to completely alter the biochemical and intracellular mechanisms of action. Expression array studies and analysis of NRI-resistant mutants confirm this difference in intracellular mechanism and provide evidence that the NRIs inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by inhibiting ribosomes. Furthermore, compounds in the NRI series appear to inhibit bacterial ribosomes by a new mechanism, because NRI-resistant strains are not cross-resistant to other ribosome inhibitors, such as macrolides, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, aminoglycosides, or oxazolidinones. The NRIs are a promising new antibacterial class with activity against all major drug-resistant respiratory pathogens.

Dandliker, Peter J.; Pratt, Steve D.; Nilius, Angela M.; Black-Schaefer, Candace; Ruan, Xiaoan; Towne, Danli L.; Clark, Richard F.; Englund, Erika E.; Wagner, Rolf; Weitzberg, Moshe; Chovan, Linda E.; Hickman, Robert K.; Daly, Melissa M.; Kakavas, Stephan; Zhong, Ping; Cao, Zhensheng; David, Caroline A.; Xuei, Xiaoling; Lerner, Claude G.; Soni, Niru B.; Bui, Mai; Shen, Linus L.; Cai, Yingna; Merta, Philip J.; Saiki, Anne Y. C.; Beutel, Bruce A.

2003-01-01

221

Novel antibacterial class.  

PubMed

We report the discovery and characterization of a novel ribosome inhibitor (NRI) class that exhibits selective and broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Compounds in this class inhibit growth of many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including the common respiratory pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Moraxella catarrhalis, and are nontoxic to human cell lines. The first NRI was discovered in a high-throughput screen designed to identify inhibitors of cell-free translation in extracts from S. pneumoniae. The chemical structure of the NRI class is related to antibacterial quinolones, but, interestingly, the differences in structure are sufficient to completely alter the biochemical and intracellular mechanisms of action. Expression array studies and analysis of NRI-resistant mutants confirm this difference in intracellular mechanism and provide evidence that the NRIs inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by inhibiting ribosomes. Furthermore, compounds in the NRI series appear to inhibit bacterial ribosomes by a new mechanism, because NRI-resistant strains are not cross-resistant to other ribosome inhibitors, such as macrolides, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, aminoglycosides, or oxazolidinones. The NRIs are a promising new antibacterial class with activity against all major drug-resistant respiratory pathogens. PMID:14638491

Dandliker, Peter J; Pratt, Steve D; Nilius, Angela M; Black-Schaefer, Candace; Ruan, Xiaoan; Towne, Danli L; Clark, Richard F; Englund, Erika E; Wagner, Rolf; Weitzberg, Moshe; Chovan, Linda E; Hickman, Robert K; Daly, Melissa M; Kakavas, Stephan; Zhong, Ping; Cao, Zhensheng; David, Caroline A; Xuei, Xiaoling; Lerner, Claude G; Soni, Niru B; Bui, Mai; Shen, Linus L; Cai, Yingna; Merta, Philip J; Saiki, Anne Y C; Beutel, Bruce A

2003-12-01

222

Identification and characterization of the bacterial etiology of clinically problematic acute otitis media after tympanocentesis or spontaneous otorrhea in German children  

PubMed Central

Background Acute Otitis Media (AOM) is an important and common disease of childhood. Bacteria isolated from cases of clinically problematic AOM in German children were identified and characterized. Methods In a prospective non-interventional study in German children between 3 months and less than 60 months of age with Ear, Nose and Throat Specialist –confirmed AOM, middle ear fluid was obtained by tympanocentesis (when clinically indicated) or by careful sampling of otorrhea through/at an existing perforation. Results In 100 children with severe AOM, Haemophilus influenzae was identified in 21% (18/21, 85.7% were non-typeable [NTHi]), Streptococcus pneumoniae in 10%, S. pyogenes in 13% and Moraxella catarrhalis in 1%. H. influenzae was the most frequently identified pathogen in children from 12 months of age. H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae were equally prevalent in children aged 3–11 months, but S. pyogenes was most frequently isolated in this age group. NTHi AOM disease appeared prevalent in all ages. Conclusions NTHi, S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes are implicated as important causes of complicated AOM in children in Germany. NTHi disease appears prevalent in all ages. The impact of vaccination to prevent NTHi and S. pneumoniae AOM may be substantial in this population and is worth investigating.

2012-01-01

223

Changing needs of community-acquired pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a serious condition associated with significant morbidity and potential long-term mortality. Although the majority of patients with CAP are treated as outpatients, the greatest proportion of pneumonia-related mortality and healthcare expenditure occurs among the patients who are hospitalized. There has been considerable interest in determining risk factors and severity criteria assessments to assist with site-of-care decisions. For both inpatients and outpatients, the most common pathogens associated with CAP include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, group A streptococci and Moraxella catarrhalis. Atypical pathogens, Gram-negative bacilli, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and viruses are also recognized aetiological agents of CAP. Despite the availability of antimicrobial therapies, the recent emergence of drug-resistant pneumococcal and staphylococcal isolates has limited the effectiveness of currently available agents. Because early and rapid initiation of empirical antimicrobial treatment is critical for achieving a favourable outcome in CAP, newer agents with activity against drug-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae and MRSA are needed for the management of patients with CAP.

Ramirez, Julio Alberto; Anzueto, Antonio R.

2011-01-01

224

[In-vitro susceptibilites to levofloxacin and various antibacterial agents of 18,639 clinical isolates obtained from 77 centers in 2004].  

PubMed

A total of 18,639 clinical isolates in 19 species collected from 77 centers during 2004 in Japan were tested for their susceptibility to fluoroquinolones (FQs) and other selected antibiotics. The common respiratory pathogens, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae showed a high susceptible rate against FQs. The isolation rate of beta lactamase non-producing ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae was approximately three times as large as those of western countries. Most strains of Enterobacteriaceae were also susceptible to FQs. The resistance rate of Escherichia coli against FQs has however been rapidly increasing so far as we surveyed since 1994. The FQs-resistant rate in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) showed approximately 90% except for 36%. of sitafloxacin while FQs-resistant rate in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was around 5%. The FQs-resistant rate of methicillin-resistant coagulase negative Staphylococci (MRCNS) was also higher than that of methicillin-susceptible coagulase negative Staphylococci (MSCNS), however, it was lower than that of MRSA. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates, 32-34% from UTI and 15-19% of from RTI was resistant to FQs. Acinetobacter spp. showed a high susceptibility to FQs. Although FQs-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae have not been increased in western countries, it is remarkably high in Japan. In this survey, isolates of approximately 85% was resistant to FQs. PMID:17334061

Yamaguchi, Keizo; Ohno, Akira; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Iwata, Morihiro; Kanda, Makoto; Tsujio, Yoshiko; Kimoto, Hiroya; Kaimori, Mitsuomi; Nakamura, Toshihiko; Kawamura, Chizuko; Nishimura, Masaharu; Akizawa, Koji; Katayama, Yosei; Matsuda, Keiko; Hayashi, Tasuku; Yasujima, Minoru; Kasai, Takeshi; Kimura, Masahiko; Tominaga, Makoto; Miki, Makoto; Nakanowatari, Susumu; Nakagawa, Takuo; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kanemitsu, Keiji; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Toyoshima, Shunkoh; Sakurai, Masanori; Shiotani, Joji; Sugita, Akihiro; Ito, Tatsumi; Okada, Jun; Suwabe, Akira; Yamahata, Kumiko; Yoneyama, Akiko; Kumasaka, Kazunari; Yamane, Nobuo; Koike, Kazuhiko; Ieiri, Tamio; Kominami, Hidenori; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Oguri, Toyoko; Itoh, Kouichi; Watanabe, Kiyoaki; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Ohtake, Teruko; Uchida, Takashi; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Murakami, Masami; Yomoda, Sachie; Takahashi, Ayako; Okamoto, Hideyuki; Inuzuka, Kazuhisa; Yamazaki, Kenichiro; Gonda, Hideo; Yamashita, Takanori; Yamaguchi, Ikuo; Okada, Motoi; Ikari, Hiromi; Kurosawa, Naomi; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Ishigo, Shiomi; Asano, Yuko; Mikio, Mori; Kano, Ichino; Nagano, Eiko; Kageyama, Fumio; Shaku, Etsuko; Kanno, Harushige; Aihara, Masanori; Gemma, Hitoshi; Uemura, Keiichi; Miyajima, Eiji; Maesaki, Shighefumi; Hashikita, Giichi; Horii, Toshinobu; Sumitomo, Midori; Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Hiraoka, Minoru; Wada, Hideo; Yuzuki, Yosuke; Ikeda, Norio; Baba, Hisashi; Soma, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Ichiyama, Satoshi; Kinosita, Syohiro; Kawano, Seiji; Fujita, Shinichi; Kageoka, Takeshi; Hongo, Toshiharu; Okabe, Hidetoshi; Tatewaki, Kenichi; Moro, Kunihiko; Oka, Mikio; Niki, Yoshihito; Yoshida, Haruyoshi; Yamashita, Masanobu; Kusano, Nobuchika; Mihara, Eiichiro; Nose, Motoko; Fushiwaki, Takeshi; Kuwabara, Masao; Fujiue, Yoshihiro; Shimuzu, Akira; Takubo, Takayuki; Kusakabe, Tadashi; Hinoda, Yuji; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Takahashi, Hakuo; Heijyou, Hitoshi; Okazaki, Toshiro; Asai, Koji; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Masuda, Junichi; Sano, Reiko; Taminato, Tomohiko; Negayama, Kiyoshi; Matsuo, Syuji; Komatsu, Masaru; Sugiura, Tetsuro; Murase, Mitsuharu; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Nakasone, Isao; Hirakata, Yoichi; Kohno, Shigeru; Aizawa, Hisamichi; Honda, Junichi; Hamazaki, Naotaka; Okayama, Akihiko; Ono, Junko; Aoki, Yosuke; Okada, Kaoru; Miyanohara, Hiroaki

2006-12-01

225

Sitafloxacin: in bacterial infections.  

PubMed

Sitafloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial with in vitro activity against a broad range of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, including anaerobic bacteria, as well as against atypical pathogens. It is approved in Japan for use in a number of bacterial infections caused by sitafloxacin-susceptible strains of Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, other Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Moraxella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Serratia spp., Proteus spp., Morganella morganii, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila, Peptostreptococcus spp., Prevotella spp., Porphyromonas spp., Fusobacterium spp., Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In terms of clinical efficacy, oral sitafloxacin was noninferior to oral levofloxacin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia or an infectious exacerbation of chronic respiratory tract disease, noninferior to oral tosufloxacin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, and noninferior to oral levofloxacin in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections, according to the results of randomized, double-blind, multicentre, noninferiority trials. Noncomparative studies demonstrated the efficacy of oral sitafloxacin in otorhinolaryngological infections, urethritis in men, C. trachomatis-associated cervicitis in women and odontogenic infections. Gastrointestinal disorders and laboratory abnormalities were the most commonly occurring adverse reactions in patients receiving oral sitafloxacin. Adverse reactions reported in sitafloxacin recipients in the active comparator trials were of mild to moderate severity. PMID:21504249

Keating, Gillian M

2011-04-16

226

Antibacterial activity of carbapenems against clinical isolates of respiratory bacterial pathogens in the northeastern region of Japan in 2007.  

PubMed

As the increasing prevalence of resistant strains of respiratory bacterial pathogens has recently been reported, continuous monitoring of the susceptibility of clinical isolates to antibacterial agents is important. We performed a surveillance study focusing on the susceptibility of major respiratory bacterial pathogens in the northeastern region of Japan to carbapenems and control drugs. A total of 168 bacterial strains isolated from patients with respiratory tract infections in 2007 were collected and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determined. MIC data were subjected to pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis with Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the probability of achieving the target of time above MIC with each carbapenem. All Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus isolates were susceptible to carbapenems. Despite the increasing prevalence of ?-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant strains, all Haemophilus influenzae isolates were susceptible to meropenem. For Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the susceptibility rates for meropenem and biapenem were 76.7%, and the highest probability of achieving pharmacodynamic target (40% of the time above MIC) was obtained with meropenem 0.5 g three times daily as a 4-h infusion (89.4%), followed by meropenem 0.5 g four times daily as a 1-h infusion (88.4%). Carbapenems have retained their position as key drugs for severe respiratory tract infections. PMID:20839026

Gomi, Kazunori; Fujimura, Shigeru; Fuse, Katsuhiro; Takane, Hidenari; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Kariya, Yasuko; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Kurokawa, Iku; Tokue, Yutaka; Watanabe, Akira

2010-09-14

227

The tetrasaccharide L-alpha-D-heptose1-->2-L-alpha-D-heptose1--> 3-L-alpha-D-heptose1-->(3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid) and phosphate in lipid A define the conserved epitope in Haemophilus lipopolysaccharides recognized by a monoclonal antibody.  

PubMed Central

A murine monoclonal antibody, MAHI 3 (immunoglobulin G2b), that is broadly reactive with Haemophilus influenzae lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) but nonreactive with all enterobacterial LPSs tested was generated by fusing mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells of BALB/c mice immunized with azide-killed H. influenzae RM.7004. MAHI 3 bound to all H. influenzae, all other human Haemophilus spp., all Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis, and all Aeromonas spp. tested but not to any Neisseria or Moraxella catarrhalis strains, as determined by enzyme immunoassay, colony dot immunoblotting, and immunoblotting. In an inhibition enzyme immunoassay, MAHI 3 reacted with all 45 H. influenzae LPSs tested but not with the LPS from the rough mutant I69 Rd-/b+, which has only 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (P) [Kdo(P)] and lipid A. The antibody was not inhibited by H. influenzae lipid A or lipid-free polysaccharide isolated after mild acid hydrolysis. Only native LPSs show positive inhibitory activity, indicating that part of lipid A is involved in the binding of MAHI 3. From the results, it is indicated that the structural element recognized by MAHI 3 is Hep alpha 1-->2Hep alpha 1-->3Hep alpha 1-->Kdo together with part of lipid A, including the phosphate.

Borrelli, S; Hegedus, O; Shaw, D H; Jansson, P E; Lindberg, A A

1995-01-01

228

Efficacy and safety of telithromycin 800 mg once daily for 7 days in community-acquired pneumonia: an open-label, multicenter study  

PubMed Central

Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Telithromycin (a new ketolide) has shown good in vitro activity against the key causative pathogens of CAP, including S pneumoniae resistant to penicillin and/or macrolides. Methods The efficacy and safety of telithromycin 800 mg orally once daily for 7 days in the treatment of CAP were assessed in an open-label, multicenter study of 442 adults. Results Of 149 microbiologically evaluable patients, 57 (9 bacteremic) had Streptococcus pneumoniae. Of the 57 S pneumoniae pathogens isolated in these patients, 9 (2 bacteremic) were penicillin- or erythromycin-resistant; all 57 were susceptible to telithromycin and were eradicated. Other pathogens and their eradication rates were: Haemophilus influenzae (96%), Moraxella catarrhalis (100%), Staphylococcus aureus (80%), and Legionella spp. (100%). The overall bacteriologic eradication rate was 91.9%. Of the 357 clinically evaluable patients, clinical cure was achieved in 332 (93%). In the 430 patients evaluable for safety, the most common drug-related adverse events were diarrhea (8.1%) and nausea (5.8%). Conclusion Telithromycin 800 mg once daily for 7 days is an effective and well-tolerated oral monotherapy and offers a new treatment option for CAP patients, including those with resistant S pneumoniae.

Fogarty, Charles M; Patel, Tushar C; Dunbar, Lala M; Leroy, Bruno P

2005-01-01

229

Viability of respiratory pathogens cultured from nasopharyngeal swabs stored for up to 12 years at -70°C in skim milk tryptone glucose glycerol broth.  

PubMed

Nasopharyngeal carriage studies are needed to monitor changes in important bacterial pathogens in response to vaccination and antibiotics. The ability to store original specimens frozen in skim milk tryptone glucose glycerol broth (STGGB) allows additional studies to be conducted without the need for further expensive field collection. Although sub-cultured isolates remain viable in this medium for many years, limited data are available to indicate viability of relatively low numbers of organisms present in nasopharyngeal specimens stored frozen over long periods of time. We conducted several studies whereby swabs stored in STGGB at -70°C for up to 12 years were thawed and aliquots cultured. Recovery of Streptococcus pneumoniae (72% positive from 269 swabs), Haemophilus influenzae (62% from 214) and Moraxella catarrhalis (81% from 162) was not significantly different from the original cultures: 69% (Risk Difference [RD] 3.0, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] -4.7, 10.7), 66% (RD -4.7, 95% CI -13.8, 4.4) and 78% (RD 3.1, 95% CI -5.7, 11.9) positive respectively. There was no trend in recovery from swabs stored for increasing lengths of time. We conclude that studies which rely on the viability of these respiratory pathogens can be conducted using original swabs stored at -70°C for at least 12 years. PMID:21736904

Hare, Kim M; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C; Leach, Amanda J

2011-06-28

230

Antibacterial activity of RU 64004 (HMR 3004), a novel ketolide derivative active against respiratory pathogens.  

PubMed Central

The antibacterial activity of RU 64004, a new ketolide, was evaluated against more than 600 bacterial strains and was compared with those of various macrolides and pristinamycin. RU 64004 had good activity against multiresistant pneumococci, whether they were erythromycin A resistant or not, including penicillin-resistant strains. RU 64004 inhibited 90% of pneumococci resistant to erythromycin A and penicillin G at 0.6 and 0.15 microg/ml, respectively. Unlike macrolides, RU 64004 did not induce the phenotype of resistance to macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B. Its good antibacterial activity against multiresistant pneumococci ran in parallel with its well-balanced activity against all bacteria involved in respiratory infections (e.g., Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pyogenes). In contrast to all comparators (14- and 16-membered-ring macrolides and pristinamycin), RU 64004 displayed high therapeutic activity in animals infected with all major strains, irrespective of the phenotypes of the strains. The results suggest that RU 64004 has potential for use in the treatment of infections caused by respiratory pathogens including multiresistant pneumococci.

Agouridas, C; Bonnefoy, A; Chantot, J F

1997-01-01

231

In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activities of S-4661, a New Carbapenem  

PubMed Central

The in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of S-4661, a new 1?-methylcarbapenem, were compared with those of imipenem, meropenem, biapenem, cefpirome, and ceftazidime. The activity of S-4661 against methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and streptococci was comparable to that of imipenem, with an MIC at which 90% of the strains tested were inhibited (MIC90) equal to 0.5 ?g/ml or less. S-4661 was highly active against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis, with MIC90s ranging from 0.032 to 0.5 ?g/ml. Against imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S-4661 was the most active among test agents (MIC90, 8 ?g/ml). Furthermore, S-4661 displayed a high degree of activity against many ceftazidime-, ciprofloxacin-, and gentamicin-resistant isolates of P. aeruginosa. The in vivo efficacy of S-4661 against experimentally induced infections in mice caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and drug-resistant P. aeruginosa, reflected its potent in vitro activity and high levels in plasma in mice. We conclude that S-4661 is a promising new carbapenem for the treatment of infections caused by gram-positive and -negative bacteria, including penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and drug-resistant P. aeruginosa.

Tsuji, Masakatsu; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Ohno, Akira; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Yamaguchi, Keizo

1998-01-01

232

In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activities of CS-834, a New Oral Carbapenem  

PubMed Central

CS-834 is a prodrug of the carbapenem R-95867, developed by Sankyo Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan. To investigate the possibility that CS-834 may be the first carbapenem usable in an oral dosage form, its in vitro antibacterial activity (as R-95867) and in vivo antibacterial activity were compared with those of cefpodoxime proxetil, cefditoren pivoxil, cefdinir, ofloxacin, imipenem, and amoxicillin. R-95867 had high levels of activity against methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and streptococci, including penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Moraxella catarrhalis, the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (with the exception of Serratia marcescens), Haemophilus influenzae, and Bordetella pertussis; for all these strains, the MICs at which 90% of tested strains are inhibited (MIC90s) were 1.0 ?g/ml or less. Against methicillin-resistant staphylococci, enterococci, Serratia marcescens, Brukholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, R-95867 showed activity comparable to or slightly less than that of imipenem, with MIC90s ranging from 2 to >128 ?g/ml. The in vivo efficacy of oral CS-834 against experimental mouse septicemia caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was better than that of comparative drugs. In murine respiratory infection models, the efficacy of CS-834 reflected not only its potent in vitro activity but also the high levels present in the lungs.

Yamaguchi, Keizo; Domon, Haruki; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Ohno, Akira; Ishii, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Furuya, Nobuhiko

1998-01-01

233

In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activities of L-084, a Novel Oral Carbapenem, against Causative Organisms of Respiratory Tract Infections  

PubMed Central

L-084 (a prodrug of LJC 11,036 [L-036]) is a new oral carbapenem. Here we compared the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of L-036 with those of imipenem, faropenem, ceditoren-pivoxil, cefdinir, amoxicillin, and levofloxacin. The MICs at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited of L-036 against methicillin-susceptible staphylococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae including penicillin-resistant organisms, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae including ampicillin-resistant organisms, Legionella pneumophila, and Moraxella catarrhalis were equal to or less than 1 ?g/ml. In pharmacokinetics studies of L-084 in lungs of mice, the maximum concentration in serum, half-life, and area under the concentration-time curve of this drug were 9.09 ?g/g of tissue, 6.18 h, and 31.0 ?g · h/ml, respectively. In murine respiratory infection models of penicillin-susceptible and -resistant S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, the efficacies of L-084 were better than those of reference drugs. Our results indicate that the in vitro high potency and good distribution in the lungs might be the underlying mechanisms of its efficacy in the murine model of pneumonia.

Miyazaki, Shuichi; Hosoyama, Takayuki; Furuya, Nobuhiko; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Ohno, Akira; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo

2001-01-01

234

In vitro evaluation of Ro 09-1227, a novel catechol-substituted cephalosporin.  

PubMed Central

Ro 09-1227 is a novel 7-position catechol-substituted parenteral cephalosporin that also has a 3-position radical similar to previously described cephems. The Ro 09-1227 spectrum was slightly wider than that of ceftazidime against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae tested, principally because of greater activity against species producing Richmond-Sykes type I beta-lactamases. Ro 09-1227 was also more active than ceftazidime against some strains producing extended-spectrum plasmid-encoded beta-lactamases, such as TEM-3, -4, -5, -6, -7, and -9, SHV-2 and -3, and CAZ-2. Most strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Xanthomonas maltophilia, and Acinetobacter spp. were also more susceptible to Ro 09-1227 than cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefoperazone, and ceftazidime. Haemophilus influenzae (MIC for 90% of strains tested [MIC90], 0.5 micrograms/ml), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (MIC90, 0.015 micrograms/ml), and Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis (MIC90, 0.5 micrograms/ml) were also Ro 09-1227 susceptible. Ro 09-1227 activity against important gram-positive cocci was most comparable to that of ceftazidime. Bacteroides fragilis (MIC90, greater than 32 micrograms/ml) and the enterococci (MIC90, greater than 32 micrograms/ml) were resistant to Ro 09-1227. These in vitro results indicate that this catechol-substituted cephalosporin may be useful as an empiric agent, especially for some isolates resistant to currently available broad-spectrum cephalosporins.

Jones, R N; Erwin, M E

1992-01-01

235

Changes in the spectrum of organisms causing respiratory tract infections: a review.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, the spectrum of organisms causing community-acquired acute lower respiratory tract infections has changed. Streptococcus pneumoniae now causes approximately 30% of outpatient acute pneumonia-less than in former decades-whereas Mycoplasma pneumoniae is found in both young and elderly patients. The Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus are now seen more frequently as respiratory tract pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia patients, and they are the major organisms causing pneumonia in residents of homes for the elderly or nursing homes, and in immuno-compromised patients. Agents that were previously considered non-pathogenic for the respiratory tract include serotypes of Haemophilus influenzae other than type b, H. parainfluenzae and Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis; these organisms affect mainly patients with underlying cardiopulmonary disease. Legionella species can cause sporadic as well as epidemic disease of the lower respiratory tract. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a newly recognized pathogen responsible for mild to severe upper and lower respiratory tract infections. In 60-80% of cases, hospital-acquired pneumonias are caused by Gram-negative bacilli and S. aureus. These organisms colonize the mucosal membranes of the upper respiratory tract and penetrate into the lower tract by aspiration or intubation. PMID:1287613

Kayser, F H

1992-01-01

236

Cefditoren, a new aminothiazolyl cephalosporin.  

PubMed

Cefditoren pivoxil, an oral third-generation cephalosporin, was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in September 2001. It has been used in Japan for several years. The greatest therapeutic potential of cefditoren appears to be its activity against gram-positive and gram-negative organisms causing respiratory tract infections and skin and skin-structure infections, such as Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Cefditoren is also effective against methicillin-susceptible strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Nevertheless, cefditoren has no activity against atypical pathogens, including Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella sp. Moreover, cefditoren does not inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Bacteroides fragilis. In virtually all studies, cefditoren has compared favorably against other orally administered antibiotics used against the most commonly isolated respiratory tract pathogens. Its side effect profile includes diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headache, and dyspepsia. Cefditoren is indicated for treatment of mild-to-moderate acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, pharyngitis-tonsillitis, and uncomplicated skin and skin-structure infections caused by susceptible strains of organisms in adults and adolescents (> or = 12 yrs of age). Based on its reported antimicrobial activity, cefditoren has potential for empiric management of most commonly encountered respiratory tract infections. Additional studies will further define its role in clinical practice. PMID:12389878

Balbisi, Ebrahim A

2002-10-01

237

Antibacterial activities of epiroprim, a new dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor, alone and in combination with dapsone.  

PubMed Central

Epiroprim (EPM; Ro 11-8958) is a new selective inhibitor of microbial dihydrofolate reductase. EPM displayed excellent activity against staphylococci, enterococci, pneumococci, and streptococci which was considerably better than that of trimethoprim (TMP). EPM was also active against TMP-resistant strains, although the MICs were still relatively high. Its combination with dapsone (DDS) was synergistic and showed as in vitro activity superior to that of the TMP combination with sulfamethoxazole (SMZ). The EPM-DDS (ratio, 1:19) combination inhibited more than 90% of all important gram-positive pathogens at a concentration of 2 + 38 micrograms/ml. Only a few highly TMP-resistant staphylococci and enterococci were not inhibited. EPM was also more active than TMP against Moraxella catarrhalis, Neisseria meningitidis, and Bacteroides spp., but it was less active than TMP against all other gram-negative bacteria tested. Atypical mycobacteria were poorly susceptible to EPM, but the combination with DDS was synergistic and active at concentrations most probably achievable in biological fluids (MICs from 0.25 +/- 4.75 to 4 + 76 micrograms/ml). EPM and the EPM-DDS combination were also highly active against experimental staphylococcal infections in a mouse septicemia model. The combination EPM-DDS has previously been shown to exhibit activity in Pneumocystis carinii and Toxoplasma models and, as shown in the present study, also shows good activity against a broad range of bacteria including many strains resistant to TMP and TMP-SMZ.

Locher, H H; Schlunegger, H; Hartman, P G; Angehrn, P; Then, R L

1996-01-01

238

Antibacterial activities of epiroprim, a new dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor, alone and in combination with dapsone.  

PubMed

Epiroprim (EPM; Ro 11-8958) is a new selective inhibitor of microbial dihydrofolate reductase. EPM displayed excellent activity against staphylococci, enterococci, pneumococci, and streptococci which was considerably better than that of trimethoprim (TMP). EPM was also active against TMP-resistant strains, although the MICs were still relatively high. Its combination with dapsone (DDS) was synergistic and showed as in vitro activity superior to that of the TMP combination with sulfamethoxazole (SMZ). The EPM-DDS (ratio, 1:19) combination inhibited more than 90% of all important gram-positive pathogens at a concentration of 2 + 38 micrograms/ml. Only a few highly TMP-resistant staphylococci and enterococci were not inhibited. EPM was also more active than TMP against Moraxella catarrhalis, Neisseria meningitidis, and Bacteroides spp., but it was less active than TMP against all other gram-negative bacteria tested. Atypical mycobacteria were poorly susceptible to EPM, but the combination with DDS was synergistic and active at concentrations most probably achievable in biological fluids (MICs from 0.25 +/- 4.75 to 4 + 76 micrograms/ml). EPM and the EPM-DDS combination were also highly active against experimental staphylococcal infections in a mouse septicemia model. The combination EPM-DDS has previously been shown to exhibit activity in Pneumocystis carinii and Toxoplasma models and, as shown in the present study, also shows good activity against a broad range of bacteria including many strains resistant to TMP and TMP-SMZ. PMID:8726004

Locher, H H; Schlunegger, H; Hartman, P G; Angehrn, P; Then, R L

1996-06-01

239

Clinically Applicable Multiplex PCR for Four Middle Ear Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The multiplex PCR method for the detection of Alloiococcus otitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (P. H. Hendolin, A. Markkanen, J. Ylikoski, and J. J. Wahlfors, J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:2854–2858, 1997) in middle ear effusions (MEEs) was modified to be better suited for clinical use. To detect false-negative results, an internal amplification was added to the reaction, and to prevent carryover contamination, the dUTP–uracil-N-glycosidase system was incorporated into the procedure. Labor was minimized by using the heat-activatable AmpliTaq Gold polymerase in order to circumvent manual hot start and by detecting the amplification products on an automated sequencer. The performance of the improved protocol was verified with MEEs from patients with otitis media with effusion. In addition, a ligase detection reaction (LDR) was developed for confirmation of the PCR products. The modifications increased the reliability of the protocol and the hands-off time significantly. However, when two DNA extraction protocols were compared, gram-negative bacteria were detected more often in phenol-treated MEEs (94 versus 46%; P < 0.001), and gram-positive bacteria were detected more often in MEEs dissolved in sodium dodecyl sulfate-NaOH-chaotropic salt (83 versus 27%; P < 0.001). The LDR was found to be 100% specific. In all, the results demonstrate the feasibility of the rapid (7-h) multiplex PCR method for routine laboratory use.

Hendolin, Panu H.; Paulin, Lars; Ylikoski, Jukka

2000-01-01

240

Otitis media: diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Acute otitis media is diagnosed in patients with acute onset, presence of middle ear effusion, physical evidence of middle ear inflammation, and symptoms such as pain, irritability, or fever. Acute otitis media is usually a complication of eustachian tube dysfunction that occurs during a viral upper respiratory tract infection. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most common organisms isolated from middle ear fluid. Management of acute otitis media should begin with adequate analgesia. Antibiotic therapy can be deferred in children two years or older with mild symptoms. High-dose amoxicillin (80 to 90 mg per kg per day) is the antibiotic of choice for treating acute otitis media in patients who are not allergic to penicillin. Children with persistent symptoms despite 48 to 72 hours of antibiotic therapy should be reexamined, and a second-line agent, such as amoxicillin/clavulanate, should be used if appropriate. Otitis media with effusion is defined as middle ear effusion in the absence of acute symptoms. Antibiotics, decongestants, or nasal steroids do not hasten the clearance of middle ear fluid and are not recommended. Children with evidence of anatomic damage, hearing loss, or language delay should be referred to an otolaryngologist. PMID:24134083

Harmes, Kathryn M; Blackwood, R Alexander; Burrows, Heather L; Cooke, James M; Harrison, R Van; Passamani, Peter P

2013-10-01

241

Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB  

SciTech Connect

The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from inclusion bodies by denaturation in urea followed by refolding in buffered LDAO on a size-exclusion column. PorB has been crystallized in three different crystal forms: C222, R32 and P6{sub 3}. The C222 crystal form may contain either one or two PorB monomers in the asymmetric unit, while both the R32 and P6{sub 3} crystal forms contained one PorB monomer in the asymmetric unit. Of the three, the P6{sub 3} crystal form had the best diffraction quality, yielding data extending to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution.

Tanabe, Mikio; Iverson, Tina M.; (Vanderbilt)

2010-01-28

242

Cross-reactivity of antibodies against PorA after vaccination with a meningococcal B outer membrane vesicle vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cross-reactivity of PorA-specific antibodies induced by a monovalent P1.7-2,4 (MonoMen) and\\/or a hexavalent (HexaMen) meningococcal B outer membrane vesicle vaccine (OMV) in toddlers and school children was studied by serum bactericidal assays (SBA). First, isogenic vaccine strains and PorA-identical patient isolates were compared as a target in SBA, to ensure that the vaccine strains are representative for patient isolates.

C. L. Vermont; H. H. van Dijken; A. J. Kuipers; Limpt van C. J. P; W. C. M. Keijzers; A. van der Ende; R. de Groot; L. van Alphen; Dobbelsteen van den G. P. J. M

2003-01-01

243

Effect of SPM-based cleaning POR on EUV mask performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning POR and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning POR.

Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-Shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.

2011-10-01

244

Immunogenicity of a combination vaccine containing pneumococcal conjugates and meningococcal PorA OMVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pre-clinical immunogenicity of a combination vaccine containing 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate (13vPnC) vaccine (serotypes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F and 23F conjugated to CRM197) and nine-valent meningococcal B PorA vaccine (NonaMen; serosubtypes P1.7,16; P1.5-1,2-2; P1.19,15-1; P1.5-2,10; P1.12-1,13; P1.7-2,4; P1.22,14; P1.7-1,1 and P1.18-1,3,6), and any potential immunological interference between pneumococcal and MenB components of

Germie P. J. M. van den Dobbelsteen; Harry H. van Dijken; Subramonia Pillai; Loek van Alphen

2007-01-01

245

Bifurcación de las soluciones de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas Be: formación de líneas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se ha estudiado la topología de la ecuación hidrodinámica no-lineal que describe el perfil de velocidades de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas tempranas. Al aplicar este modelo a estrellas Be se encuentra que existen dos tipos De soluciones: la estándar, que describe el viento polar, y una nueva, que describe un viento más denso y lento y que explicaría el disco que se encuentra alrededor de estos objetos. Existe una región de transición en donde ambas soluciones coexisten (bifurcación}). Ambas soluciones satisfacen en esta región las mismas condiciones de borde. Para estas dos soluciones se han obtenido los perfiles de líneas de hidrógeno del visible y del IR, resolviendo el transporte de radiación en el ``comoving frame". Para la solución estándar, se obtienen perfiles con componentes en emisión, mientras que para la nueva solución se obtienen perfiles en absorción. Se comparan cualitativamente los resultados con las observaciones.

Curé, M.; Rial, D.; Cidale, L.; Venero, R.

246

Obtención de la curva de luz en la ocultación de 35 Sgr por Júpiter el 6 de marzo de 1996  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La ocultación de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr por Júpiter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso por el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar parámetros físicos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atmósfera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presión) Para lograr ésto se programó la cámara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 imágenes por segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 imágenes de la inmersión y otras tantas de la emersión. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturación del CCD ya que la observación se realizó de día. En este momento las imágenes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reducción.

Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.

247

Nation, empire and local community in Lope de Vega's Peasant Drama and El Nuevo Mundo descubierto por Cristóbal Colón  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the drama of early modern Spain the colonisation of America wasassociated with criticism of the corruption of the religious and chivalricideals of the reconquest of Muslim Spain. In Lope de Vega's early play, El Nuevo Mundo descubierto por Cristóbal Colón (c.1598–1603), the greed andlust of Columbus's companions make them prototypes of the tyrannicalnoblemen of Lope's peasant honour plays, which

Ivan Cañadas

2002-01-01

248

Molecular Epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Sequence Analysis of the porB Gene Confirms Presence of Two Circulating Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains fluctuate over time both locally and globally, and highly discriminative and precise characterization of the strains is essential. Conventional characterization of N. gonorrhoeae strains for epidemiological purposes is mostly based on phenotypic methods, which have some inherent limitations. In the present study sequence analysis of porB1b gene sequences was used for

Magnus Unemo; Per Olcen; Torsten Berglund; Jan Albert; Hans Fredlund

2002-01-01

249

Competencia por Comparación en el Sector de Distribución Eléctrica: El Papel de la Política de Defensa de la Competencia  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo, abordamos en primer lugar el problema de la interacción entre las políticas regulatorias y de defensa de la competencia en relación a la potencial implementación del mecanismo regulatorio de competencia por comparación en el sector de distribución eléctrica en Argentina. En segunda instancia, se estudia la concentración accionaria en distribución eléctrica, y los riesgos de tal proceso

Diego Bondorevsky; Diego Petrecolla; Carlos A. Romero; Christian A. Ruzzier

2002-01-01

250

Comparison of immune responses to gonococcal PorB delivered as outer membrane vesicles, recombinant protein, or Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles.  

PubMed

Porin (PorB) is a major outer membrane protein produced by all Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains and has been a focus of intense interest as a vaccine candidate. In this study, the immunogenicity of PorB in mice was investigated after several immunization regimens. Outer membrane vesicles (OMV), recombinant renatured PorB (rrPorB), and PorB-expressing Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus replicon particles (PorB VRP) were delivered intranasally (i.n.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) into the dorsal area or the hind footpad in three-dose schedules; the PorB VRP-immunized mice were given a single additional booster dose of rrPorB in Ribi adjuvant. Different delivery systems and administration routes induced different immune responses. Mice immunized s.c. with rrPorB in Ribi had the highest levels of PorB-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Surprisingly, there was an apparent Th1 bias, based on IgG1/IgG2a ratios, after immunization with rrPorB in Ribi in the footpad while the same vaccine given in the dorsal area gave a strongly Th2-biased response. PorB VRP-immunized mice produced a consistent Th1 response with a high gamma interferon response in stimulated splenic lymphocytes and very low IgG1/IgG2a ratios. Immunization by OMV delivered i.n. was the only regimen that resulted in a serum bactericidal response, and it generated an excellent mucosal IgA response. Serum from mice immunized with rrPorB preferentially recognized the surface of whole gonococci expressing a homologous PorB, whereas serum from PorB VRP-immunized mice had relatively low whole-cell binding activity but recognized both heterologous and homologous PorB equally. The data resulting from this direct comparison suggested that important aspects of the immune response can be manipulated by altering the form of the antigen and its delivery. This information coupled with an understanding of protective antigonococcal immune responses will enable the design of the optimal vaccine for N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:16239559

Zhu, Weiyan; Thomas, Christopher E; Chen, Ching-Ju; Van Dam, Cornelius N; Johnston, Robert E; Davis, Nancy L; Sparling, P Frederick

2005-11-01

251

The Amino Acid Sequence of Neisseria lactamica PorB Surface-Exposed Loops Influences Toll-Like Receptor 2-Dependent Cell Activation  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in host mucosal and systemic defense mechanisms by recognizing a diverse array of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). TLR2, with TLR1 and TLR6, recognizes structurally diverse bacterial products such as lipidated factors (lipoproteins and peptidoglycans) and nonlipidated proteins, i.e., bacterial porins. PorB is a pan-neisserial porin expressed regardless of organisms' pathogenicity. However, commensal Neisseria lactamica organisms and purified N. lactamica PorB (published elsewhere as Nlac PorB) induce TLR2-dependent proinflammatory responses of lower magnitude than N. meningitidis organisms and N. meningitidis PorB (published elsewhere as Nme PorB). Both PorB types bind to TLR2 in vitro but with different apparent specificities. The structural and molecular details of PorB-TLR2 interaction are only beginning to be unraveled and may be due to electrostatic attraction. PorB molecules have significant strain-specific sequence variability within surface-exposed regions (loops) putatively involved in TLR2 interaction. By constructing chimeric recombinant PorB loop mutants in which surface-exposed loop residues have been switched between N. lactamica PorB and N. meningitidis PorB, we identified residues in loop 5 and loop 7 that influence TLR2-dependent cell activation using HEK cells and BEAS-2B cells. These loops are not uniquely responsible for PorB interaction with TLR2, but NF-?B and MAP kinases signaling downstream of TLR2 recognition are likely influenced by a hypothetical “TLR2-binding signature” within the sequence of PorB surface-exposed loops. Consistent with the effect of purified PorB in vitro, a chimeric N. meningitidis strain expressing N. lactamica PorB induces lower levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) secretion than wild-type N. meningitidis, suggesting a role for PorB in induction of host cell activation by whole bacteria.

Toussi, Deana N.; Carraway, Margaretha; Wetzler, Lee M.; Lewis, Lisa A.; Liu, Xiuping

2012-01-01

252

AMPEROMETRIC MICROBIAL BIOSENSOR FOR DIRECT DETERMINATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE NERVE AGENTS USING RECOMBINANT MORAXELLA SP. WITH SURFACE EXPRESSED ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE. (R828160)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

253

Adequação do consumo de ferro por gestantes e mulheres em idade fértil atendidas em um serviço de pré-natal Adequacy of iron consumption in pregnant and fertile women assisted by a prenatal service Adecuación del consumo de hierro por mujeres embarazadas y fértiles asistidas por un servicio prenatal  

Microsoft Academic Search

ReSumo: Anemia por carência alimentar de ferro é o problema nutricional mais prevalente em nível de saúde coletiva e afeta crianças e mulheres em idade reprodutiva, em especial as gestantes. Este estudo avaliou o consumo de alimentos fontes de ferro, naturais e fortificados, e a adequação de energia e nutrientes de mulheres em idade reprodutiva, gestantes ou não. Desenvolveu-se um

Juliana Moreira Lino Viana; Adriana Uehara Santos; Maria Alice Tsunechiro; Ana Paula; Sayuri Sato; Isabel Bonadio; Sophia Cornbluth Szarfarc; Elizabeth Fujimori

254

The effect of essential oil on heart rate and blood pressure among solus por aqua workers.  

PubMed

Background: Aromatherapy is widely used around the world for stress relief. Whether exposure to essential oil increases the risk of cardiovascular events is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of essential oil on heart rate and blood pressure among solus por aqua (spa) workers.Methods: We recruited 100 healthy workers from various spa centres in Taipei, Taiwan. Between July and August of 2010, three repeated measurements - resting heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) - were taken of each spa worker in our study room. Participants were exposed to essential oil vapour generated from an ultrasonic atomizer in the study room for two consecutive hours. The total volatile organic compound (VOC) level in the study room was measured during the study period. We used a linear mixed-effect model to determine the association between the total VOC level and the participants' HR, SBP, and DBP.Results: For the times from 15 to 60 min after start of exposure, we found that the VOC level was significantly associated with reduced 15-min mean BP and HR. After exposure for more than 1 hour, from 75 to 120 min after start of exposure, we found that the VOC levels were associated with increased 15-min mean BP and HR.Conclusions: Exposure to essential oil for 1 hour was found to be an effective method of relaxation, as indicated by decreases in the HR and BP. Prolonged exposure for longer than 1 hour to essential oils may be harmful to cardiovascular health among spa workers. PMID:23197402

Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Hua-Wei; Liu, I-Jung; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Lin, Lian-Yu

2012-11-29

255

IgG antibody subclass responses determined by immunoblot in infants’ sera following vaccination with a meningococcal recombinant hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines into the UK immunisation schedule has led to the decline of serogroup C disease in those vaccinated but there is no imminent vaccine solution for serogroup B disease. The PorA outer membrane protein (OMP) is a potential serogroup B vaccine candidate and an outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine containing six different PorA

Sarah Martin; Francesca Sadler; Ray Borrow; Maureen Dawson; Andrew Fox; Keith Cartwright

2001-01-01

256

Avidity maturation following vaccination with a meningococcal recombinant hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine in UK infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, there are no data assessing the utility of avidity indices as a surrogate marker for the induction of immunological memory following meningococcal serogroup B outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccination. We studied infants who had been immunized with three doses of a recombinant hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine at ages 2–4 months, together with a fourth dose at age 12–18

Emma Longworth; Ray Borrow; David Goldblatt; Paul Balmer; Maureen Dawson; Nick Andrews; Elizabeth Miller; Keith Cartwright

2002-01-01

257

Chlorophyll Synthesis in a Deetiolated (det340) Mutant of Arabidopsis without NADPH-Protochlorophyllide (PChlide) Oxidoreductase (POR) A and Photoactive PChlide-F655.  

PubMed Central

Chlorophyll (Chl) synthesis in Arabidopsis is controlled by two light-dependent NADPH-protochlorophyllide (PChlide) oxidoreductases (PORs), one (POR A) that is active transiently in etiolated seedlings at the beginning of illumination and another (POR B) that also operates in green plants. The function of these two enzymes during the light-induced greening of dark-grown seedlings has been studied in the wild type and a deetiolated (det340) mutant of Arabidopsis. One of the consequences of the det mutation is that POR A is constitutively down-regulated, and therefore, synthesis of the POR A enzyme is shut off. When grown in the dark, the det340 mutant lacks POR A and the photoactive PChlide-F655 species but maintains the second PChlide reductase, POR B. Previously, photoactive PChlide-F655 has often been considered to be the only PChlide form that leads to Chl formation. Despite its deficiency in POR A and photoactive PChlide-F655, the det340 mutant is able to green when placed in the light. Chl accumulation, however, proceeds abnormally. At the beginning of illumination, seedlings of det340 mutants are extremely susceptible to photooxidative damage and accumulate Chl only at extremely low light intensities. They form core complexes of photosystems I and II but are almost completely devoid of light-harvesting structures. The results of this study demonstrate that in addition to the route of Chl synthesis that has been studied extensively in illuminated dark-grown wild-type plants, a second branch of Chl synthesis exists that is driven by POR B and does not require POR A.

Lebedev, N; Van Cleve, B; Armstrong, G; Apel, K

1995-01-01

258

Clinical bacteriology and immunology in acute otitis media in children.  

PubMed

Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common disease seen in childhood. Streptococcus pneumoniae, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most frequent pathogens of all AOM episodes. The high prevalence of drug-resistant pathogens such as penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) and betalactamase producing or nonproducing ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae (BLPAR or BLNAR) is causing serious clinical problems worldwide. PRSP and BLNAR have become important risk factors for intractable clinical outcome of AOM. PRSP causes a three times higher incidence of intractable AOM than susceptible strains. BLNAR strains show penicillin-binding protein gene mutation and are not only resistant to ampicillin, but also have reduced susceptibility to cephalosporin. The resistant H. influenzae pathogen has shown clonal dissemination in Japan in ways different from those of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae. Protection against AOM due to these pathogens may depend on pathogen-specific antibodies. Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides (PCPs) are type specific and poorly immunogenic in children younger than 2 years old. Approximately 50% of otitis-prone children showed subnormal levels of anti-PCP IgG2 antibody. In our immunological study in children with otitis media, however, otitis-prone children were not unusually vulnerable to infections except those resulting in otitis media. This fact seems to refute the presence of a broad immunological deficit in these children. Some pathogen-specific antibodies may be directed against protein immunogens such as pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) of S. pneumoniae, P6 of NTHi, and UspA of M. catarrhalis. The levels of antibody to P6 of NTHi in healthy children were significantly higher than those in the otitis-prone children after the age of 18 months. In general, individual antibody levels in otitis-prone individuals did not have an age-dependent rise. The failure to develop a good antibody response to common antigens such as PspA and P6 may enable the pathogen to cause persistent or recurrent disease. PMID:18574652

Yamanaka, Noboru; Hotomi, Muneki; Billal, Dewan S

2008-06-24

259

Longitudinal Nasopharyngeal Carriage and Antibiotic Resistance of Respiratory Bacteria in Indigenous Australian and Alaska Native Children with Bronchiectasis  

PubMed Central

Background Indigenous children in Australia and Alaska have very high rates of chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD)/bronchiectasis. Antibiotics, including frequent or long-term azithromycin in Australia and short-term beta-lactam therapy in both countries, are often prescribed to treat these patients. In the Bronchiectasis Observational Study we examined over several years the nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of respiratory bacteria in these two PCV7-vaccinated populations. Methods Indigenous children aged 0.5–8.9 years with CSLD/bronchiectasis from remote Australia (n?=?79) and Alaska (n?=?41) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study during 2004–8. At scheduled study visits until 2010 antibiotic use in the preceding 2-weeks was recorded and nasopharyngeal swabs collected for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Analysis of respiratory bacterial carriage and antibiotic resistance was by baseline and final swabs, and total swabs by year. Results Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage changed little over time. In contrast, carriage of Haemophilus influenzae declined and Staphylococcus aureus increased (from 0% in 2005–6 to 23% in 2010 in Alaskan children); these changes were associated with increasing age. Moraxella catarrhalis carriage declined significantly in Australian, but not Alaskan, children (from 64% in 2004–6 to 11% in 2010). While beta-lactam antibiotic use was similar in the two cohorts, Australian children received more azithromycin. Macrolide resistance was significantly higher in Australian compared to Alaskan children, while H. influenzae beta-lactam resistance was higher in Alaskan children. Azithromycin use coincided significantly with reduced carriage of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, but increased carriage of S. aureus and macrolide-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae and S. aureus (proportion of carriers and all swabs), in a ‘cumulative dose-response’ relationship. Conclusions Over time, similar (possibly age-related) changes in nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage were observed in Australian and Alaskan children with CSLD/bronchiectasis. However, there were also significant frequency-dependent differences in carriage and antibiotic resistance that coincided with azithromycin use.

Hare, Kim M.; Singleton, Rosalyn J.; Grimwood, Keith; Valery, Patricia C.; Cheng, Allen C.; Morris, Peter S.; Leach, Amanda J.; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C.; Chatfield, Mark; Redding, Greg; Reasonover, Alisa L.; McCallum, Gabrielle B.; Chikoyak, Lori; McDonald, Malcolm I.; Brown, Ngiare; Torzillo, Paul J.; Chang, Anne B.

2013-01-01

260

Eradication of common pathogens at days 2, 3 and 4 of moxifloxacin therapy in patients with acute bacterial sinusitis  

PubMed Central

Background Acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) is a common infection in clinical practice. Data on time to bacteriologic eradication after antimicrobial therapy are lacking for most agents, but are necessary in order to optimize therapy. This was a prospective, single-arm, open-label, multicenter study to determine the time to bacteriologic eradication in ABS patients (maxillary sinusitis) treated with moxifloxacin. Methods Adult patients with radiologically and clinically confirmed ABS received once-daily moxifloxacin 400 mg for 10 days. Middle meatus secretion sampling was performed using nasal endoscopy pre-therapy, and repeated on 3 consecutive days during treatment. Target enrollment was 30 bacteriologically evaluable patients (pre-therapy culture positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae or Moraxella catarrhalis and evaluable cultures for at least Day 2 and Day 3 during therapy visits), including at least 10 each with S. pneumoniae or H. influenzae. Results Of 192 patients enrolled, 42 were bacteriologically evaluable, with 48 pathogens isolated. Moxifloxacin was started on Day 1. Baseline bacteria were eradicated in 35/42 (83.3%) patients by day 2, 42/42 (100%) patients by day 3, and 41/42 (97.6%) patients by day 4. In terms of individual pathogens, 12/18 S. pneumoniae, 22/23 H. influenzae and 7/7 M. catarrhalis were eradicated by day 2 (total 41/48; 85.4%), and 18/18 S. pneumoniae and 23/23 H. influenzae were eradicated by day 3. On Day 4, S. pneumoniae was isolated from a patient who had negative cultures on Days 2 and 3. Thus, the Day 4 eradication rate was 47/48 (97.9%). Clinical success was achieved in 36/38 (94.7%) patients at the test of cure visit. Conclusion In patients with ABS (maxillary sinusitis), moxifloxacin 400 mg once daily for 10 days resulted in eradication of baseline bacteria in 83.3% of patients by Day 2, 100% by Day 3 and 97.6% by Day 4.

Ariza, Horacio; Rojas, Ramon; Johnson, Peter; Gower, Richard; Benson, Alice; Herrington, Janet; Perroncel, Renee; Pertel, Peter

2006-01-01

261

Nasopharyngeal flora in children with acute otitis media before and after implementation of 7 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in France  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have investigated the impact of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on pneumococcal (Sp) and staphylococcal (Sa) nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage. Few have investigated the impact on Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mc) carriage. We aimed to compare the NP carriage rates in young children with acute otitis media (AOM) before and after PCV7 implementation in France. Methods Prior to PCV7 implementation, we performed 4 successive randomized trials with NP samples. These studies compared several antibiotic regimens for treating AOM in young children (6 to 30 months). After PCV7 implementation, to assess the impact of the vaccination program on NP flora, young children with AOM were enrolled in a prospective surveillance study. In each study, we obtained an NP sample to analyze the carriage rates of Sp, Hi, Mc and Sa and the factors influencing the carriage. Standardized history and physical examination findings were recorded; the methods used for NP swabs (sampling and cultures) were the same in all studies. Results We enrolled 4,405 children (mean age 13.9 months, median 12.8). Among the 2,598 children enrolled after PCV7 implementation, 98.3% were vaccinated with PCV7. In comparing the pre- and post-PCV7 periods, we found a slight but non-significant decrease in carriage rates of pneumococcus (AOR = 0.85 [0.69;1.05]), H. influenzae (AOR = 0.89 [0.73;1.09]) and S. aureus (AOR = 0.92 [0.70;1.19]). By contrast, the carriage rate of M. catarrhalis increased slightly but not significantly between the 2 periods (AOR = 1.08 [0.95;1.2]). Among Sp carriers, the proportion of PCV7 vaccine types decreased from 66.6% to 10.7% (P < 0.001), penicillin intermediate-resistant strains increased from 30.3% to 43.4% (P < 0.001), and penicillin-resistant strains decreased greatly from 22.8% to 3.8% (P < 0.001). The proportion of Hi ß-lactamase-producing strains decreased from 38.6% to 17.1% (P < 0.001). Conclusion The carriage rates of otopathogen species (Sp, Hi, Mc) and Sa did not significantly change in children with AOM after PCV7 implementation in France. However, we observed significant changes in carriage rates of PCV7 vaccine serotypes and penicillin non-susceptible Sp.

2012-01-01

262

DNA immunization of mice with a plasmid encoding Neisseria gonorrhea PorB protein by intramuscular injection and epidermal particle bombardment.  

PubMed

Immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine encoding PorB from Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain FA1090 was analyzed in BALB/C mice immunized by intramuscular needle injection or epidermal gene gun bombardment. Both delivery routes generated measurable specific antibodies although the gene gun response was slower. Antibody isotypes were indicative of Th2 activation following gene gun immunization and of Th1 activation following intramuscular injection. In both immunization protocols, boosting with either renatured recombinant (rr) PorB protein or PorB expressed from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRPs) significantly increased anti-PorB antibody levels. Boosting with rrPorB protein had little effect on antibody isotypes, while boosting with VRPs expressing PorB-enhanced a Th1 type response. Whole cell binding experiments showed that a portion of the antibodies recognized the surface of the homologous N. gonorrhoeae strain. Serum from groups with high antibody levels showed some opsonization of the homologous strain using human neutrophils. These results showed the potential of DNA vaccination for the purpose of priming an antibody response against PorB of N. gonorrhoeae. When combined with a protein or VRP boost, DNA priming resulted in high-titer and long-lasting responses. Based on different prime-boost protocols, we could polarize immune responses to predominantly Th1 or Th2, which should enable future studies of the types of immune responses that are protective in mouse models of gonorrhea. PMID:14741158

Zhu, W; Thomas, C E; Sparling, P F

2004-01-26

263

Etiology and antibacterial susceptibility pattern of community-acquired bacterial ocular infections in a tertiary eye care hospital in south India  

PubMed Central

Aims: To identify the etiology, incidence and prevalence of ocular bacterial infections, and to assess the in vitro susceptibility of these ocular bacterial isolates to commonly used antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of consecutive samples submitted for microbiological evaluation from patients who were clinically diagnosed with ocular infections and were treated at a tertiary eye care referral center in South India between January 2002 and December 2007. Results: A total of 4417 ocular samples was submitted for microbiological evaluation, of which 2599 (58.8%) had bacterial growth, 456 (10.3%) had fungal growth, 15 (0.34%) had acanthamoebic growth, 14 (0.32%) had mixed microbial growth and the remaining 1333 (30.2%) had negative growth. The rate of culture-positivity was found to be 88% (P < 0.001) in eyelids’ infection, 70% in conjunctival, 69% in lacrimal apparatus, 67.4% in corneal, 51.6% in intraocular tissues, 42.9% in orbital and 39.2% in scleral infections. The most common bacterial species isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (26.69%) followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (22.14%). Sta. aureus was more prevalent more in eyelid infections (51.22%; P = 0.001) coagulase-negative staphylococci in endophthalmitis (53.1%; P = 0.001), Str. pneumoniae in lacrimal apparatus and corneal infections (64.19%; P = 0.001), Corynebacterium species in blepharitis and conjunctivitis (71%; P = 0.001), Pseudomonas aeruginosa in keratitis and dacryocystitis (66.5%; P = 0.001), Haemophilus species in dacryocystitis and conjunctivitis (66.7%; P = 0.001), Moraxella lacunata in blepharitis (54.17%; P = 0.001) and Moraxella catarrhalis in dacryocystitis (63.83%; P = 0.001). The largest number of gram-positive isolates was susceptible to moxifloxacin (98.7%) and vancomycin (97.9%), and gram-negative isolates to amikacin (93.5%) and gatifloxacin (92.7%). Conclusions: Gram-positive cocci were the most frequent bacteria isolated from ocular infections and were sensitive to moxifloxacin and vancomycin, while gram-negative isolates were more sensitive to amikacin and gatifloxacin.

Bharathi, M Jayahar; Ramakrishnan, R; Shivakumar, C; Meenakshi, R; Lionalraj, D

2010-01-01

264

Nuevo estudio relaciona a los índices de utilización de servicios de atención médica más que a la biología con las desigualdades en salud por cáncer colorrectal  

Cancer.gov

Los índices más altos de incidencia y mortalidad por cáncer colorrectal que experimentan los afroamericanos pueden deberse principalmente a las diferencias en la utilización de servicios médicos y en menor proporción a la biología, según un nuevo estudio dirigido por investigadores del NCI. Índices más bajos de seguimiento podrían resultar en un retraso del diagnóstico y de tratamiento y en un aumento de la mortalidad.

265

Monitoring Shifts in the Conformation Equilibrium of the Membrane Protein Cytochrome P450 Reductase (POR) in Nanodiscs*  

PubMed Central

Nanodiscs are self-assembled ?50-nm2 patches of lipid bilayers stabilized by amphipathic belt proteins. We demonstrate that a well ordered dense film of nanodiscs serves for non-destructive, label-free studies of isolated membrane proteins in a native like environment using neutron reflectometry (NR). This method exceeds studies of membrane proteins in vesicle or supported lipid bilayer because membrane proteins can be selectively adsorbed with controlled orientation. As a proof of concept, the mechanism of action of the membrane-anchored cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is studied here. This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the transfer of electrons from NADPH to cytochrome P450s and thus is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of numerous primary and secondary metabolites in plants. Neutron reflectometry shows a coexistence of two different POR conformations, a compact and an extended form with a thickness of 44 and 79 ?, respectively. Upon complete reduction by NADPH, the conformational equilibrium shifts toward the compact form protecting the reduced FMN cofactor from engaging in unspecific electron transfer reaction.

Wadsater, Maria; Laursen, Tomas; Singha, Aparajita; Hatzakis, Nikos S.; Stamou, Dimitrios; Barker, Robert; Mortensen, Kell; Feidenhans'l, Robert; M?ller, Birger Lindberg; Cardenas, Marite

2012-01-01

266

Summary of Ceftaroline Activity against Pathogens in the United States, 2010: Report from the Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE) Surveillance Program  

PubMed Central

The Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE) surveillance program is a sentinel resistance monitoring system designed to track the activity of ceftaroline and comparator agents. In the United States, a total of 8,434 isolates were collected during the 2010 surveillance program from 65 medical centers distributed across the nine census regions (5 to 10 medical centers per region). All organisms were isolated from documented infections, including 3,055 (36.2%) bloodstream infections, 2,282 (27.1%) respiratory tract infections, 1,965 (23.3%) acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, 665 (7.9%) urinary tract infections, and 467 (5.5%) miscellaneous other infection sites. Ceftaroline was the most potent ?-lactam agent tested against staphylococci. The MIC90 values were 1 ?g/ml for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; 98.4% susceptible) and 0.5 ?g/ml for methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Ceftaroline was 16- to 32-fold more potent than ceftriaxone against methicillin-susceptible staphylococcal strains. All staphylococcus isolates (S. aureus and CoNS) were inhibited at ceftaroline MIC values of ?2 ?g/ml. Ceftaroline also displayed potent activity against streptococci (MIC90, 0.015 ?g/ml for beta-hemolytic streptococci; MIC90, 0.25 ?g/ml for penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae). Potent activity was also shown against Gram-negative pathogens (Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis). Furthermore, wild-type strains of Enterobacteriaceae (non-extended-spectrum ?-lactamase [ESBL]-producing strains and non-AmpC-hyperproducing strains) were often susceptible to ceftaroline. Continued monitoring through surveillance networks will allow for the assessment of the evolution of resistance as this new cephalosporin is used more broadly to provide clinicians with up-to-date information to assist in antibiotic stewardship and therapeutic decision making.

Sader, Helio S.; Farrell, David J.; Jones, Ronald N.

2012-01-01

267

Levofloxacin versus cefuroxime axetil in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis: results of a randomized, double-blind study.  

PubMed

A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, three-arm parallel design, multicentre study was conducted among adult patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB) in order to compare the efficacy and safety of two different doses of levofloxacin with cefuroxime axetil. A total of 832 patients were randomized to receive oral levofloxacin (250 mg od or 500 mg od) or oral cefuroxime axetil (250 mg bd) for 7-10 days. The primary efficacy analysis was based on the clinical response in patients with bacteriologically confirmed AECB, determined 5-14 days after the end of therapy (per-protocol population). Of 839 patients enrolled (at 71 centres in 14 countries), seven were not treated, giving an intention-to-treat (ITT) population of 832. In total, 281 patients received levofloxacin 250 mg, 280 received levofloxacin 500 mg and 271 received cefuroxime axetil. The cure rates in the ITT population were: levofloxacin 250 mg, 70% (196/281); levofloxacin 500 mg, 70% (195/280); cefuroxime axetil, 61% (166/271); those in the per-protocol population were: 78% (121/156), 79% (108/137) and 66% (88/134), respectively. Both doses of levofloxacin were at least as effective as cefuroxime axetil and were active against the main pathogens of clinical relevance (Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis). All three treatment regimens were equally well tolerated. In conclusion, the results show that levofloxacin (250 mg and 500 mg) od is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of AECB in adult patients. PMID:10350383

Shah, P M; Maesen, F P; Dolmann, A; Vetter, N; Fiss, E; Wesch, R

1999-04-01

268

The Haemophilus ducreyi serum resistance antigen DsrA confers attachment to human keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Haemophilus ducreyi is the etiologic agent of the sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease chancroid. H. ducreyi serum resistance protein A (DsrA) is a member of a family of multifunctional outer membrane proteins that are involved in resistance to killing by human serum complement. The members of this family include YadA of Yersinia species, the UspA proteins of Moraxella catarrhalis, and the Eib proteins of Escherichia coli. The role of YadA, UspA1, and UspA2H as eukaryotic cell adhesins and the function of UspA2 as a vitronectin binder led to our investigation of the cell adhesion and vitronectin binding properties of DsrA. We found that DsrA was a keratinocyte-specific adhesin as it was necessary and sufficient for attachment to HaCaT cells, a keratinocyte cell line, but was not required for attachment to HS27 cells, a fibroblast cell line. We also found that DsrA was specifically responsible for the ability of H. ducreyi to bind vitronectin. We then theorized that DsrA might use vitronectin as a bridge to bind to human cells, but this hypothesis proved to be untrue as eliminating HaCaT cell binding of vitronectin with a monoclonal antibody specific to integrin alpha(v)beta(5) did not affect the attachment of H. ducreyi to HaCaT cells. Finally, we wanted to examine the importance of keratinocyte adhesion in chancroid pathogenesis so we tested the wild-type and dsrA mutant strains of H. ducreyi in our swine models of chancroid pathogenesis. The dsrA mutant was less virulent than the wild type in both the normal and immune cell-depleted swine models of chancroid infection. PMID:12379693

Cole, Leah E; Kawula, Thomas H; Toffer, Kristen L; Elkins, Christopher

2002-11-01

269

Antibacterial Activities and Characterization of Novel Inhibitors of LpxC  

PubMed Central

Lipid A is the hydrophobic anchor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and forms the major lipid component of the outer monolayer of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. Lipid A is required for bacterial growth and virulence, and inhibition of its biosynthesis is lethal to bacteria. UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) is a metalloenzyme that catalyzes the second step in the biosynthesis of lipid A. Inhibitors of LpxC have previously been shown to have antibiotic activities. We have screened a metalloenzyme inhibitor library for antibacterial activities against an Escherichia coli strain with reduced LpxC activity. From this screen, a series of sulfonamide derivatives of the ?-(R)-amino hydroxamic acids, exemplified by BB-78484 and BB-78485, have been identified as having potent inhibitory activities against LpxC in an in vitro assay. Leads from this series showed gram-negative selective activities against members of the Enterobacteriaceae, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Burkholderia cepacia. BB-78484 was bactericidal against E. coli, achieving 3-log killing in 4 h at a concentration 4 times above the MIC, as would be predicted for an inhibitor of lipid A biosynthesis. E. coli mutants with decreased susceptibility to BB-78484 were selected. Analysis of these mutants revealed that resistance arose as a consequence of mutations in the fabZ or lpxC genes. These data confirm the antibacterial target of BB-78484 and BB-78485 and validate LpxC as a target for gram-negative selective antibacterials.

Clements, John M.; Coignard, Fanny; Johnson, Ian; Chandler, Stephen; Palan, Shilpa; Waller, Andrew; Wijkmans, Jac; Hunter, Michael G.

2002-01-01

270

In Vitro Antibacterial Potency and Spectrum of ABT-492, a New Fluoroquinolone  

PubMed Central

ABT-492 demonstrated potent antibacterial activity against most quinolone-susceptible pathogens. The rank order of potency was ABT-492 > trovafloxacin > levofloxacin > ciprofloxacin against quinolone-susceptible staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci. ABT-492 had activity comparable to those of trovafloxacin, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin against seven species of quinolone-susceptible members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, although it was less active than the comparators against Citrobacter freundii and Serratia marcescens. The activity of ABT-492 was greater than those of the comparators against fastidious gram-negative species, including Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Legionella spp. and against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Helicobacter pylori. ABT-492 was as active as trovafloxacin against Chlamydia trachomatis, indicating good intracellular penetration and antibacterial activity. In particular, ABT-492 was more active than trovafloxacin and levofloxacin against multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, including strains resistant to penicillin and macrolides, and H. influenzae, including ?-lactam-resistant strains. It retained greater in vitro activity than the comparators against S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae strains resistant to other quinolones due to amino acid alterations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the target topoisomerases. ABT-492 was a potent inhibitor of bacterial topoisomerases, and unlike the comparators, DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV from either Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli were almost equally sensitive to ABT-492. The profile of ABT-492 suggested that it may be a useful agent for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, as well as infections of the urinary tract, bloodstream, and skin and skin structure and nosocomial lung infections.

Nilius, Angela M.; Shen, Linus L.; Hensey-Rudloff, Dena; Almer, Laurel S.; Beyer, Jill M.; Balli, Darlene J.; Cai, Yingna; Flamm, Robert K.

2003-01-01

271

Genetic Requirement for Pneumococcal Ear Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Ear infection or otitis media (OM) accounts for most bacterial respiratory infections in children in both developed and developing nations. Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are the major OM pathogens. However, little is known about the genetic basis of bacterial OM largely due to practical difficulties in conducting research in ear infection models and genetically manipulating clinical isolates. Here, we report the first genome-scale in vivo screen for bacterial genes required for ear infection in a chinchilla model by signature tagged mutagenesis (STM), a high throughput mutant screen technique. Methodology/Principal Findings STM strains were constructed with a multi-drug resistant OM isolate ST556 (serotype 19F) and screened in a chinchilla OM model. Out of 5,280 mutants tested, 248 mutants were substantially underrepresented in the mutant pools recovered from the middle ear fluids of the infected chinchillas, indicating the impaired ability to survive and replicate in the middle ears due to genetic disruptions in the chromosome of strain ST556. Further DNA sequencing analysis mapped the mutations to 169 pneumococcal genes. Surprisingly, only 52 of these genes were required for pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization in a murine model. This infection site-specific gene requirement was verified by targeted mutagenesis in the selected genes. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that there are a subset of pneumococcal genes required for ear infection and that these may be distinct from those required for nasal colonization. Our data thus provide comprehensive gene targets for mechanistic understanding of pneumococcal ear infection. Finally, this study has also developed a model for future genome-scale search for virulence determinants in other pathogens associated with ear infections.

Yang, Jun; O'Brien, Christopher J.; Lee, Scott L.; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph E.; Haataja, Sauli; Yan, Jing-Hua; Gao, George F.; Zhang, Jing-Ren

2008-01-01

272

The Human Milk Protein-Lipid Complex HAMLET Sensitizes Bacterial Pathogens to Traditional Antimicrobial Agents  

PubMed Central

The fight against antibiotic resistance is one of the most significant challenges to public health of our time. The inevitable development of resistance following the introduction of novel antibiotics has led to an urgent need for the development of new antibacterial drugs with new mechanisms of action that are not susceptible to existing resistance mechanisms. One such compound is HAMLET, a natural complex from human milk that kills Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) using a mechanism different from common antibiotics and is immune to resistance-development. In this study we show that sublethal concentrations of HAMLET potentiate the effect of common antibiotics (penicillins, macrolides, and aminoglycosides) against pneumococci. Using MIC assays and short-time killing assays we dramatically reduced the concentrations of antibiotics needed to kill pneumococci, especially for antibiotic-resistant strains that in the presence of HAMLET fell into the clinically sensitive range. Using a biofilm model in vitro and nasopharyngeal colonization in vivo, a combination of HAMLET and antibiotics completely eradicated both biofilms and colonization in mice of both antibiotic-sensitive and resistant strains, something each agent alone was unable to do. HAMLET-potentiation of antibiotics was partially due to increased accessibility of antibiotics to the bacteria, but relied more on calcium import and kinase activation, the same activation pathway HAMLET uses when killing pneumococci by itself. Finally, the sensitizing effect was not confined to species sensitive to HAMLET. The HAMLET-resistant respiratory species Acinetobacter baumanii and Moraxella catarrhalis were all sensitized to various classes of antibiotics in the presence of HAMLET, activating the same mechanism as in pneumococci. Combined these results suggest the presence of a conserved HAMLET-activated pathway that circumvents antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The ability to activate this pathway may extend the lifetime of the current treatment arsenal.

Marks, Laura R.; Clementi, Emily A.; Hakansson, Anders P.

2012-01-01

273

Viral-Bacterial Interactions and Risk of Acute Otitis Media Complicating Upper Respiratory Tract Infection ?  

PubMed Central

Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common complication of upper respiratory tract infection whose pathogenesis involves both viruses and bacteria. We examined risks of acute otitis media associated with specific combinations of respiratory viruses and acute otitis media bacterial pathogens. Data were from a prospective study of children ages 6 to 36 months and included viral and bacterial culture and quantitative PCR for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human bocavirus, and human metapneumovirus. Repeated-measure logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between specific viruses, bacteria, and the risk of acute otitis media complicating upper respiratory tract infection. In unadjusted analyses of data from 194 children, adenovirus, bocavirus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis were significantly associated with AOM (P < 0.05 by ?2 test). Children with high respiratory syncytial virus loads (?3.16 × 107 copies/ml) experienced increased acute otitis media risk. Higher viral loads of bocavirus and metapneumovirus were not significantly associated with acute otitis media. In adjusted models controlling for the presence of key viruses, bacteria, and acute otitis media risk factors, acute otitis media risk was independently associated with high RSV viral load with Streptococcus pneumoniae (odds ratio [OR], 4.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.90 and 10.19) and Haemophilus influenzae (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.38 and 3.02). The risk was higher for the presence of bocavirus and H. influenzae together (OR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.90 and 6.86). Acute otitis media risk differs by the specific viruses and bacteria involved. Acute otitis media prevention efforts should consider methods for reducing infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus, bocavirus, and adenovirus in addition to acute otitis media bacterial pathogens.

Pettigrew, Melinda M.; Gent, Janneane F.; Pyles, Richard B.; Miller, Aaron L.; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

2011-01-01

274

Intragenomic and intraspecific heterogeneity of the 16S rRNA gene in seven bacterial species from the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis patients assessed by PCR-Temporal Temperature Gel Electrophoresis.  

PubMed

16S rRNA gene-based cultivation-independent methods are increasingly used to study the diversity of microbiota during health and disease. One bias of these methods is the variability of 16S rRNA gene that may exist among strains of a same species (intraspecific heterogeneity) or between rrs copies in a genome (intragenomic heterogeneity). We evaluated the level of intraspecific and intragenomic 16S rDNA variability in seven species frequently encountered in respiratory tract samples in cystic fibrosis (CF). A total of 179 strains were subjected to V3 region 16S rDNA PCR-TTGE. Using this easy-to-perform and rapid method, different levels of V3 region rrs heterogeneity were demonstrated. No intraspecific and intragenomic rrs heterogeneity was demonstrated for Moraxella catarrhalis (n=16), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=31) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=14) showing a single PCR-TTGE band characteristic of the species. Low level of intraspecific heterogeneity was observed for Staphylococcus aureus (n=30), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n=29) and Achromobacter xylosoxidans (n=28), and 17%, 38% and 96% of these strains showed intragenomic heterogeneity (two to four different rrs copies), respectively. Haemophilus influenzae (n=31) displayed the higher level of intraspecific variability with 23 different PCR-TTGE patterns and 61% of the strains showed intragenomic rrs heterogeneity (two to four different rrs copies). Although only one hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was explored, intraspecific and intragenomic rrs heterogeneity was frequently observed in this study and should be taken into consideration for a better interpretation of 16S rRNA gene-based diversity profiles in denaturing gels and to avoid any overestimation of the respiratory microbiota diversity in CF. PMID:21621347

Michon, A-L; Jumas-Bilak, E; Imbert, A; Aleyrangues, L; Counil, F; Chiron, R; Marchandin, H

2011-05-31

275

Clinical manifestations and microbiology of acute otitis media with spontaneous otorrhea in children.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: In Taiwan, clinical and microbiological data on acute otitis media (AOM) with spontaneous otorrhea in children are limited. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on children with AOM and spontaneous otorrhea between January 2011 and June 2012. Otorrhea samples were collected using sterile swabs and sent for cultures. Pathogens found were Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Pneumococcal isolates collected from October 2011 to June 2012 were serotyped. RESULTS: A total of 92 patients were enrolled in the study for demographic and microbiological analysis. Their median age was 2.5 years. After excluding those with lobar pneumonia, 84 patients were included for analysis of clinical manifestation. The mean febrile duration was 6 days. Leukocytosis and C-reactive protein (CRP) level >50 mg/L were noted in 29 (34.5%) patients and 38 (45.2%) patients, respectively. Patients with pneumococcal infection were older (p = 0.007) and had more severe symptoms [fever (p = 0.001), otalgia (p = 0.055), respiratory symptoms (p = 0.002-0.03), and higher CRP level (p = 0.015)] than children with other bacterial infection. Otorrhea cultures were obtained from 69 (75%) patients, of whom 52 had definitive AOM pathogens. The most common causative pathogen was S. pneumoniae (61.5%), followed by S. aureus (36.5%). Serotype 19A accounted for two-thirds of pneumococcal isolates and had a high rate of nonsusceptibility to penicillin (66.7%) and ceftriaxone (83.3%). CONCLUSION: S. pneumoniae was found to be the most important source of AOM with spontaneous otorrhea in children and caused more severe symptoms. Serotype 19A, which was usually nonsusceptible to antimicrobial agents, was the most prevalent serotype in these patients. PMID:23757372

Chen, Yi-Jen; Hsieh, Yu-Chia; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

2013-06-01

276

In vitro antibacterial potency and spectrum of ABT-492, a new fluoroquinolone.  

PubMed

ABT-492 demonstrated potent antibacterial activity against most quinolone-susceptible pathogens. The rank order of potency was ABT-492 > trovafloxacin > levofloxacin > ciprofloxacin against quinolone-susceptible staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci. ABT-492 had activity comparable to those of trovafloxacin, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin against seven species of quinolone-susceptible members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, although it was less active than the comparators against Citrobacter freundii and Serratia marcescens. The activity of ABT-492 was greater than those of the comparators against fastidious gram-negative species, including Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Legionella spp. and against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Helicobacter pylori. ABT-492 was as active as trovafloxacin against Chlamydia trachomatis, indicating good intracellular penetration and antibacterial activity. In particular, ABT-492 was more active than trovafloxacin and levofloxacin against multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, including strains resistant to penicillin and macrolides, and H. influenzae, including beta-lactam-resistant strains. It retained greater in vitro activity than the comparators against S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae strains resistant to other quinolones due to amino acid alterations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the target topoisomerases. ABT-492 was a potent inhibitor of bacterial topoisomerases, and unlike the comparators, DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV from either Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli were almost equally sensitive to ABT-492. The profile of ABT-492 suggested that it may be a useful agent for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, as well as infections of the urinary tract, bloodstream, and skin and skin structure and nosocomial lung infections. PMID:14506039

Nilius, Angela M; Shen, Linus L; Hensey-Rudloff, Dena; Almer, Laurel S; Beyer, Jill M; Balli, Darlene J; Cai, Yingna; Flamm, Robert K

2003-10-01

277

Nonantibiotic macrolides prevent human neutrophil elastase-induced mucus stasis and airway surface liquid volume depletion.  

PubMed

Mucus clearance is an important component of the lung's innate defense system. A failure of this system brought on by mucus dehydration is common to both cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mucus clearance rates are regulated by the volume of airway surface liquid (ASL) and by ciliary beat frequency (CBF). Chronic treatment with macrolide antibiotics is known to be beneficial to both CF and COPD patients. However, chronic macrolide usage may induce bacterial resistance. We have developed a novel macrolide, 2'-desoxy-9-(S)-erythromycylamine (GS-459755), that has significantly diminished antibiotic activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae. Since neutrophilia frequently occurs in chronic lung disease and human neutrophil elastase (HNE) induces mucus stasis by activating the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), we tested the ability of GS-459755 to protect against HNE-induced mucus stasis. GS-459755 had no effect on HNE activity. However, GS-459755 pretreatment protected against HNE-induced ASL volume depletion in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). The effect of GS-459755 on ASL volume was dose dependent (IC?? ~3.9 ?M) and comparable to the antibacterial macrolide azithromycin (IC?? ~2.4 ?M). Macrolides had no significant effect on CBF or on transepithelial water permeability. However, the amiloride-sensitive transepithelial voltage, a marker of ENaC activity, was diminished by macrolide pretreatment. We conclude that GS-459755 may limit HNE-induced activation of ENaC and may be useful for the treatment of mucus dehydration in CF and COPD without inducing bacterial resistance. PMID:23542952

Tarran, Robert; Sabater, Juan R; Clarke, Tainya C; Tan, Chong D; Davies, Catrin M; Liu, Jia; Yeung, Arthur; Garland, Alaina L; Stutts, M Jackson; Abraham, William M; Phillips, Gary; Baker, William R; Wright, Clifford D; Wilbert, Sibylle

2013-03-29

278

Spectrum and potency of ceftaroline against leading pathogens causing community-acquired respiratory tract and skin and soft tissue infections in Latin America, 2010.  

PubMed

Ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a cephalosporin with in vitro bactericidal activity against Gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus, ?-haemolytic and viridans group streptococci, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as common Gram-negative organisms. In this study a total of 986 isolates collected in 2010 from patients in 15 medical centers in five Latin American countries from the Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation Program were identified as community-acquired respiratory tract or skin and soft tissue infection pathogens. Ceftaroline was the most potent agent tested against S. pneumoniae with a MIC90 value (0.12?g/mL) that was eight-fold lower than ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, and linezolid. Its spectrum of coverage (100.0% susceptible) was similar to tigecycline, linezolid, levofloxacin and vancomycin. Against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, ceftaroline was the most active agent tested. The activity of ceftaroline against S. aureus (including MRSA) was similar to that of vancomycin and tetracycline (MIC90, 1?g/mL) and linezolid (MIC90, 2?g/mL). The ?-haemolytic streptococci exhibited 100.0% susceptibility to ceftaroline. Ceftaroline activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Enterobacter spp. was similar to that of ceftriaxone and ceftazidime. These parenteral cephalosporin agents have potent activity against non-extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-phenotype strains, but are not active against extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-phenotype strains. These results confirm the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against pathogens common in community-acquired respiratory tract and skin and soft tissue infection in Latin America, and suggest that ceftaroline fosamil could be an important therapeutic option for these infections. PMID:23916453

Flamm, Robert K; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

2013-07-31

279

Current management of pediatric acute otitis media.  

PubMed

Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common childhood bacterial infection for which antibiotics are prescribed worldwide. The most common pathogens causing AOM in children are Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Group A streptococcus. Antibiotic resistance is increasing among the bacterial pathogens causing AOM, with percentages of penicillin- and macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae strains estimated to be between 30 and 70%, and of beta-lactamase-producing H. influenzae ranging between 20 and 40%. The introduction of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine had a major role in decreasing the number of vaccine-related S. pneumoniae AOM episodes, recurrent AOM cases and cases requiring the insertion of ventilation tubes. In parallel, it caused a rapid shift in the microbiology of AOM, characterized by an increase in the number of non-vaccine S. pneumoniae serotypes and H. influenzae isolates. The management of AOM in childhood has evolved considerably during recent years as a result of the new insights provided by the publication of the American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Family Physicians guidelines for the treatment of AOM. The new treatment guidelines establish a clear hierarchy among various antibacterials used in the treatment of AOM and also the use of an age-stratified approach to AOM by recommending an observation strategy ('watchful waiting') without the use of antibacterials for some groups of AOM patients. Adherence to such a policy in patients with uncertain/questionable AOM diagnosis and/or mild-to-moderate symptoms, in addition to its implementation in patients over 2 years of age, could substantially reduce the use of antibacterials for the treatment of AOM and play a major role in the strategy of decreasing antibacterial resistance. PMID:20109045

Leibovitz, Eugene; Broides, Arnon; Greenberg, David; Newman, Nitza

2010-02-01

280

In Vitro Antibacterial Activities of DQ-113, a Potent Quinolone, against Clinical Isolates  

PubMed Central

The antibacterial activity of DQ-113, formerly D61-1113, was compared with those of antibacterial agents currently available. MICs at which 90% of the isolates tested are inhibited (MIC90s) of DQ-113 against clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-susceptible and -resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci were 0.03, 0.008, 0.03, and 0.06 ?g/ml, respectively. Moreover, DQ-113 showed the most potent activity against ofloxacin-resistant and methicillin-resistant S. aureus, with a MIC90 of 0.25?g/ml. DQ-113 inhibited the growth of all strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, including penicillin-resistant strains, and Streptococcus pyogenes at 0.06 ?g/ml, and DQ-113 was more active than the other quinolones tested against Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium with MIC90s of 0.25 and 2 ?g/ml, respectively. Against vancomycin-resistant enterococci, DQ-113 showed the highest activity among the reference compounds, with a MIC range from 0.25 to 2 ?g/ml. DQ-113 also showed a potent activity against Haemophilus influenzae, including ampicillin-resistant strains (MIC90, 0.015 ?g/ml), and Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC90, 0.03 ?g/ml). The activity of DQ-113 was roughly comparable to that of levofloxacin against all species of Enterobacteriaceae. The MICs of DQ-113 against ofloxacin-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa ranged from 0.25 to 2 ?g/ml, which were four times higher than those of ciprofloxacin. From these results, DQ-113 showed the most potent activity against gram-positive pathogens among antibacterial agents tested.

Tanaka, Mayumi; Yamazaki, Emi; Chiba, Megumi; Yoshihara, Kiyomi; Akasaka, Takaaki; Takemura, Makoto; Sato, Kenichi

2002-01-01

281

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of LJC 11,036, an Active Metabolite of L-084, a New Oral Carbapenem Antibiotic with Potent Antipneumococcal Activity  

PubMed Central

LJC 11,036 is the active metabolite of L-084, a novel oral carbapenem that exhibits potent broad-spectrum activity. Antibacterial activities of LJC 11,036 against clinical isolates from respiratory infections, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 52), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 19), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 50), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 53), and Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 53), and from urinary-tract infections, such as Escherichia coli (n = 53) (MICs at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited [MIC90s], 0.1, ?0.006, 0.39, 0.05, 0.05, and 0.05 ?g/ml, respectively), were 2- to 64-fold higher than those of imipenem, cefdinir, and faropenem. Moreover, against these bacterial species, except for H. influenzae, the MIC90s of LJC 11,036 were 4- to 512-fold lower than those of levofloxacin. LJC 11,036 showed bactericidal activity equal or superior to that of imipenem. Bactericidal activity against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) did not vary with the phase of growth. LJC 11,036 had potent activity against various ?-lactamase-producing strains, excluding carbapenemase producers. Against renal dehydropeptidase-I, LJC 11,036 was more stable than imipenem. Furthermore, LJC 11,036 produced in vitro postantibiotic sub-MIC effects against PRSP HSC-3 (6.0 h at one-fourth the MIC) and H. influenzae LJ5 (9.2 h at one-half the MIC). LJC 11,036 showed high binding affinities for PBP1A, -1B, -2A/2X, -2B, and -3 of PRSP and for PBP1B, -2, -3A, and -3B of H. influenzae.

Hikida, Muneo; Itahashi, Kouju; Igarashi, Atsumi; Shiba, Toshiharu; Kitamura, Masataka

1999-01-01

282

In vitro antibacterial activity of LJC 11,036, an active metabolite of L-084, a new oral carbapenem antibiotic with potent antipneumococcal activity.  

PubMed

LJC 11,036 is the active metabolite of L-084, a novel oral carbapenem that exhibits potent broad-spectrum activity. Antibacterial activities of LJC 11,036 against clinical isolates from respiratory infections, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 52), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 19), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 50), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 53), and Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 53), and from urinary-tract infections, such as Escherichia coli (n = 53) (MICs at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited [MIC(90)s], 0.1,

Hikida, M; Itahashi, K; Igarashi, A; Shiba, T; Kitamura, M

1999-08-01

283

[Analysis on the sensitivity to beta-lactam antibiotics of respiratory-infectious isolates on the second survey on the sensitivity of isolates conducted by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy in 2007--concerning the aspect of PK/PD break points].  

PubMed

Sensitivity to beta-lactam antibiotics of isolates clinically obtained from respiratory infection sites in adults on the second survey on sensitivity of isolates conducted by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy in 2007 was investigated according to the classification of the "Guideline for treatment for adult nosocomial pneumonia in 2008". Among the primary antibacterial drugs for mild (A) and moderate (B) nosocomial pneumonia in adults, beta-lactam antibiotics; ceftriaxone (CTRX), sulbactam/ampicillin (SBT/ABPC), panipenem/betamipron (PAPM/BP), tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC), imipenem/cilastatin (IPM/CS), meropenem (MEPM), doripenem (DRPM), biapenem (BIPM) were studied to evaluate their clinical efficacy. The covering rate was analyzed using the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and break point of pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD). Consequently, the results with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Klebsiella pneumoniae revealed the MIC90 of all antibacterial drugs to be at low levels, while almost 100% of isolates were within the range of PK/PD break points except BIPM and SBT/ABPC to H. influenzae, and SBT/ABPC to K. pneumoniae. However, the analysis of P. aeruginosa didn't reach 100% for the covering rates of isolates, indicating that these drugs did not have a complete inhibitory action to restrict bacterial proliferation. The analysis of all 5 carbapenem drugs showed superiority to TAZ/PIPC in MIC90 while covering rates of isolates at PK/PD break points showed inferiority to TAZ/PIPC. This tendency was found to be more significant in covering the rates of isolates on the regular dose with maximal bactericidal action and on the maximum dose. This is because the maximum dose approved in Japan is as low as half that in IPM/CS and 1/3 that in MEPM in Western countries. PMID:19882981

Niki, Yoshihito; Kohno, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira; Aoki, Nobuki

2009-06-01

284

In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of PD 0305970 and PD 0326448, New Bacterial Gyrase/Topoisomerase Inhibitors with Potent Antibacterial Activities versus Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Positive and Fastidious Organism Groups?  

PubMed Central

PD 0305970 and PD 0326448 are new bacterial gyrase and topoisomerase inhibitors (quinazoline-2,4-diones) that possess outstanding in vitro and in vivo activities against a wide spectrum of bacterial species including quinolone- and multidrug-resistant gram-positive and fastidious organism groups. The respective MICs (?g/ml) for PD 0305970 capable of inhibiting ?90% of bacterial strains tested ranged from 0.125 to 0.5 versus staphylococci, 0.03 to 0.06 versus streptococci, 0.25 to 2 versus enterococci, and 0.25 to 0.5 versus Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Legionella pneumophila, and Neisseria spp. PD 0326448 MIC90s were generally twofold higher versus these same organism groups. Comparative quinolone MIC90 values were 4- to 512-fold higher than those of PD 0305970. In testing for frequency of resistance, PD 0305970 and levofloxacin showed low levels of development of spontaneous resistant mutants versus both Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Unlike quinolones, which target primarily gyrA and parC, analysis of resistant mutants in S. pneumoniae indicates that the likely targets of PD 0305970 are gyrB and parE. PD 0305970 demonstrated rapid bactericidal activity by in vitro time-kill testing versus streptococci. This bactericidal activity carried over to in vivo testing, where PD 0305970 and PD 0326448 displayed outstanding Streptococcus pyogenes 50% protective doses (PD50s) (oral dosing) of 0.7 and 3.6 mg/kg, respectively (ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin PD50s were >100 and 17.7 mg/kg, respectively). PD 0305970 was also potent in a pneumococcal pneumonia mouse infection model (PD50 = 3.2 mg/kg) and was 22-fold more potent than levofloxacin.

Huband, Michael D.; Cohen, Michael A.; Zurack, Margaret; Hanna, Debra L.; Skerlos, Laura A.; Sulavik, Mark C.; Gibson, Glenn W.; Gage, Jeffrey W.; Ellsworth, Edmund; Stier, Michael A.; Gracheck, Stephen J.

2007-01-01

285

In vitro evaluation of GR69153, a novel catechol-substituted cephalosporin.  

PubMed Central

GR69153 is a C-7 catechol cephalosporin with a broad spectrum of activity against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (MICs for 50% of strains tested [MIC50s], 0.008 to 0.5 micrograms/ml), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC50, 4 micrograms/ml), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC50, 0.25 micrograms/ml), Haemophilus influenzae (MIC50, 0.03 micrograms/ml), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (MIC50, 0.03 micrograms/ml), and Acinetobacter spp. (MIC50, 2 micrograms/ml). Potent GR69153 activity was also demonstrated against Moraxella catarrhalis, pneumococci, beta-hemolytic streptococci, gram-positive anaerobes, and most species of coagulase-negative staphylococci. The activity of GR69153 was generally two- to fourfold greater than that of ceftazidime. Resistance level GR69153 MICs for 90% of strains tested (greater than or equal to 32 micrograms/ml) were found most often among Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter spp. and Morganella morganii strains. GR69153 did not significantly inhibit enterococci, Xanthomonas maltophilia, the Bacteroides fragilis group, Corynebacterium jeikeium, or Listeria monocytogenes. GR69153 was bactericidal and was generally beta-lactamase stable, and MICs were only slightly increased by high inoculum concentrations. Activity was enhanced in an iron-deficient medium, and a modest MIC difference attributed to iron availability was noted between standard agar and broth test results. GR69153 was confirmed to be a potent, catechol-substituted cephalosporin with a spectrum slightly wider than that of ceftazidime, but it was less active than cefpirome or imipenem against some gram-positive pathogens and anaerobes.

Erwin, M E; Jones, R N; Barrett, M S; Briggs, B M; Johnson, D M

1991-01-01

286

Study of community acquired pneumonia aetiology (SCAPA) in adults admitted to hospital: implications for management guidelines  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Since the last British study of the microbial aetiology of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) about 20 years ago, new organisms have been identified (for example, Chlamydia pneumoniae), new antibiotics introduced, and fresh advances made in microbiological techniques. Pathogens implicated in CAP in adults admitted to hospital in the UK using modern and traditional microbiological investigations are described.?METHODS—Adults aged 16 years and over admitted to a teaching hospital with CAP over a 12 month period from 4 October 1998 were prospectively studied. Samples of blood, sputum, and urine were collected for microbiological testing by standard culture techniques and new serological and urine antigen detection methods.?RESULTS—Of 309 patients admitted with CAP, 267 fulfilled the study criteria; 135 (50.6%) were men and the mean (SD) age was 65.4 (19.6) years. Aetiological agents were identified from 199 (75%) patients (one pathogen in 124 (46%), two in 53 (20%), and three or more in 22 (8%)): Streptococcus pneumoniae 129 (48%), influenza A virus 50 (19%), Chlamydia pneumoniae 35 (13%), Haemophilus influenzae 20 (7%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae 9 (3%), Legionella pneumophilia 9 (3%), other Chlamydia spp 7 (2%), Moraxella catarrhalis 5 (2%), Coxiella burnetii 2 (0.7%), others 8 (3%). Atypical pathogens were less common in patients aged 75 years and over than in younger patients (16% v 27%; OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.9). The 30 day mortality was 14.9%. Mortality risk could be stratified by the presence of four "core" adverse features. Three of 60 patients (5%) infected with an atypical pathogen died.?CONCLUSION—S pneumoniae remains the most important pathogen to cover by initial antibiotic therapy in adults of all ages admitted to hospital with CAP. Atypical pathogens are more common in younger patients. They should also be covered in all patients with severe pneumonia and younger patients with non-severe infection.??

Lim, W; Macfarlane, J; Boswell, T; Harrison, T; Rose, D; Leinonen, M; Saikku, P

2001-01-01

287

In vitro activity of HSR-903, a new quinolone.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activity of the new fluoroquinolone HSR-903 was compared with those of ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, sparfloxacin, and levofloxacin. HSR-903 inhibited 90% of methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates at 0.78 and 1.56 microg/ml, respectively, and its activity against MRSA was 16-fold higher than those of sparfloxacin and levofloxacin and 64-fold higher than that of ciprofloxacin. The MICs at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited (MIC90s) of HSR-903 for Streptococcus pyogenes and penicillin G-susceptible and -resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) were 0.10, 0.05, and 0.05 microg/ml, respectively. Against PRSP, the activity of HSR-903 was 4-fold higher than that of sparfloxacin and 32- to 256-fold higher than those of the other quinolones. The MIC90 of HSR-903 for Enterococcus faecalis was 0.20 microg/ml, and HSR-903 was more active than the other quinolones against enterococci. The activity of HSR-903 against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was roughly similar to that of ciprofloxacin and greater than those of the other quinolones. Against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Helicobacter pylori, HSR-903 was the most potent of the quinolones tested. The activity of HSR-903 was not affected by the medium, the inoculum size, or the addition of serum, but decreased under acidic conditions, as did those of the other quinolones tested. HSR-903 exhibited rapid bactericidal action and had a good postantibiotic effect on S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. HSR-903 inhibited supercoiling by DNA gyrase from Escherichia coli, but it was much less active against human topoisomerase II.

Takahashi, Y; Masuda, N; Otsuki, M; Miki, M; Nishino, T

1997-01-01

288

Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) production by the normal flora of the nasopharynx: potential to protect against otitis media?  

PubMed

The normal bacterial flora of the upper airways provides an important barrier to invading pathogens. This study investigated the production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) by streptococci isolated from the nasopharyngeal flora of children who either do or do not experience recurrent acute otitis media (AOM). Twenty children with recurrent AOM and 15 controls were tested. Swabs from the nasopharynx were evaluated for streptococci having BLIS activity against two representative strains of each of the AOM pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Streptococci displaying strong BLIS activity were characterized further and tested for known streptococcal bacteriocin structural genes. Sixty-five per cent of children had nasopharyngeal streptococcal isolates that were inhibitory to strains of one or more of the AOM pathogens. Six children (17 %) had streptococci that demonstrated strong BLIS activity against strains of at least three of the pathogenic species. Three of these inhibitory isolates were Streptococcus salivarius, two were S. pneumoniae and one was S. pyogenes. The inhibitory S. salivarius and S. pyogenes were shown to have structural genes for known streptococcal bacteriocins. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups of children with respect to the presence of inhibitory streptococci in their nasopharyngeal floras. The finding of S. salivarius with strong inhibitory activity against several AOM pathogens in the nasopharyngeal flora of children is unique. Although there is no clear evidence from the present study that these organisms protect against AOM, their low pathogenicity and strong in-vitro BLIS production capability indicate that they should be incorporated in future trials of bacteriotherapy for recurrent AOM. PMID:12909662

Walls, Tony; Power, Dan; Tagg, John

2003-09-01

289

Fulminant pertussis: a multi-center study with new insights into the clinico-pathological mechanisms.  

PubMed

Pertussis carries a high risk of mortality in very young infants. The mechanism of refractory cardio-respiratory failure is complex and not clearly delineated. We aimed to examine the clinico-pathological features and suggest how they may be related to outcome, by multi-center review of clinical records and post-mortem findings of 10 patients with fulminant pertussis (FP). All cases were less than 8 weeks of age, and required ventilation for worsening respiratory symptoms and inotropic support for severe hemodynamic compromise. All died or underwent extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) within 1 week. All had increased leukocyte counts (from 54 to 132 x 10(9)/L) with prominent neutrophilia in 9/10. The post-mortem demonstrated necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis with extensive areas of necrosis of the alveolar epithelium. Hyaline membranes were present in those cases with viral co-infection. Pulmonary blood vessels were filled with leukocytes without well-organized thrombi. Immunodepletion of the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes was a common feature. Other organisms were isolated as follows; 2/10 cases Para influenza type 3, 2/10 Moraxella catarrhalis, 1/10 each with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a coliform organism, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Haemophilus influenzae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), and candida tropicalis. We postulate that severe hypoxemia and intractable cardiac failure may be due to the effects of pertussis toxin, necrotizing bronchiolitis, extensive damage to the alveolar epithelium, tenacious airway secretions, and possibly leukostasis with activation of the immunological cascade, all contributing to increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Cellular apoptosis appeared to underlay much of these changes. The secondary immuno-compromise may facilitate co-infection. PMID:19725100

Sawal, Mohammad; Cohen, Marta; Irazuzta, Jose E; Kumar, Ramani; Kirton, Christine; Brundler, Marie-Anne; Evans, Clair Anne; Wilson, John Andrew; Raffeeq, Parakkal; Azaz, Amer; Rotta, Alexandre T; Vora, Ajay; Vohra, Amit; Abboud, Patricia; Mirkin, L David; Cooper, Mehrengise; Dishop, Megan K; Graf, Jeanine M; Petros, Andy; Klonin, Hilary

2009-10-01

290

A multinational, multicentre, non-blinded, randomized study of moxifloxacin oral tablets compared with co-amoxiclav oral tablets in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of once daily dosing with moxifloxacin (BAY 12-8039) with that of coamoxiclav given three times daily for the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB). Moxifloxacin (one 400 mg tablet daily) was administered orally for 5 days and co-amoxiclav (three 625 mg tablets daily) was given orally for 7 days. The study was randomized, non-blinded, multinational (12 countries) and multicentre (68 centres). A total of 575 patients, all with clear signs of AECB, were treated, 292 with moxifloxacin and 283 with co-amoxiclav. Of these, 512 patients were evaluable for efficacy (261 in the moxifloxacin group and 251 in the co-amoxiclav group). The primary efficacy parameter was clinical response at 14 days in the evaluable population. A clinical success was classified as resolution or improvement of symptoms. Variables used to assess clinical response included wheeze, cough, dyspnoea, sputum volume, rales and rhonchi. The success rate for moxifloxacin in the evaluable patients was 96.2% and that for co-amoxiclav was 91.6%. The 95% confidence intervals for this difference (0.4%; 8.7%) indicate equivalence in the treatments. Sputum samples were taken from patients and 140 of these contained a pathogen, Haemophilus influenzae being the most frequently isolated. Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae were also commonly isolated pathogens. The eradication rate at 14 days in the evaluable patients was 87.7% in the moxifloxacin group and 89.6% in the coamoxiclav group. Both drugs were well tolerated with no significant differences in the numbers of drug-related adverse events or the numbers of patients withdrawing because of an adverse event. These results and the broad spectrum of antibacterial activity make moxifloxacin a promising and safe alternative to conventional therapy for the empirical treatment of AECB. PMID:11675905

Schaberg, T; Ballin, I; Huchon, G; Bassaris, H; Hampel, B; Reimnitz, P

291

In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of heteroaryl isothiazolones against resistant gram-positive pathogens.  

PubMed

The activities of several tricyclic heteroaryl isothiazolones (HITZs) against an assortment of gram-positive and gram-negative clinical isolates were assessed. These compounds target bacterial DNA replication and were found to possess broad-spectrum activities especially against gram-positive strains, including antibiotic-resistant staphylococci and streptococci. These included methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-nonsusceptible staphylococci, and quinolone-resistant strains. The HITZs were more active than the comparator antimicrobials in most cases. For gram-negative bacteria, the tested compounds were less active against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae but showed exceptional potencies against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Neisseria spp. Good activity against several anaerobes, as well as Legionella pneumophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, was also observed. Excellent bactericidal activity against staphylococci was observed in time-kill assays, with an approximately 3-log drop in the numbers of CFU/ml occurring after 4 h of exposure to compound. Postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of 2.0 and 1.7 h for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and MRSA strains, respectively, were observed, and these were similar to those seen with moxifloxacin at 10x MIC. In vivo efficacy was demonstrated in murine infections by using sepsis and thigh infection models. The 50% protective doses were

Pucci, Michael J; Cheng, Jijun; Podos, Steven D; Thoma, Christy L; Thanassi, Jane A; Buechter, Douglas D; Mushtaq, Gohar; Vigliotti, Gerald A; Bradbury, Barton J; Deshpande, Milind

2007-01-22

292

In Vitro and In Vivo Profiles of ACH-702, an Isothiazoloquinolone, against Bacterial Pathogens?  

PubMed Central

ACH-702, a novel isothiazoloquinolone (ITQ), was assessed for antibacterial activity against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical isolates and found to possess broad-spectrum activity, especially against antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive strains, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). For Gram-negative bacteria, ACH-702 showed exceptional potency against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and a Neisseria sp. but was less active against members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Good antibacterial activity was also evident against several anaerobes as well as Legionella pneumophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Excellent bactericidal activity was observed for ACH-702 against several bacterial pathogens in time-kill assays, and postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of >1 h were evident with both laboratory and clinical strains of staphylococci at 10× MIC and similar in most cases to those observed for moxifloxacin at the same MIC multiple. In vivo efficacy was demonstrated against S. aureus with murine sepsis and thigh infection models, with decreases in the number of CFU/thigh equal to or greater than those observed after vancomycin treatment. Macromolecular synthesis assays showed specific dose-dependent inhibition of DNA replication in staphylococci, and biochemical analyses indicated potent dual inhibition of two essential DNA replication enzymes: DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Additional biological data in support of an effective dual targeting mechanism of action include the following: low MIC values (?0.25 ?g/ml) against staphylococcal strains with single mutations in both gyrA and grlA (parC), retention of good antibacterial activity (MICs of ?0.5 ?g/ml) against staphylococcal strains with two mutations in both gyrA and grlA, and low frequencies for the selection of higher-level resistance (<10?10). These promising initial data support further study of isothiazoloquinolones as potential clinical candidates.

Pucci, Michael J.; Podos, Steven D.; Thanassi, Jane A.; Leggio, Melissa J.; Bradbury, Barton J.; Deshpande, Milind

2011-01-01

293

In vitro and in vivo profiles of ACH-702, an isothiazoloquinolone, against bacterial pathogens.  

PubMed

ACH-702, a novel isothiazoloquinolone (ITQ), was assessed for antibacterial activity against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical isolates and found to possess broad-spectrum activity, especially against antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive strains, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). For Gram-negative bacteria, ACH-702 showed exceptional potency against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and a Neisseria sp. but was less active against members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Good antibacterial activity was also evident against several anaerobes as well as Legionella pneumophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Excellent bactericidal activity was observed for ACH-702 against several bacterial pathogens in time-kill assays, and postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of >1 h were evident with both laboratory and clinical strains of staphylococci at 10 × MIC and similar in most cases to those observed for moxifloxacin at the same MIC multiple. In vivo efficacy was demonstrated against S. aureus with murine sepsis and thigh infection models, with decreases in the number of CFU/thigh equal to or greater than those observed after vancomycin treatment. Macromolecular synthesis assays showed specific dose-dependent inhibition of DNA replication in staphylococci, and biochemical analyses indicated potent dual inhibition of two essential DNA replication enzymes: DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Additional biological data in support of an effective dual targeting mechanism of action include the following: low MIC values (?0.25 ?g/ml) against staphylococcal strains with single mutations in both gyrA and grlA (parC), retention of good antibacterial activity (MICs of ?0.5 ?g/ml) against staphylococcal strains with two mutations in both gyrA and grlA, and low frequencies for the selection of higher-level resistance (<10?¹?). These promising initial data support further study of isothiazoloquinolones as potential clinical candidates. PMID:21464250

Pucci, Michael J; Podos, Steven D; Thanassi, Jane A; Leggio, Melissa J; Bradbury, Barton J; Deshpande, Milind

2011-04-04

294

In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activities of Heteroaryl Isothiazolones against Resistant Gram-Positive Pathogens?  

PubMed Central

The activities of several tricyclic heteroaryl isothiazolones (HITZs) against an assortment of gram-positive and gram-negative clinical isolates were assessed. These compounds target bacterial DNA replication and were found to possess broad-spectrum activities especially against gram-positive strains, including antibiotic-resistant staphylococci and streptococci. These included methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-nonsusceptible staphylococci, and quinolone-resistant strains. The HITZs were more active than the comparator antimicrobials in most cases. For gram-negative bacteria, the tested compounds were less active against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae but showed exceptional potencies against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Neisseria spp. Good activity against several anaerobes, as well as Legionella pneumophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, was also observed. Excellent bactericidal activity against staphylococci was observed in time-kill assays, with an approximately 3-log drop in the numbers of CFU/ml occurring after 4 h of exposure to compound. Postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of 2.0 and 1.7 h for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and MRSA strains, respectively, were observed, and these were similar to those seen with moxifloxacin at 10× MIC. In vivo efficacy was demonstrated in murine infections by using sepsis and thigh infection models. The 50% protective doses were ?1 mg/kg of body weight against S. aureus in the sepsis model, while decreases in the numbers of CFU per thigh equal to or greater than those detected in animals treated with a standard dose of vancomycin were seen in the animals with thigh infections. Pharmacokinetic analyses of treated mice indicated exposures similar to those to ciprofloxacin at equivalent dose levels. These promising initial data suggest further study on the use of the HITZs as antibacterial agents.

Pucci, Michael J.; Cheng, Jijun; Podos, Steven D.; Thoma, Christy L.; Thanassi, Jane A.; Buechter, Douglas D.; Mushtaq, Gohar; Vigliotti, Gerald A.; Bradbury, Barton J.; Deshpande, Milind

2007-01-01

295

Double-blind, comparative study of rufloxacin once daily versus amoxicillin three times a day in treatment of outpatients with exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.  

PubMed Central

In a double-blind, randomized, multicenter study, the efficacy and safety of two dosage schedules of rufloxacin once daily were compared with those of amoxicillin three times a day in the treatment of 192 outpatients with exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Rufloxacin was given as a single oral dose of 400 mg on day 1 and single daily doses of 200 mg on the subsequent 9 days (n = 64) or as 300 mg on day 1 and then 150 mg daily for 9 days (n = 63); amoxicillin was given as 500 mg orally three times a day for 10 days (n = 65). Clinical and bacteriological assessments were carried out before treatment, between study days 3 and 5, and at days 1 and 8 after treatment. Pretreatment cultures were positive for 139 patients, the most frequently isolated pathogens being Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae. Clinical success rates were comparable in the three groups (94, 95, and 98%, respectively), as were bacteriological success rates at the end of treatment (93, 95, and 91%, respectively) and at follow-up (88, 95, and 98%, respectively). The power to detect a significant 15% difference in cure rates was 74.9%. Follow-up bacteriological failures from pneumococcal infection were 18% in both rufloxacin groups combined and 5% in the amoxicillin group. The 200-mg dose regimen achieved average steady-state concentrations in plasma higher than did the 150-mg dose regimen (3.75 versus 2.72 micrograms/ml). Adverse events occurred in 11 and 13 patients, respectively, on rufloxacin and 8 on amoxicillin. This study shows that rufloxacin once daily ay be a possible option for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. The 200-mg daily oral dose preceeded by a loading dose of 400 mg displays a better pharmacokinetic profile than the lower dose.

Klietmann, W; Cesana, M; Rondel, R K; Focht, J

1993-01-01

296

Un estudio financiado por los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH) muestra reducción en la mortalidad entre hombres con cáncer de próstata en grado intermedio:  

Cancer.gov

Terapia hormonal por corto tiempo administrada en combinación con radioterapia a hombres con cáncer de próstata en estadio inicial aumentó sus posibilidades de vivir más en comparación con tratamiento de radioterapia sola, según un estudio clínico patrocinado por el NCI. Los beneficios del tratamiento combinado se limitaron principalmente a pacientes con enfermedad de riesgo intermedio y no se observaron en hombres con cáncer de próstata de riesgo bajo, indican los investigadores.

297

Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

298

Spectroscopic and kinetic characterization of the light-dependent enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) using monovinyl and divinyl substrates  

PubMed Central

The enzyme POR [Pchlide (protochlorophyllide) oxidoreductase] catalyses the reduction of Pchlide to chlorophyllide, which is a key step in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. This light-dependent reaction has previously been studied in great detail but recent reports suggest that a mixture of MV (monovinyl) and DV (divinyl) Pchlides may have influenced some of these properties of the reaction. Low-temperature absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy have revealed several spectral differences between MV and DV Pchlides, which were purified from a Rhodobacter capsulatus strain that was shown to contain a mixture of the two pigments. A thorough steady-state kinetic characterization using both Pchlide forms demonstrates that neither pigment appears to affect the kinetic properties of the enzyme. The reaction has also been monitored following illumination at low temperatures and was shown to consist of an initial photochemical step followed by four ‘dark’ steps for both pigments. However, minor differences were observed in the spectral properties of some of the intermediates, although the temperature dependency of each step was nearly identical for the two pigments. This work provides the first detailed kinetic and spectroscopic study of this unique enzyme using biologically important MV and DV substrate analogues. It also has significant implications for the DV reductase enzyme, which is responsible for converting DV pigments into their MV counterparts, and its position in the sequence of reactions that comprise the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway.

Heyes, Derren J.; Kruk, Jerzy; Hunter, C. Neil

2005-01-01

299

CYP1A and POR gene mediated mitochondrial membrane damage induced by carbon nanoparticle in human mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Nanoparticles (NPs) can cause respiratory and cardiovascular problems, furthermore small carboxyl polystyrene NPs induce hemolysis, activate platelets and induce inflammation in human blood. Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) are known to interfere with cellular metabolism, specific cellular functions and moreover may cause cellular toxicity. We aimed to study the influence of CNPs on oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane damage and intracellular gene expression in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). CNPs cause a dose and time dependent growth inhibition in hMSCs at a dose range from 50 to 400?g/mL. Exposure of CNPs toxic doses viz., 50?g/mL (D1) and 100?g/mL (D2) decreased intracellular mitochondrial membrane potential compared to control. CNPs treated cells were found to lose their morphology due to cell membrane damage have been confirmed by propidium iodide staining and fluorescence microscopic analysis. Oxidative stress responsive genes like GSTM3 and GSR1 expression have increased a fold when compared to control, interim there is no change were observed in SOD and GPx. We found an increased expression of CYP1A and POR genes by at least 2- fold, which is involved in mitochondrial trans-membrane potential. In conclusion, routine and high exposure of CNPs to hMSCs increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial membrane damage. PMID:23624273

Alshatwi, Ali A; Periasamy, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan; Subash-Babu, Pandurangan; Alsaif, Mohammed A; Alwarthan, Abdulrahman A; Lei, K A

2013-04-03

300

La demanda por combustible y el impacto de la contaminación al interior de los hogares sobre la salud: el caso de Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

El consumo de leña para la preparación de alimentos es aún común en algunos países en desarrollo. La exposición a la contaminación dentro de los hogares, causada por la quema de este combustible en estufas sin sistemas de ventilación adecuados, aumenta la probabilidad de adquirir enfermedades respiratorias agudas. En este trabajo, se construye un modelo de decisión de hogares que

Martínez Mariana

2003-01-01

301

LA DEMANDA POR COMBUSTIBLE Y EL IMPACTO DE LA CONTAMINACIÓN AL INTERIOR DE LOS HOGARES SOBRE LA SALUD: EL CASO DE GUATEMALA  

Microsoft Academic Search

El consumo de leña para la preparación de alimentos es aún común en algunos países en desarrollo. La exposición a la contaminación dentro de los hogares, causada por la quema de este combustible en estufas sin sistemas de ventilación adecuados, aumenta la probabilidad de adquirir enfermedades respiratorias agudas. En este trabajo, se construye un modelo de decisión de hogares que

MARIANA MARTÍNEZ CUÉLLAR

2003-01-01

302

Angioembolización selectiva: un valioso adyuvante en la estrategia de control de daños en heridas faciales por proyectil de arma de fuego. Informe de un caso  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Introducción: La angioembolización selectiva es una alterna- tiva no quirúrgica para controlar el sangrado facial traumático. Caso clínico: Informamos el caso de un paciente con herida facial por proyectil de arma de fuego tratado con angioemboli- zación selectiva como adyuvante al control de daños, con lo que se logró detener la hemorragia. Conclusiones: La angioembolización selectiva es un valioso

Luis Manuel García-Núñez; Gustavo Enrique Sánchez-Villanueva; Ruy Cabello-Pasini; Luis Enrique Soto-Ortega; José María Rivera-Cruz; Olliver Núñez-Cantú

2009-01-01

303

CARACTERÍSTICAS DE LA POLÍTICA CRIMINAL ADOPTADA POR CUBA EN RELACIÓN AL TRÁFICO Y USO DE LA DROGA, PSICOFÁRMACOS Y OTRAS SUSTANCIAS DE EFECTOS SIMILARES  

Microsoft Academic Search

La droga, psicofármacos y otras sustancias de similares efectos, han ido evolucionando a lo largo de la historia con sus características específicas, de acuerdo a las condiciones de la sociedad, pero en Cuba, este flagelo ha sido atendido y controlado especialmente por las diferentes instituciones de nuestro Estado, debido a las graves consecuencias que acarrea para la población, específicamente para

Yaniuska Pose Roselló

2011-01-01

304

DISCUSSÃO SOBRE INTOXICAÇÕES POR MEDICAMENTOS E AGROTÓXICOS NO BRASIL DE 1999 A 2002 Discussion about Medication and Pesticide Poisonings in Brazil from 1999 to 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Medicamentos e agrotóxicos são intensamente consumidos e os contextos produtivos e mercadológico nos quais estes estão inseridos aproximam os riscos à saúde e ao meio ambiente relacionados à sua utilização, dentre os quais estão as intoxicações, cujos principais agentes são os medicamentos e agrotóxicos. Objetivos. Discutir o padrão de intoxicações por medicamentos e agrotóxicos no Brasil, mostrando a aproximação

Reginaldo T. Mendonça; Jaqueline L. Marinho

305

Síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por Hantavirus: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, do diagnóstico laboratorial e do tratamento Hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome: epidemiology, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis and management aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo A síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por Hantavirus (SPCVH), é doença emergente com descrição crescente de casos no Brasil. Neste trabalho, estudou-se 8 casos confirmados da doença. Todos apresentaram febre e dispnéia. Taquicardia, astenia, hipotensão e estertoração pulmonar ocorreram em 75 a 87,5% dos casos. Plaquetopenia e hipoxemia ocorreram em 100% dos casos, hemoconcentração, leucocitose com desvio à esquerda e

Luiz Tadeu; M. Figueiredo; Gelse Mazzoni Campos; Fernando Bellissimo Rodrigues

306

Associação entre trauma por perda na infância e depressão na vida adulta Association between childhood loss trauma and depression in adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observações clínicas efetuadas por psicanalistas sugerem que psicopatologias da idade adulta podem ter sido originadas na infância. Estudos publicados na última década identificaram associação entre trauma na infância e depressão na vida adulta. Vivências traumáticas na infância, como a perda de vínculos afetivos devido à morte de pais ou de irmãos ou, ainda, a privação de um ou de ambos

Maria Lucrécia; Scherer Zavaschia; Fabíola Satlerb; Daniela Poesterc; Cláudia Ferrão; Rafael Piazenskib Vargasd; Luís Augusto Paim Rohdee; Cláudio Laks Eizirikf

307

Timectomia estendida por cirurgia torácica videoassistida e cervicotomia no tratamento da miastenia * Extended thymectomy through video assisted thoracic surgery and cervicotomy in the treatment of myasthenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introdução: A relação entre a miastenia e o timo é evidente e o tratamento atual desta condição inclui a timectomia. No entanto, uma revisão de nossa experiência com a timectomia revelou a necessidade do uso de uma técnica mais radical. Objetivo: Analisar retrospectivamente pacientes portado- res de miastenia gravis que foram submetidos a timectomia radical por videotoracoscopia, ressaltando vantagens do

EDUARDO HARUO SAITO; GÉRSON C. MAGALHÃES; LUIZ CARLOS; AGUIAR VAZ; VICENTE FARIA CERVANTE

2003-01-01

308

Adult Student Retention and Achievement with Language-Based Modular Materials. POR FIN: Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the POR FIN research design was to develop a language-based curriculum emphasizing the audiolingual approach and integrating academic and social-functioning subject matter. The modular curriculum is designed so that each lesson is independent and complete in itself, and provides a high degree of motivation, retention, and achievement…

Bexar County School Board, San Antonio, TX.

309

Desenvolvimento e aplicação de metodologia por cromatografia em camada delgada para determinação do perfil de alcalóides oxindólicos pentacíclicos nas espécies sul-americanas do gênero Uncaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O gênero Uncaria (Rubiaceae) é representado na América do Sul e Central por duas espécies: U. tomentosa (Willd.) DC. e U. guianensis (Aubl.) Gmel., conhecidas popularmente como unha-de-gato. Ambas são trepadeiras perenes, sendo empregadas na prevenção e cura de várias doenças. Nessas plantas são encontrados alcalóides oxindólicos e indólicos, triterpenos glicosilados, taninos e fl avonóides. Seis alcalóides oxindólicos pentacíclicos,

Ligia M. M. Valente; Flaviane F. Alves; Giselle M. Bezerra; Maria Beatriz S. Almeida; Sandra L. Rosario; José L. Mazzei; Luiz A. d'Avila; Antonio C. Siani

2006-01-01

310

Corynebacterium jeikeium jk0268 Constitutes for the 40 Amino Acid Long PorACj, Which Forms a Homooligomeric and Anion-Selective Cell Wall Channel  

PubMed Central

Corynebacterium jeikeium, a resident of human skin, is often associated with multidrug resistant nosocomial infections in immunodepressed patients. C. jeikeium K411 belongs to mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes, the mycolata and contains a channel-forming protein as judged from reconstitution experiments with artificial lipid bilayer experiments. The channel-forming protein was present in detergent treated cell walls and in extracts of whole cells using organic solvents. A gene coding for a 40 amino acid long polypeptide possibly responsible for the pore-forming activity was identified in the known genome of C. jeikeium by its similar chromosomal localization to known porH and porA genes of other Corynebacterium strains. The gene jk0268 was expressed in a porin deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strain. For purification temporarily histidine-tailed or with a GST-tag at the N-terminus, the homogeneous protein caused channel-forming activity with an average conductance of 1.25 nS in 1M KCl identical to the channels formed by the detergent extracts. Zero-current membrane potential measurements of the voltage dependent channel implied selectivity for anions. This preference is according to single-channel analysis caused by some excess of cationic charges located in the channel lumen formed by oligomeric alpha-helical wheels. The channel has a suggested diameter of 1.4 nm as judged from the permeability of different sized hydrated anions using the Renkin correction factor. Surprisingly, the genome of C. jeikeium contained only one gene coding for a cell wall channel of the PorA/PorH type found in other Corynebacterium species. The possible evolutionary relationship between the heterooligomeric channels formed by certain Corynebacterium strains and the homooligomeric pore of C. jeikeium is discussed.

Norouzy, Amir; Schulz, Robert; Nau, Werner M.; Kleinekathofer, Ulrich; Tauch, Andreas; Benz, Roland

2013-01-01

311

Baja Incidencia de Taquicardia Auricular por Macro-Reentrada luego de la Ablación de Fibrilación Auricular Usando como Guía Potenciales Auriculares Fraccionados en Ritmo Sinusal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen La ablación de fibrilación auricular puede resultar pro-arrítmica. Las taquicardias auriculares por macro-reentrada han sido reportadas hasta en 1\\/3 de los pacientes que son sometidos a ablación de fibrilación auricular. Métodos y Resultados: En el presente trabajo se utilizo un abordaje electrofisiológico para eliminar potenciales auriculares izquierdos fraccionados durante ritmo sinusal, sin la intención de crear líneas de bloqueo.

Javier E. Banchs; Erica Penny-Peterson; Soraya Samii; Deborah L. Wolbrette; Gerald V. Naccarelli; Mario D. Gonzalez

2009-01-01

312

DNA Immunization of mice with a plasmid encoding Neisseria gonorrhea PorB protein by intramuscular injection and epidermal particle bombardment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine encoding PorB from Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain FA1090 was analyzed in BALB\\/C mice immunized by intramuscular needle injection or epidermal gene gun bombardment. Both delivery routes generated measurable specific antibodies although the gene gun response was slower. Antibody isotypes were indicative of Th2 activation following gene gun immunization and of Th1 activation following intramuscular injection. In

W. Zhu; C. E. Thomas; P. F. Sparling

2004-01-01

313

Neisseria meningitidis PorB, a Toll-Like Receptor 2 Ligand, Improves the Capacity of Francisella tularensis Lipopolysaccharide To Protect Mice against Experimental Tularemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Francisella tularensis causes severe pneumonia that can be fatal if it is left untreated. Due to its potential use as a biological weapon, research is being conducted to develop an effective vaccine and to select and study adjuvant molecules able to generate a better and long-lasting protective effect. PorB, a porin from Neisseria meningitidis, is a well-established Toll-like receptor 2

Damiana Chiavolini; Susan Weir; John R. Murphy; Lee M. Wetzler

2008-01-01

314

Serum bactericidal activity and isotype distribution of antibodies in toddlers and schoolchildren after vaccination with RIVM hexavalent PorA vesicle vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clinical phase II trial with the RIVM hexavalent OMV vaccine containing six different PorAs was carried out in toddlers (2–3 years) and schoolchildren (7–8 years) in The Netherlands. Children were vaccinated three times (0, 2, 8 months). Sera after two and three vaccinations were analysed for serum bactericidal activity (SBA) and isotype distribution in whole cell enzyme linked immunosorbent

Ester de Kleijn; Lilian van Eijndhoven; Clementien Vermont; Betsy Kuipers; Harry van Dijken; Hans Rümke; Ronald de Groot; Loek van Alphen; Germie van den Dobbelsteen

2001-01-01

315

Corynebacterium jeikeium jk0268 Constitutes for the 40 Amino Acid Long PorACj, Which Forms a Homooligomeric and Anion-Selective Cell Wall Channel.  

PubMed

Corynebacterium jeikeium, a resident of human skin, is often associated with multidrug resistant nosocomial infections in immunodepressed patients. C. jeikeium K411 belongs to mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes, the mycolata and contains a channel-forming protein as judged from reconstitution experiments with artificial lipid bilayer experiments. The channel-forming protein was present in detergent treated cell walls and in extracts of whole cells using organic solvents. A gene coding for a 40 amino acid long polypeptide possibly responsible for the pore-forming activity was identified in the known genome of C. jeikeium by its similar chromosomal localization to known porH and porA genes of other Corynebacterium strains. The gene jk0268 was expressed in a porin deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strain. For purification temporarily histidine-tailed or with a GST-tag at the N-terminus, the homogeneous protein caused channel-forming activity with an average conductance of 1.25 nS in 1M KCl identical to the channels formed by the detergent extracts. Zero-current membrane potential measurements of the voltage dependent channel implied selectivity for anions. This preference is according to single-channel analysis caused by some excess of cationic charges located in the channel lumen formed by oligomeric alpha-helical wheels. The channel has a suggested diameter of 1.4 nm as judged from the permeability of different sized hydrated anions using the Renkin correction factor. Surprisingly, the genome of C. jeikeium contained only one gene coding for a cell wall channel of the PorA/PorH type found in other Corynebacterium species. The possible evolutionary relationship between the heterooligomeric channels formed by certain Corynebacterium strains and the homooligomeric pore of C. jeikeium is discussed. PMID:24116064

Abdali, Narges; Barth, Enrico; Norouzy, Amir; Schulz, Robert; Nau, Werner M; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Tauch, Andreas; Benz, Roland

2013-10-08

316

Neisserial PorB is translocated to the mitochondria of HeLa cells infected with Neisseria meningitidis and protects cells from apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We have previously shown that purified meningococ- cal porin PorB associates with mitochondria and pre- vents apoptosis of B cells, Jurkat cells and HeLa cells (Massari et al ., 2000, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 9070-9075). This work examines if intact meningo- cocci have a similar effect as purified porins. It was first determined that intact live meningococci

Paola Massari; Carol A. King; Alan Yu Ho; Lee M. Wetzler

2003-01-01

317

Analysis of Pathogen-Host Cell Interactions in Purpura Fulminans: Expression of Capsule, Type IV Pili, and PorA by Neisseria meningitidis In Vivo  

PubMed Central

The pattern of meningococcal surface structure expression in different microenvironments following bloodstream invasion in vivo is not known. We used immunohistochemistry to determine the expression of capsule, type IV pili, and PorA by meningococci residing in the skin lesions of children with purpura fulminans. All the skin biopsy samples showed evidence of thrombosis and, frequently, a perivascular inflammatory cell infiltrate consisting of neutrophils (elastase positive) and monocytes/macrophages (CD68 positive). Modified Gram staining revealed 20 to over 100 gram-negative diplococci in each 4-?m-thick section, usually grouped into microcolonies. Immunoperoxidase staining demonstrated that the invading meningococci expressed PorA, capsule, and type IV pilin. Expression of these antigens was not restricted to any particular environment and was found in association with meningococci located in leukocytes, small blood vessels, and the dermal interstitium. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated coexpression of pilin and capsule by numerous microcolonies. However, there was some discordance in capsule and pilin expression within the microcolonies, suggesting phase variation. The strategy employed in this study will be helpful in investigating invasive bacterial diseases where antigenic and phase variation has a significant impact on virulence and on vaccine design.

Harrison, O. B.; Robertson, B. D.; Faust, S. N.; Jepson, M. A.; Goldin, R. D.; Levin, M.; Heyderman, R. S.

2002-01-01

318

A produção científica sobre intoxicações por agrotóxicos na região serrana do Rio de Janeiro Scientific papers on intoxications by pesticides in the mountain region of Rio de Janeiro Producción científica acerca intoxicaciones por pesticidas en la región de montaña de Río de Janeiro  

Microsoft Academic Search

ReSumo: Buscou-se analisar a produção científica sobre intoxicação por agrotóxicos na região serrana do Rio de Janeiro. Para tanto, utilizou-se os periódicos disponíveis na Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde, no período de 1995 a 2005. A partir da técnica de análise de con- teúdo foram identificadas duas categorias centrais: percepção do risco de intoxicação e fatores relacionados às intoxicações humanas e

Maria Clara Coelho Camara; Carmem L. C. Marinho; Leila Costa; Maria Cristina R. Guilam

319

Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of garenoxacin in patients with community-acquired respiratory tract infections.  

PubMed

Garenoxacin (T-3811ME, BMS-284756) is a novel, broad-spectrum des-F(6) quinolone currently under study for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. This analysis assessed garenoxacin population pharmacokinetics and exposure-response relationships for safety (adverse effects [AE]) and antimicrobial activity (clinical cure and bacteriologic eradication of Streptococcus pneumoniae and the grouping of Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis). Data were obtained from three phase II clinical trials of garenoxacin administered orally as 400 mg once daily for 5 to 10 days for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, and sinusitis. Samples were taken from each patient before drug administration, 2 h following administration of the first dose, and on the day 3 to 5 visit. Individual Bayesian estimates of the fu (fraction unbound), the Cmax, and the fu for the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (fu AUC(0-24)) were calculated as measurements of drug exposure by using an ex vivo assessment of average protein binding. Regression analysis was performed to examine the following relationships: treatment-emergent AE incidence and AUC(0-24), Cmax, or patient factors; clinical response or bacterial eradication and drug exposure (fu Cmax/MIC, fu AUC(0-24)/MIC, and other exposure covariates); or disease and patient factors. Garenoxacin pharmacokinetics were described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. Clearance was dependent on creatinine clearance, ideal body weight, age, obesity, and concomitant use of pseudoephedrine. The volume of distribution was dependent on weight and gender. Patients with mild or moderate renal dysfunction had, on average, approximately a 16 or 26% decrease in clearance, respectively, compared to patients of the same gender and obesity classification with normal renal function. AE occurrence was not related to garenoxacin exposure. Overall, clinical cure and bacterial eradication rates were 91 and 90%, respectively, for S. pneumoniae and 93 and 92%, respectively, for the grouping of H. influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, and M. catarrhalis. The fu AUC(0-24)/MIC ratios were high (>90% were >200), and none of the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic exposure measurements indexed to the MIC or other factors were significant predictors of clinical or bacteriologic response. Garenoxacin clearance was primarily related to creatinine clearance and ideal body weight. Although garenoxacin exposure was approximately 25% higher for patients with moderate renal dysfunction, this increase does not appear to be clinically significant as exposures in this patient population were not significant predictors of AE occurrence. Garenoxacin exposures were at the upper end of the exposure-response curves for measurements of antimicrobial activity, suggesting that 400 mg of garenoxacin once daily is a safe and adequate dose for the treatment of the specified community-acquired respiratory tract infections. PMID:15561855

Van Wart, Scott; Phillips, Luann; Ludwig, Elizabeth A; Russo, Rene; Gajjar, Diptee A; Bello, Akintunde; Ambrose, Paul G; Costanzo, Christopher; Grasela, Thaddeus H; Echols, Roger; Grasela, Dennis M

2004-12-01

320

High incidence of antimicrobial resistant organisms including extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nasopharyngeal and blood isolates of HIV-infected children from Cape Town, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background There is little information on nasopharyngeal (NP) flora or bacteremia in HIV-infected children. Our aim was to describe the organisms and antimicrobial resistance patterns in children enrolled in a prospective study comparing daily and three times weekly trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and isoniazid (INH) or placebo prophylaxis. Methods NP swabs were taken at baseline from HIV-infected children enrolled in the study. Standard microbiological techniques were used. Children were grouped according to previous or current exposure to TMP-SMX and whether enrolled to the study during a period of hospitalization. Blood culture results were also recorded within 12 months of baseline. Results Two hundred and three children, median age 1.8 (Interquartile [IQ]: 0.7–4) years had NP swabs submitted for culture. One hundred and eighty-four (90.7%) had either stage B or C HIV disease. One hundred and forty-one (69.8%) were receiving TMP-SMX and 19 (9.4%) were on antiretroviral therapy. The majority, 168 (82%) had a history of hospitalization and 91 (44.8%) were enrolled during a period of hospitalization. Thirty-two subjects (16.2%) died within 12 months of study entry. One hundred and eighty-one potential pathogens were found in 167 children. The most commonly isolated organisms were Streptococcus pneumoniae (48: 22.2%), Gram-negative respiratory organisms (Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis) (47: 21.8%), Staphylococcus aureus (44: 20.4%), Enterobacteriaceae 32 (14.8%) and Pseudomonas 5 (2.3%). Resistance to TMP-SMX occurred in > 80% of pathogens except for M. catarrhalis (2: 18.2% of tested organisms). TMP-SMX resistance tended to be higher in those receiving it at baseline (p = 0.065). Carriage of Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was significantly associated with being on TMP-SMX at baseline (p = 0.002). Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) to penicillin were determined for 18 S. pneumoniae isolates: 7 (38.9%) were fully sensitive (MIC ? 0.06 ?g/ml), 9 (50%) had intermediate resistance (MIC 0.12 – 1 ?g/ml) and 2 (11.1%) had high level resistance (MIC ?2 ?g/ml). Fifty percent of Enterobacteriaceae produced extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) (resistant to third generation cephalosporins) and 56% were resistant to gentamicin. Seventy-seven percent of S. aureus were MRSA. Carriage of resistant organisms was not associated with hospitalization. On multivariate logistic regression, risk factors for colonization with Enterobacteriaceae were age ? one year (Odds ratio 4.4; 95% Confidence Interval 1.9–10.9; p = 0.0008) and CDC stage C disease (Odds ratio 3.6; 95% Confidence Interval 1.5–8.6; p = 0.005) Nineteen (9.4%) subjects had 23 episodes of bacteremia. Enterobacteriaceae were most commonly isolated (13 of 25 isolates), of which 6 (46%) produced ESBL and were resistant to gentamicin. Conclusion HIV-infected children are colonized with potential pathogens, most of which are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. TMP-SMX resistance is extremely common. Antibiotic resistance is widespread in colonizing organisms and those causing invasive disease. Antibiotic recommendations should take cognizance of resistance patterns. Antibiotics appropriate for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and MRSA should be used for severely ill HIV-infected children in our region. Further study of antibiotic resistance patterns in HIV-infected children from other areas is needed.

Cotton, Mark F; Wasserman, Elizabeth; Smit, Juanita; Whitelaw, Andrew; Zar, Heather J

2008-01-01

321

Comparative Antimicrobial Characterization of LBM415 (NVP PDF-713), a New Peptide Deformylase Inhibitor of Clinical Importance  

PubMed Central

LBM415 (NVP PDF-713) is the first member of the peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibitor class being developed for clinical trials as a parenteral and oral agent for treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract disease and serious infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant gram-positive cocci. In this study susceptibility testing results from 1,306 recent clinical isolates selected to overrepresent resistance trends among the species were summarized. All staphylococci (153 strains; MIC at which 90% of isolates were inhibited [MIC90], 2 ?g/ml), Streptococcus pneumoniae (170 strains; MIC90, 1 ?g/ml), other streptococci (150 strains; MIC90, 1 ?g/ml), enterococci (104 strains; MIC90, 4 ?g/ml), Moraxella catarrhalis (103 strains; MIC90, 0.5 ?g/ml), and Legionella pneumophila (50 strains; MIC90, 0.12 ?g/ml) were inhibited at ?8 ?g of LBM415/ml, as were 97% of Haemophilus influenzae isolates (300 strains; MIC90, 4 to 8 ?g/ml). Among other bacterial groups, 100% of gram-positive and -negative anaerobes, including 22 Bacteroides spp. strains (31 strains total; MIC90, 1 ?g/ml), were inhibited by ?4 ?g/ml, whereas Enterobacteriaceae (112 strains) and most nonfermentative bacilli (107 strains) were not inhibited at readily achievable concentrations. The compound was found to have a dominantly bacteriostatic action, and spontaneous single-step mutational rates occurred at low levels (10?6 to <10?8). Drug interaction studies failed to identify any class-specific synergistic interactions, nor were antagonistic interactions observed. Variations in broth and agar MIC test conditions demonstrated that, whereas the agar-based method trended towards a 1-log2 dilution-higher MIC than the broth method and was inoculum dependent, other variations in incubation environment, medium supplements, pH, or calcium concentration had little influence on LBM415 MIC results. Use of the efflux inhibitor phe-arg-?-naphthylamide showed an average of 1 log2 dilution decrease in H. influenzae MICs, demonstrating the contribution of efflux pumps in influencing susceptibility to PDF inhibitors. The in vitro activity of LBM415 against targeted bacterial species, including resistant subsets, and other laboratory characteristics of this novel compound demonstrate the potential of PDF inhibitors as a new class of antimicrobial agents.

Fritsche, Thomas R.; Sader, Helio S.; Cleeland, Roy; Jones, Ronald N.

2005-01-01

322

Genetic and functional evidence for a role for SLC11A1 in susceptibility to otitis media in early childhood in a Western Australian population.  

PubMed

Otitis media (OM) is a common disease in early childhood characterised by inflammation of the middle ear. Susceptibility to recurrent acute OM (rAOM; ?3 episodes AOM in 6 months) and chronic OM with effusion (COME; middle ear effusion ?3 months) is 40-70% heritable. Three bacterial pathogens commonly associated with OM, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp), non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mc), have been observed within adenoids and as facultative intracellular pathogens that invade and survive in mononuclear cells. Case/pseudo-control conditional logistic regression analysis of variants in the SLC11A1 gene, initially identified for its role in resistance to intra-macrophage pathogens in mice, revealed association with OM at four polymorphisms (Pbest=0.025) in 531 families (660 affected children) from the Western Australian Family Study of Otitis Media. This included association at the functional promoter GTn polymorphism (rs34448891) with alleles that regulate high (allele 3; odds ratio=1.2, 95% CI 1.00-1.44, P=0.04) versus low (allele 2; odds ratio=0.83, 95% CI 0.69-0.99, P=0.04) SLC11A1 expression. Haplotype and stepwise conditional logistic regression analyses support a single genetic effect in the proximal region of SLC11A1, with the haplotype 3_C_C_G across rs34448891_rs2276631_rs3731865_rs2695343 significantly (P=0.008) over-transmitted to affected offspring. Stratified analysis showed no association with OM in children who had undergone adenoidectomy (296 children), whereas children with adenoids intact (364 children) showed improved significance at the GTn polymorphism (allele 3: odds ratio=1.38, 95% CI=1.10-1.75, P=0.006). Quantitative RT/PCR demonstrated high expression of SLC11A1 in mononuclear cells isolated from adenoid tissue, with a trend for decreased expression with increasing copies of GTn allele 2. Expression of SLC11A1 was enhanced at 12 (P=1.2×10(-3)) and 24h (P<1.0×10(-4)) after infection of Mono-Mac-6 cells with NTHi. This study identifies SLC11A1 as a novel candidate for OM susceptibility, particularly in children with adenoids intact. Further analysis in other cohorts is required to validate these observations. PMID:23538334

Rye, Marie S; Wiertsema, Selma P; Scaman, Elizabeth S H; Thornton, Ruth; Francis, Richard W; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; Coates, Harvey L; Jamieson, Sarra E; Blackwell, Jenefer M

2013-03-26

323

Observations from a multicentre study on the use of the sputum specimen in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of sputum Gram stain and culture in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and to determine the factors that are associated with obtaining sputum for culture. TYPE OF STUDY: Prospective observational cohort study of patients hospitalized for treatment of CAP at four medical institutions in three geographic locations. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Results of Gram stain and culture of sputum; comparison of patients who had sputum processed for culture within 24 h of admission with those who did not have such a specimen processed during the first week of hospitalization; and the results of investigator assignment of etiology of pneumonia according to predefined criteria. RESULTS: Four hundred and seventy-eight of 1339 (36%) patients had a sputum specimen processed for culture within 24 h of admission. Patients who had a sputum specimen processed within 24 h of admission were more likely to be hospitalized at the Boston site (odds ratio [OR] 20.6) or Pittsburgh sites (3.4) and to have current sputum production, chronic obstructive lung disease and moderate or large amount of sputum. Female sex (0.4), neutropenia (0.05), and do not resuscitate status (0.36) were important predictors of failure to have a sputum processed for culture. The rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolation was highest in Boston, 53 of 269 (19.3 %) patients (P<0.001) compared with the other sites; Moraxella catarrhalis was isolated only at the Boston site. Sputum culture results served as the basis for the assignment of an etiological diagnosis of the pneumonia by investigators in 67% of 397 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Sputum is not processed for culture in the majority of patients with CAP. The factors that determine whether sputum is processed for culture within 24 h of admission are site of care and a variety of patient factors. Common respiratory pathogens when present in sputum culture tend to be used to assign an etiological diagnosis. A positive sputum culture result appears not to result in a more favourable outcome.

Taylor, EL; Marrie, TJ; Fine, MJ; Obroskyl, DS; Kapoor, WN; Coley, C; Singer, DE

1999-01-01

324

Association between early bacterial carriage and otitis media in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid area of Western Australia: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pnc), nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) are the most important bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (OM). Previous studies have suggested that early upper respiratory tract (URT) bacterial carriage may increase risk of subsequent OM. We investigated associations between early onset of URT bacterial carriage and subsequent diagnosis of OM in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children living in the Kalgoorlie-Boulder region located in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia. Methods Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children who had nasopharyngeal aspirates collected at age 1-?

2012-01-01

325

[In vitro susceptibilities to levofloxacin and various antibacterial agents of 12,919 clinical isolates obtained from 72 centers in 2007].  

PubMed

We have reported in this journal in vitro susceptibilities of clinical isolates to antibiotics every year since 1992. In this paper, we report the results of an analysis of in vitro susceptibilities of 12,919 clinical isolates from 72 centers in Japan to selected antibiotics in 2007 compared with the results from previous years. The common respiratory pathogens, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae maintained a high susceptibility to fluoroquinolones (FQs). The resistance of S. pyogenes to macrolides has been increasing every year and this was especially clear this year. Most strains of Enterobacteriaceae except for Escherichia coli showed a high susceptibility to FQs. Almost 30% of E. coli strains were resistant to FQs and the resistance increased further this year. FQs resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was approximately 95% with the exception of 45% for sitafloxacin (STFX). FQs resistance of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was low at about 10%. FQs resistance of methicillin-resistant coagulase negative Staphylococci (MRCNS) was higher than that of methicillin-susceptible coagulase negative Staphylococci (MSCNS), but it was lower than that of MRSA. However, FQs resistance of MSCNS was higher than that of MSSA. FQs resistance of Enterococcus faecalis was 22.5% to 29.6%, while that of Enterococcusfaecium was more than 85% except for STFX (58.3%). In clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa derived from urinary tract infections, FQs resistance was 21-27%, which was higher than that of P. aeruginosa from respiratory tract infections at 13-21%, which was the same trend as in past years. Multidrug resistant strains accounted for 5.6% in the urinary tract and 1.8% in the respiratory tract. Acinetobacter spp. showed high susceptibility to FQs. The carbapenem resistant strains, which present a problem at present, accounted for 2.7%. Neisseria gonorrhoeae showed high resistance of 86-88% to FQs. The results of the present survey indicated that although methicillin-resistant Staphylococci, Enterococci, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and N. gonorrhoeae showed resistance tendencies, and other species maintained high susceptibility rates more than 90% against FQs, which have been used clinically for over 15 years. PMID:19860322

Yamaguchi, Keizo; Ohno, Akira; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Iwata, Morihiro; Kanda, Makoto; Akizawa, Kouji; Shimizu, Chikara; Kon, Shinichirou; Nakamura, Kastushi; Matsuda, Keiko; Tominaga, Makoto; Nakagawa, Takuo; Sugita, Akihiro; Ito, Tatsumi; Kato, Jun; Suwabe, Akira; Yamahata, Kumiko; Kawamura, Chizuko; Tashiro, Hiromi; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Katayama, Yosei; Kondou, Shigemi; Misawa, Shigeki; Murata, Misturu; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Okamoto, Hideyuki; Yamazaki, Kenichiro; Okada, Motoi; Haruki, Kosuke; Kanno, Harushige; Aihara, Masanori; Maesaki, Shigefumi; Hashikita, Giichi; Miyajima, Eiji; Sumitomo, Midori; Saito, Takefumi; Yamane, Nobuo; Kawashima, Chieko; Akiyama, Takahisa; Ieiri, Tamio; Yamamoto, Yoshitaka; Okamoto, Yuki; Okabe, Hidetoshi; Moro, Kunihiko; Shigeta, Masayo; Yoshida, Haruyoshi; Yamashita, Masanobu; Hida, Yukio; Takubo, Takayuki; Kusakabe, Tadashi; Masaki, Hiroya; Heijyou, Hitoshi; Nakaya, Hideo; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Sano, Reiko; Matsuo, Syuji; Kono, Hisashi; Yuzuki, Yosuke; Ikeda, Norio; Idomuki, Masayo; Soma, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Go; Kinoshita, Syohiro; Kawano, Seiji; Oka, Mikio; Kusano, Nobuchika; Kang, Dongchon; Ono, Junko; Yasujima, Minoru; Miki, Makoto; Hayashi, Masato; Okubo, Syunji; Toyoshima, Syunkou; Kaku, Mitsuo; Sekine, Imao; Shiotani, Joji; Horiuchi, Hajime; Tazawa, Yoko; Yoneyama, Akiko; Kumasaka, Kazunari; Koike, Kazuhiko; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Ozaki, Yukio; Uchida, Takashi; Murakami, Masami; Inuzuka, Kazuhisa; Gonda, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Ikuo; fujimoto, Yoshinori; Iriyama, Junji; Asano, Yuko; Genma, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Masato; Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Nakatani, Kaname; Baba, Hisashi; Ichiyama, Satoshi; Fujita, Shinichi; Kuwabara, Masao; Okazaki, Toshiro; Fujiwara, Hiromitsu; Ota, Hiromi; Nagai, Astushi; Fujita, Jun; Negayama, Kiyoshi; Sugiura, Tetsuro; Kamioka, Mikio; Murase, Mitsuharu; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Nakasone, Isamu; Okayama, Akihiko; Aoki, Yosuke; Kusaba, Koji; Nakashima, Yukari; Miyanohara, Hiroaki; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Saikawa, Tetsunori; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Matsuda, Junichi; Kohno, Shigeru; Mashiba, Koichi

2009-08-01

326

Antimicrobial activity of ceftaroline and comparator agents tested against bacterial isolates causing skin and soft tissue infections and community-acquired respiratory tract infections isolated from the Asia-Pacific region and South Africa (2010).  

PubMed

Ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a cephalosporin with in vitro bactericidal activity against resistant Gram-positive organisms including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, and common Gram-negative organisms, including wild-type Enterobacteriaceae. We evaluated the in vitro activity of ceftaroline and selected comparator agents against bacterial isolates collected from patients with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) and community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTI) in the Asia-Pacific region and South Africa. A total of 2351 isolates, 1100 from SSTI and 1251 from CARTI, were collected from 25 medical centers distributed across 8 countries as part of the 2010 AWARE ceftaroline surveillance program and tested for susceptibility by reference broth microdilution methods. Ceftaroline was very active against S. aureus (MIC50/90, 0.25/1 ?g/mL; 93.4% susceptible), including MRSA (MIC50/90, 1/2 ?g/mL; 80.6% susceptible). Against ?-hemolytic streptococci, ceftaroline demonstrated greater activity (MIC90, 0.015 ?g/mL) than penicillin (MIC90, 0.06 ?g/mL). Ceftaroline was also highly active against viridans group streptococci (MIC90, 0.12 ?g/mL). Similarly to ceftriaxone, ceftaroline activity against Escherichia coli (MIC50/90, >32/>32 ?g/mL) and Klebsiella spp. (MIC50/90, 0.12/>32 ?g/mL) was compromised by the high prevalence of isolates with an ESBL phenotype in the region, particularly in China. Ceftaroline was the most potent ?-lactam tested against S. pneumoniae (MIC50/90 of 0.015/0.25 ?g/mL; 99.8% susceptible by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute [CLSI] criteria), and it was also highly potent against Haemophilus influenzae (MIC50/90, ? 0.008/0.03 ?g/mL; 100% susceptible by CLSI criteria). Ceftaroline was also active against H. parainfluenzae (MIC50/90, ? 0.008/0.015 ?g/mL) and Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC50/90, 0.06/0.12 ?g/mL). In summary, ceftaroline showed potent in vitro activity against a large collection of bacterial isolates (2351) associated with SSTI and CARTI from the Asia-Pacific region and South Africa. PMID:23535208

Sader, Helio S; Flamm, Robert K; Jones, Ronald N

2013-03-25

327

Spectrum and potency of ceftaroline tested against leading pathogens causing community-acquired respiratory tract infections in Europe (2010).  

PubMed

Ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a novel cephalosporin exhibiting in vitro bactericidal activity against Gram-positive organisms, including Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as well as common Gram-negative organisms. The objective of this study was to determine the spectrum and potency of ceftaroline against recent leading pathogens causing community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTI) isolated in Europe. A total of 1563 isolates from the 2010 Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE) Program were identified as CARTI pathogens by the infection type and/or specimen type recorded by the participating laboratory. Isolates were collected from patients in 52 medical centers located in 19 European countries (including Israel and Turkey). Susceptibility testing for ceftaroline and commonly used antimicrobials was performed by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution methodology. Susceptibility interpretations for comparators were as published in CLSI and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing guidelines, and for ceftaroline US-FDA breakpoints were also applied. Ceftaroline was very active overall against 799 S. pneumoniae (MIC(50/90,) ? 0.008/0.12 ?g/mL) and inhibited 100.0% of all isolates at a MIC ? 0.5 ?g/mL. Ceftaroline was very potent against penicillin-resistant (CLSI oral penicillin V breakpoints) and -intermediate S. pneumoniae (MIC(50/90), 0.12/0.25 and 0.03/0.12 ?g/mL, respectively), but potency was lower than observed against penicillin-susceptible isolates (MIC(50/90), ? 0.008/? 0.008 ?g/mL). Ceftaroline was also very active (MIC(50/90), ? 0.008/0.015 ?g/mL) against 515 Haemophilus influenzae, including ?-lactamase-producing strains (MIC(50/90), 0.015/0.06 ?g/mL). Ceftaroline also demonstrated good activity against 205 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates (MIC(50/90), 0.06/0.12 ?g/mL). This study demonstrated the potent in vitro activity of ceftaroline against contemporary pathogens isolated from patients with documented CARTI from Europe. These data suggest that ceftaroline fosamil has an acceptable in vitro spectrum and potency against CARTI pathogens. PMID:23146404

Farrell, David J; Flamm, Robert K; Jones, Ronald N; Sader, Helio S

2012-11-10

328

Intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics of S-013420, a novel bicyclolide antibacterial, in healthy Japanese subjects.  

PubMed

S-013420 (EDP-420) is a novel bicyclolide (bridged bicyclic macrolide) antibacterial currently under development for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. The objective of the present study was to determine the plasma and intrapulmonary pharmacokinetic parameters of orally administered S-013420 in healthy volunteers. Twenty-eight healthy Japanese male subjects who never smoked were randomly allocated to seven groups of four subjects each who underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) at different times after dosing (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, or 24 h). Blood samples were also taken at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after dosing. The S-013420 concentrations in plasma, epithelial lining fluid (ELF), and alveolar macrophages (AMs) were measured by using a combined high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric technique. A pharmacokinetic analysis of the plasma, ELF, and AM S-013420 concentration profiles was performed. S-013420 was rapidly absorbed in plasma, and the mean time to the maximum concentration in plasma was 2.27 h. S-013420 was rapidly distributed to the ELF and was slowly distributed to AMs. The areas under the concentration-time curves from time zero to 24 h (AUC0-24) for S-013420 were 20.3 times higher in ELF than in plasma and 244.6 times higher in AMs than in plasma. The mean maximum concentration in plasma was higher in ELF than in plasma and was much higher in AM than in plasma. Furthermore, pharmacodynamic calculations were done by using the AUC0-24/MIC90 ratio for common pneumonia pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis). The AUC0-24 for plasma/MIC90s for these four organisms were 41.8, 83.6, 1.3, and 20.9, respectively. The AUC0-24 for ELF/MIC90s were 849.6, 1,699.2, 26.6, and 424.8, respectively. Considering the good efficacy shown in a subsequent phase 2 study (S. Kohno, K. Yamaguchi, Y. Tanigawara, A. Watanabe, A. Aoki, Y. Niki, and J. Fujita, Abstr. 47th Intersci. Conf. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., abstr. L-485), the good distribution of S-013420 in AMs and ELF observed in the present study is predictive of the good efficacy of S-013420 against respiratory pathogens. PMID:19933801

Furuie, Hidetoshi; Saisho, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Takayoshi; Shimada, Jingoro

2009-11-23

329

In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activities of DC-159a, a New Fluoroquinolone?  

PubMed Central

DC-159a is a new 8-methoxy fluoroquinolone that possesses a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, with extended activity against gram-positive pathogens, especially streptococci and staphylococci from patients with community-acquired infections. DC-159a showed activity against Streptococcus spp. (MIC90, 0.12 ?g/ml) and inhibited the growth of 90% of levofloxacin-intermediate and -resistant strains at 1 ?g/ml. The MIC90s of DC-159a against Staphylococcus spp. were 0.5 ?g/ml or less. Against quinolone- and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, however, the MIC90 of DC-159a was 8 ?g/ml. DC-159a was the most active against Enterococcus spp. (MIC90, 4 to 8 ?g/ml) and was more active than the marketed fluoroquinolones, such as levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and moxifloxacin. The MIC90s of DC-159a against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were 0.015, 0.06, and 0.25 ?g/ml, respectively. The activity of DC-159a against Mycoplasma pneumoniae was eightfold more potent than that of levofloxacin. The MICs of DC-159a against Chlamydophila pneumoniae were comparable to those of moxifloxacin, and DC-159a was more potent than levofloxacin. The MIC90s of DC-159a against Peptostreptococcus spp., Clostridium difficile, and Bacteroides fragilis were 0.5, 4, and 2 ?g/ml, respectively; and among the quinolones tested it showed the highest level of activity against anaerobic organisms. DC-159a demonstrated rapid bactericidal activity against quinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strains both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, DC-159a showed faster killing than moxifloxacin and garenoxacin. The bactericidal activity of DC-159a in a murine muscle infection model was revealed to be superior to that of moxifloxacin. These activities carried over to the in vivo efficacy in the murine pneumonia model, in which treatment with DC-159a led to bactericidal activity superior to those of the other agents tested.

Hoshino, Kazuki; Inoue, Kazue; Murakami, Yoichi; Kurosaka, Yuichi; Namba, Kenji; Kashimoto, Yoshinori; Uoyama, Saori; Okumura, Ryo; Higuchi, Saito; Otani, Tsuyoshi

2008-01-01

330

GASTROPATIAS POR ANTIINFLAMATORIOS NO ESTEROIDES  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The Gastropathy by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are injuries, produced by the use of NSAIDs, that affects the gastroduodenal mucosal, besides involves esophagus,small and lar- ge intestine. There are different factors from risks associated with the patient, the drug and other factors, pro- nouncing themselves contradictions with respect to the E. Pilory. The suitable method of diagnose are endoscopy

Natalia Silvana; Araoz Olivos; Roxana Beatriz; Nancy Karina; Lilian Holzer; Mariana Teresa Mansilla

2005-01-01

331

A EFICIÊNCIA DOS PROGRAMAS EDUCATIVOS IMPLEMENTADOS POR EMPRESAS E ORGÃOS GOVERNAMENTAIS COMO FORMA DE PREVENÇÃO AO IMPACTO AMBIENTAL CAUSADO PELO DESCARTE INCORRETO DAS EMBALAGENS DE AGROTÓXICOS EM CAMPOS GERAIS NO SUL DO ESTADO DE MINAS GERAIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este estudo atua com uma ferramenta de feedback quanto aos resultados obtidos com os programas educacionais em combate ao descarte incorreto de embalagens vazias no município de Campos Gerais no Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Os objetivos são mensurar a eficiência dos -programas educativos implementados por empresas e órgãos governamentais como forma de prevenção ao impacto ambiental causado pelo

Jairo Gustavo De Lima; Marcelo Marcio Romaniello; Cristhiane Oliveira Da Graca Amancio

2008-01-01

332

Controle biológico natural de pulgões (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em lavoura de trigo por parasitóides (Hymenoptera, Aphidiinae), no município de Medianeira, PR, Brasil Natural biological control of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in a wheat field by parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Aphidiinae) in Medianeira, PR, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Os pulgões são um dos principais problemas fitossanitários da cultura do trigo no sul do Brasil, sendo alvo de um programa de controle biológico por parasitóides implantado no Brasil a partir da década de 1970. A despeito do sucesso inicial rapidamente obtido não há na região oeste do Paraná nenhum estudo recente avaliando a situação atual do controle biológico dos

Luis Francisco Angeli Alves; Tânia M. V. Prestes; Agostinho Zanini; Maria F. Dalmolin

333

Phenotypic and Genotypic Analyses of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates That Express Frequently Recovered PorB PIA Variable Region Types Suggest that Certain P1a Porin Sequences Confer a Selective Advantage for Urogenital Tract Infection?  

PubMed Central

Typing of the porB variable region (VR) is an epidemiological tool that classifies gonococcal strains based on sequence differences in regions of the porB gene that encode surface-exposed loops. The frequent isolation of certain porB VR types suggests that some porin sequences confer a selective advantage during infection and/or transmission. Alternatively, certain porin types may be markers of strains that are successful due to factors unrelated to porin. In support of the first hypothesis, here we show urogenital tract isolates representing the most common PIA VR types identified in an urban clinic in Baltimore, MD, over a 10-year period belonged to several different clonal types, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Serum resistance, which was confirmed by factor H and C4b-binding protein binding studies, was more often associated with gonococcal the most common VR types. In contrast, three porin-independent phenotypes, namely, lactoferrin utilization, ?-lactamase production, and multiple transferable resistance (Mtr), were segregated with the PFGE cluster and not with the VR type. Data combined with another PIA strain collection showed a strong correlation between serum resistance and the most common VR types. A comparison of VR typing hybridization patterns and nucleotide sequences of 12 porB1a genes suggests that certain porin loop 1, 3, 6, and/or 7 sequences may play a role in the serum resistance phenotype. We conclude that some PorB PIA sequences confer a survival or transmission advantage in the urogenital tract, perhaps via increased resistance to complement-mediated killing. The capacity of some porin types to evade a porin-specific adaptive immune response must also be considered.

Garvin, Lotisha E.; Bash, Margaret C.; Keys, Christine; Warner, Douglas M.; Ram, Sanjay; Shafer, William M.; Jerse, Ann E.

2008-01-01

334

LA SUSTITUCION DE MAIZ POR PULP A DE CITRICOS DESHffiRATADA SOBRE LA PRODUCCION Y COMPOSICION LACTEA DE VACAS ENCASTADAS HOLSTEIN EN EL TROPICO HUMEDO DE COSTA RICAl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se evalu6 la sustituci6n de mafz por pul- Replacement of corn by dehydrated ci- pa de cftricos deshidratada en la dieta de ganado trus pulp on milk production and composition lechero, mediante la inclusi6n de 0, 15,30 Y 45% of crossbred Holstein in the humid tropics. A de la pulpa en el alimento balanceado. EI alimen- study was conducted to

Augusto Rojas-Bourrillon; Luis Gamboa; Milton Villareal

2001-01-01

335

Informe a la nación indica que continúa la disminución de las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer que empezó a principios de los noventa; Una sección especial destaca los cánceres asociados al exceso de peso y a la falta de actividad física adecuada  

Cancer.gov

Los índices de mortalidad por todos los cánceres combinados para hombres, mujeres y niños siguieron bajando en Estados Unidos entre 2004 y 2008, según el Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer de 1975 a 2008. El índice general de diagnósticos nuevos de cáncer, que se conoce también como incidencia, bajaron entre los hombres un promedio de 0,6% por año entre 2004 y 2008. Los índices generales de incidencia de cáncer entre las mujeres bajaron 0,5% por año de 1998 hasta 2006; estos índices se nivelaron de 2006 a 2008.

336

Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates with Reduced Susceptibility to Cefixime and Ceftriaxone: Association with Genetic Polymorphisms in penA, mtrR, porB1b, and ponA  

Microsoft Academic Search

reduced cefixime and ceftriaxone susceptibility (Cefi) and two susceptible isolates were characterized using serovar determination, antibiograms, N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST), and sequenc- ing of penA, mtrR, porB1b, and ponA alleles. For the Cefi isolates (n 18), the MICs of cefixime and ceftriaxone ranged between 0.032 to 0.38 g\\/ml and 0.064 to 0.125 g\\/ml, respectively. These isolates were assigned

Robert Lindberg; Hans Fredlund; Robert Nicholas; Magnus Unemo

2007-01-01

337

Trabalho rural e intoxicações por agrotóxicos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pesticide use is intensive in Brazilian agriculture. Popula- tion-based studies on the characteristics of pesticide use and pesticide poisoning are scarce. This study describes the profile of occupational exposure and pesticide poisoning incidence. Farm characteristics and pesticide occupational exposure were evaluated using a cross-sectional design. Among 1,379 farmers\\/ farm workers, annual incidence of pesticide poisoning was 2.2 episodes per 100

Neice Müller Xavier Faria; Luiz Augusto Facchini; Anaclaudia Gastal Fassa; Elaine Tomasi

2004-01-01

338

Restauração de imagens NOAA por Morfologia Matemática  

Microsoft Academic Search

The striping effect on NOAA image can be reduced by using the Mathematical Morphology tools. At the first stage, the corrupted pixels are localized and, at the second stage, their values are interpolated from the uncorrupted neighbored pixel values. The implemented algorithm uses the Mathematical Morphol- ogy Toolbox for the KHOROS system.

GERALD JEAN; FRANCIS BANON; ANA LÚCIA BEZERRA CANDEIAS

339

Reacciones cutáneas adversas por tatuajes y piercings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piercings and tattoos have become very popular in western society in recent decades, particularly among younger generations. Reports of medical complications associated with these decorative techniques have increased in parallel with the rise in their popularity. Due to their high frequency, adverse cutaneous reactions are particularly important among these potential complications.Tattoo-related complications include a number of cutaneous and systemic infections

J. Mataix; J. F. Silvestre

2009-01-01

340

Dismenorrea por útero unicorne con cuerno rudimentario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysmenorrhea is highly frequent in adolescents and young women, affecting 40-50% of this population to some degree.Unicornuate uterus with rudimentary horn and functional endometrium can cause dysmenorrhea due to the distension produced by blood in a closed cavity and the consequent development of hematometra, hematosalpinx, and retrograde menstruation. Treatment is necessarily surgical and the recommended intervention is excision of the

Borja Rivero; Iurdana Aizpitarte; Ainhoa Elvira; José Ramón Becerro

2007-01-01

341

Infecciones causadas por el género Malassezia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The yeast from the gender Malassezia sp, previously called Pityrosporum are found as part of the microbiota of the skin and 92 to 100% of them have been isolated from healthy people. The taxonomy of the gender has been controversial since it was named M. furfur. These opportunistic yeasts are related with some human and animal (mamifers) diseases and

R. Arenas

342

Infecção natural por Trypanosoma evansi em cães  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes cases of natural infection by Trypanosoma evansi in dogs that eventually died in Uruguaiana, in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The animals from the rural zone were admitted to the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS) Veterinary Hospital presenting the following clinical signs: apathy, fever and enlargement of

Cristina Braccini Colpo; Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro; Daniel Roulim Stainki; Elida Teresita Braccini Colpo; Graciela Braccini Henriques

2005-01-01

343

Inspecciones de Productos Regulados por el CBER  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... la Ley de Alimentos, Fármacos y Cosméticos, o Ley FD&C (Food, Drug and ... Se invita a un investigador de la oficina distrital local en la ubicación de ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/internationalactivities

344

Nuevas voces por la justicia social  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Voices for Social Justice illustrates the discovery by the dalits, the groups most oppressed by the Indian caste system, of writing, particularly poetry, as a weapon in their fight against discrimination. It quotes men and women writing in several of the languages and dialects of India on subjects from extreme poverty and filth to humiliations and exclusions. It refers

Rowena Hill

345

Pansinusitis y afectación intracraneal por implante dental  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odontogenic sinusitis is a relatively common disease caused by dental infections, periapical cysts and oral procedures such as root canal, sinus lift or implant placement. We report an extreme case of a right pansinusitis with an epidural space fistula caused by osseointegrated implants. When maxillary sinusitis of odontogenic origin is suspected, we should quickly start effective antibiotic treatment and monitor

Josep Rubio-Palau; Jordi García-Linares; Javier Gutiérrez-Santamaría; Juan Antonio Hueto-Madrid; Mitchel Chávez-Gatty; Eduard Ferrés-Padró

346

Bacterial Vaccine Safety: Identify Genetic Determinants of ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... catarrhalis infectious disease upon United States healthcare system is substantial with regard to both patient morbidity and health care expenditures ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/scienceresearch/biologicsresearchareas

347

The Investigation of Nasal MRSA Carriage and Colonization of Nasopharyngeal Pathogens at a Primary School in Düzce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated bacteria species were as follows: 6% group A streptococcus (GAS), 5.0% S. pneumoniae, 33.1% M. catarrhalis, and 34.9% H. influenzae. All of the isolated GAS species were susceptible to penicillin. 8.3% of S. pneumoniae isolates were intermediately resistant to penicillin. Beta-lactamase test was found positive for M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae in 90.3 and 8.3%, respectively. There was a

Mustafa YILDIRIM

2007-01-01

348

Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson y necrólisis epidérmica tóxica por profilaxis con TARGA en el Hospital Nacional Almanzor Aguinaga Asenjo, Lambayeque,Perú Stevens Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis induced by HAART prophylaxis in the National Hospital Almanzor Aguinaga Asenjo, Lambayeque, Perú  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson (SSJ) y necrólisis epidérmica tóxica (NET) son reacciones inflamatorias agudas originadas por hipersensibilidad (reacción inmunológica), que incluye piel y membranas mucosas. Se presenta un caso de reacción adversa medicamentosa en un paciente varón de 25 años, que recibió profilaxis con Terapia Antiretroviral de Gran Actividad. Presentó exantema, que progresa a SSJ y evoluciona a NET. Permaneció

Victor A. Soto Cáceres; Rosa E. Rodríguez Barboza

2007-01-01

349

[The tonsils and adenoids as a site of infection and the cause of obstruction].  

PubMed

The failure to eradicate group A beta-hemolytic streptococci from the pharynx is partly due to a low compliance, but above all, an alteration of the oropharyngeal microbiological flora: reduction of alpha-haemolytic streptococci which inhibit group A beta-hemolytic streptococci and increase of microorganisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis. These latter act indirectly destroying the beta-lactamic ring of penicillins. However, this obstacle is overcome by the use of antibiotics which do not contain beta-lactamic rings such as macrolides or associating amoxicillin with clavulanic acid or with new cephalosporins which are more resistant to beta lactamases. To restrict the diffusion of resistance to antibiotics, it is essential to limit their use diagnosing streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis more precisely, thanks to an improved use of micro-biological diagnostic tests and by a more extended use of tonsillectomy in recurrent tonsillitis (more than 6-7 in 1-2 years). Adenoiditis is closely related to the post nasal drip syndrome, to recurrent otitis media and to otitis media with effusion. All these situations could, therefore, represent an indication, although not well defined, for adenoidectomy. Nasopharyngeal obstruction due to adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy becomes critical during sleep when the hypotony of the upper airway muscles becomes additional to the anatomical obstruction. At this point the inspiratory effort required and the consequent decrease of intra airway pressure increase the pharyngeal obstruction suctioning the pharyngeal walls toward the median line. The resulting clinical picture is defined as sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy (idiopathic), to be distinguished from SDB due to cranio-facial abnormalities or neuromuscular diseases. SDB includes both the more serious sleep apnea syndrome and the less severe upper airway respiratory resistance syndrome. A combination of symptoms and clinical data detectable both while awake or asleep, make the diagnosis simple. During sleep, both apnea and paradoxical inspiratory movements are highly specific while snoring is highly sensitive. To evaluate nasopharyngeal obstruction radiography and optic fibre endoscopy are both equally reliable. The gold standard test for non idiopathic SDB is the polysomnography, whereas for SDB, due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy, one is limited today to the recording during sleep of O2 saturation or of end tidal CO2. These investigations are, however, generally used up to 2 years of age, when the decision to carry out an adenoidectomy and especially a tonsillectomy is more difficult because of the greater risks which surgery involves at this age. The pharmacological therapy has a purely palliative function and is based on antibiotics, local vasoconstrictors, steroids and theophylline which acts more as an antiflogistic than as a breath stimulant. O2 therapy and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) give better results, but are more difficult to carry out, in particular on a long term basis. Adenoidectomy especially if associated with tonsillectomy, leads to the resolution of the symptoms, but not always to a normalization of functional alterations (hypoxia and hypercapnia). For this reason, it is necessary to act on other factors which cause oedema of the nasopharyngeal mucosa contributing to the obstruction. In this area, the prevention of viral infections can be achieved by vaccination against influenza and by preventing the child from attending crowded day care centers. With regard to allergic inflammation, skin prick tests could be a first step in view of allergens avoidance measures. With regard to indoor air pollution, passive smoke must be stopped and the child kept out of the kitchen. PMID:9866845

Battistini, A; Siepe, F; Marvasi, R

350

Telithromycin. Aventis Pharma.  

PubMed

The ketolide telithromycin (HMR-3647; Ketek), a derivative of clarithromycin, has been launched by Aventis Pharma (formerly Hoechst Marion Roussel) for the treatment of respiratory tract infections with gram-positive or gram-negative cocci, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, intracellular pathogens, atypical microorganisms, toxoplasma or anaerobic bacteria. By May 2001, filings in the US and EU had been completed and a filing in Japan was expected to take place in the fourth quarter of 2001. In July 2001, telithromycin was granted marketing authorization by the EC for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, including those caused by bacteria resistant to commonly used antibiotics. In October 2001, the product was launched in Germany. In March 2000, telithromycin was submitted to the US FDA and the EMEA, under the EU centralized approval procedure, for approval for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), acute sinusitis, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and tonsillitis/pharyngitis. The company had expected to launch the product in early 2001. The CPMP issued a positive opinion for all four indications on April 23 2001. In September 2001, the company indicated that it expected the product to be launched in Japan in 2002. The FDA's Anti-infectives Advisory Committee was due to review telithromycin for all the submitted indications on January 29 2001; however, this was postponed. This postponement was thought to be at Aventis' request in order to discuss the potential for a resistant pneumococcal infection labeling which would boost product sales. The revised date for the meeting was April 26 2001, at which the Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee of the FDA recommended approval of telithromycin for the treatment of CAP in patients 18 years of age or older. The committee failed to recommend approval for the use of the drug for the remaining three indications for which it was filed, citing concerns over potential cardiovascular risk and liver toxicity; at this time, the company was in active discussions with the FDA regarding approval of the remaining three indications. An approvable letter for CAP, acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and acute bacterial sinusitis was received by the company in June 2001; Aventis also received a non-approvable letter for the treatment of tonsillitis/pharyngitis at this time. In April 1999, ABN Amro predicted annual sales of DM 50 million in 2001, rising to DM 100 million in 2002. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers estimated a 70% probability that this ketolide would come to market. The analysts also estimated a launch date of 2001, with peak sales of US $700 million in 2009. Analysts Merrill Lynch predicted in September 200, that the product would be launched by 2001, with sales of euro 50 million in that year, rising to euro 284 million in 2004. Deutsche Bank predicted in August 2001, that sales of the product would reach euro 5 million in 2001, rising to euro 300 million in 2005. Analysts at Merrill Lynch predicted in November 2001, that the product would be resubmitted in the US in mid-2002, and would make sales of US $5 million in 2001, rising to US $250 million in 2004. PMID:11892930

Johnson, A P

2001-12-01

351

[In vitro activity of sitafloxacin against clinical isolates in 2009].  

PubMed

In vitro activity of sitafloxacin (STFX) and various oral antimicrobial agents against bacterial isolates recovered from clinical specimens between January and December 2009, at different healthcare facilities in Japan was evaluated. A total of 1,620 isolates including aerobic and anaerobic organisms was available for the susceptibility testing using the microbroth dilution methods recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute. The minimum inhibitory concentration of STFX at which 90% of isolates (MIC90) was 0.06 microg/mL for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and was equal to that of garenoxacin (GRNX), 2 times lower than that of moxifloxacin (MFLX), and 8 times lower than that of levofloxacin (LVFX). STFX inhibited the growth of all the isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae at 0.06 microg/mL or less. The MIC90s of STFX ranged from 0.03 to 0.06 microg/mL and were 1 to 2 times lower than those of GRNX, 2 to 4 times lower than those of MFLX, and 16 to 32 times lower than those of LVFX. Against Streptococcus pyogenes, the MIC90 of STFX was 0.06 microg/mL and was 2 times lower than that of GRNX, 4 times lower than that of MFLX, and 32 times lower than that of LVFX. The MIC90 of STFX was 0.25 microg/mL for Enterococcus faecalis, and was 2 times lower than those of GRNX and MFLX, and 8 times lower than that of LVFX. The MIC90 of STFX for E. coli was 2 microg/mL, and the MIC90s of other 10 species of Enterobacteriaceae which were the lowest values of the quinolones tested ranged from 0.03 to 1 microg/mL. The MIC90 of STFX for Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates recovered from urinary infections was 8 microg/mL and was 16 times lower than those of GRNX, MFLX and LVFX. The MIC90 of STFX for P aeruginosa isolates recovered from respiratory infections was 2 microg/mL and was 32 times lower than those of GRNX and MFLX, and 16 times lower than that of LVFX. STFX inhibited the growth of all the isolates of Haemophilus influenzae at 0.004 microg/mL or less, and was 2 to 4 times lower than those of GRNX, 8 times lower than those of MFLX, and 4 times lower than those of LVFX. The MIC90 of STFX was 0.008 microg/mL for Moraxella catarrhalis, and was 2 times lower than that of GRNX, 8 times lower than those of MFLX and LVFX. The MIC90s of STFX ranged from 0.015 to 0.12 microg/mL for all the species of anaerobic bacteria and were the lowest values of all the antimicrobial agents tested. In conclusion, the activity of STFX against Gram-positive cocci was comparable or superior to those of GRNX, MFLX and LVFX. STFX showed the most potent activity against Gram-negative bacteria and anaerobic bacteria of all the antimicrobial agents tested in this study. PMID:21425595

Amano, Ayako; Matsuzaki, Kaoru; Kishi, Naoko; Saika, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Miyuki; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Matsumoto, Takuyuki; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Kanda, Yuko; Shiozawa, Tomoo

2010-12-01

352

Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates identified as tetracycline resistant do not exhibit resistance in vitro: whole-genome sequencing reveals a mutation in porB but no evidence for tetracycline resistance genes.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide and the leading cause of preventable blindness in developing countries. Tetracycline is commonly the drug of choice for treating C. trachomatis infections, but cases of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates have previously been reported. Here, we used antibiotic resistance assays and whole-genome sequencing to interrogate the hypothesis that two clinical isolates (IU824 and IU888) have acquired mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Immunofluorescence staining was used to identify C. trachomatis inclusions in cell cultures grown in the presence of tetracycline; however, only antibiotic-free control cultures yielded the strong fluorescence associated with the presence of chlamydial inclusions. Infectivity was lost upon passage of harvested cultures grown in the presence of tetracycline into antibiotic-free medium, so we conclude that these isolates were phenotypically sensitive to tetracycline. Comparisons of the genome and plasmid sequences for the two isolates with tetracycline-sensitive strains did not identify regions of low sequence identity that could accommodate horizontally acquired resistance genes, and the tetracycline binding region of the 16S rRNA gene was identical to that of the sensitive control strains. The porB gene of strain IU824, however, was found to contain a premature stop codon not previously identified, which is noteworthy but unlikely to be related to tetracycline resistance. In conclusion, we found no evidence of tetracycline resistance in the two strains investigated, and it seems most likely that the small, aberrant inclusions previously identified resulted from the high chlamydial load used in the original antibiotic resistance assays. PMID:23378575

O'Neill, C E; Seth-Smith, H M B; Van Der Pol, B; Harris, S R; Thomson, N R; Cutcliffe, L T; Clarke, I N

2013-02-01

353

Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, and sequence type in group B meningococcal case isolates collected in England and Wales during January 2008 and potential coverage of an investigational group B meningococcal vaccine.  

PubMed

Invasive disease caused by meningococcal capsular groups A, C, W-135, and Y is now preventable by means of glycoconjugate vaccines that target their respective polysaccharide capsules. The capsule of group B meningococci (MenB) is poorly immunogenic and may induce autoimmunity. Vaccines based on the major immunodominant surface porin, PorA, are effective against clonal epidemics but, thus far, have a limited scope of coverage against the wider MenB population at large. In an alternative approach, the first-generation, investigational, recombinant MenB (rMenB) plus outer membrane vesicle (OMV) (rMenB-OMV) vaccine contains a number of relatively conserved surface proteins, fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), and NadA, alongside PorA P1.4-containing OMVs from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for approximately 90% of cases of meningococcal disease in England and Wales. To assess potential rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage of pathogenic MenB isolates within this region, all English and Welsh MenB case isolates from January 2008 (n = 87) were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, NadA, and PorA. Alleles for fHbp, nhba, and porA were identified in all of the isolates, of which 22% were also found to harbor nadA alleles. On the basis of genotypic data and predicted immunological cross-reactivity, the potential level of rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage in England and Wales ranges from 66% to 100%. PMID:20375242

Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Guiver, Malcolm; Vallely, Pamela J; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Borrow, Ray

2010-04-07

354

do maracujazeiro sob diferentes doses de potássio aplicadas por fertirrigação doses de potássio aplicadas por fertirrigação doses de potássio aplicadas por fertirrigação doses de potássio aplicadas por fertirrigação doses de potássio aplicadas por fertirrigação  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Abstract: Abstract: Abstract: The objective of this work was to study the effect of different doses of potassium applied through fertigation by drip irrigation system on the length, area and spatial distribution of the root system of the yellow passion fruit plant (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg), using digital image technique. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental

Valdemício F. de Sousa; Marcos V. Folegatti; Maurício A. Coelho Filho; José A. Frizzone

355

A phase 1 study of a meningococcal native outer membrane vesicle vaccine made from a group B strain with deleted lpxL1 and synX, over-expressed factor H binding protein, two PorAs and stabilized OpcA expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This phase I clinical trial assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a native outer membrane vesicle (NOMV) vaccine prepared from an lpxL1(?) synX(?) mutant of strain 8570(B:4:P1.19,15:L8-5) of Neisseria meningitidis. Additional mutations enhance the expression of factor H binding protein variant 1 (fHbp v.1), stabilize expression of OpcA and introduce a second PorA (P1.22,14). Thirty-six volunteers were assigned to one

P. B. Keiser; S. Biggs-Cicatelli; E. E. Moran; D. H. Schmiel; V. B. Pinto; R. E. Burden; L. B. Miller; J. E. Moon; R. A. Bowden; J. F. Cummings; W. D. Zollinger

2011-01-01

356

Insuficiencia renal aguda por linfoma de Burkitt renal primario bilateral  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a 12 year-old girl who presented with acute renal failure with massive infiltration in both kidneys due to a Burkitt lymphoma that was diagnosed by percutaneous renal biopsy.This case fulfilled all the diagnostic criteria of Malbrain et al. to be considered as primary renal non-Hodgkin lymphoma.We discuss the differential diagnosis with other processes that present

A. Romay Ageitos; J. Freire Bruno; A. M. López Vázquez; I. Castro López; A. Pavón Freire

2010-01-01

357

Durabilidade de compósito biomassa vegetal-cimento modificado por polímero  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURABILITY OF CELLULOSE-CEMENT COMPOSITES MODIFIED BY POLYMER ABSTRACT: The durability of the cellulose-cement composites is a decisive factor to introduce such material in the market. Polymers have been used in concrete and mortar production to increase its durability. The goal of this work was the physical and mechanical characterization of cellulose-cement composites modified by a polymer and the subsequent durability

Lia L. Pimentel; Antonio L. Beraldo; Holmer Savastano Júnior

2006-01-01

358

Espectro de enfermedad cardiovascular en pacientes infectados por el VIH  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of evidence indicates that HIV-infected patients, both men and women, as well as adults and children, have a higher risk of developing arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This evidence comes from studies whose main primary variables were the clinical manifestations of arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease (acute myocardial infarction, silent myocardial ischemia, stroke and peripheral arterial disease) and the distinct markers

Fernando Lozano

2009-01-01

359

RESPUESTASRAPIDAS BIFASICAS DEL SISTEMA INMUNE POR FRUSTRACION y EUFORIAl  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is divided into three seclions. The first part presents a description of a project of investigation about the efects of frustration and euphoria in the irnmune system, social and maternal behaviorin rats, and the rol of context in these effects. The second part describes the main results of the effects of consumatory succesive negative.and posilive contrast (CSNCand csrc)

ALBA EUSABETH MUSTACA

360

Custos das Mortes por Causas Externas no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violence in Brazil is well known to be one of the biggest problems nowadays affecting the society. This problem incurs in several economic costs, in addition to all kinds of immeasurable costs due to life losses. For the economic costs, we can mention, for example, medical treatment costs, police maintenance costs, production costs. In this paper, we focus in the

Alexandre X. Carvalho; Daniel R. C. Cerqueira; Rute I. Rodrigues; Waldir J. A. Lobão

2007-01-01

361

Hepatitis colestática grave por fiebre Q: presentación de un caso  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe cholestatic hepatitis due to Coxiella burnetii is a rare form of clinical presentation of acute Q fever that is only occasionally detected in association with this infectious disease. We report a case of severe cholestatic hepatitis due to acute Q fever, with clinical signs of hepatic insufficiency, marked cholestasis, and renal insufficiency. The results of the initial serologic study

Saturnino Suárez Ortega; José Rivero Vera; Marion Hemmersbach; Fernando Artiles Campelo; Ricardo Reyes Pérez; Pedro Betancor León

2010-01-01

362

Anorexia por actividad: una revisión teórica y experimental  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we describe the phenomenon of the activity anorexia in rats. The procedures that have been used for in this experimental study in the laboratory are revised, as well as the main factors that influence its development. The most relevant theories that have tried to explain the origin of this behaviour are also presented. Lastly, we propose

María Teresa Gutiérrez Domínguez; Ricardo Pellón

2002-01-01

363

Infección por VPH en mujeres con artritis reumatoide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for the development of cervical cancer, which remains the most com- mon malignancy in our country. There are studies in which immunosuppressed patients have an increased risk of suffering an infection by HPV. Objective: To determine the prevalence of HPV infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with women matched

Diana E Flores Alvarado; Rocío Ortiz López; Mario Alberto; Garza Elizondo; Jacqueline Rodríguez Amado; Brenda R Vázquez Fuentes; Anajulia González Betancourt

364

Presentación atípica de tuberculosis peritoneal: Caso clínico diagnosticado por laparoscopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of peritoneal tuberculosis has to be clinically sus - pected in all patients with abdominal pain of unknown etiology, particularly when it is accompanied by fever, ascites, and abdomi - nal distension. Access to the abdominal cavity using routine la - paroscopy provides essential information on the diagnosis, from both macroscopic images and biopsy sampling, which will later

J. M. Suárez Grau; C. Rubio Chaves; J. L. García Moreno; J. A. Martín Cartes; M. Socas Macías; J. M. Álamo Martínez; F. López Bernal; H. Cadet Dussort; M. Bustos Jiménez; J. D. Tutosaus Gómez; S. Morales Méndez

2007-01-01

365

Ciencia en el CBER: ¿Por Qué, Cómo y Qué?  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... DIAPOSITIVA 20 También en el área de las vacunas hay un trabajo publicado en el Journal of Virology, que describe un ensayo mejorado para ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/internationalactivities

366

Orientación y Reforma: el reto de la intervención por programas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work analyses the guidance functions from the referente frame of the controversy Services versus Programs. The author defends the thesis that the intervention through programs is the right way of guidance practice in the educational reform aproved kv the Ley de Ordenación del Sistema Educativo. On the other hand, it is pointed out the determinant factors of the programs

Sebastián Rodríguez Espinar

367

Por uma agenda de pesquisa em democracia eletrônica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms of democratic participation provided by the new technologies of information and communication represent the possibility of widening the public space. The creation of channels such as online discussion foruns ans public consultations brings a promissing advance, but their results were not satisfactorily studied yet. This paper revises theories which have been supported investigations in this field, characterizes recent

Danilo Rothberg

2008-01-01

368

Deterioro de los bosques de Canadá por contaminación del aire  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper discusses the role of air pollution in the dieback of forests in the northem hemisphere. Its emphasis is on the situation in Canada and the Canadian Chemistry of High Elevation Fog project. Topies to be discussed are the extent of the diebackand its consequencesand possible causesas well as the field measurementsthat arebeingmade at the present time.

PILAR CERECEDA TRONCOSO; ROBERTS. SCHEMENAUER

369

Neuropatía inducida por quimioterapia: un problema no resuelto  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionChemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is the most prevalent neurological complication of cancer treatment, affecting a third of all patients who undergo chemotherapy. CIPN impairs functional capacity, compromises the quality of life and results in dose reduction or cessation of chemotherapy, representing a dose-limiting side effect of many antineoplastic drugs. In addition to classic, novel agents, bortezomib and oxaliplatin have been

R. Velasco; J. Bruna

2010-01-01

370

Brote por Salmonella enteritidis en trabajadores de un hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To describe and identify the causes of an out- break of Salmonella enteritidis gastroenteritis that took place in June 1998, among tertiary care hospital workers, in Me- xico City. Material and methods. Cases were hospital workers who developed diarrhea or fever associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, after a meal at the hospital's dining room on June eight; controls were asymptomatic

Ma. Eugenia Chávez-de la Peña; Anjarath L. Higuera-Iglesias; Martha A. Huertas-Jiménez; Rosa Báez-Martínez; Josefina Morales-de León; Fernando Arteaga-Cabello; Sigfrido Rangel-Frausto; Samuel Ponce de León-Rosales

2001-01-01

371

Osteoporosis secundaria y Osteoporosis inducida por glucocorticoides (OIG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis is a major public health problem in a worldwide and its prevalence is increasing. The secondary osteoporosis can be produced by several pathologies and the drug use. Glucocorticoids are a group of grugs widely used in medical practice due to their unquestionable utility. Glucocor- ticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is a significant public health issue. Although the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid mediated

Elías Forero Illera

372

Fotodermatitis de contacto por dexketoprofeno. Descripción de dos casos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dexketoprofen is the active isomer of ketoprofen and likewise belongs to the group of non-steoidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) derived from propionic acid. We have recently studied, using patch and photopatch tests, two women with a characteristic clinical picture of contact photo-dermatitis who had used topical dexketoprofen (Enangel®) in the days before onset of the rash. In both cases we used

R. González-Pérez; I. Trébol; I. García-Ríos; M. A. Arregui; R. Soloeta-Arechavala

2006-01-01

373

Perforación en bóveda palatina por consumo de cocaína  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, the use of cocaine has an increased over the years, various secondary effects have been described. Here we present a 48 years old female with a 2-month evolution bucconasal ulcer in the hard palate induced by cocaine usage accompanied by swallow and phonation dysfunctions. Ethiopathogenesis, differential diagnoses and treatment are discussed.

Miguel Padilla Rosas; Cecilia Irene; Jimenez Santos; Claudia Lorena; García González

374

DISTENSION ABDOMINAL Y EDEMAS POR QUISTE DEL CORDON ESPERMATICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen La distensión abdominal es un síntoma común, siendo en general la presentación inicial de enfer- medades sistémicas o desórdenes gastrointestinales. Otras causas son infrecuentes. Los quistes del cordón espermático son poco frecuentes, pero aún más su ubicación intraabdominal, su tamaño habitual es insuficiente para producir distensión. El paciente presentado en este caso es un varón con criptorquidia bilateral admitido

GUILLERMO A. KELLER; CECILIA SESSA

375

Control de las Enfermedades Transportadas por el Aire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The air that you breathe indoors may be dangerous to your health. How can we make indoor environments safer? Apply aerobiological engineering principles to buildings to control the bioaerosols in our indoor environments. Retrofit old buildings or specifically design new buildings to control airborne microbes. Develop regulatory standards for indoor environments. Become educated about sources and transmission routes of airborne pathogens.

Wladyslaw Kowalski (Pennsylvania State UniversityâÂÂs Indoor Environment Center;)

2009-08-19

376

Eventos centinela y la notificación por el personal de enfermería  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: International reports show that only 5 % of adversity effects are notified; which is due to inherent factors related to health staff, such as being afraid to be punished, being exposed to the professional praxis, unknowing the notification program and the lack of reinformation after the first notification, among others. Objective: To identify among nursing staff their knowledge of

Hernán Juárez-Pérez; Carlos Durán-Muñoz

377

Un brote de enfermedad causado por los alimentos que se ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... Mary está disfrutando un almuerzo con su El pan estaba delicioso pero ella no podía imaginar restaurante se quejó de estar enfermos con papá. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation

378

¿POR QUÉ MIRIAM SÍ VA A LA ESCUELA?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the meaning young people in situations of economic marginalization attach to staying in school. The study aims at defining the processes and actors—in the family, school, or community—who participate in successful scholastic trajectories in the most difficult contexts; it also attempts to determine if these actors have a relation with the theory of resilience. A presentation is

JUAN CARLOS; SILAS CASILLAS

2008-01-01

379

Diagnóstico por tomografía axial computarizada de sinusitis esfenoidal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sphenoidal sinusitis is an uncommon pathology potencially dange condition, what we can find in young population. Clinically it is very dif- ficult the diagnosis because of its nonspecific symptoms, but cranial computer tomography proves the diagnosis. The most cases were trated with antbiotics and recovered completely. We present a young-man with isolated sphenoidal sinusitis who were managed in our medical

S. Cinza Sanjurjo; A. Cabarcos Ortiz de Barrón; D. Rey Aldana; V. Lorenzo Zúñiga

2006-01-01

380

EDICAS POR MEDIO DE DETECTORES DE MICROCINTAS DE SILICIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the procedure followed in order to obtain digital images with medi- cal purposes using a silicon microstrip detector. It is shown the calibration procedure and obtention of the parameters that optimize the performance of the RX64 readout circuit. It is also described the analysis procedure applied to a group of images obtained from a dynamics angyography phantom

J. D. Soler; L. Ramello; C. Avila; D. Bollini; A. E. Cabal; C. Ceballos; W. Dabrowski; M. Gambaccini; P. Giubellino; P. Grybos; J. Lopez; A. Marzari-Chiesa; L. M. Montano; F. Prino; J. C. Sanabria; A. Sarnelli; K. Swientek; A. Taibi; A. Tuffanelli; P. Van Espen; P. Wiacek

381

¿Por dónde empezar?: la pregunta en investigación cualitativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative research question reflects the researcher’s paradigm and should be consistent with the proposed research method. A research question implies engaging in a process that defines the research area, subject, question, and place of the study. Because this process is interactive and changes during the course of the investigation, the beginnings are necessarily provisional. The qualitative research question is

Carmen de la Cuesta-Benjumea

2008-01-01

382

Predação de Opisthocomus hoazin por Spizaetus ornatus e de Bubulcus ibis por Bubo virginianus em Tocantins, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predation of Cattle Egret by the Great Horned Owl and Hoazin by the Ornate Hawk-Eagle in western Tocantins State, Brazil. We report the predation of Hoazin Opisthocomus hoazin by an immature Ornate Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus ornatus, a new prey for this species in Brazil. The Ornate Hawk-Eagle roosted together with Hoazin assembly in branches of Sapium haematospermum, typical river borderline vegetation.

Túlio Dornas; Renato Torres Pinheiro

383

Identificación de péptidos miméticos al epítopo reconocido por el anticuerpo monoclonal específico por el EGF, CB-EGF1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of peptide mimics of the epitope recognized by CB-EGF1, a monoclonal antibody EGF specific. As part of an integral structure and function study, we characterized the natural epitope on the EGF recognized by the CB-EGF1 monoclonal antibody, by using peptides displayed on the coat protein of filamentous bacteriophages. Data analyzed demonstrated that the CB-EGF1 monoclonal antibody recognizes a conformational

Yaquelin Puchades; Ariana G Ojalvo; Yanet García; Glay Chinea; Haydée Gerónimo; Nelson S Vispo

384

RESISTENCIA A LA CORROSIÓN DE ACEROS INOXIDABLES AUSTENITICOS CON ALTO CONTENIDO DE NITROGENO RECUBIERTOS CON HIDROXIAPATITA POR ASPERSIÓN POR PLASMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study was evaluated the corrosion resistance of nitrogen austenitic stainless steel, ASTM-F1586 and Böhler-P558, plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating. The layers were characterized by SEM and DRX. The corrosion resistance was evaluated using tests of potential open circuit and cyclical polarization in Ringer solution to 37°C. The layers present lamelar morphology and pores. In the electrochemical tests was observed that

CLAUDIA PATRICIA OSSA; ANDRÉ TSCHIPTSCHIN

385

Highlights of the French antimicrobial resistance surveillance project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-three French laboratories took part in a study to determine the frequency of antibiotic resistance to S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis in different regions of the country. A total of 1317 bacterial isolates were studied. The level of resistance to penicillin among isolates of S. pneumoniae was high particularly in children with otitis media or upper respiratory tract

Yves Péan; Fred W. Goldstein; M. L. Guerrier

1996-01-01

386

Induction of degranulation and lysis of haemocytes in the freshwater crayfish, Astacus astacus by components of the prophenoloxidase activating system in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the role of the prophenoloxidase activating system, an enzyme cascade located in the haemocytes of crustaceans, in the cellular defences of the freshwater crayfish, Astacus astacus in vitro, monolayer cultures of mixed or separated haemocyte populations, isolated by density gradient centrifugation, were challenged with the bacterium, Moraxella sp. pre-coated with phenoloxidase and the other attaching proteins in crayfish

Valerie J. Smith; Kenneth Söderhäll

1983-01-01

387

Comparative In Vitro Activities of GAR936 against Aerobic and Anaerobic Animal and Human Bite Wound Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

GAR-936 is a new semisynthetic glycylcycline with a broad antibacterial spectrum, including tetracycline- resistant strains. The in vitro activities of GAR-936, minocycline, doxycycline, tetracycline, moxifloxacin, penicillin G, and erythromycin were determined by agar dilution methods against 268 aerobic and 148 anaerobic strains of bacteria (including Pasteurella, Eikenella, Moraxella, Bergeyella, Neisseria, EF-4, Bacteroides, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Corynebacterium, Propi-

ELLIE J. C. GOLDSTEIN; DIANE M. CITRON; C. VRENI MERRIAM; YUMI WARREN; KERIN TYRRELL

2000-01-01

388

Determinacao de hafnio e zirconio em materiais geologicos por analise por ativacao com neutrons. (Determination of hafnium and zirconium in geological materials by neutron activation analysis).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, neutron activation analysis was developed for determining hafnium and zirconium in geological materials. The USGS geological standard rocks GSP-1 (granodiorite) and W-1 (di abase). The Brazilian geological standards GB-1 (granite) and BB-1 ...

J. P. Lins

1992-01-01

389

HPLC DETERMINATION OF ORGANIC ACIDS IN MOROCCAN APRICOT DETERMINACIÓN POR HPLC DE ÁCIDOS ORGÁNICOS EN ALBARICOQUE MARROQUÍ DETERMINACIÓN POR HPLC DE ÁCIDOS ORGÁNICOS EN ALBARICOQUE MARROQUÍ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic acids content of Moroccan apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) var. Canino were separated and measured by HPLC. Good chromatograms were obtained by coupling three RP18 columns of 25 cm of length. The mobile phase was adjusted at an optimum pH of 2.15. The absorbance at 210 nm, measured with a diode array UV detector, was used for quantification. The method

A. Hasib; A. Jaouad; M. Mahrouz; M. Khouili

2002-01-01

390

Kinetika koalestsentsii ansamblya vakansionnykh por s uchetom mikroskopicheskikh protsessov, proiskhodyashchikh na poverkhnostyakh por. (Coalescence kinetics of vacancy void ensemble with accounting for microscopical processes on void surfaces).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper deals with the kinetics of Ostwald ripening of voids, taking into account the microscopic processes, which occur on the surfaces of voids and control the absorption and evaporation of point defects. The kinetics of Ostwald ripening of voids is ...

A. I. Ryazanov D. G. Sherstennikov

1988-01-01

391

Verification and validation interim report for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F  

SciTech Connect

This Verification and Validation (V/V) interim report summarizes to date the results of the V/V tasks performed in each of the following life cycle phases: concept, requirements, design, implementation, test, installation and checkout, and operation and maintenance. At the end of the installation and checkout phase, the V/V final report will be issued. This interim report contains or references the following for each phase: Description of V/V tasks performed; Summary of task results; Summary of anomalies and resolution; Assessment of system quality; Recommendations.

Nelson, O.D.

1998-07-25

392

Production of UC-labeled gas in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation kits by Neisseria cinerea  

SciTech Connect

Six strains of Neisseria cinerea were tested in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation kits (Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Towson, Md.), and all yielded positive glucose growth indices and negative maltose and fructose growth indices. These results were similar to those achieved with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. However, most of the N. cinerea isolates tested yielded 3-h glucose growth indices that were lower than those obtained with gonococci. UC-labeled gas was produced significantly faster by N. gonorrhoeae than by N. cinerea. Additional studies suggested that the UC-labeled gas produced by N. cinerea was carbon dioxide. N. cinerea strains were similar to Branhamella catarrhalis strains because both species failed to produce detectable acid from glucose, maltose, sucrose, fructose, and lactose in cysteine-tryptic agar media. However, in contrast to N. cinerea strains, B. catarrhalis strains did not metabolize glucose in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation kits.

Boyce, J.M.; Mitchell, E.B. Jr.; Knapp, J.S.; Buttke, T.M.

1985-09-01

393

Acute laryngitis in adults: results of erythromycin treatment.  

PubMed

Previous studies of acute laryngitis in adults have shown high nasopharyngeal isolation rates of B. catarrhalis and H. influenzae. Phenoxymethylpenicillin had no effect on the clinical course. In the present study, 106 patients with acute laryngitis were treated with erythromycin 0.5 g x 2 V or placebo. During the first week the isolation rate of B. catarrhalis was reduced from 60 to 10% in the erythromycin group compared to 34 to 27% in the placebo group (p less than 0.01). The elimination of H. influenzae, isolated in 19% at the acute visit, did not differ between the two groups. As compared to controls, erythromycin treated patients reported significantly lower scores of subjective voice disturbance after 1 week and cough after 2 weeks. Laryngological examination and voice evaluation failed to reveal any differences between the groups. PMID:1632252

Schalén, L; Eliasson, I; Fex, S; Kamme, C; Schalén, C

1992-01-01

394

Comparative efficacy and safety evaluation of cefaclor VS amoxycillin + calvulanate in children with Acute Otitis Media (AOM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute Otitis Media (AOM) is the most frequent respiratory tract infection of infancy and childhood that is treated with antimicrobial\\u000a agents. The most common causative pathogens includeStreptococcus pneumoniae, Hemophilus influenzae andMoxarella catarrhalis, and therefore antibacterial management should target against these isolates. Cefactor, a congener of cephalexin monohydrate,\\u000a is a semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic. It is an orally active cephalosporin which has

Mukesh Aggarwal; Ramanuj Sinha; M. Vasudeva Murali; Prita Trihan; P. K. Singhal

2005-01-01

395

The microbiologic and immunologic basis for recurrent otitis media in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Otitis media is very common in children. A subpopulation of children, representing 5–10% of the general population, are otitis\\u000a prone and they experience 4 or more episodes of acute otitis media (AOM) in the first year of life. Nasopharyngeal colonization\\u000a with the three major middle ear pathogens, S. pneumoniae, nontypeable H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis is frequent in otitis prone

Howard Faden

2001-01-01

396

Microbiological Characteristics of Dungeness Crab (Cancer magister)1  

PubMed Central

Aerobic, heterotropic microorganisms of Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) were isolated from raw crab, cooked crab, crab meats obtained during commercial processing, and from retail crab meat samples. Each microbial isolate was then identified to the genus level employing the revised replica plating procedure. Microbial groups most commonly isolated from crab meat were, in the order of predominance, Moraxella, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Flavobacterium-Cytophaga, and Bacillus sp. Proteus, Staphylococcus, yeasts, Vibrio, and Lactobacillus sp. were found less frequently in some samples. Distribution patterns of microbial flora in crab meat revealed the presence of three classes of microorganisms. Microorganisms that originated from the raw crab and gained predominance by growth during refrigerated storage were Moraxella, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Flavobacterium-Cytophaga sp. Those that originated from the crab but did not grow in meat were Arthrobacter and Bacillus sp. Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, and Proteus sp. were introduced during processing, but they did not grow in the refrigerated crab meat.

Lee, J. S.; Pfeifer, D. K.

1975-01-01

397

Comparative study of the aerobic, heterotrophic bacterial flora of Chesapeake Bay and Tokyo Bay.  

PubMed Central

A comparative study of the bacterial flora of the water of Chesapeake Bay and Tokyo Bay was undertaken to assess similarities and differences between the autochthonous flora of the two geographical sites and to test the hypothesis that, given similarities in environmental parameters, similar bacterial populations will be found, despite extreme geographic distance between locations. A total of 195 aerobic, heterotrophic bacterial strains isolated from Chesapeake Bay and Tokyo Bay water were examined for 115 biochemical, cultural, morphological, nutritional, and physiological characters. The data were analyzed by the methods of numerical taxonomy. From sorted similarity matrices, 77% of the isolates could be grouped into 30 phena and presumptively identified as Acinetobacter-Moraxella, Caulobacter, coryneforms, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio spp. Vibrio and Acinetobacter species were found to be common in the estuarine waters of Chesapeake Bay, whereas Acinetobacter-Moraxella and Caulobacter predominated in Tokyo Bay waters, at the sites sampled in the study.

Austin, B; Garges, S; Conrad, B; Harding, E E; Colwell, R R; Simidu, U; Taga, N

1979-01-01

398

[A comparative study of the thermal stability of formate dehydrogenases from microorganisms and plants].  

PubMed

A comparative study of the thermostability of NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenases (FDHs; EC 1.2.1.2) from both methylotrophic bacteria Pseudomonas sp. 101 and Moraxella sp. Cl, the methane-utilizing yeast Candida boidinii, and plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max (soybean) was performed. All the enzymes studied were produced by expression in E. coli cells. The enzymes were irreversibly inactivated in one stage according to first-order reaction kinetics. The FDH from Pseudomonas sp. 101 appeared as the most thermostable enzyme; its counterpart from G. max exhibited the lowest stability. The enzymes from Moraxella sp. Cl, C. boidinii, and A. thaliana showed similar thermostability profiles. The temperature dependence of the inactivation rate constant of A. thaliana FDH was studied. The data of differential scanning calorimetry was complied with the experimental results on the inactivation kinetics of these enzymes. Values of the melting heat were determined for all the enzymes studied. PMID:16878540

Sadykhov, E G; Serov, A E; Vo?nova, N S; Uglanova, S V; Petrov, A S; Alekseeva, A A; Kle?menov, S Iu; Popov, V I; Tishkov, V I

399

Factors affecting inactivation of Moraxell-Acinetobacter cells in an irradiation process. [/sup 137/Cs  

SciTech Connect

The effect of various stages of the irradiation processing of beef on the injury and inactivation of radiation-resistant Moraxella-Acinetobactor cells was studied. Moraxella-Acinetobacter cells were more resistant to heat inactivation and injury when heated in meat with salts (0.75% NaCl and 0.375% sodium tripolyphosphate) than in meat without salts. These salts had no effect on radiation resistance. Heated cells were more sensitive to radiation inactivation and injury than unheated cells. After repair, the cells regained their resistance to both NaCl and irradiation. Freezing and storage at -40/sup 0/C for 14 days had only a slight effect on either unstressed or heat-stressed cells.

Firstenberg-Eden, R.; Rowley, D.B.; Shattuck, G.E.

1980-09-01

400

Microbiological basis of phosphate removal in the activated sludge process for the treatment of wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several strains resembling members of theAcinetobacter-Moraxella-Mima group of bacteria were isolated from activated sludge-type sewage treatment plants designed for phosphate removal. The bacteria are obligate aerobes but utilize as carbon and energy sources low-molecular intermediates generated anaerobically, particularly acetate and ethanol. These bacteria can be shown to be responsible for the phosphate luxury uptake occurring in these treatment plants. The

G. W. Fuhs; Min Chen

1975-01-01

401

Frequency of pathogen occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility among community-acquired respiratory tract infections in the respiratory surveillance program study: microbiology from the medical office practice environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuing problems of antimicrobial resistance have prompted the initiation of several surveillance programs. Few, if any, of these programs focus on community-acquired respiratory tract infections seen in routine office-based practices. The Respiratory Surveillance Program (RESP; 1999–2000) in 674 community-based physician office practices in the United States determined the frequency of potential bacterial pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella

Michael A Pfaller; Anton F Ehrhardt; Ronald N Jones

2001-01-01

402

The bacterial biogenesis of isobutyraldoxime O-methyl ether, a novel volatile secondary metabolite.  

PubMed

Production of the volatile metabolite, isobutyraldoxime O-methyl ether (IBME) by a Moraxella-like organism NCIB 11650 was investigated under a variety of environmental conditions using gas chromatography. Under aerobic conditions up to 10 micrograms IBME ml-1 was produced on mineral salts media containing 0.5% (w/v) glucose or succinate as sole C source with 0.1% (w/v) NH4Cl as sole N source. Exogenous L-valine further stimulated IBME formation up to 25 micrograms ml-1 but supplementation of the medium with D-isomer or other amino acids had little effect on IBME production and did not lead to the appearance of analogues of IBME. Trapping experiments using [14C]valine confirmed that IBME was derived from this amino acid. Several other bacterial species examined, e.g. Alcaligenes sp. NCIB 11652, another Moraxella-like organism NCIB 11651 and Pseudomonas sp. NCIB 11653 also produced IBME under similar conditions. The Alcaligenes strain synthesized up to 20 micrograms ml-1 in the absence of valine and up to 90 micrograms ml-1 in its presence. The product of IBME exhibited many features characteristic of the formation of a secondary metabolite. Thus biosynthesis was confined to a narrower range of temperature than cell division, was almost completely suppressed by 300 mM-phosphate and was inhibited by high concentrations of readily utilizable C sources. Although IBME synthesis in the Moraxella-like organism NCIB 11650 appeared to be growth-related, its formation by both the Alcaligenes sp. and the Moraxella-like organism NCIB 11651 was delayed until the late-exponential and early-stationary phases of growth. The biological significance of this novel class of secondary metabolite is discussed and a possible biosynthetic route proposed. PMID:7142955

Harper, D B; Nelson, J

1982-08-01

403

Phylogenetic analysis of selected toxic and non-toxic bacterial strains isolated from the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence has implicated bacterial involvement in the production of paralytic shellfish poison toxins, which are normally associated with bloom-forming algal species, specifically toxic dinoflagellate algae. Preliminary reports of the identification of toxin-producing bacteria isolated from the toxic marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense suggested that they belonged to the gamma sub-division of the Proteobacteria, specifically related to the bacterium Moraxella. Digoxigenin-labelled

Martina Kopp; Gregory J Doucette; Masaaki Kodama; Gunnar Gerdts; Christian Schütt; Linda K Medlin

1997-01-01

404

Bacterial Interactions inBovine Respiratory andReproductive Infectionst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theability oftheaerobic bacterial flora fromthenormalbovine respiratory andreproductive tracts to enhance orinhibit thegrowth ofPasteurella haemolytica, P.multocida, andHaemophilus somnuswastested in vitro. Sixstrains ofeachofthese pathogens werecross streaked witheachisolate ofbovine normal flora. Flora which enhanced thegrowth ofthese pathogenic bacteria outnumbered inhibitors four toone.Anintermediate numberofisolates produced noeffect onpathogen growth. Mostenhancers weregrampositive (Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, orRhodococcus isolates), although several isolates ofMoraxella and Actinobacter werealsogoodenhancers. ForH.somnus, there

L. B. CORBEIL; W. WOODWARD; A. C. S. WARD; W. D. MICKELSEN; L. PAISLEY

1985-01-01

405

Morbimortalidad por CIUR. Estudio del año 2002 en el Hospital Docente Ginecobstétrico América Arias  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective, and descriptive study of 154 mothers who had children with Intrauterine Growth Retardation (IUGR) at birth. The study was conducted at the America Arias Gynaecology and Obstetric Teaching Hospital in 2002, It was aimed at identifying the mortality and morbidity in our cases. The continual delivery registries, as well as the medical history of mothers and neonates, were

A. Laffita; J. M. Ariosa

2005-01-01

406

CRISIS FINANCIERA INTERNACIONAL Lo que hemos aprendido y lo que nos queda por aprender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desde aquel ya lejano, y para mí infausto, día de verano del año 2007 - cuya mañana me cogió en Palm Beach, Florida, en una piscina de hotel leyendo el New York Times mientras tomaba el sol - hasta hoy, he venido siguiendo, con insospechado interés, lo que pasó y lo que está pasando en la economía de los Estados

José Jurado Gil

2009-01-01

407

Predição de Aspectos da Emoção Constatada em Música por Descritores Cognitivos Musicais  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo. O estudo de cognição musical normalmente se utiliza de modelos computacionais para calcular aspectos específicos da percepção e interpretação da informação musical. Estes modelos são chamados na literatura de descritores acústicos quando calculam características musicais, na forma de series temporais, diretamente de arquivos de áudio. Chamamos de descritores cognitivos musicais (DCM) aos descritores acústicos que calculam aspectos contextuais da

Jose Fornari

408

Dinamica de Atitude Para Satelites Estabilizados Por Rotacao (Attitude Dynamics for Satellites Stabilized Through Spin).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simplified dynamic modelling for the attitude motion of spin stabilized artificial satellites is proposed. Torques due to induced magnetic fields on the satellite, eddy currents, and gravity gradient are considered. The corresponding Euler equations are...

H. K. Kuga W. C. C. Silva U. T. V. Guedes

1987-01-01

409

Atención de los niños hecha por SIATE en Cascavel en 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays accidents involving children are being a relevant cause of morbimortality. Physical injuries are responsible for 98 % of death in developing countries. The study had as aim identifying the kinds of accidents involving zero to twelve-year-old children assisted by Integrated Study of Trauma and Emergency Reception (SIATE) from Cascavel. The descriptive study was developed through a survey of SIATE's

Márcio Briccius; Neide Tiemi Murofuse

410

Músico, Exilio y Memoria — La Lucha Por Los Restos De Manuel De Falla  

Microsoft Academic Search

En vísperas de la guerra civil, España era uno de los centros intelectuales más efervescentes de Europa. A partir de 1898, tras perder los últimos restos del Imperio en el Nuevo Mundo (Cuba y Puerto Rico), y particularmente en los años de la Segunda República (1931–1936), se llevaron a cabo apasionantes debates sobre cuestiones de identidad nacional y el sendero

Raanan Rein

1996-01-01

411

Análise da contaminação dos sistemas hídricos por agrotóxicos numa pequena comunidade rural do Sudeste do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in analytical techniques allow identifying pesticide pollution in water systems. In small rural communities, the negative effects of pesticide pollution can be aggravated by the lack of infrastructure and adverse socioeconom- ic conditions. This study investigated pesticide pollution in potential water supply sources in a tomato growing area in Paty do Alferes, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The

Marcelo Motta Veiga; Dalton Marcondes Silva; Lilian Bechara Elabras Veiga; Mauro Velho de Castro Faria

2006-01-01

412

Incidência de suicídios e uso de agrotóxicos por tra- balhadores rurais em Luz (MG), Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents the incidence of suicides and attended cases of poisoning in the micro-region of Luz, Minas Gerais, and their possible relationship with pesticides. A descriptive study was held involving 50 local residents, who were asked to answer a questionnaire. Acetylcholinesterase, gamma-glutamyl- transferase (GGT), Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase(SGOT), and Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase(SGPT) were measured, and suicides between the

Tufi Neder Meyer; Ione Lamounier Camargos; Juscélio Clemente de Abreu

413

A contaminação por agrotóxicos e os Equipamentos de Proteção Individual (EPIs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has analyzed the efficiency and adequacy of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) used when mixing and spraying pesticides in Brazilian and French farming. Analysis was based on two case studies: The first one, concerning a tomato crop located in a small rural community in the Southeast of Brazil; the second, a vineyard in France. The findings showed that PPE

Luiz Antonio Meirelles; Alain Garrigou; Isabelle Baldi

414

Dissolução de tecido pulpar bovino por duas substâncias químicas do preparo do canal radicular  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho avaliou a dissolução de polpas bovinas pelo gel de clorexidina a 2,0% e pela solução de hipoclorito de sódio - em diferen- tes concentrações e valores de pH - so bd uas tem- peraturas. Os fragmentos de tecido pulpar foram imersos em clorexidina a 2,0%, veiculado em gel de natrosol, e hipoclorito de sódio a 5,0%; 2,5%;

EVANDRO LUIZ SIQUEIRA; MARCELO DO SS ANTOS; ANTONIO CARLOS BOMBANA

415

Grafite & pichação: por uma nova epistemologia da cidade e da arte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graffiti: a huge channel of communication with no fiber optic or electric connection, but a force directly linked to the city, the public and the here and now. It resides in the city and in the public space and has neither owner nor guardian. Together with the buildings, random scribbles appear, messages of love, political graffiti and advertising announcements in

Celia Maria Antonacci Ramos

416

Capítulo V LA RESPUESTA DEL HUÉSPED A LA INFECCIÓN POR Nocardia brasiliensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nocardia brasiliensis is the most frequently isolated bacterium from human actinomycetoma cases in Mexico. This organism lives as a saprophyte in soil and enters the skin by traumatic inoculation. Host response to this infection is a remarkable inflammatory accumulation of granulocytes around the bacteria. Chronic infection up to seven years in humans is also characterized by multiple microabscesses separated by

Mario