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[Moraxella catarrhalis: an emerging respiratory pathogen].  


In the past years Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis has finally gained respect as a pathogen thanks to the many reports of its causal role. The intent of this review is to provide a critical evaluation of the intent of this review is to provide a critical evaluation of the microbiological features (taxonomy, diagnosis, virulence, epidemiology and drug resistance), clinical diseases and therapy of this microorganism PMID:14976433

Blandino, G; Boccazzi, A; Cavallo, G P; Careddu, P; Nicoletti, G; Stefani, S



Moraxella catarrhalis in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Moraxella catarrhalis is frequently present in the sputum of adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Little is known about the role of M. catarrhalis in this common disease. Objective: To elucidate the burden of disease, the dynamics of carriage, and immune responses to M. catarrhalis in COPD. Methods: Prospective cohort study of 104 adults with COPD in an outpatient clinic at the Buffalo Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Measurements: Clinical information, sputum cultures, molecular typing of isolates, and immunoassays to measure antibodies to M. catarrhalis. Main Results: Over 81 months, 104 patients made 3,009 clinic visits, 560 during exacerbations. Molecular typing identified 120 episodes of acquisition and clearance of M. catarrhalis in 50 patients; 57 (47.5%) of the acquisitions were associated with clinical exacerbations. No instances of simultaneous acquisition of a new strain of another pathogen were observed. The duration of carriage of M. catarrhalis was shorter with exacerbations compared with asymptomatic colonization (median, 31.0 vs. 40.4 days; p = 0.01). Reacquisition of the same strain was rare. The intensity of the serum IgG response was greater after exacerbations than asymptomatic colonization (p = 0.009). Asymptomatic colonization was associated with a greater frequency of a sputum IgA response than exacerbation (p = 0.009). Conclusions: M. catarrhalis likely causes approximately 10% of exacerbations of COPD, accounting for approximately 2 to 4 million episodes annually. The organism is cleared efficiently after a short duration of carriage. Patients develop strain-specific protection after clearance of M. catarrhalis from the respiratory tract. PMID:15805178

Murphy, Timothy F.; Brauer, Aimee L.; Grant, Brydon J. B.; Sethi, Sanjay



Complete Genome Assembly of a Quality Control Reference Isolate, Moraxella catarrhalis Strain ATCC 25240  

PubMed Central

Generally an opportunistic pathogen in the United States, Moraxella catarrhalis has acquired resistance to multiple antibacterial/antimicrobial agents. Here, we present the complete 1.9-Mb genome of M. catarrhalis strain ATCC 25240, as deposited in NCBI under the accession number CP008804. PMID:25237030

Daligault, H. E.; Davenport, K. W.; Minogue, T. D.; Bishop-Lilly, K. A.; Bruce, D. C.; Chain, P. S.; Coyne, S. R.; Frey, K. G.; Jaissle, J.; Koroleva, G. I.; Ladner, J. T.; Lo, C.-C.; Meincke, L.; Munk, C.; Palacios, G. F.; Redden, C. L.



Identification of a bacteriocin and its cognate immunity factor expressed by Moraxella catarrhalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bacteriocins are antimicrobial proteins and peptides ribosomally synthesized by some bacteria which can effect both intraspecies and interspecies killing. RESULTS: Moraxella catarrhalis strain E22 containing plasmid pLQ510 was shown to inhibit the growth of M. catarrhalis strain O35E. Two genes (mcbA and mcbB) in pLQ510 encoded proteins predicted to be involved in the secretion of a bacteriocin. Immediately downstream

Ahmed S Attia; Jennifer L Sedillo; Todd C Hoopman; Wei Liu; Lixia Liu; Chad A Brautigam; Eric J Hansen



Use of the Chinchilla Model for Nasopharyngeal Colonization To Study Gene Expression by Moraxella catarrhalis  

PubMed Central

Young adult chinchillas were atraumatically inoculated with Moraxella catarrhalis via the nasal route. Detailed histopathologic examination of nasopharyngeal tissues isolated from these M. catarrhalis-infected animals revealed the presence of significant inflammation within the epithelium. Absence of similar histopathologic findings in sham-inoculated animals confirmed that M. catarrhalis was exposed to significant host-derived factors in this environment. Twenty-four hours after inoculation, viable M. catarrhalis organisms were recovered from the nasal cavity and nasopharynx of the animals in numbers sufficient for DNA microarray analysis. More than 100 M. catarrhalis genes were upregulated in vivo, including open reading frames (ORFs) encoding proteins that are involved in a truncated denitrification pathway or in the oxidative stress response, as well as several putative transcriptional regulators. Additionally, 200 M. catarrhalis genes were found to be downregulated when this bacterium was introduced into the nasopharynx. These downregulated genes included ORFs encoding several well-characterized M. catarrhalis surface proteins including Hag, McaP, and MchA1. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was utilized as a stringent control to validate the results of in vivo gene expression patterns as measured by DNA microarray analysis. Inactivation of one of the genes (MC ORF 1550) that was upregulated in vivo resulted in a decrease in the ability of M. catarrhalis to survive in the chinchilla nasopharynx over a 3-day period. This is the first evaluation of global transcriptome expression by M. catarrhalis cells in vivo. PMID:22184412

Hoopman, Todd C.; Liu, Wei; Joslin, Stephanie N.; Pybus, Christine; Sedillo, Jennifer L.; Labandeira-Rey, Maria; Laurence, Cassie A.; Wang, Wei; Richardson, James A.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.



Moraxella catarrhalis uses a twin-arginine translocation system to secrete the ?-lactamase BRO-2  

PubMed Central

Background Moraxella catarrhalis is a human-specific gram-negative bacterium readily isolated from the respiratory tract of healthy individuals. The organism also causes significant health problems, including 15-20% of otitis media cases in children and ~10% of respiratory infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The lack of an efficacious vaccine, the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates, and high carriage rates reported in children are cause for concern. Virtually all Moraxella catarrhalis isolates are resistant to ?-lactam antibiotics, which are generally the first antibiotics prescribed to treat otitis media in children. The enzymes responsible for this resistance, BRO-1 and BRO-2, are lipoproteins and the mechanism by which they are secreted to the periplasm of M. catarrhalis cells has not been described. Results Comparative genomic analyses identified M. catarrhalis gene products resembling the TatA, TatB, and TatC proteins of the well-characterized Twin Arginine Translocation (TAT) secretory apparatus. Mutations in the M. catarrhalis tatA, tatB and tatC genes revealed that the proteins are necessary for optimal growth and resistance to ?-lactams. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to replace highly-conserved twin arginine residues in the predicted signal sequence of M. catarrhalis strain O35E BRO-2, which abolished resistance to the ?-lactam antibiotic carbanecillin. Conclusions Moraxella catarrhalis possesses a TAT secretory apparatus, which plays a key role in growth of the organism and is necessary for secretion of BRO-2 into the periplasm where the enzyme can protect the peptidoglycan cell wall from the antimicrobial activity of ?-lactam antibiotics. PMID:23782650



Respiratory Syncytial Virus Promotes Moraxella catarrhalis-Induced Ascending Experimental Otitis Media  

PubMed Central

Otitis media (OM) is a polymicrobial disease wherein prior or concurrent infection with an upper respiratory tract virus plays an essential role, predisposing the middle ear to bacterial invasion. In episodes of acute bacterial OM, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most commonly isolated virus and thus serves as an important co-pathogen. Of the predominant bacterial agents of OM, the pathogenesis of disease due to Moraxella catarrhalis is the least well understood. Rigorous study of M. catarrhalis in the context of OM has been significantly hindered by lack of an animal model. To bridge this gap, we assessed whether co-infection of chinchillas with M. catarrhalis and RSV would facilitate ascension of M. catarrhalis from the nasopharynx into the middle ear. Chinchillas were challenged intranasally with M. catarrhalis followed 48 hours later by intranasal challenge with RSV. Within 7 days, 100% of nasopharynges were colonized with M. catarrhalis and homogenates of middle ear mucosa were also culture-positive. Moreover, within the middle ear space, the mucosa exhibited hemorrhagic foci, and a small volume of serosanguinous effusion was present in one of six ears. To improve upon this model, and based on epidemiologic data, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) was included as an additional bacterial co-pathogen via intranasal administration four days before M. catarrhalis challenge. With this latter protocol, M. catarrhalis was cultured from the nasopharynx and middle ear homogenates of a maximum of 88% and 79% animals, respectively, for up to 17 days after intranasal challenge with M. catarrhalis. Additionally, hemorrhagic foci were observed in 79% of middle ears upon sacrifice. Thus, these data demonstrated that co-infection with RSV and NTHI predisposed to M. catarrhalis-induced ascending experimental OM. This model can be used both in studies of pathogenesis as well as to investigate strategies to prevent or treat OM due to M. catarrhalis. PMID:22768228

Brockson, M. Elizabeth; Novotny, Laura A.; Jurcisek, Joseph A.; McGillivary, Glen; Bowers, Martha R.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.



Respiratory syncytial virus promotes Moraxella catarrhalis-induced ascending experimental otitis media.  


Otitis media (OM) is a polymicrobial disease wherein prior or concurrent infection with an upper respiratory tract virus plays an essential role, predisposing the middle ear to bacterial invasion. In episodes of acute bacterial OM, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most commonly isolated virus and thus serves as an important co-pathogen. Of the predominant bacterial agents of OM, the pathogenesis of disease due to Moraxella catarrhalis is the least well understood. Rigorous study of M. catarrhalis in the context of OM has been significantly hindered by lack of an animal model. To bridge this gap, we assessed whether co-infection of chinchillas with M. catarrhalis and RSV would facilitate ascension of M. catarrhalis from the nasopharynx into the middle ear. Chinchillas were challenged intranasally with M. catarrhalis followed 48 hours later by intranasal challenge with RSV. Within 7 days, 100% of nasopharynges were colonized with M. catarrhalis and homogenates of middle ear mucosa were also culture-positive. Moreover, within the middle ear space, the mucosa exhibited hemorrhagic foci, and a small volume of serosanguinous effusion was present in one of six ears. To improve upon this model, and based on epidemiologic data, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) was included as an additional bacterial co-pathogen via intranasal administration four days before M. catarrhalis challenge. With this latter protocol, M. catarrhalis was cultured from the nasopharynx and middle ear homogenates of a maximum of 88% and 79% animals, respectively, for up to 17 days after intranasal challenge with M. catarrhalis. Additionally, hemorrhagic foci were observed in 79% of middle ears upon sacrifice. Thus, these data demonstrated that co-infection with RSV and NTHI predisposed to M. catarrhalis-induced ascending experimental OM. This model can be used both in studies of pathogenesis as well as to investigate strategies to prevent or treat OM due to M. catarrhalis. PMID:22768228

Brockson, M Elizabeth; Novotny, Laura A; Jurcisek, Joseph A; McGillivary, Glen; Bowers, Martha R; Bakaletz, Lauren O



Use of molecular methods to characterize Moraxella catarrhalis strains in a suspected outbreak of nosocomial infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole cell protein, immunoblotting with normal human serum and restriction endonuclease analysis usingTaq I enzyme were applied to 38 clinically significant isolates ofMoraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis obtained during a suspected outbreak of nosocomial infection. Each of 18 strains had individual profiles by at least two of the three methods (unique strains). The remaining 20 strains

M. G. Morgan; H. McKenzie; M. C. Enright; M. Bain; F. X. S. Emmanuel



Superoxol and aminopeptidase tests for identification of pathogenic Neisseria species and Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superoxol test, and prolyl aminopeptidase and gammaglutamyl aminopeptidase tests were evaluated for the detection of pathogenicNeisseria spp. using 317 strains ofNeisseriaceae. The superoxol test was positive for all 116 gonococci and 62Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis strains, but also for three strains ofNeisseria meningitidis, one strain ofNeisseria lactamica and eight saprophytic neisseriae. When using strains grown on Thayer-Martin medium, the positive

J. L. Pérez; A. Pulido; E. Gómez; G. Sauca; R. Martín



Isolation and Characterization of Two Proteins from Moraxella catarrhalis That Bear a Common Epitope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UspA1 and UspA2 proteins of Moraxella catarrhalis are potential vaccine candidates for preventing disease caused by this organism. We have characterized both proteins and evaluated their vaccine potential using both in vitro and in vivo assays. Both proteins were purified from the O35E isolate by Triton X-100 extraction, followed by ion-exchange and hydroxyapatite chromatography. Analysis of the sequences of




Identification of a conserved Moraxella catarrhalis haemoglobin-utilization protein, MhuA.  


Moraxella catarrhalis is a leading cause of acute otitis media in children and is a cause of respiratory disease in adults with underlying lung disease. This organism is a strict human pathogen that has an absolute requirement for iron in order to grow and cause disease. Previous studies identified transferrin and lactoferrin receptors used by M. catarrhalis to obtain iron from the human host, yet other iron-acquisition systems remain undefined. In this study, it is demonstrated that this strict mucosal pathogen can utilize haemoglobin (Hb) as a sole source of iron for growth. A novel 107 kDa outer-membrane protein involved in Hb utilization by this pathogen was also identified. An isogenic mutant defective in this Moraxella Hb-utilization protein (MhuA), 7169 : : mhuA, showed a significant lag during growth in the presence of Hb as the sole iron source. This protein appears to be expressed constitutively, regardless of growth conditions, and a mAb directed to MhuA demonstrated that this protein contains highly conserved, surface-exposed epitopes. Data demonstrating that expression of MhuA may be highly specific to isolates of M. catarrhalis are also presented, suggesting a potential role as a diagnostic marker. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that M. catarrhalis expresses an Hb-binding protein and that this bacterium can utilize Hb as a sole iron source for growth. PMID:15817782

Furano, Kristin; Luke, Nicole R; Howlett, Amy J; Campagnari, Anthony A



Comprehensive Antigen Screening Identifies Moraxella catarrhalis Proteins That Induce Protection in a Mouse Pulmonary Clearance Model  

PubMed Central

Moraxella catarrhalis is one of the three most common causative bacterial pathogens of otitis media, however no effective vaccine against M. catarrhalis has been developed so far. To identify M. catarrhalis vaccine candidate antigens, we used carefully selected sera from children with otitis media and healthy individuals to screen small-fragment genomic libraries that are expressed to display frame-selected peptides on a bacterial cell surface. This ANTIGENome technology led to the identification of 214 antigens, 23 of which were selected by in vitro or in vivo studies for additional characterization. Eight of the 23 candidates were tested in a Moraxella mouse pulmonary clearance model, and 3 of these antigens induced significantly faster bacterial clearance compared to adjuvant or to the previously characterized antigen OmpCD. The most significant protection data were obtained with the antigen MCR_1416 (Msp22), which was further investigated for its biological function by in vitro studies suggesting that Msp22 is a heme binding protein. This study comprises one of the most exhaustive studies to identify potential vaccine candidate antigens against the bacterial pathogen M. catarrhalis. PMID:23671716

Verhaegh, Suzanne J. C.; Niebisch, Axel; Hanner, Markus; Selak, Sanja; Schüler, Wolfgang; Morfeldt, Eva; Hellberg, Christel; Nagy, Eszter; Lundberg, Urban; Hays, John P.; Meinke, Andreas; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta



Role of the Zinc Uptake ABC Transporter of Moraxella catarrhalis in Persistence in the Respiratory Tract  

PubMed Central

Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory tract pathogen that causes otitis media in children and lower respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We have identified and characterized a zinc uptake ABC transporter that is present in all strains of M. catarrhalis tested. A mutant in which the znu gene cluster is knocked out shows markedly impaired growth compared to the wild type in medium that contains trace zinc; growth is restored to wild-type levels by supplementing medium with zinc but not with other divalent cations. Thermal-shift assays showed that the purified recombinant substrate binding protein ZnuA binds zinc but does not bind other divalent cations. Invasion assays with human respiratory epithelial cells demonstrated that the zinc ABC transporter of M. catarrhalis is critical for invasion of respiratory epithelial cells, an observation that is especially relevant because an intracellular reservoir of M. catarrhalis is present in the human respiratory tract and this reservoir is important for persistence. The znu knockout mutant showed marked impairment in its capacity to persist in the respiratory tract compared to the wild type in a mouse pulmonary clearance model. We conclude that the zinc uptake ABC transporter mediates uptake of zinc in environments with very low zinc concentrations and is critical for full virulence of M. catarrhalis in the respiratory tract in facilitating intracellular invasion of epithelial cells and persistence in the respiratory tract. PMID:23817618

Brauer, Aimee L.; Kirkham, Charmaine; Johnson, Antoinette; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Malkowski, Michael G.



Characterization and Evaluation of the Moraxella catarrhalis Oligopeptide Permease A as a Mucosal Vaccine Antigen?  

PubMed Central

Moraxella catarrhalis is a common cause of otitis media in children and of lower respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; therefore, these two groups would benefit from a vaccine to prevent M. catarrhalis infections. A genome mining approach for vaccine antigens identified oligopeptide permease protein A (OppA), an oligopeptide binding protein of an apparent oligopeptide transport system. Analysis of the oppA gene by PCR and sequence analysis revealed that OppA is highly conserved among clinical isolates of M. catarrhalis. Recombinant OppA was expressed as a lipoprotein and purified, and an oppA knockout mutant was constructed. Antiserum raised to recombinant purified OppA recognized epitopes on the bacterial surface of the wild type but not the OppA knockout mutant. Antibodies raised to purified recombinant OppA recognized native OppA in multiple strains. Intranasal immunization of mice induced systemic and mucosal antibodies to OppA and resulted in enhanced clearance of M. catarrhalis in a mouse pulmonary clearance model. OppA is a highly conserved, immunogenic protein that expresses epitopes on the bacterial surface and that induces potentially protective immune responses in a mouse model. OppA should be evaluated further as a vaccine antigen for M. catarrhalis. PMID:21134967

Yang, Min; Johnson, Antoinette; Murphy, Timothy F.



Characterization of the Molecular Interplay between Moraxella catarrhalis and Human Respiratory Tract Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Moraxella catarrhalis is a mucosal pathogen that causes childhood otitis media and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. During the course of infection, M. catarrhalis needs to adhere to epithelial cells of different host niches such as the nasopharynx and lungs, and consequently, efficient adhesion to epithelial cells is considered an important virulence trait of M. catarrhalis. By using Tn-seq, a genome-wide negative selection screenings technology, we identified 15 genes potentially required for adherence of M. catarrhalis BBH18 to pharyngeal epithelial Detroit 562 and lung epithelial A549 cells. Validation with directed deletion mutants confirmed the importance of aroA (3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyl-transferase), ecnAB (entericidin EcnAB), lgt1 (glucosyltransferase), and MCR_1483 (outer membrane lipoprotein) for cellular adherence, with ?MCR_1483 being most severely attenuated in adherence to both cell lines. Expression profiling of M. catarrhalis BBH18 during adherence to Detroit 562 cells showed increased expression of 34 genes in cell-attached versus planktonic bacteria, among which ABC transporters for molybdate and sulfate, while reduced expression of 16 genes was observed. Notably, neither the newly identified genes affecting adhesion nor known adhesion genes were differentially expressed during adhesion, but appeared to be constitutively expressed at a high level. Profiling of the transcriptional response of Detroit 562 cells upon adherence of M. catarrhalis BBH18 showed induction of a panel of pro-inflammatory genes as well as genes involved in the prevention of damage of the epithelial barrier. In conclusion, this study provides new insight into the molecular interplay between M. catarrhalis and host epithelial cells during the process of adherence. PMID:23936538

de Vries, Stefan P. W.; Eleveld, Marc J.; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Bootsma, Hester J.



A Conserved Tetranucleotide Repeat Is Necessary for Wild-Type Expression of the Moraxella catarrhalis UspA2 Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UspA2 protein has been shown to be directly involved in the serum-resistant phenotype of Moraxella catarrhalis. The predicted 5-untranslated regions (UTR) of the uspA2 genes in several different M. catarrhalis strains were shown to contain various numbers (i.e., 6 to 23) of a heteropolymeric tetranucleotide (AGAT) repeat. Deletion of the AGAT repeats from the uspA2 genes in the serum-resistant

Ahmed S. Attia; Eric J. Hansen



Bactericidal, opsonophagocytic and anti-adhesive effectiveness of cross-reactive antibodies against Moraxella catarrhalis.  


Moraxella catarrhalis is a human-restricted significant respiratory tract pathogen. The bacteria accounts for 15-20% of cases of otitis media in children and is an important causative agent of infectious exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. The acquisition of new M. catarrhalis strains plays a central role in the pathogenesis of both mentioned disorders. The antibody-dependent immune response to this pathogen is critical for its effective elimination. Thus, the knowledge about the protective threshold of cross-reactive antibodies with defined functionality seems to be important. The complex analysis of broad-spectrum effectiveness of cross-reactive antibodies against M. catarrhalis has never been performed. The goal of the present study was to demonstrate and compare the bactericidal, opsonophagocytic and blocking function of cross-reacting antibodies produced in response to this bacterium or purified outer membrane proteins incorporated in Zwittergent-based micelles. The multivalent immunogens were used in order to better mimic the natural response of the host. The demonstrated broad-spectrum effectiveness of cross-reactive antibodies in pathogen eradication or inhibition strongly indicates that this pool of antibodies by recognition of pivotal shared M. catarrhalis surface epitopes seems to be an essential additional source to control host-microbe interaction. PMID:25743473

Augustyniak, Daria; Piekut, Monika; Majkowska-Skrobek, Gra?yna; Ska?a, Jacek



Resistance surveillance of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolated in Asia and Europe, 1997-1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multicentre, collaborative study was performed in Asia and Europe during the winter of 1997-1998 to determine the in vitro activity of selected antimicrobial agents against common respiratory pathogens. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates were collected from 48 sites in China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain and the UK and tested in a central laboratory in the

Daniel F. Sahm; Mark E. Jones; Mary L. Hickey; David R. Diakun; Satish V. Mani; Clyde Thornsberry



Molecular analysis of low-level fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis.  


We investigated antimicrobial susceptibility and the molecular mechanism underlying low-level resistance to fluoroquinolones in 70 non-duplicate clinical isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis. The isolates were collected in a general hospital in Tokyo, Japan, between January and October 2013 from 38 men and 32 women; most of the isolates (48 out of 70, 68.5%) were obtained from post-nasal drips of children. The antimicrobial susceptibility of M. catarrhalis isolates was determined with an Etest, and low-level fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were subtyped by PFGE. Mutations in the gyrA and parC genes were determined by PCR and sequencing. PCR products of the gyrA and parC genes from the low-level fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were transformed into a fluoroquinolone-susceptible strain. Among the 70 isolates, five (7.1%) exhibited elevated fluoroquinolone MICs (levofloxacin, 1.0 mg l(-1); ciprofloxacin, 0.5 mg l(-1)) and different PFGE patterns. The patients from whom these five isolates were isolated had not undergone treatment with fluoroquinolones for the past 6 months. Each of the five low-level fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates had a gyrA gene mutation resulting in a Thr-to-Ile substitution at aa 80 (T80I) in the GyrA protein, while no changes were detected in the parC gene. A transformant carrying the gyrA gene containing the T80I substitution, which corresponded to Ser83 in Escherichia coli, displayed an elevated fluoroquinolone MIC and contained the T80I alteration in GyrA. Thus, our findings reveal that the low-level resistance to fluoroquinolones in M. catarrhalis is due to an amino acid substitution of Thr80 to Ile in GyrA. This is the first evidence of low-level fluoroquinolone resistance in M. catarrhalis. PMID:24850882

Yamada, Kageto; Saito, Ryoichi



Moraxella catarrhalis Outer Membrane Protein CD Elicits Antibodies That Inhibit CD Binding to Human Mucin and Enhance Pulmonary Clearance of M. catarrhalis in a Mouse Model?  

PubMed Central

The outer membrane protein CD of Moraxella catarrhalis is considered to be a potential vaccine antigen against Moraxella infection. We purified the native CD from isolate O35E, administered it to mice, and detected considerable titers of anti-CD antibodies. Anti-CD sera were cross-reactive towards six different M. catarrhalis isolates and promoted bacterial clearance of O35E in a pulmonary challenge model. To circumvent the difficulty of generating large quantities of CD from M. catarrhalis for vaccine use, the CD gene from O35E was cloned into Escherichia coli, and the recombinant CD, expressed without a signal sequence or fusion tags, represented ?70% of the total E. coli proteins. The recombinant CD formed inclusion bodies that were solubilized with 6 M urea and then purified by ion-exchange chromatography, a procedure that produced soluble CD of high purity and yield. Mice immunized with the purified recombinant CD had significant titers of anti-CD antibodies that were cross-reactive towards 24 different M. catarrhalis isolates. Upon challenge, these mice showed enhanced bacterial clearance of both O35E and a heterologous M. catarrhalis isolate, TTA24. In an in vitro assay, antisera to either the native or the recombinant CD inhibited the binding activity of CD to human tracheobronchial mucin in a serum concentration-dependent manner, and the extent of inhibition appeared to correlate with the corresponding anti-CD antibody titer and whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titer. Our results demonstrate that the recombinant CD is a promising vaccine candidate for preventing Moraxella infection. PMID:17403868

Liu, Dai-Fang; McMichael, John C.; Baker, Steven M.



C4-Alkylthiols with activity against Moraxella catarrhalis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial resistance represents a global threat to healthcare. The ability to adequately treat infectious diseases is increasingly under siege due to the emergence of drug-resistant microorganisms. New approaches to drug development are especially needed to target organisms that exhibit broad antibiotic resistance due to expression of ?-lactamases which is the most common mechanism by which bacteria become resistant to ?-lactam antibiotics. We designed and synthesized 20 novel monocyclic ?-lactams with alkyl- and aryl-thio moieties at C4, and subsequently tested these for antibacterial activity. These compounds demonstrated intrinsic activity against serine ?-lactamase producing Mycobacterium tuberculosis wild type strain (Mtb) and multiple (n = 6) ?-lactamase producing Moraxella catarrhalis clinical isolates. PMID:22014754

Kostova, Maya B.; Myers, Carey J.; Beck, Tim N.; Plotkin, Balbina J.; Green, Jacalyn M.; Boshoff, Helena I.M.; Barry, Clifton E.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Konaklieva, Monika I.



Genetic analysis of a pediatric clinical isolate of Moraxella catarrhalis with resistance to macrolides and quinolones.  


During the surveillance conducted in 2012 by the Drug-resistant Pathogen Surveillance Group in Pediatric Infectious Disease, we isolated a strain of Moraxella catarrhalis that demonstrated resistance to both macrolides and quinolones from a male pediatric patient aged 1.5 years who had developed acute bronchitis. Then we evaluated the susceptibility of this strain to different types of antibacterial agents and conducted a genetic analysis. The results of the susceptibility evaluation showed that the MIC values of azithromycin, clarithromycin, and rokitamycin were >64 ?g/mL, >64 ?g/mL, and 4 ?g/mL, respectively; clearly demonstrating resistance to macrolides. The MIC values of the quinolones levofloxacin, tosufloxacin, and garenoxacin were 4 ?g/mL, 2 ?g/mL, and 1 ?g/mL, respectively; indicating decreased susceptibility. The genetic analysis of this strain revealed one mutation in 23s rRNA with a replacement of adenine by thymine at nucleotide position 2330 (A2330T) and another mutation in gyrB at nucleotide position 1481 by replacement of adenine with guanine (A1481G) that caused a substitution of the 494th asparagine acid by glycine, as being associated with the observed resistance to macrolides and quinolones, respectively. Similar to drug-resistant bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, the prevalence of which has recently increased, the treatment of drug-resistant M. catarrhalis infections is considered difficult due to the development of resistance to different types of antibacterial agents. It is vital to maintain an unwavering focus on the trend toward an increasing number of drug-resistant M. catarrhalis strains and ensure the proper use of each antibacterial agent. PMID:25481761

Iwata, Satoshi; Sato, Yoshitake; Toyonaga, Yoshikiyo; Hanaki, Hideaki; Sunakawa, Keisuke



RNA-Seq-Based Analysis of the Physiologic Cold Shock-Induced Changes in Moraxella catarrhalis Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Background Moraxella catarrhalis, a major nasopharyngeal pathogen of the human respiratory tract, is exposed to rapid downshifts of environmental temperature when humans breathe cold air. The prevalence of pharyngeal colonization and respiratory tract infections caused by M. catarrhalis is greatest in winter. We investigated how M. catarrhalis uses the physiologic exposure to cold air to regulate pivotal survival systems that may contribute to M. catarrhalis virulence. Results In this study we used the RNA-seq techniques to quantitatively catalogue the transcriptome of M. catarrhalis exposed to a 26°C cold shock or to continuous growth at 37°C. Validation of RNA-seq data using quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated the RNA-seq results to be highly reliable. We observed that a 26°C cold shock induces the expression of genes that in other bacteria have been related to virulence a strong induction was observed for genes involved in high affinity phosphate transport and iron acquisition, indicating that M. catarrhalis makes a better use of both phosphate and iron resources after exposure to cold shock. We detected the induction of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism, as well as several outer membrane proteins, including ompA, m35-like porin and multidrug efflux pump (acrAB) indicating that M. catarrhalis remodels its membrane components in response to downshift of temperature. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a 26°C cold shock enhances the induction of genes encoding the type IV pili that are essential for natural transformation, and increases the genetic competence of M. catarrhalis, which may facilitate the rapid spread and acquisition of novel virulence-associated genes. Conclusion Cold shock at a physiologically relevant temperature of 26°C induces in M. catarrhalis a complex of adaptive mechanisms that could convey novel pathogenic functions and may contribute to enhanced colonization and virulence. PMID:23844181

Spaniol, Violeta; Wyder, Stefan; Aebi, Christoph



Residence of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis within polymicrobial biofilm promotes antibiotic resistance and bacterial persistence in vivo  

PubMed Central

Otitis media is an extremely common pediatric ailment caused by opportunists that reside within the nasopharynx. Inflammation within the upper airway can promote ascension of these opportunists into the middle ear chamber. Otitis media can be chronic/recurrent in nature, and a wealth of data indicates that in these cases the bacteria persist within biofilms. Epidemiological data demonstrates most cases of otitis media are polymicrobial, which may have significant impact on antibiotic resistance. In this study, we used in vitro biofilm assays and rodent infection models to examine the impact of polymicrobial infection with Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) on biofilm resistance to antibiotic treatment and persistence in vivo. Consistent with prior work, M. catarrhalis conferred beta-lactamase dependent passive protection from beta-lactam killing to pneumococci within polymicrobial biofilms. Moreover, pneumococci increased resistance of M. catarrhalis to macrolide killing in polymicrobial biofilms. However, pneumococci increased colonization in vivo by M. catarrhalis in a quorum signal-dependent manner. We also found that co-infection with M. catarrhalis affects middle ear ascension of pneumococci in both mice and chinchillas. Therefore, we conclude that residence of M. catarrhalis and pneumococci within the same biofilm community significantly impacts resistance to antibiotic treatment and bacterial persistence in vivo. PMID:24391058

Perez, Antonia C.; Pang, Bing; King, Lauren B.; Tan, Li; Murrah, Kyle A.; Reimche, Jennifer L.; Wren, John T.; Richardson, Stephen H.; Ghandi, Uma; Swords, W. Edward



Substrate Binding Protein SBP2 of a Putative ABC Transporter as a Novel Vaccine Antigen of Moraxella catarrhalis  

PubMed Central

Moraxella catarrhalis is a common respiratory tract pathogen that causes otitis media in children and infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Since the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines with/without protein D of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, M. catarrhalis has become a high-priority pathogen in otitis media. For the development of antibacterial vaccines and therapies, substrate binding proteins of ATP-binding cassette transporters are important targets. In this study, we identified and characterized a substrate binding protein, SBP2, of M. catarrhalis. Among 30 clinical isolates tested, the sbp2 gene sequence was highly conserved. In 2 different analyses (whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry), polyclonal antibodies raised to recombinant SBP2 demonstrated that SBP2 expresses epitopes on the bacterial surface of the wild type but not the sbp2 mutant. Mice immunized with recombinant SBP2 showed significantly enhanced clearance of M. catarrhalis from the lung compared to that in the control group at both 25-?g and 50-?g doses (P < 0.001). We conclude that SBP2 is a novel, attractive candidate as a vaccine antigen against M. catarrhalis. PMID:24914218

Otsuka, Taketo; Kirkham, Charmaine; Johnson, Antoinette; Jones, Megan M.



Identification of an outer membrane lipoprotein involved in nasopharyngeal colonization by Moraxella catarrhalis in an animal model.  


Colonization of the human nasopharynx by Moraxella catarrhalis is presumed to involve attachment of this bacterium to the mucosa. DNA microarray analysis was used to determine whether attachment of M. catarrhalis to human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells in vitro affected gene expression in this bacterium. Attachment affected expression of at least 454 different genes, with 163 being upregulated and 291 being downregulated. Among the upregulated genes was one (ORF113) previously annotated as encoding a protein with some similarity to outer membrane protein A (OmpA). The protein encoded by ORF113 was predicted to have a signal peptidase II cleavage site, and globomycin inhibition experiments confirmed that this protein was indeed a lipoprotein. The ORF113 protein also contained a predicted peptidoglycan-binding domain in its C-terminal half. The use of mutant and recombinant M. catarrhalis strains confirmed that the ORF113 protein was present in outer membrane preparations, and this protein was also shown to be at least partially exposed on the bacterial cell surface. A mutant unable to produce the ORF113 protein showed little or no change in its growth rate in vitro, in its ability to attach to HBE cells in vitro, or in its autoagglutination characteristics, but it did exhibit a reduced ability to survive in the chinchilla nasopharynx. This is the first report of a lipoprotein essential to the ability of M. catarrhalis to persist in an animal model. PMID:24643539

Wang, Wei; Joslin, Stephanie N; Pybus, Christine; Evans, Amanda S; Lichaa, Flora; Brautigam, Chad A; Hansen, Eric J



Identification of an Outer Membrane Lipoprotein Involved in Nasopharyngeal Colonization by Moraxella catarrhalis in an Animal Model  

PubMed Central

Colonization of the human nasopharynx by Moraxella catarrhalis is presumed to involve attachment of this bacterium to the mucosa. DNA microarray analysis was used to determine whether attachment of M. catarrhalis to human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells in vitro affected gene expression in this bacterium. Attachment affected expression of at least 454 different genes, with 163 being upregulated and 291 being downregulated. Among the upregulated genes was one (ORF113) previously annotated as encoding a protein with some similarity to outer membrane protein A (OmpA). The protein encoded by ORF113 was predicted to have a signal peptidase II cleavage site, and globomycin inhibition experiments confirmed that this protein was indeed a lipoprotein. The ORF113 protein also contained a predicted peptidoglycan-binding domain in its C-terminal half. The use of mutant and recombinant M. catarrhalis strains confirmed that the ORF113 protein was present in outer membrane preparations, and this protein was also shown to be at least partially exposed on the bacterial cell surface. A mutant unable to produce the ORF113 protein showed little or no change in its growth rate in vitro, in its ability to attach to HBE cells in vitro, or in its autoagglutination characteristics, but it did exhibit a reduced ability to survive in the chinchilla nasopharynx. This is the first report of a lipoprotein essential to the ability of M. catarrhalis to persist in an animal model. PMID:24643539

Joslin, Stephanie N.; Pybus, Christine; Evans, Amanda S.; Lichaa, Flora; Brautigam, Chad A.



Activities and Postantibiotic Effects of Gemifloxacin Compared to Those of 11 Other Agents against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of gemifloxacin against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis was compared to those of 11 other agents. All quinolones were very active (MICs, <0.125 mg\\/ml) against 248 quinolone-susceptible H. influenzae isolates (40.7% of which were b-lactamase positive); cefixime (MICs, <0.125 mg\\/ml) and amoxicillin- clavulanate (MICs <4.0 mg\\/ml) were active, followed by cefuroxime (MICs, <16.0 mg\\/ml); azithromycin MICs were <4.0




The Moraxella catarrhalis Immunoglobulin D-Binding Protein MID Has Conserved Sequences and Is Regulated by a Mechanism Corresponding to Phase Variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of the Moraxella catarrhalis immunoglobulin D (IgD)-binding outer membrane protein MID and its gene was determined in 91 clinical isolates and in 7 culture collection strains. Eighty-four percent of the clinical Moraxella strains expressed MID-dependent IgD binding. The mid gene was detected in all strains as revealed by homology of the signal peptide sequence and a conserved area

Andrea Mollenkvist; Therese Nordstrom; Christer Hallden; Jens Jørgen Christensen; Arne Forsgren; Kristian Riesbeck



Role of the oligopeptide permease ABC Transporter of Moraxella catarrhalis in nutrient acquisition and persistence in the respiratory tract.  


Moraxella catarrhalis is a strict human pathogen that causes otitis media in children and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults, resulting in significant worldwide morbidity and mortality. M. catarrhalis has a growth requirement for arginine; thus, acquiring arginine is important for fitness and survival. M. catarrhalis has a putative oligopeptide permease ABC transport operon (opp) consisting of five genes (oppB, oppC, oppD, oppF, and oppA), encoding two permeases, two ATPases, and a substrate binding protein. Thermal shift assays showed that the purified recombinant substrate binding protein OppA binds to peptides 3 to 16 amino acid residues in length regardless of the amino acid composition. A mutant in which the oppBCDFA gene cluster is knocked out showed impaired growth in minimal medium where the only source of arginine came from a peptide 5 to 10 amino acid residues in length. Whether methylated arginine supports growth of M. catarrhalis is important in understanding fitness in the respiratory tract because methylated arginine is abundant in host tissues. No growth of wild-type M. catarrhalis was observed in minimal medium in which arginine was present only in methylated form, indicating that the bacterium requires l-arginine. An oppA knockout mutant showed marked impairment in its capacity to persist in the respiratory tract compared to the wild type in a mouse pulmonary clearance model. We conclude that the Opp system mediates both uptake of peptides and fitness in the respiratory tract. PMID:25156736

Jones, Megan M; Johnson, Antoinette; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Kirkham, Charmaine; Brauer, Aimee L; Malkowski, Michael G; Murphy, Timothy F



Moraxella catarrhalis AcrAB-OprM Efflux Pump Contributes to Antimicrobial Resistance and Is Enhanced during Cold Shock Response.  


Moraxella catarrhalis is a common pathogen of the human respiratory tract. Multidrug efflux pumps play a major role in antibiotic resistance and virulence in many Gram-negative organisms. In the present study, the role of the AcrAB-OprM efflux pump in antibiotic resistance was investigated by constructing mutants that lack the acrA, acrB, and oprM genes in M. catarrhalis strain O35E. We observed a moderate (1.5-fold) decrease in the MICs of amoxicillin and cefotaxime and a marked (4.7-fold) decrease in the MICs of clarithromycin for acrA, acrB, and oprM mutants in comparison with the wild-type O35E strain. Exposure of the M. catarrhalis strains O35E and 300 to amoxicillin triggered an increased transcription of all AcrAB-OprM pump genes, and exposure of strains O35E, 300, and 415 to clarithromycin enhanced the expression of acrA and oprM mRNA. Inactivation of the AcrAB-OprM efflux pump genes demonstrated a decreased ability to invade epithelial cells compared to the parental strain, suggesting that acrA, acrB, and oprM are required for efficient invasion of human pharyngeal epithelial cells. Cold shock increases the expression of AcrAB-OprM efflux pump genes in all three M. catarrhalis strains tested. Increased expression of AcrAB-OprM pump genes after cold shock leads to a lower accumulation of Hoechst 33342 (H33342), a substrate of AcrAB-OprM efflux pumps, indicating that cold shock results in increased efflux activity. In conclusion, the AcrAB-OprM efflux pump appears to play a role in the antibiotic resistance and virulence of M. catarrhalis and is involved in the cold shock response. PMID:25583725

Spaniol, Violeta; Bernhard, Sara; Aebi, Christoph



Increased recovery of Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae in association with group A  -haemolytic streptococci in healthy children and those with pharyngo-tonsillitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inflamed tonsils harbour numerous types of bacteria, alone or in combination with group A b-haemolytic streptococci (GABHS). The cohabitation of the tonsils by GABHS and certain other bacterial species may contribute to the inflammatory process and the failure of penicillin therapy. This study evaluated the recovery of Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in association with

Itzhak Brook; Alan E. Gober



Isolation and Characterization of Two Proteins from Moraxella catarrhalis That Bear a Common Epitope  

PubMed Central

The UspA1 and UspA2 proteins of Moraxella catarrhalis are potential vaccine candidates for preventing disease caused by this organism. We have characterized both proteins and evaluated their vaccine potential using both in vitro and in vivo assays. Both proteins were purified from the O35E isolate by Triton X-100 extraction, followed by ion-exchange and hydroxyapatite chromatography. Analysis of the sequences of internal peptides, prepared by enzymatic and chemical cleavage of the proteins, revealed that UspA1 and UspA2 exhibited distinct structural differences but shared a common sequence including an epitope recognized by the monoclonal antibody 17C7. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), purified UspA1 exhibited a molecular weight of approximately 350,000 when unheated and a molecular weight of 100,000 after being heated for 10 min at 100°C. In contrast, purified UspA2 exhibited an apparent molecular weight of 240,000 by SDS-PAGE that did not change with the length of time of heating. Their sizes as determined by gel filtration were 1,150,000 and 830,000 for UspA1 and UspA2, respectively. Preliminary results indicate the proteins have separate functions in bacterial pathogenesis. Purified UspA1 was found to bind HEp-2 cells, and sera against UspA1, but not against UspA2, blocked binding of the O35E isolate to the HEp-2 cells. UspA1 also bound fibronectin and appears to have a role in bacterial attachment. Purified UspA2, however, did not bind fibronectin but had an affinity for vitronectin. Both proteins elicited bactericidal antibodies in mice to homologous and heterologous disease isolates. Finally, mice immunized with each of the proteins, followed by pulmonary challenge with either the homologous or a heterologous isolate, cleared the bacteria more rapidly than mock-immunized mice. These results suggest that UspA1 and UspA2 serve different virulence functions and that both are promising vaccine candidates. PMID:9712790

McMichael, John C.; Fiske, Michael J.; Fredenburg, Ross A.; Chakravarti, Deb N.; VanDerMeid, Karl R.; Barniak, Vicki; Caplan, Jeffrey; Bortell, Eric; Baker, Steven; Arumugham, Rasappa; Chen, Dexiang



Isolation and characterization of two proteins from Moraxella catarrhalis that bear a common epitope.  


The UspA1 and UspA2 proteins of Moraxella catarrhalis are potential vaccine candidates for preventing disease caused by this organism. We have characterized both proteins and evaluated their vaccine potential using both in vitro and in vivo assays. Both proteins were purified from the O35E isolate by Triton X-100 extraction, followed by ion-exchange and hydroxyapatite chromatography. Analysis of the sequences of internal peptides, prepared by enzymatic and chemical cleavage of the proteins, revealed that UspA1 and UspA2 exhibited distinct structural differences but shared a common sequence including an epitope recognized by the monoclonal antibody 17C7. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), purified UspA1 exhibited a molecular weight of approximately 350, 000 when unheated and a molecular weight of 100,000 after being heated for 10 min at 100 degreesC. In contrast, purified UspA2 exhibited an apparent molecular weight of 240,000 by SDS-PAGE that did not change with the length of time of heating. Their sizes as determined by gel filtration were 1,150,000 and 830,000 for UspA1 and UspA2, respectively. Preliminary results indicate the proteins have separate functions in bacterial pathogenesis. Purified UspA1 was found to bind HEp-2 cells, and sera against UspA1, but not against UspA2, blocked binding of the O35E isolate to the HEp-2 cells. UspA1 also bound fibronectin and appears to have a role in bacterial attachment. Purified UspA2, however, did not bind fibronectin but had an affinity for vitronectin. Both proteins elicited bactericidal antibodies in mice to homologous and heterologous disease isolates. Finally, mice immunized with each of the proteins, followed by pulmonary challenge with either the homologous or a heterologous isolate, cleared the bacteria more rapidly than mock-immunized mice. These results suggest that UspA1 and UspA2 serve different virulence functions and that both are promising vaccine candidates. PMID:9712790

McMichael, J C; Fiske, M J; Fredenburg, R A; Chakravarti, D N; VanDerMeid, K R; Barniak, V; Caplan, J; Bortell, E; Baker, S; Arumugham, R; Chen, D



Identification of Alloiococcus otitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae in Children With Otitis Media With Effusion  

PubMed Central

Background: Based on many studies, otitis media with effusion (OME) is one of the major causes of childhood hearing loss, social malformation and medical costs. The pathogenesis still remains unclear, though it is known that this complication is closely related to bacterial infections. Alloiococcus otitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most common bacterial pathogens isolated from middle ear effusions (MEEs). Objectives: Due to the prevalence of OME in children, we decided to investigate bacterial agents that cause diseases such as A. otitidis, H. influenzae, S. pneumonia and M. catarrhalis in these subjects. Patients and Methods: Forty-five children between one and 15 years of age were selected for this study. Seventy specimens were collected from MEE by myringotomy and inoculated in PBS buffer. Conventional culture and PCR methods were used for identification of bacterial agents. Results: The bacterial cultures in 8.6% of samples were positive by conventional culture, with A. otitidis, M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae present in 1.4%, 2.9% and 4.3% of samples, respectively. No H. influenzae was isolated. By the PCR method, A. otitidis was the most frequently isolated bacterium, found in 25.7% of samples, followed by S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae, which were identified in 20%, 12% and 20% of samples, respectively. Overall, 55 out of 70 samples were positive by both the PCR and culture method. Conclusions: It can be concluded that A. otitidis was the major causative agent of MEE in children with OME. Therefore clinicians should be aware that bacterial infection plays an important role in the progression of acute otitis media to OME in children of our region.

Farajzadah Sheikh, Ahmad; Saki, Nader; Roointan, Mitra; Ranjbar, Reza; Yadyad, Mohammad Jaafar; Kaydani, Abbas; Aslani, Sajad; Babaei, Mansoor; Goodarzi, Hamed



ModM DNA methyltransferase methylome analysis reveals a potential role for Moraxella catarrhalis phasevarions in otitis media.  


Moraxella catarrhalis is a significant cause of otitis media and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Here, we characterize a phase-variable DNA methyltransferase (ModM), which contains 5'-CAAC-3' repeats in its open reading frame that mediate high-frequency mutation resulting in reversible on/off switching of ModM expression. Three modM alleles have been identified (modM1-3), with modM2 being the most commonly found allele. Using single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) genome sequencing and methylome analysis, we have determined that the ModM2 methylation target is 5'-GAR(m6)AC-3', and 100% of these sites are methylated in the genome of the M. catarrhalis 25239 ModM2 on strain. Proteomic analysis of ModM2 on and off variants revealed that ModM2 regulates expression of multiple genes that have potential roles in colonization, infection, and protection against host defenses. Investigation of the distribution of modM alleles in a panel of M. catarrhalis strains, isolated from the nasopharynx of healthy children or middle ear effusions from patients with otitis media, revealed a statistically significant association of modM3 with otitis media isolates. The modulation of gene expression via the ModM phase-variable regulon (phasevarion), and the significant association of the modM3 allele with otitis media, suggests a key role for ModM phasevarions in the pathogenesis of this organism. PMID:25183669

Blakeway, Luke V; Power, Peter M; Jen, Freda E-C; Worboys, Sam R; Boitano, Matthew; Clark, Tyson A; Korlach, Jonas; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Jennings, Michael P; Peak, Ian R; Seib, Kate L



Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in the United States in 1996–1997 respiratory season  

Microsoft Academic Search

A U.S. surveillance study of antimicrobial resistance in respiratory tract pathogens in the respiratory season (1996–1997) is reported that induced 11,368 isolates from 434 institutions in 45 states and the District of Columbia. ?-lactamase was produced by 33.4% of Haemophilus influenzae and 92.7% of Moraxella catarrhalis. Of the 9,190 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates tested, 33.5% were not susceptible to penicillin (MIC

Clyde Thornsberry; Penny Ogilvie; James Kahn; Yolanda Mauriz



Use of the Chinchilla Model to Evaluate the Vaccinogenic Potential of the Moraxella catarrhalis Filamentous Hemagglutinin-like Proteins MhaB1 and MhaB2  

PubMed Central

Moraxella catarrhalis causes significant health problems, including 15–20% of otitis media cases in children and ?10% of respiratory infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The lack of an efficacious vaccine, the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates, and high carriage rates reported in children are cause for concern. In addition, the effectiveness of conjugate vaccines at reducing the incidence of otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae suggest that M. catarrhalis infections may become even more prevalent. Hence, M. catarrhalis is an important and emerging cause of infectious disease for which the development of a vaccine is highly desirable. Studying the pathogenesis of M. catarrhalis and the testing of vaccine candidates have both been hindered by the lack of an animal model that mimics human colonization and infection. To address this, we intranasally infected chinchilla with M. catarrhalis to investigate colonization and examine the efficacy of a protein-based vaccine. The data reveal that infected chinchillas produce antibodies against antigens known to be major targets of the immune response in humans, thus establishing immune parallels between chinchillas and humans during M. catarrhalis infection. Our data also demonstrate that a mutant lacking expression of the adherence proteins MhaB1 and MhaB2 is impaired in its ability to colonize the chinchilla nasopharynx, and that immunization with a polypeptide shared by MhaB1 and MhaB2 elicits antibodies interfering with colonization. These findings underscore the importance of adherence proteins in colonization and emphasize the relevance of the chinchilla model to study M. catarrhalis–host interactions. PMID:23844117

Shaffer, Teresa L.; Balder, Rachel; Buskirk, Sean W.; Hogan, Robert J.; Lafontaine, Eric R.



The Moraxella catarrhalis Immunoglobulin D-Binding Protein MID Has Conserved Sequences and Is Regulated by a Mechanism Corresponding to Phase Variation  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of the Moraxella catarrhalis immunoglobulin D (IgD)-binding outer membrane protein MID and its gene was determined in 91 clinical isolates and in 7 culture collection strains. Eighty-four percent of the clinical Moraxella strains expressed MID-dependent IgD binding. The mid gene was detected in all strains as revealed by homology of the signal peptide sequence and a conserved area in the 3? end of the gene. When MID proteins from five different strains were compared, an identity of 65.3 to 85.0% and a similarity of 71.2 to 89.1% were detected. Gene analyses showed several amino acid repeat motifs in the open reading frames, and MID could be called a putative autotransport protein. Interestingly, homopolymeric {polyguanine [poly(G)]} tracts were detected at the 5? ends within the open reading frames. By flow cytometry, using human IgD and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated anti-IgD polyclonal antibodies, most strains showed two peaks: one high- and one low-intensity peak. All isolates expressing high levels of MID had 1, 2, or 3 triplets of G's in their poly(G) tracts, while strains not expressing MID had 4, 7, 8, or 10 G’s in their poly(G) tracts or point mutations causing a putative preterminated translation. Northern blot analysis revealed that the mid gene was regulated at the transcriptional level. Experiments with nonclumping variants of M. catarrhalis proved that bacteria lost their MID expression by removing a G in their poly(G) tracts. Moraxella strains isolated from the nasopharynx or from blood and sputum specimens expressed MID at approximately the same frequency. In addition, no variation was observed between strains of different geographical origins (Australia, Europe, Japan, or the United States). MID and the mid gene were found solely in M. catarrhalis, whereas related Neisseria and Moraxella species did not express MID. Taken together, MID appears to be a conserved protein that can be found in essentially all M. catarrhalis strains. Furthermore, MID is governed by poly(G) tracts when bacteria undergo phase variation. PMID:12644500

Möllenkvist, Andrea; Nordström, Therése; Halldén, Christer; Christensen, Jens Jørgen; Forsgren, Arne; Riesbeck, Kristian



A Novel Group of Moraxella catarrhalis UspA Proteins Mediates Cellular Adhesion via CEACAMs and Vitronectin  

PubMed Central

Moraxella catarrhalis (Mx) is a common cause of otitis media and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, an increasing worldwide problem. Surface proteins UspA1 and UspA2 of Mx bind to a number of human receptors and may function in pathogenesis. Genetic recombination events in the pathogen can generate hybrid proteins termed UspA2H. However, whether certain key functions (e.g. UspA1-specific CEACAM binding) can be exchanged between these adhesin families remains unknown. In this study, we have shown that Mx can incorporate the UspA1 CEACAM1-binding region not only into rare UspA1 proteins devoid of CEACAM-binding ability, but also into UspA2 which normally lack this capacity. Further, a screen of Mx isolates revealed the presence of novel UspA2 Variant proteins (UspA2V) in ?14% of the CEACAM-binding population. We demonstrate that the expression of UspA2/2V with the CEACAM-binding domain enable Mx to bind both to cell surface CEACAMs and to integrins, the latter via vitronectin. Such properties of UspA2/2V have not been reported to date. The studies demonstrate that the UspA family is much more heterogeneous than previously believed and illustrate the in vivo potential for exchange of functional regions between UspA proteins which could convey novel adhesive functions whilst enhancing immune evasion. PMID:23049802

Hill, Darryl J.; Whittles, Cheryl; Virji, Mumtaz



A Moraxella catarrhalis two-component signal transduction system necessary for growth in liquid media affects production of two lysozyme inhibitors.  


There are a paucity of data concerning gene products that could contribute to the ability of Moraxella catarrhalis to colonize the human nasopharynx. Inactivation of a gene (mesR) encoding a predicted response regulator of a two-component signal transduction system in M. catarrhalis yielded a mutant unable to grow in liquid media. This mesR mutant also exhibited increased sensitivity to certain stressors, including polymyxin B, SDS, and hydrogen peroxide. Inactivation of the gene (mesS) encoding the predicted cognate sensor (histidine) kinase yielded a mutant with the same inability to grow in liquid media as the mesR mutant. DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR analyses indicated that several genes previously shown to be involved in the ability of M. catarrhalis to persist in the chinchilla nasopharynx were upregulated in the mesR mutant. Two other open reading frames upregulated in the mesR mutant were shown to encode small proteins (LipA and LipB) that had amino acid sequence homology to bacterial adhesins and structural homology to bacterial lysozyme inhibitors. Inactivation of both lipA and lipB did not affect the ability of M. catarrhalis O35E to attach to a human bronchial epithelial cell line in vitro. Purified recombinant LipA and LipB fusion proteins were each shown to inhibit human lysozyme activity in vitro and in saliva. A lipA lipB deletion mutant was more sensitive than the wild-type parent strain to killing by human lysozyme in the presence of human apolactoferrin. This is the first report of the production of lysozyme inhibitors by M. catarrhalis. PMID:25312959

Joslin, Stephanie N; Pybus, Christine; Labandeira-Rey, Maria; Evans, Amanda S; Attia, Ahmed S; Brautigam, Chad A; Hansen, Eric J



Regional Trends in Antimicrobial Resistance among Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in the United States: Results from the TRUST Surveillance Program, 1999–2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ongoing TRUST (Tracking Resistance in the United States Today) study, which began monitoring anti- microbial resistance among respiratory pathogens in 1996, routinely tracks resistance at national and regional levels. The 1999-2000 TRUST study analyzed 9499 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 1934 Haemophilus influenzae, and 1108 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates that were prospectively collected from 239 laboratories across the 9 US Bureau of the

Clyde Thornsberry; Daniel F. Sahm; Laurie J. Kelly; Ian A. Critchley; Mark E. Jones; Alan T. Evangelista; James A. Karlowsky



Moraxella catarrhalis activates murine macrophages through multiple toll like receptors and has reduced clearance in lungs from TLR4 mutant mice.  


Moraxella catarrhalis is a gram negative bacterium and a leading causative agent of otitis media (OM) in children. Several recent reports have provided strong evidence for an association between toll like receptors and OM. It has been found that both Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae activate host protective immune responses through toll like receptors (TLRs), however, the precise mechanism by which Moraxella catarrhalis initiates the host immune response is currently unknown. In this report, using murine macrophages generated from a series of knock-out mice, we have demonstrated that M. catarrhalis lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and either heat killed or live bacteria are recognized by one or more TLRs. LOS activates the host immune response through a membrane bound CD14-TLR4 complex, while both heat killed and live require recognition by multiple toll like receptors such as TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 without the requirement of CD14. We have also shown that stimuli are capable of triggering the host innate immune response by both MyD88- and TRIF- dependent signaling pathways. We further showed that induced activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) is essential in order to achieve optimal secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-?. We finally showed that TLR4 mutant C3H/HeJ mice produce significantly lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-6 in vivo, An increased bacterial loads at 12 and 24 hours (P<0.001) in their lungs upon challenge with live in an aerosol chamber compared to wild-type (WT) control mice. These data suggest that TLRs are crucial for an effective innate immune response induced by The results of these studies contribute to an increased understanding of molecular mechanism and possible novel treatment strategies for diseases caused by by specifically targeting TLRs and their signaling pathways. PMID:22662179

Hassan, Ferdaus; Ren, Dabin; Zhang, Wenhong; Merkel, Tod J; Gu, Xin-Xing



The Moraxella catarrhalis Autotransporter McaP Is a Conserved Surface Protein That Mediates Adherence to Human Epithelial Cells through Its N-Terminal Passenger Domain?  

PubMed Central

The protein McaP was previously shown to be an adhesin expressed by the Moraxella catarrhalis strain O35E, which also displays esterase and phospholipase B activities (J. M. Timpe et al., Infect. Immun. 71:4341-4350, 2003). In the present study, sequence analysis suggests that McaP is a conventional autotransporter protein that contains a 12-stranded ?-barrel transporter module (amino acids [aa] 383 to 650) linked to a surface-exposed passenger domain exhibiting lipolytic activity (aa 62 to 330). An in-frame deletion removing most of this predicted N-terminal passenger domain was engineered, and Escherichia coli expressing the truncated McaP protein exhibited greatly reduced adherence to A549 human lung epithelial cells compared to E. coli expressing wild-type McaP. Site-directed mutagenesis of a serine residue at position 62 of McaP, predicted to be important for the lipolytic activity of the protein, resulted in loss of hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl ester of caproate. E. coli expressing this mutated McaP, however, adhered to A549 monolayers at levels greater than recombinant bacteria expressing the wild-type adhesin. These results indicate that the predicted passenger domain of McaP is involved in both the binding and the lipolytic activity of the molecule and demonstrate that the adhesive properties of McaP do not require its lipolytic activity. Sequence analysis of mcaP from eight Moraxella catarrhalis strains revealed that the gene product is highly conserved at the amino acid level (98 to 100% identity), and Western blot analysis demonstrated that a panel of 16 isolates all express McaP. Flow cytometry experiments using antibodies raised against various portions of McaP indicated that its predicted passenger domain as well as transporter module contain surface-exposed epitopes. In addition to binding to the surface of intact bacteria, these antibodies were found to decrease adherence of M. catarrhalis to A549 human lung cells by up to 47% and to reduce binding of recombinant E. coli expressing McaP by 98%. These results suggest that McaP should be considered as a potential vaccine antigen. PMID:17088358

Lipski, Serena L.; Akimana, Christine; Timpe, Jennifer M.; Wooten, R. Mark; Lafontaine, Eric R.



Comparative in vitro activity of gemifloxacin to other fluoroquinolones and non-quinolone agents against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in the United States in 1999–2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to assess the in vitro activity of gemifloxacin, five other fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents (ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and ofloxacin) and other non-quinolone comparator agents (ampicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, doxycycline, penicillin and trimethoprim\\/sulphamethoxazole) against Streptococcus pneumoniae collected in the United States. Susceptibility testing of 550 S. pneumoniae, 290 Haemophilus influenzae and 205 Moraxella catarrhalis showed that 38.2% of

Laura M Koeth; Michael R Jacobs; Saralee Bajaksouzian; Anne Zilles; Gengrong Lin; Peter C Appelbaum



Characterization of a Moraxella species that causes epistaxis in macaques  

PubMed Central

Bacteria of the genus Moraxella have been isolated from a variety of mammalian hosts. In a prior survey of bacteria that colonize the rhesus macaque nasopharynx, performed at the Tulane National Primate Research Center, organisms of the Moraxella genus were isolated from animals with epistaxis, or “bloody nose syndrome.” They were biochemically identified as Moraxella catarrhalis, and cryopreserved. Another isolate was obtained from an epistatic cynomolgus macaque at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. Based on differences in colony and cell morphologies between rhesus and human M. catarrhalis isolates, we hypothesized that the nonhuman primate Moraxella might instead be a different species. Despite morphological differences, the rhesus isolates, by several biochemical tests, were indistinguishable from M. catarrhalis. Analysis of the cynomolgus isolate by Vitek 2 Compact indicated that it belonged to a Moraxella group, but could not differentiate among species. However, sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene from four representative rhesus isolates and the cynomolgus isolate showed closest homology to Moraxella lincolnii, a human respiratory tract inhabitant, with 90.16% identity. To examine rhesus macaques as potential hosts for M. catarrhalis, eight animals were inoculated with human M. catarrhalis isolates. Only one of the animals was colonized and showed disease, whereas four of four macaques became epistatic after inoculation with the rhesus Moraxella isolate. The nasopharyngeal isolates in this study appear uniquely adapted to a macaque host and, though they share many of the phenotypic characteristics of M. catarrhalis, appear to form a genotypically distinct species. PMID:20667430

Embers, Monica E.; Doyle, Lara A.; Whitehouse, Chris A.; Selby, Edward B.; Chappell, Mark; Philipp, Mario T.



Assessment of the Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Flora of Rhesus Macaques: Moraxella, Neisseria, Haemophilus, and Other Genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nasopharyngeal bacterial flora of healthy rhesus macaques was surveyed for the presence of Neisseria and Haemophilus species, as well as Moraxella catarrhalis. M. catarrhalis was found both in healthy rhesus macaques and in possibly immunocompromised rhesus macaques. Several Haemophilus spp. that are part of the normal nasopharyngeal bacterial flora of humans were found in many animals; these Haemophilus species

Lisa C. Bowers; Jeanette E. Purcell; Gail B. Plauche; Philippe A. Denoel; Yves Lobet; Mario T. Philipp


Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-related cell adhesion molecules are co-expressed in the human lung and their expression can be modulated in bronchial epithelial cells by non-typable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, TLR3, and type I and II interferons  

PubMed Central

Background The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-related cell adhesion molecules CEACAM1 (BGP, CD66a), CEACAM5 (CEA, CD66e) and CEACAM6 (NCA, CD66c) are expressed in human lung. They play a role in innate and adaptive immunity and are targets for various bacterial and viral adhesins. Two pathogens that colonize the normally sterile lower respiratory tract in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are non-typable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) and Moraxella catarrhalis. Both pathogens bind to CEACAMs and elicit a variety of cellular reactions, including bacterial internalization, cell adhesion and apoptosis. Methods To analyze the (co-) expression of CEACAM1, CEACAM5 and CEACAM6 in different lung tissues with respect to COPD, smoking status and granulocyte infiltration, immunohistochemically stained paraffin sections of 19 donors were studied. To address short-term effects of cigarette smoke and acute inflammation, transcriptional regulation of CEACAM5, CEACAM6 and different CEACAM1 isoforms by cigarette smoke extract, interferons, Toll-like receptor agonists, and bacteria was tested in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells by quantitative PCR. Corresponding CEACAM protein levels were determined by flow cytometry. Results Immunohistochemical analysis of lung sections showed the most frequent and intense staining for CEACAM1, CEACAM5 and CEACAM6 in bronchial and alveolar epithelium, but revealed no significant differences in connection with COPD, smoking status and granulocyte infiltration. In NHBE cells, mRNA expression of CEACAM1 isoforms CEACAM1-4L, CEACAM1-4S, CEACAM1-3L and CEACAM1-3S were up-regulated by interferons alpha, beta and gamma, as well as the TLR3 agonist polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). Interferon-gamma also increased CEACAM5 expression. These results were confirmed on protein level by FACS analysis. Importantly, also NTHI and M. catarrhalis increased CEACAM1 mRNA levels. This effect was independent of the ability to bind to CEACAM1. The expression of CEACAM6 was not affected by any treatment or bacterial infection. Conclusions While we did not find a direct correlation between CEACAM1 expression and COPD, the COPD-associated bacteria NTHi and M. catarrhalis were able to increase the expression of their own receptor on host cells. Further, the data suggest a role for CEACAM1 and CEACAM5 in the phenomenon of increased host susceptibility to bacterial infection upon viral challenge in the human respiratory tract. PMID:23941132



Synthesis of 2-(4-aminophenyl)ethyl 3-deoxy-5-O-(3,4,6-tri-O-beta-D- glucopyranosyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)-alpha-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyrano sid onic acid, a highly branched pentasaccharide corresponding to structures found in lipopolysaccharides from Moraxella catarrhalis.  


Syntheses of the pentasaccharide 2-(4-aminophenyl)ethyl 3-deoxy-5-O-(3,4,6- tri-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)-alpha-D-manno-oct-2- ulopyranosidonic acid and of the tetrasaccharide 3,4,6-tri-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside, both as its methyl and 2-(4-trifluoro-acetamidophenyl)ethyl glycoside, are described. These oligosaccharides correspond to structures found in the lipopolysaccharide of Moraxella catarrhalis and were needed for biological experiments aimed at producing antibodies against the bacteria. The best way to introduce the glucopyranosyl groups into the 3-, 4-, and 6-positions of the branched target compounds was found to be a one-step reaction using a 3,4,6-triol as acceptor and 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-D-glucopyranosyl bromide as donor in a silver trifluoromethanesulfonate-promoted coupling. The spacer arm, necessary for the formation of immunoactive glycoconjugates, was introduced into the glucose moiety via a dimethyl(methylthio)sulfonium trifluoromethanesulfonate-promoted reaction using the ethyl thioglucoside as donor, whereas for Kdo, the acetylated glycal derivative, methyl 4,5,7,8-tetra-O-acetyl-2,6-anhydro-3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-enonate, was used as donor and phenylselenyl trifluoromethanesulfonate as a stereocontrolling promoter. PMID:8590446

Ekelöf, K; Oscarson, S



Moraxella Catarrhalis: A Common Cause of Childhood Illnesses  


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Serum Antibodies to Outer Membrane Proteins (OMPs) ofMoraxella(Branhamella)catarrhalisin Patients with Bronchiectasis: Identification of OMP B1 as an Important Antigen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moraxella(Branhamella)catarrhalisis a common cause of lower respiratory tract infections in adults and of otitis media in children. Little is known about the human immune response to this bacterium. In this study, immunoblot assays were performed to detect serum immunoglobulin G antibodies directed at purified outer membrane ofM. catarrhalis. Twelve serum samples, two each from six patients with bronchiectasis who were




Life threatening Branhamella catarrhalis pneumonia in young infants.  


Branhamella catarrhalis is a common nasopharyngeal commensal organism but is also a recognised pathogen. Lower respiratory tract infections caused by this organism have been reported in adults but not, to our knowledge, in otherwise healthy infants. Two infants, born prematurely, suffered near fatal pneumonia. Branhamella catarrhalis was the only microbial pathogen isolated in each case. We suggest that initial antibiotic therapy for severe pneumonia in young infants should be tailored to cover B. catarrhalis infection. PMID:2125625

Dyson, C; Poonyth, H D; Watkinson, M; Rose, S J



Branhamella catarrhalis: an organism gaining respect as a pathogen.  

PubMed Central

Branhamella catarrhalis was formerly regarded as a common, essentially harmless inhabitant of the pharynx. This misapprehension was caused, in part, by confusion with another pharyngeal resident, Neisseria cinerea. The two organisms can now be differentiated by the positive reactions of B. catarrhalis in tests for nitrate reduction and hydrolysis of tributyrin and DNase. B. catarrhalis is currently recognized as the third most frequent cause of acute otitis media and acute sinusitis in young children. It often causes acute exacerbations of chronic bronchopulmonary disease in older or immunocompromised adults and is incriminated occasionally in meningitis, endocarditis, bacteremia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and urogenital infections. Virulence-associated factors, such as pili, capsules, outer membrane vesicles, iron acquisition proteins, histamine-synthesizing ability, resistance to the bactericidal action of normal human serum, and binding to the C1q complement component, have been identified in some strains. beta-Lactamase producing strains, first detected in 1976, have risen to approximately 75% worldwide. Thus far, however, practically all American strains of B. catarrhalis remain susceptible to alternative antibiotics. A possible selective advantage of recent isolates is their reportedly heightened tendency for adherence to oropharyngeal cells from patients with chronic bronchopulmonary disease. Images PMID:2121328

Catlin, B W



Branhamaceae fam. nov., a Proposed Family To Accommodate the Genera Branhamella and Moraxella  

Microsoft Academic Search

and also of the genera Branhamella, Moraxella, and Acinetobacter. Since these organisms must be excluded from the Neisseriaceae, the new family Branhamaceae is proposed to accommodate the genera Branhamella (including the false neisseriae) and Moraxella. This arrangement acknowledges the phylogenetic relationships of these organisms and resolves controversies concerning (i) the recommendation that the genus Moraxella should be divided into the



Comparative immunochemistry of lipopolysaccharides from Branhamella catarrhalis strains.  

PubMed Central

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were extracted and purified from the type strain and from a clinical isolate of Branhamella catarrhalis. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of glucose, galactose, and glucosamine in different molar proportions in the LPS from these two isolates, whereas there was no difference between the two isolates in the ratios of ketodeoxyoctonate, phosphate, and the fatty acids C12, 3-OH-C12, and 3-OH-C11 present. Heptose or 3-OH-C14 was not detectable in either preparation. LPS from both strains appeared semirough according to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, presenting a core polysaccharide plus one repeating unit. Immunoblotting, passive hemolysis, and hemolysis inhibition assays using anti-LPS antibodies from immunized rabbits demonstrated cross-reactivity between the LPS preparations; however, antigenic dissimilarities were also found, suggesting that more than one serotype may exist. The lipid A isolated from the two LPS was serologically identical and exhibited cross-reactivity with lipid A of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The B. catarrhalis LPS were biologically active, causing lethality in D-galactosamine-sensitized C57/BL6 mice and inducing Limulus amoebocyte lysate gelation. Images PMID:1908833

Fomsgaard, J S; Fomsgaard, A; Høiby, N; Bruun, B; Galanos, C



A comparison of the fine structure of Micrococcus diversus, Neisseria catarrhalis and Neisseria sicca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of thin sections ofMicrococcus diversus, Neisseria catarrhalis andN. sicca reveals a cytoplasmic membrane, nuclear region and ribosomes which correspond to those recognized in other bacteria. Their cell walls are multilayered and resemble those of gram-negative microorganisms. Structures suggestive of mesosomes were observed inM. diversus andN. catarrhalis. These cytological observations concur with the findings of Kocur for the fine structure

A. E. Girard; B. J. Cosenza



Analysis of the expression of the putatively virulence-associated neisserial protein RmpM (class 4) in commensal Neisseria and Moraxella catarrhalis strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RmpM protein has been reported to be present only in pathogenic Neisseria species. In the present study we demonstrate that this protein is also present at least in N. lactamica and N. sicca strains. The N. lactamica protein reacts with a RmpM-specific monoclonal antibody (185,H-8), having a molecular mass (?31 kDa) slightly lower than that of the meningococcal RmpM,

Gemma Troncoso; Sandra Sánchez; Jan Kolberg; Einar Rosenqvist; Manuel Veiga; Carlos M. Ferreirós; Mar??a-Teresa Criado



Development and validation of a multiplex PCR-based assay for the upper respiratory tract bacterial pathogens haemophilus influenzae, streptococcus pneumoniae, and moraxella catarrhalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Conventional simplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays are limited in that they only provide for the detection of a single infectious agent. Many clinical diseases, however, present in a nonspecific, or syndromic, fashion, thereby necessitating the simultaneous assessment of multiple pathogens. Panel-based molecular diagnostic testing can be accomplished by the development of multiplex PCR-based assays, which can detect, individually

JC Post; GJ White; JJ Aul; T Zavoral; RM Wadowsky; Y Zhang; RA Preston; GD Ehrlich



Bacteremia Due to Moraxella atlantae in a Cancer Patient  

PubMed Central

A gram-negative alkaline phosphatase- and pyrrolidone peptidase-positive rod-shaped bacterium (CCUG 45702) was isolated from two aerobic blood cultures from a female cancer patient. No identification could be reached using phenotypic techniques. Amplification of the tRNA intergenic spacers revealed fragments with lengths of 116, 133, and 270 bp, but no such pattern was present in our reference library. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed its identity as Moraxella atlantae, a species isolated only rarely and published only once as causing infection. In retrospect, the phenotypic characteristics fit the identification as M. atlantae (formerly known as CDC group M-3). Comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicates that M. atlantae, M. lincolnii, and M. osloensis might constitute three separate genera within the Moraxellaceae. After treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for 2 days, fever subsided and the patient was dismissed. PMID:12089312

De Baere, Thierry; Muylaert, An; Everaert, Els; Wauters, Georges; Claeys, Geert; Verschraegen, Gerda; Vaneechoutte, Mario



Respiratory symptoms due to Branhamella catarrhalis and other Neisseria species infections--response to erythromycin therapy.  


Neisseria microorganisms (Neisseria lactamica, Neisseria sicca, and Neisseria mucosa) are regarded as normal respiratory commensals. Branhamella catarrhalis (formerly Neisseria catarrhalis) has also been regarded as a normal respiratory commensal, but reports indicate that it can be pathogenic. The role of Neisseria spp was studied in 160 patients with chest infections and symptoms and signs of obstructive respiratory disease. Group I patients (n = 140) had a history of asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema. Group II patients (n = 20) had an initially responsive pulmonary tuberculosis but presented with fever and obstructive airway disease. Group I patients had disease that was difficult to control despite increased bronchodilator therapy, but they responded dramatically after two to three days of appropriate antibiotic therapy. Patients in group II showed a similar response to erythromycin. Neisseria infection was responsible for precipitating or exacerbating respiratory distress in both groups. Accordingly, it is concluded that Neisseria can be pathogenic and that patients with fever and obstructive respiratory symptoms require treatment. PMID:2509070

Hamedani, P; Hafiz, S; Ali, J; Memon, R; Ali, S; Ali, M; Ansari, M; Siddique, I; Raza, R



Analytica Chimica Acta 470 (2002) 7986 Microbial biosensor for p-nitrophenol using Moraxella sp.  

E-print Network

while consuming oxygen. A change in oxygen concentration was determined by a Clark oxy- gen electrode-degrading organisms immobilized in a membrane on a dissolved oxygen electrode. Moraxella sp. specifically oxidizes PNP techniques are time-consuming, expensive, require skilled operators and are not suitable for on-line or field

Chen, Wilfred


Morphological and Biochemical Differentiation of Achromobacter and Moraxella (Debord's Tribe Mimeae)1  

PubMed Central

To determine the most useful laboratory tests for the differentiation of Achromobacter anitratus, Achromobacter lwoffii, and Moraxella duplex (DeBord's tribe Mimeae), 157 strains of these bacteria, isolated from clinical specimens, were examined for their morphological and biochemical characteristics. There were several differences between these nonfermentative, gram-negative diplococci: Moraxella was nonglucolytic in either infusion base or synthetic base, oxidase-positive, and sensitive to penicillin, whereas Achromobacter produced variable carbohydrate activity, and was oxidase-negative and resistant to penicillin. A. anitratus was distinguished from A. lwoffii in that the former utilized infusion media containing either glucose or 10% lactose, whereas the latter did not. Both species utilized the same carbohydrates in a chemically defined medium, although the latter acted more sluggishly. PMID:5636469

Gilardi, Gerald L.



Septic Arthritis Due to Moraxella osloensis in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)  

PubMed Central

A 5.5-y-old Chinese-origin female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral hindlimb lameness. The primate had been group-reared in an SPF breeding colony and was seronegative for Macacine herpesvirus 1, SIV, simian retrovirus type D, and simian T-lymphotropic virus. The macaque's previous medical history included multiple occasions of swelling in the left tarsus, and trauma to the right arm and bilateral hands. In addition, the macaque had experienced osteomyelitis of the left distal tibia and rupture of the right cranial cruciate ligament that had been surgically repaired. Abnormal physical examination findings on presentation included a thin body condition, mild dehydration, and bilaterally swollen stifles that were warm to the touch, with the right stifle more severely affected. Mild instability in the left stifle was noted, and decreased range of motion and muscle atrophy were present bilaterally. Hematologic findings included marked neutrophilia and lymphopenia and moderate anemia. Arthrocentesis and culture of joint fluid revealed Moraxella-like organisms. Treatment with enrofloxacin was initiated empirically and subsequently switched to cephalexin, which over time alleviated the joint swelling and inflammation. Definitive diagnosis of Moraxella osloensis septic arthritis was made through isolation of the organism and sequencing of the 16S rDNA region. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of Moraxella osloensis septic arthritis in a rhesus macaque. PMID:24326229

Wren, Melissa A; Caskey, John R; Liu, David X; Embers, Monica E



Influence of Moraxella sp. colonization on the kidney proteome of farmed gilthead sea breams (Sparus aurata, L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Currently, presence of Moraxella sp. in internal organs of fish is not considered detrimental for fish farming. However, bacterial colonization of internal organs can affect fish wellness and decrease growth rate, stress resistance, and immune response. Recently, there have been reports by farmers concerning slow growth, poor feed conversion, and low average weight increase of fish farmed in offshore floating sea cages, often associated with internal organ colonization by Moraxella sp. Therefore, presence of these opportunistic bacteria deserves further investigations for elucidating incidence and impact on fish metabolism. Results A total of 960 gilthead sea breams (Sparus aurata, L.), collected along 17 months from four offshore sea cage plants and two natural lagoons in Sardinia, were subjected to routine microbiological examination of internal organs throughout the production cycle. Thirteen subjects (1.35%) were found positive for Moraxella sp. in the kidney (7), brain (3), eye (1), spleen (1), and perivisceral fat (1). In order to investigate the influence of Moraxella sp. colonization, positive and negative kidney samples were subjected to a differential proteomics study by means of 2-D PAGE and mass spectrometry. Interestingly, Moraxella sp. infected kidneys displayed a concerted upregulation of several mitochondrial enzymes compared to negative tissues, reinforcing previous observations following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in fish. Conclusions Presence of Moraxella sp. in farmed sea bream kidney is able to induce proteome alterations similar to those described following LPS challenge in other fish species. This study revealed that Moraxella sp. might be causing metabolic alterations in fish, and provided indications on proteins that could be investigated as markers of infection by Gram-negative bacteria within farming plants. PMID:20939867



Three Cases of Moraxella osloensis Meningitis: A Difficult Experience in Species Identification and Determination of Clinical Significance  

PubMed Central

We had three cases of Moraxella osloensis meningitis. The species identification was impossible by conventional and commercial phenotypic tests. However, we could identify the species using the 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Determination of clinical significance was difficult in one patient. All three patients recovered by appropriate antimicrobial therapy. PMID:20191057

Roh, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Chang Ki; Koh, Eunmi; Kim, Myung Sook; Yong, Dongeun; Park, Soo Chul; Chong, Yunsop



Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis II. Antibodies in lacrimal secretions of cattle naturally or experimentally infected with Moraxella bovis.  

PubMed Central

Preinfection, acute and convalescent phase lacrimal secretions from 20 cattle that had mild to severe keratoconjunctivitis (associated with natural or experimental Moraxella bovis infection) were tested for specific antibody to M. bovis as well as for immunoglobulins, particulary of the A class. The convalescent phase secretions from all four natural cases but from only seven of the 16 experimental cases contained increased amounts of immunoglobulins, predominantly of the A class. Only the secretions from cattle having severe keratoconjunctivitis contained precipitins specific for Moraxella bovis.Therefore, M. bovis specifically stimulates the appearance in tears of immunoglobulins that are important in the age associated, acquired resistance to reinfection with M. bovis. Images Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:803398

Nayar, P S; Saunders, J R



Isolation, purification and spectrometric analysis of PSP toxins from moraxella sp., a bacterium associated with a toxic dinoflagellate  

SciTech Connect

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a seafood intoxication syndrome caused by the injestion of shellfish contaminated with toxins produced by algae known as dinoflagellates. The PSP toxins, saxitoxin and its derivatives, act to block voltage-dependent sodium channels and can cause paralysis and even death at higher doses. It is well documented that bacteria coexist with many harmful or toxic algal species, though the exact nature of the association in relation to toxin production is unknown. Recently, the bacterium Moraxella sp. was isolated from the PSP toxin producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. Through HPLC analysis and saxitoxin receptor binding assays performed on crude bacterial extracts, it appears that Moraxella sp. is capable of producing saxitoxin and several of its derivatives. However, physical confirmation (e.g. mass spectrometry) of these results is still needed.

Boyce, S.D.; Doucette, G.J.



Evaluation of the Taxonomic Relationship of Micrococcus cryoph ilus, Branhamella catarrhalis, and Neisseriae by Comparative Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of Soluble Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrophoretic profiles of soluble proteins derived from seven strains of Bran ham el la ca tarr halis, Ne isseria perflava, Neisseria sicca, an d the psy c hr o p hile , Micrococcus cry ophilus, were compared. The profiles produced from the strains of Branhamella catarrhalis showed a marked similarity except for that of strain Ne4 (ATCC 23246) which was



Pathway for Biodegradation of p-Nitrophenol in a Moraxella sp  

PubMed Central

A Moraxella strain grew on p-nitrophenol with stoichiometric release of nitrite. During induction of the enzymes for growth on p-nitrophenol, traces of hydroquinone accumulated in the medium. In the presence of 2,2?-dipyridyl, p-nitrophenol was converted stoichiometrically to hydroquinone. Particulate enzymes catalyzed the conversion of p-nitrophenol to hydroquinone in the presence of NADPH and oxygen. Soluble enzymes catalyzed the conversion of hydroquinone to ?-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde, which was identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-mass spectroscopy. Upon addition of catalytic amounts of NAD+, ?-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde was converted to ?-ketoadipic acid. In the presence of pyruvate and lactic dehydrogenase, substrate amounts of NAD were required and ?-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde was converted to maleylacetic acid, which was identified by HPLC-mass spectroscopy. Similar results were obtained when the reaction was carried out in the presence of potassium ferricyanide. Extracts prepared from p-nitrophenol-growth cells also contained an enzyme that catalyzed the oxidation of 1,2,4-benzenetriol to maleylacetic acid. The enzyme responsible for the oxidation of 1,2,4-benzenetriol was separated from the enzyme responsible for hydroquinone oxidation by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The results indicate that the pathway for biodegradation of p-nitrophenol involves the initial removal of the nitro group as nitrite and formation of hydroquinone. 1,4-Benzoquinone, a likely intermediate in the initial reaction, was not detected. Hydroquinone is converted to ?-ketoadipic acid via ?-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde and maleylacetic acid. PMID:16348446

Spain, Jim C.; Gibson, David T.



Recombinant Moraxella bovoculi cytotoxin-ISCOM matrix adjuvanted vaccine to prevent naturally occurring infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis  

PubMed Central

A randomized, blinded, controlled field trial was conducted during summer 2006 in a northern California, USA, herd of beef cattle to evaluate the efficacy of a recombinant Moraxella bovoculi cytotoxin subunit vaccine to prevent naturally occurring infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK; pinkeye). A convenience sample comprised of 127 steers were administered a subcutaneous dose of either adjuvant alone (ISCOM matrices; control group) or recombinant M. bovoculi cytotoxin carboxy terminus adjuvanted with ISCOM matrices (MbvA group) and were boostered 21 days later. The steers were examined once weekly for 15 weeks for evidence of IBK. No significant difference in the cumulative proportion of corneal ulcerations was detected between groups. Compared to the control calves, the MbvA vaccinates had significantly higher increases in serum neutralizing titers to M. bovoculi hemolysin between week 0 and week 6. The prevalence of M. bovis isolations was higher from ulcerated eyes of calves vaccinated with MbvA as compared to control calves. Vaccination of calves against the carboxy terminus of M. bovoculi RTX toxin resulted in significant increases in serum hemolysin neutralizing titers and may modulate organism type cultured from ulcerated eyes of calves in herds where both M. bovis and M. bovoculi exist. Use of M. bovoculi antigens alone in vaccines to prevent IBK may not be beneficial in herds where IBK is associated with both M. bovoculi and M. bovis. PMID:20217228

Lane, V. Michael; Ball, Louise M.; Hess, John F.



Molecular characterization of plasmid pMoma1of Moraxella macacae, a newly described bacterial pathogen of macaques.  


We report the complete nucleotide sequence and characterization of a small cryptic plasmid of Moraxella macacae 0408225, a newly described bacterial species within the family Moraxellaceae and a causative agent of epistaxis in macaques. The complete nucleotide sequence of the plasmid pMoma1 was determined and found to be 5,375 bp in size with a GC content of 37.4 %. Computer analysis of the sequence data revealed five open reading frames encoding putative proteins of 54.4 kDa (ORF1), 17.6 kDa (ORF2), 13.3 kDa (ORF3), 51.6 kDa (ORF4), and 25.0 kDa (ORF5). ORF1, ORF2, and ORF3 encode putative proteins with high identity (72, 42, and 55 %, respectively) to mobilization proteins of plasmids found in other Moraxella species. ORF3 encodes a putative protein with similarity (about 40 %) to several plasmid replicase (RepA) proteins. The fifth open reading frames (ORF) was most similar to hypothetical proteins with unknown functions, although domain analysis of this sequence suggests it belongs to the Abi-like protein family. Upstream of the repA gene, a 470-bp intergenic region, was identified that contained an AT-rich section and two sets of tandem direct and indirect repeats, consistent with a putative origin of replication site. In contrast to other plasmids of Moraxella, the occurrence of pMoma1 in M. macacae isolates appears to be common as PCR testing of 14 clinical isolates from two different research institutions all contained the plasmid. PMID:25398380

Whitehouse, Chris A; Ladner, Jason T; Palacios, Gustavo F



UV light-induced survival response in a highly radiation-resistant isolate of the Moraxella-acinetobacter group  

SciTech Connect

A highly radiation-resistant member of the Moraxella-Acinetobacter group, isolate 4, obtained from meat, was studied to determine the effect of preexposure to UV radiation on subsequent UV light resistance. Cultures that were preexposed to UV light and incubated for a short time in plate count broth exhibited increased survival of a UV light challenge dose. This response was inhibited in the presence of chloramphenicol. Frequencies of mutation to streptomycin, trimethoprim, and sulfanilamide resistance remained the same after the induction of this survival response and were not altered by treatment with mutagens, with the exception of mutation to streptomycin resistance after ..gamma..-irradiation or nitrosoguanidine or methyl methane sulfonate treatment. The results indicated that isolate 4 has a UV light-inducible UV light resistance mechanism which is not associated with increased mutagenesis. The characteristics of the radiation resistance response in this organism are similar to those of certain other common food contaminants. Therefore, considered as part of the total microflora of meat, isolate 4 and the other radiation-resistant Moraxella-Acinetobacter isolates should not pose unique problems in a proposed radappertizaton process.

Keller, L.C.; Thompson, T.L.; Maxcy, R.B.



Formation of amino acid ( l-leucine, l-phenylalanine) derived volatile flavour compounds by Moraxella phenylpyruvica and Staphylococcus xylosus in cured meat model systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterial strain isolated from Danish immersion curing brine, Moraxella phenylpyruvica 0100, and a commercial meat starter culture, Staphylococcus xylosus DD34, were tested for their ability to form characteristic volatile compounds in minimal medium with the added amino acid l-leucine or l-phenylalanine under different environmental conditions (pH 5.5 and 6.0; 0 and 210ppm nitrate; pre-incubation with and without agitation) and

Jens K. S Møller; Lars L Hinrichsen; Henrik J Andersen



Development of the radiation-resistant strain of Moraxella osloensis and effect of penicillin G on its growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of repeated exposures to ?-radiation with intervening outgrowth of survivors was used to develop radioresistant cultures of Moraxella osloensis that have been recognized as potential pathogenic microorganism. The D10 value of the radiation-resistant strain, 5.903±0.006 kGy, was increased by four-fold compared to the parent wild-type strain, 1.637±0.004 kGy. Since most strains of M. osloensis are sensitive to penicillin, we have surveyed the sensitivity of radiation-resistant strain to this antibiotic. When the optical density was monitored after the addition of penicillin G, the radioresistant strain appeared to be more resistant to only a low concentration of penicillin G (0.5 U/ml) than the parent strain. Interestingly, however, there was no apparent difference in the number of viable cells between both strains. Scanning electron microscope data showed that the resistance cells were generally larger than the parent cells, suggesting that this increase in size may cause a higher optical density of radioresistant cells. In conclusion, radiation mutation does not affect the penicillin resistance of M. osloensis.

Lim, Sangyong; Yun, Hyejeong; Joe, Minho; Kim, Dongho



Fermentation Products of Solvent Tolerant Marine Bacterium Moraxella spp. MB1 and Its Biotechnological Applications in Salicylic Acid Bioconversion  

PubMed Central

As part of a proactive approach to environmental protection, emerging issues with potential impact on the environment is the subject of ongoing investigation. One emerging area of environmental research concerns pharmaceuticals like salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of various analgesics including aspirin. It is a common component of sewage effluent and also an intermediate in the degradation pathway of various aromatic compounds which are introduced in the marine environment as pollutants. In this study, biotransformation products of salicylic acid by seaweed, Bryopsis plumosa, associated marine bacterium, Moraxella spp. MB1, have been investigated. Phenol, conjugates of phenol and hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaroyl, caffeoyl, feruloyl and trihydroxy cinnamyl) with salicylic acid (3–8) were identified as the bioconversion products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These results show that the microorganism do not degrade phenolic acid but catalyses oxygen dependent transformations without ring cleavage. The degradation of salicylic acid is known to proceed either via gentisic acid pathway or catechol pathway but this is the first report of biotransformation of salicylic acid into cinnamates, without ring cleavage. Besides cinnamic acid derivatives (9–12), metabolites produced by the bacterium include antimicrobial indole (13) and ?-carbolines, norharman (14), harman (15) and methyl derivative (16), which are beneficial to the host and the environment. PMID:24391802

Wahidullah, Solimabi; Naik, Deepak N.; Devi, Prabha



Understanding Pneumonia  


... common cause of bacterial pneumonia in adults is Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), but there is a vaccine available ... can cause pneumonia include Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Neisseria meningitidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae. ...


Assessment of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J killing of Moraxella bovis in an in vitro model of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.  


The objective of this study was to determine the potential of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J as an alternative non-chemotherapeutic treatment of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). To accomplish this, various parameters of B. bacteriovorus predation of Moraxella bovis were determined in vitro. Initial passage of B. bacteriovorus using M. bovis as prey required 10 d for active cultures to develop compared with 2 d for culture on normal Escherichia coli prey; however by the 5th passage, time to active predatory morphology was reduced to 2 d. This high passage B. bacteriovorus culture [1 × 10(10) plaque forming units (PFU)/mL] killed 76% of M. bovis [1 × 10(7) colony forming units (CFU)/mL] present in suspension broth in a 4 h assay. The minimal level of M. bovis supporting B. bacteriovorus predation was 1 × 10(4) CFU/mL. To assess the ability of B. bacteriovorus to kill M. bovis on an epithelial surface mimicking IBK, an in vitro assay with Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells inoculated with 4 × 10(7) CFU/mL M. bovis was used. Treatment with a B. bacteriovorus suspension (1.6 × 10(11) PFU/mL) decreased adherence of M. bovis to MDBK cells by 6-fold at 12 h of treatment, as well as decreased the number of unattached M. bovis cells by 1.4-fold. This study demonstrates that B. bacteriovorus has potential as an effective biological control of M. bovis at levels likely present in IBK-infected corneal epithelia and ocular secretions. PMID:22468026

Boileau, Mélanie J; Clinkenbeard, Kenneth D; Iandolo, John J



Ocular Immune Responses in Steers following Intranasal Vaccination with Recombinant Moraxella bovis Cytotoxin Adjuvanted with Polyacrylic Acid  

PubMed Central

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) caused by Moraxella bovis is the most common eye disease of cattle. The pathogenesis of M. bovis requires the expression of pili that enable the organism to attach to the ocular surface and an RTX (repeats in the structural toxin) toxin (cytotoxin or hemolysin), which is cytotoxic to corneal epithelial cells. In this pilot study, ocular mucosal immune responses of steers were measured following intranasal (i.n.) vaccination with a recombinant M. bovis cytotoxin adjuvanted with polyacrylic acid. Beef steers were vaccinated with either 500 ?g (n = 3) or 200 ?g (n = 3) of recombinant M. bovis cytotoxin plus adjuvant. Control group steers (n = 2) were vaccinated with adjuvant alone, and all steers were given a booster on day 21. Antigen-specific tear IgA and tear IgG, tear cytotoxin-neutralizing antibody responses, and serum cytotoxin-neutralizing antibody responses were determined in samples collected prevaccination and on days 14, 28, 42, and 55. Changes in tear antigen-specific IgA levels from day 0 to days 28, 42, and 55 were significantly different between groups; however, in post hoc comparisons between individual group pairs at the tested time points, the differences were not significant. Our results suggest that i.n. vaccination of cattle with recombinant M. bovis cytotoxin adjuvanted with polyacrylic acid effects changes in ocular antigen-specific IgA concentrations. The use of intranasally administered recombinant M. bovis cytotoxin adjuvanted with polyacrylic acid could provide an alternative to parenteral vaccination of cattle for immunoprophylaxis against IBK. PMID:24334685

Edman, Judy M.; Chigerwe, Munashe



Assessment of methodological quality and sources of variation in the magnitude of vaccine efficacy: A systematic review of studies from 1960 to 2005 reporting immunization with Moraxella bovis vaccines in young cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review was conducted of all identified literature evaluating Moraxella bovis vaccines efficacy in preventing pinkeye in beef calves. From 292 publications identified by the search, data on 123 unique vaccine-to-control comparisons were extracted from 38 studies published in English from 1960 to 2005. Descriptive analysis was performed and an analysis of sources of variation evaluated. Use of methods to

M. J. Burns; A. M. O’Connor



Therapeutic Strategy of Infections Caused by Antibiotic Resistant Pneumococci  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Pneumococci are the commonest bacterial pathogens in acute otitis media, acute sinusitis, community-acquired pneumonia, and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Treatment of these diseases is usually on an outpatient basis and is empiric, and is designed to cover other common causes of these diseases such as Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis as the etiologic agents is not usually identified.

Michael R. Jacobs


Antibacterial activity of oral antibiotics against community-acquired respiratory pathogens from three European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial resistance is universally recognized as a major problem. A European resistance survey was established to monitor the activity of widely used oral antibiotics against common respiratory tract pathogens. Studies were conducted in Italy, Spain and Austria to monitor resistance patterns among respiratory Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae to amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, penicillin,

Gian Carlo Schito; Apostolos Georgopoulos; José Prieto



The Nearchus project 1 Nearchus project centres: D. Waghorn, Wycombe General Hospital; A. MacGowan, Southmead Hospital, Bristol; D.F.J. Brown, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge; G. Lindsay, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow; A. Swann, Leicester Royal Infirmary; S. Barrett, St Mary’s, Hospital, London; M.J. Sheppard, All Saint’s Hospital, Chatham; F.K. Gould, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle; D.A.B. Dance, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth; S. Hill, Poole Hospital; P.M. Cockcroft, St Mary’s Hospital, Portsmouth; J. Sellars, Wansbeck Hospital, Ashington; A. Davies, Sandwell Hospital, West Bromwich; J. Symonds, Russells Hall Hospital, Dudley; P. Murphy, City Hospital, Belfast; A.R. Stacey, Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading; E.J. Ridgway, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield; M. Wilcox, General Hospital, Leeds; R. Spencer, Bristol Royal Infirmary; L. Neville, Homerton Hospital; B.S. Perera, Royal Oldham Hospital; A.M. Emmerson, Queens Medical Centre, Nottingham; I.M. Gould, Aberdeen Royal Infirmar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-acquired respiratory infections are usually treated empirically by the primary care physician. Increasing antibiotic resistance, for example, in pneumococci, prompted a UK survey of antibiotic susceptibility of three major lower respiratory tract pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Each of 27 centres was asked to collect up to 100 isolates of the three species and submit them for

R. N. Grüneberg; D. Felmingham; I. Harding; S. B. Shrimpton; A. Nathwani



Use of Multiplex PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Four Bacterial Species in Middle Ear Effusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiplex PCR procedure was developed for the simultaneous detection of Alloiococcus otitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in middle ear effusions (MEEs) from patients with chronic otitis media with effusion. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was chosen as the target, and the procedure used one common lower primer and four species-specific upper primers. The reaction was optimized




Effects of antibiotic treatment in the subset of common-cold patients who have bacteria in nasopharyngeal secretions  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground Upper-respiratory-tract infection is one of the main causes of overuse of antibiotics. We have found previously that bacteria such as Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae can be isolated from the nasopharyngeal secretions of a substantial proportion of adults with upper-respiratory-tract infections. We have assessed the efficacy of co-amoxiclav in patients with common colds but no clinical signs

L Kaiser; D Lew; B Hirschel; R Auckenthaler; A Morabia; A Heald; J Voegli; H Stalder; P Benedict; F Terrier; W Wunderli; L Matter; D Germann



Identification of the Conjugative mef Gene in Clinical Acinetobacter junii and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mef gene, originally described for gram-positive organisms and coding for an efflux pump, has been identified in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter junii and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. These strains could transfer the mef gene at frequencies ranging from 10 26 to 10 29 into one or more of the following recipients: gram-negative Moraxella catarrhalis, Neisseria perflava\\/sicca and Neisseria mucosa and gram-positive




In Vitro Activities of ABT-492, a New Fluoroquinolone, against 155 Aerobic and 171 Anaerobic Pathogens Isolated from Antral Sinus Puncture Specimens from Patients with Sinusitis  

PubMed Central

ABT-492 exhibited excellent in vitro activities against all 326 aerobic and anaerobic antral puncture sinus isolates tested with MICs (in micrograms per milliliter) at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited as follows: Haemophilus influenzae, 0.001; Moraxella catarrhalis, 0.008; and Streptococcus pneumoniae, 0.015. It was four- to sixfold more active than other fluoroquinolones, including against levofloxacin-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Prevotella species. PMID:12937015

Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi A.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Fernandez, Helen T.



Otitis Media: A Review, with a Focus on Alternative Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Otitis media (OM) is the accumulation of fluids in the middle ear, with or without symptoms of inflammation. The infection\\u000a is caused by dysfunction or obstruction of the eustachian tube and is most commonly diagnosed in children under the age of\\u000a two. The microbiology of OM differs, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis the most commonly isolated

L. M. T. Dicks; H. Knoetze; C. A. van Reenen



Use of an Oligonucleotide Array for Laboratory Diagnosis of Bacteria Responsible for Acute Upper Respiratory Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a diagnostic array of oligonucleotide probes targeting species-specific variable regions of the genes encoding topoisomerases GyrB and ParE of respiratory bacterial pathogens. Suitable broad-range primer sequences were designed based on alignment of gyrB\\/parE sequences from nine different bacterial species. These species included Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Haemophilus influen- zae, Legionella pneumophila, Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus

Stina B. Roth; Jari Jalava; Olli Ruuskanen; Aino Ruohola; Simo Nikkari



Fluoroquinolones for the treatment of respiratory tract infections other than pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A variety of bacterial species are associated with acute respiratory tract infections, including Gram-positive, Gram-negative,\\u000a and atypical pathogens. The most common pathogens include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Legionella species, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Because of cost considerations and specimen collection difficulties, primary care physicians seldom attempt to identify the\\u000a causative pathogen. As a result treatment is necessarily

Donald E. Low


Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

Nelson, O.D.



One third of middle ear effusions from children undergoing tympanostomy tube placement had multiple bacterial pathogens  

PubMed Central

Background Because previous studies have indicated that otitis media may be a polymicrobial disease, we prospectively analyzed middle ear effusions of children undergoing tympanostomy tube placement with multiplex polymerase chain reaction for four otopathogens. Methods Middle ear effusions from 207 children undergoing routine tympanostomy tube placement were collected and were classified by the surgeon as acute otitis media (AOM) for purulent effusions and as otitis media with effusion (OME) for non-purulent effusions. DNA was isolated from these samples and analyzed with multiplex polymerase chain reaction for Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Alloiococcus otitidis, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Results 119 (57%) of 207 patients were PCR positive for at least one of these four organisms. 36 (30%) of the positive samples indicated the presence of more than one bacterial species. Patient samples were further separated into 2 groups based on clinical presentation at the time of surgery. Samples were categorized as acute otitis media (AOM) if pus was observed behind the tympanic membrane. If no pus was present, samples were categorized as otitis media with effusion (OME). Bacteria were identified in most of the children with AOM (87%) and half the children with OME (51%, p?Moraxella catarrhalis were more frequently identified in middle ear effusions than Streptococcus pneumoniae. Conclusions Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Alloiococcus otitidis, and Moraxella catarrhalis were identified in the middle ear effusions of some patients with otitis media. Overall, we found AOM is predominantly a single organism infection and most commonly from Haemophilus influenzae. In contrast, OME infections had a more equal distribution of single organisms, polymicrobial entities, and non-bacterial agents. PMID:22741759



Spectra/Por Easy-to-Use  

E-print Network

Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Spectra/Por® Micro Dispo Regenerated Cellulose (RC) seamless membrane attached to a floatable cap for easy handling. No flotation upright and feature our Spectra/Por® Biotech Cellulose Ester (CE) and Regenerated Cellulose (RC) dialysis

Lebendiker, Mario


Antimicrobial Activity of DC159a, a New Fluoroquinolone, against 1,149 Recently Collected Clinical Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of DC-159a, a novel orally administered fluorinated quinolone, was evaluated by reference broth microdilution or agar dilution methods against 1,149 recently collected clinical isolates from five continents. Against pathogens associated with community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CA-RTIs), the MIC90s were 0.12 g\\/ml for Streptococcus pneumoniae, 0.015 to 0.03 g\\/ml for Haemophilus influenzae, 0.03 g\\/ml for Moraxella catarrhalis, and 0.12

Ronald N. Jones; Thomas R. Fritsche; Helio S. Sader



Evaluation of pyrrolidonyl arylamidase for the identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative rods.  


To evaluate the activity of pyrrolidonyl arylamidase (PYR) for the differentiation and identification of nonfermenting gram negative rods (NFGNR), 293 isolates were tested. A 24 h culture of each test organism was prepared. From this a 108-109 cfu/mL suspension was added to 0.25 mL of sterile physiologic solution. A PYR disk was then added and the test was incubated for 30 minutes at 35-37 degrees C, at environmental atmosphere. Reading was done by adding 1 drop of cinnamaldehyde reagent. Strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Alcaligenes faecalis, Bergeyella zoohelcum, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella hinzii, Brevundimonas diminuta, Brevundimonas vesicularis, Brucella ovis, Brucella spp., Brucella suis, Burkholderia cepacia complex, Moraxella catarrhalis, Moraxella lacunata, Moraxella nonliquefaciens, Moraxella osloensis, Oligella ureolytica, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Pseudomonas mendocina, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas Vb3, Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were PYR negative. On the other hand Achromobacter piechaudii, Achromobacter denitrificans, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Burkholderia gladioli, Chryseobacterium gleum-indologenes, Comamonas testosroni, Cupriavidus pauculus, Delftia acidovorans, Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, Myroides spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Ralstonia pickettii, Rhizobium radiobacter, Shewanella spp., Sphingobacterium multivorum, Sphingobacterium spiritivorum, and Weeksella virosa were PYR positive. Finally, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Roseomonas spp., and Sphingomonas paucimobilis-parapaucimobilis were PYR variable. PYR testing should be considered as a useful tool to facilitate the identification of NFGNR. PMID:16822636

Bombicino, Karina A; Almuzara, Marisa N; Famiglietti, Angela M R; Vay, Carlos



Antigenicity and other characteristics of Moraxella (Hemophilus) bovis  

E-print Network

. to determine thc ability of smooth cultures to stimulate immunity c ttle. PZVIK'F QF TM LIT:211TUILS Info bxo!ls kcraiocon jlLlct ivitig ie a . '. ntoglouo ?license aff ecg ing the eyes of bov Luce. It is characterised by photophobia. , coxv!oal ulceration.... rickettsia in some respects. Keratitis in cattle wi. th corneal ulceration was reportedly due to the presence of Thslazia ~s o. ac"ording to Mitchell and. Hughes 31 in England in 1955. Infectious ophthalmia of cattle 'n, Australia was recorded. by Gs...

Henson, James Bond



Reconstrução tridimensional de arcos magnéticos por tomografia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uma explosão solar é uma variação súbita do brilho que ocorre nas regiões ativas da atmosfera solar. Estas regiões são constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética e em cenários bem complexos como visto recentemente através de experimentos embarcados em satélites operando instrumentos em raios X moles e ultra-violeta distante. A energia magnética, que pode ser armazenada por

P. J. A. Simões; J. E. R. Costa



SPIDARK (Hexápodo controlado por tres servomotores)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SPIDARK es una muestra de los diferentes tipos de control y manejo que pueden ser realizados desde un microcontrolador. Esto se ve reflejado en el control y movimiento del hexápodo; SPIDARK es una hexápodo controlado por tres servomotores que cuenta con 3 modos de operación: modo automático, modo controlado por estimulo luminoso y modo radio-controlado en los cuales se abarca

Manuel Felipe Aranda Marrugo


Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan  

SciTech Connect

This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

Nelson, O.D.



Early acquisition and high nasopharyngeal co-colonisation by Streptococcus pneumoniae and three respiratory pathogens amongst Gambian new-borns and infants  

PubMed Central

Background Although Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis are important causes of invasive and mucosal bacterial disease among children, co-carriage with Streptococcus pneumoniae during infancy has not been determined in West Africa. Methods Species specific PCR was applied to detect each microbe using purified genomic DNA from 498 nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs collected from 30 Gambian neonates every two weeks from 0 to 6 months and bi-monthly up to 12 months. Results All infants carried S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis at several time points during infancy. S.pneumoniae co-colonized the infant nasopharynx with at least one other pathogen nine out of ten times. There was early colonization of the newborns and neonates, the average times to first detection were 5, 7, 3 and 14 weeks for S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis and S. aureus respectively. The prevalence of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis increased among the neonates and exceeded 80% by 13, 15 and 23 weeks respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of S. aureus decreased from 50% among the newborns to 20% amongst nine-week old neonates. S. pneumoniae appeared to have a strong positive association with H. influenzae (OR 5.03; 95% CI 3.02, 8.39; p < 0.01) and M. catarrhalis (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.29; p < 0.01) but it was negatively associated with S. aureus (OR 0.53; 95% CI 0.30, 0.94; p = 0.03). Conclusion This study shows early acquisition and high co-carriage of three important respiratory pathogens with S. pneumoniae in the nasopharyngeal mucosa among Gambian neonates and infants. This has important potential implications for the aetiology of respiratory polymicrobial infections, biofilm formation and vaccine strategies. PMID:21689403



Association Between Pathogens Detected Using Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction With Airway Inflammation in COPD at Stable State and Exacerbations  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Relationships between airway inflammation and respiratory potentially pathogenic microorganisms (PPMs) quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in subjects with COPD are unclear. Our aim was to evaluate mediators of airway inflammation and their association with PPMs in subjects with COPD at stable state and during exacerbations. METHODS: Sputum from 120 stable subjects with COPD was analyzed for bacteriology (colony-forming units; total 16S; and qPCR targeting Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae), differential cell counts, and inflammatory mediators using the Meso-Scale Discovery Platform. Subjects were classified as colonized if any PPM was identified above the threshold of detection by qPCR. Symptoms were quantified using the visual analog scale. RESULTS: At stable state, 60% of subjects were qPCR positive for H influenzae, 48% for M catarrhalis, and 28% for S pneumoniae. Elevated sputum concentrations of IL-1?, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? were detected in samples qPCR positive for either H influenzae or M catarrhalis. Bacterial loads of H influenzae positively correlated with IL-1?, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-?, and symptoms; and M catarrhalis correlated with IL-10 and TNF-?. H influenzae qPCR bacterial load was an independent predictor of sputum TNF-? and IL-1?. In 55 subjects with paired exacerbation data, qPCR bacterial load fold change at exacerbation in M catarrhalis but not H influenzae correlated to changes in sputum TNF-? and IL-1? concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: At stable state, H influenzae is associated with increased airway inflammation in COPD. The relationship between bacterial load changes of specific pathogens and airway inflammation at exacerbation and recovery warrants further investigation. PMID:25103335

Barker, Bethan L.; Haldar, Koirobi; Patel, Hemu; Pavord, Ian D.; Barer, Michael R.; Brightling, Christopher E.



Nasopharyngeal vs. adenoid cultures in children undergoing adenoidectomy: prevalence of bacterial pathogens, their interactions and risk factors.  


Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Staphylococcus aureus colonization of the adenoids and nasopharynx in 103 preschool children who underwent adenoidectomy for recurrent upper respiratory tract infections was examined. Bacterial interactions and risk factors for bacterial colonization of the nasopharynx and adenoids, separately, were analysed statistically. The prevalence of simultaneous isolation from both anatomical sites was 45·6% for S. pneumoniae, 29·1% for H. influenzae, 15·5% for M. catarrhalis and 18·4% for S. aureus. Three pathogens were significantly more frequent together from adenoid samples; nasopharyngeal swabs more often yielded a single organism, but without statistical significance. M. catarrhalis and S. aureus significantly more frequently co-existed with S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae than with each other and a positive association of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae in adenoid samples was evident. Several differences between risk factors for nasopharyngeal and adenoid colonization by the individual pathogens were observed. We conclude that the adenoids and nasopharynx appear to differ substantially in colonization by pathogenic microbes but occurrence of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae in the nasopharynx could be predictive of upper respiratory tract infections. PMID:25703401

Korona-Glowniak, I; Niedzielski, A; Kosikowska, U; Grzegorczyk, A; Malm, A



Planificacin de Saneamiento Ambiental Urbano liderado por  

E-print Network

Planificación de Saneamiento Ambiental Urbano liderado por la Comunidad: clues Guía completa para tomadores de decisiones con 30 herramientas #12;#12;3 PlanificacióndeSaneamientoAmbiental Características del proceso de planificación 10 Cómo usar esta guía 11 Identificación de un ambiente favorable 11

Wehrli, Bernhard


Reconstrução tridimensional de arcos magnéticos por tomografia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uma explosão solar é uma variação súbita do brilho que ocorre nas regiões ativas da atmosfera solar. Estas regiões são constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética e em cenários bem complexos como visto recentemente através de experimentos embarcados em satélites operando instrumentos em raios X moles e ultra-violeta distante. A energia magnética, que pode ser armazenada por um período de horas até dias em configurações magnéticas estressadas, é subitamente lançada na atmosfera solar e transferida para partículas como elétrons, prótons e núcleos pesados, que são acelerados e/ou aquecidos, produzindo radiação eletromagnética. A proposta final deste projeto é determinar as características espaciais de alta resolução da emissão e polarização girossincrotrônica de explosões solares em ambientes complexos de campos magnéticos. Os recentes resultados da emissão difusa em EUV apresentado pelos satélites TRACE e SOHO dos arcos magnéticos conectando as diferentes polaridades magnéticas sobre as regiões ativas possibilitam novas abordagens sobre o papel do campo magnético na emissão em rádio. Nesta etapa apresentamos os resultados da reconstrução da geometria tridimensional das linhas de força destes arcos utilizando técnicas tomográficas, a partir de imagens de alta resolução espacial obtidas pelo instrumento EIT (Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope), além da modelagem das induções magnéticas por um campo dipolar e as densidades de partículas aceleradas. Utilizamos para a reconstrução geométrica, imagens tomadas em vários ângulos dos arcos devido à rotacão solar. Com estes resultados, daremos continuidade ao projeto, com os cálculos da transferência radiativa nos modos ordinário e extraordinário de propagação da radiação girossincrotrônica de explosões solares.

Simões, P. J. A.; Costa, J. E. R.




E-print Network

VALIDAÇÃO DE METODOLOGIA PARA DETERMINAÇÃO DE BTEX EM AMOSTRAS AMBIENTAIS POR GC/MS COM INJEÇÃO POR São Paulo. Palavras Chaves: BTEX, validação, GC/MS A contaminação de solo e águas subterrâneas por hidrocarbonetos aromáticos benzeno, tolueno, etilbenzeno e xilenos (BTEX), tem merecido particular destaque devido

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.


Los daños provocados por la prevención y por las actividades preventivas  

Microsoft Academic Search

La prevención es parte de la respuesta sanitaria a los problema de salud. La prevención tiene una historia y un presente honorables, que justifican un aura positiva de beneficio sin riesgos. Sin embargo, la prevención y las actividades preventivas se han vuelto peligrosas para la salud individual y colectiva por cuatro factores clave: la búsqueda de la salud perfecta y

Juan Gérvas; Mercedes Pérez Fernández



Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja  

Microsoft Academic Search

Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a

M. Santos; L. Díaz; J. A. Torresano; L. Rubio; B. Samoudi



Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.


Flexibilidad, Activos Estratégicos, y Valuación por Opciones Reales  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente trabajo expone las opciones reales y su aplicación a la valuación de la estrategia de adquisición de activos (definición en sentido amplio) por la empresa. Hace especial hincapié en el impacto que tiene la flexibilidad en la formación de la estrategia que escoge el management para administrar la colección de activos y procesos que le es delegada por

José Pablo Dapena Fernández




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: O escopo de nosso artigo restringe-se à proposição de uma crítica à teoria da complexidade quanto ao seu pressuposto ontológico: realidade complexa e à inalação decorrente de tal pressuposto; a necessidade de uma ciência da complexidade. Essa crítica visa apontar, por um lado, as insuficiências da referida teoria, marcada por um forte apelo metafísico, quando essa pretende estabelecer um

EDGAR MORIN; Érico Andrade


TECNOLOGIA E CINCIA Hospitais: Modelo matemtico criado por  

E-print Network

TECNOLOGIA E CIÊNCIA Hospitais: Modelo matemático criado por português melhora eficácia das, desenvolvido por João Luís Soares, do Departamento de Matemática da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da significativo do número de Page 1 of 3Tecnologia 10 13-11-2006

Soares, João Luís Cardoso


Microbiology of sinusitis.  


Most sinus infections are viral, and only a small proportion develops a secondary bacterial infection. Rhinoviruses, influenza viruses, and parainfluenza viruses are the most common causes of sinusitis. The most common bacteria isolated from pediatric and adult patients with community-acquired acute purulent sinusitis are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic bacteria (Prevotella and Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium and Peptostreptococcus spp.) are the main isolates in chronic sinusitis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other aerobic and facultative gram-negative rods are commonly isolated from patients with nosocomial sinusitis, the immunocompromised host, those with HIV infection, and in cystic fibrosis. Fungi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the most common isolates in neutropenic patients. The microbiology of sinusitis is influenced by the previous antimicrobial therapy, vaccinations, and the presence of normal flora capable of interfering with the growth of pathogens. PMID:21364226

Brook, Itzhak



[Microbial structure of acute bacterial conjunctivitis].  


Microbiological investigation of 124 patients with acute conjunctivitis which were treated in one of Tbilisi policlinics in 2010-12 years, was performed; microbial structure containing 124 microbial strains of different species was detected. Namely, following species of microorganisms were isolated: S. aureus - 35 strains (28,2%), Str. pneumoniae - 10 strains (8,1%), S. epidermidis - 6 strains (4,8%), Ps. aeruginosa - 24 strains (19,4%), Moraxella catarrhalis - 21 strains (16,9%), Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegipticus - 17 strains (13,7%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae - 11 strains (8,9%). Identification of microorganisms was performed using classic methods of microbiological explorations and test systems API (bio Meriux). Study of sensitivity/resistance to antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, tobramicin, norfoloxacin, moxifloxacin) containing in eye drops, was performed by diffusion in agar. High level of resistance to this antibiotic was found. As a result it is recommended to perform microbiological investigation in each case of acute conjunctivitis, to receive rational treatment. PMID:23567301

Chikviladze, D; Nikuradze, N; Gachechiladze, Kh; Miqeladze, M; Metreveli, D



Antimicrobial resistance surveillance of flomoxef in China.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of flomoxef against clinical isolates collected from China and understand the trend of antimicrobial resistance. A total of 2955 pathogenic strains isolated from 18 tertiary hospitals in 18 cities of China over the period from July 2011 to June 2012 were studied. And the susceptibility tests were performed using agar dilution method recommended by CLSI in central laboratory. Flomoxef showed good potency against Enterobacteriaceae with susceptibility rate 85%-100%. The susceptibility rates of flomoxef against Staphylococcus spp. isolates were 63.9%-92.2%; 98.8% of MSSA and 88.2% of MSSE were susceptible to this drug. For other tested bacteria including Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus spp., and Streptococcus spp. (except Viridans group streptococci) flomoxef showed good potency with susceptibility rate more than 95%. All these results strongly suggest that flomoxef is a potent antibacterial agent against major pathogens in China. PMID:25694055

Cui, Lanqing; Li, Yun; Lv, Yuan; Xue, Feng; Liu, Jian



Recubrimientos protectores para componentes de turbinas de aviación y de generación de energía depositados por proyección por plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los recubrimientos producidos por difusión de aluminio, llamados aluminuros, se emplean para aumentar la resistencia a la oxidación y a la corrosión, incrementando la vida de componentes fabricados con superaleaciones de níquel y cobalto a tem- peraturas comprendidas entre 900 y 1050º C. Por ello se emplean muy frecuentemente en turbinas aeronaúticas y de produc- ción de energía y en



Photodynamic therapy with water-soluble phtalocyanines against bacterial biofilms in teeth root canals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study presents the PDT with metal phthalocyanines on biofilms grown in root canals of ten representatives of the Gram-positive and the Gram-negative bacterial species and a fungus Candida albicans which cause aqute teeth infections in root canals.. The extracted human single-root teeth infected for 48 h with microorganisms in conditions to form biofilms of the above pathogens were PDT treated. The stage of biofilm formation and PDT effect of the samples of the teeth were determined by the scaning electron microscopy and with standard microbial tests. The PDT treating procedure included 10 min incubation with the respected phthalocyanine and irradiated with 660 nm Diode laser for 10 min. The most strongly antibacterial activity was achieved with zinc(II) phthalocyanine (ZnPc) against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis. The other Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans were 10-100 times more resistant than the Gram-positive species. The Gram-negative Moraxella catarrhalis and Acinetobacter baumannii were more sensitive than the enterobacteria, but eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in biofilm was insignificant. The influence of the stage of biofilm formation and the initial conditions (bacterial density, photosensitizer concentration and energy fluence of radiation) to the obtained level of inactivation of biofilms was investigated. The PDT with ZnPc photosensitizers show a powerful antimicrobial activity against the most frequent pathogens in endodontic infections and this method for inactivation of pathogens may be used with sucsses for treatment of the bacterial biofilms in the root canals.

Gergova, Raina; Georgieva, Tzvetelina; Angelov, Ivan; Mantareva, Vanya; Valkanov, Serjoga; Mitov, Ivan; Dimitrov, Slavcho



Infección por VIH y el riesgo de cáncer

Hoja informativa que describe el mayor riesgo de ciertos tipos de cánceres que presentan las personas con infección por VIH. Dichos cánceres son el sarcoma de Kaposi, los linfomas de Hodgkin y no Hodgkin, y los cánceres de ano, de cérvix, de hígado y de pulmón. Trata también de lo que las personas con infección por VIH pueden hacer para reducir su riesgo de cáncer o para detectar temprano la enfermedad.


Five-year prospective study of paediatric acute otitis media in Rochester, NY: modelling analysis of the risk of pneumococcal colonization in the nasopharynx and infection.  


During a 5-year prospective study of nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization and acute otitis media (AOM) infections in children during the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) era (July 2006-June 2011) we studied risk factors for NP colonization and AOM. NP samples were collected at ages 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, and 30 months during well-child visits. Additionally, NP and middle ear fluid (MEF) samples were collected at onset of every AOM episode. From 1825 visits (n = 464 children), 5301 NP and 570 MEF samples were collected and analysed for potential otopathogens. Daycare attendance, NP colonization by Moraxella catarrhalis, and siblings aged <5 years increased the risk of Streptococcus pneumoniae NP colonization. NP colonization with S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis, or Haemophilus influenzae and a family history of OM increased the risk of AOM. Risk factors that increase the risk of pneumococcal AOM will be important to reassess as we move into a new 13-valent PCV era, especially co-colonization with other potential otopathogens. PMID:24480055

Friedel, V; Zilora, S; Bogaard, D; Casey, J R; Pichichero, M E



Human Opsonins Induced during Meningococcal Disease Recognize Outer Membrane Proteins PorA and PorB  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human opsonins directed against specific meningococcal outer membrane structures in sera obtained during meningococcal disease were quantified with a recently developed antigen-specific, opsonin-dependent phagocytosis and oxidative burst assay. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) and PorA (class 1) and PorB (class 3) proteins purified from mutants of the same strain (44\\/76; B:15:P1.7.16) were adsorbed to fluorescent beads, opsonized with acute- and convalescent-phase




Nutrition, antigenicity and serological characteristics of different strains of Moraxella bovis  

E-print Network

. LITERATURE CITED . 22 22 23 25 27 40 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Results of Plate Agglutination Tests of the Serum of Group "A" Rabbits Before and After Immunization With G-1 Strain of M. bovis (Experiment 1) 2. Results of Plate Agglutination... Tests of the Serum of Group "B" Rabbits Before and After Immunization With G-1 Strain of M. bovis (Experiment 1) 3. Results of Plate Agglutination Tests of the Serum of Group "C" Rabbits Before and After Immunization With G-1 Strain of M. bovis...

Chowdhury, T. I. M. Fazlayrabbi



System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

Nelson, O.D.



Redes Reconfigurables Controladas por Marcado: Redes de Petri con Cambios  

E-print Network

Redes Reconfigurables Controladas por Marcado: Redes de Petri con Cambios Din´amicos Estructurales a cambios din´amicos utilizando exten- siones de redes de Petri. En estudios previos, hemos introducido los siste- mas de reescritura de redes y una subclase de los mismos llamada redes reconfigurables. En un

Alpuente, María



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN El interés por la comprensión holística de las organizaciones se manifiesta en la proliferación de artículos basados en metodologías cualitativas. Este hecho no se ve acompañado con el empleo de herramientas que contribuyan a la validez y fiabilidad de las investigaciones. Este trabajo pone de manifiesto la existencia de programas específicos para el tratamiento de datos cualitativos y explica

Caro González



Diarrea intratable causada por anomalías congénitas de los enterocitos  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractoFundamento: La diarrea intratable de la lactancia representa un problema grave que conlleva un grado elevado de morbilidad y mortalidad. Estos casos requieren una asistencia dedicada tanto por parte de los padres como del personal médico, dado que no se dispone de remedios fáciles. La escasez de pacientes indica que para progresar en el conocimiento de estos trastornos son necesarios

Alan D. Phillips




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO O óxido de cromo e lantânio, ou cromito de lantânio, é um óxido complexo do tipo perovskita que têm sido extensivamente estudado visando a aplicação em célula a combustível sólido, eletrodo para fornos de altas temperaturas e catalisadores para tratamentos dos gases de exaustão em automóveis, por causa da sua alta estabilidade química, alta condutividade eletrônica e expansão térmica

C. V. Rocha; C. A. A. Cairo


Cifras de producción industrial ajustadas por días hábiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Las cifras de producción industrial de la Muestra Mensual Manufacturera delDane dependen del número de días hábiles por mes y no deben utilizarse sin el ajuste correspondiente. Este trabajo recopila la serie de días hábiles mensuales desde 1980, tomando en cuenta los festivos anteriores a la Ley Emiliani, y ajusta la serie de producción real para obtener la producción real

Alvaro Montenegro



A mis padres por ser un apoyo constante  

E-print Network

carrera Jos´e Antonio, Guillermo y Miguel, que me han aportado su experiencia, tiempo y trabajo realizado a Luis Miguel, Asun y Juan Francisco por todo el tiempo que hemos compartido realizando nuestros y apoyo durante todo este tiempo. #12;RESUMEN El trabajo que se describe en este documento se

Pantrigo Fernández, Juan José


Histerese no comércio internacional brasileiro: uma análise por modelos ARFIMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Após a abertura comercial em 1998, grandes mudanças ocorreram no comércio exterior nacional devido sucessivos choques cambiais aos quais a economia foi exposta. A literatura de referência sugere que grandes choques na taxa de câmbio induzem mudanças persistentes na relação entre a taxa de câmbio e o comércio. Este fenômeno é conhecido por histerese. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho

Sinezio Fernandes Maia; Roberto Wagner Jubert; Marcia Cristina Paixao



Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.  


The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. PMID:23075153

Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji



Ferramentas de interação em ambientes educacionais mediados por computador  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Este trabalho apresenta uma discussão sobre interação mediada por computador. Para tal discussão, sugere-se dois tipos de interação: mútua e reativa. A partir dessa tipologia, analisa-se o potencial interativo de diferentes ferramentas utilizadas pela Informática Educativa, como e-mail, lista de discussão, chat, ICQ, fórum, site, entre outras. Discute-se também a importância na valorização do trabalho cooperativo e da discussão

Alex Fernando; Teixeira Primo


Reduction of nasal colonization of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae following intranasal immunization with rLP4/rLP6/UspA2 proteins combined with aqueous formulation of RC529.  


Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Moraxella catarrhalis are common causative agents of human mucosal infections. To formulate a mucosal vaccine against these pathogens, recombinant lipidated P4 (rLP4) and P6 (rLP6) proteins of NTHi and ubiquitous cell surface protein A (UspA) of M. catarrhalis were used for active immunization experiments in a mouse nasal challenge model. BALB/c mice were immunized intranasally with these proteins formulated with a chemically synthesized adjuvant, RC529 in an aqueous formulation (RC529-AF). Three weeks after the last immunization, these animals were challenged intranasally with NTHi strain SR7332.P1 and nasal colonization measured 3 days later. To determine local and systemic immune responses, bronchoalveolar washes (BAW) and sera were collected prior to NTHi challenge. The serum and mucosal samples were analyzed by ELISA for rLP4, rLP6 and UspA2 protein-specific IgG, IgG subclass and IgA antibody titers and bactericidal titers were determined against the TTA24 and 430-345 strains of M. catarrhalis. Results of these experiments show that these proteins combined with RC529-AF administered intranasally to mice elicited (1) significantly increased rLP4/rLP6/UspA2 protein-specific circulating IgG and IgA antibody responses; (2) local rLP4/rLP6/UspA2-specific IgA responses in the respiratory tract; and (3) more than a two log reduction of nasal colonization of NTHi strain SR7332 from the nasal tissues of mice. The serum IgG subclass distribution was predominantly IgG2a, representing a Th1 response. The antiserum also exhibited bactericidal activities to several strains of M. catarrhalis. These data indicate that intranasal immunization with rLP4/rLP6/UspA2 proteins combined with RC529-AF may be able to provide a way for inducing local mucosal immunity and for prevention of otitis media in children. PMID:15308371

Mason, Kathryn W; Zhu, Duzhang; Scheuer, Catherine A; McMichael, John C; Zlotnick, Gary W; Green, Bruce A



Restored functional immunogenicity of purified meningococcal PorA by incorporation into liposomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of the conformation, lipooligosaccharide (LOS)-depletion and the presentation form of outer membrane protein PorA from Neisseria meningitidis (PorA) subtype P1.7-2,4 on the immune response in mice was studied. Native PorA was purified from outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) derived from meningococci and reconstituted into liposomes. The conformation of PorA after purification from OMVs and reconstitution in liposomes was monitored

Carmen Arigita; Gideon F. A. Kersten; Ton Hazendonk; Wim E. Henninka; Daan J. A. Crommelin; Wim Jiskoot



El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer publica nuevo atlas de mortalidad por cáncer

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI, por sus siglas en inglés) ha publicado un nuevo atlas, el Atlas de Mortalidad por Cáncer en los Estados Unidos, 1950-94, que muestra los patrones geográficos de las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer durante más de cuatro décadas, en más de 3.000 condados a lo largo del país.


Colossus : El Secreto Mejor Guardado por los ingleses durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial 1  

E-print Network

Colossus : El Secreto Mejor Guardado por los ingleses durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial 1 Si la bomba atómica fue el secreto mejor guardado por los norteamericanos durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial Segunda Guerra Mundial'', Soluciones Avanzadas, Año 7, No. 69, pp. 3­4, mayo de 1999. 2 La PORS tenía

Coello, Carlos A. Coello



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Se establece, en una primera aproximación, el óptimo de cobertura en función de las pér- didas de suelo por erosión hídrica y de las pérdidas de lluvia por interceptación, en un mato- rral (romeral), en condiciones ambientales semiáridas mediterráneas, con un mismo tipo de suelo y dos tramos de pendiente de ladera, 11% y 25%. Se utiliza el promedio

Belmonte Serrato; Romero Díaz; López Bermúdez; E. Hernández Laguna


La Convencin sobre el Comercio Internacional de Especies Amenazadas de Fauna y Flora Silvestres (CITES, por sus siglas en ingls) es un acuerdo internacional firmado por  

E-print Network

La Convención sobre el Comercio Internacional de Especies Amenazadas de Fauna y Flora Silvestres garantizar que el comercio internacional de animales y plantas no amenace su supervivencia en la naturaleza (CITES, por sus siglas en inglés) es un acuerdo internacional firmado por 178 naciones designadas para


Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration



In young children, persistent wheezing is associated with bronchial bacterial infection: a retrospective analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Young children with persistent wheezing pose a diagnostic and therapeutical challenge to the pediatrician. We aimed to evaluate bacterial bronchial infection as a possible reason for non response to conventional asthma therapy, and to identify and characterise the predominant pathogens involved. Methods We retrospectively analysed microbiological and cytological findings in a selected population of young wheezers with symptoms unresponsive to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy, who underwent flexible bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Procedural measures were taken to limit contamination risk and quantitative bacterial culture of BAL fluid (significance cut-off???104 colony-forming units/ml) was used. Modern microbiological methods were used for detection of a wide panel of pathogens and for characterisation of the bacterial isolates. Results 33 children aged between 4 and 38?months, without structural anomalies of the conductive airways were evaluated. Significant bacterial BAL cultures were found in 48,5?% of patients. Haemophilus influenzae was isolated in 30,3?%, Streptococcus pneumoniae in 12,1?% and Moraxella catarrhalis in 12,1?%. All H. influenzae isolates were non-encapsulated strains and definitely distinguished from non-haemolytic H. haemolyticus. Respiratory viruses were detected in 21,9?% of cases with mixed bacterial-viral infection in 12,1?%. Cytology revealed a marked neutrophilic inflammation. Conclusions Bacterial infection of the bronchial tree is common in persistent preschool wheezers and provides a possible explanation for non response to ICS therapy. Non-typeable H. influenzae seems to be the predominant pathogen involved, followed by S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis. PMID:22726254



Effects of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D–Conjugate Vaccine on Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Colonization in Young Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background.?This study evaluated the effects of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D–conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization compared with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) in young children. Methods.?A randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands, initiated 2 years after 7vCRM introduction, was conducted between 1 April 2008 and 1 December 2010. Infants (N = 780) received either PHiD-CV or 7vCRM (2:1) at 2, 3, 4, and 11–13 months of age. Nasopharyngeal samples taken at 5, 11, 14, 18, and 24 months of age were cultured to detect Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Polymerase chain reaction assays quantified H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae and confirmed H. influenzae as nontypeable (NTHi). Primary outcome measure was vaccine efficacy (VE) against NTHi colonization. Results.?In both groups, NTHi colonization increased with age from 33% in 5-month-olds to 65% in 24-month-olds. Three months postbooster, VE against colonization was 0.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], ?21.8% to 18.4%) and VE against acquisition 10.9% (95% CI, ?31.3% to 38.9%). At each sampling moment, no differences between groups in either NTHi prevalence or H. influenzae density were detected. Streptococcus pneumoniae (range, 39%–57%), M. catarrhalis (range, 63%­–69%), and S. aureus (range, 9%–30%) colonization patterns were similar between groups. Conclusions.?PHiD-CV had no differential effect on nasopharyngeal NTHi colonization or H. influenzae density in healthy Dutch children up to 2 years of age, implying that herd effects for NTHi are not to be expected. Other bacterial colonization patterns were also similar. Clinical Trials Registration?NCT00652951. PMID:23118268

van den Bergh, Menno R.; Spijkerman, Judith; Swinnen, Kristien M.; François, Nancy A.; Pascal, Thierry G.; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode; IJzerman, Ed P. F.; Bruin, Jacob P.; van der Ende, Arie; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.



Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Other Respiratory Bacterial Pathogens in Low and Lower-Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in low income countries where pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are still underused. In countries where PCVs have been introduced, much of their efficacy has resulted from their impact on nasopharyngeal carriage in vaccinated children. Understanding the epidemiology of carriage for S. pneumoniae and other common respiratory bacteria in developing countries is crucial for implementing appropriate vaccination strategies and evaluating their impact. Methods and Findings We have systematically reviewed published studies reporting nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Neisseria meningitidis in children and adults in low and lower-middle income countries. Studies reporting pneumococcal carriage for healthy children <5 years of age were selected for a meta-analysis. The prevalences of carriage for S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis were generally higher in low income than in lower-middle income countries and were higher in young children than in adults. The prevalence of S. aureus was high in neonates. Meta-analysis of data from young children before the introduction of PCVs showed a pooled prevalence estimate of 64.8% (95% confidence interval, 49.8%–76.1%) in low income countries and 47.8% (95% confidence interval, 44.7%–50.8%) in lower-middle income countries. The most frequent serotypes were 6A, 6B, 19A, 19F, and 23F. Conclusions In low and lower-middle income countries, pneumococcal carriage is frequent, especially in children, and the spectrum of serotypes is wide. However, because data are limited, additional studies are needed to adequately assess the impact of PCV introduction on carriage of respiratory bacteria in these countries. PMID:25084351

Adegbola, Richard A.; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Hill, Philip C.; Roca, Anna; Usuf, Effua; Hoet, Bernard; Greenwood, Brian M.



Efficacy and safety of intravenous sulbactam/ampicillin 3 g 4 times daily in Japanese adults with moderate to severe community-acquired pneumonia: A multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled study.  


Although sulbactam/ampicillin (SBT/ABPC) 3 g 4 times daily (QID) is widely used worldwide for patients with moderate to severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), the 3 g QID regimen was not available in Japan. In fact, there has been no evidence from a formal clinical study regarding the efficacy and safety of SBT/ABPC 3 g QID in these patients. We report the first results of a multicenter, unblinded, non-comparative, phase 3 study of SBT/ABPC 3 g QID in Japanese adults with moderate to severe CAP. Forty-seven subjects with moderate to severe CAP were enrolled and received SBT/ABPC 3 g QID intravenously for 3-14 days. The clinical responses assessed by the data review committee (DRC) were the primary endpoints. The secondary endpoints included the bacteriological responses assessed by the DRC. The clinical efficacy rate at the test of cure (TOC) was 94.6%. The bacterial eradication rate at TOC was 91.7%. Causative pathogens were isolated from sputum sample taken at baseline in 28 subjects (59.6%). Common causative pathogens included Streptococcus pneumoniae (14 strains), Haemophilus influenzae (9 strains), and Moraxella catarrhalis (8 strains). The clinical efficacy rate and the bacterial eradication rate at TOC of the common pathogens were, respectively, 92.3% and 90.0% in subjects with S. pneumoniae, 83.3% and 75.0% in subjects with H. influenzae, and 87.5% and 87.5% in subjects with M. catarrhalis. All treatment-related adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. SBT/ABPC 3 g QID was well tolerated and demonstrated excellent clinical and bacteriological responses. Identifier: NCT01189487. PMID:25533886

Kohno, Shigeru; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Kadota, Jun-Ichi; Niki, Yoshihito; Itamura, Rio



Impact of poor compliance with levofloxacin and moxifloxacin on respiratory tract infection antimicrobial efficacy: a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic simulation study.  


The purpose of this report was to assess the impact of poor compliance on the efficacy of levofloxacin (LFX) and moxifloxacin (MOX), two fluoroquinolones with different pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties, in respiratory infections. The fAUC0-24h and fAUC0-24h/MIC90 ratio, a PK/PD index predictive of bacterial eradication, were extracted from previously described population PK models for LFX and MOX. The MIC90 was according to EUCAST. Monte Carlo simulations were used with LFX 500 mg every 24h (q24 h) or every 12h (q12h), LFX 750 mg q24 h and MOX 400mg q24 h in non-compliance scenarios to derive the proportion of patients achieving target ratios of fAUC0-24h/MIC90>33.8 for Streptococcus pneumoniae and >100 for Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis (PTA>90%). In non-adherent dosing scenarios, LFX 500 mg q24 h was not able to reach the PK/PD index guaranteeing clinical efficacy. With LFX 500 mg q12 h or 750 mg q24 h, this probability was maintained although patients can take the dose with delays of up to 12h and 11h, respectively, for the three bacterial types. With MOX 400mg q24 h, the probability of achieving this PK/PD index is maintained with delay in dosing up to 16h. In conclusion, LFX 500 mg q24 h is the least robust treatment against S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis in a non-adherence situation. A good choice is LFX 500 mg q12h, but in order to favour patient adherence, LFX 750 mg q24 h or MOX 400mg q24h appears as more appropriate. PMID:25450804

Carral, N; Lukas, J C; Oteo, I; Suarez, E



Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Colonization and Gene Polymorphisms of Mannose-Binding Lectin and Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 4 in Infants  

PubMed Central

Background Human nasopharynx is often colonized by potentially pathogenic bacteria. Gene polymorphisms in mannose-binding lectin (MBL), toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 have been reported. The present study aimed to investigate possible association between nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization and gene polymorphisms of MBL, TLR2 and TLR4 in healthy infants. Methodology/Principal Findings From August 2008 to June 2010, 489 nasopharyngeal swabs and 412 blood samples were taken from 3-month-old healthy Finnish infants. Semi-quantitative culture was performed and pyrosequencing was used for detection of polymorphisms in MBL structural gene at codons 52, 54, and 57, TLR2 Arg753Gln and TLR4 Asp299Gly. Fifty-nine percent of subjects were culture positive for at least one of the four species: 11% for Streptococcus pneumoniae, 23% for Moraxella catarrhalis, 1% for Haemophilus influenzae and 25% for Staphylococcus aureus. Thirty-two percent of subjects had variant types in MBL, 5% had polymorphism of TLR2, and 18% had polymorphism of TLR4. Colonization rates of S. pneumoniae and S. aureus were significantly higher in infants with variant types of MBL than those with wild type (p?=?.011 and p?=?.024). Colonization rates of S. aureus and M. catarrhalis were significantly higher in infants with polymorphisms of TLR2 and of TLR4 than those without (p?=?.027 and p?=?.002). Conclusions Our study suggests that there is an association between nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization and genetic variation of MBL, TLR2 and TLR4 in young infants. This finding supports a role for these genetic variations in susceptibility of children to respiratory infections. PMID:22022564

Vuononvirta, Juho; Toivonen, Laura; Gröndahl-Yli-Hannuksela, Kirsi; Barkoff, Alex-Mikael; Lindholm, Laura; Mertsola, Jussi; Peltola, Ville; He, Qiushui




Microsoft Academic Search

Se plantea la importancia que brinda el desarrollo de herramientas asistidas por computador como apoyo al proceso de enseñanza. SIGACLE (Simulador Gráfico Asistido por Computador Para la Enseñanza de Programación de Lenguajes Estructurados), tiene como principal objetivo el desarrollo de habilidades cognoscitivas en estudiantes de pregrado en las materias de programación de computadores. Este documento define específicamente los conceptos necesarios

George Franco Cendales; María Paula Díaz; Rafael J. Barros


La Universidad de Alicante expone en Madrid maquetas de arquitecturas singulares hechas por sus alumnos  

E-print Network

La Universidad de Alicante expone en Madrid maquetas de arquitecturas singulares hechas por sus Lightness 6 bajo el lema "Arquitectura Música Luz= espacio sonido sombra", está instalada en la sala de exposiciones de Fundación Arquitectura COAM, coordinada por el profesor Antonio Maciá con la colaboración de

Escolano, Francisco


Probabilidad II 1. La densidad conjunta de X y Y esta dada por  

E-print Network

Probabilidad II EXAMEN II 1. La densidad conjunta de X y Y est´a dada por f(x, y) = 6 7 x2 + xy 2 0 densidad conjunta. (b) Calcule la II EXAMEN I 1. La densidad conjunta de X y Y est´a dada por f(x, y) = 6 7 x2 + xy 2 0

Aíza, Ricardo Gómez


La Neurociencia Computacional hoy: I. Qu es y por qu es difcil su estudio Jess Corts  

E-print Network

La Neurociencia Computacional hoy: I. Qué es y por qué es difícil su estudio Jesús Cortés Institute: Neurociencia, Inteligencia Artificial. Etiquetas: Neurociencia Computacional, simulación por ordenador, procesos neurales, cerebro. La Neurociencia Computacional es una disciplina consolidada, con más de 20 años

Cortes, Jesus


Influencia de los parámetros de síntesis en la obtención de hidroxiapatito por el método de combustión  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se ha estudiado la síntesis de hidroxiapatito por el método de combustión. Se ha considerado la influencia de los parámetros de temperatura, tiempo de reacción, relación Ca\\/P y la acidez del medio, para sintetizar partículas nanométricas de hidroxiapatito por un método rápido y simple como es el de combustión. Se han empleado como materias primas nitrato de

R. RIVeRo; M. F. BaRBa


Costos generados por la violencia armada en Colombia: 1993-2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este documento incluye un ejercicio de valoración de los costos tanto directos como indirectos que la violencia armada ha impuesto a la economía nacional entre los años 1999 y 2003. Entre los costos considerados se cuentan aquellos generados por el daño a infraestructura energética, vial y aeroportuaria, por fenómenos como el secuestro, al extorsión, el narcotráfico, el desplazamiento forzado, el




La servidumbre por deuda en el mbito rural del sur de la India  

E-print Network

4 83 La servidumbre por deuda en el ámbito rural del sur de la India David Picherit David Picherit trabajadores rurales migrantes en el sur de la India negocian y conciben el endeudamiento en un contexto de eventual del estatus. PalaBras clave: servidumbre por deuda, trabajo, migraciones laborales, India

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


[Utility of prolonged incubation and terminal subcultures of blood cultures from immunocompromised patients].  


The value of blind terminal subcultures (7 and 30 days) and prolonged incubation (30 days) of blood cultures from immunosuppressed patients was analyzed in the Fundación Favaloro, the Fundación para la Lucha contra las Enfermedades Neurológicas de la Infancia and the Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez. A total of 2707 blood cultures and 369 patients were included (transplantation of solid organs 154, oncohematologic disorders 106 and solid tumors 109). Bact-Alert bottles were incubated at 35 degrees C for 30 days in the Bact-Alert System. Bottles with positive signals were routinely removed, and aliquots of the broth were Gram stained and subcultured aerobically in chocolate agar and Sabouraud agar. A total of 136 bacteremic episodes were obtained. The positivization time of blood cultures was 81.6% at 24 h, 93.3% at 48 h, 94.5% at 72 h and 97.7% within 7 days. Only 3 (2.2%) episodes were positive by blind terminal subcultures and 1 (0.75%) by prolonged incubation (14 days). The median time and range of positivization in hours were 13.8 and 2.2-168, respectively. The microorganisms isolated were coagulase negative staphylococci (n = 24), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 22), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 21), Escherichia coli (n = 18), Acinetobacter spp (n = 9), Candida spp (n = 8), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 6), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 5), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 5), Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella spp and Capnocytophaga sputigena (n = 2), Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus faecium, Citrobacter diversus, Candida albicans, Klebsiella oxytoca, Chryseomonas luteola, Serratia marcescens, Abiotrophia spp, Campylobacter jejuni, Moraxella catarrhalis, Moraxella urethralis, Neisseria sicca, beta hemolytic group G streptococci, Rhodococcus equi, Micrococcus spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Streptococcus mitis (n = 1). In our experience, blind terminal subcultures and prolonged incubation of blood cultures from immunosuppressed patients are unnecessary and cost expensive. PMID:11594009

Soloaga, R; Procopio, A; Manganello, S; Ivanovic, V; Romay, N; Pirosanto, Y; Fernández, A; Zudiker, R; Echeverría, A; Nagel, C; del Castillo, M; López, E; Gutfraind, Z; Tokumoto, M; Guelfand, L



Astronomy in the Classroom: Why? (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Clase: ¿Por Qué?) Astronomia na Sala de Aula: Por Quê?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many discussions about the relevance of the topics covered in classes. One subject in particular is the focus of this essay: astronomy. In what sense and to what extent it would be worth to teach it in science or other kind of classes? In this paper we discuss some aspects of the advantages of dealing with this area of knowledge in schools, taking into account the epistemological and axiological dimensions of astronomy, in light of the vision of science as an intelligent dialogue with the world (Bachelard), in addition to the "problematization" knowledge of Paulo Freire. We propose that in fact the Astronomy does not need to be seen as just a new set of contents to be taught, but appears as a set of motivational contents for historical-philosophical discussions, and permit the discussion of concepts of other disciplines. Numerosas discusiones se están llevando a cabo acerca de la pertinencia de los temas tradicionalmente tratados en las clases. Uno de los temas, en particular, es el foco de este ensayo: la astronomía. ¿En qué sentido y en qué medida sería conveniente tratarla en clase, ya sea en clases de ciencias naturales, específicamente en las de astronomía o asignaturas afines? Elaboramos en este artículo algunos aspectos de las ventajas de tratar esta área del conocimiento en las escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones epistemológica y axiológica de la astronomía, a la luz de la visión de la ciencia como un diálogo inteligente con el mundo (Bachelard), además de la propuesta del conocimiento "problematizador" de Paulo Freire. Proponemos que en realidad la astronomía no tiene por qué ser vista sólo como un nuevo conjunto de contenidos que se enseñan, sino que aparece como un conjunto de temas de motivación para el debate histórico-filosófico y para permitir la discusión de los conceptos típicos de otras disciplinas. Muitas discussões vêm acontecendo sobre a relevância dos temas abordados em sala de aula. Um tema, em particular, é foco deste ensaio: a astronomia. Em que sentido e em que medida valeria a pena abordá-la em aulas, seja de ciências, seja de astronomia especificamente, ou em disciplinas afins? Discutimos neste texto alguns aspectos das vantagens de se tratar essa área do conhecimento nas escolas, levando em conta as dimensões epistemológica e axiológica da astronomia, à luz da visão da ciência como um diálogo inteligente com o mundo, de Bachelard, além da proposta de problematização do conhecimento, de Paulo Freire. Proporemos que de fato a astronomia não precisa ser vista como apenas um novo conjunto de conteúdos a serem ensinados, mas figura como conjunto de temas motivadores para discussões histórico-filosóficas, além de permitir a abordagem de conceitos típicos de outras disciplinas.

Daros Gama, Leandro; Bagdonas Henrique, Alexandre



Gliding Motility and Por Secretion System Genes Are Widespread among Members of the Phylum Bacteroidetes  

PubMed Central

The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, “Gramella forsetii,” Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility. PMID:23123910

Zhu, Yongtao



Successful Mnemonics for "por"/"para" and Affirmative Commands with Pronouns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two mnemonic devices, "4A Rule" and "PERFECT," are described to simplify the learning of two grammar points: the placement of object pronouns with respect to commands and the distinction between "por" and "para." (five references) (LB)

Mason, Keith



A novel porA-based real-time PCR for detection of meningococcal carriage.  


Real-time PCR based on the capsule transfer gene (ctrA) is a significant aid in the diagnosis of meningococcal infection but fails to detect a high proportion (60 %) of non-groupable strains associated with nasopharyngeal carriage. This study aimed to design a novel real-time (TaqMan) PCR that would detect more strains of meningococci and be suitable for large-scale carriage studies. Primer and probe sequences were based on the meningococcal porA gene and designed specifically to exclude the highly related porA pseudogene in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The specificity of the assay was confirmed by testing strains of N. gonorrhoeae known to contain the porA pseudogene together with commensal strains of Neisseria lactamica and Neisseria sicca. None of these was detected in the assay. Neisseria meningitidis strains representing a wide range of serogroups together with non-groupable strains isolated from the nasopharynx were tested by ctrA assay and the novel porA-based TaqMan PCR. All carriage strains were detected by the porA-based assay including four that gave weak or no reaction with the ctrA assay. Comparison of ctrA and porA assays on 71 throat swabs obtained from university students showed that the porA assay detected meningococcal DNA in all samples that were ctrA positive plus three that were ctrA negative but culture positive. This novel porA-based TaqMan assay provides a highly specific method for detecting meningococcal DNA that is more sensitive than the ctrA assay for detecting meningococcal carriage and is particularly suitable for carriage studies where non-groupable strains and other Neisseria are present. PMID:15824424

Jordens, J Zoe; Heckels, John E



A característica educadora da obra de Sófocles: a busca por um homem ideal no conceito de \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: No período clássico (séculos VI e V a.C.), a Grécia passou por um processo de transição. As transformações ocorridas na sociedade causaram conflitos na forma de viver do homem grego, que se tornaram temas das tragédias apresentadas nas cidades-Estado do século V a.C. Pela importância dada à tragédia no período clássico, esse gênero literário acabou por ser usado pelos

Paulo Rogério de Souza; José Joaquim Pereira Melo


Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB  

SciTech Connect

PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP-PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction.

Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T.M. (Weill-Med); (Vanderbilt)



An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems  

SciTech Connect

It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

Koch, Kaelynn



Conocimientos, concepciones erróneas y lagunas de los maestros sobre el trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este estudio se diseñó para analizar los conocimientos, concepciones erróneas y lagunas sobre el Tras- torno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) de 193 maestros, como una replicación de un estudio realizado por Sciutto, Terjesen y Bender en el año 2000. Los maestros cumplimentaron el Knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (KADDS) en su versión española, adaptada por los

Sonia Jarque Fernández; Raúl Tárraga Mínguez; Ana Miranda Casas



Fragment-to-hit-to-lead discovery of a novel pyridylurea scaffold of ATP competitive dual targeting type II topoisomerase inhibiting antibacterial agents.  


The discovery and optimization of a new class of bacterial topoisomerase (DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV) inhibitors binding in the ATP domain are described. A fragment molecule, 1-ethyl-3-(2-pyridyl)urea, provided sufficiently potent enzyme inhibition (32 ?M) to prompt further analogue work. Acids and acid isosteres were incorporated at the 5-pyridyl position of this fragment, bridging to a key asparagine residue, improving enzyme inhibition, and leading to measurable antibacterial activity. A CF3-thiazole substituent at the 4-pyridyl position improved inhibitory potency due to a favorable lipophilic interaction. Promising antibacterial activity was seen versus the Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae and the Gram-negative pathogens Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis . Precursor metabolite incorporation and mutant analysis studies support the mode-of-action, blockage of DNA synthesis by dual target topoisomerase inhibition. Compound 35 was efficacious in a mouse S. aureus disease model, where a 4.5-log reduction in colony forming units versus control was demonstrated. PMID:24098982

Basarab, Gregory S; Manchester, John I; Bist, Shanta; Boriack-Sjodin, P Ann; Dangel, Brian; Illingworth, Ruth; Sherer, Brian A; Sriram, Shubha; Uria-Nickelsen, Maria; Eakin, Ann E



Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of amidine derivatives of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene as novel antibacterial agents.  


Current antibacterial chemotherapeutics are facing an alarming increase in bacterial resistance pressuring the search for novel agents that would expand the available therapeutic arsenal against resistant bacterial pathogens. In line with these efforts, a series of 9 amidine derivatives of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene were synthesized and, together with 18 previously synthesized analogs, evaluated for their relative DNA binding affinity, in vitro antibacterial activities and preliminary in vitro safety profile. Encouraging antibacterial activity of several subclasses of tested amidine derivatives against Gram-positive (including resistant MRSA, MRSE, VRE strains) and Gram-negative bacterial strains was observed. The bis-phenyl derivatives were the most antibacterially active, while compound 19 from bis-benzimidazole class exhibited the widest spectrum of activity (with MIC of 4, 2, 0.5 and ?0.25 ?g/ml against laboratory strains of Staphyloccocus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Moraxella catarrhalis, respectively and 4-32 ?g/ml against clinical isolates of sensitive and resistant S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecium) and also demonstrated the strongest DNA binding affinity (?Tm of 15.4 °C). Asymmetrically designed compounds and carboxamide-amidines were, in general, less active. Molecular docking indicated that the shape of the 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene derivatives and their ability to form multiple electrostatic and hydrogen bonds with DNA, corresponds to the binding modes of other minor-groove binders. Herein reported results encourage further investigation of this class of compounds as novel antibacterial DNA binding agents. PMID:25461312

Stoli?, Ivana; ?ip?i? Paljetak, Hana; Peri?, Mihaela; Matijaši?, Mario; Stepani?, Višnja; Verbanac, Donatella; Baji?, Miroslav



The wobbly status of ketolides: where do we stand?  


Ketolides are erythromycin A derivatives with a keto group replacing the cladinose sugar and an aryl-alkyl group attached to the lactone macrocycle. The aryl-alkyl extension broadens its antibacterial spectrum to include all pathogens responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis as well as atypical pathogens (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila). Ketolides have extensive tissue distribution, favorable pharmacokinetics (oral, once-a-day) and useful anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory properties. Hence, they were considered attractive additions to established oral antibacterials (quinolones, ?-lactams, second-generation macrolides) for mild-to-moderate CAP. The first ketolide to be approved, Sanofi-Aventis' telithromycin (RU 66647, HMR 3647, Ketek®), had tainted clinical development, controversial FDA approval and subsequent restrictions due to rare, irreversible hepatotoxicity that included deaths. Three additional ketolides progressed to non-inferiority clinical trials vis-à-vis clarithromycin for CAP. Abbott's cethromycin (ABT-773), acquired by Polymedix and subsequently by Advanced Life Sciences, completed Phase III trials, but its New Drug Application was denied by the FDA in 2009. Enanta's modithromycin (EDP-420), originally codeveloped with Shionogi (S-013420) and subsequently by Shionogi alone, is currently in Phase II in Japan. Optimer's solithromycin (OP-1068), acquired by Cempra (CEM-101), is currently in Phase III. Until this hepatotoxicity issue is resolved, ketolides are unlikely to replace established antibacterials for CAP, or lipoglycopeptides and oxazolidinones for gram-positive infections. PMID:25154307

Georgopapadakou, Nafsika H



Moxifloxacin in respiratory tract infections.  


Moxifloxacin is a fourth-generation fluoroquinolone that has been shown to be effective against respiratory pathogens, including Gram-positive (Streptococcus pneumoniae), Gram-negative (Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis), and atypical strains (Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae), as well as multi-drug resistant S. pneumoniae, including strains resistant to penicillin, macrolides, tetracyclines, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and some fluoroquinolones. Moxifloxacin is highly concentrated in lung tissue, and has demonstrated rapid eradication rates. The bioavailability and half-life of moxifloxacin provides potent bactericidal effects at a dose of 400mg/day. The ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve to MIC of moxifloxacin is the highest among the fluoroquinolones against S. pneumoniae. The clinical efficacy of moxifloxacin has been shown in controlled studies of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (CB) and acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Moxifloxacin has demonstrated a faster resolution of symptoms in CAP and exacerbations of CB patients compared with first-line therapy. It has also demonstrated better eradication in exacerbations of CB compared with standard therapy, in particular the macrolides. Treatment guidelines should take into account the results of clinical trials with moxifloxacin in order to establish the role of this antimicrobial in the therapeutic arsenal against respiratory tract infections. PMID:15757424

Miravitlles, Marc



Clinically Applicable Multiplex PCR for Four Middle Ear Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The multiplex PCR method for the detection of Alloiococcus otitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (P. H. Hendolin, A. Markkanen, J. Ylikoski, and J. J. Wahlfors, J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:2854–2858, 1997) in middle ear effusions (MEEs) was modified to be better suited for clinical use. To detect false-negative results, an internal amplification was added to the reaction, and to prevent carryover contamination, the dUTP–uracil-N-glycosidase system was incorporated into the procedure. Labor was minimized by using the heat-activatable AmpliTaq Gold polymerase in order to circumvent manual hot start and by detecting the amplification products on an automated sequencer. The performance of the improved protocol was verified with MEEs from patients with otitis media with effusion. In addition, a ligase detection reaction (LDR) was developed for confirmation of the PCR products. The modifications increased the reliability of the protocol and the hands-off time significantly. However, when two DNA extraction protocols were compared, gram-negative bacteria were detected more often in phenol-treated MEEs (94 versus 46%; P < 0.001), and gram-positive bacteria were detected more often in MEEs dissolved in sodium dodecyl sulfate-NaOH-chaotropic salt (83 versus 27%; P < 0.001). The LDR was found to be 100% specific. In all, the results demonstrate the feasibility of the rapid (7-h) multiplex PCR method for routine laboratory use. PMID:10618075

Hendolin, Panu H.; Paulin, Lars; Ylikoski, Jukka



In vitro activities of tigecycline against clinical isolates from Shanghai, China.  


To evaluate the in vitro activity of tigecycline, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of tigecycline against 1,201 strains of recent clinical isolates from 10 hospitals in Shanghai, China were determined and compared with selected comparators. Results showed that tigecycline had broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. It was highly active against Gram-positive cocci, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp., penicillin-intermediate Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium. Tigecycline also had good activity against most strains of Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. However, it was poorly active against Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Tigecycline was highly active against anaerobic Gram-positive cocci such as Peptococcus spp. The in vitro activity of tigecycline was significantly better than that of minocycline and tetracycline. It was as active as or slightly more active than vancomycin and teicoplanin in the activity against resistant aerobic Gram-positive cocci. Tigecycline was bactericidal against all Gram-positive cocci tested except Enterococcus spp. Inoculum size but not pH of medium or concentration of human serum in broth had significant effect on the in vitro activity of tigecycline. Aged media (48-72 hours after preparation) used in the test and specific resistance problem in China may have some effects on MIC values of tigecycline. PMID:15582300

Zhang, Ying-yuan; Zhou, Le; Zhu, De-mei; Wu, Pei-cheng; Hu, Fu-pin; Wu, Wei-hong; Wang, Fu



[Usefulness and limit of Gram staining smear examination].  


Gram staining is one of the most simple and inexpensive methods for the rapid diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infections. It yields results much faster than culture, and provides important data for the patient's treatment and prognosis. However, a difference exists in the quality and quantity of information yielded by Gram staining smears based on the experience and knowledge of those conducting the tests. Therefore, a risk of misdiagnosis based on the information obtained from Gram staining smears is also present. The Gram staining conditions and morphology of bacteria sometimes change due to antimicrobial therapy. Species of Gram-negative rods sometimes become filamentous and pleomorphic. Gram-positive bacteria may become gram variable (change in staining condition) after antimicrobial therapy. Even bacteria that are easy to mis-identify exist, because the morphology of bacteria may be similar. Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive diplococcus, forming Gram-positive clustered cocci in specimens from blood culture bottles, resembling Streptococcus pneumoniae. Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative diplococcus in sputum, resembling Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis. Pasteurella multocida is a small-sized, Gram-negative short rod in the sputum, resembling Haemophilus influenzae. Prevotella intermedia is a small-sized, Gram-negative short rod in sputum, resembling Haemophilus influenzae. Capnocytophaga sp. is a Gram-negative fusiform (thin needle shape) rod present in clinical specimens, resembling Fusobacterium nucleatum. PMID:20560458

Nagata, Kuniaki; Mino, Hirotoshi; Yoshida, Shunsuke



[Microbiologic diagnosis of acute upper respiratory tract infections].  


The main aim of the microbiological diagnosis is to detect the etiologic agent of an infection. In case of bacteria it means to check the susceptibility to antibiotics. It can be difficult to find the etiological agent of respiratory tract infections due to wide range of potential pathogens both viral and bacterial. Culture methods are the most frequently used while in case of atypical and viral pathogens rather serological methods based on specific antibody level checking are recommended. In high standard level laboratories molecular biology methods are more widely used. They allow to detect in short time the existence of typical bacteria like Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, atypical ones like Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, and viral pathogens like influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, RSV and rhinovirus. In fact it is very difficult in Poland to get access to high level laboratories for primary care physicians. This is the reason why the treatment of respiratory tract infections is mainly empirical and based on guidelines developed by experts. PMID:16358917

Lopaciuk, Urszula; Pinkas, Jaros?aw



Antibiotic therapy in elderly patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.  


Chronic bronchitis (CB) is a critical component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Emphysema, reversible airway disease and bronchiectasis also contribute to COPD. Elderly patients are at increased risk for COPD and its components - emphysema, CB and bronchiectasis. In addition, older patients are at increased risk for resistant organisms during episodes of acute exacerbation of CB (AECB). These organisms include the more common bacteria implicated in AECB, such as Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, and less common nonenteric, Gram-negative organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Risk-stratified antibiotic treatment guidelines for AECB appear to be useful, although they have not been prospectively validated for the general CB population, and especially not in the elderly CB population. Many of the AECB treatment guidelines that are stratified based on risk factors have recommended that the oral respiratory fluoroquinolone antibiotics (gemifloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin) play a second-line but pivotal role, particularly in patients who have failed initial antibiotic treatment for simple CB or as initial treatment for complicated CB. PMID:20477342

Albertson, Timothy E; Chan, Andrew L



Secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (SESI-MS) breathprinting of multiple bacterial lung pathogens, a mouse model study  

PubMed Central

Bacterial pneumonia is one of the leading causes of disease-related morbidity and mortality in the world, in part because the diagnostic tools for pneumonia are slow and ineffective. To improve the diagnosis success rates and treatment outcomes for bacterial lung infections, we are exploring the use of secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (SESI-MS) breath analysis as a rapid, noninvasive method for determining the etiology of lung infections in situ. Using a murine lung infection model, we demonstrate that SESI-MS breathprints can be used to distinguish mice that are infected with one of seven lung pathogens: Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, representing the primary causes of bacterial pneumonia worldwide. After applying principal components analysis, we observed that with the first three principal components (primarily comprised of data from 14 peaks), all infections were separable via SESI-MS breathprinting (P < 0.0001). Therefore, we have shown the potential of this SESI-MS approach for rapidly detecting and identifying acute bacterial lung infections in situ via breath analysis. PMID:23519230

Zhu, Jiangjiang; Bean, Heather D.; Jiménez-Díaz, Jaime



Comparative Study of Immune Status to Infectious Agents in Elderly Patients with Multiple Myeloma, Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia, and Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance ?  

PubMed Central

Whereas patients with multiple myeloma (MM) have a well-documented susceptibility to infections, this has been less studied in other B-cell disorders, such as Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). We investigated the humoral immunity to 24 different pathogens in elderly patients with MM (n = 25), WM (n = 16), and MGUS (n = 18) and in age-matched controls (n = 20). Antibody titers against pneumococci, staphylococcal alpha-toxin, tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, and varicella, mumps, and rubella viruses were most depressed in MM patients, next to lowest in WM and MGUS patients, and highest in the controls. In contrast, levels of antibodies specific for staphylococcal teichoic acid, Moraxella catarrhalis, candida, aspergillus, and measles virus were similarly decreased in MM and MGUS patients. Comparable titers in all study groups were seen against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), borrelia, toxoplasma, and members of the herpesvirus family. Finally, a uniform lack of antibodies was noted against Streptococcus pyogenes, salmonella, yersinia, brucella, francisella, and herpes simplex virus type 2. To conclude, although MM patients displayed the most depressed humoral immunity, significantly decreased antibody levels were also evident in patients with WM and MGUS, particularly against Staphylococcus aureus, pneumococci, and varicella. Conversely, immunity was retained for Hib and certain herpesviruses in all study groups. PMID:21508164

Karlsson, Johanna; Andréasson, Björn; Kondori, Nahid; Erman, Evelina; Riesbeck, Kristian; Hogevik, Harriet; Wennerås, Christine



Trends in macrolide resistance of respiratory tract pathogens in the paediatric population in Serbia from 2004 to 2009.  


We report the first study of macrolide resistance in respiratory tract pathogens in a Serbian paediatric population. It included 5293 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 4297 Streptococcus pyogenes, 2568 Moraxella catarrhalis and 1998 Haemophilus influenzae isolates derived from the respiratory tract and 110 invasive isolates from children aged up to 18 years during 2004-2009. Over the 6-year period, a significant increase (P < 0·01) in macrolide resistance was found in both S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes that reached 45% and 19%, respectively, in 2009. In the same period, consumption of macrolides increased continually from 2·46 to 5·8 defined daily dose/1000 inhabitants per day. The increase in macrolide resistance in S. pyogenes correlated with consumption of total macrolide and long-acting macrolides (r = 0·879, P = 0·05 and r = 0·922, P = 0·026, respectively). A similar trend was observed in pneumoccoci, although it did not reach statistical significance. The growing problem of macrolide resistance in pneumococci and S. pyogenes in Serbia requires further vigilant surveillance. PMID:24814418

Mijac, V; Opavski, N; Markovic, M; Gajic, I; Vasiljevic, Z; Sipetic, T; Bajcetic, M



The antimicrobial activity of fruits from some cultivar varieties of Rubus idaeus and Rubus occidentalis.  


Raspberries, derived from different cultivar varieties, are a popular ingredient of everyday diet, and their biological activity is a point of interest for researchers. The ethanol-water extracts from four varieties of red (Rubus idaeus'Ljulin', 'Veten', 'Poranna Rosa') and black (Rubus occidentalis'Litacz') raspberries were evaluated in the range of their antimicrobial properties as well as phenolic content - sanguiin H-6, free ellagic acid and anthocyanins. The antimicrobial assay was performed with the use of fifteen strains of bacteria, both Gram-negative and Gram-positive. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts varied and depended on the analysed strain of bacteria and cultivar variety, with the exception of Helicobacter pylori, towards which the extracts displayed the same growth inhibiting activity. Two human pathogens Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Moraxella catarrhalis proved to be the most sensitive to raspberry extracts. Contrary to the extracts, sanguiin H-6 and ellagic acid were only active against eight and nine bacterial strains, respectively. The determined MIC and MBC values of both compounds were several times lower than the tested extracts. The highest sensitivity of Corynebacterium diphtheriae to extracts from both black and red raspberries may be due to its sensitivity to sanguiin H-6 and ellagic acid. PMID:25131001

Krauze-Baranowska, M; Majdan, M; Ha?asa, R; G?ód, D; Kula, M; Fecka, I; Orze?, A



Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma-associated Proteobacteria, but not commensal Prevotella spp., promote Toll-like receptor 2-independent lung inflammation and pathology.  


Recent studies of healthy human airways have revealed colonization by a distinct commensal bacterial microbiota containing Gram-negative Prevotella spp. However, the immunological properties of these bacteria in the respiratory system remain unknown. Here we compare the innate respiratory immune response to three Gram-negative commensal Prevotella strains (Prevotella melaninogenica, Prevotella nanceiensis and Prevotella salivae) and three Gram-negative pathogenic Proteobacteria known to colonize lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma (Haemophilus influenzae B, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis). The commensal Prevotella spp. and pathogenic Proteobacteria were found to exhibit intrinsic differences in innate inflammatory capacities on murine lung cells in vitro. In vivo in mice, non-typeable H. influenzae induced severe Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-independent COPD-like inflammation characterized by predominant airway neutrophilia, expression of a neutrophilic cytokine/chemokine profile in lung tissue, and lung immunopathology. In comparison, P. nanceiensis induced a diminished neutrophilic airway inflammation and no detectable lung pathology. Interestingly, the inflammatory airway response to the Gram-negative bacteria P. nanceiensis was completely TLR2-dependent. These findings demonstrate weak inflammatory properties of Gram-negative airway commensal Prevotella spp. that may make colonization by these bacteria tolerable by the respiratory immune system. PMID:25179236

Larsen, Jeppe M; Musavian, Hanieh S; Butt, Tariq M; Ingvorsen, Camilla; Thysen, Anna H; Brix, Susanne



Development and laboratory evaluation of a real-time PCR assay for detecting viruses and bacteria of relevance for community-acquired pneumonia.  


Community-acquired pneumonia may present with similar clinical symptoms, regardless of viral or bacterial cause. Diagnostic assays are needed to rapidly discriminate between causes, because this will guide decisions on appropriate treatment. Therefore, a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay with duplex reactions targeting eight bacteria and six viruses was developed. Technical performance was examined with linear plasmids. Upper and lower respiratory tract specimens were used to compare the qPCR assay with standard microbiological methods. The limit of detection was 5 to 20 DNA template copies with approximately 1000-fold differences in concentrations of the two competing templates. SDs for positive controls were <5%. The use of the qPCR assay resulted in 113 positive identifications in 94 respiratory specimens compared with 38 by using standard diagnostics. Diagnostic accuracy of the qPCR assay varied between 60% positive agreement with standard tests for Streptococcus pneumoniae and 100% for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Negative percentage of agreement was >95% for M. pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza A virus; whereas it was only 56% for Haemophilus influenzae. Multiple microbial agents were identified in 19 of 44 sputum and 19 of 50 nasopharynx specimens. We conclude that in parallel qPCR detection of the targeted respiratory bacteria and viruses is feasible. The results indicate good technical performance of the assay in clinical specimens. PMID:25772704

Edin, Alicia; Granholm, Susanne; Koskiniemi, Satu; Allard, Annika; Sjöstedt, Anders; Johansson, Anders



The British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Resistance Surveillance Project: a successful collaborative model.  


The British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) Resistance Surveillance Project was initiated in light of the need for UK-wide surveillance of antibacterial resistance in key clinical pathogens. The Project comprises two defined-protocol programmes that cover a range of important pathogens and antibacterials related to community-acquired respiratory tract infection and bloodstream infection, respectively. The Respiratory Programme has reported quantitative susceptibility data for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis collected from across the UK and Ireland since 1999. The Bacteraemia Programme has reported the susceptibility of a wide range of Gram-positive and -negative organisms since 2001. The sustainability of the Programmes relies on a unique collaborative funding model: sponsorship is provided by a number of pharmaceutical companies in return for the inclusion of their investigational or marketed agents in the study alongside a core panel of established antibacterials. The sponsors have changed over time according to their interest in participating. Results for marketed agents are communicated in a timely manner through the BSAC web site and by presentation and publication, and for investigational agents with the agreement of their sponsors. The Project satisfies the requirement for sustainable defined-protocol high-quality resistance surveillance across the UK and Ireland. PMID:18819978

White, Anthony R



Potential role of tigecycline in the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Tigecycline is a member of the glycylcycline class of antimicrobials, which is structurally similar to the tetracycline class. It demonstrates potent in vitro activity against causative pathogens that are most frequently isolated in patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP), including (but not limited to) Streptococcus pneumoniae (both penicillin-sensitive and -resistant strains), Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis (including ?-lactamase-producing strains), Klebsiella pneumoniae, and ‘atypical organisms’ (namely Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila). Comparative randomized clinical trials to date performed in hospitalized patients receiving tigecycline 100 mg intravenous (IV) × 1 and then 50 mg IV twice daily thereafter have demonstrated efficacy and safety comparable to the comparator agent. Major adverse effects were primarily gastrointestinal in nature. Tigecycline represents a parenteral monotherapy option in hospitalized patients with CABP (especially in patients unable to receive respiratory fluoroquinolones). However, alternate and/or additional therapies should be considered in patients with more severe forms of CABP in light of recent data of increased mortality in patients receiving tigecycline for other types of severe infection. PMID:21694911

Townsend, Mary L; Pound, Melanie W; Drew, Richard H



Ceftaroline: a comprehensive update.  


Ceftaroline is a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic currently under US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) review for a new drug application (NDA), filed by Cerexa, Inc. (a wholly owned subsidiary of Forest Laboratories), for the treatment of complicated skin and skin-structure infections (cSSSIs) and community-associated pneumonia (CAP). The antibiotic acts by binding to penicillin-binding proteins in bacteria, consistent with other ?-lactams. The antimicrobial spectrum of ceftaroline ranges from aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria, including drug-resistant isolates of staphylococci, i.e. heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA), vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), to anaerobic Gram-negative pathogens such as Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae (including ?-lactamase-positive strains), as well as bacteria with multiple resistance phenotypes. Ceftaroline fosamil is the prodrug that is rapidly dephosphorylated by in vivo plasma phosphatases to the active drug ceftaroline, which follows a two-compartmental pharmacokinetic model and is eliminated primarily by renal excretion, with a plasma half-life of ca. 2.5 h. Ceftaroline is well tolerated, which is consistent with its good safety profile similar to other cephalosporins in clinical trials. Thus, it would be a promising drug to fight multidrug-resistant superbugs such as S. aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae for the treatment of cSSSIs and CAP. PMID:21420284

Kaushik, Darpan; Rathi, Sudeep; Jain, Ankit



Antimicrobial activity of preparation Bioaron C.  


The antimicrobial activity of sirupus Bioaron C, a preparation, whose main ingredient is an extract from the leaves of Aloe arborescens, was tested against different microorganisms isolated from patients with upper respiratory tract infections. The experiments were performed on 40 strains: 20 strains of anaerobic bacteria, 13 strains of aerobic bacteria and 7 strains of yeast-like fungi from the genus Candida and on 18 reference strains (ATCC). The antimicrobial activity of Bioaron C (MBC and MFC) was determined at undiluted concentration. Bioaron C proved to be very effective against the microorganisms causing infections. At the concentration recommended by the producer, the preparation showed biocidal activity (MBC, MFC) against the strains of the pathogenic microorganisms, which cause respiratory infections most frequently, including, among others, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Parvimonas micra, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus anginosus, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, already after 15 min. The MIC of Bioaron C against most of the tested microorganisms was 5 to 100 times lower than the usually applied concentration. The great antimicrobial activity means that the preparation may be used in the prevention and treatment of infections of the upper respiratory tract. Bioaron C may be an alternative or complement to classical therapy, especially in children. PMID:25362808

Gawron-Gzella, Anne; Michalak, Anna; K?dzia, Anna



Mouse Models for the Study of Mucosal Vaccination Against Otitis Media  

PubMed Central

Otitis media (OM) is one of the most common infectious diseases in humans. The pathogenesis of OM involves nasopharyngeal colonization (NP) and retrograde ascension of the pathogen up the Eustachian tube into the middle ear (ME). Due to increasing rates of antibiotic resistance, there is an urgent need for vaccines to prevent infections caused by the most common causes of bacterial OM, including nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Current vaccine strategies aim to diminish bacterial NP carriage, thereby reducing the likelihood of developing acute OM. To be effective, vaccination should induce local mucosal mmunity both in the ME and in the NP. Studies in animal models have demonstrated that the intranasal route of vaccination is particularly effective at inducing immune responses in the nasal passage and ME for protection against OM. The mouse is increasingly used in these models, because of the availability of murine reagents and the existence of technology to manipulate murine models of disease immunologically and genetically. Previous studies confirmed the suitability of the mouse as a model for inflammatory processes in acute OM. Here, we discuss various murine models of OM and review the applicability of these models to assess the efficacy of mucosal vaccination and the mechanisms responsible for protection. In addition, we discuss various mucosal vaccine antigens, mucosal adjuvants and mucosal delivery systems. PMID:18295938

Sabirov, Albert; Metzger, Dennis W.




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O trabalho propôs-se a analisar a influência de diferentes classes de infestação por mancha púrpura (Cercospora kikuchii) no tegumento das sementes de três cultivares de soja, sobre o vigor de plântulas no município de Dourados - MS. O experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, em outubro de 2006. As classes de infestação foram determinadas visualmente e classificadas em



Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

Friedrich, Daniel S.



Programacion Funcional Curso en la Maestra en Ciencias de la Computacion, UNAM. Por Carlos Velarde.  

E-print Network

Programaciâ??on Funcional Curso en la Maestrâ??�a en Ciencias de la Computaciâ??on, UNAM. Por Carlos Velarde. Objetivos Analizar los principios teâ??oricos y las tâ??ecnicas fundamentales de la programaciâ??on funcional. Introducciâ??on En la programaciâ??on funcional los programas se componen de definiciones de

Velarde, Carlos


Gesto por polticas: arquitectura e aplicaes Filipe Caldeira1,2  

E-print Network

1 Gestão por políticas: arquitectura e aplicações Filipe Caldeira1,2 , Edmundo Monteiro2 caldeira artigo é feita uma abordagem à gestão de redes baseadas em políticas focando a arquitectura PBN (Policy). São evidenciados os principais aspectos desta arquitectura, desde os protocolos de comunicação até às

Monteiro, Edmundo



Microsoft Academic Search

En el presente trabajo se analiza la puesta en marcha en nuestro país de una modalidad de negocio bancario con un soporte innovador, y relativamente reciente, como es Internet. Se trata, pues, de los bancos independientes, que operan principalmente a través de la red, creados por los tres grandes grupos bancarios nacionales en el año 2000, y de cómo éstos

M. Larrán Jorge; M. J. Muriel de los Reyes



Memorias Tercer Congreso Internacional sobre la Enseñanza de la Matemática Asistida por Computadora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Un ambiente de aprendizaje apoyado con computadoras bajo un enfoque algorítmico, por medio de presentaciones de PowerPoint, puede resultar de gran ayuda para la en señanza de la Matemática. Dentro del proceso de ap rendizaje, en la fase de motivación puede resultar altamente estimulante a n ivel sensorial; en la fase de comprensión permite l a reiteración de los conceptos

Lorena Acuña; Maricella Becerril; Elsie Villalobos


ConPor: um modelo de gerao conceitual para o Lucia Specia, Lucia Helena Machado Rino  

E-print Network

ConPor: um modelo de geração conceitual para o português Lucia Specia, Lucia Helena Machado Rino ­ 13565-905 ­ São Carlos ­ SP ­ Brasil {lspecia,lucia} Abstract. This paper describes Con

Specia, Lucia


Desempeño financiero empresarial en Colombia en 2009: un análisis por sectores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: Este artículo presenta los resultados de la evaluación del desempeño financiero empresarial por sectores en 2009, utilizando como técnica el análisis financiero integral. Para ello, se tomó la información financiera de las empresas que reportaron información en este periodo a la Superintendencia de Sociedades en Colombia y se clasificó según las actividades económicas en seis sectores: agricultura, minería, servicios,

Jaime Andrés Correa G; Carlos Eduardo Castaño R; Ramón Javier Mesa C




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Este artículo trata sobre emulsiones estabilizadas por agentes tensioactivos y polímeros, además de emulsiones concentradas (con alta concentración de fase interna) y geles. Se realiza una introducción sobre la importancia de las emulsiones en la Industria actual, así como sobre los agentes tensioactivos y emulsiones de manera más detallada. A continuación se explicará las peculiaridades de las emulsiones con

I. Aranberri; B. P. Binks; J. H. Clint; P. D. I. Fletcher



Estudio de los tumores sólidos desarrollados por los ratones durante la producción de Anticuerpos Monoclonales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los ratones constituyen un elemento fundamental para la producción de líquido ascítico rico en anticuerpos monoclonales (AcM). Durante este proceso suelen aparecer tumores sólidos que afectan directamente el volumen de producción, por lo que el objetivo de este trabajo consistió en estudiar estas neoformaciones para establecer sus características y de esta manera poder predecir las afectaciones en la producción a

Dasha Fuentes Morales; Ramiro R. González Pumarino; Bárbara O. González Navarro; Natacha Negrín



Demanda por servicios públicos domiciliarios y pérdida irrecuperable de los subsidios: el caso colombiano  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se estiman funciones de demanda por los servicios públicos domiciliarios de agua y electricidad para una muestra de las ciudades más importantes en Colombia. Teniendo como fuente de información la Encuesta de Calidad de Vida 2003, se utiliza una metodología no lineal que aprovecha las particularidades de la función de oferta de estos bienes (bloque de precios

Medina Carlos; Leonardo Morales



Demanda por Servicios Públicos Domiciliarios en Colombia y Subsidios: Implicaciones sobre el Bienestar  

Microsoft Academic Search

En el presente trabajo se estiman funciones de demanda por los servicios públicos domiciliarios de agua y electricidad para una muestra de las ciudades más importantes en el país. Teniendo como fuente de información la Encuesta de Calidad de Vida 2003 se utiliza una metodología no lineal que aprovecha las particularidades de la función de oferta de estos bienes (bloque

Carlos Medina; Leonardo Fabio Morales



Identificao de Clulas Ativas e Inativas de Penicillium chrysogenum por Tcnicas de Reconhecimento de Padres  

E-print Network

Identificação de Células Ativas e Inativas de Penicillium chrysogenum por Técnicas de principal desse trabalho é desenvolver esse tipo de ferramenta estudando o caso do fungo Penicillium de estimar a biomassa ativa de Penicillium chrysogenum, num processo bioquímico , com vistas à


Comunicacin entre ProcesosComunicacin entre Procesos por pase de mensajespor pase de mensajes  

E-print Network

librerías especiales Las primitivas principales son: send(destination, this_msg, msg_length) receive(source, a_msg, &how_long) #12;IntroducciónIntroducción Sistemas donde la comunicación por memoria enlaces pueden ser unidireccionales o bidireccionales send(tothisprocess, this_msg, msg_length) receive

Cardinale Villarreal, Yudith C.


Aspectos de carcter general 1. El presupuesto de la UIB para 2013 se vio afectado por la reduccin de las  

E-print Network

del cuarto curso de la adaptación al espacio europeo de educación superior. En definitiva, la crisis a educación superior cómo si se mira según la transferencia por estudiante. El presupuesto total para el pequeñas intervenciones de obra y de mantenimiento de emergencia). Por otra parte, aunque con una

Oro, Daniel


Gestión por competencias: importante para las pymes maquila de pantalón en índigo en la ciudad de Bogotá  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo presenta una revisión de literatura internacional y nacional, sobre temas como el de competencias, los tipos de competencias, competencias laborales y proceso de implementación de la gestión por competencias. Adicionalmente, se muestra la reseña sobre la gestión por competencias en Colombia, así como la metodología utilizada para el trabajo de campo con relación al tema del artículo y

Nathalia Andrea Martínez Valero; Juan Carlos Rincón Gaviria



Microestructura y propiedades mecánicas de conductores protónicos de alta temperatura crecidos por fusión de zona flotante  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se han estudiado conductores protónicos de alta temperatura (CPAT) fabricados por fusión de zona flotante asistida por láser (SrCe 0.9Y0.1O3-?, SrCe0.8Y0.2O3-?, SrZr0.9Y0.1O3-?, SrZr0.8Y0.2O3-?, Sr3(Ca1.18Nb1.82)O9-? y SrTi0.95Sc0.05O3-?). La caracterización microestructural se ha realizado mediante Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido y Transmisión (MEB, MET). Los materiales tienen una estructura celular, con células de anchuras entre 10-50 µm y regiones intercelulares superiores a 1

M. J. López RobLedo; A. SA


Aquisição fonológica do português brasileiro por crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e surdas usuárias de implante coclear  

PubMed Central

Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisição fonológica do Português Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crianças surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito à Libras. Para a avaliação do sistema fonológico das crianças em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomeação, do ABFW – Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e a criança surda usuária de IC com acesso irrestrito à Libras apresentaram processo de aquisição fonológica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa etária. Considera-se que a aquisição precoce e o acesso irrestrito à Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crianças no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid



PROGRAMA DE MAESTRA Y DOCTORADO EN INGENIERA Subcomit Acadmico por Campo del Conocimiento  

E-print Network

PROGRAMA DE MAESTRÍA Y DOCTORADO EN INGENIERÍA Subcomité Académico por Campo del Conocimiento Matemáticas. Análisis estadístico y diseño de experimentos Dr. Eduardo Vega (Campus CU) M.I. Inés Navarro Matemáticas. Análisis estadístico y diseño de experimentos M.I. Patricia Romero (Campus CU) Dr. Alejandro

Islas, León


Analysis of PorA variable region 3 in meningococci: implications for vaccine policy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outer membrane protein (OMP) vaccines are being developed against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B which may provide protection against common circulating serotypes and serosubtypes in some countries. However, limited data is available in Europe from genosubtyping meningococci. We therefore undertook a retrospective analysis of the three main variable regions, VR1, VR2 as well as VR3, of the porA gene from N.

S. C. Clarke; M. A. Diggle; P. Mölling; M. Unemo; P. Olcén



508 Mastozoologa Neotropical, 2009 por la presencia del bosque nativo y la proteccin  

E-print Network

de la tierra que lo rodean. Las presiones humanas (acceso, protección, densidad de población) tam conservación del paisa- je ecorregional. DENSIDAD, USO DE HÁBITAT Y PRESAS DEL JAGUAR (Panthera onca) Y EL objetivos específicos fueron: 1) estimar la densidad absoluta y distribución de ja- guares por zonas de vida

Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad


Pramos de Costa Rica Editado por M. Kappelle y S. P. Horn  

E-print Network

Páramos de Costa Rica Editado por M. Kappelle y S. P. Horn ISBN 9968-927-09-0 Copyright © 2005 Correo electrónico: RESUMEN. Los páramos de Costa Rica albergan 25 géneros de endémica de los páramos de Costa Rica y Panamá, lo cual sugiere que estos páramos parecen formar un

Lintilhac, Philip M.


Pramos de Costa Rica Editado por M. Kappelle y S. P. Horn  

E-print Network

Páramos de Costa Rica Editado por M. Kappelle y S. P. Horn ISBN 9968-927-09-0 Copyright © 2005, Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), 2060 San José, Costa Rica RESUMEN. En este artículo se presenta un breve resumen de los depósitos superficiales en los páramos de Costa Rica, principalmente en el Parque Nacional

Lachniet, Matthew S.


Trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad: comorbilidad con trastornos depresivos y de ansiedad  

Microsoft Academic Search

El estudio analiza el perfil comórbido del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) y trastornos depresivos y\\/o de ansiedad (TI), explorando el modelo que predice esta asocia- ción psicopatológica. Se analiza una muestra de 90 casos con TDAH (6-16 años) y mediante investi- gación diferencial se compara la agrupación TDAH+TI con la ausencia de esta comorbilidad. El caso

José Antonio López-Villalobos; Isabel Serrano Pintado; Juan Delgado Sánchez-Mateos



ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-006 skid D  

SciTech Connect

This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

Keller, C.M.



ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-005 skid C  

SciTech Connect

This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-005 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

Keller, C.M.



Intermitência alfvênica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dados medidos no vento solar rápido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetário são dominados por flutuações Alfvênicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correlação entre as variações do campo magnético e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuações exibem muitas características esperadas em turbulência magneto-hidrodinâmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitência e espectros contínuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsáveis pela evolução de turbulência Alfvênica intermitente não são completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos é usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvênicos, modelados pela equação Schrödinger não-linear derivativa e pela equação Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caóticos à medida em que parâmetros do plasma são variados. Pequenas perturbações no parâmetro de dissipação podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime periódico, ou fracamente caótico, para um regime fortemente caótico. As séries temporais das flutuações do campo magnético nos regimes fortemente caóticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caóticas são interrompidas por fortes estouros caóticos. É mostrado que o regime fortemente caótico é atingido quando as soluções periódicas ou fracamente caóticas globalmente estáveis interagem com soluções do sistema que são fortemente caóticas, mas globalmente instáveis. Estas soluções globalmente instáveis são conjuntos caóticos não-atrativos conhecidos como selas caóticas, e são responsáveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caóticas têm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provável que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulência intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.



Zinc Finger Nuclease Knock-out of NADPH:Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) in Human Tumor Cell Lines Demonstrates That Hypoxia-activated Prodrugs Differ in POR Dependence*  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of POR in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, POR knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and POR-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by POR overexpression. Knocking out POR had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the POR knock-outs. Thus, although POR expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development. PMID:24196959

Su, Jiechuang; Gu, Yongchuan; Pruijn, Frederik B.; Smaill, Jeff B.; Patterson, Adam V.; Guise, Christopher P.; Wilson, William R.



Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOUR?O, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira



Distribucin de los graduados en titulaciones de centros propios en el curso acadmico 2007 / 2008, por centro, plan de estudios y sexo.  

E-print Network

, por centro, plan de estudios y sexo. CENTRO PLAN DE ESTUDIOS TOTAL MUJERES CIENCIAS DIPLOMADO EN académico 2007 / 2008, por centro, plan de estudios y sexo. CENTRO PLAN DE ESTUDIOS TOTAL MUJERES ESC. UNIV

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad


A FSICA ESTADSTICA SE ENCARGA DE ESTUDIAR EL COMPORTAMIENTO microscpico de los sistemas compuestos por muchos cuerpos,  

E-print Network

hasta después de trans- curridos otros cien años, gracias a las valiosas contribuciones de James Joule y también por esos años (1860) que James Clerk Maxwell publicó su famosa expresión para la distribución de

Méndez Alcaraz, José Miguel


Evaluation of swabbing methods for estimating the prevalence of bacterial carriage in the upper respiratory tract: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Bacterial carriage in the upper respiratory tract is usually asymptomatic but can lead to respiratory tract infection (RTI), meningitis and septicaemia. We aimed to provide a baseline measure of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis carriage within the community. Self-swabbing and healthcare professional (HCP) swabbing were compared. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Individuals registered at 20 general practitioner practices within the Wessex Primary Care Research Network South West, UK. Participants 10?448 individuals were invited to participate; 5394 within a self-swabbing group and 5054 within a HCP swabbing group. Self-swabbing invitees included 2405 individuals aged 0–4?years and 3349 individuals aged ?5?years. HCP swabbing invitees included 1908 individuals aged 0–4?years and 3146 individuals aged ?5?years. Results 1574 (15.1%) individuals participated, 1260 (23.4%, 95% CI 22.3% to 24.5%) undertaking self-swabbing and 314 (6.2%, 95% CI 5.5% to 6.9%) undertaking HCP-led swabbing. Participation was lower in young children and more deprived practice locations. Swab positivity rates were 34.8% (95% CI 32.2% to 37.4%) for self-taken nose swabs (NS), 19% (95% CI 16.8% to 21.2%) for self-taken whole mouth swabs (WMS), 25.2% (95% CI 20.4% to 30%) for nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and 33.4% (95% CI 28.2% to 38.6%) for HCP-taken WMS. Carriage rates of S. aureus were highest in NS (21.3%). S. pneumoniae carriage was highest in NS (11%) and NPS (7.4%). M. catarrhalis carriage was highest in HCP-taken WMS (28.8%). H. influenzae and P. aeruginosa carriage were similar between swab types. N. meningitidis was not detected in any swab. Age and recent RTI affected carriage of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae. Participant costs were lower for self-swabbing (£41.21) versus HCP swabbing (£69.66). Conclusions Higher participation and lower costs of self-swabbing as well as sensitivity of self-swabbing favour this method for use in large population-based respiratory carriage studies. PMID:25358677

Coughtrie, A L; Whittaker, R N; Begum, N; Anderson, R; Tuck, A; Faust, S N; Jefferies, J M; Yuen, H M; Roderick, P J; Mullee, M A; Moore, M V; Clarke, S C



Nasopharyngeal flora in children with acute otitis media before and after implementation of 7 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in France  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have investigated the impact of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on pneumococcal (Sp) and staphylococcal (Sa) nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage. Few have investigated the impact on Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mc) carriage. We aimed to compare the NP carriage rates in young children with acute otitis media (AOM) before and after PCV7 implementation in France. Methods Prior to PCV7 implementation, we performed 4 successive randomized trials with NP samples. These studies compared several antibiotic regimens for treating AOM in young children (6 to 30 months). After PCV7 implementation, to assess the impact of the vaccination program on NP flora, young children with AOM were enrolled in a prospective surveillance study. In each study, we obtained an NP sample to analyze the carriage rates of Sp, Hi, Mc and Sa and the factors influencing the carriage. Standardized history and physical examination findings were recorded; the methods used for NP swabs (sampling and cultures) were the same in all studies. Results We enrolled 4,405 children (mean age 13.9 months, median 12.8). Among the 2,598 children enrolled after PCV7 implementation, 98.3% were vaccinated with PCV7. In comparing the pre- and post-PCV7 periods, we found a slight but non-significant decrease in carriage rates of pneumococcus (AOR = 0.85 [0.69;1.05]), H. influenzae (AOR = 0.89 [0.73;1.09]) and S. aureus (AOR = 0.92 [0.70;1.19]). By contrast, the carriage rate of M. catarrhalis increased slightly but not significantly between the 2 periods (AOR = 1.08 [0.95;1.2]). Among Sp carriers, the proportion of PCV7 vaccine types decreased from 66.6% to 10.7% (P < 0.001), penicillin intermediate-resistant strains increased from 30.3% to 43.4% (P < 0.001), and penicillin-resistant strains decreased greatly from 22.8% to 3.8% (P < 0.001). The proportion of Hi ß-lactamase-producing strains decreased from 38.6% to 17.1% (P < 0.001). Conclusion The carriage rates of otopathogen species (Sp, Hi, Mc) and Sa did not significantly change in children with AOM after PCV7 implementation in France. However, we observed significant changes in carriage rates of PCV7 vaccine serotypes and penicillin non-susceptible Sp. PMID:22397629



Substrate-specific modulation of CYP3A4 activity by genetic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR)  

PubMed Central

Objectives CYP3A4 receives electrons from P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to metabolize about 50% of clinically used drugs. There is substantial inter-individual variation in CYP3A4 catalytic activity that is not explained by CYP3A4 genetic variants. CYP3A4 is flexible and distensible, permitting it to accommodate substrates varying in shape and size. To elucidate mechanisms of variability in CYP3A4 catalysis, we examined the effects of genetic variants of POR, and explored the possibility that substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4 differentially affect the ability of POR variants to support catalysis. Methods We expressed human CYP3A4 and four POR variants (Q153R, A287P, R457H, A503V) in bacteria, reconstituted them in vitro and measured the Michaelis constant and maximum velocity with testosterone, midazolam, quinidine and erythromycin as substrates. Results POR A287P and R457H had low activity with all substrates; Q153R had 76–94% of wild type (WT) activity with midazolam and erythromycin, but 129–150% activity with testosterone and quinidine. The A503V polymorphism reduced CYP3A4 activity to 61–77% of wild type with testosterone and midazolam, but had nearly wild type activity with quinidine and erythromycin. Conclusion POR variants affect CYP3A4 activities. The impact of a POR variant on catalysis by CYP3A4 is substrate-specific, probably due to substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4. PMID:20697309

Agrawal, Vishal; Choi, Ji Ha; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Miller, Walter L.



Genetic diversity and stability of the porA allele as a genetic marker in human Campylobacter infection.  


The major outer-membrane protein (MOMP) of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, encoded by the porA gene, is extremely genetically diverse. Conformational MOMP epitopes are important in host immunity, and variation in surface-exposed regions probably occurs as a result of positive immune selection during infection. porA diversity has been exploited in genotyping studies using highly discriminatory nucleotide sequences to identify potentially epidemiologically linked cases of human campylobacteriosis. To understand the overall nature and extent of porA diversity and stability in C. jejuni and C. coli we investigated sequences in isolates (n=584) obtained from a defined human population (approx. 600,000) over a defined time period (1 year). A total of 196 distinct porA variants were identified. Regions encoding putative extracellular loops were the most variable in both nucleotide sequence and length. Phylogenetic analysis identified three porA allele clusters that originated in (i) predominantly C. jejuni and a few C. coli, (ii) solely C. jejuni or (iii) predominantly C. coli and a few C. jejuni. The stability of porA within an individual human host was investigated using isolates cultured longitudinally from 64 sporadic cases, 27 of which had prolonged infection lasting between 5 and 98 days (the remainder having illness of normal duration, 0-4 days), and 20 cases from family outbreaks. Evidence of mutation was detected in two patients with prolonged illness. Despite demonstrable positive immune selection in these two unusual cases, the persistence of numerous variants within the population indicated that the porA allele is a valuable tool for use in extended typing schemes. PMID:19744989

Cody, A J; Maiden, M J C; Dingle, K E



Bifurcación de las soluciones de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas Be: formación de líneas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se ha estudiado la topología de la ecuación hidrodinámica no-lineal que describe el perfil de velocidades de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas tempranas. Al aplicar este modelo a estrellas Be se encuentra que existen dos tipos De soluciones: la estándar, que describe el viento polar, y una nueva, que describe un viento más denso y lento y que explicaría el disco que se encuentra alrededor de estos objetos. Existe una región de transición en donde ambas soluciones coexisten (bifurcación}). Ambas soluciones satisfacen en esta región las mismas condiciones de borde. Para estas dos soluciones se han obtenido los perfiles de líneas de hidrógeno del visible y del IR, resolviendo el transporte de radiación en el ``comoving frame". Para la solución estándar, se obtienen perfiles con componentes en emisión, mientras que para la nueva solución se obtienen perfiles en absorción. Se comparan cualitativamente los resultados con las observaciones.

Curé, M.; Rial, D.; Cidale, L.; Venero, R.


Estudio financiado por NIH muestra un riesgo mayor de cáncer de próstata debido a complementos de vitamina E

De acuerdo a una revisión ulterior de los datos del Estudio del Selenio y la Vitamina E para Prevenir el Cáncer (SELECT), los hombres que tomaron diariamente 400 unidades internacionales (U.I.) de vitamina E tuvieron más cánceres de próstata que los hombres que tomaron un placebo. Los resultados mostraron que, por cada 1 000 hombres, hubo 76 casos de cáncer de próstata entre hombres que tomaron solamente complementos de vitamina E en comparación con 65 casos de cáncer entre hombres que tomaron un placebo durante un período de 7 años; es decir, 11 casos más de cáncer de próstata por cada 1 000 hombres. Esto representa un aumento de 17% en cánceres de próstata en relación con los que tomaron un placebo. Esta diferencia fue estadísticamente significativa y, por lo tanto, es posible que no se deba a la casualidad.


Obtención de la curva de luz en la ocultación de 35 Sgr por Júpiter el 6 de marzo de 1996  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La ocultación de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr por Júpiter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso por el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar parámetros físicos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atmósfera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presión) Para lograr ésto se programó la cámara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 imágenes por segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 imágenes de la inmersión y otras tantas de la emersión. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturación del CCD ya que la observación se realizó de día. En este momento las imágenes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reducción.

Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.


Palivizumab outcomes registry data from Spain: Infección Respiratoria Infantil por Virus Respiratorio Sincitial (IRIS) Study Group.  


Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory illness in children <2 years of age. Severe RSV infection requiring hospitalization is linked to gestational age, chronic cardiopulmonary conditions and immunosuppression. The Infección Respiratoria Infantil por Virus Respiratorio Sincitial (IRIS) Study group in Spain conducted two pivotal epidemiologic studies establishing that serious RSV illness among premature infants was responsible for high rehospitalization rates (approximately 13%). RSV lower respiratory tract illness also correlated with prolonged hospital stay and more intensive care unit admissions. In Europe recent availability of palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to RSV, is a major therapeutic advancement directed against prevention of lower respiratory tract infection secondary to this viral pathogen. To ensure proper and optimal usage of palivizumab, the IRIS group, in conjunction with the Spanish Neonatology Group, developed prophylaxis guidelines for neonates. Palivizumab prophylaxis is strongly recommended in premature infants < or =28 weeks gestation or those affected with chronic lung disease. Additionally, palivizumab is recommended for infants with a gestational age of 29 to 32 weeks, without evidence of chronic lung disease and who are <6 months old at the onset of the RSV season. It was thought that slightly older premature infants (33 to 35 weeks gestational age) should be assessed on an individual basis to determine whether prophylaxis is warranted. The IRIS Study Group is currently determining the effectiveness of these recommendations by measuring the incidence of RSV-related hospital admissions in infants born at < or =32 weeks gestational age who are receiving palivizumab prophylaxis. PMID:12671453

Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier



Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006  

PubMed Central

OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.



On the Interaction between a Bactericidal Antibody and a PorA Epitope of Neisseria meningitidisin Outer Membrane Vesicles: A Competitive Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method for determining the affinity constant (Ka) of the binding between an antibody Fab fragment and a membrane-embedded protein epitope under equilibrium conditions. Monoclonal antibody MN12H2, directed against outer membrane protein PorA ofNeisseria meningitidis,is used in a competitive fluorescence polarization assay with a cyclic peptide–fluorescein conjugate as a tracer antigen. Displacement experiments with PorA-containing and PorA-deficient

Jean M. H. van den Elsen; Erik van Pomeren; Jan T. Poolman; Jaap Wilting; James N. Herron; Daan J. A. Crommelin



[Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD, students at Budapest and Prague Faculties of Medicine].  


Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD were contemporaries, both born in 1899, one in Zvolen, the other in Dombovar, at the time of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Prof. Por attended the Faculty of Medicine in Budapest from 1918 to 1920, and Prof. Klopstock studied at the same place between 1917 and 1919. From 1920 until graduation on 6th February 1926, Prof. Por continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Prof. Klopstock had to interrupt his studies in Budapest due to pulmonary tuberculosis; he received treatment at Tatranske Matliare where he befriended Franz Kafka. Later, upon Kafka's encouragement, he changed institutions and continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, where he graduated the first great go. It is very likely that, during their studies in Budapest and Prague, both professors met repeatedly, even though their life paths later separated. Following his graduation, Prof. Por practiced as an internist in Prague, later in Slovakia, and from 1945 in Kosice. In 1961, he was awarded the title of university professor of internal medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, where he practiced until his death in 1980. Prof. Klopstock continued his studies in Kiel and Berlin. After his graduation in 1933, he practiced in Berlin as a surgeon and in 1938 left for USA. In 1962, he was awarded the title of university professor of pulmonary surgery in NewYork, where he died in 1972. PMID:21250499

Mydlík, M; Derzsiová, K



Caracterización fisicoquímica, funcional y química de harinas nixtamalizadas de maíz obtenidas por calentamiento óhmico y proceso tradicional  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se caracterizaron harinas de maíz nixtamalizadas (HMN) obtenidas por calentamiento óhmico (HCO), proceso tradicional (HPT) y harina comercial (HC) en su composición química, capacidad e índice de absorción de agua (CAA, IAA), índice de solubilidad (ISA), viscosidad, rendimiento, humedad y textura de las masas y tortillas. Las HCO presentaron diferentes grados de gelatinización de acuerdo a los resultados de IAA,

M. Gaytán-Martínez; J. D. C. Figueroa; P. A. Vázquez-Landaverde; E. Morales-Sánchez; H. E. Martínez-Flores; M. L. Reyes-Vega



FUNDAMENTACIN El taekwondo es un arte marcial de origen coreano que se destaca por la variedad y  

E-print Network

TAEKWONDO FUNDAMENTACIÓN El taekwondo es un arte marcial de origen coreano que se destaca por la millones de personas. OBJETIVOS Los beneficios que se demuestran con la práctica del taekwondo son: 1 taekwondo. 3. Vuelta a la calma: Se realizan ejercicios de relajación y estiramientos al final de la sesión

Escolano, Francisco



Microsoft Academic Search

Los tepetates, horizontes endurecidos de origen volcánico, consti- tuyen un problema social y económico en México, por la extensión que ocupan y las limitaciones que presentan para su uso. Este material, además de endurecido, es de baja fertilidad, lo que pro- picia el abandono de los sitios en los que aflora. Una manera de rehabilitar el tepetate para la producción

Alma Socorro Velázquez-Rodríguez; David Flores-Román; Otilio Arturo Acevedo-Sandoval



Comparación de resultados del método de clasificación de órbitas por análisis de frecuencias con el método de exponentes de Lyapunov  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemos realizado extensas comparaciones del método de análisis de frecuencias con el de exponentes de Lyapunov. El primero resulta claramente superior por las siguientes razones: 1) permite distinguir distintos tipos de órbitas y no sólo si son regulares o caóticas 2) es mucho más veloz requiriendo mucho menos tiempo de cómputo. La concordancia de resultados es, en general, buena y

D. D. Carpintero; J. C. Muzzio; F. C. Wachlin



Por qu se invierte en plantaciones de Jatropha? Respuestas desde Costa Rica Abigail Fallot a,b,*  

E-print Network

1 Título ¿Por qué se invierte en plantaciones de Jatropha? Respuestas desde Costa Rica Autores, France b CATIE, Programa cambio climático y cuencas, 30501 Turrialba, Costa Rica * Contacto: fallot de plantaciones de Jatropha curcas (Tempate) para biodiesel, analizamos el caso de Costa Rica donde

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Factor de independencia a la distracción en el trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad: un modelo abreviado  

Microsoft Academic Search

El factor independencia a la distracción (FID) del WISC-R presenta frecuentemente resultados infe- riores al factor organización perceptiva (FOP) y comprensión verbal (FCV) en casos de Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH). La formulación FID< (FCV + FOP)\\/2 tiene buena sensibilidad para TDAH. El objetivo principal de este estudio ha sido reducir el número de pruebas ne- cesarias

José Antonio; López Villalobos


Algoritmos genéticos para la resolución de problemas de Programación por Metas Entera. Aplicación a la Economía de la Educación  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se presenta un algoritmo genético para la resolución de problemas de Programación por Metas Entera. Este tipo de problemas presentan en general un gran número de dificultades para su resolución utilizando algoritmos tradicionales de Programación Entera, siendo en la mayoría de los casos de problemas reales demasiado costosa computacionalmente para afrontarla con garantías. Sin embargo, se mostrará

Rafael Caballero; Julián Molina Luque; Angel Torrico González; Trinidad Gómez Nuñez


A hipótese do Investment Development Path: Uma Abordagem por Dados em Painel. Os casos de Portugal e Espanha  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observando as transformações ocorridas na economia mundial no último quarto do século XX, como resultado do processo de liberalização, desregulamentação e abertura dos mercados, um dos traços mais significativos residiu na emergência de Empresas Multinacionais (EMN) em todos os sectores de actividade e países do mundo. Em consequência, os fluxos de investimento directo no estrangeiro (IDE) promovidos por estas EMN

Miguel Fonseca; António Mendonça; José Passos



A Hipótese do Investment Development Path: Uma Abordagem por Dados em Painel. Os Casos de Portugal e Espanha  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observando as transformações ocorridas na economia mundial no último quarto do século XX, como resultado do processo de liberalização, desregulamentação e abertura dos mercados, um dos traços mais significativos residiu na emergência de Empresas Multinacionais (EMN) em todos os sectores de actividade e países do mundo. Em consequência, os fluxos de investimento directo no estrangeiro (IDE) promovidos por estas EMN

Miguel Fonseca; António Mendonça; José Passos



Interleukin 8 in middle ear fluid during acute otitis media: correlation with aetiology and bacterial eradication  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To study the concentration of interleukin 8 (IL-8) in the middle ear fluid of children with acute otitis media and the association between IL-8 concentrations, aetiology of acute otitis media, and bacteriological sterilisation.?STUDY DESIGN—Middle ear fluid was obtained by tympanocentesis at enrolment (day 1) and on day 4-5 in 81 children aged 3-36 months with acute otitis media who received antibiotic treatment. IL-8 concentrations were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.?RESULTS—101 samples were obtained on day 1 and 47 samples on day 4-5. 94 pathogens were isolated in 79 of 101 samples obtained on day 1: 56 Haemophilus influenzae, 35 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2 Moraxella catarrhalis, and 1 Streptococcus pyogenes. Among 40paired, initially culture positive samples, sterilisation was achieved on day 4-5 in 22 but not in 18 (13 H influenzae, 2 S pneumoniae, and 3 H influenzae and S pneumoniae concomitantly). IL-8 was detected in 96 of 101 and 46 of 47 samples obtained on days 1 and 4-5, respectively. Mean (SD) IL-8 concentration on day 1 was significantly higher in culture positive than in negative samples (12 636 (23 317) v 5920 (7080) pg/ml). In paired samples, IL-8 concentration fell in 12 of 22 ears in which sterilisation was achieved and in 9 of 21 ears with persistent or new infection. Mean (SD) IL-8 concentrations on day 4-5 were significantly higher in culture positive than in negative samples (15 420 (15 418) v 6695 (5092) pg/ml).?CONCLUSIONS—Higher IL-8 concentrations are found in culture positive middle ear fluid in acute otitis media. Bacterial eradication is associated with a fall in these concentrations.?? PMID:10648376

Leibovitz, E.; Dagan, R.; Laver, J.; Piglansky, L.; Raiz, S.; Abboud, M.; Fliss, D.; Leiberman, A.; Barzilai, A.



Association between Ocular Bacterial Carriage and Follicular Trachoma Following Mass Azithromycin Distribution in The Gambia  

PubMed Central

Background Trachoma, caused by ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection, is the leading infectious cause of blindess, but its prevalence is now falling in many countries. As the prevalence falls, an increasing proportion of individuals with clinical signs of follicular trachoma (TF) is not infected with C. trachomatis. A recent study in Tanzania suggested that other bacteria may play a role in the persistence of these clinical signs. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined associations between clinical signs of TF and ocular colonization with four pathogens commonly found in the nasopharnyx, three years after the initiation of mass azithromycin distribution. Children aged 0 to 5 years were randomly selected from 16 Gambian communitites. Both eyes of each child were examined and graded for trachoma according to the World Health Organization (WHO) simplified system. Two swabs were taken from the right eye: one swab was processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the Amplicor test for detection of C. trachomatis DNA and the second swab was processed by routine bacteriology to assay for the presence of viable Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis. Prevalence of TF was 6.2% (96/1538) while prevalence of ocular C. trachomatis infection was 1.0% (16/1538). After adjustment, increased odds of TF were observed in the presence of C. trachomatis (OR?=?10.4, 95%CI 1.32–81.2, p?=?0.03), S. pneumoniae (OR?=?2.14, 95%CI 1.03–4.44, p?=?0.04) and H. influenzae (OR?=?4.72, 95% CI 1.53–14.5, p?=?0.01). Conclusions/Significance Clinical signs of TF can persist in communities even when ocular C. trachomatis infection has been controlled through mass azithromycin distribution. In these settings, TF may be associated with ocular colonization with bacteria commonly carried in the nasopharnyx. This may affect the interpretation of impact surveys and the determinations of thresholds for discontinuing mass drug administration. PMID:23936573

Burr, Sarah E.; Hart, John D.; Edwards, Tansy; Baldeh, Ignatius; Bojang, Ebrima; Harding-Esch, Emma M.; Holland, Martin J.; Lietman, Thomas M.; West, Sheila K.; Mabey, David C. W.; Sillah, Ansumana; Bailey, Robin L.



Ceftaroline in the management of complicated skin and soft tissue infections and community acquired pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Ceftaroline is a new parenteral cephalosporin approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs) including those due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Ceftaroline has broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and exerts its bactericidal effects by binding to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), resulting in inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It binds to PBP 2a of MRSA with high affinity and also binds to all six PBPs in Streptococcus pneumoniae. In in vitro studies, ceftaroline demonstrated potent activity against Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA and vancomycin-intermediate isolates), Streptococcus pneumoniae (including multidrug resistant isolates), Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and many common gram-negative pathogens, excluding extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In Phase II and Phase III clinical trials, ceftaroline was noninferior to its comparator agents and demonstrated high clinical cure rates in the treatment of cSSTIs and CAP. It demonstrated favorable outcomes in patients treated for both regulatory-approved indications and unlicensed indications in a retrospective analysis. Ceftaroline is a safe and effective option for treatment in specific patient populations in which its efficacy and safety have been proven. This article reviews the challenges in the treatment of cSSTI and CAP, ceftaroline and its microbiology, pharmacology, efficacy, and safety data which support its use in treatment of cSSTIs and CAP.

Mpenge, Mbiye A; MacGowan, Alasdair P



Panel 6: Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Objective To update progress on the effectiveness of vaccine for prevention of acute otitis media (AOM) and identification of promising candidate antigens against Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Review Methods Literature searches were performed in OvidSP and PubMed restricted to articles published between June 2007 and September 2011. Search terms included otitis media, vaccines, vaccine antigens, and each of the otitis pathogens and candidate antigens identified in the ninth conference report. Conclusions The current report provides further evidence for the effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in the prevention of otitis media. Observational studies demonstrate a greater decline in AOM episodes than reported in clinical efficacy trials. Unmet challenges include extending protection to additional serotypes and additional pathogens, the need to prevent early episodes, the development of correlates of protection for protein antigens, and the need to define where an otitis media vaccine strategy fits with priorities for child health. Implications for Practice Acute otitis media continues to be a burden on children and families, especially those who suffer from frequent recurrences. The 7-valent PCV (PCV7) has reduced the burden of disease as well as shifted the pneumococcal serotypes and the distribution of otopathogens currently reported in children with AOM. Antibiotic resistance remains an ongoing challenge. Multiple candidate antigens have demonstrated the necessary requirements of conservation, surface exposure, immunogenicity, and protection in animal models. Further research on the role of each antigen in pathogenesis, in the development of correlates of protection in animal models, and in new adjuvants to elicit responses in the youngest infants is likely to be productive and permit more antigens to move into human clinical trials. PMID:23536534

Pelton, Stephen I.; Pettigrew, Melinda M.; Barenkamp, Stephen J.; Godfroid, Fabrice; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Leach, Amanda; Patel, Janak; Murphy, Timothy F.; Selak, Sanja; Bakaletz, Lauren O.



Potentially Pathogenic Airway Bacteria and Neutrophilic Inflammation in Treatment Resistant Severe Asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular microbiological analysis of airway samples in asthma has demonstrated an altered microbiome in comparison to healthy controls. Such changes may have relevance to treatment-resistant severe asthma, particularly those with neutrophilic airway inflammation, as bacteria might be anticipated to activate the innate immune response, a process that is poorly steroid responsive. An understanding of the relationship between airway bacterial presence and dominance in severe asthma may help direct alternative treatment approaches. Objective We aimed to use a culture independent analysis strategy to describe the presence, dominance and abundance of bacterial taxa in induced sputum from treatment resistant severe asthmatics and correlate findings with clinical characteristics and airway inflammatory markers. Methods Induced sputum was obtained from 28 stable treatment-resistant severe asthmatics. The samples were divided for supernatant IL-8 measurement, cytospin preparation for differential cell count and Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiling for bacterial community analysis. Results In 17/28 patients, the dominant species within the airway bacterial community was Moraxella catarrhalis or a member of the Haemophilus or Streptococcus genera. Colonisation with these species was associated with longer asthma disease duration (mean (SD) 31.8 years (16.7) vs 15.6 years (8.0), p?=?0.008), worse post-bronchodilator percent predicted FEV1 (68.0% (24.0) vs 85.5% (19.7), p?=?0.025) and higher sputum neutrophil differential cell counts (median (IQR) 80% (67–83) vs 43% (29–67), p?=?0.001). Total abundance of these organisms significantly and positively correlated with sputum IL-8 concentration and neutrophil count. Conclusions Airway colonisation with potentially pathogenic micro-organisms in asthma is associated with more severe airways obstruction and neutrophilic airway inflammation. This altered colonisation may have a role in the development of an asthma phenotype that responds less well to current asthma therapies. PMID:24955983

Grainge, Christopher; Rogers, Geraint B.; Kehagia, Valia; Lau, Laurie; Carroll, Mary P.; Bruce, Kenneth D.; Howarth, Peter H.



Bacterial Distribution in the Lungs of Children with Protracted Bacterial Bronchitis  

PubMed Central

Objectives Flexible bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (FB-BAL) is increasingly used for the microbiological confirmation of protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) in children with a chronic wet cough. At our centre, when performing FB-BAL for microbiological diagnosis we sample 6 lobes (including lingula) as this is known to increase the rate of culture positive procedures in children with cystic fibrosis. We investigated if this is also the case in children with PBB. Methods We undertook a retrospective case note review of 50 children investigated for suspected PBB between May 2011 and November 2013. Results The median (IQR) age at bronchoscopy was 2.9 (1.7–4.4) years and the median (IQR) duration of cough was 11 (8.0–14) months. Positive cultures were obtained from 41/50 (82%) and 16 (39%) of these patients isolated ?2 organisms. The commonest organisms isolated were Haemophilus influenzae (25 patients), Moraxella catarrhalis (14 patients), Staphylococcus aureus (11 patients) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (8 patients). If only one lobe had been sampled (as per the European Respiratory Society guidance) 17 different organisms would have been missed in 15 patients, 8 of whom would have had no organism cultured at all. The FB-BAL culture results led to an antibiotic other than co-amoxiclav being prescribed in 17/41 (41%) patients. Conclusions Bacterial distribution in the lungs of children with PBB is heterogeneous and organisms may therefore be missed if only one lobe is sampled at FB-BAL. Positive FB-BAL results are useful in children with PBB and can influence treatment. PMID:25259619

Narang, Ravi; Bakewell, Kelly; Peach, Jane; Clayton, Sadie; Samuels, Martin; Alexander, John; Lenney, Warren; Gilchrist, Francis J.



In Vitro Interaction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with Human Middle Ear Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Otitis media (OM) is an inflammation of the middle ear which can be acute or chronic. Acute OM is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). CSOM is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the middle ear characterized by infection and discharge. The survivors often suffer from hearing loss and neurological sequelae. However, no information is available regarding the interaction of P. aeruginosa with human middle ear epithelial cells (HMEECs). Methodology and Findings In the present investigation, we demonstrate that P. aeruginosa is able to enter and survive inside HMEECs via an uptake mechanism that is dependent on microtubule and actin microfilaments. The actin microfilament disrupting agent as well as microtubule inhibitors exhibited significant decrease in invasion of HMEECs by P. aeruginosa. Confocal microscopy demonstrated F-actin condensation associated with bacterial entry. This recruitment of F-actin was transient and returned to normal distribution after bacterial internalization. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of bacteria on the surface of HMEECs, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the internalization of P. aeruginosa located in the plasma membrane-bound vacuoles. We observed a significant decrease in cell invasion of OprF mutant compared to the wild-type strain. P. aeruginosa induced cytotoxicity, as demonstrated by the determination of lactate dehydrogenase levels in culture supernatants of infected HMEECs and by a fluorescent dye-based assay. Interestingly, OprF mutant showed little cell damage compared to wild-type P. aeruginosa. Conclusions and Significance This study deciphered the key events in the interaction of P. aeruginosa with HMEECs in vitro and highlighted the role of bacterial outer membrane protein, OprF, in this process. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CSOM will help in identifying novel targets to design effective therapeutic strategies and to prevent hearing loss. PMID:24632826

Mittal, Rahul; Grati, M’hamed; Gerring, Robert; Blackwelder, Patricia; Yan, Denise; Li, Jian-Dong; Liu, Xue Zhong



Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis to evaluate ceftaroline fosamil dosing regimens for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and complicated skin and skin-structure infections in patients with normal and impaired renal function.  


In this study, the probability of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target attainment (PTA) of ceftaroline against clinical isolates causing community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) and complicated skin and skin-structure infection (cSSSI) in Europe was evaluated. Three dosing regimens were assessed: 600mg every 12h (q12h) as a 1-h infusion (standard dose) or 600mg every 8h (q8h) as a 2-h infusion in virtual patients with normal renal function; and 400mg q12h as a 1-h infusion in patients with moderate renal impairment. Pharmacokinetic and microbiological data were obtained from the literature. The PTA and the cumulative fraction of response (CFR) were calculated by Monte Carlo simulation. In patients with normal renal function, the ceftaroline standard dose (600mg q12h as a 1-h infusion) can be sufficient to treat CABP due to ceftazidime-susceptible (CAZ-S) Escherichia coli, CAZ-S Klebsiella pneumoniae, meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis (CFR>90%). However, against meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), the CFR was 72%. In cSSSI, the CFR was also <80% for MRSA. Administration of ceftaroline 600mg q8h as a 2-h infusion or 400mg q12h as a 1-h infusion in patients with moderate renal insufficiency provided a high probability of treatment success (CFR ca. 100%) for most micro-organisms causing CABP and cSSSI, including MRSA and penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae. These results suggest that in patients with normal renal function, ceftaroline 600mg q8h as a 2-h infusion may be a better option than the standard dose, especially if the MRSA rate is high. PMID:25700566

Canut, A; Isla, A; Rodríguez-Gascón, A



Co-colonization by Haemophilus influenzae with Streptococcus pneumoniae enhances pneumococcal-specific antibody response in young children  

PubMed Central

Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) are common bacterial pathogens of respiratory infections and common commensal microbes in the human nasopharynx (NP). The effect of interactions among theses bacteria during co-colonization of the NP on the host immune response has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of co-colonization by Hi or Mcat on the systemic antibody response to vaccine protein candidate antigens of Spn and similarly the impact of co-colonization by Spn and Mcat on antibody responses to Hi vaccine protein candidate antigens. Methods Serum samples were collected from healthy children at 6, 9, 15, 18, and 24 months of age when they were colonized with Spn, Hi, Mcat or their combinations. Quantitative ELISA was used to determine serum IgA and IgG against three Spn antigens and three Hi antigens, and as well as whole cells of non-typeable (NT) Spn and Hi. Results NP colonization by Spn increased serum IgA and IgG titers against Spn antigens PhtD, PcpA and PlyD and whole cells of NTSpn, and co-colonization of Hi or Mcat with Spn resulted in further increases of serum pneumococcal-specific antibody levels. NP colonization by Hi increased serum IgA and IgG titers against Hi antigens P6, Protein D and OMP26 and whole cells of NTHi, but co-colonization of Spn or Mcat with Hi did not result in further increase of serum NTHi-specific antibody levels. Conclusion Co-colonization of Hi or Mcat with Spn enhances serum antibody response to NTSpn whole cells and Spn vaccine candidate antigens PhtD, PcPA and PlyD1. Co-colonization appears to variably modulate pathogen species-specific host adaptive immune response. PMID:24355091

Xu, Qingfu; Pichichero, Michael E.



[Comparison of culture and real-time PCR methods in the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in acute otitis media effusion specimens].  


Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are the major etiologic agents of acute otitis media. This study was aimed to compare the detection rate of S.pneumoniae and H.influenzae by culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) in the middle ear effusions of patients diagnosed as acute otitis media. A total of 60 middle ear effusion samples collected from children with acute otitis media were included in the study. The samples were inoculated and incubated in BACTEC Ped Plus blood culture bottles and BACTEC 9120 system (BD Diagnostic Systems, MD), respectively, and the isolates were identified by conventional methods. For the molecular diagnosis of H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae, ply pneumolysin gene and HIB capsule region, respectively were amplified by Rt-PCR (LightCycler, Roche Diagnostics, Germany). H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae were isolated from 5 (8.3%) and 3 (5%) of the patient samples with conventional culture methods, respectively. In addition in 11.6% of the samples other microorganisms (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus sanguinis, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans) were also isolated. On the other hand H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae were detected in 38 (63.3%) and 24 (40%) of the samples with Rt-PCR, respectively. There was about eight fold increase in the detection frequency of H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae with Rt-PCR compared to culture methods. When culture was accepted as the gold standard method, the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of Rt-PCR in the detection of H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae were estimated as 80%, 51% and 98.2%, respectively. As a result, Rt-PCR was shown to be a sensitive method and could be preferred for the rapid diagnosis of H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae in the etiological diagnosis of acute otitis media, especially in culture negative cases. PMID:23188581

Eser, Ozgen Köseo?lu; Alp, Sehnaz; Ergin, Alper; Ipçi, Kaan; Alp, Alpaslan; Gür, Deniz; Hasçelik, Gül?en



The Human Milk Protein-Lipid Complex HAMLET Sensitizes Bacterial Pathogens to Traditional Antimicrobial Agents  

PubMed Central

The fight against antibiotic resistance is one of the most significant challenges to public health of our time. The inevitable development of resistance following the introduction of novel antibiotics has led to an urgent need for the development of new antibacterial drugs with new mechanisms of action that are not susceptible to existing resistance mechanisms. One such compound is HAMLET, a natural complex from human milk that kills Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) using a mechanism different from common antibiotics and is immune to resistance-development. In this study we show that sublethal concentrations of HAMLET potentiate the effect of common antibiotics (penicillins, macrolides, and aminoglycosides) against pneumococci. Using MIC assays and short-time killing assays we dramatically reduced the concentrations of antibiotics needed to kill pneumococci, especially for antibiotic-resistant strains that in the presence of HAMLET fell into the clinically sensitive range. Using a biofilm model in vitro and nasopharyngeal colonization in vivo, a combination of HAMLET and antibiotics completely eradicated both biofilms and colonization in mice of both antibiotic-sensitive and resistant strains, something each agent alone was unable to do. HAMLET-potentiation of antibiotics was partially due to increased accessibility of antibiotics to the bacteria, but relied more on calcium import and kinase activation, the same activation pathway HAMLET uses when killing pneumococci by itself. Finally, the sensitizing effect was not confined to species sensitive to HAMLET. The HAMLET-resistant respiratory species Acinetobacter baumanii and Moraxella catarrhalis were all sensitized to various classes of antibiotics in the presence of HAMLET, activating the same mechanism as in pneumococci. Combined these results suggest the presence of a conserved HAMLET-activated pathway that circumvents antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The ability to activate this pathway may extend the lifetime of the current treatment arsenal. PMID:22905269

Marks, Laura R.; Clementi, Emily A.; Hakansson, Anders P.



The Haemophilus ducreyi Serum Resistance Antigen DsrA Confers Attachment to Human Keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

Haemophilus ducreyi is the etiologic agent of the sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease chancroid. H. ducreyi serum resistance protein A (DsrA) is a member of a family of multifunctional outer membrane proteins that are involved in resistance to killing by human serum complement. The members of this family include YadA of Yersinia species, the UspA proteins of Moraxella catarrhalis, and the Eib proteins of Escherichia coli. The role of YadA, UspA1, and UspA2H as eukaryotic cell adhesins and the function of UspA2 as a vitronectin binder led to our investigation of the cell adhesion and vitronectin binding properties of DsrA. We found that DsrA was a keratinocyte-specific adhesin as it was necessary and sufficient for attachment to HaCaT cells, a keratinocyte cell line, but was not required for attachment to HS27 cells, a fibroblast cell line. We also found that DsrA was specifically responsible for the ability of H. ducreyi to bind vitronectin. We then theorized that DsrA might use vitronectin as a bridge to bind to human cells, but this hypothesis proved to be untrue as eliminating HaCaT cell binding of vitronectin with a monoclonal antibody specific to integrin ?v?5 did not affect the attachment of H. ducreyi to HaCaT cells. Finally, we wanted to examine the importance of keratinocyte adhesion in chancroid pathogenesis so we tested the wild-type and dsrA mutant strains of H. ducreyi in our swine models of chancroid pathogenesis. The dsrA mutant was less virulent than the wild type in both the normal and immune cell-depleted swine models of chancroid infection. PMID:12379693

Cole, Leah E.; Kawula, Thomas H.; Toffer, Kristen L.; Elkins, Christopher



Nonantibiotic macrolides prevent human neutrophil elastase-induced mucus stasis and airway surface liquid volume depletion  

PubMed Central

Mucus clearance is an important component of the lung's innate defense system. A failure of this system brought on by mucus dehydration is common to both cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mucus clearance rates are regulated by the volume of airway surface liquid (ASL) and by ciliary beat frequency (CBF). Chronic treatment with macrolide antibiotics is known to be beneficial to both CF and COPD patients. However, chronic macrolide usage may induce bacterial resistance. We have developed a novel macrolide, 2?-desoxy-9-(S)-erythromycylamine (GS-459755), that has significantly diminished antibiotic activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae. Since neutrophilia frequently occurs in chronic lung disease and human neutrophil elastase (HNE) induces mucus stasis by activating the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), we tested the ability of GS-459755 to protect against HNE-induced mucus stasis. GS-459755 had no effect on HNE activity. However, GS-459755 pretreatment protected against HNE-induced ASL volume depletion in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). The effect of GS-459755 on ASL volume was dose dependent (IC50 ?3.9 ?M) and comparable to the antibacterial macrolide azithromycin (IC50 ?2.4 ?M). Macrolides had no significant effect on CBF or on transepithelial water permeability. However, the amiloride-sensitive transepithelial voltage, a marker of ENaC activity, was diminished by macrolide pretreatment. We conclude that GS-459755 may limit HNE-induced activation of ENaC and may be useful for the treatment of mucus dehydration in CF and COPD without inducing bacterial resistance. PMID:23542952

Sabater, Juan R.; Clarke, Tainya C.; Tan, Chong D.; Davies, Catrin M.; Liu, Jia; Yeung, Arthur; Garland, Alaina L.; Stutts, M. Jackson; Abraham, William M.; Phillips, Gary; Baker, William R.; Wright, Clifford D.; Wilbert, Sibylle



In vitro antibacterial activity of ceftobiprole against clinical isolates from French teaching hospitals: proposition of zone diameter breakpoints.  


The aims of this study were to determine the in vitro activity profile of ceftobiprole, a pyrrolidinone cephalosporin, against a large number of bacterial pathogens and to propose zone diameter breakpoints for clinical categorisation according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints. MICs of ceftobiprole were determined by broth microdilution against 1548 clinical isolates collected in eight French hospitals. Disk diffusion testing was performed using 30 ?g disks according to the method of the Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie (CA-SFM). The in vitro activity of ceftobiprole, expressed by MIC(50/90) (MICs for 50% and 90% of the organisms, respectively) (mg/L), was as follows: meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, 0.25/0.5; meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 1/2; meticillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), 0.12/0.5; meticillin-resistant CoNS, 1/2; penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae, ? 0.008/0.03; penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, 0.12/0.5; viridans group streptococci, 0.03/0.12; ?-haemolytic streptococci, ? 0.008/0.016; Enterococcus faecalis, 0.25/1; Enterococcus faecium, 64/128; Enterobacteriaceae, 0.06/32; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 4/16; Acinetobacter baumannii, 0.5/64; Haemophilus influenzae, 0.03/0.12; and Moraxella catarrhalis, 0.25/0.5. According to the regression curve, zone diameter breakpoints could be 28, 26, 24 and 22 mm for MICs of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/L respectively. In conclusion, this study confirms the potent in vitro activity of ceftobiprole against many Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA but not E. faecium, whilst maintaining a Gram-negative spectrum similar to the advanced-generation cephalosporins such as cefepime. Thus ceftobiprole appears to be well suited for the empirical treatment of a variety of healthcare-associated infections. PMID:21295447

Lascols, C; Legrand, P; Mérens, A; Leclercq, R; Muller-Serieys, C; Drugeon, H B; Kitzis, M D; Reverdy, M E; Roussel-Delvallez, M; Moubareck, C; Brémont, S; Miara, A; Gjoklaj, M; Soussy, C-J



Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la seccion de entrada mediante un mayor o menor aporte de corriente al puente. Como consecuencia, la seccion de entrada del paralelo, ya de por si mas voluminosa que lao del serie por el uso de grandes componentes magneticos (bobinas de filtro o de "alisamiento"), result a tambien mas complicada y costosa debido a la necesidad de ser implementada mediante rectificador controlado. Ademas, la regulacion que ofrece el rectificador es pobre, dada su baja frecuencia de conmutacion. En cambio, el circuito serie puede funcionar por encima de la resonancia manteniendo una secuencia de conmutacion sin riesgos de recuperacion inversa y con una corriente de salida practicamente sinusoidal, lo que permite un control de la potencia por variacion de frecuencia. Puesto que la tarea de regulacion se realiza desde el puente inversor, la regulacion resulta mucho mas eficaz y la seccion de entrada se puede implementar mediante un simple rectificador no controlado y un condensador de filtro. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel


Hyperproliferation of B Cells Specific for a Weakly Immunogenic PorA in a Meningococcal Vaccine Model?  

PubMed Central

Highly homologous meningococcal porin A (PorA) proteins induce protective humoral immunity against Neisseria meningitidis group B infection but with large and consistent differences in the levels of serum bactericidal activity achieved. We investigated whether a poor PorA-specific serological outcome is associated with a limited size of the specific B-cell subpopulation involved. The numbers of PorA-specific splenic plasma cells, bone marrow (BM) plasma cells, and splenic memory B cells were compared between mice that received priming and boosting with the weakly immunogenic PorA (P1.7-2,4) protein and those that received priming and boosting with the highly immunogenic PorA (P1.5-1,2-2) protein. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers (except at day 42), bactericidal activity, and the avidity of IgG produced against P1.7-2,4 were significantly lower at all time points after priming and boosting than against P1.5-1,2-2. These differences, however, were not associated with a lack of P1.7-2,4-specific plasma cells. Instead, priming with both of the PorAs resulted in the initial expansion of comparable numbers of splenic and BM plasma cells. Moreover, P1.7-2,4-specific BM plasma cells, but not P1.5-1,2-2-specific plasma cells, expanded significantly further after boosting. Likewise, after a relative delay during the priming phase, the splenic P1.7-2,4-specific memory B cells largely outnumbered those specific for P1.5-1,2-2, upon boosting. These trends were observed with different vaccine formulations of the porins. Our results show for the first time that B-cell subpopulations involved in a successfully maturated antibody response against a clinically relevant vaccine antigen are maintained at smaller population sizes than those associated with poor affinity maturation. This bears consequences for the interpretation of immunological memory data in clinical vaccine trials. PMID:18768670

Luijkx, Thomas A.; van Gaans-van den Brink, Jacqueline A. M.; van Dijken, Harry H.; van den Dobbelsteen, Germie P. J. M.; van Els, Cécile A. C. M.



Creación de una carga impositiva por contaminación ambiental para el sector vehicular de servicio público colectivo en la ciudad de Bogotá  

Microsoft Academic Search

resumeN El documento trata una de las problemáticas más latentes en la era contemporánea de Bogotá, la que representa la contaminación ambiental producida por la emisión de gases con efecto invernadero que es provocada por los vehículos automotores, especialmente de servicio público. Éste parte del hecho de que desde la perspectiva y el objeto de estudio de la contaduría pública,

Javier Andrés Soto Duque; Alexander Sellamén Garzón



¿Obtienen mejores resultados los estudiantes que siguen cursos por Internet que los que siguen cursos presenciales? Reflexiones y breve revisión de algunos resultados empíricos  

Microsoft Academic Search

El aumento del número de cursos en línea impartidos por las universidades ha sido espectacular en los dos últimos años. Hoy en día, muchas universidades ofrecen incluso programas de titulación completa por Internet. Los estudiantes cuentan con acceso 24 horas a las instrucciones y los contenidos de las clases, p. ej., en formato de vídeo. En cierto modo, el uso

Johan Lundberg; David Castillo Merino; Mounir Dahmani



De la mujer social a la mujer azul: la reconstrucción de la feminidad por las derechas españolas durante el primer tercio del siglo XX  

Microsoft Academic Search

Durante las décadas finales del siglo XIX y las primeras del XX, el acercamiento de las mujeres españolas hacia el espacio público y el ámbito de la política fue teorizado por los grupos derechistas y católicos, que se vieron impulsados por la necesidad de integrar en sus movimientos políticos nuevos sectores sociales, como las mujeres. El modelo de feminidad y

Rebeca Arce Pinedo



Una propuesta para el dise~no de m'etodos de Jacobi unilaterales por bloques para el Problema Sim'etrico de Valores Propios \\Lambda  

E-print Network

los tiempos de ejecuci'on te'oricos con los de un m'etodo bilateral por bloques. Palabras clave: m'etodosUna propuesta para el dise~no de m'etodos de Jacobi unilaterales por bloques para el Problema Sim'etrico de Valores Propios. Se estudian dos m'etodos secuenciales y sus versiones paralelas, y se comparan

Giménez, Domingo


La Convencin sobre el Comercio Internacional de Especies Amenazadas de Fauna y Flora Silvestres (CITES, por sus siglas en ingls) es un acuerdo internacional firmado  

E-print Network

La Convención sobre el Comercio Internacional de Especies Amenazadas de Fauna y Flora Silvestres garantizar que el comercio internacional de animales y plantas silvestres no amenaza su supervivencia en la (CITES, por sus siglas en inglés) es un acuerdo internacional firmado por 176 naciones designadas para


El proyecto #changemarketers est impulsado por un grupo de comunicadores, gestores culturales, artistas, publicitarios y contrapublicitarios que creen que  

E-print Network

, Fundación Josep Carreras o Fundación Vicente Ferrer. Es profesor de comercio electrónico y marketing on-line de convertirnos en Change Marketers. Por el bien de todos." José Carlos León: La Publicidad Salvará School of Marketing) y ESUMA (Escuela Superior de Marketing de Alicante). Ha publicado los libros Gurú lo

Escolano, Francisco


Estudio sobre las dosis de radiación y los riesgos de cáncer causados por la prueba atómica “Trinity” realizada en 1945

El NCI tiene planeado realizar entrevistas en profundidad para determinar cuál era la alimentación característica de las poblaciones indígenas americanas, hispanas (latinas) y chicanas que vivían en New Mexico a mediados de 1940 y utilizar información fácilmente disponible sobre la alimentación y el estilo de vida de las poblaciones blancas. Estas entrevistas representan un paso importante para hacer estimaciones de las dosis de radiación generadas por la prueba Trinity.


Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables  

PubMed Central

Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin infectarse por el VIH (sólo un doble negativo tuvo un amplio conocimiento sobre la hepatitis C). Estas intencionalidades no son mutuamente excluyentes. La presencia de varias refuerza la puesta en práctica a diario de comportamientos que pueden ayudar al que se inyecta a mantenerse libre de infecciones durante años. Algunas prácticas que hemos identificado se implementan en grupo y se comunican de UDI a UDI, de esta manera se extienden entre algunas redes sociales de UDI. Conclusiones Los UDI que permanecen sin infectarse planean e implementan estrategias de prevención en circunstancias donde otros UDI aplican prácticas de riesgo. El mantenimiento de la no infección no es, por lo tanto, un resultado del azar, sino más bien el resultado del esfuerzo (agencia) de los UDI. Investigar y extender estas estrategias y tácticas a través de programas de prevención podría contribuir a la prevención del VIH y el VHC. PMID:21915175




Flavobacterium johnsoniae PorV is required for secretion of a subset of proteins targeted to the type IX secretion system.  


Flavobacterium johnsoniae exhibits gliding motility and digests many polysaccharides, including chitin. A novel protein secretion system, the type IX secretion system (T9SS), is required for gliding and chitin utilization. The T9SS secretes the cell surface motility adhesins SprB and RemA and the chitinase ChiA. Proteins involved in secretion by the T9SS include GldK, GldL, GldM, GldN, SprA, SprE, and SprT. Porphyromonas gingivalis has orthologs for each of these that are required for secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors by its T9SS. P. gingivalis porU and porV have also been linked to T9SS-mediated secretion, and F. johnsoniae has orthologs of these. Mutations in F. johnsoniae porU and porV were constructed to determine if they function in secretion. Cells of a porV deletion mutant were deficient in chitin utilization and failed to secrete ChiA. They were also deficient in secretion of the motility adhesin RemA but retained the ability to secrete SprB. SprB is involved in gliding motility and is needed for formation of spreading colonies on agar, and the porV mutant exhibited gliding motility and formed spreading colonies. However, the porV mutant was partially deficient in attachment to glass, apparently because of the absence of RemA and other adhesins on the cell surface. The porV mutant also appeared to be deficient in secretion of numerous other proteins that have carboxy-terminal domains associated with targeting to the T9SS. PorU was not required for secretion of ChiA, RemA, or SprB, indicating that it does not play an essential role in the F. johnsoniae T9SS. PMID:25331433

Kharade, Sampada S; McBride, Mark J



Neumonitis por hipersensibilidad causada por Trichoderma viride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) can be induced by exposure to indoor molds contaminating humidifiers and heating or ventilation systems. A 54-year-old woman with dyspnea, cough, chest pain, and fever was seen in the emergency room. A chest radiograph revealed interstitial infiltrates and blood tests showed leukocytosis with neutrophilia and severe hypoxemia. A diagnosis of HP was made by a combination of

Alicia Enríquez-Matas; Santiago Quirce; Noelia Cubero; Joaquín Sastre; Rosario Melchor



Nuevo estudio relaciona a los índices de utilización de servicios de atención médica más que a la biología con las desigualdades en salud por cáncer colorrectal

Los índices más altos de incidencia y mortalidad por cáncer colorrectal que experimentan los afroamericanos pueden deberse principalmente a las diferencias en la utilización de servicios médicos y en menor proporción a la biología, según un nuevo estudio dirigido por investigadores del NCI. Índices más bajos de seguimiento podrían resultar en un retraso del diagnóstico y de tratamiento y en un aumento de la mortalidad.


Un estudio financiado por los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH) muestra reducción en la mortalidad entre hombres con cáncer de próstata en grado intermedio:

Terapia hormonal por corto tiempo administrada en combinación con radioterapia a hombres con cáncer de próstata en estadio inicial aumentó sus posibilidades de vivir más en comparación con tratamiento de radioterapia sola, según un estudio clínico patrocinado por el NCI. Los beneficios del tratamiento combinado se limitaron principalmente a pacientes con enfermedad de riesgo intermedio y no se observaron en hombres con cáncer de próstata de riesgo bajo, indican los investigadores.


Monitoring Shifts in the Conformation Equilibrium of the Membrane Protein Cytochrome P450 Reductase (POR) in Nanodiscs*  

PubMed Central

Nanodiscs are self-assembled ?50-nm2 patches of lipid bilayers stabilized by amphipathic belt proteins. We demonstrate that a well ordered dense film of nanodiscs serves for non-destructive, label-free studies of isolated membrane proteins in a native like environment using neutron reflectometry (NR). This method exceeds studies of membrane proteins in vesicle or supported lipid bilayer because membrane proteins can be selectively adsorbed with controlled orientation. As a proof of concept, the mechanism of action of the membrane-anchored cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is studied here. This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the transfer of electrons from NADPH to cytochrome P450s and thus is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of numerous primary and secondary metabolites in plants. Neutron reflectometry shows a coexistence of two different POR conformations, a compact and an extended form with a thickness of 44 and 79 ?, respectively. Upon complete reduction by NADPH, the conformational equilibrium shifts toward the compact form protecting the reduced FMN cofactor from engaging in unspecific electron transfer reaction. PMID:22891242

Wadsäter, Maria; Laursen, Tomas; Singha, Aparajita; Hatzakis, Nikos S.; Stamou, Dimitrios; Barker, Robert; Mortensen, Kell; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Cárdenas, Marité



Influence of Various Polymorphic Variants of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) on Drug Metabolic Activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of POR on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of POR, six full-length mutants of POR (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S) were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in POR completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ?70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of POR increased the CLint (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-POR (A115V, G413S) were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of POR (i.e., A115V and G413S) on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific POR mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the POR-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication. PMID:22719896

Naranmandura, Hua; Zeng, Su; Chen, Shu Qing



Immunogenicity and reactogenicity in UK infants of a novel meningococcal vesicle vaccine containing multiple class 1 (PorA) outer membrane proteins.  


The development of effective vaccines against serogroup B meningococci is of great public health importance. We assessed a novel genetically engineered vaccine containing six meningococcal class 1 (PorA) outer membrane proteins representing 80% of prevalent strains in the UK. 103 infants were given the meningococcal vaccine at ages 2, 3 and 4 months with routine infant immunisations, with a fourth dose at 12-18 months. The vaccine was well tolerated. Three doses evoked good immune responses to two of six meningococcal strains expressing PorA proteins contained in the vaccine. Following a fourth dose, larger bactericidal responses to all six strains were observed, suggesting that the initial course had primed memory lymphocytes and revaccination stimulated a booster response. This hexavalent PorA meningococcal vaccine was safe and evoked encouraging immune responses in infants. Vaccines of this type warrant further development and evaluation. PMID:10418910

Cartwright, K; Morris, R; Rümke, H; Fox, A; Borrow, R; Begg, N; Richmond, P; Poolman, J



Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.


"Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mould materials for injection moulding of polymers and polymer-matrix composites represent a relevant industrial economic sector due to the large quantity of pieces and components processed. The material selection for mould manufacturing, its composition and heat treatment, the hardening procedures and machining and finishing processes determine the service performance and life of the mould. In the first part of the present study, the relationship between the hardness and microstructure and the wear resistance of mould steels from large blocks has been studied by pin-on-disc tests, studying the main wear mechanisms. In order to determine the surface damage on mould steels under real injection conditions, different commercial steels have been studied by measuring the variation of surface roughness with the number of injected pieces with different reinforcement percentages and different mould geometries, by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was important to determine the variation of surface roughness of the moulded pieces with the number of injection operations. The materials used were polybutyleneterephthalate pure and reinforced with either 20% or 50% glass fibre. For the different mould designs, the evolution of the glass fibre orientation with injection flow has been determined by image analysis and related to roughness changes and surface damage, both of the composite parts and of the mould steel surface. Finally, the abrasion resistance of the composite parts has been studied by scratch tests as a function of the number of injected parts and of the scratch direction with respect to injection flow and glass fibre orientation. Los materiales para moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos representan un sector economicamente muy relevante debido al gran aumento del numero de componentes fabricados a partir de materiales polimericos obtenidos mediante moldeo por inyeccion. La seleccion del material para la fabricacion del molde, tienen una gran influencia sobre su comportamiento en servicio a lo largo de la vida util del molde. En la primera parte del presente estudio, a partir de ensayos punzon sobre disco, se ha determinado la relacion entre la resistencia al desgaste y la dureza de aceros para moldes obtenidos a partir de bloques de gran espesor, estudiando los principales mecanismos de desgaste que tienen lugar. A continuacion, con el fin de determinar el dano superficial que sufren los aceros para moldes en condiciones reales de inyeccion, se han estudiado distintos tipos de aceros utilizados comercialmente en moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos, seleccionando las condiciones de operacion para determinar la variacion de la rugosidad superficial del acero en funcion del material inyectado, del numero de operaciones sucesivas de inyeccion y de la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion, mediante tecnicas de perfilometria optica y microscopia electronica de barrido. Ademas del dano superficial sufrido por el acero con el numero de piezas inyectadas, tambien se ha determinado la evolucion de la rugosidad superficial de los materiales inyectados, polibutilentereftalato (PBT) puro y materiales compuestos derivados de PBT por adicion de un 20 o un 50% en peso de fibra de vidrio. En el caso de las piezas inyectadas, se ha caracterizado su microestructura en funcion del flujo de inyeccion y de la densidad de fibra, se han determinado sus propiedades termicas y dinamico-mecanicas, asi como la variacion de la rugosidad superficial de las piezas inyectadas con el numero de operaciones de inyeccion y con la geometria de las distintas secciones de las piezas. Finalmente, se ha evaluado la resistencia a la abrasion de PBT reforzado con un 50% de fibra, en funcion del numero de piezas inyectadas y de la direccion de rayado con respecto a la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion.

Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose


Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1  

PubMed Central

RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las biopsias fijadas en alcohol fueron inadecuadas para demostrar H. pylori e interpretar los cambios de displasia. Conclusión El número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados, el método de fijación y la región del estómago donde se obtienen las biopsias son factores muy importantes para lograr una correcta clasificación de la gastritis crónica atrófica multifocal. PMID:25267864

Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo



Diseño asistido por computador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design is an activity that is projected to the problem solutions. These problems are analyzed by the human being when they try to adapt themselves to their surrounding environment, to satisfy their needs, using resources like CAD\\/CAE\\/CAM technologies. These technologies are currently applied through engineering concurrent methods. The most developed technique in the computer assisted engineering, is the application of

Oswaldo Rojas Lazo; Luis Rojas Rojas


Hepatotoxicidad por metformina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metformin is an oral biguanide widely used in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes. It produces non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms in 10–30% of the patients. Lactic acidosis is the most serious side effect, so it must not be administered to patients with renal, liver, or heart insufficiency. Only a few cases of hepatotoxicity due to this drug have been

S. Olivera-González; B. de Escalante-Yangüela; C. Velilla-Soriano; B. Amores-Arriaga; P. Martín-Fortea; M. E. Navarro-Aguilar



Double-locus sequence typing using porA and peb1A for epidemiological studies of Campylobacter jejuni.  


Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Bacterial typing schemes play an important role in epidemiological investigations to trace the source and route of transmission of the infectious agent by identifying outbreak and differentiating among sporadic infections. In this study, a double-locus sequence typing (DLST) scheme for C. jejuni based on concatenated partial sequences of porA and peb1A genes is proposed. The DLST scheme was validated using 50 clinical and environmental C. jejuni strains isolated from human (C5, H, H15-H19), chicken (CH1-CH15), water (W2-W17), and ovine samples (OV1-OV6). The scheme was found to be highly discriminatory (discrimination index [DI]=0.964) and epidemiologically concordant based on C. jejuni strains studied. The DLST showed discriminatory power above 0.95 and excellent congruence to multilocus sequence typing and can be recommended as a rapid and low-cost typing scheme for epidemiological investigation of C. jejuni. It is suggested that the DLST scheme is suitable for identification of outbreak strains and differentiation of the sporadic infection strains. PMID:24404778

Ahmed, Monir U; Dunn, Louise; Valcanis, Mary; Hogg, Geoff; Ivanova, Elena P



Adult Student Retention and Achievement with Language-Based Modular Materials. POR FIN: Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the POR FIN research design was to develop a language-based curriculum emphasizing the audiolingual approach and integrating academic and social-functioning subject matter. The modular curriculum is designed so that each lesson is independent and complete in itself, and provides a high degree of motivation, retention, and achievement…

Bexar County School Board, San Antonio, TX.


Aprobado por el Consejo de Gobierno de 28 de Febrero de 2014 Normativa sobre conducta acadmica de la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos  

E-print Network

1/10 Aprobado por el Consejo de Gobierno de 28 de Febrero de 2014 Normativa sobre conducta Carlos tienen el deber de ajustar su conducta a las disposiciones legales vigentes que les son de, ha acordado aprobar la siguiente normativa sobre conducta académica, que será de aplicación a los

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad


Espectroscopa Brillouin Es bien conocido que el sonido se propaga ms deprisa en materiales duros que en materiales blandos. Por lo tanto  

E-print Network

incidente (f). Por la geometría del experimento obtengo el vector de onda acústico (q). La velocidad de presión o campos externos Transiciones de fase y vítreas Determinación de la texturación Influencia de la


O ensino de Física Quântica na perspectiva sociocultural: uma análise de um debate entre futuros professores mediado por um interferômetro virtual de Mach-Zehnder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: O presente trabalho apresenta uma análise das interações discursivas de nove estudantes do curso de licenciatura em física em uma atividade didática mediada por um interferômetro virtual de Mach-Zehnder. O objetivo desse estudo é analisar as tensões nos enunciados dos alunos à luz do referencial sociocultural e avaliar em que medida os significados em física quântica são criados e

Alexandro Pereira; Fernanda Ostermann; Cláudio Cavalcanti


“Como pella a las dueñas, tomelo quien podiere”: anacronismo y representación en las adaptaciones cinemáticas del Libro de buen amor dirigidas por Tomás Aznar y Jaime Bayarri  

E-print Network

por un camino que serpentea hacia el fondo de la pintura. El pintor flamenco del siglo quince Memling también empleó esta técnica, aunque en una composición mucho más compleja y apasionante, en su Pasión de Cristo, en que distribuye todas las...

Drayson, E. A.



Nuevo sitio web en español del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, (NCI, por sus siglas en inglés) en español - Silvia Inéz Salazar - transcript

Transmisiones de radio para promover en espa%XF1ol | Nuevo sitio web en espa%XF1ol del Instituto Nacional del C%XE1ncer, (NCI, por sus siglas en ingl%XE9s) en espa%XF1ol | Transcripci%XF3n Transmisiones de radio para promover


P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C–H functionalization of biaryl derivatives to synthesize chiral phosphorous ligands  

PubMed Central

Summary Chiral phosphorus ligands have been widely used in transition metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions. Herein, we report a new synthesis approach of chiral biaryls containing a phosphorus moiety using P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C–H activation; the functionalized products are produced with good enantioselectivity. PMID:25246966

Hu, Rong-Bin; Wang, Hong-Li; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Heng; Ma, Yan-Na



Multiscale Habitat Selection by Ruffed Grouse at Low Population Densities (Seleccin de Hbitat a Varias Escalas por Bonasa umbellus a Densidades Poblacionales Bajas)  

E-print Network

a Varias Escalas por Bonasa umbellus a Densidades Poblacionales Bajas) Author(s): Guthrie S. Zimmerman, R óptimo para Bonasa umbellus. Usamos la fase de densidad poblacional pequeña del ciclo de una población de evitar otros tipos de bosque al encontrarse en densidades bajas debido a los beneficios presumibles del

Gutiérrez, R.J.


Utilidad diagnóstica del Cuestionario TDAH y del Perfil de Atención para discriminar entre niños con tratorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad, trastornos del aprendizaje y controles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se analiza la convergencia entre la información recogida de padres y profesores, mediante escalas de valoración, y el diagnóstico clínico en una muestra de 126 niños: 42 con Trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH) tipo combinado, 21 con Trastornos del aprendizaje (TA) y 63 controles, con edades comprendidas entre los 4 y los 12 años. El grupo de

Juan Antonio Amador; Maria Forns; Joan Guàrdia Olmos; Maribel Peró



Sistemas de costos, presupuesto por resultados y Sistemas Integrados de Administración Financiera: Aportes y desafíos para incrementar el impacto del gasto público en el bienestar de los ciudadanos  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente documento analiza el enfoque de gestión pública Presupuesto por Resultados, el cual al centrarse en las necesidades de los ciudadanos y tener la solidez conceptual para mejorar la eficiencia y eficacia del gasto público, puede contribuir al logro de los objetivos principales de las finanzas públicas. Sin embargo, para ello se necesita del apoyo de los sistemas de

Roger Díaz



Modelos teóricos que nos ayudan a comprender el gobierno de las sociedades cooperativas, una apuesta por el enfoque de los stakeholders  

Microsoft Academic Search

En la actualidad, el entorno competitivo es cada vez más incierto y complejo. Las características de los mercados actuales hacen que sea cada vez más difícil conseguir una ventaja competitiva sostenible en el tiempo para la empresa, por lo que hay que innovar en formas de gestión y de gobierno para ser competitivo. De esta manera, se está produciendo un

Cristina Pedrosa Ortega



Estudio financiado por los NIH indica un aumento de la supervivencia en hombres con cáncer de próstata metastásico que reciben quimioterapia desde el inicio de la terapia hormonal

Los hombres con cáncer de próstata metastásico sensible a las hormonas que recibieron el fármaco quimioterapéutico docetaxel al inicio de la terapia hormonal convencional vivieron más tiempo que los pacientes que recibieron solo terapia hormonal, de acuerdo con los resultados preliminares de un estudio clínico controlado y aleatorizado patrocinado por los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH).


Instituciones al Servicio de los Hispanos están a la vanguardia de la investigación de las desigualdades en salud por cáncer en la comunidad latina

Varias Instituciones al Servicio de los Hispanos forman parte de un grupo de escuelas profesionales y universidades que se han asociado con el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) y cierto número de centros oncológicos regionales para abordar el tema de las desigualdades en salud por cáncer que afectan a la comunidad latina.


Actas del Congreso Internacional "Amrica Latina: La autonoma de una regin", organizado por el Consejo Espaol de Estudios Iberoamericanos (CEEIB) y la Facultad de Ciencias Polticas y Sociologa de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM),  

E-print Network

colombianas en España. Investigación cualitativa, etnográfica y longitudinal desarrollada por la autora desde, entrevistas en profundidad y observación participante. Introducción En España, aunque las investigaciones

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Cell Growth Defect Factor1/CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 Plays a Role in Stabilization of Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis[C][W  

PubMed Central

Angiosperms require light for chlorophyll biosynthesis because one reaction in the pathway, the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide, is catalyzed by the light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). Here, we report that Cell growth defect factor1 (Cdf1), renamed here as CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 (CPP1), an essential protein for chloroplast development, plays a role in the regulation of POR stability and function. Cdf1/CPP1 contains a J-like domain and three transmembrane domains, is localized in the thylakoid and envelope membranes, and interacts with POR isoforms in chloroplasts. CPP1 can stabilize POR proteins with its holdase chaperone activity. CPP1 deficiency results in diminished POR protein accumulation and defective chlorophyll synthesis, leading to photobleaching and growth inhibition of plants under light conditions. CPP1 depletion also causes reduced POR accumulation in etioplasts of dark-grown plants and as a result impairs the formation of prolamellar bodies, which subsequently affects chloroplast biogenesis upon illumination. Furthermore, in cyanobacteria, the CPP1 homolog critically regulates POR accumulation and chlorophyll synthesis under high-light conditions, in which the dark-operative Pchlide oxidoreductase is repressed by its oxygen sensitivity. These findings and the ubiquitous presence of CPP1 in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms suggest the conserved nature of CPP1 function in the regulation of POR. PMID:24151298

Lee, Jae-Yong; Lee, Ho-Seok; Song, Ji-Young; Jung, Young Jun; Reinbothe, Steffen; Park, Youn-Il; Lee, Sang Yeol; Pai, Hyun-Sook



La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal  

PubMed Central

Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas



Corynebacterium jeikeium jk0268 Constitutes for the 40 Amino Acid Long PorACj, Which Forms a Homooligomeric and Anion-Selective Cell Wall Channel  

PubMed Central

Corynebacterium jeikeium, a resident of human skin, is often associated with multidrug resistant nosocomial infections in immunodepressed patients. C. jeikeium K411 belongs to mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes, the mycolata and contains a channel-forming protein as judged from reconstitution experiments with artificial lipid bilayer experiments. The channel-forming protein was present in detergent treated cell walls and in extracts of whole cells using organic solvents. A gene coding for a 40 amino acid long polypeptide possibly responsible for the pore-forming activity was identified in the known genome of C. jeikeium by its similar chromosomal localization to known porH and porA genes of other Corynebacterium strains. The gene jk0268 was expressed in a porin deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strain. For purification temporarily histidine-tailed or with a GST-tag at the N-terminus, the homogeneous protein caused channel-forming activity with an average conductance of 1.25 nS in 1M KCl identical to the channels formed by the detergent extracts. Zero-current membrane potential measurements of the voltage dependent channel implied selectivity for anions. This preference is according to single-channel analysis caused by some excess of cationic charges located in the channel lumen formed by oligomeric alpha-helical wheels. The channel has a suggested diameter of 1.4 nm as judged from the permeability of different sized hydrated anions using the Renkin correction factor. Surprisingly, the genome of C. jeikeium contained only one gene coding for a cell wall channel of the PorA/PorH type found in other Corynebacterium species. The possible evolutionary relationship between the heterooligomeric channels formed by certain Corynebacterium strains and the homooligomeric pore of C. jeikeium is discussed. PMID:24116064

Norouzy, Amir; Schulz, Robert; Nau, Werner M.; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Tauch, Andreas; Benz, Roland



Adjuvant Effects Elicited by Novel Oligosaccharide Variants of Detoxified Meningococcal Lipopolysaccharides on Neisseria meningitidis Recombinant PorA Protein: A Comparison in Mice  

PubMed Central

Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has adjuvant properties that can be exploited to assist vaccine immunogenicity. The modified penta-acylated LPS retains the adjuvant properties of hexa-acylated LPS but has a reduced toxicity profile. In this study we investigated whether two modified glycoform structures (LgtE and IcsB) of detoxified penta-acylated LPS exhibited differential adjuvant properties when formulated as native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs) as compared to the previously described LgtB variant. Detoxified penta-acylated LPS was obtained by disruption of the lpxL1 gene (LpxL1 LPS), and three different glycoforms were obtained by disruption of the lgtB, lgtE or icsB genes respectively. Mice (mus musculus) were immunized with a recombinant PorA P1.7-2,4 (rPorA) protein co-administered with different nOMVs (containing a different PorA serosubtype P1.7,16), each of which expressed one of the three penta-acylated LPS glycoforms. All nOMVs induced IgG responses against the rPorA, but the nOMVs containing the penta-acylated LgtB-LpxL1 LPS glycoform induced significantly greater bactericidal activity compared to the other nOMVs or when the adjuvant was Alhydrogel. Compared to LgtE or IcsB LPS glycoforms, these data support the use of nOMVs containing detoxified, modified LgtB-LpxL1 LPS as a potential adjuvant for future meningococcal protein vaccines. PMID:25545241

Mehta, Ojas H.; Norheim, Gunnstein; Hoe, J . Claire; Rollier, Christine S.; Nagaputra, Jerry C.; Makepeace, Katherine; Saleem, Muhammad; Chan, Hannah; Ferguson, David J. P.; Jones, Claire; Sadarangani, Manish; Hood, Derek W.; Feavers, Ian; Derrick, Jeremy P.; Pollard, Andrew J.; Moxon, E . Richard




Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se presentan los estudios realizados para el diseño de un blanco de producción de neutrones que utiliza la reacción 7Li(p,n)7Be para la terapia por captura neutrónica en boro, BNCT, basada en aceleradores. En particular el interés estuvo centrado en la discusión y evaluación de algunas de las dificultades técnicas para la fabricación y operación de un blanco,

M. S. Herrera; D. H. Ziella; X. Doligez; A. J. Kreiner; A. A. Burlon; A. A. Valda


Immunogenicity studies with a genetically engineered hexavalent PorA and a wild-type meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine in infant cynomolgus monkeys.  


The immunogenicity of two meningococcal outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines, namely the Norwegian wild-type OMV vaccine and the Dutch hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine, were examined in infant cynomolgus monkeys. For the first time, a wild-type- and a recombinant OMV vaccine were compared. Furthermore, the induction of memory and the persistence of circulating antibodies were measured. The Norwegian vaccine contained all four classes of major outer membrane proteins (OMP) and wild-type L3/L8 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The Dutch vaccine consisted for 90% of class 1 OMPs, had low expression of class 4 and 5 OMP, and GalE LPS. Three infant monkeys were immunised with a human dose at the age of 1.5, 2.5 and 4.5 months. Two monkeys of each group received a fourth dose at the age of 11 months. In ELISA, both OMV vaccines were immunogenic and induced booster responses, particularly after the fourth immunisation. The Norwegian vaccine mostly induced sero-subtype P1.7,16 specific serum bactericidal antibodies (SBA), although some other SBA were induced as well. The antibody responses against P1.7,16, induced by the Norwegian vaccine, were generally higher than for the Dutch vaccine. However, the Dutch vaccine induced PorA specific SBA against all six sero-subtypes included in the vaccine showing differences in the magnitude of SBA responses to the various PorAs. PMID:10618530

Rouppe van der Voort, E; Schuller, M; Holst, J; de Vries, P; van der Ley, P; van den Dobbelsteen, G; Poolman, J



Dynamics of interleukin-1 production in middle ear fluid during acute otitis media treated with antibiotics.  


In an ongoing prospective study, IL-1 concentrations were measured in 78 children (aged 3-36 months) with acute otitis media receiving antibiotics. Middle ear fluid IL-1 concentrations were determined using ELISA kits. Ninety-eight middle ear fluid samples were obtained by tympanocentesis at enrollment (day 1) and 43 samples were collected on days 4-5. Ninety-two pathogens were isolated in 77/98 samples obtained on day 1: 55 Haemophilus influenzae, 34 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2 Moraxella catarrhalis and 1 Streptococcus pyogenes. Among 37 paired samples initially culture-positive, eradication of the pathogen was achieved on day 4-5 in 20 while pathogens were still present in 17. On day 1, IL-1 was detected in 61/77 (79%) culture-positive samples vs 9/21 (43%) culture-negative ones (P = 0.003). The mean +/- SD middle ear fluid concentration of IL-1 on day 1 was significantly higher in culture-positive (316 +/- 508 pg/ml) than in culture-negative samples (111 +/- 245 pg/ml) (P = 0.01). When paired samples were evaluated, IL-1 decreased on days 4-5 in 13/20 (65%) ears where bacterial eradication was achieved, but also in 11/19 (58%) with persistent or new infection. The mean IL-1 concentrations decreased on days 4-5 in the 20 samples from ears where bacterial eradication was achieved (330 +/- 460 vs 118 +/- 294 pg/ml, P = 0.1) but also in the 17 samples where it was not (465 +/- 660 vs 232 +/- 289 pg/ml, P = 0.02). No significant differences were found between day 1 and days 4-5 in the mean IL-1 concentrations measured in patients with H. influenzae vs S. pneumoniae or concomitant H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae. It was concluded that: 1) IL-1 was detected in the middle ear fluid of most patients with acute otitis media; 2) significantly higher IL-1 concentrations were found in patients with culture-positive than in those with culture-negative acute otits media; 3) IL-1 concentrations decreased on days 4-5 of antibiotic therapy, whether the pathogen was eradicated or not. PMID:10378127

Barzilai, A; Leibovitz, E; Laver, J H; Piglansky, L; Raiz, S; Abboud, M R; Fliss, D M; Leiberman, A; Dagan, R



In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of DC-159a, a new fluoroquinolone.  


DC-159a is a new 8-methoxy fluoroquinolone that possesses a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, with extended activity against gram-positive pathogens, especially streptococci and staphylococci from patients with community-acquired infections. DC-159a showed activity against Streptococcus spp. (MIC(90), 0.12 microg/ml) and inhibited the growth of 90% of levofloxacin-intermediate and -resistant strains at 1 microg/ml. The MIC 90s of DC-159a against Staphylococcus spp. were 0.5 microg/ml or less. Against quinolone- and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, however, the MIC 90 of DC-159a was 8 microg/ml. DC-159a was the most active against Enterococcus spp. (MIC 90, 4 to 8 microg/ml) and was more active than the marketed fluoroquinolones, such as levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and moxifloxacin. The MIC 90s of DC-159a against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were 0.015, 0.06, and 0.25 microg/ml, respectively. The activity of DC-159a against Mycoplasma pneumoniae was eightfold more potent than that of levofloxacin. The MICs of DC-159a against Chlamydophila pneumoniae were comparable to those of moxifloxacin, and DC-159a was more potent than levofloxacin. The MIC 90s of DC-159a against Peptostreptococcus spp., Clostridium difficile, and Bacteroides fragilis were 0.5, 4, and 2 microg/ml, respectively; and among the quinolones tested it showed the highest level of activity against anaerobic organisms. DC-159a demonstrated rapid bactericidal activity against quinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strains both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, DC-159a showed faster killing than moxifloxacin and garenoxacin. The bactericidal activity of DC-159a in a murine muscle infection model was revealed to be superior to that of moxifloxacin. These activities carried over to the in vivo efficacy in the murine pneumonia model, in which treatment with DC-159a led to bactericidal activity superior to those of the other agents tested. PMID:17938194

Hoshino, Kazuki; Inoue, Kazue; Murakami, Yoichi; Kurosaka, Yuichi; Namba, Kenji; Kashimoto, Yoshinori; Uoyama, Saori; Okumura, Ryo; Higuchi, Saito; Otani, Tsuyoshi



Randomized, double-blind, comparative study of grepafloxacin and amoxycillin in the treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia.  


This randomized, multicentre, double-blind, double-dummy study assessed the efficacy and safety of 7 or 10 day regimens of grepafloxacin, 600 mg od, compared with amoxycillin, 500 mg tds, in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). A total of 264 patients were recruited at 43 centres (127 received grepafloxacin and 137 received amoxycillin), of whom 207 patients (78%) completed the study. Clinical and microbiological efficacy were assessed at the end-of-treatment visit (3-5 days after the last dose) and at the follow-up visit (28-42 days after the last dose). At follow-up, patients in the evaluable population treated with grepafloxacin demonstrated a clinical response rate (76%; 87/114) equivalent to that seen with amoxycillin (74%, 85/111, 95% CI = -12%, 10%) while, in the intent-to-treat population with a documented bacterial pathogen, the clinical success rate in the grepafloxacin group (78%, 29/37) was significantly higher than in the amoxycillin group (58%, 28/48), 95% CI = 2%, 43%). In patients from the evaluable population in whom the pathogens were documented the clinical success rate favoured grepafloxacin, compared with amoxycillin (79%, 26/33 versus 63%, 26/42, respectively; 95% CI = -5.2%, 38.1%). Microbiological eradication with grepafloxacin was statistically superior to amoxycillin in the evaluable population; the success rate was 89% (32/36) in the grepafloxacin group compared with 71% (32/45) for the amoxycillin group (95% CI = 2%, 37%). The pathogens most commonly isolated from patients were Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The success rates for infections caused by S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae at follow-up were higher with grepafloxacin than with amoxycillin. Grepafloxacin was well tolerated, with a safety profile comparable to that of amoxycillin. The therapeutic judgement of patients and investigators at the patient's last visit, as well as the assessment of individual respiratory signs and symptoms, yielded comparable results with both treatments. The results of this study indicate that grepafloxacin, 600 mg od for 7-10 days, is equivalent to or better than amoxycillin, 500 mg tds for 7-10 days in achieving a successful clinical and microbiological response in the treatment of patients with CAP. PMID:9484876

O'Doherty, B; Dutchman, D A; Pettit, R; Maroli, A



The incidence and aetiology of hospitalised community-acquired pneumonia among Vietnamese adults: a prospective surveillance in Central Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) including Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infectious disease that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The patterns of aetiological pathogens differ by region and country. Special attention must be paid to CAP in Southeast Asia (SEA), a region facing rapid demographic transition. Estimates burden and aetiological patterns of CAP are essential for the clinical and public health management. The purposes of the study are to determine the incidence, aetiological pathogens, clinical pictures and risk factors of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the Vietnamese adult population. Methods A prospective surveillance for hospitalised adult CAP was conducted in Khanh Hoa Province, Central Vietnam. All adults aged ?15 years with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) admitted to a provincial hospital from September 2009 to August 2010 were enrolled in the study. Patients were classified into CAP and non-pneumonic LRTI (NPLRTI) according to the radiological findings. Bacterial pathogens were identified from sputum samples by the conventional culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis; 13 respiratory viruses were identified from nasopharyngeal specimens by PCR. Results Of all 367 LRTI episodes examined, 174 (47%) were CAP. Older age, the presence of underlying respiratory conditions, and higher index score of smoking were associated with CAP. The one-year estimated incidence of hospitalised adult CAP in our study population was 0.81 per 1,000 person years. The incidence increased considerably with age and was highest among the elderly. The case fatality proportion of hospitalised CAP patients was 9.8%. Among 286 sputum samples tested for bacterial PCR, 79 (28%) were positive for H. influenzae, and 65 (23%) were positive for S. pneumoniae. Among 357 samples tested for viral PCR, 73 (21%) were positive for respiratory viruses; influenza A (n?=?32, 9%) was the most common. Conclusions The current adult CAP incidence in Vietnam was relatively low; this result was mainly attributed to the young age of our study population. PMID:23815298



Effectiveness of short-course therapy (5 days) with cefuroxime axetil in treatment of secondary bacterial infections of acute bronchitis.  

PubMed Central

Five hundred thirty-seven patients were enrolled in two independent, investigator-blinded, multicenter, randomized clinical trials comparing the clinical and bacteriologic efficacies and the safety of 5- or 10-day treatment with cefuroxime axetil with those of 10-day treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate in the treatment of secondary bacterial infections of acute bronchitis. Patients received either 5 or 10 days of treatment (n = 177 in each group) with cefuroxime axetil at 250 mg twice daily or 10 days of treatment (n = 183) with amoxicillin-clavulanate at 500 mg three times daily. Patients in the cefuroxime axetil (5 days) group received placebo on days 6 to 10. Bacteriologic assessments were based on sputum specimen cultures obtained preceding and, when possible, following treatment. Organisms were isolated from the pretreatment sputum specimens of 242 of 537 (45%) patients, with the primary pathogens being Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus (28, 25, 13, 9, and 8% of isolates, respectively). Pathogens were eradicated or presumed to be eradicated in 87% (52 of 60), 91% (53 of 58), and 86% (60 of 70) of bacteriologically evaluable patients treated with cefuroxime axetil (5 days), cefuroxime axetil (10 days), and amoxicillin-clavulanate, respectively. A satisfactory clinical outcome (cure or improvement) was achieved in 82% (107 of 130), 86% (117 of 136), and 83% (130 of 157) of the clinically evaluable patients treated with cefuroxime axetil (5 days), cefuroxime axetil (10 days), and amoxicillin-clavulanate, respectively. Treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate was associated with a significantly higher incidence of drug-related adverse events than was treatment with cefuroxime axetil for either 5 or 10 days (P = 0.001), primarily reflecting a higher incidence of drug-related gastrointestinal adverse events (37 versus 19 and 15%, respectively; P < 0.001), particularly diarrhea and nausea. These results indicate that treatment with cefuroxime axetil at 250 mg twice daily for 5 days is as effective as treatment for 10 days with either the same dose of cefuroxime axetil or amoxicillin-clavulanate at 500 mg three times daily in patients with acute bronchitis. In addition, treatment with cefuroxime axetil for either 5 or 10 days is associated with significantly fewer gastrointestinal adverse events, particularly diarrhea and nausea, than is 10-day treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate. PMID:8585739

Henry, D; Ruoff, G E; Rhudy, J; Puopolo, A; Drehobl, M; Schoenberger, J; Giguere, G; Collins, J J



Spectrum of activity, mutation rates, synergistic interactions, and the effects of pH and serum proteins for fusidic acid (CEM-102).  


Fusidic acid (CEM-102) is a steroidal antimicrobial agent with focused Gram-positive activity that acts by preventing bacterial protein synthesis via interacting with elongation factor G. A collection of 114 wild-type isolates (> 80 species) was used to define the contemporary limits of fusidic acid spectrum against Gram-positive and Gram-negative species. Reference broth microdilution and anaerobic agar dilution methods were performed. Modifications of standardized test methods included adding 10% human serum and adjusting the medium pH to 5, 6, and 8. Synergy was assessed by the checkerboard method and time-kill studies. Mutational rates to resistance were determined at 4 x, 8 x, and 16 x MIC. Against Gram-positive pathogens, fusidic acid MIC values ranged from 0.06 to 32 microg/mL with the greatest potency against Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium spp., and Micrococcus luteus (MIC results, 0.25, < or = 0.12, and < or = 0.5 microg/mL, respectively). Enterococci and streptococci were less susceptible (MIC ranges, 2-8 and 16-32 microg/mL, respectively). Fusidic acid activity against Gram-negative species was more limited (all MIC values, > or = 2 microg/mL) except for Empedobacter brevis, Moraxella catarrhalis and Neisseria meningitidis. A 4-fold increase in fusidic acid MIC results was observed when 10% serum was added to the broth. Decreasing medium pH to 5.0 to 6.0 negated the protein binding effects. Among the 8 antimicrobial combinations tested, gentamicin and rifampin enhanced the activity when combined with fusidic acid (no antagonism). Fusidic acid in vitro activity was most improved when combined with rifampin. Single-step mutational rates ranged from 1.2 x 10(-6) for 4x MIC to 9.8 x 10(-8) for 16 x MIC. In conclusion, these in vitro results for fusidic acid tested against contemporary strains confirm a persisting antimicrobial spectrum, especially against staphylococci and some other Gram-positive species. PMID:20159376

Biedenbach, Douglas J; Rhomberg, Paul R; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Jones, Ronald N



Ceftobiprole activity against over 60,000 clinical bacterial pathogens isolated in Europe, Turkey, and Israel from 2005 to 2010.  


Ceftobiprole medocaril is a newly approved drug in Europe for the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) (excluding patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia but including ventilated HAP patients) and community-acquired pneumonia in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of ceftobiprole against prevalent Gram-positive and -negative pathogens isolated in Europe, Turkey, and Israel during 2005 through 2010. A total of 60,084 consecutive, nonduplicate isolates from a wide variety of infections were collected from 33 medical centers. Species identification was confirmed, and all isolates were susceptibility tested using reference broth microdilution methods. Ceftobiprole had high activity against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (100.0% susceptible), methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), beta-hemolytic streptococci, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (99.3% susceptible), with MIC90 values of 0.25, 0.12, ? 0.06, and 0.5 ?g/ml, respectively. Ceftobiprole was active against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (98.3% susceptible) and methicillin-resistant CoNS, having a MIC90 of 2 ?g/ml. Ceftobiprole was active against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC50/90, 0.5/4 ?g/ml) but not against most Enterococcus faecium isolates. Ceftobiprole was very potent against the majority of Enterobacteriaceae (87.3% susceptible), with >80% inhibited at ? 0.12 ?g/ml. The potency of ceftobiprole against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC50/90, 2/>8 ?g/ml; 64.6% at MIC values of ? 4 ?g/ml) was similar to that of ceftazidime (MIC50/90, 2/>16 ?g/ml; 75.4% susceptible), but limited activity was observed against Acinetobacter spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. High activity was also observed against all Haemophilus influenzae (MIC90, ? 0.06 ?g/ml) and Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC50/90, ? 0.06/0.25 ?g/ml) isolates. Ceftobiprole demonstrated a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against this very large longitudinal sample of contemporary pathogens. PMID:24777091

Farrell, David J; Flamm, Robert K; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N



Los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón siguen bajando y contribuyen a reducción de índices generales de muertes por cáncer; Informe Anual a la Nación tiene una sección especial de los efectos de otras enfermedades en la supervivencia de pacientes

El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos que tienen otras enfermedades en la supervivencia de pacientes con cáncer.


21 CFR 522.2630 - Tulathromycin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...treatment of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis associated with Moraxella bovis . For the treatment of bovine foot rot (interdigital necrobacillosis) associated with Fusobacterium necrophorum and Porphyromonas levii . (iii)...



Impacto clínico de la tomografía de emisión por positrones (PET) en pacientes oncológicos y su potencial aplicación en el contexto sanitario y académico nacional  

Microsoft Academic Search

La tomografía de emisión de positrones (PET) es una técnica de medicina nuclear que tiene la\\u000d\\u000acapacidad de detectar el cáncer por medio de mecanismos basados en las alteraciones\\u000d\\u000amoleculares de los procesos neoplásicos. En esta revisión se describen las aplicaciones\\u000d\\u000aoncológicas del PET y se analiza la potencial aplicación de esta tecnología en el contexto\\u000d\\u000asanitario y académico nacional.

Omar Alonso Nuñez



A Fast Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Sensitive and Specific Detection of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae porA Pseudogene  

PubMed Central

Ever since the advent of molecular methods, the diagnostics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been troubled by false negative and false positive results compared with culture. Commensal Neisseria species and Neisseria meningitidis are closely related to N. gonorrhoeae and may cross-react when using molecular tests comprising too-low specificity. We have devised a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), including an internal amplification control, that targets the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene. DNA was automatically isolated on a BioRobot M48. Our subsequent PCR method amplified all of the different N. gonorrhoeae international reference strains (n = 34) and N. gonorrhoeae clinical isolates (n = 176) but not isolates of the 13 different nongonococcal Neisseria species (n = 68) that we tested. Furthermore, a panel of gram-negative bacterial (n = 18), gram-positive bacterial (n = 23), fungal (n = 1), and viral (n = 4) as well as human DNA did not amplify. The limit of detection was determined to be less than 7.5 genome equivalents/PCR reaction. In conclusion, the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene real-time PCR developed in the present study is highly sensitive, specific, robust, rapid and reproducible, making it suitable for diagnosis of N. gonorrhoeae infection. PMID:17065426

Hjelmevoll, Stig Ove; Olsen, Merethe Elise; Sollid, Johanna U. Ericson; Haaheim, Håkon; Unemo, Magnus; Skogen, Vegard



Variation in P450 oxidoreductase (POR) A503V and flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)-3 E158K is associated with minor alterations in nicotine metabolism, but does not alter cigarette consumption.  


The rates of nicotine metabolism differ widely, even after controlling for genetic variation in the major nicotine-metabolizing enzyme, CYP2A6. Genetic variants in an additional nicotine-metabolizing enzyme, flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)-3, and an obligate microsomal CYP-supportive enzyme, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), were investigated. We examined the impact of FMO3 E158K and POR A503V before and after stratifying by CYP2A6 metabolism group. In 130 nonsmokers of African descent who received 4 mg oral nicotine, FMO3 158K trended toward slower nicotine metabolism in reduced CYP2A6 metabolizers (P=0.07) only, whereas POR 503V was associated with faster CYP2A6 activity (nicotine metabolite ratio) in normal (P=0.03), but not reduced, CYP2A6 metabolizers. Neither FMO3 158K nor POR 503V significantly altered the nicotine metabolic ratio (N=659), cigarette consumption (N=667), or urine total nicotine equivalents (N=418) in smokers of African descent. Thus, FMO3 E158K and POR A503V are minor sources of nicotine metabolism variation, insufficient to appreciably alter smoking. PMID:24448396

Chenoweth, Meghan J; Zhu, Andy Z X; Sanderson Cox, Lisa; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Benowitz, Neal L; Tyndale, Rachel F



Fumar cigarrillos está relacionado con la mitad de los casos de cáncer de vejiga en mujeres; estudio de los NIH confirma que el riesgo de cáncer de vejiga por fumar es mayor de lo que se calculó anteriormente

Los fumadores actuales de cigarrillos tienen un mayor riesgo de padecer cáncer de vejiga que lo que se informó anteriormente, y ahora el riesgo de las mujeres es comparable al riesgo de los hombres, de acuerdo a un estudio llevado a cabo por científicos del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI). Aunque estudios anteriores mostraron que solo 20 a 30 % de los casos de cáncer en mujeres eran causados por fumar, estos nuevos datos indican que fumar es responsable de aproximadamente la mitad de los casos de cáncer de vejiga en la mujer.


Estudio de exámenes selectivos de detección de cáncer en los Estados Unidos indica que las pruebas anuales para detectar cáncer de próstata no tienen un beneficio en la mortalidad por esta enfermedad

Un nuevo e importante informe de un estudio, diseñado para proporcionar respuestas sobre la eficacia de los exámenes de detección de cáncer de próstata, fue difundido hoy por el Estudio de Exámenes Selectivos de Detección de Cáncer de Próstata, Pulmón, Colorrectal y Ovarios (Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian, PLCO), e indicó que los seis exámenes de detección de cáncer de próstata que se hicieron en seis años (uno cada año) dieron como resultado más diagnósticos de la enfermedad, pero no menos muertes por cáncer de próstata.


Trastornos neuropsiquiátricos por trauma craneoencefálico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem, affecting more people everyday for various reasons (car accidents, falls, violence, sports), specially in coun- tries like Colombia where morbimortality rates are truly alarming. The patient and caregivers are confronted with serious consequences such as neuropsychiatric disorders that impact heavily on the treatment, the rehabilitation process and the caregivers

Andrés Felipe Pérez; Víctor Hugo Agudelo


FLP-FRT-Based Method To Obtain Unmarked Deletions of CHU_3237 (porU) and Large Genomic Fragments of Cytophaga hutchinsonii  

PubMed Central

Cytophaga hutchinsonii is a widely distributed cellulolytic bacterium in the phylum Bacteroidetes. It can digest crystalline cellulose rapidly without free cellulases or cellulosomes. The mechanism of its cellulose utilization remains a mystery. We developed an efficient method based on a linear DNA double-crossover and FLP-FRT recombination system to obtain unmarked deletions of both single genes and large genomic fragments in C. hutchinsonii. Unmarked deletion of CHU_3237 (porU), an ortholog of the C-terminal signal peptidase of a type IX secretion system (T9SS), resulted in defects in colony spreading, cellulose degradation, and protein secretion, indicating that it is a component of the T9SS and that T9SS plays an important role in cellulose degradation by C. hutchinsonii. Furthermore, deletions of four large genomic fragments were obtained using our method, and the sizes of the excised fragments varied from 9 to 19 kb, spanning from 6 to 22 genes. The customized FLP-FRT method provides an efficient tool for more rapid progress in the cellulose degradation mechanism and other physiological aspects of C. hutchinsonii. PMID:25063660

Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhiquan; Cao, Jing; Guan, Zhiwei



IgE Reactivity of Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus pelagicus) Tropomyosin, Por p 1, and Other Allergens; Cross-Reactivity with Black Tiger Prawn and Effects of Heating  

PubMed Central

Shellfish allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, but the allergens are not well characterized. This study examined the effects of heating on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) allergens in comparison with those of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) by testing reactivity with shellfish-allergic subjects' serum IgE. Cooked extracts of both species showed markedly increased IgE reactivity by ELISA and immunoblotting, and clinical relevance of IgE reactivity was confirmed by basophil activation tests. Inhibition IgE ELISA and immunoblotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the crab and prawn extracts, predominantly due to tropomyosin, but crab-specific IgE-reactivity was also observed. The major blue swimmer crab allergen tropomyosin, Por p 1, was cloned and sequenced, showing strong homology with tropomyosin of other crustacean species but also sequence variation within known and predicted linear IgE epitopes. These findings will advance more reliable diagnosis and management of potentially severe food allergy due to crustaceans. PMID:23840718

Varese, Nirupama; Zubrinich, Celia; Lopata, Andreas L.; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Rolland, Jennifer M.



Actas del Congreso Internacional "Amrica Latina: La autonoma de una regin", organizado por el Consejo Espaol de Estudios Iberoamericanos (CEEIB) y la Facultad de Ciencias Polticas y Sociologa de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM),  

E-print Network

JÓVENES Carolina Bescansa Hernández y Ariel Jerez Novara1 Resumen En el marco de dos investigaciones cualitativas con jóvenes de formación e ideologías diversas, se analizan su percepción de internet como espacio de naturaleza cualitativa, cuantitativa y documental sobre los distintos usos políticos de la red por

Paris-Sud XI, Université de



Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Desde los años setenta y hasta la fecha muchos países han experimentado crisis bancarias. Estos fenómenos, que han sido ocasionados por un conjunto de factores macro y microeconómicos, tanto internos como externos, se han dado tanto en países desarrollados como en países en vías de desarrollo, demostrado la fragilidad del sistema financiero ante el crecimiento explosivo del volumen de

Mónica Isabel; López Cardoza


A nova geografia da produção e o papel assumido por países em desenvolvimento no âmbito das cadeias de valor global: o perfil da inserção internacional brasileira a partir do comércio exterior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Nas últimas décadas o modo de organização da atividade industrial global tem sido alterado de forma a lidar com a reformulação das estratégias (reestruturação e racionalização) das grandes empresas com vistas a maiores níveis de competitividade. Neste contexto, ganhou destaque a utilização crescente de processos de externalização produtiva, através de mecanismos de subcontratação, por multinacionais. O conjunto de transformações

Wellington Pereira


Informe Anual a la Nación indica una reducción en los índices de incidencia y mortalidad por cáncer; una sección especial revela amplias variaciones en las tendencias del cáncer de pulmón en los estados

Un nuevo informe de las principales organizaciones oncológicas del país muestra que, por primera vez desde la primera publicación del informe en 1998, tanto el índice de incidencia como el de mortalidad para todos los cánceres combinados están disminuyendo en hombres y mujeres.


Informe a la Nación indica que el índice de mortalidad por cáncer sigue bajando; la sección especial destaca las tendencias de los cánceres asociados con el VPH y los grados de cobertura de vacunación contra el VPH.

El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, de 1975 a 2009, indica que los índices generales de mortalidad por cáncer siguen bajando en los Estados Unidos en hombres y mujeres, entre todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales y para todos los sitios más comunes de cáncer, como pulmón, colon y recto, seno femenino y próstata.


Impact of the CYP3A5, CYP3A4, COMT, IL-10 and POR Genetic Polymorphisms on Tacrolimus Metabolism in Chinese Renal Transplant Recipients  

PubMed Central

Tacrolimus is a widely used immunosuppressive drug for preventing the rejection of solid organ transplants. The efficacy of tacrolimus shows considerable variability, which might be related to genetic variation among recipients. We conducted a retrospective study of 240 Chinese renal transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus as immunosuppressive drug. The retrospective data of all patients were collected for 40 days after transplantation. Seventeen SNPs of CYP3A5, CYP3A4, COMT, IL-10 and POR were identified by the SNaPshot assay. Tacrolimus blood concentrations were obtained on days 1–3, days 6–8 and days 12–14 after transplantation, as well as during the period of the predefined therapeutic concentration range. Kruskal–Wallis test was used to examine the effect of genetic variation on the tacrolimus concentration/dose ratio (C0/D) at different time points. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportions of patients who achieved the target C0 range in the different genotypic groups at weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 after transplantation. After correction for multiple testing, there was a significant association of C0/D with CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1G and CYP3A4 rs4646437 T>C at different time points after transplantation. The proportion of patients in the IL-10 rs1800871-TT group who achieved the target C0 range was greater (p?=?0.004) compared to the IL-10 rs1800871-CT and IL-10 rs1800871-CC groups at week 3 after transplantation. CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4 *1G, CYP3A4 rs4646437 T>C and IL-10 rs1800871 C>T might be potential polymorphisms affecting the interindividual variability in tacrolimus metabolism among Chinese renal transplant recipients. PMID:24465960

Lin, Li; Jiang, Hai-Xia; Zhong, Ze-Yan; Li, Wei-Mo; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Zheng, Ping; Tan, Xu-Hui; Zhou, Lin



Síndrome del Outlet Torácico: ¿Una Patología Siempre Quirúrgica? Análisis de una Serie de 31 Cirugías Realizadas por Vía Supraclavicular Serie clínica  

PubMed Central

Introducción: El síndrome de outlet torácico es una compresión del plexo braquial que suscita polémica. Se clasifica en Outlet Torácico Verdadero o neurogénico (OTV) y Outlet Torácico Disputado o no neurogénico (OTD). El primero presenta síntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo sólo síntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirugías. Métodos: Se analizaron las cirugías de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagnósticos de outlet torácico cuyo período de seguimiento post-operatorio mínimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de síntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificación, resultado de los estudios neurofisiológicos y de imágenes, resultado de la cirugía, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirugías realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 años, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 años de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiológicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenológicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV presentó una alteración anatómica relacionada con la sintomatología, hecho observado sólo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeoró. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron más frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusión: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirugía, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporción mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patología. PMID:25165614

Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, Álvaro; Páez, Miguel Domínguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto



Molecular detection and confirmation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urogenital and extragenital specimens using the Abbott CT/NG RealTime assay and an in-house assay targeting the porA pseudogene.  


Culture for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) is being replaced by molecular assays, but difficulties are observed with false positive and negatives results, especially for extragenital samples. This study evaluates the Abbott CT/NG Real-Time assay and a real-time porA pseudogene assay. Samples (n = 600) from a mixed prevalence Irish population include 164 male urines with corresponding urethral swabs, 58 endocervical swabs, 173 male pharyngeal swabs, 205 male rectal swabs, 36 NG clinical isolates and 26 commensal Neisseria species isolates. There was a 100% concordance between the Abbott CT/NG Real-Time and the porA assay. The positivity rate was 1.2%, 1.7%, 8.1% and 5.8% for FVU/urethral swabs, endocervical, pharyngeal and rectal swabs, respectively. These results were compared to culture and discrepancies were found with nine pharyngeal and three rectal swabs. Seven of the 12 discrepant positive samples were sequenced and were confirmed "true positives". The sensitivity and specificity of the molecular assays was 100%. The sensitivity of the culture-based testing was 100% for urogenital samples but 36% and 75% for pharyngeal and rectal swabs, respectively. The combined Abbott CT/NG and porA assays provide a valuable alternative to culture and also generate a significant increase in the diagnosis of pharyngeal and rectal NG infection. PMID:21170565

Walsh, A; Rourke, F O; Crowley, B



Informe a la nación indica que continúa la disminución de las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer que empezó a principios de los noventa; Una sección especial destaca los cánceres asociados al exceso de peso y a la falta de actividad física adecuada

Los índices de mortalidad por todos los cánceres combinados para hombres, mujeres y niños siguieron bajando en Estados Unidos entre 2004 y 2008, según el Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer de 1975 a 2008. El índice general de diagnósticos nuevos de cáncer, que se conoce también como incidencia, bajaron entre los hombres un promedio de 0,6% por año entre 2004 y 2008. Los índices generales de incidencia de cáncer entre las mujeres bajaron 0,5% por año de 1998 hasta 2006; estos índices se nivelaron de 2006 a 2008.



E-print Network

due to the pathological status. They were : Bordetella bronchiseptica, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus faecalis, Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sp., Branhamella catarrhalis Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus et le virus myxoma- teux dont certaines souches suscitent une patho

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Naam: mw. prof. dr. E.A.M. Sanders Leeropdracht Leeropdracht Immuundeficinties en Recidiverende Infecties  

E-print Network

. influenzae, M. catarrhalis and S. aureus in infants and children that decline with age and maturing and cause serious systemic disease, with mortality rates up to 20% for sepsis and meningitis, despite

Utrecht, Universiteit


The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educa&wcedil;ão Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el movimiento de la Luna, el movimiento aparente del Sol sobre la esfera celeste, los eclipses, las dimensiones y las distancias en el Universo, el brillo de las estrellas y su observación de la Tierra. Si bien ha habido un pequeño progreso en la proporción de respuestas aceptables científicamente cuando se cotejó el octavo grado de la enseñanza primaria con el quinto, y el último año de la enseñanza secundaria con el primero, se observó un predominio de las concepciones alternativas en relación a la mayoría de los temas explorados, que continuó hasta los últimos años de la educación básica. Una comparación con los datos encontrados en investigaciones realizadas en otros contextos socioculturales revelaron, en muchos aspectos, conceptos y dificultades similares expresadas por los estudiantes. Apresentam-se os resultados de uma investigação sobre a compreensão de conceitos astronômicos básicos, da qual participaram 561 estudantes da quinta série do Ensino Fundamental ao terceiro ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola pública da cidade de Foz do Iguaçu. Um teste com 20 questões de múltipla escolha foi aplicado para identificar as concepções mais comuns expressadas pelos alunos. Esse instrumento de coleta de dados foi elaborado com base na literatura sobre concepções alternativas e abordou os seguintes temas: o ciclo dia-noite; os fusos horários; as estações do ano; as fases da Lua; o movimento da Lua; o movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste; os eclipses; as dimensões e distâncias no Universo; o brilho das estrelas e sua observação da Terra. Embora se tenha verificado um pequeno progresso na proporção de respostas cientificamente aceitáveis ao se cotejar a oitava série do Ensino Fundamental com a quinta, e a terceira série do Ensino Médio com a primeira, houve o predomínio de concepções alternativas em relação à maior parte dos temas explorados, as quais persistiram até o último ano da Educação Básica. A comparação com dados encontrados em investigações realizadas em outros contextos socioculturais revelaram, em m

Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos



Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates with Reduced Susceptibility to Cefixime and Ceftriaxone: Association with Genetic Polymorphisms in penA, mtrR, porB1b, and ponA  

Microsoft Academic Search

reduced cefixime and ceftriaxone susceptibility (Cefi) and two susceptible isolates were characterized using serovar determination, antibiograms, N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST), and sequenc- ing of penA, mtrR, porB1b, and ponA alleles. For the Cefi isolates (n 18), the MICs of cefixime and ceftriaxone ranged between 0.032 to 0.38 g\\/ml and 0.064 to 0.125 g\\/ml, respectively. These isolates were assigned

Robert Lindberg; Hans Fredlund; Robert Nicholas; Magnus Unemo



HRM confirmation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in clinical specimens by G?A (position 857) mutation detection in the 16S rRNA gene before sequencing and after porA confirmation.  


A total of 2273 specimens submitted to the Austin Hospital Pathology Service for Neisseria gonorrhoeae screening between September 1, 2009 and May 11, 2011 were used in this study. Specimens were simultaneously screened and confirmed with a previously published real time PCR assay for the opa gene (extra primers were included to increase sensitivity) and the porA gene respectively. The opa gene screen and initial porA gene confirmation yielded an N. gonorrhoeae positivity rate of 0.88% (20/2273) and 0.49% (11/2191) for specimens and patients respectively. A 16S rDNA High Resolution Melt confirmatory PCR was developed subsequently; this reduced the N. gonorrhoeae positivity rate to 0.35% (8/2273) and 0.27% (6/2191) for specimens and patients respectively (not altered by 16S sequencing). The higher rate of secondary confirmation (16S HRM) in patients compared with samples was due to the detection of species other than N. gonorrhoeae detected by the initial screening and confirmation test. This underlines the importance of performing the secondary confirmatory test that has been developed in this study. PMID:22433672

Gurtler, Volker; Mayall, Barrie C; Wang, Jenny



[In vitro activity of sitafloxacin against clinical isolates in 2009].  


In vitro activity of sitafloxacin (STFX) and various oral antimicrobial agents against bacterial isolates recovered from clinical specimens between January and December 2009, at different healthcare facilities in Japan was evaluated. A total of 1,620 isolates including aerobic and anaerobic organisms was available for the susceptibility testing using the microbroth dilution methods recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute. The minimum inhibitory concentration of STFX at which 90% of isolates (MIC90) was 0.06 microg/mL for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and was equal to that of garenoxacin (GRNX), 2 times lower than that of moxifloxacin (MFLX), and 8 times lower than that of levofloxacin (LVFX). STFX inhibited the growth of all the isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae at 0.06 microg/mL or less. The MIC90s of STFX ranged from 0.03 to 0.06 microg/mL and were 1 to 2 times lower than those of GRNX, 2 to 4 times lower than those of MFLX, and 16 to 32 times lower than those of LVFX. Against Streptococcus pyogenes, the MIC90 of STFX was 0.06 microg/mL and was 2 times lower than that of GRNX, 4 times lower than that of MFLX, and 32 times lower than that of LVFX. The MIC90 of STFX was 0.25 microg/mL for Enterococcus faecalis, and was 2 times lower than those of GRNX and MFLX, and 8 times lower than that of LVFX. The MIC90 of STFX for E. coli was 2 microg/mL, and the MIC90s of other 10 species of Enterobacteriaceae which were the lowest values of the quinolones tested ranged from 0.03 to 1 microg/mL. The MIC90 of STFX for Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates recovered from urinary infections was 8 microg/mL and was 16 times lower than those of GRNX, MFLX and LVFX. The MIC90 of STFX for P aeruginosa isolates recovered from respiratory infections was 2 microg/mL and was 32 times lower than those of GRNX and MFLX, and 16 times lower than that of LVFX. STFX inhibited the growth of all the isolates of Haemophilus influenzae at 0.004 microg/mL or less, and was 2 to 4 times lower than those of GRNX, 8 times lower than those of MFLX, and 4 times lower than those of LVFX. The MIC90 of STFX was 0.008 microg/mL for Moraxella catarrhalis, and was 2 times lower than that of GRNX, 8 times lower than those of MFLX and LVFX. The MIC90s of STFX ranged from 0.015 to 0.12 microg/mL for all the species of anaerobic bacteria and were the lowest values of all the antimicrobial agents tested. In conclusion, the activity of STFX against Gram-positive cocci was comparable or superior to those of GRNX, MFLX and LVFX. STFX showed the most potent activity against Gram-negative bacteria and anaerobic bacteria of all the antimicrobial agents tested in this study. PMID:21425595

Amano, Ayako; Matsuzaki, Kaoru; Kishi, Naoko; Saika, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Miyuki; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Matsumoto, Takuyuki; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Kanda, Yuko; Shiozawa, Tomoo



[In vitro activity of sitafloxacin against clinical isolates in 2012].  


In vitro activity of sitafloxacin (STFX) and various oral antimicrobial agents against bacterial isolates recovered from clinical specimens between January and December 2012, at different healthcare facilities in Japan was evaluated. A total of 1,620 isolates including aerobic and anaerobic organisms were available for the susceptibility testing using the microbroth dilution methods recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The minimum inhibitory concentration of STFX at which 90% of isolates (MIC90) was 0.5 microg/mL for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and was 2 times lower than that of garenoxacin (GRNX), 4 times lower than that of moxifloxacin (MFLX), and 16 times lower than that of levofloxacin (LVFX). STFX inhibited the growth of all the isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae at 0.06 microg/mL or less. The MIC90 of STFX was 0.03 microg/mL and was 2 times lower than that of GRNX, 4 times lower than that of MFLX, and 32 times lower than that of LVFX. Against Streptococcus pyogenes, the MIC90 of STFX was 0.06 microg/mL and was 2 times lower than that of GRNX, 8 times lower than that of MFLX, and 32 times lower than that of LVFX. The MIC90 of STFX was 2 microg/mL for Enterococcus faecalis, and was 4 times lower than that of GRNX, 8 times lower than that of MFLX, and 32 times lower than that of LVFX. The MIC90 of STFX for Escherichia coli was 2 microg/mL, and the MIC90(s) of other 10 species of Enterobacteriaceae which were the lowest values of the quinolones tested ranged from 0.03 to 1 microg/mL. The MIC90 of STFX for Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates recovered from urinary infections was 4 microg/mL and was 32 times lower than those of GRNX, MFLX and LVFX. The MIC90 of STFX for P. aeruginosa isolates recovered from respiratory infections was 4 microg/mL and was 8 to 16 times lower than those of GRNX, MFLX, and LVFX. STFX inhibited the growth of all the isolates of Haemophilus influenzae at 0.004 microg/mL or less, and was 4 times lower than that of GRNX, 16 times lower than that of MFLX, and 8 times lower than that of LVFX. The MIC90 of STFX was 0.015 microg/mL for Moraxella catarrhalis, and was equal to that of GRNX, 4 times lower than those of MFLX and LVFX. The MIC90(s) of STFX ranged from 0.03 to 0.25 microg/mL for all the species of anaerobic bacteria and were the lowest values of all the antimicrobial agents tested. In conclusion, the activity of STFX against Gram-positive cocci was comparable or superior to those of GRNX, MFLX and LVFX. STFX showed the most potent activity against Gram-negative bacteria and anaerobic bacteria of all the antimicrobial agents tested in this study. PMID:24649797

Amano, Ayako; Matsuzaki, Kaoru; Kishi, Naoko; Koyama, Hideaki; Hasegawa, Miyuki; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Matsumoto, Takuyuki; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Okutani, Yukihiro



Telithromycin. Aventis Pharma.  


The ketolide telithromycin (HMR-3647; Ketek), a derivative of clarithromycin, has been launched by Aventis Pharma (formerly Hoechst Marion Roussel) for the treatment of respiratory tract infections with gram-positive or gram-negative cocci, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, intracellular pathogens, atypical microorganisms, toxoplasma or anaerobic bacteria. By May 2001, filings in the US and EU had been completed and a filing in Japan was expected to take place in the fourth quarter of 2001. In July 2001, telithromycin was granted marketing authorization by the EC for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, including those caused by bacteria resistant to commonly used antibiotics. In October 2001, the product was launched in Germany. In March 2000, telithromycin was submitted to the US FDA and the EMEA, under the EU centralized approval procedure, for approval for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), acute sinusitis, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and tonsillitis/pharyngitis. The company had expected to launch the product in early 2001. The CPMP issued a positive opinion for all four indications on April 23 2001. In September 2001, the company indicated that it expected the product to be launched in Japan in 2002. The FDA's Anti-infectives Advisory Committee was due to review telithromycin for all the submitted indications on January 29 2001; however, this was postponed. This postponement was thought to be at Aventis' request in order to discuss the potential for a resistant pneumococcal infection labeling which would boost product sales. The revised date for the meeting was April 26 2001, at which the Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee of the FDA recommended approval of telithromycin for the treatment of CAP in patients 18 years of age or older. The committee failed to recommend approval for the use of the drug for the remaining three indications for which it was filed, citing concerns over potential cardiovascular risk and liver toxicity; at this time, the company was in active discussions with the FDA regarding approval of the remaining three indications. An approvable letter for CAP, acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and acute bacterial sinusitis was received by the company in June 2001; Aventis also received a non-approvable letter for the treatment of tonsillitis/pharyngitis at this time. In April 1999, ABN Amro predicted annual sales of DM 50 million in 2001, rising to DM 100 million in 2002. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers estimated a 70% probability that this ketolide would come to market. The analysts also estimated a launch date of 2001, with peak sales of US $700 million in 2009. Analysts Merrill Lynch predicted in September 200, that the product would be launched by 2001, with sales of euro 50 million in that year, rising to euro 284 million in 2004. Deutsche Bank predicted in August 2001, that sales of the product would reach euro 5 million in 2001, rising to euro 300 million in 2005. Analysts at Merrill Lynch predicted in November 2001, that the product would be resubmitted in the US in mid-2002, and would make sales of US $5 million in 2001, rising to US $250 million in 2004. PMID:11892930

Johnson, A P



Shelf-life studies on carbon dioxide packaged golden croaker and speckled sea trout harvested from the Gulf of Mexico  

E-print Network

dioxide as indicated by a change in pH and there was inhibition of increasing numbers of comtmon types of bacteria. Coyne (19323 ddd h th 9 h 2dh 9, 91 9, M' Bacillus, and Pseudomonas found on fish was inhibited by carbon dioxide but that certain other...) were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, coryneform bacteria, Micrococcus, Moraxella, and Bacillus. The microflora of fresh croaker (Day 0) included Pseudo- monas, Plavobacterium, coryneform bacteria, Micrococcus, Moraxella, Bacillus...

Banks, Harrell



Epitaxia por haces moleculares de heteroestructuras metlicas  

E-print Network

de muy alta pureza y calidad cristalina ("epitaxiales") y estructural. · Permite un control del vacío y control de procesos · RHEED: difracción de electrones rasantes · EIES (electron impact emission spectroscopy) para medida y control de flujos de los haces moleculares · software de control y adquisición de


Spectra/Por DispoDialyzer  

E-print Network

of Ultra-pure Dialysis Membrane Biotech RC (Regenerated Cellulose) Biotech CE (Cellulose Ester) 12 Distinct,000 235011 235023 235035 235047 235059 235071 135496 135524 135552 - BiotechRCBiotechCE Std.RC AMERICA. NO NO NO YES Assembly Req. NO NO NO NO Membrane Types Avail. Biotech RC, Biotech CE Biotech RC, Biotech CE

Lebendiker, Mario



Microsoft Academic Search

This research has as purpose checking the solvents influence in the income and the productivity in the recovery of the cellulose produced by the Acetobacter xilynum (ATCC 23769). The fermentation process happened in the static cultivation, having as culture medium ripe coconut water (200ml). It was made an experimental following line of 2 4 , with different salts solutions as

Denise Milleo Almeida; Gilvan Wosiacki; Guataçara dos Santos Junior




Microsoft Academic Search

Palabras claves: competencias - desempeño - organización - evaluación. ABSTRACT: Performance Evaluation Competence Performance Management. Competence performance management of its human capital is a key factor towards success in any organization. Thus, performance evaluation has become an indispensable tool and it should be pro- perly applied to ensure attainment of organizational strategies. Over a long period of time, managers were

Andrea Miriam Capuano



Cmo presentar una queja por discriminacin  

E-print Network

Universitarios de Salud (University Health Services) proporcionan información y recursos sobre el acoso sexual la discriminación sexual y el acoso sexual. Estas prohibiciones son parte de las políticas y requisitos del título IX incluyen la discriminación sexual, el acoso sexual, la conducta sexual inapropiada y

Sheridan, Jennifer



E-print Network

asignaturas que se dictan en la USB, incluyendo un repositorio digital de las distintas versiones. b Operacionalización del proyecto institucional de formación #12;DECANATO DE ESTUDIOS PROFESIONALES #12;DECANATO DE

Vásquez, Carlos


O que se Traz para a Vida e o que a Vida nos Traz: Uma Análise da Equação Etiológica proposta por Freud à Luz das Neurociências What we Bring to Life and what Life Brings to Us: An Analysis of the Ethiological Equation proposed by Freud According to Neurosciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo O presente trabalho tem como objetivo discutir aspectos teóricos, clínicos e experimentais acerca da interação entre variáveis inatas e aprendidas com relação à origem e desenvolvimento de distúrbios emocionais. Apresenta- se inicialmente a equação etiológica proposta por Freud acerca das neuroses na virada do século XX e sua relação com a teoria da sedução. Apresentam-se também algumas evidências clínicas

Monah Winograd; Carlos A. Q. Coimbra; J. Landeira-Fernandez



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Avaliação de eficácia da laparoscopia, associada à análise bacteriológica do líquido intraperitoneal pela coloração de Gram., no diagnóstico de lesões intra-abdominais provocadas em cães com arma de ar comprimido. A alta incidência de óbitos como resultado de ferimentos por arma de fogo tem contribuído para implantação de novas técnicas diagnósticas. O uso crescente de laparoscopia diagnóstica em urgências torna

Cássio Renato; Montenegro de Lima


Itens disponibilizados por biblioteca 2010 ITENS DISPONIBILIZADOS POR BIBLIOTECA -Agosto/2010  

E-print Network

Centro de Estudos do Mar 54 126 Ciências Florestais e da Madeira 62 81 Ciência e Tecnologia 379 925 Memória UFPR 144 145 Ciências Biológicas 49 106 Centro de Estudos do Mar 79 87 Ciências Florestais e da 11 Humanas e Educação 482 592 Ciências Jurídicas 89 123 #12;UFPR Litoral 247 1344 Campus Palotina 2 3

Paraná, Universidade Federal do


Alteraciones anatomo-patológicas en un flamenco común (phoenicopterus roseus) por intoxicación aguda por plomo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological alterations in the common flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) due to acute lead intoxication. The presence of lead in the environment is an undisputable fact. Furthermore, it is a serious health concern as it affects not only the well-being of animals, but also that of human beings. Plumbism is a type of intoxication that can affect any animal species. In wild

Romero D; Martínez-López E; Navas I; María-Mojica P; Peñalver J; García-Fernández AJ



La infeccin por el VIH y su tratamiento Medicamentos contra el VIH aprobados por la FDA  

E-print Network

Emtricitabina (FTC) Emtriva Gilead Sciences 2 julio 2003 Lamivudina (3TC) Epivir GlaxoSmithKline 17 noviembre) (TDF) Viread Gilead Sciences 26 octubre 2001 Zidovudina (ZDV,AZT) Retrovir GlaxoSmithKline 19 marzo

Levin, Judith G.


Songs, Song-Texts, and Lovesickness in Agustín Moreto's Yo por vos y vos por otro  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, a considerable amount of scholarship has been produced on the function of music in the drama of Lope de Vega and Calderón de la Barca. But songs, dances, instruments, and other music references abound in the works of other important Spanish Golden Age dramatists. Because of the significant role music plays in many of his plays, special

George Yuri Porras



Songs, Song-Texts, and Lovesickness in Agustín Moreto's Yo por vos y vos por otro  

Microsoft Academic Search

:In recent years, a considerable amount of scholarship has been produced on the function of music in the drama of Lope de Vega and Calderón de la Barca. But songs, dances, instruments, and other music references abound in the works of other important Spanish Golden Age dramatists. Because of the significant role music plays in many of his plays, special

George Yuri Porras



Consulta por Classificao / rea Avaliao STATUSESTRATOTTULOISSN REA DE AVALIAO  

E-print Network

of the World Health Organization (Print) A1 NUTRIÃ?Ã?O Atualizado 0144-8617 Carbohydrate Polymers A1 NUTRIÃ?Ã?O (Print) A1 NUTRIÃ?Ã?O Atualizado 8756-3282 Bone (New York, N.Y.) A1 NUTRIÃ?Ã?O Atualizado 0007-1145 British Allergy (Print) A1 NUTRIÃ?Ã?O Atualizado 0009-9104 Clinical and Experimental Immunology (Print) A1 NUTRIÃ?Ã?O

Paraná, Universidade Federal do



E-print Network

they arc integrated at thc beginning of the projcct. High powcr accumulators shall be protccted by increased safety :motors and gcnerators can be protected either by Same proof enclosure or pressurization. Electronic cucuits äs inverters or Computers will be easily protected by pressurization. Low power cireuits

Boyer, Edmond


POR FIN (Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project was undertaken in San Antonio, Texas, to develop a recruitment approach which would be more effective than the traditional mass media approach in recruiting hard-core undereducated individuals into adult education classes. An experiment was designed to test a recruiting method which would employ a personal, face-to-face interview…



Computando lo aspero Por que se cuelgan las computadoras?  

E-print Network

construir una m´aquina que demuestre teoremas y as´i encuentre todas las verdades matem´aticas. Kurt G¨odel´aquina no puede resolver. #12;Historia de Hilbert y sus amigos David Hilbert: Bueno... yo pens´e que... Kurt G¨odel

Figueira, Santiago


¿Por dónde empezar?: la pregunta en investigación cualitativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative research question reflects the researcher’s paradigm and should be consistent with the proposed research method. A research question implies engaging in a process that defines the research area, subject, question, and place of the study. Because this process is interactive and changes during the course of the investigation, the beginnings are necessarily provisional. The qualitative research question is

Carmen de la Cuesta-Benjumea



Intervenciones nutricionales en mujeres lactantes infectadas por el VIH  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractoEl amamantamiento es el patrón de oro internacional de la alimentación del lactante, pues es sabido que reduce el riesgo de morbilidad y mortalidad en menores de un año y fomenta mejoras del crecimiento y el desarrollo de los niños. No obstante, en el contexto del VIH, la lactancia materna incrementa significativamente el riesgo de transmisión de madre a hijo\\/a

Saurabh Mehta; Julia L. Finkelstein; Wafaie W. Fawzi



Reconstrucción de metacarpianos en heridas por armas de fuego  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstruction of metacarpal having hurt by firearms This is a prospective study of a series of cases at the Hospital Militar Central (Central Military Hospital) between December 1995 and December 2002. The study group is comprised of 35 patients with metacarpal fractures with segmentative defects, caused by high velocity gunshots. Treatment involved tri-cortical bone grafts and stabilizing osteosynthesis. The study

Fabio Suárez Romero; Sergio Bocanegra Navia; Alvaro García Herrera; Raymundo Iriarte Lorcano; Alexander Tapias Urrego; Jefe del Servicio de Ortopedia


Fijación percutánea de fracturas sacro- iliacas guiada por TAC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iliosacral screw fixation of posterior pelvic ring injuries guided by CT scan An observational and descriptive study of a series of cases was conducted between February 2001 and November 2002 at the Departaments of Orthopedics and Traumatology of the Hospital de San José, la Clínica Palermo and la Fundación Santa Fé de Bogotá: 10 patients (12 fractures) with unstable lesions

Carlos Mario; Olarte Salazar; Rodrigo Pesantez Hoyos; Alejandra Fonseca; Residente de Ortopedia


Consulta por Classificao / rea Avaliao STATUSESTRATOTTULOISSN REA DE AVALIAO  

E-print Network

International A1 NUTRIÇÃO Atualizado 0954-7894 Clinical and Experimental Allergy (Print) A1 NUTRIÇÃO Atualizado-2863 Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry A1 NUTRIÇÃO Atualizado 0002-8223 Journal of the American Dietetic Atualizado 0091-3057 Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior A1 NUTRIÇÃO Atualizad

Floeter, Sergio Ricardo



Microsoft Academic Search

The present communication has the purpose of making some considerations about the political thought of the Italian Niccolo Machiavelli, author who lived between the 15th and 16th centuries, a period of rapid decomposition of the feudal order and also of fights for the construction of the modern institutions. Differently from countries like France and Spain, for example, that at this

Marcia Aparecida; Lopes Benassi


Resolucion por programacion parametrica del problema Multiobjetivo Lineal Difuso  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen  En este artículo se propone una solución difusa al problema Multiobjetivo Lineal Difuso. Tal solución contiene, como valores\\u000a particulares, las soluciones puntuales que otros autores han obtenido. El método que se emplea es independiente de la linealidad\\u000a de las funciones de pertenencia que se consideren. El problema también se extiende al caso en que el conjunto de restricciones\\u000a sea, junto

Miguel Delgado; José Luis Verdegay; Amparo Vila



Incidencia de úlcera por presión y acciones de enfermería  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To estimate the cumulative incidence (IC up ) and density incidence (DI up ) of pressure ulcer (PU) and to describe the implementation of nursing interventions in two hospitals in the State of Bahia before (phase 1) and during an educational intervention (phase 2). Methods: A prospective design was used. The sample consisted of inpatients of medical\\/surgical units. Data

Maria Luiza Anselmi; Marina Peduzzi; Ivan França Junior



Módulo de entrenamiento de equipos médicos utilizando simuladores por software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen —En las últimas décadas se han suscitado marcados avances en la tecnología hospitalaria, es to llevo al desarrollo de equipamientos médicos cada vez más exactos, seguros e indiscutiblemente más complejos. El marcado aumento en las capacidades de los nuevos equipamientos no fue acompañado en la misma medida en la capacitación de los profesionales usuarios de los mismos. Todo esto

Santiago Romero Ayala; Priscila Avelar; Renato Garcia Ojeda


Camina por Salud: Walking in Mexican-American Women  

PubMed Central

Forty-six percent of older Mexican-American women report no leisure time physical activity (PA); 38.1% are obese. This study (1) evaluated a PA intervention on reduction of risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and (2) determined which variables affected adherence to PA. For 36 weeks, Group I walked 3 days/week; Group II walked 5 days/week. The investigators measured total body fat, regional fat, blood lipids, and adherence to PA The walking interventions favorably affected body fat, with significant differences in body mass index (BMI) reductions[F (2, 16) = 12.86, p = .001]. No statistical differences were noted in the anthropometric and blood lipid results from baseline to the 36-week measures. PMID:18457751

Keller, Colleen S.; Gonzales, Adelita




Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to do an introduction about concepts related with asynchronous logic and to do an overview of the important operational features in contemporary applications, with examples of the developments and researches in the area.

Leo Weber



Microsoft Academic Search

Microcontrollers have provided a great change of paradigm for electronic circuits designers, which now have the functionality of a microcomputer in a single chip. However, when designing a digital electronic circuit based on a microcontrol- ler, the electronics expert designer is faced with the problem of having to learn how to program this device. This paper aims at a solution



Swimming crabs belonging to the genus Ovalipes (Crustacea: Brachyura: Por-  

E-print Network

occurrence of the swimming crab Ovalipes punctatus in the swash zone of a sandy beach in northeastern Japan. punctatus in the swash zone at night. This note examines the significance of the swash zone in the life



Microsoft Academic Search

A escolha em abordar esse tema se intercepta com o momento histórico atual, no qual o próprio conceito de educação vem sendo discutido. Nesse contexto, surgem propostas de abordagem menos parcelada do conhecimento, no desejo de uma integração de conteúdos e de ampliação do trabalho escolar na direção da educação matemática, buscando uma aprendizagem mais significativa. Participar da sociedade hoje,

Kátia Aparecida; Campos Portes



E-print Network

conocimiento natural del que es capaz la mente del hombre" Robert Hooke, MICROGRAPHIA, 1665. "Un aspecto, a investigadores tan destacados como Rudolf Schoenheimer, Linus Pauling, Robert Robinson y George Beadle. Pero el

Escolano, Francisco



Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Los geohelmintos zoonóticamente importantes que parasitan al perro constituyen un relevante proble- ma de salud pública, destacándose entre ellos Toxocara canis y Ancylostoma spp. Debido a que los agentes sanitarios comunicaban que un gran número de niños presentaban lesiones reptantes de piel, eosinofilia persistente y hepatomegalia, se llevó a cabo un estudio epidemiológico en dos poblaciones ubicadas en el



Por Sae-Seaw Final Paper Bioc218  

E-print Network

. With the description of complete genome sequences, DNA microarray technology allows scientists to simultaneously of reverse engineering gene networks from DNA microarray data is by using multivariate probabilistic models


Control de las Enfermedades Transportadas por el Aire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The air that you breathe indoors may be dangerous to your health. How can we make indoor environments safer? Apply aerobiological engineering principles to buildings to control the bioaerosols in our indoor environments. Retrofit old buildings or specifically design new buildings to control airborne microbes. Develop regulatory standards for indoor environments. Become educated about sources and transmission routes of airborne pathogens.

Wladyslaw Kowalski (Pennsylvania State Universityâ??s Indoor Environment Center; )



Hospitais: Modelo matemtico criado por portugus melhora eficcia das urgncias  

E-print Network

Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra, foi publicado este ano na revista científica americana de medicina, "Annals of Emergency Medicine". Trata-se de um modelo matemático que permite reduzir os tempos de

Soares, João Luís Cardoso


Induction of degranulation and lysis of haemocytes in the freshwater crayfish, Astacus astacus by components of the prophenoloxidase activating system in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the role of the prophenoloxidase activating system, an enzyme cascade located in the haemocytes of crustaceans, in the cellular defences of the freshwater crayfish, Astacus astacus in vitro, monolayer cultures of mixed or separated haemocyte populations, isolated by density gradient centrifugation, were challenged with the bacterium, Moraxella sp. pre-coated with phenoloxidase and the other attaching proteins in crayfish

Valerie J. Smith; Kenneth Söderhäll



Analytica Chimica Acta 568 (2006) 217221 Microbial biosensor for direct determination of nitrophenyl-substituted  

E-print Network

of the Moraxella sp. to degrade PNP-substituted OPs and PNP simultaneously while consuming oxygen microorganisms capable of degrading p-nitrophenol (PNP) while releasing nitrite and consuming oxygen have been, as they are either time consuming, require expensive instrumentation or require highly trained technicians [4

Chen, Wilfred



Microsoft Academic Search

Mining in the study area has been carried out for several centuries, causing environmental alterations, generating poor soils for plant establishment and health hazards for humans. The objective was to evaluate presence of Lead, Cadmium, Zinc and Arsenic in soil with variables: distance to the pollution source and soil depth, hence determining relations with soil physical- chemical characteristics. The study

Soraya Puga; Manuel Sos; Toutcha Lebgue; Cesar Quintana; Alfredo Campos


Predação de Opisthocomus hoazin por Spizaetus ornatus e de Bubulcus ibis por Bubo virginianus em Tocantins, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predation of Cattle Egret by the Great Horned Owl and Hoazin by the Ornate Hawk-Eagle in western Tocantins State, Brazil. We report the predation of Hoazin Opisthocomus hoazin by an immature Ornate Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus ornatus, a new prey for this species in Brazil. The Ornate Hawk-Eagle roosted together with Hoazin assembly in branches of Sapium haematospermum, typical river borderline vegetation.

Túlio Dornas; Renato Torres Pinheiro


El embajador argelino en Espaa apuesta por la creacin de una Ctedra en Orn dirigida por la Universidad de Alicante  

E-print Network

Universidad de Alicante Ambas instituciones coinciden en que el mejor vínculo de cooperación internacional y dedicada a experiencias comerciales en el país vecino, Enrique Peláez, director general internacional de ECISA; Fouad Sidi, gerente de ARCOPRIM, miembro de la Cámara de Comercio de Orán y miembro de la Cámara

Escolano, Francisco


The significance of nongonococcal, nonmeningococcal Neisseria isolates from blood cultures.  


Nongonococcal, nonmeningococcal neisseriae are part of the normal respiratory flora and infrequently cause disease. These organisms include Neisseria lactamica, Neisseria mucosa, Neisseria sicca, Neisseria flavescens, Neisseria subflava , Neisseria perflava , Neisseria flava , and Branhamella catarrhalis (previously classified as Neisseria catarrhalis). Blood cultures positive for these bacteria have been associated with serious infections, including endocarditis, septicemia, and meningitis. In a retrospective survey of a 10-year period, 1970-1980, eight patients were identified at Hartford Hospital (Hartford, Conn.) whose blood cultures were positive for nongonococcal, nonmeningococcal neisseriae. In four patients, the neisseria blood isolates were associated with serious infections: two with endocarditis, one with sepsis, and one with meningitis. In four other patients, the neisseria blood isolates were contaminants. PMID:6374834

Feder, H M; Garibaldi, R A



Production of UC-labeled gas in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation kits by Neisseria cinerea  

SciTech Connect

Six strains of Neisseria cinerea were tested in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation kits (Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Towson, Md.), and all yielded positive glucose growth indices and negative maltose and fructose growth indices. These results were similar to those achieved with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. However, most of the N. cinerea isolates tested yielded 3-h glucose growth indices that were lower than those obtained with gonococci. UC-labeled gas was produced significantly faster by N. gonorrhoeae than by N. cinerea. Additional studies suggested that the UC-labeled gas produced by N. cinerea was carbon dioxide. N. cinerea strains were similar to Branhamella catarrhalis strains because both species failed to produce detectable acid from glucose, maltose, sucrose, fructose, and lactose in cysteine-tryptic agar media. However, in contrast to N. cinerea strains, B. catarrhalis strains did not metabolize glucose in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation kits.

Boyce, J.M.; Mitchell, E.B. Jr.; Knapp, J.S.; Buttke, T.M.



Evaluation of a rapid identification method for Neisseria spp.  


A comparison was made of carbohydrate degradation reactions of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria lactamica, Neisseria mucosa, Neisseria sicca, Neisseria subflava, and Branhamella catarrhalis in a rapid (0.5- to 1-h) identification micromethod (RIM-N Kit; Austin Biological Laboratories, Inc., Austin, Tex.) and in a serum-free agar slanted medium (72 h). Reactions after 1 h in the RIM-N system agreed completely with those after 72 h in the conventional system. PMID:3891778

Germer, J J; Washington, J A



Comparative study of the aerobic, heterotrophic bacterial flora of Chesapeake Bay and Tokyo Bay.  

PubMed Central

A comparative study of the bacterial flora of the water of Chesapeake Bay and Tokyo Bay was undertaken to assess similarities and differences between the autochthonous flora of the two geographical sites and to test the hypothesis that, given similarities in environmental parameters, similar bacterial populations will be found, despite extreme geographic distance between locations. A total of 195 aerobic, heterotrophic bacterial strains isolated from Chesapeake Bay and Tokyo Bay water were examined for 115 biochemical, cultural, morphological, nutritional, and physiological characters. The data were analyzed by the methods of numerical taxonomy. From sorted similarity matrices, 77% of the isolates could be grouped into 30 phena and presumptively identified as Acinetobacter-Moraxella, Caulobacter, coryneforms, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio spp. Vibrio and Acinetobacter species were found to be common in the estuarine waters of Chesapeake Bay, whereas Acinetobacter-Moraxella and Caulobacter predominated in Tokyo Bay waters, at the sites sampled in the study. PMID:453838

Austin, B; Garges, S; Conrad, B; Harding, E E; Colwell, R R; Simidu, U; Taga, N



Infectious keratoconjunctivitis in free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from Zion National Park, Utah.  


An epizootic of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IK) was studied opportunistically in free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from Zion National Park, Utah (USA), from November 1992 to March 1994. Moraxella sp. and Chlamydia sp. were isolated from the conjunctiva of two of seven deer. In addition, Thelazia californiensis occurred on the conjunctivas of six of seven deer. Based on field observations, adults appeared to be affected clinically at a higher incidence during both years as opposed to juveniles. Corneal opacity was the most apparent clinical sign from 1992 to 1993. However, in the following year, blepharospasm and epiphora were noted more often. We were also able to document the clinical recovery of three affected deer. In addition, Moraxella sp. was recovered from the eyes of a clinically unaffected deer 1 year after the epizootic occurred. PMID:8722272

Taylor, S K; Vieira, V G; Williams, E S; Pilkington, R; Fedorchak, S L; Mills, K W; Cavender, J L; Boerger-Fields, A M; Moore, R E



Understanding the pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin: a pulmonary perspective.  


Tulathromycin is approved in the United States for the treatment of respiratory disease in bovine and swine, infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis associated with Moraxella bovis, and interdigital necrobacillosis in bovine. This macrolide highly concentrates in lung tissue and persists in the intra-airway compartment for a long time after a single administration. It also accumulates in inflammatory cells, including neutrophils and macrophages. This article reviews pharmacokinetic information about tulathromycin in different veterinary species with particular emphasis on the respiratory system. PMID:24117832

Villarino, N; Brown, S A; Martín-Jiménez, T



Numerical taxonomy of gram-negative, nonmotile, nonfermentative bacteria isolated during chilled storage of lamb carcasses.  

PubMed Central

A numerical taxonomic study using 75 characters was performed with 132 strains of gram-negative, nonmotile, nonfermentative bacteria selected on the basis of lack of motility and Gram reaction among 1,200 cultures isolated during aerobic storage of lamb carcasses. At the 80% similarity level (SSM), eight clusters were formed. Strains in clusters 1 to 6 could be identified as members of the family Moraxellaceae and, more specifically, as members of the Psychrobacter-[Moraxella] phenylpyruvica subgroup. Of these strains, clusters 1 and 2 (88 strains) were identified as [Moraxella] phenylpyruvica and cluster 3 (15 strains) was identified as Psychrobacter immobilis. Clusters 4, 5, and 6 were not identifiable with any species. Clusters 7 and 8 consisted of 14 strains considered nonmotile variants of Pseudomonas fragi. The highest separation indices corresponded to acid production from certain carbohydrates (melibiose, L-arabinose, and cellobiose). Although strains of Psychrobacter-Moraxella clusters were relatively frequently identified at the completion of slaughter, very few cultures were detected on spoiled carcasses. It appears, therefore, that this group of organisms has only low spoilage potential. PMID:1637162

Prieto, M; García-Armesto, M R; García-López, M L; Otero, A; Moreno, B




Microsoft Academic Search

Organic acids content of Moroccan apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) var. Canino were separated and measured by HPLC. Good chromatograms were obtained by coupling three RP18 columns of 25 cm of length. The mobile phase was adjusted at an optimum pH of 2.15. The absorbance at 210 nm, measured with a diode array UV detector, was used for quantification. The method

A. Hasib; A. Jaouad; M. Mahrouz; M. Khouili




Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare peer education versus that imparted by health professionals for improving knowledge, risk perception and risky sexual behavior among teenagers attending to family planning clinics of two hospitals in Lima. Material and Methods: Experimental single-blind study carried out at the family planning clinics of Hospital Dos de Mayo and Instituto Materno Perinatal during the year 2000. After signing

Sixto Sánchez C; Guillermo Atencio L; Naguye Duy; Mirtha Grande B; Maria Flores O; Marina Chiappe G; Raúl Nalvarte T; Jorge Sánchez F; King K Holmes



Luto por um avio aparecido Destroos captados por satlite indicam que o voo MH37O caiu no ndico. A esperana desaparece. A dor no  

E-print Network

- nhã de 11 de dezembro de 1999. Estava a olhar para a televisão, lembra-se, para um mapa dos Açores com Cox e também Richard Aboulafia (da consultora Teal Group) reconhe- cem que existe o risco de se repe

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica


Síndrome de Loeys-Dietz. Diagnóstico diferencial en muerte súbita por disección aórtica  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of a judicial autopsy of a teenager aged 14 with a previous diagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, who died at his home without previous symptoms. The pre-mortem data gathered suggest that it was a case of Loeys-Dietz syndrome, a diagnosis later confirmed thanks to the conclusions of the autopsy that revealed its pathognomic signs. The certified cause

Alfonso Colorado Casado de Amezúa; Joaquín Fernández Bayón



PROGRAMA DE MAESTRA Y DOCTORADO EN INGENIERA Subcomit Acadmico por Campo del Conocimiento en Ingeniera Ambiental  

E-print Network

Ingeniería Ambiental LISTA DE ASIGNATURAS QUE OFRECE EL CAMPO DEL CONOCIMIENTO EN INGENIERIA AMBIENTAL. Georgina Fernández Villagómez U1-01 1 Evaluación de impacto ambiental U1-06 3 Contaminación Ambiental 2 U1-02 2 Contaminación Ambiental 2 E-203 #12;TEMAS SELECTOS DE AGUA No. Nombre de la Asignatura Profesor

Islas, León


Variables psicológicas como predictores de conductas de prevención relacionadas con la infección por VIH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological variables as predictors of preventive behaviors related to HIV SUMMARY Fundament: A cross-sectional study was carried out with the main objective to identify if psychological variables including knowledge, belief, and motivation predicted two prevention behaviors related to HIV infection: «To postpone a sexual intercourse» and «Condom use intention». Method: From an original sample of 648 students of two institutions




Proteccin Contra Represalias Si usted cree que se han tomado represalias contra usted por  

E-print Network

malgasta dinero, o conlleva grave mala conducta, incompetencia o ineficiencia Donde Puede Denunciar Su. Grave mala conducta, incompetencia o ineficiencia. Algunos de los actividades impropios más reportado

California at Santa Cruz, University of


Controle químico da cigarrinha-do-milho e incidência dos enfezamentos causados por molicutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a eficiência do tratamento inseticida de sementes de milho no controle de Dalbulus maidis e na redução da incidência de enfezamentos em viveiro telado e em campo. Foram realizados dois experimentos; no experimento 1, em viveiro telado, sementes de milho foram tratadas com imidacloprid e thiamethoxan e, nessas plantas, cigarrinhas sadias, cigarrinhas

Charles Martins de Oliveira; Elizabeth de Oliveira; Marcus Canuto; Ivan Cruz



Producao d Dijatos por Dupla Troca de Pomeron Exclusiva no Experimento D0  

SciTech Connect

The first search for exclusive diffractive dijet production with invariant mass {approx}> 100 GeV in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is performed. The set of data used is the Run IIa, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV taken with the D0 detector. At 95% CL, an upper limit for the ratio between the number of diffractive exclusive events and the number of non diffractive events is set to be 7.5 x 10{sup -6}, excluding two of the three models proposed to explain this production.

Rangel, Murilo, Santana; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF



"Por Los Ojos De Madres": Latina Mothers' Understandings of College Readiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, data from six focus groups with 30 Latina mothers in South Texas were analyzed utilizing a "funds of knowledge" approach to uncover their understandings of college readiness and their role in ensuring their children are college ready. Findings indicate that Latina mothers perceived college readiness in a holistic fashion,…

Cortez, Laura Jean; Martinez, Melissa Ann; Sáenz, Victor B.



Neuropatías por compresión de repetición en paciente afecta de síndrome de MNGIE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a clinical case of myoneurogastroin-testinal encephalopathy (MNGIE syndrome) referred to the Hospital Morales Meseguer Rehabilitation Service because of Pressure Neuropathies of fibularis communis nerve secondary to long hospital stay after gastrointestinal decompen sation episodes.

J. V. Lozano-Guadalajara; E. A. Sevilla-Hernández



Enseñanza del diseño asistido por computador en la Facultad de Ingeniería Industrial, UNMSM  

Microsoft Academic Search

CAD teaching at the Faculty of Industrial Engineering of the UNMSM, is the subject of this work Having as a reference the curriculum, the courses are analyzed that can develop these contents with or without software application, the four basic components of a CAD system are analyzed: software, hardware, humanware and data base.

Oswaldo Rojas Lazo; Julio Salas Bacalla; Pedro Marín Chávez; Ciro Mejía Elías


Producción de Riboflavina (Vitamina B 2 ) por Ashbya gossypii ATCC 10895  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to producing riboflavin the microorganism Ashbya gossypii was made grow in a fermentator of 10 liters 0.125 µgs was obtained of riboflavin for ml. . The medium of cultivation was filtered and the filtrate was dried in stove to 30° C, the vitamin contained in the product was extracted with butanol. The vitamin obtained in gross form became




Para presentar una queja en la Oficina de Equidad y Diversidad (OED), por favor incluya  

E-print Network

de Oportunidades de Empleo de los EE.UU. (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission) o del Estado para la Igualdad de Oportunidades en el Empleo de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission) Reuss Federal Plaza 310 West Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 800 Milwaukee, WI 53203-2292 Teléfono: 414

Sheridan, Jennifer



Microsoft Academic Search

The transmission of an electromagnetic wave through the soil using Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) permits the determination of its water content, q, given the composite dielectric constant of the soil, ?c, via Topp's equation. This is possible since the dielectric constant of water is much larger than that of the soil's solid phase (80 vs. 5), and therefore changes in

C. M. Regalado; R. Muñoz Carpena; A. R. Socorro



Microsoft Academic Search

The biodegradation of diesel in water was done by means of the microorganisms present in an agriculture soil. The kinetics of biodegradation and adsortion of diesel were determined in order to aplying the procedure in soil and water resources contamined with diesel. The mehodology and results of biodegradation and adsortion of diesel in sintetic water is presented with a soil





Microsoft Academic Search

-1 (60N) were studied in a pot experiment in a glasshouse using urea labelled with 15 N applied at sowing to two soils: Bordenave (B, Typic Haplustoll), and Tres Arroyos (TA, Petrocalcic Argiudoll). Pots were destructively sampled at the fifth leaf, ear emergence, milky kernel and physiological maturity stages. Distribution of 15 N and 14 N in shoots and roots,




Microsoft Academic Search

2 ). Losses of N and P were significantly higher in March than in September. In the bare soil, nutrient losses were higher in the Haplustoll than in the Ustipsamment, while with vegetation cover, erosion was of lesser importance, and similar for both soil types. Organic carbon was the soil constituent that suffered the highest losses due to water erosion.




Microsoft Academic Search

Field tests were carried out with the objective of characterizing the state of compaction in horticultural soil induced by traffic, after the development of a cabbage crop ( Brassica oleracea L. group capitata) cycle, and its incidence on yield. Measurements of penetration resistance, bulk density, and moisture content in soil were made and aeread biomass at the end of the

Antonino Marcelo Terminiello; Roberto Hernan; Jorge Alejandro Claverie; Juan Pablo Casado


Ajuste de las propiedades mecánicas de la madera estructural por cambios del contenido de humedad  

Microsoft Academic Search

The moisture content of wood, and its variation with atmospheric changes, is one of the factors with the greatest influence on wood properties. Therefore, it is necessary to know the degree to which mechanical properties vary as moisture content changes. Using the results from research conducted by Madsen, and selecting the species most similar to Mexican pines in strength and

V. Rubén; Ordóñez Candelaria; Raymundo Dávalos Sotelo



PONENCIA Algunas características que se encuentran en procesos de aprendizaje mediados por la tecnología informática  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los procesos educativos vistos como acciones sociales presentan el aprendizaje escolar como resultado de una a ctividad conjunta entre seres humanos, donde los individuos acceden de forma recursiva a los materiales de apoyo, de desarrollo y a la tecnología para construir conexiones de auto-referencia con sus realidades, entendiendo estas como sus circunstancias concretas de intervención sobre una determinada situación, que



La programación orientada al objeto aplicada al cálculo por el método de los elementos finitos  

Microsoft Academic Search

objeto CASTEM2000. SUMMARY Object-Oriented Programming is a new trend in software design and development which arises from the need of reducing the costs of creating and maintaining complex computer software. Much of the power of conventional programming comes from the abstract representation of data structures. Object-oriented programming takes a step further and represents everything as objects which may contain not

Antonio Rodríguez Ferran; Miguel Ángel Bretones; Antonio Huerta




Microsoft Academic Search

The required high-voltage driving pulses in ultrasonic quality control ( NDE ) suffer marked perturbations in shape and amplitude of the frequency spectrum when they are applied across the probe reactive impedance. Limitations of an NDE pulse generator to supply \\

Antonio Ramos; San Emeterio



Microsoft Academic Search

Palabras claves: visión artificial, producción, control, calidad, inteligencia artificial. ABSTRACT: The Project, try to solve a priority necessity derived from the weak competitive position of the productive sector of the country, by means of the generation and diffusion of the knowledge by the concrete modes of application of technology, in local units of production, permitting the conservation and enlargement of

Aguinaga Barragán


A new confirmatory Neisseria gonorrhoeae real-time PCR assay targeting the porA pseudogene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Roche Cobas Amplicor system is widely used for the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae but is known to cross react with some commensal Neisseria spp. Therefore, a confirmatory test is required. The most common target for confirmatory tests is the cppB gene of N. gonorrhoeae. However, the cppB gene is also present in other Neisseria spp. and is absent in

D. M. Whiley; P. J. Buda; J. Bayliss; J. Bates; T. P. Sloots



A novel porA-based real-time PCR for detection of meningococcal carriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time PCR based on the capsule transfer gene (ctrA) is a significant aid in the diagnosis of meningococcal infection but fails to detect a high proportion (60%) of non-groupable strains associated with nasopharyngeal carriage. This study aimed to design a novel real-time (TaqMan) PCR that would detect more strains of meningococci and be suitable for large-scale carriage studies. Primer and

J. Zoe Jordens; John E. Heckels



Avaliação de diferentes pacientes neurológicos por meio do Teste de Functional Reach  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Introduction. The Functional Reach is a well-known clinical test that not only measures the balance but also the postural control. This test measures the distance between the arm leng- th and the anterior maximum reach, in the standing position, whileitkeepsafixedbaseofsupport.?Objective.??Thepurpose? of this study was to assess the balance of different neurological patients comparing them with healthful individuals. Method. The

Camila Torriani; Eliane Pires; Oliveira Mota; Claudia Regina Sieburth; Danielle Arcanjo Barcelos; Maurycio La Scala; Paloma Pereira Gregoraci; Théo A. Costa; Thatiana C. Baldini Luiz; Juliana L. Hayashi


Cdigo de tica nas empresas pode evitar o assdio Por Claudia Brum Moth  

E-print Network

, a partir da Revolução Industrial. Posteriormente, com o início da 1ª Guerra Mundial, as medidas protetivas -- Organização Mundial de Saúde, no ano 2.000, revela que as perspectivas para os próximos vinte anos são muito a instabilidade da economia mundial, enquanto que a competição da sociedade capitalista em que vivemos torna

Floeter, Sergio Ricardo

399 Saldo de Vagas (por Curso) UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO PARAN  

E-print Network

BP322 - Parasitologia Aplicada à Farmácia / Turma: C 20 150 5BP323 - Patologia Aplicada à Farmácia / Turma: C 20 140 6BP323 - Patologia Aplicada à Farmácia / Turma: A 20 110 9BP323 - Patologia Aplicada à

Paraná, Universidade Federal do


Lente térmica inducida por diodo láser como experiencia didáctica de laboratorio de física  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not Available Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title Return: Query Results Return items starting with number Query Form Database: Astronomy Physics arXiv e-prints

L. Rodríguez; J. Ramirez; A. Marcano O



Phantom of RAMSES (POR): A new Milgromian dynamicsN-body code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since its first formulation in 1983, Milgromian dynamics (MOND) has been very successful in predicting the gravitational potential of galaxies from the distribution of baryons alone, including general scaling relations and detailed rotation curves of large statistical samples of individual galaxies covering a large range of masses and sizes. Most predictions however rely on static models, and only a handful of N-body codes have been developed over the years to investigate the consequences of the Milgromian framework for the dynamics of complex evolving dynamical systems. In this work, we present a new Milgromian N-body code, which is a customized version of the RAMSES code (Teyssier 2002) and thus comes with all its features: it includes particles and gas dynamics, and importantly allows for high spatial resolution of complex systems due to the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique. It further allows the direct comparison between Milgromian simulations and standard Newtonian simulations with dark matter particles. We provide basic tests of this customized code and demonstrate its performance by presenting N-body computations of dark-matter-free spherical equilibrium models as well as dark-matter-free disk galaxies in Milgromian dynamics.

Lüghausen, Fabian; Famaey, Benoit; Kroupa, Pavel



El problema de la distancia en la venta por Internet. Un sentido de la perspectiva geográfica  

Microsoft Academic Search

El comercio electrónico se perfila como una nueva forma de intercambio comercial que podría dar lugar a unos resultados geográficamente positivos, como una mayor distribución de la riqueza y el empleo. Hay ciertos productos y servicios que son extremadamente susceptibles a la distribución electrónica como los servicios financieros, la música, o la programas informáticos, pero cuando se trata de mercancías

Rita Lázaro Sevilla



Bacteriosis en Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum L.) Causada por Xanthomonas campestris (Pammel) Dowson en Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

In coriander (Coriandrum sativum) plants from commercial fields in the area of San Vicente, Aragua state, Venezuela, water-soaked, dark-brown angular spots were observed on leaf surface and distributed along the veins; as symptoms progressed, they caused leaf blight. Isolates obtained from diseased tissue on nutrient agar persistently produced light yellow colonies. Pathogenicity tests were performed by spray inoculation of a

Yolanda Guevara; Anna Maselli


Listado de cursos por temtica Artes plsticas y visuales en Alicante (1960-2013)  

E-print Network

'estat espanyol El lenguaje en las redes sociales: de facebook a whatsapp CIENCIAS DE LA EDUCACIÓN Realitat 2 Espinosa: dialectología y sociolingüistica en el contexto histórico y social del contacto de lenguas. CURSO ordenamiento jurídico?. CURSO CANCELADO CIENCIAS SOCIALES Intervención con menores hijos/as de víctimas de

Escolano, Francisco


Innovación conducida por la utilidad (ICU). Reflexiones desde las ciencias de la vida  

Microsoft Academic Search

El abordaje interdisciplinar de los problemas es hoy esencial para desarrollar la nueva ciencia. Ese es el caso de las grandes convergencias de tecnologías que caracterizarán al Siglo XXI, como la conocida NBIC(Nano, Bio, Info y Cognos) o la GRIN (Genómica, robótica, infonomía y nanotecnología). Estamos rediseñando artificialmente sistemas tremendamente complejos mediante la manipulación de los principios elementales encontrados, que

Julio Lorca



Atención de los niños hecha por SIATE en Cascavel en 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays accidents involving children are being a relevant cause of morbimortality. Physical injuries are responsible for 98 % of death in developing countries. The study had as aim identifying the kinds of accidents involving zero to twelve-year-old children assisted by Integrated Study of Trauma and Emergency Reception (SIATE) from Cascavel. The descriptive study was developed through a survey of SIATE's

Márcio Briccius; Neide Tiemi Murofuse


El Control de la Contaminación por Nitratos en el Regadío 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: This paper analyzes the effects of some water management policies and irrigation systems on crop yields and water polluti on, in an area located in the Flumen- Monegros irrigation district in Huesca (Spain). The analysis is performed using water and nitrogen crop response functions, which are est imated with the EPIC crop growth package. The estimation of response for

Yolanda Martínez Martínez; Skender Uku Karaj; José Albiac Murillo



Química de conchas de ostrácodos: una alternativa para medir la contaminación por metales en sistemas acuáticos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace metal accumulation in water, sediments and organisms is a major environmental concern because of the many adverse effects of heavy metals on human health. The rapid industriali- zation that has occurred over the last century highlights the significance and urgency to understand the historic records and effects of trace metals on the environment. We document the occurrence of trace

Manuel R. Palacios-Fest; Lisa E. Park; Jordi González-Porta; Martha R. Palacios-Fest; George R. Dix




Microsoft Academic Search

In 2000, high concentration levels of Arsenic were detected in several ground water sources located in the province of Valladolid (Spain). Further investigations delimited an area of approximately 1700 km2 with a geographical center at the city of Iscar. In this area, ground water is usually used for agricultural purposes. However, ground water was also used as drinking water, the

C. Calvo Revuelta; M. Andrade Benítez; P. Marinero Die; S. Bolado Rodríguez


Estudio para la Detección de Plomo en Alimentos de Origen Vegetal por Análisis Infrarrojo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen— El objetivo del estudio es determinar un método no invasivo, basado en espectroscopia infrarroja, que sirva como herramienta para la detección de plomo en alimentos de origen vegetal. Teniendo presente que los vegetales son una parte importante de nuestra dieta, resulta necesario realizar investigaciones referentes a la presencia de metales pesados en los vegetales, en este caso plomo. El

Daniel Octavio García Romero; Leopoldo Félix; Yabar Escribanel


Impacto Económico en la Salud por Contaminación del Aire en Lima Metropolitana  

Microsoft Academic Search

I. Objetivos y Justificación del Proyecto: La contaminación ambiental es un problema que se ha venido agravando en las ?ltimas décadas en el Perú, sin embargo, en la práctica es poco lo que se ha hecho para reducirla a niveles aceptables o permitidos. A principios de la presente década se han emitido ciertas normas legales que buscan regular los niveles

Juan José Miranda


Universidad de Alicante PRESUPUESTOS 2013 9.-Presupuesto de gastos por programas  

E-print Network

información Docencia Virtual Programa de profesionalización docente y Redes de Investigación en Docencia Valencià Archivo de la democracia Aula de cultura científica Aulas de cultura Ayuda humanitaria Cátedra Virtual Cap. 6: Alumni Nota: Cap. 6: Infraestructuras Obras RAM 2013 2012 Var. % Var. Cap. 2 1

Escolano, Francisco


Vota por tu Futuro: Partisan Mobilization of Latino Voters in the 2000 Presidential Election  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two presidential elections, the major parties have been making a push at appealing to Latinos, airing over 3000 political advertisements in Spanish in the 2000 presidential election. In this paper, we ask whether the political ads used in the 2000 election had any effect on Latino turnout. We argue that the effectiveness of ads on the likelihood

Victoria M. DeFrancesco Soto; Jennifer L. Merolla



Cambie su cabeza por una importante: La ironía metafórica en Benito Fernández de Elena Garro  

E-print Network

se indigna cuando Julián le recuerda su mestizaje: BENITO: (Se levanta la manga y enseña una parte del brazo). Soy rubio como mi madre y queremos una cabeza de gente blanca. JULIAN: Bien dice el dicho que los mestizos o son de mala cabeza o que...

Rosas Lopá tegui, Patricia; Reed, James Casey



O impacto da infecção por Chlamydia em populações indígenas da Amazônia brasileira  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge is limited on the spread of bacteria from genus Chlamydia in Brazil. This study included a sero-epidemiological survey of 2,086 samples from native Indian populations of the Brazilian Amazon region. Sera were screened using indirect immunofluorescence assay for detection of antibodies to C. trachomatis serotype L2, followed by microimmunofluorescence as- say using fifteen C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae serotypes

Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak; Ricardo Ishak



Enriquecimento protéico de alimentos por levedura em fermentação semissólida: alternativa na alimentação animal  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 Engenheiro Agrônomo, MSc. Forragicultura Resumo - Os freqüentes aumentos nos preços de suplementos vegetais utilizados na alimentação animal têm despertado grande interesse pelo aproveitamento dos alimentos \\

Salvino Oliveira Júnior


Diseño y gestión adaptativa de un programa de pagos por servicios ecosistémicos en Copán Ruinas, Honduras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptative design and management of a payment for ecosystem services scheme in Copan Ruinas, Honduras This article presents a case study of development of a Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) program related to drinking water in the city of Copán Ruinas, Honduras. The methodology used for the design and the implementation of this program is based on an integrated and

R. Madrigal Ballestero; F. Alpízar Rodríguez


Universidad de Alicante PRESUPUESTOS 2013 22 6.-El presupuesto por operaciones corrientes y de capital  

E-print Network

.000,00 319 Otros gastos financieros 1.300.000,00 480 Transferencias corrientes a familias 1.989.034,00 481 Otras transferencias de capital de la UE 2.650.000,00 TOTAL INGRESOS DE CAPITAL NO FINANCIEROS 9 Públicas y Otros Entes Públicos 30.729,29 TOTAL GASTOS DE CAPITAL NO FINANCIEROS 20.489.534,35 CAPACIDAD

Escolano, Francisco


Absceso prostático por Sthapilococo aureus y empiema subdural: presentación de un caso  

Microsoft Academic Search

STHAPYLOCOCCUS AUREUS PROSTATIC ABSCESS AND SUBDURAL EMPYEMA: A CASE REPORT. Introduction and objectives: To report one case of prostatic abscess and subdural empyema by Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: We describe the case of a 51 year old male patient who was diagnosed of prostatic abscess and subdural empyema by Staphilococcus aureus. We use clinical presentation and physical exploration based on rectal

Cabrera Meirás F; Sanchís Bonet; Blanco Carballo O; Martín Parada; Duque Ruiz G



Inicio Nosotros Enve su Noticia Agencias Miembros de los Medios Buscar Archivos Noticias por Categora Noticias por Pas Noticias por MSA Todas las Noticias de Hoy Buscar Noticias por Da PR TrackbacksTM ViewNewsTM eBook Digests RSS  

E-print Network

de Monterrey y Consejo de Ciencia y Tecnología del Estado de Nuevo León (COCYTENL) Monterrey, Nuevo Electrónica y Comunicaciones ­ BioMEMS, se llevará a cabo en el Tecnológico de Monterrey Campus Monterrey del Alumnos de Ingeniería en Electrónica y Comunicaciones del Tecnológico de Monterrey, Campus Monterrey con

Chiao, Jung-Chih


Alteraciones estructurales y ultraestructurales del encéfalo ocasionados por veneno de la serpiente mapanare (Bothrops colombiensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural and ultrastructural encephalic alter- ations caused by de poison of the snake mapanare (Bothrops colombiensis). The toxic and enzimatic activities of mapanare (Bothrops colombiensis) snake venom, whose activity affects nearly all of the mammal tissues have not been thoroughly stud- ied (structural or ultrastructurally) in the central nervous system (CNS). Adult C57\\/Bl mice were intravenously inoculated with venom concentrations

Rodríguez-Acosta A; Monterrey F; Céspedes G; Finol HJ



Dos casos de intoxicación por contaminación de maíz con Datura stramonium en ganado vacuno  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: Recientemente hemos observado dos intoxicaciones en ganado vacuno lechero, en granjas de Cataluña, debidas a la ingestión de estramonio (Datura stramonium). La planta había sido en ambos casos erróneamente recolectada junto con el maíz empleado para la alimentación de los animales. El cuadro fue leve y, básicamente, cursó con problemas digestivos y descenso en la producción lechera, y remitió

Bofill FX; Bofill J




Microsoft Academic Search

Handling of pests in broccoli culture was documented; also, the residues of organophos- phate pesticides were determined in broccoli heads by means of gas chromatography and capillary column. The results indicate that the pests of most incidence in broccoli are Brevicoryne brassicae, Trichoplusia ni, Copitarsia consueta, Artogeia rapae, Tri- aleurodes sp and Bermisia tabaci, as reported by producers, with a

Antonia PÉREZ; Antonio SEGURA; Rosario GARCÍA; Teresa COLINAS; Mario PÉREZ; Antonio VÁZQUEZ; Hermilio NAVARRO



Determinación de aditivos oxigenados en gasolinas mexicanas por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) to mexi - can gasolines occasioned the coexistence of this ether with the methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and the need to develop analytical methods to quantify these oxygenated components in gasoline. A reliable and fast method to determine simultaneously MTBE and TAME in gaso- line by gas chromatography-mass spectrometery is presented in this

Comunicación Técnica; Jorge Alberto García Martínez



Análisis de cerámicas romanas Terra Sigillata mediante espectroscopía de plasmas inducidos por láser (LIPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS) has been applied for the elemental analysis of roman pottery Terra Sigillata from different ceramic production centers. For each sample, representative LIP spectra of slip and body were obtained in addition of compositional depth profiles. In all the cases investigated, calcium and iron are the elements which best define the transition between slip and body

A. J. LóPez; G. NICoLáS; A. RAMIL; A. Yáñez


16 FEBRUARY 2005 hree in the morning, too much coffee, and hours of por-  

E-print Network

. They began building the bell tower in the 1170s, but stopped after putting up only three stories when, with the pepper, leather, and fur trades and so many people coming and going. . .a great place to grow up in

Brown, Ezra



PubMed Central

Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con el propósito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utilizó una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente más prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron más prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a través del currículo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

Fernández Rodríguez, María del C.; Squiabro, José Calderón



Determinación de la densidad de la fibra poliester por el método de columna gradiente de densidades  

Microsoft Academic Search

En la industria se presentan a veces problemas en las tinturas de fibras de poliester que son difíciles de resolver y producen lamentables pérdidas de tiempo. La causa de ello es, en algunos casos, la estructura cristalina de las fibras. Estas, cuando están excesivamente cristalizadas hacen que sea más lenta la difusión de los colorantes, y al mismo tiempo disminuye

Publio Puente Garrido




Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the verification of continuous positioning estimation for a mobile robot using four sensors (three sonars and one odometer). These estimations are performed by a computationally efficient algorithm, with recursive formulation called Kalman Filter. The robot has the capability of moving on static environments, knowing its initial position and all environment obstacles. According to this information, the Kalman

Claudiney Calixto da Silva; Juliano Augusto Pereira; Praça Marechal Eduardo Gomes



Microsoft Academic Search

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BIOPOLYMER FROM Beijerinckia sp 7070 FOR THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY. We have determined the chemical composition of biopolymer produced by Beijerinckia sp strain 7070 in different fermentation time, by thin layer chromatography. Beijerinckia sp is a Gram- negative, aerobic bacteria, usually found in sugar cane soil. The biopolymer was obtained after 24 or 36 hours incubation, at 24


Fases lquido-cristalinas anisotrpicas Fases lamelares preparao de lipossomas por  

E-print Network

#12;Mesofases em solventes orgânicos CTAB em (a) ­ água, (b) ­ glicerol, (c) ­ formamida, (d Uninvestigated area I DecanolC16 TAPA6000 Water II- nor hex, III- lam, IV ­ L2, V ­ inv hex, VI ­ inv rods II- nor hex, III- lam, IV ­ L2, V ­ inv rods I ­ nor hex, II ­lam III ­ L2 CTA+ + água + decanol : efeito

Loh, Watson



E-print Network


Rapaport, Iván


Renovando la Esperanza por una Educacion sin Exclusiones (Rekindling the Hope for an Education without Exclusion).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles in this issue, written in Spanish, focus on the following: current status and outlook of youth and adult education; opening statement of the 50th anniversary commemoration; regional framework for the education of youth and adults in Latin America and the Caribbean; interculturalism and the education of youth and adults; participation of…

Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2001




E-print Network

to Louisiana. \\LENTIBULARIACEB. Bladderwort family. Utricularia vulgaris, L.-Bladderwort. Throughout the North minor, L. Lemna gibba, L. Widely diffused. America and Europe. Chiefly in Europe, but has been found


La conducta antisocial percibida por adolescentes de Enseñanza Secundaria Obligatoria: frecuencia, contexto y atribución causal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is about the importance of the antisocial behaviour (ASB) in the adolescents' everyday life. A sample of 479 Secondary School students (58,2% girls and 41,8% boys) in their 3rd (48,1%) and 4th (51,9%) academic year, answered a Questionnaire including 23 items. We asked about the occurrence and participation, the most common contexts and the causes attributed in relation

Apuntes de Psicología


Qualidade de vida e dimensão ocupacional na esquizofrenia: uma comparação por sexo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizophrenia has been associated with low quality of life in patients, and the impact can vary by gender. Knowing gender differences may help implement specific interventions. This study focuses on quality of life in male and fe- male outpatients with schizophrenia, particu- larly examining the occupational domain. A cross-sectional study using the Quality of Life Scale (QLS-BR) was carried out.

Clareci Silva Cardoso; Waleska Teixeira Caiaffa; Marina Bandeira; Arminda Lucia Siqueira; Mery Natali Silva Abreu; José Otávio Penido Fonseca



El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.


"¿Por qué leemos esto en la clase de español?": The Politics of Teaching Literature in Spanglish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses what is at stake in teaching works written in "Spanglish" in Spanish departments and what teaching such works might mean for students and the scholarly community at large. This article primarily comes out of the author's experiences teaching "Spanglish" works in Spanish courses at a major research…

Postma, Regan L.




E-print Network

comparación con las temperaturas más profundas que continúan indicando un área extensa con temperaturas sobre Internet del Centro de Predicciones Climáticas (Condiciones actuales de El Niño/La Niña y La Discusión de


Autômato Celular para Estudar Espalhamento e Evolução da Pneumonia por Pneumococos em uma População  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pneumonia is an infectious and contagious disease, caused by a great number of differents bacteria, being the first mortality cause between lung diseases and has an important position between the greats causers of mortality between adults. The victims of pneumonia are a significant number and analyzing it is possible note the importance of this disease and the understanding necessity

Yuri Saito; Marco Antônio; Alves da Silva; Domingos Alves


Diagnóstico y tratamiento farmacológico del trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Se asocia con retraso y dificultades del funcionamiento académico y social 2 , y hay evidencia creciente que indica que también se asocia con morbilidad significativa y peor funcionamiento en la edad adulta 3,4 . Además, estudios longitudinales recientes señalan que los niños con TDAH de ambos sexos y de cual- quier edad generan un gasto médico total y

César Soutullo Esperón



Regresar a: homepage / Negocios Por Yaritza Santiago Caraballo /  

E-print Network

de Turismo propone la construcción de un acuario en San Juan a un costo aproximado de $60 millones definir la situación del presupuesto del País. Si veo que estos asuntos se están trabajando, vamos de infraestructura, como es la construcción de un acuario en San Juan a un costo aproximado de $60


Reacción granulomatosa facial por rellenos cosméticos inyectados: presentación de cinco casos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of substances to augment soft tissues as aesthetic purpose is associated with, among other undesirable effects, the appearance of foreign body granulomas. The improvements made to these substances have reduced the incidence of adverse reactions, but not eliminated them. We present five cases of foreign body reactions to three different products, dimethylpolysi- loxane (silicone), bovine collagen, and polylactic

Rafael Poveda; José V. Bagán; Judith Murillo; Yolanda Jiménez; Rafael Poveda Roda



Microsoft Academic Search

Development of a numerical model to represent the transport of organic matter in the unsaturated and saturated zone is presented in this paper. This model includes a Monod degradation rate to represent the biological action of anaerobic microorganisms and a Freundlich isotherm to describe contaminant sorption. Due to the fact that organic matter is one of the most important components

Carlos Espinoza; División de Recursos Hídricos; Medio Ambiente


Análisis económico de los servicios provistos por una plantación forestal: el caso del eucalipto en Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se discute el papel que podría cumplir en la zona centro-sur de Chile las plantaciones de eucalipto teniendo en cuenta además de su uso tradicional como fuente de madera, otros usos como como fuente de dendroenergía y del servicio de sumidero de carbono. Para lograr este objetivo se aborda un modelo teórico cuya base es el modelo

Adrián Saldarriaga Isaza; Eric Concha Muñoz



Variações Temporais de Níveis de Água em Zonas Úmidas da Bacia Amazônica Estimadas por Satélite Altimétrico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite altimetry is a powerful tool to get time series of water stage in poorly monitored remote areas. Moreover, in widely inundated areas, it enables to study the relationships between adjacent water bodies. In this study, we present an analysis of the inundation cycle of the Amazon basin in the lower Madeira river basin. The water levels are derived from

Joecila Santos da Silva


Implantación de prótesis valvulares aórticas por vía transfemoral. Evaluación de pacientes candidatos al procedimiento  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objectiveIn recent years, techniques for implantation of aortic prosthesis via catheter have been developed as a therapeutic alternative in patients with severe aortic stenosis rejected for surgery. The correct selection of candidates is one of the more complex aspects of this treatment. We analyzed the acceptance rate in our environment for transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients referred

David Dobarro; Raúl Moreno; David Filgueiras; Luis Calvo; Teresa López-Fernández; Ángel Sánchez-Recalde; Santiago Jiménez-Valero; Guillermo Galeote; María del Carmen Gómez-Rubín; Isidro Moreno-Gómez; Jose-María Mesa; Ignacio Plaza; José Luis López-Sendón




Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the implementation of an incremental fuzzy PI controller with a basis of rules to a direct current motor controlled by field. The matrix of rules is tuned through genetic algorithms. The controller, by its own, has been designed to conduct the motor from an initial condition of 0 to 100rpm (revolutions per minute).Consequently, the simulations




Algoritmo Genético Aplicado à Otimização da Cobertura do Sinal Gerado por Radares Terrestres  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work treated the optimization of the territor ial radar positioning, aiming the maximum area covered by the generated si gnal. A genetic algorithm, with real representation of the genotype, was elaborated and applied to the problem. The calculations of the unions among coverings of radar signals were effected by library GPC (Generic Polygon Clipper). Results of the applications prove

Felipe Leonardo; Lobo Medeiros; Carmen Lucia; Ruybal dos Santos; Mônica Maria De Marchi; Maria José Pinto


El tratamiento de la violencia en el futbol por la prensa deportiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Journalists are also main players with regard to violence in sports. Many organisms are worried about this issue and have pointed out the need for the mass media to take care of their own behaviour in order not to create a climate of violence. In this report, we exhaustively review those actions carried out by sports journalists that contribute to

JoseBarrero Munoz


Barras de acero galvanizado: Una opción contra la corrosión inducida por la carbonatación  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concrete carbonation is the second cause of corrosion in reinforced concrete structures, and in inland tropical environments, it would be the main corrosion mechanism. Once concrete is carbonated, plain rebars are known to corrode actively. The objective of this investigation was to study the performance of galvanized reinforcing steel as an alternative reinforcing material under those circumstances. Three different water\\/cement

Eric I. Moreno; Daniel Serrano Ixtepan; Enrique Cob Sarabia



Aplicación de la simulación al diseño de los sistemas de riego por aspersión: el modelo SIRIAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

En el diseño de instalaciones de riego se busca fundamentalmente la mayor uniformidad en el reparto de\\u000aagua, ya que ésta afecta a la producción del cultivo y a la eficiencia en la utilización del agua y la energía. Se\\u000apresenta una metodología para la distribución del agua de un aspersor teniendo en cuenta la acción del viento.\\u000aPara ello

Pedro Carrión; Jesús Montero; José Maria Tarjuelo



Requisitos de Postulacin La postulacin deber realizarse por va electrnica o  

E-print Network

Comercio y el World Trade Institute de la Universidad de Berna. MAGISTER ESTRATEGIA INTERNACIONAL Y Magíster en Estrategia Internacional y Política Co- mercial tiene como objetivo fortalecer las capacidades Internacionales. Métodos Cuantitativos I. Taller I. Trimestre II Principios de Economía Internacional

Rapaport, Iván


La coleccin del Centro de Documentacin Estadstica est formada por estadsticas espaolas, estadsticas  

E-print Network

.01 Economía 07.03.02 Cooperat. agrícolas.Latifundios.Minifundios 09.05 Comercio internacional 13.06 Relaciones OCDE 01.01 Cooperación internacional 05.04 Etica. Religión 08.14.01 Industria siderúrgica 12.01 Comercio. Demanda. de mano de obra. Ganancia 02.01.01 Desarrollo económico y social 06.01.00 Estadísticas

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad


Etanercept e infección crónica por los virus de la hepatitis C y B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both psoriasis and chronic infections by HBV and HCV have high prevalence. Thus, it is relatively easy for them to coincide in the same patient. If the psoriasis requires systemic treatment, the dermatologist should consider the hepatic comorbidity when selecting an appropriate treatment. Cyclosporine, in addition to other well-known side effects, is an immunosuppressant that may condition worse evolution of

X. Bordas; S. Martín-Sala



Identificao de reas vulnerveis ocorrncia de incndios florestais, provocados por atividades antrpicas, utilizando diferentes mtodos de  

E-print Network

inferência espacial (Booleano, AHP e Fuzzy Gama), baseado na estimação do risco de ocorrência permanente de declivosas foram consideradas de maior risco, pois a transferência de calor é facilitada no sentido do aclive minimizam a ação do fogo e d) proximidade à malha viária, o acesso de pessoas e veículos causam risco de

Camara, Gilberto


Aglomeración económica y congestión vial: los perjuicios por racionamiento del tráfico vehicular  

Microsoft Academic Search

La creciente urbanización latinoamericana de las últimas décadas ha inducido mayor demanda de vehículos y congestión de tráfico. Pretendiendo aliviar los costos de la congestión se han adoptado medidas polémicas que restringen la circulación del 20% o el 40% de los vehículos cada día de la semana laboral -en México 1988 y Bogotá 2008, “Pico y Placa”-. Para juzgar la

Carlos Alberto Medina; Carlos Eduardo Vélez



Emisiones en el interior de las viviendas por la combustión de carbón en los hogares

Quemar carbón dentro de las viviendas para calefacción o preparación de alimentos produce emisiones de partículas y gases que pueden contener una cantidad de sustancias químicas dañinas, como benceno, monóxido de carbono, formaldehído e hidrocarburo aromático policíclico.


Un caso de pseudomiasis por larvas de Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) en un bovino  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. A case of bovine pseudomyiasis caused by Her- metia illucens larvae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae). Introduction. Hermetia illucens is a dipterous which can produce gastroenteric pseudomyasis in humans and domestic animals. The larvae develop in a wide range of animal and vegetable decaying materials and can be accidentally ingested by

Pablo Manrique-Saide; Roger I. Rodríguez-Vivas; Manuel Quiñones Rodríguez


Mapeamento de Projees por Sistema Kinect-Projetor Projection Mapping for a Kinect-Projector System  

E-print Network

diversas aplicações. Chamada de Realidade Aumentada [1], essa tecnologia combina conceitos de realidade]. · Propaganda[9]. · Performances ao vivo[10]. · Lazer[11][12]. · Medicina[13]. · Quaisquer indivíduos que tecnologia. O framework proposto neste trabalho visa englobar as seguintes caracteristicas: · Compreensão dos

Barbosa, Alberto


Comparação quantitativa e qualitativa entre o Modelo Digital gerado pelo SRTM e por aerofotogrametria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The present paper reports a qualitative and a quantitative comparison,among,the SRTM DEM and the contours extracted by Photogrammetry. A visual three-dimensional inspection was executed on the,DEM over the stereo models by using a photogrammetric workstation. On the other hand, a referential surface was constructed by the ,contours and other by the ,SRTM DEM. Some analyses were ,executed ,through ,the

Jorge Pimentel Cintra


Factibilidad del aprendizaje mediado por internet: un estudio en alumnos pre-universitarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet is growing rapidly and findings from research indicate that there are personal factors that appear to be significantly related to learning in web-based environments. The purpose of this study was to investigate some of such factors: a) skills of self-regulated learning, b) motivation, c) attitudes towards Internet-based learning environments, and d) perceived self-efficacy beliefs to perform certain web- based

Yolanda Haydeé Montero; María Eugenia Pedrosa


In Vitro Activities of ABT-773, a New Ketolide, against Aerobic and Anaerobic Pathogens Isolated from Antral Sinus Puncture Specimens from Patients with Sinusitis  

PubMed Central

The comparative in vitro activities of ABT-773 against 207 aerobic and 162 anaerobic antral sinus puncture isolates showed that erythromycin-resistant pneumococcal strains were susceptible to ABT-773 (?0.125 ?g/ml); the MIC at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited for Haemophilus influenzae and other Haemophilus spp. was 4 ?g/ml; and all Moraxella spp. and beta-lactamase-producing Prevotella species strains were inhibited by ?0.125 ?g/ml. Among the anaerobes tested, only fusobacteria (45%) required ?4 ?g of ABT-773/ml for inhibition. ABT-773 may offer a therapeutic alternative for sinus infections. PMID:11451698

Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Conrads, Georg; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi; Tyrrell, Kerin



Changes in aerobic microflora of skin and gills of Mediterranean sardines (Sardina pilchardus) during storage in ice.  


Sardines from the Adriatic Sea were examined fresh and after 4 and 8 days of storage in ice. A total of 1500 strains isolated were identified from the gills and the surface of the fish. Pseudomonadaceae, Neisseriaceae, Flavobacterium/Cytophaga, Enterobacteriaceae, coryneform bacteria and Micrococcaceae were the most common bacteria in fresh fish. During storage the pseudomonads (mainly the non-fluorescent strains) increased and became the dominating microflora; the Neisseriaceae (Moraxella, Psychrobacter and Acinetobacter) showed a distinct increase during the first 4 days in ice; the percentage of the other bacterial groups clearly decreased. On the gills the quantitative changes in the microflora were less pronounced than on the surface. PMID:3275304

Gennari, M; Tomaselli, S



Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed



Advanced Decontamination Technologies: Irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial food-borne illnesses account for an estimated 76 million cases, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths each year in the United States (CDCP, 2005), and 5,300 food-borne outbreaks in Europe resulted in 5,330 hospitalizations and 24 deaths in 2005 (Aymerich, Picouet, & Monfort, 2008). Major food-borne pathogens of concern include Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum/perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophylia, and Bacillus cereu, and spoilage microorganisms include Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter/Moraxella, Aeromonas, Alteromonas putrefaciens, Lactobacillus, and Brochothrix thermosphecta (Mead et al., 1999).

Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong U.


Comparison of the QuadFERM+ 2-hr identification system with conventional carbohydrate degradation tests for confirmatory identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.  


The QuadFERM+ (Analytab Products, Plainview, NY) rapid identification system was evaluated for its ability to identify correctly Neisseria gonorhoeae isolates from specimens obtained at a sexually transmitted disease clinic. One hundred eighty-five isolates (115 N. gonorrhoeae, 45 Neisseria meningitidis, 16 Neisseria species, and nine Branhamella catarrhalis; fresh isolates, frozen stock cultures, and cultures referred from local health agencies) were tested with the QuadFERM+ system and conventional biochemical tests. The two discrepant results were obtained with QuadFERM+, for a lactose-positive isolate of Neisseria sicca and a maltose-positive N. meningitidis. Both were negative by conventional sugar degradation tests. The N. sicca was negative when repeated in the QuadFERM+, and the N. meningitidis reverted from maltose-positive to maltose-negative after 3 hr. Twelve beta-lactamase positive organisms (six N. gonorrhoeae plus six B. catarrhalis) and 173 beta-lactamase-negative organisms showed 100% agreement between the acidometric QuadFERM+ beta-lactamase test and the conventional starch-iodine method. Thus the QuadFERM+ is a rapid and acceptable alternative for the identification of N. gonorrhoeae in a sexually transmitted disease clinic. PMID:2500720

Gradus, M S; Ng, C M; Silver, K J



Selective bactericidal activity of nanopatterned superhydrophobic cicada Psaltoda claripennis wing surfaces.  


The nanopattern on the surface of Clanger cicada (Psaltoda claripennis) wings represents the first example of a new class of biomaterials that can kill bacteria on contact based solely on its physical surface structure. As such, they provide a model for the development of novel functional surfaces that possess an increased resistance to bacterial contamination and infection. Their effectiveness against a wide spectrum of bacteria, however, is yet to be established. Here, the bactericidal properties of the wings were tested against several bacterial species, possessing a range of combinations of morphology and cell wall type. The tested species were primarily pathogens, and included Bacillus subtilis, Branhamella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Planococcus maritimus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Staphylococcus aureus. The wings were found to consistently kill Gram-negative cells (i.e., B. catarrhalis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and P. fluorescens), while Gram-positive cells (B. subtilis, P. maritimus, and S. aureus) remained resistant. The morphology of the cells did not appear to play any role in determining cell susceptibility. The bactericidal activity of the wing was also found to be quite efficient; 6.1?±?1.5?×?10(6) P. aeruginosa cells in suspension were inactivated per square centimeter of wing surface after 30-min incubation. These findings demonstrate the potential for the development of selective bactericidal surfaces incorporating cicada wing nanopatterns into the design. PMID:23250225

Hasan, Jafar; Webb, Hayden K; Truong, Vi Khanh; Pogodin, Sergey; Baulin, Vladimir A; Watson, Gregory S; Watson, Jolanta A; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P



Histamine synthesis by respiratory tract micro-organisms: possible role in pathogenicity.  

PubMed Central

Five bacterial species considered to be potential pathogens in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, and pneumonia--Branhamella catarrhalis, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae--were evaluated for their potential to synthesise histamine in vitro. Bacterial species commonly isolated from infected sputum but generally not considered to be pathogenic--Enterobacteriacae, Neisseria pharyngis, coagulase negative staphylococci, alpha-haemolytic streptococci, and Candida albicans--were similarly studied. Of the "pathogens", the Gram negative species B catarrhalis, H parainfluenzae and Ps aeruginosa synthesised clinically important amounts of histamine; this was not the case for the Gram positive species S aureus and S pneumoniae. Of the "non-pathogenic" species, only the Enterobacteriacae, as a group, were found to synthesise clinically important amounts of histamine. These results show that some Gram negative bacteria, associated with acute exacerbations in respiratory infections, produce histamine and possibly other inflammatory mediators, which may contribute to their pathogenecity in the lower respiratory tract in vivo. PMID:2499609

Devalia, J L; Grady, D; Harmanyeri, Y; Tabaqchali, S; Davies, R J



Monosaccharide composition and bioactivity of tea flower polysaccharides obtained by ethanol fractional precipitation and stepwise precipitation Composición de monosacáridos y bioactividad de los polisacáridos de la flor de té obtenidos por precipitación fraccionada y precipitación gradual por etanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yields of tea flower polysaccharides (TFPS) were investigated by ethanol fractional precipitation and stepwise precipitation and the monosaccharide composition of TFPS was investigated by ion chromatography(IC). Furthermore, a preliminary study on bioactivities of TFPS was discussed. The result indicated that the molecular weight distribution of TFPS was wide. Results of ethanol fractional precipitation and stepwise precipitation suggested that most of

Yuanfeng Wang; Lan Yu; Xinlin Wei




Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme production by Aspergillus niger IZ 9 was evaluated in different carbon sources: glucose; non-treated bagasse; bagasse treated with 4% solution of sodium hydroxide; bagasse treated with 4% solution of sodium hydroxide-phosphoric acid-steam; and filter paper. Maximum production of cellulase was obtained with filter paper, when the average activity was 0.44 UI mL-. With relationship to the work-temperature, maximum

C. L Aguiar




Microsoft Academic Search

In nuclear power plants, the fatigue in vessels and their associated components is caused by transients that occur at normal operating temperatures. Fatigue analysis validity must be continuously reviewed during the design period of the components. Fatigue accumulation due to in plant events produces the degradation of the vessel components. This is the cause that everyday is more under consideration

R. Cicero; I. Gorrochategui; J. A. Alvarez



E-print Network

/blogindio/medio-ambiente/staff/turbina-mas-chica-que-un-centa... #12;Relacionado ( como-saludables) Salchichas 'baby poop'... tan extremas como saludables (/blogindio/medio-ambiente/staff/salchichas-baby-poop

Chiao, Jung-Chih



Microsoft Academic Search

Coincidiendo con el surgimiento de la psiquiatría comunitaria, ha habido un progresivo proceso de desinstitucionalización de los pacientes psiquiátricos; seleccionando a los menos discapacitados para los recursos comunitarios y dejando los pacientes con más discapacidad al cuidado de las instituciones. La rehabilitación pretende afrontar la discapacidad para realizar actividades, con la finalidad de mejorar la desventaja social consecuencia del deterioro

Victoria Villalta Gil; Susana Ochoa Güerre



AT&T: La red 4G LTE ms con able del pas Ms del 90 por ciento del trfico  

E-print Network

Watertown­Fort Atkinson Whitewater­Lake Geneva Wyoming Cheyenne Gillette Jackson Laramie Sheridan Montana­Schenectady Amsterdam Auburn Batavia Binghamton Buffalo­Niagara Falls Corning Cortland Elmira Ithaca Jamestown New York

Greenberg, Albert


A Rodaviva das Tecnologias Novas tecnologias do origem, em geral, a novos modelos de negcio que por sua vez  

E-print Network

A Roda­viva das Tecnologias Novas tecnologias dão origem, em geral, a novos modelos de negócio que palavras, velhas tecnologias reaparecem com uma nova roupagem como se submetidas a um processo de mundo. O uso dos browsers para utilizar esses servidores é nada mais do que uma nova roupagem para um


ESTABILIDADE DE MELÃO PROCESSADO POR DESIDRATAÇÃO OSMÓTICA SEGUIDA DE FRITURA Stability of melon processed by osmotic dehydration followed by frying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmotic dehydration followed by frying has been considered as an important technological tool to the development of new products. The objective of the present work was to evaluate storage stability of melon processed by osmotic dehydration and frying. The stability was assessed by physical-chemical (total soluble solids, water activity, pH, moisture content, acidity, reducing and non reducing sugars), microbiological (total

Janice Ribeiro Lima; Laura Maria Bruno


Evolución de la prevalencia de infección por el VIH y de las conductas de riesgo en varones homo\\/bisexuales  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo describe trends in the prevalence of HIV infection, in risk behaviors and in knowledge and attitudes related to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited in Barcelona (Spain) between 1995 and 2002.

Cinta Folch; Jordi Casabona; Rafa Muñoz; Kati Zaragoza



Resultados preliminares de los experimentos del efecto de polarización originado por un flujo de agua confinado en una estructura cilíndrica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forward and inverse modelling of self-potential data can be based on different procedures. Seepages through a fracture or a pipe-like structure can be easily detected and evaluated employing the analytical formulae obtained for simple, geometrical bodies. Some of them contain a term denominated the polarization moment. The concept of the polarization moment arises as a consequence of the boundary conditions