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Moraxella catarrhalis in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Moraxella catarrhalis is frequently present in the sputum of adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Little is known about the role of M. catarrhalis in this common disease. Objective: To elucidate the burden of disease, the dynamics of carriage, and immune responses to M. catarrhalis in COPD. Methods: Prospective cohort study of 104 adults with COPD in an outpatient clinic at the Buffalo Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Measurements: Clinical information, sputum cultures, molecular typing of isolates, and immunoassays to measure antibodies to M. catarrhalis. Main Results: Over 81 months, 104 patients made 3,009 clinic visits, 560 during exacerbations. Molecular typing identified 120 episodes of acquisition and clearance of M. catarrhalis in 50 patients; 57 (47.5%) of the acquisitions were associated with clinical exacerbations. No instances of simultaneous acquisition of a new strain of another pathogen were observed. The duration of carriage of M. catarrhalis was shorter with exacerbations compared with asymptomatic colonization (median, 31.0 vs. 40.4 days; p = 0.01). Reacquisition of the same strain was rare. The intensity of the serum IgG response was greater after exacerbations than asymptomatic colonization (p = 0.009). Asymptomatic colonization was associated with a greater frequency of a sputum IgA response than exacerbation (p = 0.009). Conclusions: M. catarrhalis likely causes approximately 10% of exacerbations of COPD, accounting for approximately 2 to 4 million episodes annually. The organism is cleared efficiently after a short duration of carriage. Patients develop strain-specific protection after clearance of M. catarrhalis from the respiratory tract. PMID:15805178

Murphy, Timothy F.; Brauer, Aimee L.; Grant, Brydon J. B.; Sethi, Sanjay



Epidemiological typing of Moraxella catarrhalis by using DNA probes.  

PubMed Central

Small-fragment restriction enzyme analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization were used to compare 60 strains of Moraxella catarrhalis isolated from various geographic locations. Restriction enzyme analysis with HaeIII resulted in 46 different patterns, 7 of which were shared by more than one isolate. Hybridizations with two DNA probes resulted in 18 different patterns, 11 of which were shared by more than one isolate. Strains with the same restriction enzyme pattern always had the same hybridization pattern. However, of the 50 strains that shared the 11 hybridization patterns, 39 could be further differentiated by restriction enzyme analysis. We found that hybridization is a method that is specific for the epidemiological typing of M. catarrhalis, but because of limited sensitivity, combination with small-fragment restriction enzyme analysis may be necessary to better determine the relatedness of strains. Images PMID:8096219

Beaulieu, D; Scriver, S; Bergeron, M G; Low, D E; Parr, T R; Patterson, J E; Matlow, A; Roy, P H



Moraxella catarrhalis Bacterium without Endotoxin, a Potential Vaccine Candidate  

PubMed Central

Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is a major surface component of Moraxella catarrhalis and a possible virulence factor in the pathogenesis of human infections caused by this organism. The presence of LOS on the bacterium is an obstacle to the development of vaccines derived from whole cells or outer membrane components of the bacterium. An lpxA gene encoding UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase responsible for the first step of lipid A biosynthesis was identified by the construction and characterization of an isogenic M. catarrhalis lpxA mutant in strain O35E. The resulting mutant was viable despite the complete loss of LOS. The mutant strain showed significantly decreased toxicity by the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay, reduced resistance to normal human serum, reduced adherence to human epithelial cells, and enhanced clearance in lungs and nasopharynx in a mouse aerosol challenge model. Importantly, the mutant elicited high levels of antibodies with bactericidal activity and provided protection against a challenge with the wild-type strain. These data suggest that the null LOS mutant is attenuated and may be a potential vaccine candidate against M. catarrhalis. PMID:16239560

Peng, Daxin; Hong, Wenzhou; Choudhury, Biswa P.; Carlson, Russell W.; Gu, Xin-Xing



Moraxella catarrhalis Outer Membrane Protein CD Elicits Antibodies That Inhibit CD Binding to Human Mucin and Enhance Pulmonary Clearance of M. catarrhalis in a Mouse Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outer membrane protein CD of Moraxella catarrhalis is considered to be a potential vaccine antigen against Moraxella infection. We purified the native CD from isolate O35E, administered it to mice, and detected considerable titers of anti-CD antibodies. Anti-CD sera were cross-reactive towards six different M. catarrhalis isolates and promoted bacterial clearance of O35E in a pulmonary challenge model. To

Dai-Fang Liu; John C. McMichael; Steven M. Baker



Comparison of restriction enzymes for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of Moraxella catarrhalis.  


NotI, the most prevalent restriction enzyme used for typing Moraxella catarrhalis, failed to digest genomic DNA from respiratory samples. An improved pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) methodology determined SpeI as the best choice for typing this bacterial species, with a good restriction of clinical samples and a good clustering correlation with NotI. PMID:23678064

Marti, Sara; Puig, Carmen; Domenech, Arnau; Liñares, Josefina; Ardanuy, Carmen



Production of BRO ?-Lactamases and Resistance to Complement in European Moraxella catarrhalis Isolates  

PubMed Central

Of the 419 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates collected during the 1997-1999 European SENTRY surveillance study, 385 (92%) were ?-lactamase positive. Twenty-two (5.7%) produced BRO-2 ?-lactamase. Twenty-one new mutations were found in the putative promoter region of the bro genes. Nineteen percent of all isolates tested were complement sensitive. Resistance to ?-lactams is not linked to the phylogenetic lineages associated with susceptibility to complement. PMID:11923393

Schmitz, Franz-Josef; Beeck, Andreas; Perdikouli, Mirella; Boos, Mechthild; Mayer, Susanne; Scheuring, Sybille; Köhrer, Karl; Verhoef, Jan; Fluit, Ad C.



In-vitro activity of levofloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone: evaluation against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis.  


The in-vitro activity of levofloxacin was studied against 10 beta-lactamase-negative and 93 beta-lactamase-positive Moraxella catarrhalis isolates, and 65 beta-lactamase-negative and 35 beta-lactamase-positive Haemophilus influenzae isolates. The MICs of levofloxacin were determined by agar dilution on Mueller-Hinton agar (with the addition of 5% horse blood for M. catarrhalis) or on Haemophilus Test Medium for H. influenzae, and were compared with those of ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin, as well as pefloxacin and D-ofloxacin for M. catarrhalis. The fluoroquinolones showed similar activity against isolates of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, irrespective of beta-lactamase production. Levofloxacin (MIC50/90 0.06 mg/L) was 64 times more active against M. catarrhalis than D-ofloxacin (MIC50/90 4/8 mg/L) and twice as active as ofloxacin (MIC50/90 0.125 mg/L). Ciprofloxacin had an MIC50/90 of 0.03/0.06 mg/L and sparfloxacin showed an MIC50/90 of 0.015 mg/L against M. catarrhalis irrespective of the resistance phenotype of the isolates. Against H. influenzae, levofloxacin was twice as active as ofloxacin (MIC90 values 0.03 mg/L versus 0.06 mg/L), while the MIC90s of ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin were both 0.015 mg/L. Our results therefore suggest that levofloxacin has potential for treating respiratory tract infections caused by H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. PMID:10404333

Kitzis, M D; Goldstein, F W; Miegi, M; Acar, J F



Non-transpeptidase binding arylthioether ?-lactams active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Moraxella catarrhalis.  


The prevalence of drug resistance in both clinical and community settings as a consequence of alterations of biosynthetic pathways, enzymes or cell wall architecture is a persistent threat to human health. We have designed, synthesized, and tested a novel class of non-transpeptidase, ?-lactamase resistant monocyclic ?-lactams that carry an arylthio group at C4. These thioethers exhibit inhibitory and cidal activity against serine ?-lactamase producing Mycobacterium tuberculosis wild type strain (Mtb) and multiple (n=8) ?-lactamase producing Moraxella catarrhalis clinical isolates. PMID:25549898

Beck, Tim N; Lloyd, Dina; Kuskovsky, Rostislav; Minah, Jeanette; Arora, Kriti; Plotkin, Balbina J; Green, Jacalyn M; Boshoff, Helena I; Barry, Clifton; Deschamps, Jeffrey; Konaklieva, Monika I



Activities of Ceftobiprole, a Novel Broad-Spectrum Cephalosporin, against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceftobiprole, a broad-spectrum pyrrolidinone-3-ylidenemethyl cephem currently in phase III clinical trials, had MICs between 0.008 g\\/ml and 8.0 g\\/ml for 321 clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and between <0.004 g\\/ml and 1.0 g\\/ml for 49 clinical isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis. Ceftobiprole MIC50 and MIC90 values for H. influenzae were 0.06 g\\/ml and 0.25 g\\/ml for -lactamase-positive strains (n 262), 0.03

Tatiana Bogdanovich; Catherine Clark; Lois Ednie; Gengrong Lin; Kathy Smith; Stuart Shapiro; Peter C. Appelbaum



Resistance surveillance of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolated in Asia and Europe, 1997-1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multicentre, collaborative study was performed in Asia and Europe during the winter of 1997-1998 to determine the in vitro activity of selected antimicrobial agents against common respiratory pathogens. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates were collected from 48 sites in China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain and the UK and tested in a central laboratory in the

Daniel F. Sahm; Mark E. Jones; Mary L. Hickey; David R. Diakun; Satish V. Mani; Clyde Thornsberry



Identification of Two Late Acyltransferase Genes Responsible for Lipid A Biosynthesis in Moraxella catarrhalis  

PubMed Central

Lipid A is a biological component of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of a human pathogen, Moraxella catarrhalis. No other acyltransferases except UDP-GlcNAc acyltransferase responsible for lipid A biosynthesis in M. catarrhalis have been elucidated. By informatics, two late acyltransferase genes lpxX and lpxL responsible for lipid A biosynthesis were identified, and knockout mutants of each gene in M. catarrhalis strain O35E was constructed and named as O35ElpxX and O35ElpxL. Structural analysis of lipid A from the parental strain and derived mutants showed that O35ElpxX lacked two decanoic acids (C10:0) while O35ElpxL lacked one dodecanoic (lauric) acid (C12:0), suggesting that lpxX gene encoded decanoyl transferase and lpxL gene encoded dodecanoyl transferase. Phenotypic analysis revealed that both mutants were similar to the parental strain in their toxicity in vitro. However, the O35ElpxX was sensitive to bactericidal activity of normal human serum and hydrophobic reagents. It had a reduced growth rate in broth and an accelerated bacterial clearance at 3 h (p <0.01) or 6 h (p <0.05) after an aerosol challenge in a murine model of bacterial pulmonary clearance. Meanwhile, the O35ElpxL presented alike patterns as the parental strain except it was slightly sensitive to the hydrophobic reagents. These results indicate that these two genes, particularly lpxX, encoding late acyltransferases responsible for incorporation of the acyloxyacyl linked secondary acyl chains into the lipid A are important for biological activities of M. catarrhalis. PMID:18795947

Gao, Song; Peng, Daxin; Zhang, Wenhong; Muszy?ski, Artur; Carlson, Russell W.; Gu, Xin-Xing



Pneumonia caused by Moraxella catarrhalis in haematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Report of two cases and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Moraxella catarrhalis is a gram negative diplococcus that causes a variety of upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Patients with malignant, hematological disorders treated with intensive cytotoxic chemotherapy, and recipients of various forms of haematopoietic stem cell transplant receiving immunosuppressive agents are at high risk of developing severe infections and septic complications. Early detection of the organism and prompt treatment with appropriate antibiotics provide both resolution of the infection and prevention of further consequences. Two patients with haematopoietic stem cell transplant who developed pneumonia caused by M. catarrhalis at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Riyadh are reported and the literature is reviewed. To our knowledge, these are the first case reports of M. catarrhalis pneumonia in haematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. PMID:21503215

Al-Anazi, KA; Al-Fraih, FA; Chaudhri, NA; Al-Mohareb, FI



Late acyltransferase genes lpxX and lpxL jointly contribute to the biological activities of Moraxella catarrhalis  

PubMed Central

Lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) is a major surface component and virulence factor of the human respiratory pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis. Two late acyltransferase genes, lpxX and lpxL, have been identified involved in the incorporation of acyloxyacyl-linked secondary acyl chains into lipid A during M. catarrhalis LOS biosynthesis. In this study, a double mutant with a deletion of both the lpxX and lpxL genes in M. catarrhalis strain O35E was constructed and named O35ElpxXL. Structural analysis of lipid A showed that the O35ElpxXL mutant lacked two decanoic acids (10?:?0) and one dodecanoic (lauric) acid (12?:?0). In comparison with the O35E parental strain and the single mutants O35ElpxX and O35ElpxL, the double mutant O35ElpxXL displayed prominently decreased endotoxin content, reduced resistance to normal human serum and accelerated bacterial clearance at 0, 3 and 6 h after an aerosol challenge in a mouse model of bacterial pulmonary clearance. These results indicate that these two genes encoding late acyltransferases responsible for lipid A biosynthesis jointly contribute to the biological activities and pathogenicity of M. catarrhalis. The double mutant O35ElpxXL with dramatically reduced toxicity is proposed as a potential vaccine candidate against M. catarrhalis infections for further investigation. PMID:23475908

Gao, Song; Peng, Daxin; Zhang, Wenhong; Muszy?ski, Artur; Carlson, Russell W.



Outer membrane porin M35 of Moraxella catarrhalis mediates susceptibility to aminopenicillins  

PubMed Central

Background The outer membrane protein M35 is a conserved porin of type 1 strains of the respiratory pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis. It was previously shown that M35 is involved in the uptake of essential nutrients required for bacterial growth and for nasal colonization in mice. The aim of this study was (i) to characterize the potential roles of M35 in the host-pathogen interactions considering the known multifunctionality of porins and (ii) to characterize the degree of conservation in the phylogenetic older subpopulation (type 2) of M. catarrhalis. Results Isogenic m35 mutants of the type 1 strains O35E, 300 and 415 were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 15 different agents. Differences in the MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) between wild-type and mutant strains were found for eight antibiotics. For ampicillin and amoxicillin, we observed a statistically significant 2.5 to 2.9-fold MIC increase (p < 0.03) in the m35 mutants. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that human saliva contains anti-M35 IgA. Wild-type strains and their respective m35 mutants were indistinguishable with respect to the phenotypes of autoagglutination, serum resistance, iron acquisition from human lactoferrin, adherence to and invasion of respiratory tract epithelial cells, and proinflammatory stimulation of human monocytes. DNA sequencing of m35 from the phylogenetic subpopulation type 2 strain 287 revealed 94.2% and 92.8% identity on the DNA and amino acid levels, respectively, in comparison with type 1 strains. Conclusion The increase in MIC for ampicillin and amoxicillin, respectively, in the M35-deficient mutants indicates that this porin affects the outer membrane permeability for aminopenicillins in a clinically relevant manner. The presence of IgA antibodies in healthy human donors indicates that M35 is expressed in vivo and recognized as a mucosal antigen by the human host. However, immunoblot analysis of human saliva suggests the possibility of antigenic variation of immunoreactive epitopes, which warrants further analysis before M35 can be considered a potential vaccine candidate. PMID:19732412



Differential Virulence Gene Expression of Group A Streptococcus Serotype M3 in Response to Co-Culture with Moraxella catarrhalis  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus, GAS) and Moraxella catarrhalis are important colonizers and (opportunistic) pathogens of the human respiratory tract. However, current knowledge regarding colonization and pathogenic potential of these two pathogens is based on work involving single bacterial species, even though the interplay between respiratory bacterial species is increasingly important in niche occupation and the development of disease. Therefore, to further define and understand polymicrobial species interactions, we investigated whether gene expression (and hence virulence potential) of GAS would be affected upon co-culture with M. catarrhalis. For co-culture experiments, GAS and M. catarrhalis were cultured in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with 0.2% yeast extract (THY) at 37°C with 5% CO2 aeration. Each strain was grown in triplicate so that triplicate experiments could be performed. Bacterial RNA was isolated, cDNA synthesized, and microarray transcriptome expression analysis performed. We observed significantly increased (?4-fold) expression for genes playing a role in GAS virulence such as hyaluronan synthase (hasA), streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z (smeZ) and IgG endopeptidase (ideS). In contrast, significantly decreased (?4-fold) expression was observed in genes involved in energy metabolism and in 12 conserved GAS two-component regulatory systems. This study provides the first evidence that M. catarrhalis increases GAS virulence gene expression during co-culture, and again shows the importance of polymicrobial infections in directing bacterial virulence. PMID:23626831

Verhaegh, Suzanne J. C.; Flores, Anthony R.; van Belkum, Alex; Musser, James M.; Hays, John P.



The Moraxella catarrhalis Immunoglobulin D-Binding Protein MID Has Conserved Sequences and Is Regulated by a Mechanism Corresponding to Phase Variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of the Moraxella catarrhalis immunoglobulin D (IgD)-binding outer membrane protein MID and its gene was determined in 91 clinical isolates and in 7 culture collection strains. Eighty-four percent of the clinical Moraxella strains expressed MID-dependent IgD binding. The mid gene was detected in all strains as revealed by homology of the signal peptide sequence and a conserved area

Andrea Mollenkvist; Therese Nordstrom; Christer Hallden; Jens Jørgen Christensen; Arne Forsgren; Kristian Riesbeck



Role of the oligopeptide permease ABC Transporter of Moraxella catarrhalis in nutrient acquisition and persistence in the respiratory tract.  


Moraxella catarrhalis is a strict human pathogen that causes otitis media in children and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults, resulting in significant worldwide morbidity and mortality. M. catarrhalis has a growth requirement for arginine; thus, acquiring arginine is important for fitness and survival. M. catarrhalis has a putative oligopeptide permease ABC transport operon (opp) consisting of five genes (oppB, oppC, oppD, oppF, and oppA), encoding two permeases, two ATPases, and a substrate binding protein. Thermal shift assays showed that the purified recombinant substrate binding protein OppA binds to peptides 3 to 16 amino acid residues in length regardless of the amino acid composition. A mutant in which the oppBCDFA gene cluster is knocked out showed impaired growth in minimal medium where the only source of arginine came from a peptide 5 to 10 amino acid residues in length. Whether methylated arginine supports growth of M. catarrhalis is important in understanding fitness in the respiratory tract because methylated arginine is abundant in host tissues. No growth of wild-type M. catarrhalis was observed in minimal medium in which arginine was present only in methylated form, indicating that the bacterium requires l-arginine. An oppA knockout mutant showed marked impairment in its capacity to persist in the respiratory tract compared to the wild type in a mouse pulmonary clearance model. We conclude that the Opp system mediates both uptake of peptides and fitness in the respiratory tract. PMID:25156736

Jones, Megan M; Johnson, Antoinette; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Kirkham, Charmaine; Brauer, Aimee L; Malkowski, Michael G; Murphy, Timothy F



Non-susceptibility trends among Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis from community-acquired respiratory tract infections in the UK and Ireland, 1999-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis causing community-acquired respiratory tract infections in the UK and Ireland from 1999\\/ 2000 to 2006\\/07. Methods: Sentinel laboratories across the UK and Ireland contributed up to a fixed quota of isolates of defined organisms per annum. A central laboratory confirmed the isolates' identities, measured MICs by the BSAC

Ian Morrissey; Kirsty Maher; Laura Williams; Jemma Shackcloth; David Felmingham



Polymorphism of the major surface epitope of the CopB outer membrane protein of Moraxella catarrhalis.  


The CopB outer membrane protein has been considered a vaccine candidate for the prevention of infections due to Moraxella catarrhalis. Monoclonal antibody 10F3 recognizes whole cells of about 70% of clinical isolates, suggesting that this epitope is reasonably conserved. To determine whether CopB has other surface epitopes, we analyzed M. catarrhalis isolates using polyclonal sera against recombinant CopB proteins from a 10F3 positive isolate and a 10F3 negative isolate, and polyclonal sera against synthetic peptides that contained the sequence corresponding to the 10F3 epitope region of three different isolates. Extensive cross-reactivity was observed with the anti-CopB sera towards purified recombinant CopB proteins in Western blot and antigen ELISA, implying that antigenic regions common to both proteins were present. However, anti-CopB sera resembled anti-CopB peptide sera in exhibiting similar binding specificity to whole cells, segregating M. catarrhalis isolates into four CopB groups. We subsequently cloned and sequenced the copB genes from representative isolates. The deduced CopB amino acid sequences and the degree of sequence identity also demonstrated the existence of the same four CopB groups. Each of the four groups had a unique sequence in the 10F3 epitope region and a fifth group had the epitope deleted. The polymorphism of the major surface epitope prompts further consideration regarding the utility of CopB as a vaccine component as well as the design of an efficacious CopB-based vaccine to achieve broad protection against Moraxella infection. PMID:16872370

Liu, Dai-Fang; Xie, Xiaoling; Mastri, Maria G; Fortuna-Nevin, Maria; Colocillo, Christopher; Fletcher, Leah; Dilts, Deborah A; McMichael, John C; Baker, Steven M



Roles of 3-Deoxy-d-manno-2-Octulosonic Acid Transferase from Moraxella catarrhalis in Lipooligosaccharide Biosynthesis and Virulence  

PubMed Central

Lipooligosaccharide (LOS), a major outer membrane component of Moraxella catarrhalis, is a possible virulence factor in the pathogenesis of human infections caused by the organism. However, information about the roles of the oligosaccharide chain from LOS in bacterial infection remains limited. Here, a kdtA gene encoding 3-deoxy-d-manno-2-octulosonic acid (Kdo) transferase, which is responsible for adding Kdo residues to the lipid A portion of the LOS, was identified by transposon mutagenesis and construction of an isogenic kdtA mutant in strain O35E. The resulting O35EkdtA mutant produced only lipid A without any core oligosaccharide, and it was viable. Physicochemical and biological analysis revealed that the mutant was susceptible to hydrophobic reagents and a hydrophilic glycopeptide and was sensitive to bactericidal activity of normal human serum. Importantly, the mutant showed decreased toxicity by the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay, reduced adherence to human epithelial cells, and enhanced clearance in lungs and nasopharynx in a mouse aerosol challenge model. These data suggest that the oligosaccharide moiety of the LOS is important for the biological activity of the LOS and the virulence capability of the bacteria in vitro and in vivo. This study may bring new insights into novel vaccines or therapeutic interventions against M. catarrhalis infections. PMID:15972513

Peng, Daxin; Choudhury, Biswa P.; Petralia, Ronald S.; Carlson, Russell W.; Gu, Xin-Xing



Comparative analysis and supragenome modeling of twelve Moraxella catarrhalis clinical isolates  

PubMed Central

Background M. catarrhalis is a gram-negative, gamma-proteobacterium and an opportunistic human pathogen associated with otitis media (OM) and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). With direct and indirect costs for treating these conditions annually exceeding $33 billion in the United States alone, and nearly ubiquitous resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among M. catarrhalis clinical isolates, a greater understanding of this pathogen's genome and its variability among isolates is needed. Results The genomic sequences of ten geographically and phenotypically diverse clinical isolates of M. catarrhalis were determined and analyzed together with two publicly available genomes. These twelve genomes were subjected to detailed comparative and predictive analyses aimed at characterizing the supragenome and understanding the metabolic and pathogenic potential of this species. A total of 2383 gene clusters were identified, of which 1755 are core with the remaining 628 clusters unevenly distributed among the twelve isolates. These findings are consistent with the distributed genome hypothesis (DGH), which posits that the species genome possesses a far greater number of genes than any single isolate. Multiple and pair-wise whole genome alignments highlight limited chromosomal re-arrangement. Conclusions M. catarrhalis gene content and chromosomal organization data, although supportive of the DGH, show modest overall genic diversity. These findings are in stark contrast with the reported heterogeneity of the species as a whole, as wells as to other bacterial pathogens mediating OM and COPD, providing important insight into M. catarrhalis pathogenesis that will aid in the development of novel therapeutic regimens. PMID:21269504



Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in the United States in 1996–1997 respiratory season  

Microsoft Academic Search

A U.S. surveillance study of antimicrobial resistance in respiratory tract pathogens in the respiratory season (1996–1997) is reported that induced 11,368 isolates from 434 institutions in 45 states and the District of Columbia. ?-lactamase was produced by 33.4% of Haemophilus influenzae and 92.7% of Moraxella catarrhalis. Of the 9,190 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates tested, 33.5% were not susceptible to penicillin (MIC

Clyde Thornsberry; Penny Ogilvie; James Kahn; Yolanda Mauriz



Use of an Isogenic Mutant Constructed in Moraxella catarrhalis To Identify a Protective Epitope of Outer Membrane Protein B1 Defined by Monoclonal Antibody 11C6  

PubMed Central

Moraxella catarrhalis-induced otitis media continues to be a significant cause of infection in young children, prompting increased efforts at identifying effective vaccine antigens. We have previously demonstrated that M. catarrhalis expresses specific outer membrane proteins (OMPs) in response to iron limitation and that this organism can utilize transferrin and lactoferrin for in vitro growth. One of these proteins, which binds human transferrin, is OMP B1. As the human host presents a naturally iron-limited environment, proteins, like OMP B1, which are expressed in response to this nutritional stress are potential vaccine antigens. In this study, we have developed monoclonal antibody (MAb) 11C6, which reacts to a surface-exposed epitope of OMP B1 expressed by M. catarrhalis 7169. This antibody was used to clone ompB1, and sequence analysis suggested that OMP B1 is the M. catarrhalis homologue to the transferrin binding protein B described for pathogenic Neisseriaceae, Haemophilus influenzae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis. Expression of recombinant OMP B1 on the surface of Escherichia coli confers transferrin binding activity, confirming that this protein is likely involved in iron acquisition. In addition, ompB1 was used to construct an isogenic mutant in M. catarrhalis 7169. This mutant, termed 7169b12, was used as the control in bactericidal assays designed to determine if OMP B1 elicits protective antibodies. In the presence of MAb 11C6 and human complement, wild-type 7169 demonstrated a 99% decline in viability, whereas the ompB1 isogenic mutant was resistant to this bactericidal activity. Further analysis with MAb 11C6 revealed the presence of this OMP B1 epitope on 31% of the clinical isolates tested. These data suggest that OMP B1 is a potential vaccine antigen against M. catarrhalis infections. PMID:9916077

Luke, Nicole R.; Russo, Thomas A.; Luther, Neal; Campagnari, Anthony A.



A Moraxella catarrhalis two-component signal transduction system necessary for growth in liquid media affects production of two lysozyme inhibitors.  


There are a paucity of data concerning gene products that could contribute to the ability of Moraxella catarrhalis to colonize the human nasopharynx. Inactivation of a gene (mesR) encoding a predicted response regulator of a two-component signal transduction system in M. catarrhalis yielded a mutant unable to grow in liquid media. This mesR mutant also exhibited increased sensitivity to certain stressors, including polymyxin B, SDS, and hydrogen peroxide. Inactivation of the gene (mesS) encoding the predicted cognate sensor (histidine) kinase yielded a mutant with the same inability to grow in liquid media as the mesR mutant. DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR analyses indicated that several genes previously shown to be involved in the ability of M. catarrhalis to persist in the chinchilla nasopharynx were upregulated in the mesR mutant. Two other open reading frames upregulated in the mesR mutant were shown to encode small proteins (LipA and LipB) that had amino acid sequence homology to bacterial adhesins and structural homology to bacterial lysozyme inhibitors. Inactivation of both lipA and lipB did not affect the ability of M. catarrhalis O35E to attach to a human bronchial epithelial cell line in vitro. Purified recombinant LipA and LipB fusion proteins were each shown to inhibit human lysozyme activity in vitro and in saliva. A lipA lipB deletion mutant was more sensitive than the wild-type parent strain to killing by human lysozyme in the presence of human apolactoferrin. This is the first report of the production of lysozyme inhibitors by M. catarrhalis. PMID:25312959

Joslin, Stephanie N; Pybus, Christine; Labandeira-Rey, Maria; Evans, Amanda S; Attia, Ahmed S; Brautigam, Chad A; Hansen, Eric J



Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Alloiococcus otitidis in young children in the era of pneumococcal immunization, Taiwan.  


We applied a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae and detected 3 other respiratory pathogens--Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Alloiococcus otitidis--simultaneously by PCR, in the nasopharynx of 386 children aged under 5 y. S. pneumoniae was the most common pathogen carried by children in all age groups, with the rate ranging from 15.8% in children aged 3-4 y to 28.6% in children aged 2-3 y. H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis showed similar carriage rates across all the age groups. Only 2 young children (0.5%) carried A. otitidis. Higher carriage of S. pneumoniae was found in children who had not received the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). Cefotaxime non-susceptibility was high (51.4%) in S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal isolates. Serotype 6B was the most common in fully immunized carriers and also in those who received catch-up immunization. Due to low PCV7 coverage in Taiwan, the carriage of vaccine and non-vaccine serotypes of S. pneumoniae in children remains common. PMID:21892897

Janapatla, Rajendra-Prasad; Chang, Hsin-Ju; Hsu, Mei-Hua; Hsieh, Yu-Chia; Lin, Tzou-Yien; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun



Survey of Susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis Isolates to 26 Antimicrobial Agents: a Prospective U.S. Study  

PubMed Central

An antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance study of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates was performed during the winter of 1996–1997 in order to determine their susceptibilities to 5 fluoroquinolones and 21 other antimicrobial agents. Broth microdilution MICs were determined for 2,752 isolates from 51 U.S. medical centers. Of the 1,276 S. pneumoniae isolates, 64% were susceptible, 17% were intermediate, and 19% were highly resistant to penicillin. On the basis of the MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited and modal MICs, the hierarchy of the five fluoroquinolones from most to least active was grepafloxacin > sparfloxacin > levofloxacin = ciprofloxacin > ofloxacin. For S. pneumoniae isolates for which penicillin MICs were elevated, the MICs of the cephalosporins, macrolides, clindamycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were also elevated, but the MICs of the fluoroquinolones, vancomycin, and rifampin were not. The prevalence of penicillin-susceptible pneumococci varied by U.S. Bureau of the Census region (range, 44% in the East South Central region to 75% in the Pacific region). In addition, S. pneumoniae isolates from blood were significantly more susceptible to penicillin than those from respiratory, ear, or eye specimens, and pneumococci from patients ?2 years old were significantly more resistant to penicillin than those from older patients (by chi-square analysis, P < 0.05). ?-Lactamase was produced by 35% of H. influenzae isolates and 93% of M. catarrhalis isolates, resulting in increased MICs of amoxicillin and certain cephalosporins. We noted that the antimicrobial resistance patterns of S. pneumoniae isolates, which correlate with the penicillin susceptibility phenotype, vary by site of infection, age group of the patient, and geographic source of the isolate. PMID:10543737

Thornsberry, C.; Ogilvie, P. T.; Holley, H. P.; Sahm, D. F.



Ligand-bound structures of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate phosphatase from Moraxella catarrhalis reveal a water channel connecting to the active site for the second step of catalysis.  


KdsC, the third enzyme of the 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (KDO) biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes a substrate-specific reaction to hydrolyze 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate to generate a molecule of KDO and phosphate. KdsC is a phosphatase that belongs to the C0 subfamily of the HAD superfamily. To understand the molecular basis for the substrate specificity of this tetrameric enzyme, the crystal structures of KdsC from Moraxella catarrhalis (Mc-KdsC) with several combinations of ligands, namely metal ion, citrate and products, were determined. Various transition states of the enzyme have been captured in these crystal forms. The ligand-free and ligand-bound crystal forms reveal that the binding of ligands does not cause any specific conformational changes in the active site. However, the electron-density maps clearly showed that the conformation of KDO as a substrate is different from the conformation adopted by KDO when it binds as a cleaved product. Furthermore, structural evidence for the existence of an intersubunit tunnel has been reported for the first time in the C0 subfamily of enzymes. A role for this tunnel in transferring water molecules from the interior of the tetrameric structure to the active-site cleft has been proposed. At the active site, water molecules are required for the formation of a water bridge that participates as a proton shuttle during the second step of the two-step phosphoryl-transfer reaction. In addition, as the KDO biosynthesis pathway is a potential antibacterial target, pharmacophore-based virtual screening was employed to identify inhibitor molecules for the Mc-KdsC enzyme. PMID:25664734

Dhindwal, Sonali; Priyadarshini, Priyanka; Patil, Dipak N; Tapas, Satya; Kumar, Pramod; Tomar, Shailly; Kumar, Pravindra



Antimicrobial activity of innate immune molecules against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite its direct connection to the nasopharynx which harbors otitis media pathogens as part of its normal flora, the middle ear cavity is kept free of these bacteria by as yet unknown mechanisms. Respiratory mucosal epithelia, including those of the middle ear and eustachian tube, secrete antimicrobial effectors including lysozyme, lactoferrin and ? defensins-1 and -2. To elucidate the

Haa-Yung Lee; Ali Andalibi; Paul Webster; Sung-Kyun Moon; Karen Teufert; Sung-Ho Kang; Jian-Dong Li; Mitsuyoshi Nagura; Tomas Ganz; David J Lim



Outer membrane porin M35 of Moraxella catarrhalis mediates susceptibility to aminopenicillins  

E-print Network

resistance. This is particularly relevant for the treatment of acute otitis Based on our data (figure 3), currently accepted pharmakinetic/pharmcodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints for resistance

Jetter, Marion; Heiniger, Nadja; Spaniol, Violeta; Troller, Rolf; Schaller, André; Aebi, Christoph



Immunogenicity of Moraxella bovis hemolysin.  


Anti-Moraxella bovis hemolysin activity was observed in 35 cattle exposed to field infections of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). All cattle in infected herds seroconverted with respect to antihemolysin whether or not clinical IBK was noted. Cattle previously exposed to IBK possessed higher antihemolysin titers than did younger, nonexposed cattle. Antihemolysin activity was noted in bovine sera up to 7 years after exposure to IBK. Sera from experimentally infected calves were found to possess antihemolytic activity against all 33 strains of M bovis tested. Antihemolytic activity could be demonstrated in random-bred mice inoculated with whole doxycycline-treated M bovis, frozen or lyophilized whole M bovis, and membrane fractions treated with sodium lauryl sarcosinate, Triton X 100, and Triton X 100 + EDTA, but not with formalin-treated whole M bovis. PMID:2408520

Ostle, A G; Rosenbusch, R F



Rapid method for differentiating strains of Branhamella catarrhalis.  

PubMed Central

The ability of Branhamella catarrhalis to cause nosocomial infections is a matter of some controversy. The API ZYM research kit for detecting 89 enzymes was used on 49 isolates of B catarrhalis to select enzymes of potential use in differentiating clinical isolates. Twenty nine enzymes were produced by all isolates (13 strongly positive) and many of these were esterases; 16 enzymes were not detected in any isolate (40 if a more stringent criterion was used). Twenty enzymes were selected to form a prototype biotyping panel which allowed 17 different patterns of reactivity to be recognised. Of the 49, 34 isolates were confined to the three commonest patterns. Only one isolate was untypable using this panel due to lack of reactivity. A kit with these 20 substrates may be sufficiently discriminatory to be useful in the rapid study of outbreaks of infection caused by B catarrhalis. PMID:1624604

Peiris, V.; Heald, J.



Branhamella catarrhalis: an organism gaining respect as a pathogen.  

PubMed Central

Branhamella catarrhalis was formerly regarded as a common, essentially harmless inhabitant of the pharynx. This misapprehension was caused, in part, by confusion with another pharyngeal resident, Neisseria cinerea. The two organisms can now be differentiated by the positive reactions of B. catarrhalis in tests for nitrate reduction and hydrolysis of tributyrin and DNase. B. catarrhalis is currently recognized as the third most frequent cause of acute otitis media and acute sinusitis in young children. It often causes acute exacerbations of chronic bronchopulmonary disease in older or immunocompromised adults and is incriminated occasionally in meningitis, endocarditis, bacteremia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and urogenital infections. Virulence-associated factors, such as pili, capsules, outer membrane vesicles, iron acquisition proteins, histamine-synthesizing ability, resistance to the bactericidal action of normal human serum, and binding to the C1q complement component, have been identified in some strains. beta-Lactamase producing strains, first detected in 1976, have risen to approximately 75% worldwide. Thus far, however, practically all American strains of B. catarrhalis remain susceptible to alternative antibiotics. A possible selective advantage of recent isolates is their reportedly heightened tendency for adherence to oropharyngeal cells from patients with chronic bronchopulmonary disease. Images PMID:2121328

Catlin, B W



Antigenic analysis of fimbrial proteins from Moraxella bovis.  

PubMed Central

Fimbrial proteins were extracted from 15 isolates of Moraxella bovis, and antisera to each of the preparations were raised in rabbits. The antigenic relationships of the fimbriae were investigated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, tandem crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and a slide agglutination test. With all three methods there was a similar pattern of antigenic cross-reactivity among the fimbriae. The 15 isolates, together with 23 additional isolates, could be grouped into seven fimbrial serogroups. Images PMID:2891723

Moore, L J; Rutter, J M



Comparative immunochemistry of lipopolysaccharides from Branhamella catarrhalis strains.  

PubMed Central

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were extracted and purified from the type strain and from a clinical isolate of Branhamella catarrhalis. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of glucose, galactose, and glucosamine in different molar proportions in the LPS from these two isolates, whereas there was no difference between the two isolates in the ratios of ketodeoxyoctonate, phosphate, and the fatty acids C12, 3-OH-C12, and 3-OH-C11 present. Heptose or 3-OH-C14 was not detectable in either preparation. LPS from both strains appeared semirough according to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, presenting a core polysaccharide plus one repeating unit. Immunoblotting, passive hemolysis, and hemolysis inhibition assays using anti-LPS antibodies from immunized rabbits demonstrated cross-reactivity between the LPS preparations; however, antigenic dissimilarities were also found, suggesting that more than one serotype may exist. The lipid A isolated from the two LPS was serologically identical and exhibited cross-reactivity with lipid A of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The B. catarrhalis LPS were biologically active, causing lethality in D-galactosamine-sensitized C57/BL6 mice and inducing Limulus amoebocyte lysate gelation. Images PMID:1908833

Fomsgaard, J S; Fomsgaard, A; Høiby, N; Bruun, B; Galanos, C



Outbreaks of Keratoconjunctivitis in a Camel Herd Caused by a Specific Biovar of Moraxella canis?  

PubMed Central

Two tributyrin hydrolysis-negative Moraxella isolates obtained in cases of keratoconjunctivitis in Camelus dromedarius in the Canary Islands showed highest degrees of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Moraxella canis. A level of DNA relatedness to the M. canis type strain of 79% confirmed the identity of the isolates as a tributyrin hydrolysis-negative biovar of M. canis. PMID:20032257

Tejedor-Junco, María Teresa; Gutiérrez, Carlos; González, Margarita; Fernández, Ana; Wauters, Georges; De Baere, Thierry; Deschaght, Pieter; Vaneechoutte, Mario



Esterase electrophoresis: a molecular tool for studying the epidemiology of Branhamella catarrhalis nosocomial infection.  


A new epidemiologic typing method based on electrophoresis of esterases had been developed for differentiating between clinical isolates of Branhamella catarrhalis. Twenty-two epidemiologically significant strains obtained from three Chest Units, a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit and a Paediatric Unit were compared with 54 randomly selected strains and 4 reference strains, including the species type strain, ATCC 25238. Thirty-four distinct zymotypes were characterized by polyacrylamide-agarose gel electrophoresis of the 80 strains. One infrequent zymotype was found in 2 neonates and another in 2 adults with nosocomial bronchopulmonary infections, suggesting the nosocomial spread of 2 outbreak strains of B. catarrhalis. A more frequent zymotype was isolated from 3 neonates with nosocomial bronchopulmonary infection and from 2 children with nosocomial rhinopharyngitis. The remaining 12 epidemiologically significant strains were of varied zymotypes. This work demonstrates that esterase electrophoresis is a suitable, readily reproducible, stable typing system applicable to the wide range of strains found in B. catarrhalis nosocomial infections. PMID:2514110

Picard, B; Goullet, P; Denamur, E; Suermondt, G



[Role of normal microflora in the throat in inhibition of adherence of pathogenic bacteria to host cells: in vitro competitive adherence between Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum and Branhamella catarrhalis].  


Our previous study showed the occurrence of Branhamella catarrhalis (B. catarrhalis) pulmonary infections which varies seasonally. To investigate the role of normal throat microflora in this seasonal variation of the occurrence of B. catarrhalis infection, seventy seven throat cultures were done in 45 patients with chronic pulmonary diseases from January to December in 1985. The isolation rate of Corynebacterium species as normal microflora was relatively higher in summer than in winter. Therefore in vitro competitive adherence to human epithelial cells between Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum (C. pseudodiphtheriticum) and B. catarrhalis was done to examine bacterial interference. Preincubation or simultaneous incubation of C. pseudodiphtheriticum reduced the number of B. catarrhalis adherent to epithelial cells (p less than 0.02). The mean number of adherent C. pseudodiphtheriticum (average; 13.86) was higher than that (average; 1.22) of adherent B. catarrhalis. There was no antagonism in the growth on blood agar between C. pseudodiphtheriticum and B. catarrhalis. These findings suggest Corynebacterium species as normal throat microflora may interfere the adherence of B. catarrhalis to human epithelial cells and may protect against colonization and infection with B. catarrhalis. Bacterial interference of Corynebacterium species may be associated with the low occurrence of B. catarrhalis pulmonary infections in summer. PMID:2501428

Rikitomi, N; Akiyama, M; Matsumoto, K



The metabolism of benzoate by Moraxella species through anaerobic nitrate respiration. Evidence for a reductive pathway.  

PubMed Central

Moraxella sp. isolated from soil grows anaerobically on benzoate by nitrate respiration; nitrate or nitrite are obligatory electron acceptors, being reduced to molecular N2 during the catabolism of the substrate. This bacterium also grows aerobically on benzoate. 2. Aerobically, benzoate is metabolized by ortho cleavage of catechol followed by the beta-oxoadipate pathway. 3. Cells of Moraxella grown anaerobically on benzoate are devoid of ortho and meta cleavage enzymes; cyclohexanecarboxylate and 2-hydroxycyclohexanecarboxylate were detected in the anaerobic culture fluid. 4. [ring-U-14C]Benzoate, incubated anaerobically with cells in nitrate-phosphate buffer, gave rise to labelled 2-hydroxycyclohexanecarboxylate and adipate. When [carboxy-14C]benzoate was used, 2-hydroxycyclohexanecarboxylate was radioactive but the adipate was not labelled. A decarboxylation reaction intervenes at some stage between these two metabolites. 5. The anaerobic metabolism of benzoate by Moraxella sp. through nitrate respiration takes place by the reductive pathway (Dutton & Evans, 1969). Hydrogenation of the aromatic ring probably occurs via cyclohexa-2,5-dienecarboxylate and cyclohex-1-enecarboxylate to give cyclohexanecarboxylate. The biochemistry of this reductive process remains unclear. 6. CoA thiol esterification of cyclohexanecarboxylate followed by beta-oxidation via the unsaturated and hydroxy esters, would afford 2-oxocyclohexanecarboxylate. Subsequent events in the Moraxella culture differ from those occurring with Rhodopseudomonas palustris; decarboxylation precedes hydrolytic cleavage of the alicyclic ring to produce adipate in the former, whereas in the latter the keto ester undergoes direct hydrolytic fission to pimelate. PMID:1156389

Williams, R J; Evans, W C



Septic Arthritis Due to Moraxella osloensis in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)  

PubMed Central

A 5.5-y-old Chinese-origin female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral hindlimb lameness. The primate had been group-reared in an SPF breeding colony and was seronegative for Macacine herpesvirus 1, SIV, simian retrovirus type D, and simian T-lymphotropic virus. The macaque's previous medical history included multiple occasions of swelling in the left tarsus, and trauma to the right arm and bilateral hands. In addition, the macaque had experienced osteomyelitis of the left distal tibia and rupture of the right cranial cruciate ligament that had been surgically repaired. Abnormal physical examination findings on presentation included a thin body condition, mild dehydration, and bilaterally swollen stifles that were warm to the touch, with the right stifle more severely affected. Mild instability in the left stifle was noted, and decreased range of motion and muscle atrophy were present bilaterally. Hematologic findings included marked neutrophilia and lymphopenia and moderate anemia. Arthrocentesis and culture of joint fluid revealed Moraxella-like organisms. Treatment with enrofloxacin was initiated empirically and subsequently switched to cephalexin, which over time alleviated the joint swelling and inflammation. Definitive diagnosis of Moraxella osloensis septic arthritis was made through isolation of the organism and sequencing of the 16S rDNA region. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of Moraxella osloensis septic arthritis in a rhesus macaque. PMID:24326229

Wren, Melissa A; Caskey, John R; Liu, David X; Embers, Monica E



Isolation, purification and spectrometric analysis of PSP toxins from moraxella sp., a bacterium associated with a toxic dinoflagellate  

SciTech Connect

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a seafood intoxication syndrome caused by the injestion of shellfish contaminated with toxins produced by algae known as dinoflagellates. The PSP toxins, saxitoxin and its derivatives, act to block voltage-dependent sodium channels and can cause paralysis and even death at higher doses. It is well documented that bacteria coexist with many harmful or toxic algal species, though the exact nature of the association in relation to toxin production is unknown. Recently, the bacterium Moraxella sp. was isolated from the PSP toxin producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. Through HPLC analysis and saxitoxin receptor binding assays performed on crude bacterial extracts, it appears that Moraxella sp. is capable of producing saxitoxin and several of its derivatives. However, physical confirmation (e.g. mass spectrometry) of these results is still needed.

Boyce, S.D.; Doucette, G.J.



Point prevalence of infection with Mycoplasma bovoculi and Moraxella spp. in cattle at different stages of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.  


Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) has significant economic consequences and a detrimental impact on animal welfare. Although Moraxella (Mor.)?bovis is the primary causative agent, the role of other bacteria, such as Mor.?ovis, Mor.?bovoculi and Mycoplasma (Myc.)?bovoculi, is not well understood. To assess the prevalence of infection with these organisms, and to correlate this with outbreaks of IBK, conjunctival samples from four herds of cattle in Germany of differing IBK status were examined. Herds were selected to represent a hypothetical course of IBK ranging from the pre-outbreak stage (herd 1), to the acute disease stage (herd 2), to a stage where treatment had ceased (herd 3). Unaffected animals were also included (herd 4). To facilitate effective, sensitive sample analysis, a new real-time PCR for Myc.?bovoculi was developed and used in concert with established real-time PCR protocols for Myc.?bovis and Moraxella spp. Herds 1 and 2 showed similarly high rates of detection for Myc.?bovoculi (92.5% and 84.0%, respectively), whereas herds 3 and 4 had a lower prevalence (35.5% and 26.2%, respectively). Mor.?bovis and Mor.?ovis were more prevalent in herd 1 (32.5% and 87.5%, respectively) and herd 2 (38% and 58%, respectively) than herd 3 (10.4% and 1.3%, respectively) and herd 4 (9.8% and 31.1%, respectively). Mor.?bovoculi was the only pathogen that correlated with clinical signs of IBK; at 20% prevalence, it was almost exclusively detected in herd 2. The results indicate that herds with high Myc.?bovoculi prevalence are more predisposed to outbreaks of IBK, possibly due to a synergistic interaction with Moraxella spp. PMID:25475168

Schnee, Christiane; Heller, Martin; Schubert, Evelyn; Sachse, Konrad



Randomized blinded challenge study to assess association between Moraxella bovoculi and Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis in dairy calves.  


The objective of this study was to evaluate if Moraxella bovoculi was associated with Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) using a corneal scarification model in calves. A 3-arm single-eye block-randomized and blinded challenge study was designed as follows: corneal scarification only, corneal scarification and inoculation with M. bovoculi (ATCC strain: BAA-1259; origin: CA) and corneal scarification and inoculation with Moraxella bovis (strain Epp63-300; origin: NADC). The study was conducted in 3 replicates of 10-12 animals housed in individual pens with no nose-to-nose contact. Calves were enrolled after an ophthalmologist confirmed the absence of corneal, conjunctival, and eyelid abnormalities. Calves were scarified and inoculated in one randomly selected eye, then observed for the primary outcome of interest (corneal ulcers) until euthanized 10 days following scarification. Research group members assessing the outcome were blind to allocation status. The study was approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Of 36 animals purchased for the study, 5 were excluded prior to enrollment due to ophthalmic abnormalities. Of the 31 enrolled calves, 9/10 (90%) of M. bovis calves, 0/10 (0%) of M. bovoculi calves and 1/11 (9%) of control calves developed corneal ulcerations consistent with IBK in the scarified eyes. The absence of corneal ulcerations in M. bovoculi BAA-1259 inoculated calves suggests it is not a causal organism for IBK in this model and the pathogenicity of this ATCC strain has not been established. Consistent corneal ulceration development in the M. bovis inoculated group demonstrates the ability of the model to induce IBK ulcers. PMID:23452750

Gould, S; Dewell, R; Tofflemire, K; Whitley, R D; Millman, S T; Opriessnig, T; Rosenbusch, R; Trujillo, J; O'Connor, A M



Amino acid sequence homology between Piv, an essential protein in site-specific DNA inversion in Moraxella lacunata, and transposases of an unusual family of insertion elements.  

PubMed Central

Deletion analysis of the subcloned DNA inversion region of Moraxella lacunata indicates that Piv is the only M. lacunata-encoded factor required for site-specific inversion of the tfpQ/tfpI pilin segment. The predicted amino acid sequence of Piv shows significant homology solely with the transposases/integrases of a family of insertion sequence elements, suggesting that Piv is a novel site-specific recombinase. Images PMID:8021196

Lenich, A G; Glasgow, A C



Development of the radiation-resistant strain of Moraxella osloensis and effect of penicillin G on its growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of repeated exposures to ?-radiation with intervening outgrowth of survivors was used to develop radioresistant cultures of Moraxella osloensis that have been recognized as potential pathogenic microorganism. The D10 value of the radiation-resistant strain, 5.903±0.006 kGy, was increased by four-fold compared to the parent wild-type strain, 1.637±0.004 kGy. Since most strains of M. osloensis are sensitive to penicillin, we have surveyed the sensitivity of radiation-resistant strain to this antibiotic. When the optical density was monitored after the addition of penicillin G, the radioresistant strain appeared to be more resistant to only a low concentration of penicillin G (0.5 U/ml) than the parent strain. Interestingly, however, there was no apparent difference in the number of viable cells between both strains. Scanning electron microscope data showed that the resistance cells were generally larger than the parent cells, suggesting that this increase in size may cause a higher optical density of radioresistant cells. In conclusion, radiation mutation does not affect the penicillin resistance of M. osloensis.

Lim, Sangyong; Yun, Hyejeong; Joe, Minho; Kim, Dongho



Ocular immune responses in steers following intranasal vaccination with recombinant Moraxella bovis cytotoxin adjuvanted with polyacrylic acid.  


Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) caused by Moraxella bovis is the most common eye disease of cattle. The pathogenesis of M. bovis requires the expression of pili that enable the organism to attach to the ocular surface and an RTX (repeats in the structural toxin) toxin (cytotoxin or hemolysin), which is cytotoxic to corneal epithelial cells. In this pilot study, ocular mucosal immune responses of steers were measured following intranasal (i.n.) vaccination with a recombinant M. bovis cytotoxin adjuvanted with polyacrylic acid. Beef steers were vaccinated with either 500 ?g (n = 3) or 200 ?g (n = 3) of recombinant M. bovis cytotoxin plus adjuvant. Control group steers (n = 2) were vaccinated with adjuvant alone, and all steers were given a booster on day 21. Antigen-specific tear IgA and tear IgG, tear cytotoxin-neutralizing antibody responses, and serum cytotoxin-neutralizing antibody responses were determined in samples collected prevaccination and on days 14, 28, 42, and 55. Changes in tear antigen-specific IgA levels from day 0 to days 28, 42, and 55 were significantly different between groups; however, in post hoc comparisons between individual group pairs at the tested time points, the differences were not significant. Our results suggest that i.n. vaccination of cattle with recombinant M. bovis cytotoxin adjuvanted with polyacrylic acid effects changes in ocular antigen-specific IgA concentrations. The use of intranasally administered recombinant M. bovis cytotoxin adjuvanted with polyacrylic acid could provide an alternative to parenteral vaccination of cattle for immunoprophylaxis against IBK. PMID:24334685

Angelos, John A; Edman, Judy M; Chigerwe, Munashe



Dynamics of Moraxella bovis infection and humoral immune response to bovine herpes virus type 1 during a natural outbreak of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in beef calves  

PubMed Central

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) is an acute disease caused by Moraxella bovis (Mb). Several factors may predispose animals to an IBK outbreak; one commonly observed is infection with bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1). The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of BHV-1 virus infection and its relation with clinical cases of IBK in weaned calves from a beef herd with a high prevalence of lesions caused by Mb. Sampling was carried out in six stages and included conjunctival swabs for isolating Mb as well as blood samples for identifying antibodies specific for BHV-1. A score for IBK lesions after observing each eye was determined. The findings of this study showed a high prevalence of BHV-1 virus infection (100% of animals were infected at the end of the trial); 67% of animals were culture-positive for Mb, but low rates of clinical IBK (19% of calves affected) were detected at the end of the trial. These results suggest that infection with BHV-1 did not predispose these animals to IBK, and that Mb infection produced clinical and subclinical disease in the absence of BHV-1 co-infection. PMID:22122901

Zielinski, GC; Piscitelli, HC; Descarga, C; Urbani, LA



Susceptibility patterns of bacterial isolates from hospitalised patients with respiratory tract infections (MOXIAKTIV Study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine: (i) the prevalence of resistance in current clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Klebsiella pneumoniae; (ii) the prevalence of production of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) and methicillin resistance in S. aureus; and (iii) regional differences in the prevalence of ESBL production and clonality of K. pneumoniae isolates.

Enno Jacobs; Axel Dalhoff; Gisela Korfmann



Fluoroquinolones for the treatment of respiratory tract infections other than pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A variety of bacterial species are associated with acute respiratory tract infections, including Gram-positive, Gram-negative,\\u000a and atypical pathogens. The most common pathogens include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Legionella species, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Because of cost considerations and specimen collection difficulties, primary care physicians seldom attempt to identify the\\u000a causative pathogen. As a result treatment is necessarily

Donald E. Low


Use of an Oligonucleotide Array for Laboratory Diagnosis of Bacteria Responsible for Acute Upper Respiratory Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a diagnostic array of oligonucleotide probes targeting species-specific variable regions of the genes encoding topoisomerases GyrB and ParE of respiratory bacterial pathogens. Suitable broad-range primer sequences were designed based on alignment of gyrB\\/parE sequences from nine different bacterial species. These species included Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Haemophilus influen- zae, Legionella pneumophila, Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus

Stina B. Roth; Jari Jalava; Olli Ruuskanen; Aino Ruohola; Simo Nikkari



Otitis Media: A Review, with a Focus on Alternative Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Otitis media (OM) is the accumulation of fluids in the middle ear, with or without symptoms of inflammation. The infection\\u000a is caused by dysfunction or obstruction of the eustachian tube and is most commonly diagnosed in children under the age of\\u000a two. The microbiology of OM differs, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis the most commonly isolated

L. M. T. Dicks; H. Knoetze; C. A. van Reenen



Effects of antibiotic treatment in the subset of common-cold patients who have bacteria in nasopharyngeal secretions  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground Upper-respiratory-tract infection is one of the main causes of overuse of antibiotics. We have found previously that bacteria such as Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae can be isolated from the nasopharyngeal secretions of a substantial proportion of adults with upper-respiratory-tract infections. We have assessed the efficacy of co-amoxiclav in patients with common colds but no clinical signs

L Kaiser; D Lew; B Hirschel; R Auckenthaler; A Morabia; A Heald; J Voegli; H Stalder; P Benedict; F Terrier; W Wunderli; L Matter; D Germann



Computer Analysis of Acinetobacter lwoffii (Moraxella lwoffii) and Acinetobacter anitratus (Moraxella glucidolytica) Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Adansonian analysis of 31 Acinetobacter lwofii and 8 A. anitratus strains is described. The mean S-value was 81.9 and 87.3 % for groups A. lwofii and A. anitratus, respectively. The intergroup value was 71.9 %. The computer distinguished well the Alcaligenes faecalis strains from the former two species. According to the computer analysis, Bordetella bronchiseptica is closely related to




Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

Nelson, O.D.



One third of middle ear effusions from children undergoing tympanostomy tube placement had multiple bacterial pathogens  

PubMed Central

Background Because previous studies have indicated that otitis media may be a polymicrobial disease, we prospectively analyzed middle ear effusions of children undergoing tympanostomy tube placement with multiplex polymerase chain reaction for four otopathogens. Methods Middle ear effusions from 207 children undergoing routine tympanostomy tube placement were collected and were classified by the surgeon as acute otitis media (AOM) for purulent effusions and as otitis media with effusion (OME) for non-purulent effusions. DNA was isolated from these samples and analyzed with multiplex polymerase chain reaction for Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Alloiococcus otitidis, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Results 119 (57%) of 207 patients were PCR positive for at least one of these four organisms. 36 (30%) of the positive samples indicated the presence of more than one bacterial species. Patient samples were further separated into 2 groups based on clinical presentation at the time of surgery. Samples were categorized as acute otitis media (AOM) if pus was observed behind the tympanic membrane. If no pus was present, samples were categorized as otitis media with effusion (OME). Bacteria were identified in most of the children with AOM (87%) and half the children with OME (51%, p?Moraxella catarrhalis were more frequently identified in middle ear effusions than Streptococcus pneumoniae. Conclusions Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Alloiococcus otitidis, and Moraxella catarrhalis were identified in the middle ear effusions of some patients with otitis media. Overall, we found AOM is predominantly a single organism infection and most commonly from Haemophilus influenzae. In contrast, OME infections had a more equal distribution of single organisms, polymicrobial entities, and non-bacterial agents. PMID:22741759



Bacterial etiology of otitis media with effusion; focusing on the high positivity of Alloiococcus otitidis.  


The etiology of otitis media with effusion (OME) is unclear. The bacterial analyses of middle ear effusion (MEE) in OME may reveal important information regarding its etiology. Alloiococcus otitidis, Heamophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis were investigated by using microbiologic culture and a multiplex PCR method in the middle ear fluid of 32 children (54 samples) with chronic OME. PCR yielded positive results in 18 (33.3%) middle ear effusions while culture resulted positive for 3 (5.6%). The PCR method detected A. otitidis in 10 (18.5%) specimens, H. influenzae in 7 (13%), M. catarrhalis in 4 (7.4%) and S. pneumoniae in 2 (3.7%) specimens. The multiplex PCR method enhances the detection rate significantly compared to that of the conventional culture method. A. otitidis is the most common detected pathogen in the MEE of the OME. PMID:11837388

Kalcioglu, M T; Oncel, S; Durmaz, R; Otlu, B; Miman, M C; Ozturan, O



Nasopharyngeal Microbiota in Healthy Children and Pneumonia Patients  

PubMed Central

Our study is the first to compare the nasopharyngeal microbiota of pediatric pneumonia patients and control children by 454 pyrosequencing. A distinct microbiota was associated with different pneumonia etiologies. Viral pneumonia was associated with a high abundance of the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) corresponding to Moraxella lacunata. Patients with nonviral pneumonia showed high abundances of OTUs of three typical bacterial pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae complex, Haemophilus influenzae complex, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Patients classified as having no definitive etiology harbored microbiota particularly enriched in the H. influenzae complex. We did not observe a commensal taxon specifically associated with health. The microbiota of the healthy nasopharynx was more diverse and contained a wider range of less abundant taxa. PMID:24599973

Sakwinska, Olga; Bastic Schmid, Viktoria; Berger, Bernard; Bruttin, Anne; Keitel, Kristina; Lepage, Mélissa; Moine, Deborah; Ngom Bru, Catherine; Gervaix, Alain



Antigenicity and other characteristics of Moraxella (Hemophilus) bovis  

E-print Network

. bovis. M . bovis was isolated from nir ty-two of ninty-five acute cases, The organism wes isolated from three of five c" ses when the nasal secretions were cultured . Cults. res of M. bovis were transferred seven times on proteose Neptune agar... not to exceed three hours. 12 These authors stated that the organism would maintain itself. in the eyo of a recovered. animal and. that the expulsion of the infected. nasal secretions directly into the eye of another individual would possibly transmit...

Henson, James Bond



Evaluation of pyrrolidonyl arylamidase for the identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative rods.  


To evaluate the activity of pyrrolidonyl arylamidase (PYR) for the differentiation and identification of nonfermenting gram negative rods (NFGNR), 293 isolates were tested. A 24 h culture of each test organism was prepared. From this a 108-109 cfu/mL suspension was added to 0.25 mL of sterile physiologic solution. A PYR disk was then added and the test was incubated for 30 minutes at 35-37 degrees C, at environmental atmosphere. Reading was done by adding 1 drop of cinnamaldehyde reagent. Strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Alcaligenes faecalis, Bergeyella zoohelcum, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella hinzii, Brevundimonas diminuta, Brevundimonas vesicularis, Brucella ovis, Brucella spp., Brucella suis, Burkholderia cepacia complex, Moraxella catarrhalis, Moraxella lacunata, Moraxella nonliquefaciens, Moraxella osloensis, Oligella ureolytica, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Pseudomonas mendocina, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas Vb3, Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were PYR negative. On the other hand Achromobacter piechaudii, Achromobacter denitrificans, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Burkholderia gladioli, Chryseobacterium gleum-indologenes, Comamonas testosroni, Cupriavidus pauculus, Delftia acidovorans, Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, Myroides spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Ralstonia pickettii, Rhizobium radiobacter, Shewanella spp., Sphingobacterium multivorum, Sphingobacterium spiritivorum, and Weeksella virosa were PYR positive. Finally, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Roseomonas spp., and Sphingomonas paucimobilis-parapaucimobilis were PYR variable. PYR testing should be considered as a useful tool to facilitate the identification of NFGNR. PMID:16822636

Bombicino, Karina A; Almuzara, Marisa N; Famiglietti, Angela M R; Vay, Carlos



Association Between Pathogens Detected Using Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction With Airway Inflammation in COPD at Stable State and Exacerbations  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Relationships between airway inflammation and respiratory potentially pathogenic microorganisms (PPMs) quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in subjects with COPD are unclear. Our aim was to evaluate mediators of airway inflammation and their association with PPMs in subjects with COPD at stable state and during exacerbations. METHODS: Sputum from 120 stable subjects with COPD was analyzed for bacteriology (colony-forming units; total 16S; and qPCR targeting Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae), differential cell counts, and inflammatory mediators using the Meso-Scale Discovery Platform. Subjects were classified as colonized if any PPM was identified above the threshold of detection by qPCR. Symptoms were quantified using the visual analog scale. RESULTS: At stable state, 60% of subjects were qPCR positive for H influenzae, 48% for M catarrhalis, and 28% for S pneumoniae. Elevated sputum concentrations of IL-1?, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? were detected in samples qPCR positive for either H influenzae or M catarrhalis. Bacterial loads of H influenzae positively correlated with IL-1?, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-?, and symptoms; and M catarrhalis correlated with IL-10 and TNF-?. H influenzae qPCR bacterial load was an independent predictor of sputum TNF-? and IL-1?. In 55 subjects with paired exacerbation data, qPCR bacterial load fold change at exacerbation in M catarrhalis but not H influenzae correlated to changes in sputum TNF-? and IL-1? concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: At stable state, H influenzae is associated with increased airway inflammation in COPD. The relationship between bacterial load changes of specific pathogens and airway inflammation at exacerbation and recovery warrants further investigation. PMID:25103335

Barker, Bethan L.; Haldar, Koirobi; Patel, Hemu; Pavord, Ian D.; Barer, Michael R.; Brightling, Christopher E.



Comparative in vitro activity of gemifloxacin against gram-positive and gram-negative clinical isolates in Argentina.  


The in vitro activity of gemifloxacin against 1,000 clinical isolates of 147 Streptococcus pneumoniae (115, penicilin susceptible; 26, intermediate penicillin-resistant and 6, penicillin-resistant), 127 Hemophilus influenzae (109, beta lactamasa non-producer; 18, beta lactamase producers), 95 Streptococcus pyogenes (6, azytromycin-resistant), 84 Moraxella catarrhalis (79, beta lactamase producers), 110 Staphilococcus aureus (89, methicillin-susceptible; 21, methicilin-resistant), 98 Eenterococcus faecalis and 339 Enterobacteriacea, (recovered from patients with respiratory tract infection; skin and soft tissue infection and urinary tract infection), was compared with the activities of four fluorquinolones and five other antimicrobial agents. Of the quinolones tested, gemifloxacin was the most potent against Streptococcus pneumoniae, including penicillin intermediate and resistant strains. Mic(90) values obtained for gemifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and trvafloxacin were 0.03, 2, 2, 1 and 0.25 mg/L respectively. Gemifloxacin was 16 fold more potent than ciprofloxacin against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and 32 fold more potent than ciprofloxacin against Streptococcus pyogenes. When tested against Hemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Enterobacteriaceae, all the quinolones showed similar activity. Our results demonstrate that gemifloxacin has similar activity than the other quinolones tested against Gram-negative organisms and is considerably more potent against Gram-positive organisms. PMID:11576792

Lopez, H; Stepanik, D; Vilches, V; Scarano, S; Sarachian, B; Mikaelian, G; Finlay, J; Sucari, A




Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se estiman primas por inflación, a partir de su forma funcio- nal teórica en el marco del CCAPM: el producto del coeficiente de aversión relativa al riesgo por la covarianza condicional entre consumo y precios. Esta última se ha estimado a partir de un modelo GARCH bivariante para las se- ries trimestrales de consumo y precios durante

FRANCISCO ALONSO; JUAN AYUSO; Banco de España; Servicio de Estudios


Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan  

SciTech Connect

This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

Nelson, O.D.



Polymerase Chain Reaction, Bacteriologic Detection and Antibiogram of Bacteria Isolated from Otitis Media with Effusion in Children, Shiraz, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Otitis media with effusion is one of the leading causes of hearing loss in children. Effective treatment of effusion in the middle ear requires appropriate empirical treatment and characterization of responsible pathogens. Objective of the present study was to detect pathogens in clinical samples from patients with otitis media with effusion in our area and to determine the sensitivity profile of isolated organisms to commonly used antibiotics. Methods: Sixty three samples of middle ear effusion were aseptically obtained from 36 children, who had been treated up to at least two weeks before sampling. They were analyzed using standard bacteriological and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were also performed. Results: PCR analysis showed that DNA of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were present in 60 (95.2%) of the samples. The culture-positive effusion for Streptococcus Pneumoniae, HaemophilusInfluenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis was 34.9%. Almost all isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniaee were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, and none of them was sensitive to co-trimoxazole. None of H. Influenzae isolates was sensitive to erythromycin, cefixim, co-trimoxazole, ampicillin and amoxicillin. None of M. Catarrhalis isolates was sensitive to ceftriaxone, co-trimoxazole, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Conclusion: Compared with other studies using PCR method, the number of H. influenza isolates was in higher in the present study (95.2%). Antibiotic sensitivity profiles of pathogens isolated in this study were different from others. Thus, we can determine empirical antibiotic therapy based on sensitivity profile in our geographic area. PMID:23115412

Shishegar, Mahmood; Faramarzi, Abolhasan; Kazemi, Tayyebe; Bayat, Akbar; Motamedifar, Mohammad



Dominance of Haemophilus influenzae in ear discharge from Indigenous Australian children with acute otitis media with tympanic membrane perforation  

PubMed Central

Background Indigenous Australian children living in remote communities experience high rates of acute otitis media with tympanic membrane perforation (AOMwiP). Otitis media in this population is associated with dense nasopharyngeal colonization of three primary otopathogens; Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Little is known about the relative abundance of these pathogens during infection. The objective of this study was to estimate the abundance and concordance of otopathogens in ear discharge and paired nasopharyngeal swabs from children with AOMwiP (discharge of not more than 6 weeks’ duration and perforation size <2%). Methods Culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR) estimation of H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis and total bacterial load were performed on paired nasopharyngeal and ear discharge swabs from 55 Indigenous children with AOMwiP aged 3.5 – 45.6 months and resident in remote communities. Results By culture, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis were detected in 80%, 84% and 91% of nasopharyngeal swabs, and 49%, 33% and 4% of ear discharge swabs, respectively. Using qPCR, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis were detected in 82%, 82%, and 93% of nasopharyngeal swabs, and 89%, 41% and 18% of ear discharge swabs, respectively. Relative abundance of H. influenzae in ear discharge swabs was 0-68% of the total bacterial load (median 2.8%); whereas S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis relative abundances were consistently <2% of the total bacterial load. S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis abundances were significantly lower in ear discharge compared with nasopharyngeal swabs (p?=?0.001, p?catarrhalis in the nasopharynx did not predict ear discharge prevalence and abundances of these pathogens. PCR was substantially more sensitive than culture for ear discharge, and a necessary adjunct to standard microbiology. Quantitative methods are required to understand species abundance in polymicrobial infections and may be needed to measure accurately the microbiological impact of interventions and to provide a better understanding of clinical failure in these children. PMID:24099576



The prevalence of middle ear pathogens in the outer ear canal and the nasopharyngeal cavity of healthy young adults.  


Culturing middle ear fluid samples from children with chronic otitis media with effusion (OME) using standard techniques results in the isolation of bacterial species in approximately 30-50% of the cases. Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis, the classic middle ear pathogens of acute otitis media, are involved but, recently, several studies suggested Alloiococcus otitidis as an additional pathogen. In the present study, we used species-specific PCRs to establish the prevalence, in both the nasopharyngeal cavity and the outer ear, of H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, S. pneumoniae and A. otitidis. The study group consisted of 70 healthy volunteers (aged 19-22 years). The results indicate a high prevalence (>80%) of A. otitidis in the outer ear in contrast to its absence in the nasopharynx. H. influenzae was found in both the outer ear and the nasopharynx (6% and 14%, respectively), whereas S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis were found only in the nasopharynx (9% and 34%, respectively).A. otitidis, described as a fastidious organism, were able to be cultured using an optimized culture protocol, with prolonged incubation, which allowed the isolation of A. otitidis in five of the nine PCR-positive samples out of the total of ten samples tested. Given the absence of the outer ear inhabitant A. otitidis from the nasopharynx, its role in the aetiology of OME remains ambiguous because middle ear infecting organisms are considered to invade the middle ear from the nasopharynx through the Eustachian tube. PMID:19895585

De Baere, T; Vaneechoutte, M; Deschaght, P; Huyghe, J; Dhooge, I



Concurrent Assay for Four Bacterial Species Including Alloiococcus Otitidis in Middle Ear, Nasopharynx and Tonsils of Children with Otitis Media with Effusion: A Preliminary Report  

PubMed Central

Objectives To detect the prevalences of Alloiococcus otitidis, as well as Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in children with chronic otitis media with effusion (OME) and to simultaneously investigate the colonization of these bacteria in the nasopharynx and palatine tonsils of these patients. Methods The study included 34 pediatric patients with OME, and 15 controls without OME. In the study group, A. otitidis, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis were investigated in the samples obtained from middle ear effusions (MEE), nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and tonsillar swabs (TS), using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and conventional culture methods. Only the samples obtained from NPS and TS were studied with the same techniques in the control group. Results A. otitidis was isolated only in MEE and only with multiplex PCR method. A. otitidis, S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis, H. influenzae were identified in 35%, 8.8%, 8.8%, and 2.9%, respectively, in 34 MEE. A. otitidis was not isolated in NPS or TS of the study and the control groups. Conclusion The prevalence of A.otitidis is high in children with OME and A.otitidis doesn't colonize in the nasopharynx or tonsil. PMID:22737288

Ta?tan, Eren; Yücel, Mihriban; Aydo?an, Filiz; Karakoç, Esra; Arslan, Necmi; Kantekin, Yunus; Demirci, Münir



Simultaneous Assay for Four Bacterial Species Including Alloiococcus otitidis Using Multiplex-PCR in Children With Culture Negative Acute Otitis Media  

PubMed Central

Background The 3 most commonly encountered bacteria in acute otitis media (AOM) are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Conventional culture methods detect these pathogens in only 60% to 70% of cases of AOM. Alloiococcus otitidis, another potential pathogen, has often been ignored. Methods Tympanocentesis was performed in 97 children with AOM presenting with a bulging tympanic membrane (TM) producing 170 middle ear fluids (MEFs). S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, and A. otitidis were isolated in 21%, 32%, 8%, and 0% of MEFs, respectively; no otopathogen was isolated in 29% of MEFs. In nasopharyngeal cultures at the time of AOM diagnosis, 34%, 36%, 17%, and 0% and in oropharyngeal cultures, 7%, 31%, 11%, and 0% grew S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, and A. otitidis, respectively. No otopathogen was isolated in 23% of nasopharyngeal and 20% of oropharyngeal cultures. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect DNA of the 4 bacterial species in culture negative samples. Results All culture-positive MEF, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal samples tested were also multiplex-PCR positive, indicating the reliability of the method. Culture-negative samples of MEF from children with a bulging TM yielded S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, and A. otitidis DNA in 51%, 35%, 14%, and 32% of MEF, in 45%, 31%, 10%, and 9% of nasopharyngeal and in 31%, 23%, 0%, and 3% of oropharyngeal, respectively. In 9% of the cases A. otitidis DNA was found without detection of a second organism in MEF. Conclusions Conventional culture detected otopathogens in MEF of children with a bulging TM in 71%; using multiplex-PCR, otopathogens were detected in 88% of MEF (P < 0.01). Similar improved detection of otopathogens was noted with nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal cultures. PMID:20335823

Kaur, Ravinder; Adlowitz, Diana G.; Casey, Janet R.; Zeng, Mingtao; Pichichero, Michael E.



Hilos (threads) Realizado por M. Curiel  

E-print Network

Hilos (threads) Realizado por M. Curiel #12;Definiciones Un proceso es una entidad que posee 2 características importantes: - Recursos: un espacio de direcciones (programas, datos, pila y un PCB), archivos. Tiene un PC, un estado de ejecución (Listo, bloqueado, ejecutándose, etc.) y una prioridad. #12

Cardinale Villarreal, Yudith C.


Dos ensayos sobre discriminación: discriminación salarial y discriminación en acceso al empleo por origen étnico y por género  

Microsoft Academic Search

El existencia o no de la discriminación en el mercado laboral ha sido un tema difícil de analizar. Comencemos por aclarar que para los propósitos de esta investigación, discriminación es un término que aplica a grupos claramente identificables por sus características físicas, religiosas, étnicas, por sus prácticas sociales, o por cualquier otro rasgo fácilmente observable1. En principio existe discriminación si

Jaime Tenjo Galarza; Paula Herrera Idárraga




E-print Network

1 DOCUMENTA��O PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFER�NCIA EXTERNA (BRASIL) PERÍODO 2013.2 PRAZO PARA REQUERER a convalidação dos estudos concedida pela Secretaria Estadual de Educação, no Brasil. Se o Ensino Médio foi; - Certificado de Dispensa de Incorporação; - CPF; 4 - Originais (assinados e carimbados) dos seguintes



E-print Network

1 DOCUMENTA��O PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFER�NCIA EXTERNA (BRASIL) PERÍODO 2014.1 PRAZO PARA REQUERER deverá entregar a convalidação dos estudos concedida pela Secretaria Estadual de Educação, no Brasil. Se aceita) - Título de Eleitor; - Certificado de Dispensa de Incorporação; - CPF; 4 - Originais (assinados e



E-print Network

1 EDITAL COMPLETO PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFER�NCIA EXTERNA (BRASIL) PERÍODO 2014.1 PRAZO PARA deverá entregar a convalidação dos estudos concedida pela Secretaria Estadual de Educação, no Brasil. Se aceita) - Título de Eleitor; #12;2 - Certificado de Dispensa de Incorporação; - CPF; 4 - Originais



E-print Network

1 NORMAS GERAIS PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFER�NCIA EXTERNA (BRASIL) PERÍODO 2013.1 PRAZO PARA REQUERER deverá entregar a convalidação dos estudos concedida pela Secretaria Estadual de Educação, no Brasil. Se aceita) - Título de Eleitor; - Certificado de Dispensa de Incorporação; - CPF; #12;2 4 - Originais



E-print Network

1 NORMAS GERAIS PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFER�NCIA EXTERNA (BRASIL) PERÍODO 2013.2 PRAZO PARA REQUERER deverá entregar a convalidação dos estudos concedida pela Secretaria Estadual de Educação, no Brasil. Se aceita) - Título de Eleitor; - Certificado de Dispensa de Incorporação; - CPF; #12;2 4 - Originais


Comprometimento órbito-craniano por tumores malignos sinonasais: estudo por tomografia computadorizada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumores malignos das cavidades sinonasais são raros e freqüentemente diagnosticados em estágio avan- çado da doença. A extensão destes tumores para locais críticos como a órbita e o crânio gera dificuldades no tratamento destas lesões. Dez pacientes com neoplasia maligna sinonasal, sem qualquer tratamento prévio e com evidência radiológica de extensão órbito-craniana, foram estudados por tomografia computa- dorizada. Dos dez

Ana Célia Baptista; Edson Marchiori; Edson Boasquevisque; Carlos Eduardo Lassance Cabral



On the Essentiality of Lipopolysaccharide to Gram-Negative Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Lipopolysaccharide is a highly acylated saccharolipid located on the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Lipopolysaccharide is critical to maintaining the barrier function preventing the passive diffusion of hydrophobic solutes such as antibiotics and detergents into the cell. Lipopolysaccharide has been considered an essential component for outer membrane biogenesis and cell viability based on pioneering studies in the model Gram-negative organisms Escherichia coli and Salmonella. With the isolation of lipopolysaccharide-null mutants in Neisseria meningitides, Moraxella catarrhalis, and most recently in Acinetobacter baumannii, it has become increasingly apparent that lipopolysaccharide is not an essential outer membrane building block in all organisms. We suggest the accumulation of toxic intermediates, misassembly of essential outer membrane porins, and outer membrane stress response pathways that are activated by mislocalized lipopolysaccharide may collectively contribute to the observed strain-dependent essentiality of lipopolysaccharide. PMID:24148302

Zhang, Ge; Meredith, Timothy C.; Kahne, Daniel



Prediction of the Pathogens That Are the Cause of Pneumonia by the Battlefield Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Commensal organisms are frequent causes of pneumonia. However, the detection of these organisms in the airway does not mean that they are the causative pathogens; they may exist merely as colonizers. In up to 50% cases of pneumonia, the causative pathogens remain unidentified, thereby hampering targeting therapies. In speculating on the role of a commensal organism in pneumonia, we devised the battlefield hypothesis. In the “pneumonia battlefield,” the organism-to-human cell number ratio may be an index for the pathogenic role of the organism. Using real-time PCR reactions for sputum samples, we tested whether the hypothesis predicts the results of bacteriological clinical tests for 4 representative commensal organisms: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas spp., and Moraxella catarrhalis. The cutoff value for the organism-to-human cell number ratio, above which the pathogenic role of the organism was suspected, was set up for each organism using 224 sputum samples. The validity of the cutoff value was then tested in a prospective study that included 153 samples; the samples were classified into 3 groups, and each group contained 93%, 7%, and 0% of the samples from pneumonia, in which the pathogenic role of Streptococcus pneumoniae was suggested by the clinical tests. The results for Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas spp., and Moraxella catarrhalis were 100%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. The battlefield hypothesis enabled legitimate interpretation of the PCR results and predicted pneumonia in which the pathogenic role of the organism was suggested by the clinical test. The PCR reactions based on the battlefield hypothesis may help to promote targeted therapies for pneumonia. The prospective observatory study described in the current report had been registered to the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) registry before its initiation, where the UMIN is a registry approved by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). The UMIN registry number was UMIN000001118: A prospective study for the investigation of the validity of cutoff values established for the HIRA-TAN system (April 9, 2008). PMID:21909436

Hirama, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Miyazawa, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Hashikita, Giichi; Kishi, Etsuko; Tachi, Yoshimi; Takahashi, Shun; Kodama, Keiji; Egashira, Hiroshi; Yokote, Akemi; Kobayashi, Kunihiko; Nagata, Makoto; Ishii, Toshiaki; Nemoto, Manabu; Tanaka, Masahiko; Fukunaga, Koichi; Morita, Satoshi; Kanazawa, Minoru; Hagiwara, Koichi



Photodynamic therapy with water-soluble phtalocyanines against bacterial biofilms in teeth root canals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study presents the PDT with metal phthalocyanines on biofilms grown in root canals of ten representatives of the Gram-positive and the Gram-negative bacterial species and a fungus Candida albicans which cause aqute teeth infections in root canals.. The extracted human single-root teeth infected for 48 h with microorganisms in conditions to form biofilms of the above pathogens were PDT treated. The stage of biofilm formation and PDT effect of the samples of the teeth were determined by the scaning electron microscopy and with standard microbial tests. The PDT treating procedure included 10 min incubation with the respected phthalocyanine and irradiated with 660 nm Diode laser for 10 min. The most strongly antibacterial activity was achieved with zinc(II) phthalocyanine (ZnPc) against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis. The other Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans were 10-100 times more resistant than the Gram-positive species. The Gram-negative Moraxella catarrhalis and Acinetobacter baumannii were more sensitive than the enterobacteria, but eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in biofilm was insignificant. The influence of the stage of biofilm formation and the initial conditions (bacterial density, photosensitizer concentration and energy fluence of radiation) to the obtained level of inactivation of biofilms was investigated. The PDT with ZnPc photosensitizers show a powerful antimicrobial activity against the most frequent pathogens in endodontic infections and this method for inactivation of pathogens may be used with sucsses for treatment of the bacterial biofilms in the root canals.

Gergova, Raina; Georgieva, Tzvetelina; Angelov, Ivan; Mantareva, Vanya; Valkanov, Serjoga; Mitov, Ivan; Dimitrov, Slavcho



Ticarcillin/clavulanic acid: determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations against bacterial strains isolated from patients in intensive care units. Comparison with other agents.  


A total of 303 bacterial strains isolated from bronchoaspirates of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients, collected through June and December 1993, were tested for susceptibility to ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, imipenem, amikacin, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each antibiotic was determined according to the NCCLS, by means of serial dilution on microplates. The isolates, 80.8% of which were beta-lactamase producing strains, belonged to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (79 strains), Pseudomonas fluorescens (8 strains), Xanthomonas maltophila (25 strains), Escherichia coli (16 strains), Klebsiella-Enterobacter-Serratia (KES) (62 strains), Proteus spp. (15 strains), Acinetobacter spp. (22 strains), Moraxella spp. (15 strains), Bacteroides catarrhalis (8 strains), Haemophilus spp. (11 strains), Staphylococcus aureus (32 strains), Enterococcus faecalis (10 strains). The highest rate of susceptibility to ticarcillin/clavulanic acid (100%) was detected among E. faecalis (MIC 2-16 micrograms/ml), B. catarrhalis (MIC 1-4 micrograms/ml) and Haemophilus spp. (MIC 1-4 micrograms/ml). Among the non-fermenting microorganisms ticarcillin/-clavulanic acid showed good activity toward P. aeruginosa and P. fluorescens (86% and 75% respectively). It was also very active against X. maltophilia with a susceptibility of 96%. Susceptibility to the other antibiotics tested was within the range of 16% and 28%. PMID:8708742

Pasargiklian, I; Lusco, G; Paizis, G; Mascheroni, E



Impact of Experimental Human Pneumococcal Carriage on Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Densities in Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

Colonization of the nasopharynx by Streptococcus pneumoniae is a necessary precursor to pneumococcal diseases that result in morbidity and mortality worldwide. The nasopharynx is also host to other bacterial species, including the common pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. To better understand how these bacteria change in relation to pneumococcal colonization, we used species-specific quantitative PCR to examine bacterial densities in 52 subjects 7 days before, and 2, 7, and 14 days after controlled inoculation of healthy human adults with S. pneumoniae serotype 6B. Overall, 33 (63%) of subjects carried S. pneumoniae post-inoculation. The baseline presence and density of S. aureus, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis were not statistically associated with likelihood of successful pneumococcal colonization at this study’s sample size, although a lower rate of pneumococcal colonization in the presence of S. aureus (7/14) was seen compared to that in the presence of H. influenzae (12/16). Among subjects colonized with pneumococci, the number also carrying either H. influenzae or S. aureus fell during the study and at 14 days post-inoculation, the proportion carrying S. aureus was significantly lower among those who were colonized with S. pneumoniae (p?=?0.008) compared to non-colonized subjects. These data on bacterial associations are the first to be reported surrounding experimental human pneumococcal colonization and show that co-colonizing effects are likely subtle rather than absolute. PMID:24915552

Shak, Joshua R.; Cremers, Amelieke J. H.; Gritzfeld, Jenna F.; de Jonge, Marien I.; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Vidal, Jorge E.; Klugman, Keith P.; Gordon, Stephen B.



Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.


Evite las enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos al comer en restaurantes  

E-print Network

Evite las enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos al comer en restaurantes Todos los días, americanos consumen alimentos y bocadillos preparados fuera del hogar por otra persona. Comer en un prácticas de higiene? Si manipulan dinero, ¿se lavan las manos antes de tocar los alimentos? Si la respuesta



Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Evaluamos retrospectivamente a 73 adultos inmunocompetentes que consultaron entre marzo de 1999 y marzo de 2004 a un centro infectológico ambulatorio por fiebre y astenia, con elevación discreta de las transaminasas y serología compatible con infección reciente por citomegalovirus (CMV). Excluimos a pacientes con antecedentes de transfusiones, adicciones e inmunodeficiencias, así como aquellos con altera- ciones hepáticas preexistentes o



Upper Respiratory Tract Microbial Communities, Acute Otitis Media Pathogens, and Antibiotic Use in Healthy and Sick Children  

PubMed Central

The composition of the upper respiratory tract microbial community may influence the risk for colonization by the acute otitis media (AOM) pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. We used culture-independent methods to describe upper respiratory tract microbial communities in healthy children and children with upper respiratory tract infection with and without concurrent AOM. Nasal swabs and data were collected in a cross-sectional study of 240 children between 6 months and 3 years of age. Swabs were cultured for S. pneumoniae, and real-time PCR was used to identify S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis. The V1-V2 16S rRNA gene regions were sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing. Microbial communities were described using a taxon-based approach. Colonization by S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis was associated with lower levels of diversity in upper respiratory tract flora. We identified commensal taxa that were negatively associated with colonization by each AOM bacterial pathogen and with AOM. The balance of these relationships differed according to the colonizing AOM pathogen and history of antibiotic use. Children with antibiotic use in the past 6 months and a greater abundance of taxa, including Lactococcus and Propionibacterium, were less likely to have AOM than healthy children (odds ratio [OR], 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25 to 0.85). Children with no antibiotic use in the past 6 months, a low abundance of Streptococcus and Haemophilus, and a high abundance of Corynebacterium and Dolosigranulum were less likely to have AOM (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.83). An increased understanding of polymicrobial interactions will facilitate the development of effective AOM prevention strategies. PMID:22752171

Laufer, Alison S.; Gent, Janneane F.; Kong, Yong; Fennie, Kristopher P.; Metlay, Joshua P.



Infección por VIH y el riesgo de cáncer

Hoja informativa que describe el mayor riesgo de ciertos tipos de cánceres que presentan las personas con infección por VIH. Dichos cánceres son el sarcoma de Kaposi, los linfomas de Hodgkin y no Hodgkin, y los cánceres de ano, de cérvix, de hígado y de pulmón. Trata también de lo que las personas con infección por VIH pueden hacer para reducir su riesgo de cáncer o para detectar temprano la enfermedad.


Human Opsonins Induced during Meningococcal Disease Recognize Outer Membrane Proteins PorA and PorB  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human opsonins directed against specific meningococcal outer membrane structures in sera obtained during meningococcal disease were quantified with a recently developed antigen-specific, opsonin-dependent phagocytosis and oxidative burst assay. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) and PorA (class 1) and PorB (class 3) proteins purified from mutants of the same strain (44\\/76; B:15:P1.7.16) were adsorbed to fluorescent beads, opsonized with acute- and convalescent-phase




System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

Nelson, O.D.



Redes Reconfigurables Controladas por Marcado: Redes de Petri con Cambios  

E-print Network

Redes Reconfigurables Controladas por Marcado: Redes de Petri con Cambios Din´amicos Estructurales a cambios din´amicos utilizando exten- siones de redes de Petri. En estudios previos, hemos introducido los siste- mas de reescritura de redes y una subclase de los mismos llamada redes reconfigurables. En un

Alpuente, María



Microsoft Academic Search

El aprendizaje del lenguaje VHDL en la Ingeniería Electrónica necesita de una constante realización práctica de ejercicios, tanto de simulación como de implementación. Por ello, este trabajo describe la metodología llevada a cabo para conseguir que el aprendizaje de este lenguaje de descripción hardware sea efectivo y rápido, especialmente en lo referido al VHDL orientado a síntesis hardware. Se han



Tese de doutorado apresentada por Juliana de Mattos Coelho Aguiar  

E-print Network

Tese de doutorado apresentada por Juliana de Mattos Coelho Aguiar Tese em co-tutela entre Avaliador tel-00982495,version1-24Apr2014 #12;Thèse de doctorat presenté par Juliana de Mattos Coelho Aguiar Sabiniano Araujo e Georgia Mattos, e Suz

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Por: Christa von Hillebrandt-Andrade Investigadora Auxiliar y Directora  

E-print Network

Por: Christa von Hillebrandt-Andrade Investigadora Auxiliar y Directora Gisela Báez, 2004, M 6.6 #12;Tsunami Océano Indico, 26 de Diciembre de 2004 #12;antes Kalutara, Sri Lanka Dec. 26, 2004 Tsunami durante Natural Color, High Resolution Quick Bird Satellite Image Digital Globe #12

Gilbes, Fernando


Discriminación salarial por género en Chile: una mirada global  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se realiza un análisis de la evolución de la discriminación salarial por género en Chile para el período 1990 y 2003, utilizando las Encuestas CASEN. Se aplica primero el método Oaxaca-Blinder y luego el de Oaxaca y Ransom, para verificar si existe una brecha salarial, conocer su magnitud y descomponer sus causas. Se corrigen las estimaciones de

Jeanette Fuentes; Amalia Palma; Rodrigo Montero



Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.  


The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. PMID:23075153

Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji



Son decenas y estn por toda Amrica Latina. Tienen en comn su amor por la ciencia y una curiosidad del tamao  

E-print Network

Son decenas y están por toda América Latina. Tienen en común su amor por la ciencia y una la Red Inter-Americana de Academias de Ciencias (IANAS, por sus siglas en inglés), la Unesco, la ONU mujeres que lideran la ciencia en América Latina Margarita Rodríguez BBC Mundo Miércoles, 16 de octubre de

Barbosa, Marcia C. B.


El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer publica nuevo atlas de mortalidad por cáncer

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI, por sus siglas en inglés) ha publicado un nuevo atlas, el Atlas de Mortalidad por Cáncer en los Estados Unidos, 1950-94, que muestra los patrones geográficos de las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer durante más de cuatro décadas, en más de 3.000 condados a lo largo del país.



E-print Network

SELECCION DEL HABITAT DE NIDIFICACION POR EL BUHO REAL (BUBO BUBO) EN NAVARRA Los conocimientosactualessobre selección de nido por el Búho Real (Bubo bubo) son extensos en lo relativo a fisionomía de los stippkd orea reprwcms (he &ntbvtiod rmge of B. bubo.] #12;SELECCION DEL HABITAT POR EL BUHO REAL Censo La

Donázar, José A.



E-print Network

DE LA CONVOCATORIA DE AYUDAS ERASMUS FINANCIADAS POR EL MINISTERIO DE EDUCACI�N, CULTURA Y DEPORTE EN convocatoria de ayudas Erasmus financiadas por el Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte en el marco del disponible en la sede electrónica del Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte un formulario que debe ser

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad


Evaluation of OPC-17116 against important pathogens that cause respiratory tract infections.  

PubMed Central

The antibacterial activity of OPC-17116, a new fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent, against important pathogens that cause respiratory tract infections was evaluated in vitro and in vivo and compared with those of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and norfloxacin. The pharmacokinetic profiles of OPC-17116 were studied in both mice and rats given the drug orally at doses of 50 and 40 mg/kg of body weight, respectively. OPC-17116 showed a high degree of distribution in the lung tissues of both species, with maximum concentrations of 29.6 and 32.0 micrograms/g, respectively. Furthermore, the drug concentrations in lung tissue were about 10 to 15 times greater than the concentrations in plasma. OPC-17116 showed potent antibacterial activity against such pathogens as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. The MICs of this compound for 90% of these organisms except methicillin-resistant S. aureus and P. aeruginosa ranged from < or = 0.006 to 0.78 microgram/ml. The in vitro antibacterial activity of OPC-17116 was reflected by the efficacy of a single oral dose against systemic bacterial infections in mice. OPC-17116 showed a superior effect against gram-positive bacteria, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis. In comparison with the other reference compounds, the efficacy of OPC-17116 was less than that of ciprofloxacin against K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa. OPC-17116 showed a greater therapeutic effect than the other drugs against experimental acute pneumonia caused by these organisms in mice or rats. This excellent therapeutic effect against respiratory tract infections may be a result of its high level of distribution in lung tissue. PMID:7840567

Wakebe, H; Imada, T; Yoneda, H; Mukai, F; Ohguro, K; Ohmori, K; Tamaoka, H; Yabuuchi, Y



Comparative analysis of the antibacterial activity of a novel peptide deformylase inhibitor, GSK1322322.  


GSK1322322 is a novel peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibitor being developed for the intravenous and oral treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia. The activity of GSK1322322 was tested against a global collection of clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae (n = 2,370), Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 115), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 947), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 617), and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 940), including strains resistant to one or more marketed antibiotics. GSK1322322 had an MIC(90) of 1 ?g/ml against M. catarrhalis and 4 ?g/ml against H. influenzae, with 88.8% of ?-lactamase-positive strains showing growth inhibition at that concentration. All S. pneumoniae strains were inhibited by ? 4 ?g/ml of GSK1322322, with an MIC(90) of 2 ?g/ml. Pre-existing resistance mechanisms did not affect its potency, as evidenced by the MIC(90) of 1 ?g/ml for penicillin, levofloxacin, and macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae. GSK1322322 was very potent against S. pyogenes strains, with an MIC(90) of 0.5 ?g/ml, irrespective of their macrolide resistance phenotype. This PDF inhibitor was also active against S. aureus strains regardless of their susceptibility to methicillin, macrolides, or levofloxacin, with an MIC(90) of 4 ?g/ml in all cases. Time-kill studies showed that GSK1322322 had bactericidal activity against S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, S. pyogenes, and S. aureus, demonstrating a ? 3-log(10) decrease in the number of CFU/ml at 4× MIC within 24 h in 29 of the 33 strains tested. Given the antibacterial potency demonstrated against this panel of organisms, GSK1322322 represents a valuable alternative therapy for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by drug-resistant pathogens. PMID:23478958

O'Dwyer, Karen; Hackel, Meredith; Hightower, Sarah; Hoban, Daryl; Bouchillon, Samuel; Qin, Donghui; Aubart, Kelly; Zalacain, Magdalena; Butler, Deborah



Impact of poor compliance with levofloxacin and moxifloxacin on respiratory tract infection antimicrobial efficacy: A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic simulation study.  


The purpose of this report was to assess the impact of poor compliance on the efficacy of levofloxacin (LFX) and moxifloxacin (MOX), two fluoroquinolones with different pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties, in respiratory infections. The fAUC0-24h and fAUC0-24h/MIC90 ratio, a PK/PD index predictive of bacterial eradication, were extracted from previously described population PK models for LFX and MOX. The MIC90 was according to EUCAST. Monte Carlo simulations were used with LFX 500mg every 24h (q24h) or every 12h (q12h), LFX 750mg q24h and MOX 400mg q24h in non-compliance scenarios to derive the proportion of patients achieving target ratios of fAUC0-24h/MIC90>33.8 for Streptococcus pneumoniae and >100 for Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis (PTA>90%). In non-adherent dosing scenarios, LFX 500mg q24h was not able to reach the PK/PD index guaranteeing clinical efficacy. With LFX 500mg q12h or 750mg q24h, this probability was maintained although patients can take the dose with delays of up to 12h and 11h, respectively, for the three bacterial types. With MOX 400mg q24h, the probability of achieving this PK/PD index is maintained with delay in dosing up to 16h. In conclusion, LFX 500mg q24h is the least robust treatment against S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis in a non-adherence situation. A good choice is LFX 500mg q12h, but in order to favour patient adherence, LFX 750mg q24h or MOX 400mg q24h appears as more appropriate. PMID:25450804

Carral, N; Lukas, J C; Oteo, I; Suarez, E



Efficacy and safety of intravenous sulbactam/ampicillin 3 g 4 times daily in Japanese adults with moderate to severe community-acquired pneumonia: A multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled study.  


Although sulbactam/ampicillin (SBT/ABPC) 3 g 4 times daily (QID) is widely used worldwide for patients with moderate to severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), the 3 g QID regimen was not available in Japan. In fact, there has been no evidence from a formal clinical study regarding the efficacy and safety of SBT/ABPC 3 g QID in these patients. We report the first results of a multicenter, unblinded, non-comparative, phase 3 study of SBT/ABPC 3 g QID in Japanese adults with moderate to severe CAP. Forty-seven subjects with moderate to severe CAP were enrolled and received SBT/ABPC 3 g QID intravenously for 3-14 days. The clinical responses assessed by the data review committee (DRC) were the primary endpoints. The secondary endpoints included the bacteriological responses assessed by the DRC. The clinical efficacy rate at the test of cure (TOC) was 94.6%. The bacterial eradication rate at TOC was 91.7%. Causative pathogens were isolated from sputum sample taken at baseline in 28 subjects (59.6%). Common causative pathogens included Streptococcus pneumoniae (14 strains), Haemophilus influenzae (9 strains), and Moraxella catarrhalis (8 strains). The clinical efficacy rate and the bacterial eradication rate at TOC of the common pathogens were, respectively, 92.3% and 90.0% in subjects with S. pneumoniae, 83.3% and 75.0% in subjects with H. influenzae, and 87.5% and 87.5% in subjects with M. catarrhalis. All treatment-related adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. SBT/ABPC 3 g QID was well tolerated and demonstrated excellent clinical and bacteriological responses. Identifier: NCT01189487. PMID:25533886

Kohno, Shigeru; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Kadota, Jun-Ichi; Niki, Yoshihito; Itamura, Rio



Erros comuns de ingls em artigos cientficos escritos por pessoas de lngua portuguesa  

E-print Network

Erros comuns de inglês em artigos científicos escritos por pessoas de língua portuguesa Siang Wun comuns de inglês em artigos científicos escritos por pessoa #12;Introdução Baseado em experiência acumulada ao longo dos anos, ao revisar artigos escritos em inglês principalmente por pessoas de língua

Song, Siang Wun


ecaloma P ecaloma Produzido por Fibras de Açaí: Relato de Dois Casos roduzido por Fibras de Açaí: Relato de Dois Casos roduzido por Fibras de Açaí: Relato de Dois Casos roduzido por Fibras de Açaí: Relato de Dois Casos roduzido por Fibras de Açaí: Relato de Dois Casos Fecal Impactation Produced by Açaí: Two Case Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

O objetivo do presente relato é mostrar que o fecaloma produzido pelas fibras de açaí (Euterpe oleracea), consumido in natura, requer conduta terapêutica diferente dos fecalomas de outra natureza, porque exige esvaziamento manual sob anestesia, e que acomete pessoas pobres da Amazônia brasileira. Daí o interesse em descrever dois casos de fecaloma produzido por fibras de açaí a partir da

Domingos N. Lamarão



Cirurgia Endoscópica Nasossinusal e da Base do Crânio Guiada por Computador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introdução: Apesar de nas últimas décadas, as cirurgias dos seios paranasais e base de crânio terem apresentado grande progresso, principalmente com o advento dos novos instrumentais, visualização endoscópica e estudos por imagem, ainda apresentam complicações de graus variáveis. A cirurgia guiada por computador (CGC), tecnologia introduzida há poucos anos, foi idealizada para auxiliar o cirurgião na localização precisa de estruturas

Aldo C. Stamm; Shirley Pignatari; Bruno B. Sebusiani; Marcos C. Galati; Sérgio Mitsuda; Rainer G. Haetinger



Determinantes del Gasto Público en Educación y Resultados del sistema educativo por Comunidades Autónomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Este trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar el gasto público en educación y sus principales determinantes por Comunidades Autónomas durante el período 2000-2004. Al mismo tiempo, trata de analizar la incidencia del mismo en términos de los resultados obtenidos por el sistema educativo en las distintas Comunidades Autónomas. ABSTRACT This paper analyzes the regional public spending in education during 2000-2004

Alfonso Utrilla de la Hoz; Carmen Mitxelena Camiruaga



La tomografía por emisión de positrones (PET\\/CT). Utilidad en oncología  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen En oncología es necesario el diagnóstico y estadificación preci- sos del paciente con cáncer, para tener resultados óptimos en su tratamiento. La tomografía por emisión de positrones (PET) tiene alto valor predictivo negativo mediante la exploración del cuerpo entero. Diagnostica la benignidad o malignidad de una neoplasia detectada por otros métodos de imagen; establece el diagnóstico de extensión previo

David Martínez-Villaseñor; Raquel Gerson-Cwilich



La Neurociencia Computacional hoy: I. Qu es y por qu es difcil su estudio Jess Corts  

E-print Network

La Neurociencia Computacional hoy: I. Qué es y por qué es difícil su estudio Jesús Cortés Institute: Neurociencia, Inteligencia Artificial. Etiquetas: Neurociencia Computacional, simulación por ordenador, procesos neurales, cerebro. La Neurociencia Computacional es una disciplina consolidada, con más de 20 años

Cortes, Jesus


Gliding Motility and Por Secretion System Genes Are Widespread among Members of the Phylum Bacteroidetes  

PubMed Central

The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, “Gramella forsetii,” Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility. PMID:23123910

Zhu, Yongtao



Comparative study of immune status to infectious agents in elderly patients with multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.  


Whereas patients with multiple myeloma (MM) have a well-documented susceptibility to infections, this has been less studied in other B-cell disorders, such as Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). We investigated the humoral immunity to 24 different pathogens in elderly patients with MM (n = 25), WM (n = 16), and MGUS (n = 18) and in age-matched controls (n = 20). Antibody titers against pneumococci, staphylococcal alpha-toxin, tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, and varicella, mumps, and rubella viruses were most depressed in MM patients, next to lowest in WM and MGUS patients, and highest in the controls. In contrast, levels of antibodies specific for staphylococcal teichoic acid, Moraxella catarrhalis, candida, aspergillus, and measles virus were similarly decreased in MM and MGUS patients. Comparable titers in all study groups were seen against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), borrelia, toxoplasma, and members of the herpesvirus family. Finally, a uniform lack of antibodies was noted against Streptococcus pyogenes, salmonella, yersinia, brucella, francisella, and herpes simplex virus type 2. To conclude, although MM patients displayed the most depressed humoral immunity, significantly decreased antibody levels were also evident in patients with WM and MGUS, particularly against Staphylococcus aureus, pneumococci, and varicella. Conversely, immunity was retained for Hib and certain herpesviruses in all study groups. PMID:21508164

Karlsson, Johanna; Andréasson, Björn; Kondori, Nahid; Erman, Evelina; Riesbeck, Kristian; Hogevik, Harriet; Wennerås, Christine



Secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (SESI-MS) breathprinting of multiple bacterial lung pathogens, a mouse model study  

PubMed Central

Bacterial pneumonia is one of the leading causes of disease-related morbidity and mortality in the world, in part because the diagnostic tools for pneumonia are slow and ineffective. To improve the diagnosis success rates and treatment outcomes for bacterial lung infections, we are exploring the use of secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (SESI-MS) breath analysis as a rapid, noninvasive method for determining the etiology of lung infections in situ. Using a murine lung infection model, we demonstrate that SESI-MS breathprints can be used to distinguish mice that are infected with one of seven lung pathogens: Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, representing the primary causes of bacterial pneumonia worldwide. After applying principal components analysis, we observed that with the first three principal components (primarily comprised of data from 14 peaks), all infections were separable via SESI-MS breathprinting (P < 0.0001). Therefore, we have shown the potential of this SESI-MS approach for rapidly detecting and identifying acute bacterial lung infections in situ via breath analysis. PMID:23519230

Zhu, Jiangjiang; Bean, Heather D.; Jiménez-Díaz, Jaime



In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activities of SM-216601, a New Broad-Spectrum Parenteral Carbapenem  

PubMed Central

SM-216601 is a novel parenteral 1?-methylcarbapenem. In agar dilution susceptibility testing, the MIC of SM-216601 for 90% of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains tested (MIC90) was 2 ?g/ml, which was comparable to those of vancomycin and linezolid. SM-216601 was also very potent against Enterococcus faecium, including vancomycin-resistant strains (MIC90 = 8 ?g/ml). SM-216601 exhibited potent activity against penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis, with MIC90s of less than 0.5 ?g/ml, and intermediate activity against Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The therapeutic efficacy of SM-216601 against experimentally induced infections in mice caused by S. aureus, E. faecium, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa reflected its in vitro activity and plasma level. Thus, SM-216601 is a promising candidate for nosocomial bacterial infections caused by a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including multiresistant pathogens. PMID:16189097

Ueda, Yutaka; Kanazawa, Katsunori; Eguchi, Ken; Takemoto, Koji; Eriguchi, Yoshiro; Sunagawa, Makoto



Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of amidine derivatives of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene as novel antibacterial agents.  


Current antibacterial chemotherapeutics are facing an alarming increase in bacterial resistance pressuring the search for novel agents that would expand the available therapeutic arsenal against resistant bacterial pathogens. In line with these efforts, a series of 9 amidine derivatives of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene were synthesized and, together with 18 previously synthesized analogs, evaluated for their relative DNA binding affinity, in vitro antibacterial activities and preliminary in vitro safety profile. Encouraging antibacterial activity of several subclasses of tested amidine derivatives against Gram-positive (including resistant MRSA, MRSE, VRE strains) and Gram-negative bacterial strains was observed. The bis-phenyl derivatives were the most antibacterially active, while compound 19 from bis-benzimidazole class exhibited the widest spectrum of activity (with MIC of 4, 2, 0.5 and ?0.25 ?g/ml against laboratory strains of Staphyloccocus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Moraxella catarrhalis, respectively and 4-32 ?g/ml against clinical isolates of sensitive and resistant S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecium) and also demonstrated the strongest DNA binding affinity (?Tm of 15.4 °C). Asymmetrically designed compounds and carboxamide-amidines were, in general, less active. Molecular docking indicated that the shape of the 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene derivatives and their ability to form multiple electrostatic and hydrogen bonds with DNA, corresponds to the binding modes of other minor-groove binders. Herein reported results encourage further investigation of this class of compounds as novel antibacterial DNA binding agents. PMID:25461312

Stoli?, Ivana; ?ip?i? Paljetak, Hana; Peri?, Mihaela; Matijaši?, Mario; Stepani?, Višnja; Verbanac, Donatella; Baji?, Miroslav



Bacterial conjunctivitis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Most cases of conjunctivitis in adults are probably due to viral infection, but children are more likely to develop bacterial conjunctivitis than they are viral forms. The main bacterial pathogens are Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults and children, and Moraxella catarrhalis in children. Contact lens wearers may be more likely to develop gram-negative infections. Bacterial keratitis occurs in up to 30 per 100,000 contact lens wearers. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of empirical treatment in adults and children with suspected bacterial conjunctivitis? What are the effects of treatment in adults and children with bacteriologically confirmed bacterial conjunctivitis? What are the effects of treatment in adults and children with clinically confirmed gonococcal conjunctivitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 40 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: ocular decongestants; oral antibiotics; parenteral antibiotics; saline; topical antibiotics; and warm compresses. PMID:21718563



Bacterial conjunctivitis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Most cases of conjunctivitis in adults are probably due to viral infection, but children are more likely to develop bacterial conjunctivitis than they are viral forms. The main bacterial pathogens are Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults and children, and Moraxella catarrhalis in children. Contact lens wearers may be more likely to develop gram-negative infections. Bacterial keratitis occurs in up to 30 per 100,000 contact lens wearers. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of empirical treatment in adults and children with suspected bacterial conjunctivitis? What are the effects of treatment in adults and children with bacteriologically confirmed bacterial conjunctivitis? What are the effects of treatment in adults and children with clinically confirmed gonococcal conjunctivitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 44 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: ocular decongestants, oral antibiotics, parenteral antibiotics, saline, topical antibiotics, and warm compresses. PMID:22348418



Novel ureas and thioureas of 15-membered azalides with antibacterial activity against key respiratory pathogens.  


The new ureas and thioureas of 15-membered azalides, N''-substituted 9a-(N'-carbamoyl-gamma-aminopropyl) (4), 9a-(N'-thiocarbamoyl-gamma-aminopropyl) (6), 9a-[N'-(beta-cyanoethyl)-N'-(carbamoyl-gamma-aminopropyl)] (8) and 9a-[N'-(beta-cyanoethyl)-N'-(thiocarbamoyl-gamma-aminopropyl)] (10) of 9-deoxo-9-dihydro-9a-aza-9a-homoerythromycin A (2), were synthesized and structurally characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopic methods and mass spectrometry. The new compounds were evaluated in vitro against a panel of erythromycin susceptible and erythromycin-resistant gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains. These compounds displayed an excellent overall antibacterial in vitro activity against erythromycin sensitive gram-positive strains, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and good against negative strains, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae. In addition, several ureas with naphthyl substituents (4f, 4g, 4h) showed better activity in comparison to azithromycin against inducible resistant S. pyogenes. Ureas with naphthyl substituents 4g, 4h and thiourea 8h displayed moderate activity against constitutively resistant S. pneumoniae. PMID:19303171

Bukvi? Krajaci?, Mirjana; Novak, Predrag; Dumi?, Miljenko; Cindri?, Mario; Paljetak, Hana Cipci?; Kujundzi?, Nedjeljko



Use of multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of four bacterial species in middle ear effusions.  


A multiplex PCR procedure was developed for the simultaneous detection of Alloiococcus otitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in middle ear effusions (MEEs) from patients with chronic otitis media with effusion. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was chosen as the target, and the procedure used one common lower primer and four species-specific upper primers. The reaction was optimized by changing the primer concentrations to yield equal amounts of amplification products. The specificity of the reaction was verified with various bacterial species found in the nasopharynx. The performance of the procedure was examined with 25 MEE specimens, and the results were compared to those obtained by conventional culture methods. A detection level of 10 bacterial cells/reaction for each of the study organisms was achieved. By conventional culture methods, 8 (32%) of the specimens showed growth of one of the study organisms. In contrast, 21 (84%) of the specimens tested positive by the multiplex PCR. None of the culture-positive specimens were PCR negative, whereas three (12%) of the PCR-positive specimens tested positive for two of the four study organisms. Thus, the multiplex PCR method improves the detection rate significantly compared to that of the conventional culture method. PMID:9350746

Hendolin, P H; Markkanen, A; Ylikoski, J; Wahlfors, J J



Clinically Applicable Multiplex PCR for Four Middle Ear Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The multiplex PCR method for the detection of Alloiococcus otitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (P. H. Hendolin, A. Markkanen, J. Ylikoski, and J. J. Wahlfors, J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:2854–2858, 1997) in middle ear effusions (MEEs) was modified to be better suited for clinical use. To detect false-negative results, an internal amplification was added to the reaction, and to prevent carryover contamination, the dUTP–uracil-N-glycosidase system was incorporated into the procedure. Labor was minimized by using the heat-activatable AmpliTaq Gold polymerase in order to circumvent manual hot start and by detecting the amplification products on an automated sequencer. The performance of the improved protocol was verified with MEEs from patients with otitis media with effusion. In addition, a ligase detection reaction (LDR) was developed for confirmation of the PCR products. The modifications increased the reliability of the protocol and the hands-off time significantly. However, when two DNA extraction protocols were compared, gram-negative bacteria were detected more often in phenol-treated MEEs (94 versus 46%; P < 0.001), and gram-positive bacteria were detected more often in MEEs dissolved in sodium dodecyl sulfate-NaOH-chaotropic salt (83 versus 27%; P < 0.001). The LDR was found to be 100% specific. In all, the results demonstrate the feasibility of the rapid (7-h) multiplex PCR method for routine laboratory use. PMID:10618075

Hendolin, Panu H.; Paulin, Lars; Ylikoski, Jukka



Clinically applicable multiplex PCR for four middle ear pathogens.  


The multiplex PCR method for the detection of Alloiococcus otitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (P. H. Hendolin, A. Markkanen, J. Ylikoski, and J. J. Wahlfors, J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:2854-2858, 1997) in middle ear effusions (MEEs) was modified to be better suited for clinical use. To detect false-negative results, an internal amplification was added to the reaction, and to prevent carryover contamination, the dUTP-uracil-N-glycosidase system was incorporated into the procedure. Labor was minimized by using the heat-activatable AmpliTaq Gold polymerase in order to circumvent manual hot start and by detecting the amplification products on an automated sequencer. The performance of the improved protocol was verified with MEEs from patients with otitis media with effusion. In addition, a ligase detection reaction (LDR) was developed for confirmation of the PCR products. The modifications increased the reliability of the protocol and the hands-off time significantly. However, when two DNA extraction protocols were compared, gram-negative bacteria were detected more often in phenol-treated MEEs (94 versus 46%; P < 0.001), and gram-positive bacteria were detected more often in MEEs dissolved in sodium dodecyl sulfate-NaOH-chaotropic salt (83 versus 27%; P < 0.001). The LDR was found to be 100% specific. In all, the results demonstrate the feasibility of the rapid (7-h) multiplex PCR method for routine laboratory use. PMID:10618075

Hendolin, P H; Paulin, L; Ylikoski, J



Use of multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of four bacterial species in middle ear effusions.  

PubMed Central

A multiplex PCR procedure was developed for the simultaneous detection of Alloiococcus otitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in middle ear effusions (MEEs) from patients with chronic otitis media with effusion. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was chosen as the target, and the procedure used one common lower primer and four species-specific upper primers. The reaction was optimized by changing the primer concentrations to yield equal amounts of amplification products. The specificity of the reaction was verified with various bacterial species found in the nasopharynx. The performance of the procedure was examined with 25 MEE specimens, and the results were compared to those obtained by conventional culture methods. A detection level of 10 bacterial cells/reaction for each of the study organisms was achieved. By conventional culture methods, 8 (32%) of the specimens showed growth of one of the study organisms. In contrast, 21 (84%) of the specimens tested positive by the multiplex PCR. None of the culture-positive specimens were PCR negative, whereas three (12%) of the PCR-positive specimens tested positive for two of the four study organisms. Thus, the multiplex PCR method improves the detection rate significantly compared to that of the conventional culture method. PMID:9350746

Hendolin, P H; Markkanen, A; Ylikoski, J; Wahlfors, J J



Antimicrobial activity of preparation Bioaron C.  


The antimicrobial activity of sirupus Bioaron C, a preparation, whose main ingredient is an extract from the leaves of Aloe arborescens, was tested against different microorganisms isolated from patients with upper respiratory tract infections. The experiments were performed on 40 strains: 20 strains of anaerobic bacteria, 13 strains of aerobic bacteria and 7 strains of yeast-like fungi from the genus Candida and on 18 reference strains (ATCC). The antimicrobial activity of Bioaron C (MBC and MFC) was determined at undiluted concentration. Bioaron C proved to be very effective against the microorganisms causing infections. At the concentration recommended by the producer, the preparation showed biocidal activity (MBC, MFC) against the strains of the pathogenic microorganisms, which cause respiratory infections most frequently, including, among others, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Parvimonas micra, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus anginosus, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, already after 15 min. The MIC of Bioaron C against most of the tested microorganisms was 5 to 100 times lower than the usually applied concentration. The great antimicrobial activity means that the preparation may be used in the prevention and treatment of infections of the upper respiratory tract. Bioaron C may be an alternative or complement to classical therapy, especially in children. PMID:25362808

Gawron-Gzella, Anne; Michalak, Anna; K?dzia, Anna



Helichrysum arenarium subsp. arenarium: phenolic composition and antibacterial activity against lower respiratory tract pathogens.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic content and antibacterial activity of the methanol extract from Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench subsp. arenarium inflorescences against lower respiratory tract pathogens (standard strains and clinical isolates). The extract was characterised by a total phenolic content of 160.17 mg/g. Several caffeic acid conjugates (chlorogenic acid and dicaffeoylquinic acids) and flavonoids (apigenin, naringenin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside and naringenin-O-hexosides) were identified as major constituents by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 was more susceptible to Helichrysum extract than Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619 (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] = 0.62  and 1.25 mg/mL, respectively). The extract exhibited similar antibacterial effects against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae clinical isolates (MIC = 2.5 mg/mL) displaying a higher activity against ampicillin-resistant Moraxella catarrhalis isolate (MIC = 0.15 mg/mL). The combination with ciprofloxacin exhibited additivity against both standard strains (fractional inhibitory concentration [FIC] index = 0.75 and 0.73) and S. aureus isolates (FIC index = 0.62) and synergy against S. pneumoniae isolates (FIC index = 0.5). PMID:24931335

Gradinaru, Adina C; Silion, Mihaela; Trifan, Adriana; Miron, Anca; Aprotosoaie, Ana C



NB2001, a Novel Antibacterial Agent with Broad-Spectrum Activity and Enhanced Potency against ?-Lactamase-Producing Strains  

PubMed Central

Enzyme-catalyzed therapeutic activation (ECTA) is a novel prodrug strategy to overcome drug resistance resulting from enzyme overexpression. ?-Lactamase overexpression is a common mechanism of bacterial resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics. We present here the results for one of the ?-lactamase ECTA compounds, NB2001, which consists of the antibacterial agent triclosan in a prodrug form with a cephalosporin scaffold. Unlike conventional ?-lactam antibiotics, where hydrolysis of the ?-lactam ring inactivates the antibiotic, hydrolysis of NB2001 by ?-lactamase releases triclosan. Evidence supporting the proposed mechanism is as follows. (i) NB2001 is a substrate for TEM-1 ?-lactamase, forming triclosan with a second-order rate constant (kcat/Km) of greater than 77,000 M?1 s?1. (ii) Triclosan is detected in NB2001-treated, ?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli but not in E. coli that does not express ?-lactamase. (iii) NB2001 activity against ?-lactamase-producing E. coli is decreased in the presence of the ?-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid. NB2001 was similar to or more potent than reference antibiotics against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae. NB2001 is also active against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter cloacae. The results indicate that NB2001 is a potent, broad-spectrum antibacterial agent and demonstrate the potential of ECTA in overcoming ?-lactamase-mediated resistance. PMID:11959554

Li, Qing; Lee, Jean Y.; Castillo, Rosario; Hixon, Mark S.; Pujol, Catherine; Doppalapudi, Venkata Ramana; Shepard, H. Michael; Wahl, Geoffrey M.; Lobl, Thomas J.; Chan, Ming Fai



[Usefulness and limit of Gram staining smear examination].  


Gram staining is one of the most simple and inexpensive methods for the rapid diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infections. It yields results much faster than culture, and provides important data for the patient's treatment and prognosis. However, a difference exists in the quality and quantity of information yielded by Gram staining smears based on the experience and knowledge of those conducting the tests. Therefore, a risk of misdiagnosis based on the information obtained from Gram staining smears is also present. The Gram staining conditions and morphology of bacteria sometimes change due to antimicrobial therapy. Species of Gram-negative rods sometimes become filamentous and pleomorphic. Gram-positive bacteria may become gram variable (change in staining condition) after antimicrobial therapy. Even bacteria that are easy to mis-identify exist, because the morphology of bacteria may be similar. Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive diplococcus, forming Gram-positive clustered cocci in specimens from blood culture bottles, resembling Streptococcus pneumoniae. Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative diplococcus in sputum, resembling Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis. Pasteurella multocida is a small-sized, Gram-negative short rod in the sputum, resembling Haemophilus influenzae. Prevotella intermedia is a small-sized, Gram-negative short rod in sputum, resembling Haemophilus influenzae. Capnocytophaga sp. is a Gram-negative fusiform (thin needle shape) rod present in clinical specimens, resembling Fusobacterium nucleatum. PMID:20560458

Nagata, Kuniaki; Mino, Hirotoshi; Yoshida, Shunsuke



The antimicrobial activity of fruits from some cultivar varieties of Rubus idaeus and Rubus occidentalis.  


Raspberries, derived from different cultivar varieties, are a popular ingredient of everyday diet, and their biological activity is a point of interest for researchers. The ethanol-water extracts from four varieties of red (Rubus idaeus'Ljulin', 'Veten', 'Poranna Rosa') and black (Rubus occidentalis'Litacz') raspberries were evaluated in the range of their antimicrobial properties as well as phenolic content - sanguiin H-6, free ellagic acid and anthocyanins. The antimicrobial assay was performed with the use of fifteen strains of bacteria, both Gram-negative and Gram-positive. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts varied and depended on the analysed strain of bacteria and cultivar variety, with the exception of Helicobacter pylori, towards which the extracts displayed the same growth inhibiting activity. Two human pathogens Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Moraxella catarrhalis proved to be the most sensitive to raspberry extracts. Contrary to the extracts, sanguiin H-6 and ellagic acid were only active against eight and nine bacterial strains, respectively. The determined MIC and MBC values of both compounds were several times lower than the tested extracts. The highest sensitivity of Corynebacterium diphtheriae to extracts from both black and red raspberries may be due to its sensitivity to sanguiin H-6 and ellagic acid. PMID:25131001

Krauze-Baranowska, M; Majdan, M; Ha?asa, R; G?ód, D; Kula, M; Fecka, I; Orze?, A



[Management of COPD exacerbations: from primary care to hospitalization].  


The Société de pneumologie de langue française defines acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE COPD) as an increase in daily respiratory symptoms, basically duration ? 48h or need for treatment adjustment. Etiology of EA COPD are mainly infectious, viral (rhinovirus, influenzae or parainfluenzae virus, coronavirus, adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus) or bacterial (Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Moraxella catarrhalis). Pollutant exposure can also lead to AE COPD, such as NO2, SO2, ozone or particulates (PM10 and PM2.5). In 30% the etiology remains unknown. Differential diagnoses of AE COPD include infectious pneumonia, pneumothorax, acute heart failure and pulmonary embolism. Presences of signs of severity impose hospitalization: signs of respiratory distress, shock, acute confusion but also fragile patients, insufficient home support or absence of response to initial treatment. AE COPD treatments consist on increase in bronchodilators, chest physiotherapy, and antibiotics if sputum is frankly purulent. Systemic corticosteroids should not be systematic. Recommended dose is 0.5 mg/kg on short course (5-7 days). During hospitalization, oxygen supplementation and thromboprophylaxis could be prescribed. The main interest in non-invasive ventilation is persistent hypercapnia despite optimal medical management. During ambulatory management or hospitalization, clinical assessment at 48-72 h is mandatory. PMID:25451635

Jouneau, Stéphane; Brinchault, Graziella; Desrues, Benoît



Bacterial Infection in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in 2000: a State-of-the-Art Review  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. The precise role of bacterial infection in the course and pathogenesis of COPD has been a source of controversy for decades. Chronic bacterial colonization of the lower airways contributes to airway inflammation; more research is needed to test the hypothesis that this bacterial colonization accelerates the progressive decline in lung function seen in COPD (the vicious circle hypothesis). The course of COPD is characterized by intermittent exacerbations of the disease. Studies of samples obtained by bronchoscopy with the protected specimen brush, analysis of the human immune response with appropriate immunoassays, and antibiotic trials reveal that approximately half of exacerbations are caused by bacteria. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most common causes of exacerbations, while Chlamydia pneumoniae causes a small proportion. The role of Haemophilus parainfluenzae and gram-negative bacilli remains to be established. Recent progress in studies of the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis of infection in the human respiratory tract and in vaccine development guided by such studies promises to lead to novel ways to treat and prevent bacterial infections in COPD. PMID:11292642

Sethi, Sanjay; Murphy, Timothy F.




E-print Network


Escolano, Francisco


Rev. Esp. Doc. Cient., 25, 3, 2002 267 EL SISTEMA DE REVISIN POR EXPERTOS  

E-print Network

Rev. Esp. Doc. Cient., 25, 3, 2002 267 EL SISTEMA DE REVISI�N POR EXPERTOS (PEER REVIEW): MUCHOS;Juan Miguel Campanario 268 Rev. Esp. Doc. Cient., 25, 3, 2002 Los investigadores en áreas relacionadas

Campanario, Juan Miguel


Facultade de Ciencias da Educacin Mster Universitario en Psicopedagoga por la Universidad de A Corua  

E-print Network

Facultade de Ciencias da Educación Máster Universitario en Psicopedagogía por la Universidad de Verificación Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación Universidad de A Coruña Año 2013 #12;Facultade de Ciencias da Ciencias da Educación Máster Universitario en Psicopedagogía por la Universidad de A Coruña Página 3 de 134

Fraguela, Basilio B.


Facultade de Ciencias da Educacin Mster Universitario en Didcticas Especficas por la Universidad de A Corua  

E-print Network

Facultade de Ciencias da Educación Máster Universitario en Didácticas Específicas por la A CORU�A Memoria de Verificación Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación Universidad de A Coruña Año 2013 #12;Facultade de Ciencias da Educación Máster Universitario en Didácticas Específicas por la Universidad de

Fraguela, Basilio B.


Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB  

SciTech Connect

PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP-PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction.

Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T.M. (Weill-Med); (Vanderbilt)



Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35  

PubMed Central

The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji



In silico studies of outer membrane of Neisseria meningitidis por a: its expression and immunogenic properties.  


Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis. PMID:25317403

Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva



In Silico Studies of Outer Membrane of Neisseria Meningitidis Por A: Its Expression and Immunogenic Properties  

PubMed Central

Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis. PMID:25317403

Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva



Comparação dos acidentes causados por Bothropoides jararaca (Serpentes: Viperidae) com e sem envenenamento atendidos no Hospital Vital Brazil do Instituto Butantan.  

E-print Network

??No Brasil, 90% dos acidentes por serpentes peçonhentas são causadas por Bothropsafin (Bothrops, Bothropoides, Bothriopsis, Bothrocophias e Rhinocerophis), com predominância nos meses quentes e chuvosos,… (more)

Alessandra Furtado Nicoleti



Insect Queens Sterilize Workers With Chemicals Escrito por Claudia Bringas Reyes  

E-print Network

Insect Queens Sterilize Workers With Chemicals Escrito por Claudia Bringas Reyes viernes, 17 de. Experts suggest that insects may have been using the chemicals to signal fertility for roughly 150 million these pheromones evolved could provide a window onto how social insects developed their cooperative living system

Wenseleers, Tom


Kinetic characterisation of the light-driven protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) from Thermosynechococcus elongatus.  


The light-driven enzyme NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyses the reduction of the C17-C18 double bond of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide), which is a key regulatory step in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. POR from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus is an attractive system for following the reaction and in the present work we have carried out a detailed steady state kinetic characterisation of this enzyme. The thermophilic POR was shown to have maximal activity at approximately 50 degrees C, which is similar to the growth temperature of the organism. The V(max) was calculated to be 0.53 microM min(-1) and the K(m) values for NADPH and Pchlide were 0.013 microM and 1.8 microM, respectively. The binding properties for both substrates as well as the NADP(+) product have been analysed by using fluorescence emission measurements, which have allowed the dissociation constants for binding to be calculated. These results represent the first steady state kinetic characterisation of a thermophilic version of POR. PMID:16307122

McFarlane, Michael J; Hunter, C Neil; Heyes, Derren J



The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were as substitutions for other prepositions…

Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.



La financiación de la enseñanza no universitaria en España. Un análisis por comunidades autónomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN El objetivo de este trabajo es doble: valorar la situación de la financiación de la enseñanza no universitaria en España en relación con otros países y analizar las diferencias en el gasto público en educación no universitaria por regiones. En cuanto a la descentralización del gasto público educativo no se puede hablar de una tendencia clara a nivel internacional.

Carmen Pérez Esparrells



Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

Friedrich, Daniel S.




Microsoft Academic Search

La violencia contra la pareja, especialmente la ejercida por el hombre sobre la mujer, es una de las formas más graves de violencia interpersonal, presenta una elevada prevalencia y numerosos interrogantes sobre su génesis, desarrollo y control. En la actualidad es una preocupación social que demanda una importante inversión en medidas socio-sanitarias para combatir sus efectos en las víc- timas

A. Andrés Pueyo; S. López; E. Álvarez



Chris Quigg Las revoluciones por venir en Fsica de Partculas Museo de la Ciencia Chris Quigg  

E-print Network

Chris Quigg · Las revoluciones por venir en Física de Partículas · Museo de la Ciencia Chris Quigg Ciencias Fisicas no nostenga reservadas maravillas aún más impresionantes que aquellas del pasado, parece Ciencias Físicas deberán ser buscadas en las sextas cifras decimales." Tres revoluciones de Galileo Eppur

Quigg, Chris



E-print Network

POROSOS Arlenes S. Silva 1 , Alvaro L.G.A. Coutinho 1 e Ian D. Parsons 2 1 Programa de Engenharia Civil for pressure, where the resulting system of equations is solved by a multigrid method (Briggs, 1987). In order ampla classe de problemas de computação científica, veja por exemplo (Briggs, 1987). A bibliografia

Coutinho, Alvaro L. G. A.


Consecuencias de la restricción de peso impuesta por el deporte en la infancia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractoActualmente, los competidores jóvenes emprenden programas de entrenamiento que se basan en un nivel elevado de actividad física desde una temprana edad. Este entrenamiento intensivo (volumen e intensidad) aumenta el gasto de energía, que tiene que ser compensado por una mayor ingesta nutricional. Los bailarines de ballet, los patinadores artísticos, los gimnastas o los gimnastas rítmicos comienzan a entrenar a

Nathalie Boisseau



Enmienda la Orden de Por favor Coloque Junto a Su Orden de Industria y Ocupacin de IWC Salario Mnimo General  

E-print Network

Enero de 2008. 3. ALIMENTOS Y ALBERGUE Los alimentos o albergue no se pueden acreditar contra un salario alimentos y albergue para cumplir con parte de la obligación del sueldo mínimo del empleador, las cantidades ........................................................................$626.49 por mes $668.46 por mes ALIMENTOS Desayuno

Weaver, Harold A. "Hal"


Aquisição fonológica do português brasileiro por crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e surdas usuárias de implante coclear  

PubMed Central

Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisição fonológica do Português Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crianças surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito à Libras. Para a avaliação do sistema fonológico das crianças em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomeação, do ABFW – Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e a criança surda usuária de IC com acesso irrestrito à Libras apresentaram processo de aquisição fonológica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa etária. Considera-se que a aquisição precoce e o acesso irrestrito à Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crianças no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid



Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA  

PubMed Central

Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.



Amplification of the meningococcal porB gene for non-culture serotype characterization.  


Since 1992, the proportion of culture-confirmed meningococcal infections compared with numbers of notified cases of meningococcal disease has decreased in England and Wales. As most meningococcal strain characterization methods depend on a clinical isolate, this has resulted in a loss of epidemiological information. To address this problem, and to aid nonculture diagnosis, a semi-nested PCR protocol for the amplification of the meningococcal porB gene from clinical specimens was developed. This gene encodes the meningococcal serotyping antigen; strain typing data was provided by hybridization of allele-specific oligonucleotide probes to the digoxigenin-labelled porB amplicon in a 'PCR ELISA'. This assay was specific for meningococcal DNA and sensitivities of 0.81 for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 0.57 for serum, and 0.62 for whole blood taken from patients with proven meningococcal infection were obtained. PMID:9692604

Urwin, R; Kaczmarski, E B; Guiver, M; Fox, A J; Maiden, M C



Gesto por polticas: arquitectura e aplicaes Filipe Caldeira1,2  

E-print Network

:// Palavras chave: PBN, Segurança de redes, Gestão de redes por políticas, COPS, COPS-PR, SPSL. Resumo Neste artigo é feita uma abordagem à gestão de redes baseadas em políticas focando a arquitectura PBN (Policy novos métodos de gestão de redes. Actualmente está a ser feito um grande esforço para diminuir

Monteiro, Edmundo


FUNDAMENTACIN El pdel es un deporte de cooperacin-oposicin, caracterizado por la presencia de  

E-print Network

PÁDEL FUNDAMENTACI�N El pádel es un deporte de cooperación-oposición, caracterizado por la unos adversarios que, teniendo los mismos recursos, persiguen el fin opuesto. Es un deporte que requiere de una gran técnica y estado físico y es un deporte sumamente joven practicado desde los años

Escolano, Francisco


GENE POOL -El juego de cartas del ADN por Mark Goadrich  

E-print Network

GENE POOL - El juego de cartas del ADN por Mark Goadrich Instrucciones 2 de pares de bases de vuestra mano, para modificar y reordenar una secuencia de ADN común. Sólo investigación actual) y sólo la revelaréis cuando hayais conseguido la secuencia de ADN correcta. A lo largo del

Goadrich, Mark


Pramos de Costa Rica Editado por M. Kappelle y S. P. Horn  

E-print Network

Páramos de Costa Rica Editado por M. Kappelle y S. P. Horn ISBN 9968-927-09-0 Copyright © 2005 Correo electrónico: RESUMEN. Los páramos de Costa Rica albergan 25 géneros de endémica de los páramos de Costa Rica y Panamá, lo cual sugiere que estos páramos parecen formar un

Lintilhac, Philip M.


Pramos de Costa Rica Editado por M. Kappelle y S. P. Horn  

E-print Network

Páramos de Costa Rica Editado por M. Kappelle y S. P. Horn ISBN 9968-927-09-0 Copyright © 2005, Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), 2060 San José, Costa Rica RESUMEN. En este artículo se presenta un breve resumen de los depósitos superficiales en los páramos de Costa Rica, principalmente en el Parque Nacional

Lachniet, Matthew S.


Cambie su cabeza por una importante: La ironía metafórica en Benito Fernández de Elena Garro  

E-print Network

puesto de cabezas humanas y el protagonista no tiene cabeza. Sabemos que la humanidad ha usado la cabeza-cara como elemento cultural, psicológico y social.2 Debido a la importancia del proceso genético social, las civilizaciones humanas han utilizado... influencia del cristianismo en la inhibición y castración de los individuos. La farsa o el caos parecen ser los medios adecuados para tratar este tema en la cultura mexicana, y por ende, en la civilización occidental: VICTORIA: No sabía yo que vendieran...

Rosas Lopá tegui, Patricia; Reed, James Casey



Elimination of POR expression correlates with red leaf formation in Amaranthus tricolor.  


Amaranthus tricolor L. tricolor cv. Earlysplendor, an ornamental amaranth, generates red leaves instead of green leaves in late summer to early autumn. Red leaf formation was promoted under short-day conditions and delayed by night-break treatments. Red leaves were characterized by lower levels of chlorophyll accumulation rather than higher levels of red pigment (betacyanin) accumulation. However, the metabolic activity toward the production of Mg-protoporphyrin, an intermediate in the biosynthesis pathway for chlorophyll, was detected in red leaves as well as in green leaves. RNA gel blot analysis was performed to assess the expression of nine genes encoding eight enzymes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Among these enzymes, red-leaf-specific reduction of gene expression was observed only for NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR), a key enzyme catalyzing a later step of chlorophyll biosynthesis. In addition, immunoblot analysis showed no accumulation of POR protein(s) in red leaves. These data indicate that the repression of POR gene expression and resultant loss of chlorophyll synthesis activity plays a role in red leaf formation of A. tricolor. PMID:11532173

Iwamoto, K; Fukuda, H; Sugiyama, M



Longitudinal Nasopharyngeal Carriage and Antibiotic Resistance of Respiratory Bacteria in Indigenous Australian and Alaska Native Children with Bronchiectasis  

PubMed Central

Background Indigenous children in Australia and Alaska have very high rates of chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD)/bronchiectasis. Antibiotics, including frequent or long-term azithromycin in Australia and short-term beta-lactam therapy in both countries, are often prescribed to treat these patients. In the Bronchiectasis Observational Study we examined over several years the nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of respiratory bacteria in these two PCV7-vaccinated populations. Methods Indigenous children aged 0.5–8.9 years with CSLD/bronchiectasis from remote Australia (n?=?79) and Alaska (n?=?41) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study during 2004–8. At scheduled study visits until 2010 antibiotic use in the preceding 2-weeks was recorded and nasopharyngeal swabs collected for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Analysis of respiratory bacterial carriage and antibiotic resistance was by baseline and final swabs, and total swabs by year. Results Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage changed little over time. In contrast, carriage of Haemophilus influenzae declined and Staphylococcus aureus increased (from 0% in 2005–6 to 23% in 2010 in Alaskan children); these changes were associated with increasing age. Moraxella catarrhalis carriage declined significantly in Australian, but not Alaskan, children (from 64% in 2004–6 to 11% in 2010). While beta-lactam antibiotic use was similar in the two cohorts, Australian children received more azithromycin. Macrolide resistance was significantly higher in Australian compared to Alaskan children, while H. influenzae beta-lactam resistance was higher in Alaskan children. Azithromycin use coincided significantly with reduced carriage of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, but increased carriage of S. aureus and macrolide-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae and S. aureus (proportion of carriers and all swabs), in a ‘cumulative dose-response’ relationship. Conclusions Over time, similar (possibly age-related) changes in nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage were observed in Australian and Alaskan children with CSLD/bronchiectasis. However, there were also significant frequency-dependent differences in carriage and antibiotic resistance that coincided with azithromycin use. PMID:23940582

Hare, Kim M.; Singleton, Rosalyn J.; Grimwood, Keith; Valery, Patricia C.; Cheng, Allen C.; Morris, Peter S.; Leach, Amanda J.; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C.; Chatfield, Mark; Redding, Greg; Reasonover, Alisa L.; McCallum, Gabrielle B.; Chikoyak, Lori; McDonald, Malcolm I.; Brown, Ngiare; Torzillo, Paul J.; Chang, Anne B.



Evaluation of swabbing methods for estimating the prevalence of bacterial carriage in the upper respiratory tract: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Bacterial carriage in the upper respiratory tract is usually asymptomatic but can lead to respiratory tract infection (RTI), meningitis and septicaemia. We aimed to provide a baseline measure of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis carriage within the community. Self-swabbing and healthcare professional (HCP) swabbing were compared. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Individuals registered at 20 general practitioner practices within the Wessex Primary Care Research Network South West, UK. Participants 10?448 individuals were invited to participate; 5394 within a self-swabbing group and 5054 within a HCP swabbing group. Self-swabbing invitees included 2405 individuals aged 0–4?years and 3349 individuals aged ?5?years. HCP swabbing invitees included 1908 individuals aged 0–4?years and 3146 individuals aged ?5?years. Results 1574 (15.1%) individuals participated, 1260 (23.4%, 95% CI 22.3% to 24.5%) undertaking self-swabbing and 314 (6.2%, 95% CI 5.5% to 6.9%) undertaking HCP-led swabbing. Participation was lower in young children and more deprived practice locations. Swab positivity rates were 34.8% (95% CI 32.2% to 37.4%) for self-taken nose swabs (NS), 19% (95% CI 16.8% to 21.2%) for self-taken whole mouth swabs (WMS), 25.2% (95% CI 20.4% to 30%) for nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and 33.4% (95% CI 28.2% to 38.6%) for HCP-taken WMS. Carriage rates of S. aureus were highest in NS (21.3%). S. pneumoniae carriage was highest in NS (11%) and NPS (7.4%). M. catarrhalis carriage was highest in HCP-taken WMS (28.8%). H. influenzae and P. aeruginosa carriage were similar between swab types. N. meningitidis was not detected in any swab. Age and recent RTI affected carriage of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae. Participant costs were lower for self-swabbing (£41.21) versus HCP swabbing (£69.66). Conclusions Higher participation and lower costs of self-swabbing as well as sensitivity of self-swabbing favour this method for use in large population-based respiratory carriage studies. PMID:25358677

Coughtrie, A L; Whittaker, R N; Begum, N; Anderson, R; Tuck, A; Faust, S N; Jefferies, J M; Yuen, H M; Roderick, P J; Mullee, M A; Moore, M V; Clarke, S C



Se calcula que los costos del cáncer ascenderán por lo menos a $158.000 millones en 2020

Con base en el crecimiento y en el avance de edad de la población de EE. UU., se proyecta que los gastos médicos por cáncer en el año 2020 ascenderán por lo menos a $158.000 millones (en dólares de 2010); lo que significa un aumento de 27% sobre 2010. Si los instrumentos creados últimamente para diagnosticar, tratar y seguir observando el cáncer continúan subiendo de precio, los gastos médicos por cáncer podrían ascender hasta $207.000 millones. Las proyecciones están basadas en los datos más recientes disponibles acerca de la incidencia del cáncer, de supervivencia y de costos de atención médica.



EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...


Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOUR?O, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira




Microsoft Academic Search

nios (8,4%), Planaltina-DF (8,1%), Planaltina-GO (8,0%), Formosa (5,3%), Fercal (4,1%), Denocs (2,5%), Quadra 5 (2,4%), AR 9 (2,1%), Quadra 1 (2,0%). Por estados: DF (73,8%), GO (22,3%), MG (2,7%). H· mais ocorrÍncia de acidentes ‡ noite, domingo e menos na quarta-feira com tendÍncia de aumento no inÌcio e no fim de cada mÍs. Discuss\\



Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB  

SciTech Connect

The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from inclusion bodies by denaturation in urea followed by refolding in buffered LDAO on a size-exclusion column. PorB has been crystallized in three different crystal forms: C222, R32 and P6{sub 3}. The C222 crystal form may contain either one or two PorB monomers in the asymmetric unit, while both the R32 and P6{sub 3} crystal forms contained one PorB monomer in the asymmetric unit. Of the three, the P6{sub 3} crystal form had the best diffraction quality, yielding data extending to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution.

Tanabe, Mikio; Iverson, Tina M.; (Vanderbilt)



Blendas formadas por caseína e gelatina : efeito da adição de plastificante e de agente reticulante e interações com copolímeros.  

E-print Network

??Neste trabalho foram estudados filmes formados por gelatina e caseína na presença ou ausência do plastificante sorbitol e do agente reticulante cloridrato de 1-etil-3-(3-dimetilaminopropil) carbodiimida… (more)

Cláudia Menegaz Zaccaron Cristiano



Cross-reactivity of antibodies against PorA after vaccination with a meningococcal B outer membrane vesicle vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cross-reactivity of PorA-specific antibodies induced by a monovalent P1.7-2,4 (MonoMen) and\\/or a hexavalent (HexaMen) meningococcal B outer membrane vesicle vaccine (OMV) in toddlers and school children was studied by serum bactericidal assays (SBA). First, isogenic vaccine strains and PorA-identical patient isolates were compared as a target in SBA, to ensure that the vaccine strains are representative for patient isolates.

C. L. Vermont; H. H. van Dijken; A. J. Kuipers; Limpt van C. J. P; W. C. M. Keijzers; A. van der Ende; R. de Groot; L. van Alphen; Dobbelsteen van den G. P. J. M



In Vivo and In Vitro Characterization of the Immune Stimulating Activity of the Neisserial Porin PorB  

PubMed Central

Vaccines play a vital role in modern medicine. The development of novel vaccines for emerging and resistant pathogens has been aided in recent years by the use of novel adjuvants in subunit vaccines. A deeper understanding of the molecular pathways behind adjuvanticity is required to better select immunostimulatory molecules for use in individual vaccines. To this end, we have undertaken a study of the essential signaling pathways involved in the innate and adaptive immune responses to the Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein Porin B (PorB). We have previously demonstrated that PorB is an agonist of Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) and acts as an adjuvant in vaccines for protein, carbohydrate and lipopolysaccharide antigens using murine models. Here we demonstrate NF?B translocation following stimulation with PorB only occurs in the presence of TLR2. IL-6 and TNF-? secretion was shown to be MAPK dependent. Surface expression of activation markers on macrophages, including CD40, CD69, and CD86, was increased following PorB stimulation in vitro. Interestingly, some upregulation of CD54 and CD69 was still observed in macrophages obtained from TLR2 KO mice, indicating a possible non-TLR2 mediated activation pathway induced by PorB. In a murine vaccination model, using ovalbumin as the antigen and PorB as the adjuvant, a decreased antigen-specific IgG production was observed in TLR2 KO mice; adjuvant-dependent increased IgG production was entirely ablated in MyD88 KO mice. These observations demonstrate the importance of the above pathways to the adjuvant activity of PorB. The potential TLR2 independent effect is currently being explored. PMID:24349212

Platt, Andrew; MacLeod, Heather; Massari, Paola; Liu, Xiuping; Wetzler, Lee



A multicentre trial of cefaclor advanced formulation versus cefaclor in the treatment of acute bronchitis.  


Two prospective randomized, double-blind, parallel studies were carried out in Europe to compare cefaclor advanced formulation (cefaclor AF) with cefaclor in the treatment of acute bronchitis caused by susceptible pathogens. A total of 1,321 patients suffering from acute bronchitis confirmed by clinical data and a negative chest X-ray were randomized for treatment in the two multicentre trials. Three doses of cefaclor AF were tested: 375 mg twice daily and 500 mg twice daily were compared with cefaclor 250 mg three times daily; and cefaclor AF 750 mg twice daily was compared with cefaclor 500 mg three times daily. Duration of therapy was seven days. Assessments (complete history, physical examination, sputum specimens for culture and Gram's stain, plus clinical and laboratory evaluations of safety) were carried out within 24 hours before the first dose, during therapy, within 72 hours after therapy completion and, in the 375 mg and 500 mg dose groups, 1-2 weeks after the end of therapy. There were no significant differences between the total evaluable cefaclor AF population and the total evaluable cefaclor population with regard to favourable post-therapy responses. Most favourable clinical and bacteriological response rates in the 375 and 500 mg doses were 80% or above. In the higher dose group, there was a favourable post-therapy symptomatic response in 100% of evaluable patients, with favourable bacteriological responses in 93.3% patients receiving cefaclor AF and 96.8% receiving cefaclor (no significant difference). Only one serious drug-related adverse event was reported (anaphylactic reaction). Adverse events related to the digestive system were reported by 4.7% of the cefaclor AF-treated patients and 4.5% of the cefaclor-treated patients during the entire study period. Cefaclor AF, at all three dose levels studies, was seen to be as safe as cefaclor in the treatment of acute bronchitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis. PMID:1287614

Alanis, A; Longest, K A; Senetar, J E; Dere, W H



In Vitro and In Vivo Profiles of ACH-702, an Isothiazoloquinolone, against Bacterial Pathogens?  

PubMed Central

ACH-702, a novel isothiazoloquinolone (ITQ), was assessed for antibacterial activity against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical isolates and found to possess broad-spectrum activity, especially against antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive strains, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). For Gram-negative bacteria, ACH-702 showed exceptional potency against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and a Neisseria sp. but was less active against members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Good antibacterial activity was also evident against several anaerobes as well as Legionella pneumophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Excellent bactericidal activity was observed for ACH-702 against several bacterial pathogens in time-kill assays, and postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of >1 h were evident with both laboratory and clinical strains of staphylococci at 10× MIC and similar in most cases to those observed for moxifloxacin at the same MIC multiple. In vivo efficacy was demonstrated against S. aureus with murine sepsis and thigh infection models, with decreases in the number of CFU/thigh equal to or greater than those observed after vancomycin treatment. Macromolecular synthesis assays showed specific dose-dependent inhibition of DNA replication in staphylococci, and biochemical analyses indicated potent dual inhibition of two essential DNA replication enzymes: DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Additional biological data in support of an effective dual targeting mechanism of action include the following: low MIC values (?0.25 ?g/ml) against staphylococcal strains with single mutations in both gyrA and grlA (parC), retention of good antibacterial activity (MICs of ?0.5 ?g/ml) against staphylococcal strains with two mutations in both gyrA and grlA, and low frequencies for the selection of higher-level resistance (<10?10). These promising initial data support further study of isothiazoloquinolones as potential clinical candidates. PMID:21464250

Pucci, Michael J.; Podos, Steven D.; Thanassi, Jane A.; Leggio, Melissa J.; Bradbury, Barton J.; Deshpande, Milind



Novel Carbapenem Antibiotics for Parenteral and Oral Applications: In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of 2-Aryl Carbapenems and Their Pharmacokinetics in Laboratory Animals  

PubMed Central

SM-295291 and SM-369926 are new parenteral 2-aryl carbapenems with strong activity against major causative pathogens of community-acquired infections such as methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae (including penicillin-resistant strains), Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae (including ?-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strains), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (including ciprofloxacin-resistant strains), with MIC90s of ?1 ?g/ml. Unlike tebipenem (MIC50, 8 ?g/ml), SM-295291 and SM-369926 had no activity against hospital pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC50, ?128 ?g/ml). The bactericidal activities of SM-295291 and SM-369926 against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and ?-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae were equal or superior to that of tebipenem and greater than that of cefditoren. The therapeutic efficacies of intravenous administrations of SM-295291 and SM-369926 against experimentally induced infections in mice caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and ?-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae were equal or superior to that of tebipenem and greater than that of cefditoren, respectively, reflecting their in vitro activities. SM-295291 and SM-369926 showed intravenous pharmacokinetics similar to those of meropenem in terms of half-life in monkeys (0.4 h) and were stable against human dehydropeptidase I. SM-368589 and SM-375769, which are medoxomil esters of SM-295291 and SM-369926, respectively, showed good oral bioavailability in rats, dogs, and monkeys (4.2 to 62.3%). Thus, 2-aryl carbapenems are promising candidates that show an ideal broad spectrum for the treatment of community-acquired infections, including infections caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and ?-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae, have low selective pressure on antipseudomonal carbapenem-resistant nosocomial pathogens, and allow parenteral, oral, and switch therapies. PMID:23147735

Fujimoto, Koichi; Hatano, Kazuo; Nakai, Toru; Terashita, Shigeyuki; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Eriguchi, Yoshiro; Eguchi, Ken; Shimizudani, Takeshi; Sato, Kimihiko; Kanazawa, Katsunori; Sunagawa, Makoto; Ueda, Yutaka



Novel Bacterial NAD+-Dependent DNA Ligase Inhibitors with Broad-Spectrum Activity and Antibacterial Efficacy In Vivo? †  

PubMed Central

DNA ligases are indispensable enzymes playing a critical role in DNA replication, recombination, and repair in all living organisms. Bacterial NAD+-dependent DNA ligase (LigA) was evaluated for its potential as a broad-spectrum antibacterial target. A novel class of substituted adenosine analogs was discovered by target-based high-throughput screening (HTS), and these compounds were optimized to render them more effective and selective inhibitors of LigA. The adenosine analogs inhibited the LigA activities of Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus, with inhibitory activities in the nanomolar range. They were selective for bacterial NAD+-dependent DNA ligases, showing no inhibitory activity against ATP-dependent human DNA ligase 1 or bacteriophage T4 ligase. Enzyme kinetic measurements demonstrated that the compounds bind competitively with NAD+. X-ray crystallography demonstrated that the adenosine analogs bind in the AMP-binding pocket of the LigA adenylation domain. Antibacterial activity was observed against pathogenic Gram-positive and atypical bacteria, such as S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and M. pneumoniae, as well as against Gram-negative pathogens, such as H. influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. The mode of action was verified using recombinant strains with altered LigA expression, an Okazaki fragment accumulation assay, and the isolation of resistant strains with ligA mutations. In vivo efficacy was demonstrated in a murine S. aureus thigh infection model and a murine S. pneumoniae lung infection model. Treatment with the adenosine analogs reduced the bacterial burden (expressed in CFU) in the corresponding infected organ tissue as much as 1,000-fold, thus validating LigA as a target for antibacterial therapy. PMID:21189350

Mills, Scott D.; Eakin, Ann E.; Buurman, Ed T.; Newman, Joseph V.; Gao, Ning; Huynh, Hoan; Johnson, Kenneth D.; Lahiri, Sushmita; Shapiro, Adam B.; Walkup, Grant K.; Yang, Wei; Stokes, Suzanne S.



Cefquinome (HR 111V). In vitro evaluation of a broad-spectrum cephalosporin indicated for infections in animals.  


Cefquinome (formerly HR 111V), an aminothiazolyl cephalosporin, was compared with cefepime, cefpirome, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime against 681 clinical cultures and a challenge set of bacteria with well-characterized resistance mechanisms. Cefquinome minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC90) for the enterobacteriaceae ranged from < or = 0.12-2 micrograms/ml with the highest MIC (4 micrograms/ml) obtained among Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, and Providencia stuartii strains. A total of 90% of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa were inhibited by cefquinome at < or = 8 micrograms/ml. Cefquinome activity of particular note for Gram-positive isolates included Corynebacterium jeikeium (MIC90, 8 micrograms/ml) and enterococci (MIC50, 4-8 micrograms/ml). Oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 32-fold less susceptible (MIC90, 16 micrograms/ml) to cefquinome than oxacillin-susceptible (MIC90, 0.5 micrograms/ml) strains. Cefquinome was very potent against fastidious isolates such as Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC90, 0.25-2 micrograms/ml); Haemophilus influenzae (MIC90, 0.06-1 micrograms/ml), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (MIC90, 0.06-0.5 micrograms/ml), and Streptococcus species (MIC90, < or = 0.03-006 micrograms/ml). When tested against organisms possessing Bush group 2 enzymes (including extended spectrum beta-lactamases), cefquinome remained active (MIC, < or = 8 micrograms/ml) against the majority of strains. This compound should be very active against pathogens generally found in animal infections and possesses a potency and spectrum comparable to the "fourth-generation" cephalosporins (cefepime and cefpirome) being investigated for human infectious diseases. PMID:7867299

Murphy, S P; Erwin, M E; Jones, R N



Metabolic markers and microecological characteristics of tongue coating in patients with chronic gastritis  

PubMed Central

Background In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), tongue diagnosis has been an important diagnostic method for the last 3000 years. Tongue diagnosis is a non-invasive, simple and valuable diagnostic tool. TCM treats the tongue coating on a very sensitive scale that reflects physiological and pathological changes in the organs, especially the spleen and stomach. Tongue coating can diagnose disease severity and determine the TCM syndrome (“Zheng” in Chinese). The biological bases of different tongue coating appearances are still poorly understood and lack systematic investigation at the molecular level. Methods Tongue coating samples were collected from 70 chronic gastritis patients and 20 normal controls. 16S rRNA denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (16S rRNA–DGGE) and liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC–MS) were designed to profile tongue coatings. The statistical techniques used were principal component analysis and partial least squares–discriminate analysis. Results Ten potential metabolites or markers were found in chronic gastritis patients, including UDP-D-galactose, 3-ketolactose, and vitamin D2, based on LC–MS. Eight significantly different strips were observed in samples from chronic gastritis patients based on 16S rRNA–DGGE. Two strips, Strips 8 and 10, were selected for gene sequencing. Strip 10 sequencing showed a 100% similarity to Rothia mucilaginosa. Strip 8 sequencing showed a 96.2% similarity to Moraxella catarrhalis. Conclusions Changes in glucose metabolism could possibly form the basis of tongue coating conformation in chronic gastritis patients. The study revealed important connections between metabolic components, microecological components and tongue coating in chronic gastritis patients. Compared with other diagnostic regimens, such as blood tests or tissue biopsies, tongue coating is more amenable to, and more convenient for, both patients and doctors. PMID:24041039



Haemophilus influenzae type b as an important cause of culture-positive acute otitis media in young children in Thailand: a tympanocentesis-based, multi-center, cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) are considered major causes of bacterial acute otitis media (AOM) worldwide, but data from Asia on primary causes of AOM are limited. This tympanocentesis-based, multi-center, cross-sectional study assessed bacterial etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of AOM in Thailand. Methods Children 3 to 59 months presenting with AOM (Moraxella catarrhalis (6% (7/118)) or Streptococcus pyogenes (3% (4/118)). The most common pneumococcal serotypes were 19F (26%) and 14 (22%). The majority of H. influenzae isolates were encapsulated (18/21), with 13 type b (Hib) representing 62% of all H. influenzae isolate or 11% of all samples (13/118), and there were only 3 non-typeable isolates. Despite high antibiotic resistance, amoxicillin/clavulanate susceptibility was high. No pneumococcal vaccine use was reported. Conclusions S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, both frequently antibiotic resistant, were leading causes of bacterial AOM and there was an unexpectedly high burden of Hib in this population unvaccinated by any Hib conjugate vaccine. Conjugate vaccines effective against pneumococcus and H. influenzae could potentially reduce the burden of AOM in this population. PMID:24947736



In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of PD 0305970 and PD 0326448, New Bacterial Gyrase/Topoisomerase Inhibitors with Potent Antibacterial Activities versus Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Positive and Fastidious Organism Groups?  

PubMed Central

PD 0305970 and PD 0326448 are new bacterial gyrase and topoisomerase inhibitors (quinazoline-2,4-diones) that possess outstanding in vitro and in vivo activities against a wide spectrum of bacterial species including quinolone- and multidrug-resistant gram-positive and fastidious organism groups. The respective MICs (?g/ml) for PD 0305970 capable of inhibiting ?90% of bacterial strains tested ranged from 0.125 to 0.5 versus staphylococci, 0.03 to 0.06 versus streptococci, 0.25 to 2 versus enterococci, and 0.25 to 0.5 versus Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Legionella pneumophila, and Neisseria spp. PD 0326448 MIC90s were generally twofold higher versus these same organism groups. Comparative quinolone MIC90 values were 4- to 512-fold higher than those of PD 0305970. In testing for frequency of resistance, PD 0305970 and levofloxacin showed low levels of development of spontaneous resistant mutants versus both Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Unlike quinolones, which target primarily gyrA and parC, analysis of resistant mutants in S. pneumoniae indicates that the likely targets of PD 0305970 are gyrB and parE. PD 0305970 demonstrated rapid bactericidal activity by in vitro time-kill testing versus streptococci. This bactericidal activity carried over to in vivo testing, where PD 0305970 and PD 0326448 displayed outstanding Streptococcus pyogenes 50% protective doses (PD50s) (oral dosing) of 0.7 and 3.6 mg/kg, respectively (ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin PD50s were >100 and 17.7 mg/kg, respectively). PD 0305970 was also potent in a pneumococcal pneumonia mouse infection model (PD50 = 3.2 mg/kg) and was 22-fold more potent than levofloxacin. PMID:17261623

Huband, Michael D.; Cohen, Michael A.; Zurack, Margaret; Hanna, Debra L.; Skerlos, Laura A.; Sulavik, Mark C.; Gibson, Glenn W.; Gage, Jeffrey W.; Ellsworth, Edmund; Stier, Michael A.; Gracheck, Stephen J.



Impact of Respiratory Viral Infections on Alpha Hemolytic Streptococci and Otopathogens in the Nasopharynx of Young Children  

PubMed Central

Background We studied nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization in a cohort of children to determine the impact of viral upper respiratory infections (URI) on non-pneumococcal alpha hemolytic streptococci (AHS) and otopathogen colonization in association with acute otitis media (AOM). Methods NP samples were collected routinely when children were aged 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, and 30 months and during episodes of AOM. NP samples were prospectively obtained from 248 children during a 5-year time span; 1,018 during routine visits, 161 at the time of AOM and 59 at follow-up visits 3 weeks after AOM. Results The overall NP colonization rate of AHS was 50.8% during a non-AOM visit but declined to 38.3% during a viral URI with concurrent AOM (p=0.0006). Of 56 AOM visits with paired follow-ups, 6 (10.7%) had AHS in the NP at the time of viral URI and concurrent AOM whereas 29 (51.8%) had AHS at the follow-up (p<0.001). Lower NP colonization rates with AHS were associated with significant increases in Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage during non-AOM visits (p<0.001) and during viral URI and concurrent AOM visits (p=0.003). AHS NP colonization rates were not different when children had a viral URI without AOM versus when they were URI negative, but NP colonization with non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae rates increased (p<0.001) and Moraxella catarrhalis decreased (p<0.001) during viral URI. Conclusion Respiratory viral infections alter NP carriage rates of commensal AHS and otopathogens, including prior to AOM. PMID:23241988

Friedel, Victoria; Chang, Arthur; Wills, Jennifer; Vargas, Roberto; Xu, Qingfu; Pichichero, Michael



Induction of CD69 expression and Th1 cytokines release from human peripheral blood lymphocytes after in vitro stimulation with Alloiococcus otitidis and three middle ear pathogens.  


Alloiococcus otitidis is a recently discovered pathogen of otitis media. However, only a limited number of studies are available about the pathogenic and immunological role of A. otitidis. The aim of this study was to investigate the activation and the cytokine production of human peripheral blood lymphocytes at the early immune response after stimulation with A. otitidis. After stimulation of whole human peripheral blood lymphocytes for 18 h with whole killed A. otitidis or the three major middle ear pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis), the expression of CD69 and the production of cytokines were analyzed. The expression of CD69 on T cells and B cells was dose-dependently enhanced after stimulation with A. otitidis. The release of interleukin (IL)-12 was induced after stimulation with A. otitidis, whereas the release of IL-4 was not induced after stimulation with A. otitidis. In addition, the release of interferon (IFN)-gamma was induced after stimulation with A. otitidis. Although the release of IFN-gamma started within 18 h after stimulation with A. otitidis, intracellular production of IFN-gamma was not observed in either CD4+ T cells or CD8+ T cells within 18 h upon stimulation. The patterns of CD69 expression and T helper-type 1 (Th1)-promoting cytokines production were similarly shown when human peripheral blood lymphocytes were stimulated with the other three major pathogens. Our results suggest that A. otitidis has sufficient immunogenic potential to modulate a host immune response, like the other three major middle ear pathogens, and also suggest that the immunogenicity of A. otitidis is very similar, at the early immune response, to that of the three major middle ear pathogens. PMID:15708312

Harimaya, Atsushi; Himi, Tetsuo; Fujii, Nobuhiro; Tarkkanen, Jussi; Carlson, Petteri; Ylikoski, Jukka; Mattila, Petri



Efficacy and safety of levofloxacin in patients with bacterial pneumonia evaluated according to the new "Clinical Evaluation Methods for New Antimicrobial Agents to Treat Respiratory Infections (Second Version)".  


The guideline for the "Clinical Evaluation Methods for New Antimicrobial Agents to Treat Respiratory Infections (Second Version)," published by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy in January 2012, was proposed to achieve consistency with FDA guidelines based on the concept of clinical evaluation used in Japan. We assessed the clinical efficacy of levofloxacin (LVFX) in patients with bacterial pneumonia according to this new set of guidelines for the first time. The clinical efficacy of LVFX in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) at the test of cure (TOC) was 87.5% (56/64) and 85.7% (6/7), respectively, with an overall efficacy of 87.3% (62/71). The clinical efficacy of LVFX at TOC was as follows: intravenous 81.5% (22/27), oral 88.9% (24/27), switchover from intravenous to oral administration 100% (10/10), respectively. The bacterial eradication rate in the patients with CAP and HCAP and overall efficacy at the end of therapy (EOT) was 95.3% (41/43), 100.0% (4/4) and 95.7% (45/47), respectively. The frequent causative bacterial strains included Streptococcus pneumoniae (18), Haemophilus influenzae (14) and Moraxella catarrhalis (6). The incidence of adverse reactions in the patients whose safety was evaluated was 15.7% (14/89), similar to that previously reported. The clinical efficacy of LVFX at the early phase, EOT and TOC of CAP, as assessed according to the new and former guidelines, was 70.4% (38/54) and 27.8% (15/54), 87.0% (60/69) and 79.1% (53/67), 87.5% (56/64) and 88.1% (59/67), respectively, with no significant differences. Therefore, the new efficacy evaluation method can be used in exchange for the former evaluation method. PMID:24787737

Mukae, Hiroshi; Kawanami, Toshinori; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Kakeya, Hiroshi; Tokimatsu, Issei; Kadota, Junichi; Kohno, Shigeru



In Vitro Interaction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with Human Middle Ear Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Otitis media (OM) is an inflammation of the middle ear which can be acute or chronic. Acute OM is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). CSOM is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the middle ear characterized by infection and discharge. The survivors often suffer from hearing loss and neurological sequelae. However, no information is available regarding the interaction of P. aeruginosa with human middle ear epithelial cells (HMEECs). Methodology and Findings In the present investigation, we demonstrate that P. aeruginosa is able to enter and survive inside HMEECs via an uptake mechanism that is dependent on microtubule and actin microfilaments. The actin microfilament disrupting agent as well as microtubule inhibitors exhibited significant decrease in invasion of HMEECs by P. aeruginosa. Confocal microscopy demonstrated F-actin condensation associated with bacterial entry. This recruitment of F-actin was transient and returned to normal distribution after bacterial internalization. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of bacteria on the surface of HMEECs, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the internalization of P. aeruginosa located in the plasma membrane-bound vacuoles. We observed a significant decrease in cell invasion of OprF mutant compared to the wild-type strain. P. aeruginosa induced cytotoxicity, as demonstrated by the determination of lactate dehydrogenase levels in culture supernatants of infected HMEECs and by a fluorescent dye-based assay. Interestingly, OprF mutant showed little cell damage compared to wild-type P. aeruginosa. Conclusions and Significance This study deciphered the key events in the interaction of P. aeruginosa with HMEECs in vitro and highlighted the role of bacterial outer membrane protein, OprF, in this process. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CSOM will help in identifying novel targets to design effective therapeutic strategies and to prevent hearing loss. PMID:24632826

Mittal, Rahul; Grati, M’hamed; Gerring, Robert; Blackwelder, Patricia; Yan, Denise; Li, Jian-Dong; Liu, Xue Zhong



The diagnosis and treatment of elderly patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic bronchitis.  


The syndrome of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) consists of chronic bronchitis (CB), bronchiectasis, emphysema, and reversible airway disease that combine uniquely in an individual patient. Older patients are at risk for COPD and its components--emphysema, CB, and bronchiectasis. Bacterial and viral infections play a role in acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) and in acute exacerbations of CB (AECB) without features of COPD. Older patients are at risk for resistant bacterial organisms during their episodes of AECOPD and AECB. Organisms include the more-common bacteria implicated in AECOPD/AECB such as Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Less-common nonenteric, gram-negative organisms including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, gram-positive organisms including Staphylococcus aureus, and strains of nontuberculosis Mycobacteria are more often seen in AECOPD/AECB episodes involving elderly patients with frequent episodes of CB or those with bronchiectasis. Risk-stratified antibiotic treatment guidelines appear useful for purulent episodes of AECOPD and episodes of AECB. These guidelines have not been prospectively validated for the general population and especially not for the elderly population. Using a risk-stratification approach for elderly patients, first-line antibiotics (e.g., amoxicillin, ampicillin, pivampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and doxycycline), with a more-limited spectrum of antibacterial coverage, are used in patients who are likely to have a low probability of resistant organisms during AECOPD/AECB. Second-line antibiotics (e.g., amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, second- or third-generation cephalosporins, and respiratory fluoroquinolones) with a broader spectrum of coverage are reserved for patients with significant risk factors for resistant organisms and those who have failed initial antibiotic treatment. PMID:20398122

Albertson, Timothy E; Louie, Samuel; Chan, Andrew L



Bacterial Distribution in the Lungs of Children with Protracted Bacterial Bronchitis  

PubMed Central

Objectives Flexible bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (FB-BAL) is increasingly used for the microbiological confirmation of protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) in children with a chronic wet cough. At our centre, when performing FB-BAL for microbiological diagnosis we sample 6 lobes (including lingula) as this is known to increase the rate of culture positive procedures in children with cystic fibrosis. We investigated if this is also the case in children with PBB. Methods We undertook a retrospective case note review of 50 children investigated for suspected PBB between May 2011 and November 2013. Results The median (IQR) age at bronchoscopy was 2.9 (1.7–4.4) years and the median (IQR) duration of cough was 11 (8.0–14) months. Positive cultures were obtained from 41/50 (82%) and 16 (39%) of these patients isolated ?2 organisms. The commonest organisms isolated were Haemophilus influenzae (25 patients), Moraxella catarrhalis (14 patients), Staphylococcus aureus (11 patients) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (8 patients). If only one lobe had been sampled (as per the European Respiratory Society guidance) 17 different organisms would have been missed in 15 patients, 8 of whom would have had no organism cultured at all. The FB-BAL culture results led to an antibiotic other than co-amoxiclav being prescribed in 17/41 (41%) patients. Conclusions Bacterial distribution in the lungs of children with PBB is heterogeneous and organisms may therefore be missed if only one lobe is sampled at FB-BAL. Positive FB-BAL results are useful in children with PBB and can influence treatment. PMID:25259619

Narang, Ravi; Bakewell, Kelly; Peach, Jane; Clayton, Sadie; Samuels, Martin; Alexander, John; Lenney, Warren; Gilchrist, Francis J.



Diagnosis of Tuberculosis by Trained African Giant Pouched Rats and Confounding Impact of Pathogens and Microflora of the Respiratory Tract  

PubMed Central

Trained African giant-pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) can detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis and show potential for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). However, rats' ability to discriminate between clinical sputum containing other Mycobacterium spp. and nonmycobacterial species of the respiratory tract is unknown. It is also unknown whether nonmycobacterial species produce odor similar to M. tuberculosis and thereby cause the detection of smear-negative sputum. Sputum samples from 289 subjects were analyzed by smear microscopy, culture, and rats. Mycobacterium spp. were isolated on Lowenstein-Jensen medium, and nonmycobacterial species were isolated on four different media. The odor from nonmycobacterial species from smear- and M. tuberculosis culture-negative sputa detected by ?2 rats (“rat positive”) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared to the M. tuberculosis odor. Rats detected 45 of 56 confirmed cases of TB, 4 of 5 suspected cases of TB, and 63 of 228 TB-negative subjects (sensitivity, 80.4%; specificity, 72.4%; accuracy, 73.9%; positive predictive value, 41.7%; negative predictive value, 93.8%). A total of 37 (78.7%) of 47 mycobacterial isolates were M. tuberculosis complex, with 75.7% from rat-positive sputa. Ten isolates were nontuberculous mycobacteria, one was M. intracellulare, one was M. avium subsp. hominissuis, and eight were unidentified. Rat-positive sputa with Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus spp., and Enterococcus spp. were associated with TB. Rhodococcus, Nocardia, Streptomyces, Staphylococcus, and Candida spp. from rat-positive sputa did not produce M. tuberculosis-specific volatiles (methyl nicotinate, methyl para-anisate, and ortho-phenylanisole). Prevalence of Mycobacterium-related Nocardia and Rhodococcus in smear-negative sputa did not equal that of smear-negative mycobacteria (44.7%), of which 28.6% were rat positive. These findings and the absence of M. tuberculosis-specific volatiles in nonmycobacterial species indicate that rats can be trained to specifically detect M. tuberculosis. PMID:22135255

Mgode, Georgies F.; Weetjens, Bart J.; Nawrath, Thorben; Cox, Christophe; Jubitana, Maureen; Machang'u, Robert S.; Cohen-Bacrie, Stéphan; Bedotto, Marielle; Drancourt, Michel; Schulz, Stefan



Panel 6: Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Objective To update progress on the effectiveness of vaccine for prevention of acute otitis media (AOM) and identification of promising candidate antigens against Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Review Methods Literature searches were performed in OvidSP and PubMed restricted to articles published between June 2007 and September 2011. Search terms included otitis media, vaccines, vaccine antigens, and each of the otitis pathogens and candidate antigens identified in the ninth conference report. Conclusions The current report provides further evidence for the effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in the prevention of otitis media. Observational studies demonstrate a greater decline in AOM episodes than reported in clinical efficacy trials. Unmet challenges include extending protection to additional serotypes and additional pathogens, the need to prevent early episodes, the development of correlates of protection for protein antigens, and the need to define where an otitis media vaccine strategy fits with priorities for child health. Implications for Practice Acute otitis media continues to be a burden on children and families, especially those who suffer from frequent recurrences. The 7-valent PCV (PCV7) has reduced the burden of disease as well as shifted the pneumococcal serotypes and the distribution of otopathogens currently reported in children with AOM. Antibiotic resistance remains an ongoing challenge. Multiple candidate antigens have demonstrated the necessary requirements of conservation, surface exposure, immunogenicity, and protection in animal models. Further research on the role of each antigen in pathogenesis, in the development of correlates of protection in animal models, and in new adjuvants to elicit responses in the youngest infants is likely to be productive and permit more antigens to move into human clinical trials. PMID:23536534

Pelton, Stephen I.; Pettigrew, Melinda M.; Barenkamp, Stephen J.; Godfroid, Fabrice; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Leach, Amanda; Patel, Janak; Murphy, Timothy F.; Selak, Sanja; Bakaletz, Lauren O.



Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Gene Expression Induced In Vivo in a Chinchilla Model of Otitis Media  

PubMed Central

The gram-negative bacterium nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is the predominant pathogen in chronic otitis media with effusion and, with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis, is a causative agent of acute otitis media. To identify potential virulence determinants, bacterial gene expression was monitored by differential fluorescence induction during early disease progression in one specific anatomical niche of a chinchilla model of NTHI-induced otitis media. Genomic DNA fragments from NTHI strain 86-028NP were cloned upstream of the promoterless gfpmut3 gene. NTHI strain 86-028NP served as the host for the promoter trap library. Pools of 2,000 transformants were inoculated into the left and right middle ear cavities of chinchillas. Middle ear effusions were recovered by epitympanic tap at 24 and 48 h, and clones containing promoter elements that were induced in vivo and producing green fluorescent protein were isolated by two-color fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Insert DNA was sequenced and compared to the complete genome sequence of H. influenzae strain Rd. In a screen of 16,000 clones, we have isolated 44 clones that contain unique gene fragments encoding biosynthetic enzymes, metabolic and regulatory proteins, and hypothetical proteins of unknown function. An additional eight clones contain gene fragments unique to our NTHI isolate. Using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, we have confirmed that 26 clones demonstrated increased gene expression in vivo relative to expression in vitro. These data provide insight into the response of NTHI bacteria as they sense and respond to the middle ear microenvironment during early events of otitis media. PMID:12761130

Mason, Kevin M.; Munson Jr., Robert S.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.



Genetic Requirement for Pneumococcal Ear Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Ear infection or otitis media (OM) accounts for most bacterial respiratory infections in children in both developed and developing nations. Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are the major OM pathogens. However, little is known about the genetic basis of bacterial OM largely due to practical difficulties in conducting research in ear infection models and genetically manipulating clinical isolates. Here, we report the first genome-scale in vivo screen for bacterial genes required for ear infection in a chinchilla model by signature tagged mutagenesis (STM), a high throughput mutant screen technique. Methodology/Principal Findings STM strains were constructed with a multi-drug resistant OM isolate ST556 (serotype 19F) and screened in a chinchilla OM model. Out of 5,280 mutants tested, 248 mutants were substantially underrepresented in the mutant pools recovered from the middle ear fluids of the infected chinchillas, indicating the impaired ability to survive and replicate in the middle ears due to genetic disruptions in the chromosome of strain ST556. Further DNA sequencing analysis mapped the mutations to 169 pneumococcal genes. Surprisingly, only 52 of these genes were required for pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization in a murine model. This infection site-specific gene requirement was verified by targeted mutagenesis in the selected genes. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that there are a subset of pneumococcal genes required for ear infection and that these may be distinct from those required for nasal colonization. Our data thus provide comprehensive gene targets for mechanistic understanding of pneumococcal ear infection. Finally, this study has also developed a model for future genome-scale search for virulence determinants in other pathogens associated with ear infections. PMID:18670623

Yang, Jun; O'Brien, Christopher J.; Lee, Scott L.; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph E.; Haataja, Sauli; Yan, Jing-Hua; Gao, George F.; Zhang, Jing-Ren



Structures of Staphylococcus aureus peptide deformylase in complex with two classes of new inhibitors.  


Peptide deformylase (PDF) catalyzes the removal of the formyl group from the N-terminal methionine residue in newly synthesized polypeptides, which is an essential process in bacteria. Four new inhibitors of PDF that belong to two different classes, hydroxamate/pseudopeptide compounds [PMT387 (7a) and PMT497] and reverse-hydroxamate/nonpeptide compounds [PMT1039 (15e) and PMT1067], have been developed. These compounds inhibited the growth of several pathogens involved in respiratory-tract infections, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae, and leading nosocomial pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range 0.1-0.8?mg?ml(-1). Interestingly, the reverse-hydroxamate/nonpeptide compounds showed a 250-fold higher antimicrobial activity towards S. aureus, although the four compounds showed similar K(i) values against S. aureus PDF enzymes, with K(i) values in the 11-85?nM range. To provide a structural basis for the discovery of additional PDF inhibitors, the crystal structures of S. aureus PDF in complex with the four inhibitors were determined at resolutions of 1.90-2.30?Å. The inhibitor-bound structures displayed distinct deviations depending on the inhibitor class. The distance between the Zn(2+) ion and the carbonyl O atom of the hydroxamate inhibitors (or the hydroxyl O atom of the reverse-hydroxamate inhibitors) appears to be correlated to S. aureus inhibition activity. The structural information reported in this study should aid in the discovery of new PDF inhibitors that can be used as novel antibacterial drugs. PMID:22751663

Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Seung-Jae; Lee, Seung Kyu; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Lee, Hyung Ho; Kim, Kyeong Kyu; Lee, Bong Jin; Lee, Byung Il; Suh, Se Won



In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of CS-834, a novel oral carbapenem.  

PubMed Central

CS-834 is a novel oral carbapenem antibiotic. This compound is an ester-type prodrug of the active metabolite R-95867. The antibacterial activity of R-95867 was tested against 1,323 clinical isolates of 35 species and was compared with those of oral cephems, i.e., cefteram, cefpodoxime, cefdinir, and cefditoren, and that of a parenteral carbapenem, imipenem. R-95867 exhibited a broad spectrum of activity covering both gram-positive and -negative aerobes and anaerobes. Its activity was superior to those of the other compounds tested against most of the bacterial species tested. R-95867 showed potent antibacterial activity against clinically significant pathogens: methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus including ofloxacin-resistant strains, Streptococcus pneumoniae including penicillin-resistant strains, Clostridium perfringens, Neisseria spp., Moraxella catarrhalis, most members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, and Haemophilus influenzae (MIC at which 90% of strains are inhibited, < or =0.006 to 0.78 microg/ml). R-95867 was quite stable to hydrolysis by most of the beta-lactamases tested except the metallo-beta-lactamases from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Bacteroides fragilis. R-95867 showed potent bactericidal activity against S. aureus and Escherichia coli. Penicillin-binding proteins 1 and 4 of S. aureus and 1Bs, 2, 3, and 4 of E. coli had high affinities for R-95867. The in vivo efficacy of CS-834 was evaluated in murine systemic infections caused by 16 strains of gram-positive and -negative pathogens. The efficacy of CS-834 was in many cases superior to those of cefteram pivoxil, cefpodoxime proxetil, cefdinir, and cefditoren pivoxil, especially against infections caused by S. aureus, penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, E. coli, Citrobacter freundii, and Proteus vulgaris. Among the drugs tested, CS-834 showed the highest efficacy against experimental pneumonia in mice caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae. PMID:9420035

Fukuoka, T; Ohya, S; Utsui, Y; Domon, H; Takenouchi, T; Koga, T; Masuda, N; Kawada, H; Kakuta, M; Kubota, M; Ishii, C; Ishii, C; Sakagawa, E; Harasaki, T; Hirasawa, A; Abe, T; Yasuda, H; Iwata, M; Kuwahara, S



In vitro antibacterial potency and spectrum of ABT-492, a new fluoroquinolone.  


ABT-492 demonstrated potent antibacterial activity against most quinolone-susceptible pathogens. The rank order of potency was ABT-492 > trovafloxacin > levofloxacin > ciprofloxacin against quinolone-susceptible staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci. ABT-492 had activity comparable to those of trovafloxacin, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin against seven species of quinolone-susceptible members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, although it was less active than the comparators against Citrobacter freundii and Serratia marcescens. The activity of ABT-492 was greater than those of the comparators against fastidious gram-negative species, including Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Legionella spp. and against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Helicobacter pylori. ABT-492 was as active as trovafloxacin against Chlamydia trachomatis, indicating good intracellular penetration and antibacterial activity. In particular, ABT-492 was more active than trovafloxacin and levofloxacin against multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, including strains resistant to penicillin and macrolides, and H. influenzae, including beta-lactam-resistant strains. It retained greater in vitro activity than the comparators against S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae strains resistant to other quinolones due to amino acid alterations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the target topoisomerases. ABT-492 was a potent inhibitor of bacterial topoisomerases, and unlike the comparators, DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV from either Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli were almost equally sensitive to ABT-492. The profile of ABT-492 suggested that it may be a useful agent for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, as well as infections of the urinary tract, bloodstream, and skin and skin structure and nosocomial lung infections. PMID:14506039

Nilius, Angela M; Shen, Linus L; Hensey-Rudloff, Dena; Almer, Laurel S; Beyer, Jill M; Balli, Darlene J; Cai, Yingna; Flamm, Robert K



Fabrication of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers for gas microsensors and nanosensors  

SciTech Connect

Two-phase nanocomposite layers based on porous silicon and nonstoichiometric tin oxide were fabricated by various methods. The structure, as well as elemental and phase composition, of the obtained nanocomposites were studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results obtained confirm the formation of nanocomposite layers with a thickness as large as 2 {mu}m thick and SnO{sub x} stoichiometry coefficients x = 1.0-2.0. Significant tin diffusion into the porous silicon matrix with D{sub eff} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} was observed upon annealing at 770 K. Test sensor structures based on por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers grown by magnetron deposition showed fairly high stability of properties and sensitivity to NO{sub 2}.

Bolotov, V. V., E-mail:; Korusenko, P. M.; Nesov, S. N.; Povoroznyuk, S. N.; Roslikov, V. E.; Kurdyukova, E. A.; Sten'kin, Yu. A.; Shelyagin, R. V.; Knyazev, E. V.; Kan, V. E.; Ponomareva, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Omsk Branch, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)



Using the PORS Problems to Examine Evolutionary Optimization of Multiscale Systems  

SciTech Connect

Nearly all systems of practical interest are composed of parts assembled across multiple scales. For example, an agrodynamic system is composed of flora and fauna on one scale; soil types, slope, and water runoff on another scale; and management practice and yield on another scale. Or consider an advanced coal-fired power plant: combustion and pollutant formation occurs on one scale, the plant components on another scale, and the overall performance of the power system is measured on another. In spite of this, there are few practical tools for the optimization of multiscale systems. This paper examines multiscale optimization of systems composed of discrete elements using the plus-one-recall-store (PORS) problem as a test case or study problem for multiscale systems. From this study, it is found that by recognizing the constraints and patterns present in discrete multiscale systems, the solution time can be significantly reduced and much more complex problems can be optimized.

Reinhart, Zachary [Ames Laboratory; Molian, Vaelan [Ames Laboratory; Bryden, Kenneth [Ames Laboratory



Bifurcación de las soluciones de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas Be: formación de líneas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se ha estudiado la topología de la ecuación hidrodinámica no-lineal que describe el perfil de velocidades de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas tempranas. Al aplicar este modelo a estrellas Be se encuentra que existen dos tipos De soluciones: la estándar, que describe el viento polar, y una nueva, que describe un viento más denso y lento y que explicaría el disco que se encuentra alrededor de estos objetos. Existe una región de transición en donde ambas soluciones coexisten (bifurcación}). Ambas soluciones satisfacen en esta región las mismas condiciones de borde. Para estas dos soluciones se han obtenido los perfiles de líneas de hidrógeno del visible y del IR, resolviendo el transporte de radiación en el ``comoving frame". Para la solución estándar, se obtienen perfiles con componentes en emisión, mientras que para la nueva solución se obtienen perfiles en absorción. Se comparan cualitativamente los resultados con las observaciones.

Curé, M.; Rial, D.; Cidale, L.; Venero, R.


Helicobacter pylori porCDAB and oorDABC Genes Encode Distinct Pyruvate:Flavodoxin and 2-Oxoglutarate:Acceptor Oxidoreductases Which Mediate Electron Transport to NADP  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori, a major cause of human gastric disease, is a microaerophilic bacterium that contains neither pyruvate nor 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity. Previous studies (N. J. Hughes, P. A. Chalk, C. L. Clayton, and D. J. Kelly, J. Bacteriol. 177:3953–3959, 1995) have indicated that the major routes for the generation of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and succinyl-CoA are via pyruvate:flavodoxin oxidoreductase (POR) and 2-oxoglutarate:acceptor oxidoreductase (OOR), respectively. The purified POR is a heterotetrameric protein, with subunits of 48 (PorA), 36 (PorB), 24 (PorC), and 14 (PorD) kDa. In this study OOR has been purified, and it is similarly composed of polypeptides of 43 (OorA), 33 (OorB), 24 (OorC), and 10 (OorD) kDa. Both POR and OOR are oxygen labile and are likely to be major contributors to the microaerophilic phenotype of H. pylori. Unlike POR, OOR was unable to use a previously identified flavodoxin (FldA) as an electron acceptor. Although the purified enzymes were unable to reduce NAD(P), electrons from both pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate could reduce NADP in cell extracts, consistent with a role for these oxidoreductases in the provision of NADPH as a respiratory electron donor. The H. pylori por, oor, and fldA genes were cloned and sequenced. The deduced por gene products showed significant sequence similarity to archaeal four-subunit 2-oxoacid:acceptor oxidoreductases. However, the amino acid sequences of OorA and -B were more closely related to that of the two-subunit POR of the aerobic halophile Halobacterium halobium. Both porD and oorD encode integral ferredoxin-like subunits. POR and OOR are probably essential enzymes in H. pylori, as insertion inactivation of porB and oorA appeared to be lethal. PMID:9495749

Hughes, Nicky J.; Clayton, Chris L.; Chalk, Peter A.; Kelly, David J.



Estudio financiado por NIH muestra un riesgo mayor de cáncer de próstata debido a complementos de vitamina E

De acuerdo a una revisión ulterior de los datos del Estudio del Selenio y la Vitamina E para Prevenir el Cáncer (SELECT), los hombres que tomaron diariamente 400 unidades internacionales (U.I.) de vitamina E tuvieron más cánceres de próstata que los hombres que tomaron un placebo. Los resultados mostraron que, por cada 1 000 hombres, hubo 76 casos de cáncer de próstata entre hombres que tomaron solamente complementos de vitamina E en comparación con 65 casos de cáncer entre hombres que tomaron un placebo durante un período de 7 años; es decir, 11 casos más de cáncer de próstata por cada 1 000 hombres. Esto representa un aumento de 17% en cánceres de próstata en relación con los que tomaron un placebo. Esta diferencia fue estadísticamente significativa y, por lo tanto, es posible que no se deba a la casualidad.


Los Presupuestos Generales de Estado para 2007 : diferencias entre el proyecto de presupuestos y los presupuestos aprobados y análisis de las políticas de gasto gestionadas por el Estado y por la Seguridad Social  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aunque en España los Presupuestos Generales del Estado abarcan un ámbito limitado dentro las Administraciones Públicas,1 tienen una gran importancia pues constituyen el principal instrumento financiero del gobierno para conseguir sus fines de política económica. En general, es conveniente analizar los presupuestos desde diferentes perspectivas. Por una parte, es preciso conocer sus efectos globales sobre la economía en su conjunto,

Valentín Edo Hernández



Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006  

PubMed Central

OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.



La Universidad de Alicante premiar el robot hecho por amateurs ms hbil en carreras con otros y pinchando sus globos  

E-print Network

La Universidad de Alicante premiará el robot hecho por amateurs más hábil en carreras con otros y Competición de Robótica Amateur UA, está destinado prioritariamente a estudiantes de esta universidad y forma

Escolano, Francisco



Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Se describen 39 brotes de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos que afectaron a 958 perso- nas en la provincia de Río Negro, Argentina, en el período 1993- 2001. Se identifican los agentes causales, los alimentos involucrados, los sitios de ocurrencia, los factores de riesgo involucrados y los meca- nismos de notificación empleados. Salmonella spp (38%), Trichinella spiralis (15%), Escherichia coli




PercePción del ecosistema Por la comunidad de san crisanto en Yucatán de acuerdo con su actividad  

Microsoft Academic Search

unam Resumen: El propósito del presente estudio es saber cómo percibe su ecosistema referente al suelo, agua y vegetación, la comunidad rural costera de San Crisanto en Yucatán. Se encuestó a un total de 82 indi- viduos por edad, sexo y actividad (ama de casa, estudiante, jornalero, pescador, agricultor, comerciante y otras). Los resultados indican que las personas sin remuneración

Gloria Chávez Ballado



Declaración del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre la aprobación de la vacuna de VPH por la FDA

Hace casi dos décadas que los investigadores del NCI y de otras instituciones comenzaron a investigar las causas fundamentales del cáncer cervical. Esta búsqueda científica resultó en la aprobación de hoy de la vacuna GardasilTM por la Food and Drug Administration.



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN: El posible deterioro de la calidad de las aguas subterráneas, causado por la aplicación de lodos de depuradora a un suelo agrícola, es evaluado en términos del incremento de la salinidad del agua de recarga y de su contenido en nutrientes. Para ello, se obtuvieron las curvas de lavado de cada elemento en estudio, a partir de un ensayo

M. J. Polo Gómez; R. Ordóñez Fernández; J. V. Giráldez Cerveral


Por qu se invierte en plantaciones de Jatropha? Respuestas desde Costa Rica Abigail Fallot a,b,*  

E-print Network

1 Título ¿Por qué se invierte en plantaciones de Jatropha? Respuestas desde Costa Rica Autores, France b CATIE, Programa cambio climático y cuencas, 30501 Turrialba, Costa Rica * Contacto: fallot de plantaciones de Jatropha curcas (Tempate) para biodiesel, analizamos el caso de Costa Rica donde

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Cell growth defect factor1/chaperone-like protein of POR1 plays a role in stabilization of light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis.  


Angiosperms require light for chlorophyll biosynthesis because one reaction in the pathway, the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide, is catalyzed by the light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). Here, we report that Cell growth defect factor1 (Cdf1), renamed here as chaperone-like protein of POR1 (CPP1), an essential protein for chloroplast development, plays a role in the regulation of POR stability and function. Cdf1/CPP1 contains a J-like domain and three transmembrane domains, is localized in the thylakoid and envelope membranes, and interacts with POR isoforms in chloroplasts. CPP1 can stabilize POR proteins with its holdase chaperone activity. CPP1 deficiency results in diminished POR protein accumulation and defective chlorophyll synthesis, leading to photobleaching and growth inhibition of plants under light conditions. CPP1 depletion also causes reduced POR accumulation in etioplasts of dark-grown plants and as a result impairs the formation of prolamellar bodies, which subsequently affects chloroplast biogenesis upon illumination. Furthermore, in cyanobacteria, the CPP1 homolog critically regulates POR accumulation and chlorophyll synthesis under high-light conditions, in which the dark-operative Pchlide oxidoreductase is repressed by its oxygen sensitivity. These findings and the ubiquitous presence of CPP1 in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms suggest the conserved nature of CPP1 function in the regulation of POR. PMID:24151298

Lee, Jae-Yong; Lee, Ho-Seok; Song, Ji-Young; Jung, Young Jun; Reinbothe, Steffen; Park, Youn-Il; Lee, Sang Yeol; Pai, Hyun-Sook



Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la seccion de entrada mediante un mayor o menor aporte de corriente al puente. Como consecuencia, la seccion de entrada del paralelo, ya de por si mas voluminosa que lao del serie por el uso de grandes componentes magneticos (bobinas de filtro o de "alisamiento"), result a tambien mas complicada y costosa debido a la necesidad de ser implementada mediante rectificador controlado. Ademas, la regulacion que ofrece el rectificador es pobre, dada su baja frecuencia de conmutacion. En cambio, el circuito serie puede funcionar por encima de la resonancia manteniendo una secuencia de conmutacion sin riesgos de recuperacion inversa y con una corriente de salida practicamente sinusoidal, lo que permite un control de la potencia por variacion de frecuencia. Puesto que la tarea de regulacion se realiza desde el puente inversor, la regulacion resulta mucho mas eficaz y la seccion de entrada se puede implementar mediante un simple rectificador no controlado y un condensador de filtro. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel


El Informe Anual a la Nación indica que la tasa de mortalidad por cáncer está bajando el doblesu enfoque especial examina el cáncer entre los indígenas americanos y los nativos de Alaska

Según un nuevo informe de las principales organizaciones oncológicas de la nación, las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer disminuyeron en promedio 2,1 por ciento por año de 2002 a 2004; casi el doble de la disminución anual de 1,1 por ciento por año de 1993 a 2002. Estos resultados se encuentran en el "Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer de 1975 a 2004. Preguntas y respuestas


UPF Study Abroad Program 2014 Programa del Curso-CRISIS? POR QU CRISIS? VIVIENDA Y MERCADO LABORAL  

E-print Network

UPF Study Abroad Program 2014 Programa del Curso- ¿CRISIS? ¿POR QU� CRISIS? VIVIENDA Y MERCADO forma intuitiva de algunas características propias de la economía española, especialmente, el mercado de la vivienda y el mercado de trabajo. A través de este conocimiento se conocerán las consecuencias que



E-print Network

TABLA DE ADAPTACIONES DE ASIGNATURAS SUPERADAS EN EL PROGRAMA SIMULTÁNEO DERECHO-ADE POR LAS ASIGNATURAS DEL GRADO DE DERECHO 1º CURSO DERECHO Créditos Tipo DERECHO-ADE Créditos Tipo Derecho Romano 6 FB Derecho Romano 6 FB Historia del Derecho Español y de las Instituciones 6 FB Historia del Derecho Español

Escolano, Francisco



E-print Network


Escolano, Francisco


Derechos Bsicos de Ausencia La Ley de Ausencia Familiar y Mdica (FMLA-por sus siglas en ingls) exige  

E-print Network

Derechos Básicos de Ausencia La Ley de Ausencia Familiar y Médica (FMLA-por sus siglas en inglés condición de salud seria que le impida al empleado desempeñar su puesto. Derechos de Ausencia Para Familias avisado de una llamada a estado de servicio activo bajo cobertura pueden usar su derecho de ausencia de 12

Rock, Chris


Estudio sobre las dosis de radiación y los riesgos de cáncer causados por la prueba atómica “Trinity” realizada en 1945

El NCI tiene planeado realizar entrevistas en profundidad para determinar cuál era la alimentación característica de las poblaciones indígenas americanas, hispanas (latinas) y chicanas que vivían en New Mexico a mediados de 1940 y utilizar información fácilmente disponible sobre la alimentación y el estilo de vida de las poblaciones blancas. Estas entrevistas representan un paso importante para hacer estimaciones de las dosis de radiación generadas por la prueba Trinity.


Por descargo de mi conciencia Dans la vie l'amour et au-del la libert  

E-print Network

1 « Por descargo de mi conciencia » Dans la vie l'amour et au-delà la liberté Cuando tú me mirabas'une amitié profonde, d'un amour sincère, résultat d'un chemin parcouru ensemble ou dans la distance relative'un clan vivant sous le même toit. Dans les nombreux testaments indigènes que j'avais étudiés, les mots d'amour

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Por ms de 30 aos, el programa de CU Wizards ha presentado shows mensuales GRATIS que entretienen e informan a los nios sobre las maravillas de la ciencia. Estos shows interactivos se  

E-print Network

Physics o Cristol Chemistry. Hay PARQUEADERO GRATIS en los LOTES 308 y 436. También hay parqueadero disponible por un precio fijo de $4.00 en el parqueadero de la calle Euclid. Por favor visite nuestro sitio

Lineberger, W. Carl


São conhecidos os sete parâmetros da textualidade , propostos em Beaugrande 1980 e desenvolvidos em Beaugrande & Dressler 1981: por um lado, um conjunto de parâmetros associados a circunstâncias de produção e de recepção dos textos (intencionalidade , aceitabilidade , informatividade , situacionalidade e intertextualidade ); por outro, coesão e coerência , entendidas como propriedades centradas no próprio  

Microsoft Academic Search

texto 1 . Esta perspectiva - que constituiu, inequivocamente, um contributo fundamental para a descrição linguística dos textos - pode hoje ser retomada e desenvolvida em função de aspectos que têm entretanto sido sublinhados por outros autores. É o caso da noção de plano de texto , desenvolvida nomeadamente por Jean-Michel Adam 2 : recuperando e actualizando a dispositio da

Maria Antónia Coutinho


Un estudio financiado por los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH) muestra reducción en la mortalidad entre hombres con cáncer de próstata en grado intermedio:

Terapia hormonal por corto tiempo administrada en combinación con radioterapia a hombres con cáncer de próstata en estadio inicial aumentó sus posibilidades de vivir más en comparación con tratamiento de radioterapia sola, según un estudio clínico patrocinado por el NCI. Los beneficios del tratamiento combinado se limitaron principalmente a pacientes con enfermedad de riesgo intermedio y no se observaron en hombres con cáncer de próstata de riesgo bajo, indican los investigadores.


Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1  

PubMed Central

RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las biopsias fijadas en alcohol fueron inadecuadas para demostrar H. pylori e interpretar los cambios de displasia. Conclusión El número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados, el método de fijación y la región del estómago donde se obtienen las biopsias son factores muy importantes para lograr una correcta clasificación de la gastritis crónica atrófica multifocal. PMID:25267864

Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo



[Susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from patients with lower respiratory infectious diseases to antibiotics (2002)].  


From October 2002 to September 2003, we collected the specimen from 476 patients with lower respiratory tract infections in 16 institutions in Japan, and investigated the susceptibilities of isolated bacteria to various antibacterial agents and patients' characteristics. Of 584 strains that were isolated from specimen (mainly from sputum) and assumed to be bacteria causing in inflammation, 578 strains were examined. The breakdown of the isolated bacteria were: Staphylococcus aureus 77, Streptococcus pneumoniae 103, Haemophilus influenzae 95, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (non-mucoid) 61, P. aeruginosa (mucoid) 23, Klebsiella pneumoniae 36, Moraxella subgenus Branhamella catarrhalis 29, etc. Of 77 S. aureus strains, those with 2 microg/ml or less of MIC of oxacillin (MPIPC) [methicillin-susceptible S. aureus: MSSA] was 34 strains (44.2%) and those with 4 microg/ml or more of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-resistant S. aureus: MRSA) was 43 strains (55.8%). Against MSSA, imipenem (IPM) and minocycline (MINO) had the most potent antibacterial activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.25 microg/ml. Although clindamycin (CLDM) and aminoglycosides also had the potent activity, the resistant strains against those agents were detected. Cefotiam (CTM) inhibited the growth of all the strains at 1 microg/ml without the low sensitive strains. Against MRSA, vancomycin (VCM) showed the most potent activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 2 microg/ml. Arbekacin (ABK) also showed the relatively potent activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 4 microg/ml. Carbapenems showed the most potent activities against S. pneumoniae and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.25-0.5 microg/ml. Cefozopran (CZOP) also had a preferable activity (MIC90: 1 microg/ml) and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 2 microg/ml. In contrast, the resistant strains for cefaclor (CCL), erythromycin (EM), CLDM, and tetracycline (TC) were detected in 50.5%, 76.7%, 50.5%, and 80.6% of all the strains, respectively. Against H. influenzae, LVFX showed the most potent activity and inhibited the growth of 92 of all the strains (96.8%) at 0.063 microg/ml. Tobramycin (TOB) showed the most potent activity against P. aeruginosa (both mucoid and non-mucoid) and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 2 microg/ml. The antibacterial activity of CZOP was good and its MIC90 against mucoid and non-mucoid strains was 8 and 16 microg/ml, respectively. CZOP and cefpirome (CPR) were the most potent against K. pneumoniae with 0.125 microg/ml of MIC90. Also, all the agents generally showed potent activities against M. (B.) catarrhalis and the MIC90 of all drugs were 4 microg/ml or less. The approximately half the number (47.5%) of the patients with respiratory infection were aged 70 years or older. As for the incidence by the diseases, bacterial pneumonia and chronic bronchitis were the highest, being noted in 35.7 and 33.8% of all the patients, respectively. The bacteria frequently isolated from the patients with bacterial pneumonia were S. pneumoniae (22.6%). In contrast, S. aureus (16.6%) and P. aeruginosa (13.7%) were relatively frequently isolated from the patients with chronic bronchitis. Before the drug administration, the bacteria frequently isolated from all the patients were H. influenzae (24.5%) and S. pneumoniae (24.2%). In comparison of the isolated bacteria by pretreatment agents, P. aeruginosa was relatively frequently isolated from the patients pretreated with cephems or macrolides and H. influenzae was relatively frequently isolated from the patients pretreated with penicillins. PMID:15376784

Shimada, Kaoru; Nakano, Kunio; Igari, Jun; Oguri, Toyoko; Ikemoto, Hideo; Mori, Takeshi; Yokouchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Makoto; Inoue, Hiroshi; Nakadate, Toshihide; Suwabe, Akira; Okada, Shinji; Ashino, Yugo; Gejyo, Fumitake; Okada, Masahiko; Aoki, Nobuki; Kitamura, Nobuko; Suzuki, Yasutoshi; Karasawa, Yasuo; Nakata, Kouichiro; Nakatani, Tatsuo; Inagawa, Hiroko; Kudo, Kouichiro; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Tsukasa; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Goto, Hajime; Kawai, Shin; Takeda, Hidenori; Sumitomo, Midori; Matsushima, Toshiharu; Niki, Yoshihito; Kohno, Shigeru; Miyazaki, Yoshitugu; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Hirakata, Yoichi; Matsuda, Junichi; Nasu, Masaru; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Suga, Moritaka; Tosaka, Masakazu



High incidence of antimicrobial resistant organisms including extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nasopharyngeal and blood isolates of HIV-infected children from Cape Town, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background There is little information on nasopharyngeal (NP) flora or bacteremia in HIV-infected children. Our aim was to describe the organisms and antimicrobial resistance patterns in children enrolled in a prospective study comparing daily and three times weekly trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and isoniazid (INH) or placebo prophylaxis. Methods NP swabs were taken at baseline from HIV-infected children enrolled in the study. Standard microbiological techniques were used. Children were grouped according to previous or current exposure to TMP-SMX and whether enrolled to the study during a period of hospitalization. Blood culture results were also recorded within 12 months of baseline. Results Two hundred and three children, median age 1.8 (Interquartile [IQ]: 0.7–4) years had NP swabs submitted for culture. One hundred and eighty-four (90.7%) had either stage B or C HIV disease. One hundred and forty-one (69.8%) were receiving TMP-SMX and 19 (9.4%) were on antiretroviral therapy. The majority, 168 (82%) had a history of hospitalization and 91 (44.8%) were enrolled during a period of hospitalization. Thirty-two subjects (16.2%) died within 12 months of study entry. One hundred and eighty-one potential pathogens were found in 167 children. The most commonly isolated organisms were Streptococcus pneumoniae (48: 22.2%), Gram-negative respiratory organisms (Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis) (47: 21.8%), Staphylococcus aureus (44: 20.4%), Enterobacteriaceae 32 (14.8%) and Pseudomonas 5 (2.3%). Resistance to TMP-SMX occurred in > 80% of pathogens except for M. catarrhalis (2: 18.2% of tested organisms). TMP-SMX resistance tended to be higher in those receiving it at baseline (p = 0.065). Carriage of Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was significantly associated with being on TMP-SMX at baseline (p = 0.002). Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) to penicillin were determined for 18 S. pneumoniae isolates: 7 (38.9%) were fully sensitive (MIC ? 0.06 ?g/ml), 9 (50%) had intermediate resistance (MIC 0.12 – 1 ?g/ml) and 2 (11.1%) had high level resistance (MIC ?2 ?g/ml). Fifty percent of Enterobacteriaceae produced extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) (resistant to third generation cephalosporins) and 56% were resistant to gentamicin. Seventy-seven percent of S. aureus were MRSA. Carriage of resistant organisms was not associated with hospitalization. On multivariate logistic regression, risk factors for colonization with Enterobacteriaceae were age ? one year (Odds ratio 4.4; 95% Confidence Interval 1.9–10.9; p = 0.0008) and CDC stage C disease (Odds ratio 3.6; 95% Confidence Interval 1.5–8.6; p = 0.005) Nineteen (9.4%) subjects had 23 episodes of bacteremia. Enterobacteriaceae were most commonly isolated (13 of 25 isolates), of which 6 (46%) produced ESBL and were resistant to gentamicin. Conclusion HIV-infected children are colonized with potential pathogens, most of which are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. TMP-SMX resistance is extremely common. Antibiotic resistance is widespread in colonizing organisms and those causing invasive disease. Antibiotic recommendations should take cognizance of resistance patterns. Antibiotics appropriate for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and MRSA should be used for severely ill HIV-infected children in our region. Further study of antibiotic resistance patterns in HIV-infected children from other areas is needed. PMID:18380900

Cotton, Mark F; Wasserman, Elizabeth; Smit, Juanita; Whitelaw, Andrew; Zar, Heather J



Quemadura por ácido nítrico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presentamos el caso de una quemadura química producida en un paciente de 32 años, magrebí, tra- bajador en una explotación agrícola que tras confundir el agente corrosivo (ácido nítrico) con agua, se produjo el accidente fortuito. Las quemaduras afectaron a toda la superficie de ambas manos. Este potente corrosivo originó que- maduras cutáneas graves, dolor y decoloración amarilla. El paciente

Martínez García M; López Jover JC


Estudio financiado por los NIH indica un aumento de la supervivencia en hombres con cáncer de próstata metastásico que reciben quimioterapia desde el inicio de la terapia hormonal

Los hombres con cáncer de próstata metastásico sensible a las hormonas que recibieron el fármaco quimioterapéutico docetaxel al inicio de la terapia hormonal convencional vivieron más tiempo que los pacientes que recibieron solo terapia hormonal, de acuerdo con los resultados preliminares de un estudio clínico controlado y aleatorizado patrocinado por los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH).


Timectomia estendida por cirurgia torácica videoassistida e cervicotomia no tratamento da miastenia * Extended thymectomy through video assisted thoracic surgery and cervicotomy in the treatment of myasthenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introdução: A relação entre a miastenia e o timo é evidente e o tratamento atual desta condição inclui a timectomia. No entanto, uma revisão de nossa experiência com a timectomia revelou a necessidade do uso de uma técnica mais radical. Objetivo: Analisar retrospectivamente pacientes portado- res de miastenia gravis que foram submetidos a timectomia radical por videotoracoscopia, ressaltando vantagens do




El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the attitudes…

Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.


Instituciones al Servicio de los Hispanos están a la vanguardia de la investigación de las desigualdades en salud por cáncer en la comunidad latina

Varias Instituciones al Servicio de los Hispanos forman parte de un grupo de escuelas profesionales y universidades que se han asociado con el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) y cierto número de centros oncológicos regionales para abordar el tema de las desigualdades en salud por cáncer que afectan a la comunidad latina.


Nunca deje alimentos en la zona peligrosa (temperaturas entre 40 F) por ms de 2 horas. Las bacterias se multiplican rpidamente  

E-print Network

Nunca deje alimentos en la zona peligrosa (temperaturas entre 40° F y 140° F) por más de 2 horas. Las bacterias se multiplican rápidamente en los alimentos que están en estas temperaturas. Las temperaturas apropiadas en el refrigerador y el congelador ayudan a conservar los alimentos en buen estado y


Nuevo sitio web en español del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, (NCI, por sus siglas en inglés) en español - Silvia Inéz Salazar - transcript

Transmisiones de radio para promover en espa%XF1ol | Nuevo sitio web en espa%XF1ol del Instituto Nacional del C%XE1ncer, (NCI, por sus siglas en ingl%XE9s) en espa%XF1ol | Transcripci%XF3n Transmisiones de radio para promover


Brunet Estarelles, Pere J., y Glvez Capell, Francisco, J. (1995). Estructura urbana y movilidad: anlisis del trfico inducido por el Campus de la Universitat de les Illes  

E-print Network

Brunet Estarelles, Pere J., y Gálvez Capellá, Francisco, J. (1995). Estructura urbana y movilidad Nacional de Geografía. Salamanca. Pp: 322-325. ESTRUCTURA URBANA Y MOVILIDAD. ANALISIS DEL TRAFICO INDUCIDO). Estructura urbana y movilidad: análisis del tráfico inducido por el Campus de la Universitat de les Illes

Oro, Daniel


Preconceptos sobre el odontólogo y la consulta odontológica por parte de niños de séptimo grado en una institución rural en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN El rol del odontólogo en la prevención, educación y cuidados para la rehabilitación del sistema estoma- tognático es de notable importancia para la salud del individuo. Sin embargo, no existe una adecuada difu- sión sobre el rol del odontólogo. Por lo tanto, es de esperar que existan preconceptos erróneos en los niños acerca de este profesional y sus funciones,




E-print Network

MEDIDAS ACORDADAS POR LA DEFENSORIA DE LOS DERECHOS UNIVERSITARIOS DE LA UNAM RELATIVAS A LA Derechos Universitarios Dr. Leoncio Lara Sáenz con fundamento en las disposiciones contenidas tanto en el derechos y obligaciones de los estudiantes y miembros del personal académico en lo relativo a dichos

Arroyo Rodríguez, Víctor


P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C–H functionalization of biaryl derivatives to synthesize chiral phosphorous ligands  

PubMed Central

Summary Chiral phosphorus ligands have been widely used in transition metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions. Herein, we report a new synthesis approach of chiral biaryls containing a phosphorus moiety using P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C–H activation; the functionalized products are produced with good enantioselectivity. PMID:25246966

Hu, Rong-Bin; Wang, Hong-Li; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Heng; Ma, Yan-Na



DISCUSSÃO SOBRE INTOXICAÇÕES POR MEDICAMENTOS E AGROTÓXICOS NO BRASIL DE 1999 A 2002 Discussion about Medication and Pesticide Poisonings in Brazil from 1999 to 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Medicamentos e agrotóxicos são intensamente consumidos e os contextos produtivos e mercadológico nos quais estes estão inseridos aproximam os riscos à saúde e ao meio ambiente relacionados à sua utilização, dentre os quais estão as intoxicações, cujos principais agentes são os medicamentos e agrotóxicos. Objetivos. Discutir o padrão de intoxicações por medicamentos e agrotóxicos no Brasil, mostrando a aproximação

Reginaldo T. Mendonça; Jaqueline L. Marinho


Modelos teóricos que nos ayudan a comprender el gobierno de las sociedades cooperativas, una apuesta por el enfoque de los stakeholders  

Microsoft Academic Search

En la actualidad, el entorno competitivo es cada vez más incierto y complejo. Las características de los mercados actuales hacen que sea cada vez más difícil conseguir una ventaja competitiva sostenible en el tiempo para la empresa, por lo que hay que innovar en formas de gestión y de gobierno para ser competitivo. De esta manera, se está produciendo un

Cristina Pedrosa Ortega



Análisis estructural, superficial y tribológico de recubrimientos de nitruro de cromo (CrN) sintetizado por magnetrón sputtering reactivo DC = Structural, surface and tribological analyzed of CrN thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering DC.  

E-print Network

??Ruden Muñoz, Alexander (2011) Análisis estructural, superficial y tribológico de recubrimientos de nitruro de cromo (CrN) sintetizado por magnetrón sputtering reactivo DC = Structural, surface… (more)

Ruden Muñoz, Alexander



Utilização da radiação gama do Cobalto-60 como tratamento quarentenário de plantas medicinais, aromáticas e condimentares desidratadas infestadas por lasioderma serricorne (fabricius, 1792) (coleoptera, anobiidae) e plodia interpunctella (hubner, 1813) (lepidoptera, pyralidae).  

E-print Network

??A pesquisa teve como objetivo a utilização da radiação gama do Cobalto-60 como tratamento quarentenário de plantas medicinais, aromáticas e condimentares desidratadas infestadas por Lasioderma… (more)

Juliana Nazaré Alves



BSAC standardized disc susceptibility testing method (version 8).  


There have been considerable changes to the format of the recommendations since the previous version (version 7). The majority of the footnotes to the tables have been removed and the notations added to the end column; it is hoped that this change will avoid confusion in interpretation. Antibiotics have been separated into groups, e.g. beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, etc. Recommendations for urinary tract infections (UTIs) have been removed for most agents except for those that are administered solely for the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs or where there are limited recommendations for specific organisms, e.g. trimethoprim. For agents that previously had dual recommendations, systemic recommendations remain and the intermediate category can be used for interpretation for UTIs because intermediate susceptibility infers that the infection may respond as the agent is concentrated at the site of infection. This change will also avoid errors in interpretation when an organism is isolated from multiple sites, e.g. blood and urine. The changes that have been made to version 7 are as follows: MIC and zone diameter breakpoints (BPs) for trimethoprim, fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin for UTIs (Table 7); MIC and zone diameter breakpoints (BPs) for doripenem (Tables 7-9); colistin MIC BPs for Pseudomonas spp. (Table 9), co-trimoxazole MIC BPs for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Table 10); staphylococci MIC and zone diameter BPs for clarithromycin, clindamycin, erythromycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, trimethoprim UTI, nitrofurantoin UTI and rifampicin (Table 11); Streptococcus pneumoniae MIC and zone diameter BPs for azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, co-trimoxazole, linezolid, rifampicin and telithromycin (Table 12); addition of streptomycin recommendations for enterococci (Table 13); enterococcal MIC and zone diameter BPs for quinupristin/dalfopristin, nitrofurantoin UTI and trimethoprim UTI (Table 13); beta-haemolytic streptococci MIC and zone diameter BPs for azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin and telithromycin (Table 15); clarithromycin and erythromycin MIC and zone diameter BPs for Moraxella catarrhalis (Table 16); azithromycin MIC BPs for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Table 17); chloramphenicol and rifampicin MIC BPs for Neisseria meningitidis (Table 18); azithromycin MIC BPs for Haemophilus influenzae (Table 19); MIC BPs for metronidazole for Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Clostridium perfringens (Tables 23-25, respectively); susceptibility testing of Listeria spp. (Appendix 3); the acceptable range for ATCC 25923 to a 10 microg tobramycin disc (Table 26). PMID:19587067

Andrews, J M



Ceftobiprole Activity against over 60,000 Clinical Bacterial Pathogens Isolated in Europe, Turkey, and Israel from 2005 to 2010  

PubMed Central

Ceftobiprole medocaril is a newly approved drug in Europe for the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) (excluding patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia but including ventilated HAP patients) and community-acquired pneumonia in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of ceftobiprole against prevalent Gram-positive and -negative pathogens isolated in Europe, Turkey, and Israel during 2005 through 2010. A total of 60,084 consecutive, nonduplicate isolates from a wide variety of infections were collected from 33 medical centers. Species identification was confirmed, and all isolates were susceptibility tested using reference broth microdilution methods. Ceftobiprole had high activity against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (100.0% susceptible), methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), beta-hemolytic streptococci, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (99.3% susceptible), with MIC90 values of 0.25, 0.12, ?0.06, and 0.5 ?g/ml, respectively. Ceftobiprole was active against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (98.3% susceptible) and methicillin-resistant CoNS, having a MIC90 of 2 ?g/ml. Ceftobiprole was active against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC50/90, 0.5/4 ?g/ml) but not against most Enterococcus faecium isolates. Ceftobiprole was very potent against the majority of Enterobacteriaceae (87.3% susceptible), with >80% inhibited at ?0.12 ?g/ml. The potency of ceftobiprole against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC50/90, 2/>8 ?g/ml; 64.6% at MIC values of ?4 ?g/ml) was similar to that of ceftazidime (MIC50/90, 2/>16 ?g/ml; 75.4% susceptible), but limited activity was observed against Acinetobacter spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. High activity was also observed against all Haemophilus influenzae (MIC90, ?0.06 ?g/ml) and Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC50/90, ?0.06/0.25 ?g/ml) isolates. Ceftobiprole demonstrated a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against this very large longitudinal sample of contemporary pathogens. PMID:24777091

Flamm, Robert K.; Sader, Helio S.; Jones, Ronald N.



The incidence and aetiology of hospitalised community-acquired pneumonia among Vietnamese adults: a prospective surveillance in Central Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) including Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infectious disease that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The patterns of aetiological pathogens differ by region and country. Special attention must be paid to CAP in Southeast Asia (SEA), a region facing rapid demographic transition. Estimates burden and aetiological patterns of CAP are essential for the clinical and public health management. The purposes of the study are to determine the incidence, aetiological pathogens, clinical pictures and risk factors of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the Vietnamese adult population. Methods A prospective surveillance for hospitalised adult CAP was conducted in Khanh Hoa Province, Central Vietnam. All adults aged ?15 years with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) admitted to a provincial hospital from September 2009 to August 2010 were enrolled in the study. Patients were classified into CAP and non-pneumonic LRTI (NPLRTI) according to the radiological findings. Bacterial pathogens were identified from sputum samples by the conventional culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis; 13 respiratory viruses were identified from nasopharyngeal specimens by PCR. Results Of all 367 LRTI episodes examined, 174 (47%) were CAP. Older age, the presence of underlying respiratory conditions, and higher index score of smoking were associated with CAP. The one-year estimated incidence of hospitalised adult CAP in our study population was 0.81 per 1,000 person years. The incidence increased considerably with age and was highest among the elderly. The case fatality proportion of hospitalised CAP patients was 9.8%. Among 286 sputum samples tested for bacterial PCR, 79 (28%) were positive for H. influenzae, and 65 (23%) were positive for S. pneumoniae. Among 357 samples tested for viral PCR, 73 (21%) were positive for respiratory viruses; influenza A (n?=?32, 9%) was the most common. Conclusions The current adult CAP incidence in Vietnam was relatively low; this result was mainly attributed to the young age of our study population. PMID:23815298



Effectiveness of short-course therapy (5 days) with cefuroxime axetil in treatment of secondary bacterial infections of acute bronchitis.  

PubMed Central

Five hundred thirty-seven patients were enrolled in two independent, investigator-blinded, multicenter, randomized clinical trials comparing the clinical and bacteriologic efficacies and the safety of 5- or 10-day treatment with cefuroxime axetil with those of 10-day treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate in the treatment of secondary bacterial infections of acute bronchitis. Patients received either 5 or 10 days of treatment (n = 177 in each group) with cefuroxime axetil at 250 mg twice daily or 10 days of treatment (n = 183) with amoxicillin-clavulanate at 500 mg three times daily. Patients in the cefuroxime axetil (5 days) group received placebo on days 6 to 10. Bacteriologic assessments were based on sputum specimen cultures obtained preceding and, when possible, following treatment. Organisms were isolated from the pretreatment sputum specimens of 242 of 537 (45%) patients, with the primary pathogens being Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus (28, 25, 13, 9, and 8% of isolates, respectively). Pathogens were eradicated or presumed to be eradicated in 87% (52 of 60), 91% (53 of 58), and 86% (60 of 70) of bacteriologically evaluable patients treated with cefuroxime axetil (5 days), cefuroxime axetil (10 days), and amoxicillin-clavulanate, respectively. A satisfactory clinical outcome (cure or improvement) was achieved in 82% (107 of 130), 86% (117 of 136), and 83% (130 of 157) of the clinically evaluable patients treated with cefuroxime axetil (5 days), cefuroxime axetil (10 days), and amoxicillin-clavulanate, respectively. Treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate was associated with a significantly higher incidence of drug-related adverse events than was treatment with cefuroxime axetil for either 5 or 10 days (P = 0.001), primarily reflecting a higher incidence of drug-related gastrointestinal adverse events (37 versus 19 and 15%, respectively; P < 0.001), particularly diarrhea and nausea. These results indicate that treatment with cefuroxime axetil at 250 mg twice daily for 5 days is as effective as treatment for 10 days with either the same dose of cefuroxime axetil or amoxicillin-clavulanate at 500 mg three times daily in patients with acute bronchitis. In addition, treatment with cefuroxime axetil for either 5 or 10 days is associated with significantly fewer gastrointestinal adverse events, particularly diarrhea and nausea, than is 10-day treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate. PMID:8585739

Henry, D; Ruoff, G E; Rhudy, J; Puopolo, A; Drehobl, M; Schoenberger, J; Giguere, G; Collins, J J



21 CFR 522.2630 - Tulathromycin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...with Moraxella bovis. For the treatment of bovine foot rot (interdigital necrobacillosis) associated with Fusobacterium necrophorum and Porphyromonas levii. (iii) Limitations. Cattle intended for human consumption must...



21 CFR 522.2630 - Tulathromycin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...with Moraxella bovis . For the treatment of bovine foot rot (interdigital necrobacillosis) associated with Fusobacterium necrophorum and Porphyromonas levii . (iii) Limitations . Cattle intended for human consumption must...



21 CFR 522.2630 - Tulathromycin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...with Moraxella bovis . For the treatment of bovine foot rot (interdigital necrobacillosis) associated with Fusobacterium necrophorum and Porphyromonas levii . (iii) Limitations . Cattle intended for human consumption must...



21 CFR 522.2630 - Tulathromycin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...with Moraxella bovis . For the treatment of bovine foot rot (interdigital necrobacillosis) associated with Fusobacterium necrophorum and Porphyromonas levii . (iii) Limitations . Cattle intended for human consumption must...



La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal  

PubMed Central

Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas



Adjuvant Effects Elicited by Novel Oligosaccharide Variants of Detoxified Meningococcal Lipopolysaccharides on Neisseria meningitidis Recombinant PorA Protein: A Comparison in Mice  

PubMed Central

Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has adjuvant properties that can be exploited to assist vaccine immunogenicity. The modified penta-acylated LPS retains the adjuvant properties of hexa-acylated LPS but has a reduced toxicity profile. In this study we investigated whether two modified glycoform structures (LgtE and IcsB) of detoxified penta-acylated LPS exhibited differential adjuvant properties when formulated as native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs) as compared to the previously described LgtB variant. Detoxified penta-acylated LPS was obtained by disruption of the lpxL1 gene (LpxL1 LPS), and three different glycoforms were obtained by disruption of the lgtB, lgtE or icsB genes respectively. Mice (mus musculus) were immunized with a recombinant PorA P1.7-2,4 (rPorA) protein co-administered with different nOMVs (containing a different PorA serosubtype P1.7,16), each of which expressed one of the three penta-acylated LPS glycoforms. All nOMVs induced IgG responses against the rPorA, but the nOMVs containing the penta-acylated LgtB-LpxL1 LPS glycoform induced significantly greater bactericidal activity compared to the other nOMVs or when the adjuvant was Alhydrogel. Compared to LgtE or IcsB LPS glycoforms, these data support the use of nOMVs containing detoxified, modified LgtB-LpxL1 LPS as a potential adjuvant for future meningococcal protein vaccines. PMID:25545241

Mehta, Ojas H.; Norheim, Gunnstein; Hoe, J . Claire; Rollier, Christine S.; Nagaputra, Jerry C.; Makepeace, Katherine; Saleem, Muhammad; Chan, Hannah; Ferguson, David J. P.; Jones, Claire; Sadarangani, Manish; Hood, Derek W.; Feavers, Ian; Derrick, Jeremy P.; Pollard, Andrew J.; Moxon, E . Richard



IgG antibody subclass responses determined by immunoblot in infants' sera following vaccination with a meningococcal recombinant hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine.  


The introduction of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines into the UK immunisation schedule has led to the decline of serogroup C disease in those vaccinated but there is no imminent vaccine solution for serogroup B disease. The PorA outer membrane protein (OMP) is a potential serogroup B vaccine candidate and an outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine containing six different PorA OMPs (each representing a different serosubtype) has been evaluated in phase II trials with encouraging results. Little is known about the IgG subclass response to the various antigens contained within this vaccine. These responses are important due to the different half-lives and complement fixing abilities of these antibodies. In this study, immunoblotting was undertaken with infants' sera following either three or four doses of vaccine, and OMVs from six isogenic meningococcal strains differing only in their PorA serosubtype. Following either three or four doses of the vaccine, IgG(3) and IgG(1) subclass antibodies were induced to all six of the isogenic strains, although sera collected after four doses of vaccine showed stronger antibody levels. IgG(3) was found in more sera than IgG(1). For both sets of sera, the two isogenic strains expressing P1.5,2 and P1.5(c),10 induced stronger IgG subclass antibody responses than the other four meningococcal strains. The recombinant hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine stimulates both IgG(1) and IgG(3) subclass antibodies, the subclasses that are most effective in activating the complement system. PMID:11483265

Martin, S; Sadler, F; Borrow, R; Dawson, M; Fox, A; Cartwright, K



TABLN DE ANUNCIOS La recogida de DIPLOMAS de los cursos impartidos por este Departamento se harn slo los lunes y los  

E-print Network


Escolano, Francisco


El Informe Anual a la Nación indica que las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer continúan declinando. Se observan tasas menores de cáncer en las poblaciones latinas de los Estados Unidos.

Un informe nuevo de las principales organizaciones oncológicas de la nación informa que el riesgo de los estadounidenses de morir por cáncer continúa descendiendo, y que mantiene una tendencia que comenzó a principios de los años noventa. Preguntas y respuestas


El Informe Anual a la Nación indica que las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer continúan declinando: los avances en el tratamiento del cáncer varían según el tipo de cáncer

Las organizaciones oncológicas principales de la nación informan que el riesgo de los estadounidenses de morir de cáncer sigue disminuyendo y que las tasas de casos nuevos de cáncer permanecen estables. El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, de 1975 a 2002, señala que las tasas de mortalidad de cáncer que se observaron para todos los cánceres combinados disminuyeron 1,1 por ciento por año de 1993 a 2002.


Prevalência e intensidade da infecção por parasitas intestinais em crianças na idade escolar na Cidade de Salvador (Bahia, Brasil) Prevalence and intensity of infection by intestinal parasites in school-aged children in the City of Salvador (Bahia State, Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Resumo Como parte de um estudo para avaliar as relações entre mudanças ambientais e ocorrência de infecções, estudou-se a prevalência e intensidade de parasitas intestinais em uma amostra de crianças em idade escolar, residentes em Salvador. A prevalência de infectados por pelo menos um protozoário\\/helminto foi 66,1%. A prevalência da infecção por helmintos, se eleva com o aumento da

Maurício L. Barreto; Agostino Strina; João Augusto; S. Faria; Aline A. Nobre; Sandra R. Jesus


Biosensors and Bioelectronics 21 (2005) 523527 Short communication  

E-print Network

biosensor for p-nitrophenol using Moraxella sp.-modified carbon paste electrode Priti Mulchandani, Carlos M of hydroquinone formed in biodegradation of p-nitrophenol was measured at Moraxella sp.-modified carbon paste (short-term) inhalation or ingestion of p-nitrophenol in humans causes headaches, drowsiness, nausea

Chen, Wilfred


Fumar cigarrillos está relacionado con la mitad de los casos de cáncer de vejiga en mujeres; estudio de los NIH confirma que el riesgo de cáncer de vejiga por fumar es mayor de lo que se calculó anteriormente

Los fumadores actuales de cigarrillos tienen un mayor riesgo de padecer cáncer de vejiga que lo que se informó anteriormente, y ahora el riesgo de las mujeres es comparable al riesgo de los hombres, de acuerdo a un estudio llevado a cabo por científicos del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI). Aunque estudios anteriores mostraron que solo 20 a 30 % de los casos de cáncer en mujeres eran causados por fumar, estos nuevos datos indican que fumar es responsable de aproximadamente la mitad de los casos de cáncer de vejiga en la mujer.


Estudio de exámenes selectivos de detección de cáncer en los Estados Unidos indica que las pruebas anuales para detectar cáncer de próstata no tienen un beneficio en la mortalidad por esta enfermedad

Un nuevo e importante informe de un estudio, diseñado para proporcionar respuestas sobre la eficacia de los exámenes de detección de cáncer de próstata, fue difundido hoy por el Estudio de Exámenes Selectivos de Detección de Cáncer de Próstata, Pulmón, Colorrectal y Ovarios (Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian, PLCO), e indicó que los seis exámenes de detección de cáncer de próstata que se hicieron en seis años (uno cada año) dieron como resultado más diagnósticos de la enfermedad, pero no menos muertes por cáncer de próstata.


Dermatitis de contacto por alimentos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cutaneous adverse reactions to foods and food additives are a growing public health problem which can occur both in the avocational and occupational settings. This article reviews different reaction patterns which can occur upon contact with foods and discusses some clinically important food-associated metal and fragrance allergens responsible for these adverse effects. As ultimately, education and guidance can minimize the

A. Amado; S. E. Jacob



IgE Reactivity of Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus pelagicus) Tropomyosin, Por p 1, and Other Allergens; Cross-Reactivity with Black Tiger Prawn and Effects of Heating  

PubMed Central

Shellfish allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, but the allergens are not well characterized. This study examined the effects of heating on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) allergens in comparison with those of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) by testing reactivity with shellfish-allergic subjects' serum IgE. Cooked extracts of both species showed markedly increased IgE reactivity by ELISA and immunoblotting, and clinical relevance of IgE reactivity was confirmed by basophil activation tests. Inhibition IgE ELISA and immunoblotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the crab and prawn extracts, predominantly due to tropomyosin, but crab-specific IgE-reactivity was also observed. The major blue swimmer crab allergen tropomyosin, Por p 1, was cloned and sequenced, showing strong homology with tropomyosin of other crustacean species but also sequence variation within known and predicted linear IgE epitopes. These findings will advance more reliable diagnosis and management of potentially severe food allergy due to crustaceans. PMID:23840718

Varese, Nirupama; Zubrinich, Celia; Lopata, Andreas L.; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Rolland, Jennifer M.



IgE Reactivity of Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus pelagicus) Tropomyosin, Por p 1, and Other Allergens; Cross-Reactivity with Black Tiger Prawn and Effects of Heating.  


Shellfish allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, but the allergens are not well characterized. This study examined the effects of heating on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) allergens in comparison with those of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) by testing reactivity with shellfish-allergic subjects' serum IgE. Cooked extracts of both species showed markedly increased IgE reactivity by ELISA and immunoblotting, and clinical relevance of IgE reactivity was confirmed by basophil activation tests. Inhibition IgE ELISA and immunoblotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the crab and prawn extracts, predominantly due to tropomyosin, but crab-specific IgE-reactivity was also observed. The major blue swimmer crab allergen tropomyosin, Por p 1, was cloned and sequenced, showing strong homology with tropomyosin of other crustacean species but also sequence variation within known and predicted linear IgE epitopes. These findings will advance more reliable diagnosis and management of potentially severe food allergy due to crustaceans. PMID:23840718

Abramovitch, Jodie B; Kamath, Sandip; Varese, Nirupama; Zubrinich, Celia; Lopata, Andreas L; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Rolland, Jennifer M



Informe a la Nación indica que el índice de mortalidad por cáncer sigue bajando; la sección especial destaca las tendencias de los cánceres asociados con el VPH y los grados de cobertura de vacunación contra el VPH.

El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, de 1975 a 2009, indica que los índices generales de mortalidad por cáncer siguen bajando en los Estados Unidos en hombres y mujeres, entre todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales y para todos los sitios más comunes de cáncer, como pulmón, colon y recto, seno femenino y próstata.


Informe Anual a la Nación indica una reducción en los índices de incidencia y mortalidad por cáncer; una sección especial revela amplias variaciones en las tendencias del cáncer de pulmón en los estados

Un nuevo informe de las principales organizaciones oncológicas del país muestra que, por primera vez desde la primera publicación del informe en 1998, tanto el índice de incidencia como el de mortalidad para todos los cánceres combinados están disminuyendo en hombres y mujeres.


Impact of the CYP3A5, CYP3A4, COMT, IL-10 and POR Genetic Polymorphisms on Tacrolimus Metabolism in Chinese Renal Transplant Recipients  

PubMed Central

Tacrolimus is a widely used immunosuppressive drug for preventing the rejection of solid organ transplants. The efficacy of tacrolimus shows considerable variability, which might be related to genetic variation among recipients. We conducted a retrospective study of 240 Chinese renal transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus as immunosuppressive drug. The retrospective data of all patients were collected for 40 days after transplantation. Seventeen SNPs of CYP3A5, CYP3A4, COMT, IL-10 and POR were identified by the SNaPshot assay. Tacrolimus blood concentrations were obtained on days 1–3, days 6–8 and days 12–14 after transplantation, as well as during the period of the predefined therapeutic concentration range. Kruskal–Wallis test was used to examine the effect of genetic variation on the tacrolimus concentration/dose ratio (C0/D) at different time points. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportions of patients who achieved the target C0 range in the different genotypic groups at weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 after transplantation. After correction for multiple testing, there was a significant association of C0/D with CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1G and CYP3A4 rs4646437 T>C at different time points after transplantation. The proportion of patients in the IL-10 rs1800871-TT group who achieved the target C0 range was greater (p?=?0.004) compared to the IL-10 rs1800871-CT and IL-10 rs1800871-CC groups at week 3 after transplantation. CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4 *1G, CYP3A4 rs4646437 T>C and IL-10 rs1800871 C>T might be potential polymorphisms affecting the interindividual variability in tacrolimus metabolism among Chinese renal transplant recipients. PMID:24465960

Lin, Li; Jiang, Hai-Xia; Zhong, Ze-Yan; Li, Wei-Mo; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Zheng, Ping; Tan, Xu-Hui; Zhou, Lin



Exploring computational lead optimisation with affinity constants obtained by surface plasmon resonance for the interaction of PorA epitope peptides with antibody against Neisseria meningitidis.  


LUDI is a program used for de novo structure-based design of ligands and can predict binding of ligands quantitatively using a scoring function. Here we evaluate LUDI in a lead optimisation study with ligands for the antibody MN12H2, that has been raised against outer membrane protein PorA epitope P1.16 of Neisseria meningitidis. The ligands were synthetic peptides that are derived from the smallest binding epitope (182)DTNNN(186). LUDI's fragment building rules are used for the proposal of new peptide-ligands for MN12H2 and were focused on replacements of Asp(186) in the epitope. Accordingly, a series of peptides was synthesised with isosteric mutations. The interaction of the peptides with MN12H2 was analysed with a surface plasmon resonance competition assay yielding equilibrium binding constants in solution (K(S)). The binding affinity seems to be largely determined by entropy, and the side chain of Asn(186) is sensitive for charge, inversion, hydrophobicity and size. Head-to-tail cyclisation of the peptide in a nine-amino-acid ring gives little reduction in affinity. It is concluded that the scoring function of LUDI does not help in optimisation of the peptide lead for MN12H2 binding. Other more elaborate molecular mechanics calculations show similar results. This implies that our current knowledge of molecular recognition is insufficient for explaining a case of peptide-protein binding, where the design process requires subtle changes in structure (from lead finding to lead optimisation). PMID:11786227

Fischer, M J; Kuipers, C; Hofkes, R P; Hofmeyer, L J; Moret, E E; de Mol, N J



De conformidad con la Ley de Derechos Humanos de 1977 del Distrito de Columbia, segn enmendada, Cdigo Oficial del Distrito de Columbia, Seccin 2-1401.01 et seq., (Ley), el Distrito de Columbia no discrimina, de forma visible ni percibida, por  

E-print Network

De conformidad con la Ley de Derechos Humanos de 1977 del Distrito de Columbia, según enmendada la ausencia, el empleado no perderá ninguno de sus beneficios de empleo, ni tampoco los derechos por las estipuladas por la Ley. LAS QUEJAS CON RESPECTO A ALGUNA DENEGACI�N DE LOS DERECHOS EN VIRTUD DE

Weaver, Harold A. "Hal"


75 FR 76016 - Determination That AUGMENTIN `125' (Amoxicillin; Clavulanate Potassium) Chewable Tablet and Six...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and M. catarrhalis; skin and skin structure infections, caused by [beta]-lactamase-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella spp.; and urinary tract infections, caused by...



Long-term RNA persistence of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) after an outbreak of a natural infection: the detection of viral mRNA in sentinel pigs suggests viral transmission.  


The persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) in five pigs that had survived an outbreak of a natural infection was determined. After the resolution of the outbreak, each animal was housed in an isolation pen together with one sentinel pig. Approximately every 2 months thereafter one group of animals was euthanized and tissue samples taken for virological and serological analysis. Infectious virus was not isolated from any samples; antibodies to PorPV-LPMV were detected in convalescent pigs by virus neutralisation test and blocking ELISA but not in sentinel pigs. PorPV-LPMV mRNA of the nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) genes was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) in samples of trigeminal and optic nerves, cervical spinal cord, tonsils, salivary gland, lung and pancreas from convalescent pigs. mRNA was also detected in the midbrain, corpus callosum, or olfactory bulb in four out of five pigs by nRT-PCR, this result was confirmed by the sequencing of a 260bp PCR product of P gene region. The highest average viral copies/?g of total RNA occurred in the olfactory bulb and pancreas tissues of convalescent pigs and midbrain, tonsil and pancreas of sentinel pigs housed with the convalescent pigs. Satellitosis and gliosis of the midbrain, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata or choroid plexus were microscopically observed in four convalescent pigs. The control pig remained negative in all tests. The results indicate that PorPV-LPMV mRNA persists and induces a durable humoral immune response in pigs that have recovered from a natural infection. After a possible reactivation of the virus, it was transmitted to sentinel pigs in contact with the convalescent pigs. PMID:24768705

Cuevas-Romero, S; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Kennedy, S; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Berg, M; Moreno-López, J



10/14/2014 Gracias, moscas, por la cerveza | Ciencia | EL PAS 1/2  

E-print Network

10/14/2014 Gracias, moscas, por la cerveza | Ciencia | EL PAÍS 1/2 MIGUEL ÁNGEL CRIADO 14 OCT 2014 - 12:15 CEST 2 La levadura emite tres Ciencias naturales Ciencia El secreto de una buena cerveza no está en la cebada ni en el lúpulo sino en el


The Investigation of Nasal MRSA Carriage and Colonization of Nasopharyngeal Pathogens at a Primary School in Düzce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated bacteria species were as follows: 6% group A streptococcus (GAS), 5.0% S. pneumoniae, 33.1% M. catarrhalis, and 34.9% H. influenzae. All of the isolated GAS species were susceptible to penicillin. 8.3% of S. pneumoniae isolates were intermediately resistant to penicillin. Beta-lactamase test was found positive for M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae in 90.3 and 8.3%, respectively. There was a




AvaliaÁªo de imagens-Ìndice e imagens-proporÁªo na identificaÁªo de plantios florestais desfolhados por geadas e pelo ataque de insetos Evaluation of index-images and end-members images in the identification of forest stands stressed by frost and insect attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Foram utilizadas imagens TM\\/Landsat referentes a duas passagens para o estudo de Æreas afetadas por geadas e a outras duas passagens para a avaliaÁªo de Æreas atacadas por Thyrinteina arnobia, em Æreas de plantios de Eucalyptus spp. localizados em fazendas da Duraflora S\\/A do municÌpio de LenÁÛis Paulista (SP). A seleÁªo destes pares de passagens levou em consideraÁªo as

Jorge Ponzoni


Dermatitis de contacto por Agave americana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous plant species and their derivatives can cause skin reactions through a variety of mechanisms: irritative contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact urticaria and photodermatitis. We present a case of irritative contact dermatitis after exposure to the sap of Agave americana.The skin symptoms in this case have only been described on rare occasions; although this condition usually presents with a

Pablo de la Cueva; Mateo González-Carrascosa; Minia Campos; Vicente Leis; Ricardo Suárez; Pablo Lázaro




E-print Network

Eleitor; - Certificado de Dispensa de Incorporação; - CPF. Se candidato estrangeiro: - Certidão de Nascimento ou Casamento com tradução juramentada; - Carteira de Identidade; - CPF; - Passaporte, onde deverá



E-print Network

Eleitor; - Certificado de Dispensa de Incorporação; - CPF. Se candidato estrangeiro: - Certidão de Nascimento ou Casamento com tradução juramentada; - Carteira de Identidade; - CPF; - Passaporte, onde deverá) - Cópia do CPF - Cópia do Passaporte com visto de estudante/permanência atualizado (se estrangeiro



E-print Network

aceita); - Título de Eleitor; - Certificado de Dispensa de Incorporação; - CPF. Se candidato estrangeiro: - Certidão de Nascimento ou Casamento com tradução juramentada; - Carteira de Identidade; - CPF; - Passaporte de Dispensa de Incorporação (Apenas para alunos brasileiros) - Cópia do CPF - Cópia do Passaporte com



E-print Network

a convalidação dos estudos concedida pela Secretaria Estadual de Educação, no Brasil. Se o Ensino Médio foi); - Título de Eleitor; - Certificado de Dispensa de Incorporação; - CPF. Se candidato estrangeiro: - Certidão de Nascimento ou Casamento com tradução juramentada; - Carteira de Identidade; - CPF; - Passaporte



E-print Network

estudos concedida pela Secretaria Estadual de Educação, no Brasil. Se o Ensino Médio foi concluído nos Eleitor; - Certificado de Dispensa de Incorporação; - CPF. Se candidato estrangeiro: - Certidão de Nascimento ou Casamento com tradução juramentada; - Carteira de Identidade; - CPF; - Passaporte, onde deverá


Spectra/Por DispoDialyzer  

E-print Network

of Ultra-pure Dialysis Membrane Biotech RC (Regenerated Cellulose) Biotech CE (Cellulose Ester) 12 Distinct,000 235011 235023 235035 235047 235059 235071 135496 135524 135552 - BiotechRCBiotechCE Std.RC AMERICA. NO NO NO YES Assembly Req. NO NO NO NO Membrane Types Avail. Biotech RC, Biotech CE Biotech RC, Biotech CE

Lebendiker, Mario



Microsoft Academic Search

The author studies the incommensurability of economic models as a type, little explored of unconstitutionality, called the unconstitutionality for incommensurability of economic models. The author statutes that many of Colombian rules relapse in this type of methodological error and due to the lack of attention regarding the economic technique, no one had referred to this phenomenon. To explain the concept,

Pablo Márquez Escobar


Inconstitucionalidad por inconmesurabilidad de modelos económicos: El caso de las tasas retributivas por contaminación  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author studies the incommensurability of economic models as a type, little explored of unconstitutionality, called the unconstitutionality for incommensurability of economic models. The author statutes that many of Colombian rules relapse in this type of methodological error and due to the lack of attention regarding the economic technique, no one had referred to this phenomenon. To explain the concept,

Pablo Márquez-Escobar




Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a 22-year-old man victim of penetrating brain injury due to a 15 x 12 asbestos fragment and a successfully treatment via decompressive craniectomy. Unlike gunshot wounds to the head, penetrating brain injury from low energy objects are unusual. Most cases reported involve cranio- orbitary injuries as well as self inflicted lesions in mentally ill patients.

Gustavo Cardoso de Andrade; Roberto Leal Silveira; Aluízio Augusto; Gilberto Almeida; Fonseca Filho; Nilson Pinheiro Jr


Microbiological characteristics of Pacific shrimp (Pandalus jordani).  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms associated with Pacific shrimp (Pandalus jordani) were isolated and identified. Those on the iced raw shrimp, which yielded an average count of 1.6 x 10(6), were predominantly Moraxella, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, and Flavobacterium-Cytophaga spp. The blanching and peeling reduced the microbial level to 3.3 x 10(4) and also selectively eliminated Moraxella spp. The microbial flora changed after each processing sequence, and the heat sensitivity and growth characteristics of the representative microbial groups suggested that the presence of Arthrobacter and Acinetobacter spp. in peeled shrimp may indicate inadequate cleaning of raw shrimp or a shorter blanching time. The presence of Moraxella and Flavobacterium-Cytophaga spp. would indicate the degree of secondary contamination, and the presence of Pseudomonas spp. would indicate the shelf-age of the processed shrimp. PMID:869532

Lee, J S; Pfeifer, D K



Relapse of acute purulent otitis media: antibiotic sensitivities of nasopharyngeal pathogens.  


The present investigation was conducted to find out if a relapse of acute purulent otitis media is associated with a decreased sensitivity of nasopharyngeal pathogens to commonly used antimicrobial agents. All but one of 63 children with relapse included in this study yielded one or more of the classical middle ear pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Branhamella catarrhalis, S. pyogenes) in their nasopharynx (NPH) secretions. S. pneumoniae was the predominating isolate from NPH (71% of the patients) as well as from middle ear effusion (53%). At a control visit 4 weeks after the start of antibiotic therapy, 91% were NPH carriers of potential pathogens and S. pneumoniae was still the most common isolate (53%). Beta-lactamase was produced by 55% of B. catarrhalis isolates from the NPH specimens on the first visit, but only by 33% of B. catarrhalis isolates on the control visit. Two NPH isolates of H. influenzae produced beta-lactamase. One isolate of S. pneumoniae (serotype 18) was intermediately sensitive to phenoxymethylpenicillin. Generally low MICs were found for erythromycin and cefaclor. H. influenzae isolates were generally sensitive to ampicillin in vitro, but only 1 isolate was fully sensitive to erythromycin. B. catarrhalis isolates were uniformly sensitive to doxycycline and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. No tolerance to penicillin was demonstrated in S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae. The present data indicate that the relapse of acute otitis media is not associated with development of tolerance or resistance to therapeutic antimicrobials commonly used. PMID:3616495

Thore, M; Lidén, M



Taxonomy of Bordetella and Related Organisms of the Families Achromobacteraceae, Brucellaceae, and Neisseriaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical taxonomic study was made of strains belonging to the genera Bordetella, Alcaligenes, Brucella, Acinetobacter, Moraxella, Neisseria, Haemo- philus, Actinobacillus, and Pasteurella, together with a few strains from allied genera. They were examined for 139 characters covering a wide range of tests and properties. The strains fell into two major groups. Group A contained Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, and Pasteurella. Group



Detection of genes for periplasmic nitrate reductase in nitrate respiring bacteria and in community DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nested PCR primed by four degenerate oligonucleotides was developed for the specific amplification of sequences from the napA gene encoding the periplasmic nitrate reductase. This approach was used to amplify fragments of the napA gene from 10 Pseudomonas species and one Moraxella sp., previously shown to be able to express the periplasmic nitrate reductase activity, from Rhodobacter capsulatus and

Deborah A Flanagan; Lisa G Gregory; Jon P Carter; Asuman Karakas-Sen; David J Richardson; Stephen Spiro



Anaerobic Mineralization of Quaternary Carbon Atoms: Isolation of Denitrifying Bacteria on Pivalic Acid (2,2-Dimethylpropionic Acid)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradability of pivalic acid was established by the isolation of several facultative denitrifying strains belonging to Zoogloea resiniphila ,t oThauera and Herbaspirillum, and to Comamonadaceae, related to (Aquaspi- rillum) and Acidovorax, and of a nitrate-reducing bacterium affiliated with Moraxella osloensis. Pivalic acid was completely mineralized to carbon dioxide. The catabolic pathways may involve an oxidation to dimethyl- malonate or

Christina Probian; Annika Wulfing; Jens Harder



Simultaneous Degradation of Organophosphorus Pesticides and  

E-print Network

Simultaneous Degradation of Organophosphorus Pesticides and p-Nitrophenol by a Genetically Engineered Moraxella sp. with Surface-Expressed Organophosphorus Hydrolase Mark Shimazu,1,2 Ashok Mulchandani tanks and spray equip- ment (Munnecke, 1979). Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) isolated from soil

Chen, Wilfred


Comparative In Vitro Activities of GAR936 against Aerobic and Anaerobic Animal and Human Bite Wound Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

GAR-936 is a new semisynthetic glycylcycline with a broad antibacterial spectrum, including tetracycline- resistant strains. The in vitro activities of GAR-936, minocycline, doxycycline, tetracycline, moxifloxacin, penicillin G, and erythromycin were determined by agar dilution methods against 268 aerobic and 148 anaerobic strains of bacteria (including Pasteurella, Eikenella, Moraxella, Bergeyella, Neisseria, EF-4, Bacteroides, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Corynebacterium, Propi-




Computando lo aspero Por que se cuelgan las computadoras?  

E-print Network

construir una m´aquina que demuestre teoremas y as´i encuentre todas las verdades matem´aticas. Kurt G¨odel´aquina no puede resolver. #12;Historia de Hilbert y sus amigos David Hilbert: Bueno... yo pens´e que... Kurt G¨odel

Figueira, Santiago



Microsoft Academic Search

A heating equipment for residential water was built, using two solar collectors and one isolated reservoir. The system uses to copper tubes perforated by thermal flow drilling (TFT), brazing with silver solder. The thermal fluid moves due to the density change of the cold and hot water. It is a mixture of ethyleneglycol-water and the heat is exchanged in the

Jorge Vergara Díaz




E-print Network

Guayana, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela. Mesa # 7: Reducir los riesgos y hacer frente a la incertidumbre la naturaleza transversal y compleja del riesgo y el agua. 2. Riesgo y agua en Venezuela, un monitoreo poco consolidado para una exposición territorial a la amenaza alta. (3) Venezuela tiene

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Adenocarcinoma de Páncreas en paciente joven diagnosticado por Ultrasonografía Endoscópica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse hemangioma of the rectum is a rare benign vascular lesion. The case of a 30 year-old male with intermittent rectal bleeding with an evolution of 2 years and symptoms related to chronic ferropenic anemia is presented. The rectal endoscopy was interpreted as a malignant neoplastic epithelial lesion spread throughout the rectum. The biopsy indicated that it was a rectal

Fernando Barreda Bolaños; Italo Landeo Aliaga; Sandra Pando Huarcaya; Fabiola Bayro


Elaborado por la Unidad Tcnica de Calidad Mayo de 2011  

E-print Network

,0 Calidad de los alimentos 5,8 6,2 6,4 7,7 7,4 8,7 5,3 Cantidad de los alimentos servidos 6,1 6,7 6,4 7,7 6,6 8,8 5,2 Presentación de los alimentos 5,9 6,5 6,2 7,4 6,6 8,5 5,4 SOBRE EL TRATO DEL PERSONAL Trato,1 6,9 7,3 7,0 8,6 6,5 Manipulación de los alimentos 6,3 6,7 7,0 7,3 7,0 8,6 6,7 POLÍTICA DE PRECIOS

Escolano, Francisco


A visão de ciência propagada por Carl Sagan.  

E-print Network

??Esta dissertação de mestrado propõe uma análise crítica da obra de divulgação científica do astrônomo estadunidense Carl Sagan (1934-1996). Cientista e autor multifacetado, largamente conhecido… (more)

Danilo Nogueira Albergaria Pereira



Pneumonia adquirida na comunidade numa criança saudável por Acinetobacter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acinetobacter is involved in a variety of infectious diseases primarily associated with healthcare. Recently there has been increasing evidence of the important role these pathogens play in community acquired infections.We report on the case of a previously healthy child, aged 28 months, admitted for fever, cough and pain on the left side of the chest, which on radiographic examination corresponded

G. Moreira Silva; L. Morais; L. Marques; V. Senra



Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the role the question of being plays in the development of Heidegger's thought. It is shown that the basic question of traditional ontology doesn't provide a Leitfaden for Heidegger's philosophical development as a whole. Actually, in his first academic writings, Heidegger shifts from the traditional neo-




Consulta por Classificao / rea Avaliao STATUSESTRATOTTULOISSN REA DE AVALIAO  

E-print Network

: Endocrinology and Metabolism A1 NUTRIÃ?Ã?O Atualizado 0363-6119 American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory (Print) A1 NUTRIÃ?Ã?O Atualizado 8756-3282 Bone (New York, N.Y.) A1 NUTRIÃ?Ã?O Atualizado 0007-1145 British-5085 Gastroenterology (New York, N.Y. 1943) A1 NUTRIÃ?Ã?O Atualizado 1078-0998 Inflammatory Bowel Diseases A1 NUTRIÃ?Ã?O

Paraná, Universidade Federal do


Becas y Ayudas de Pregrado: resumen por Centro BECAS CONCEDIDAS  

E-print Network


Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad


Obtenção de gorduras low trans por interesterificação quimica.  

E-print Network

??As gorduras trans, principalmente presentes nos alimentos industrializados como biscoitos, gorduras para fritura, margarinas, entre outros, são resultados da hidrogenação parcial, processo utilizado pela indústria… (more)

Miluska Castillo Caceres



Mecanismos de modulacin por atencin selectiva entre reas corticales  

E-print Network

Referencias Índice 1 3 4 5 8 8 11 13 15 16 21 26 29 30 31 32 35 38 40 41 45 51 #12;#12;Capítulo 1 actividad de las neuronas de la corteza visual depende de sobre qué zona del campo visual se encuentra

Ardid, Salva


Durabilidade de compósito biomassa vegetal-cimento modificado por polímero  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURABILITY OF CELLULOSE-CEMENT COMPOSITES MODIFIED BY POLYMER ABSTRACT: The durability of the cellulose-cement composites is a decisive factor to introduce such material in the market. Polymers have been used in concrete and mortar production to increase its durability. The goal of this work was the physical and mechanical characterization of cellulose-cement composites modified by a polymer and the subsequent durability

Lia L. Pimentel; Antonio L. Beraldo; Holmer Savastano Júnior




E-print Network

conocimiento natural del que es capaz la mente del hombre" Robert Hooke, MICROGRAPHIA, 1665. "Un aspecto, a investigadores tan destacados como Rudolf Schoenheimer, Linus Pauling, Robert Robinson y George Beadle. Pero el

Escolano, Francisco



E-print Network

) Alfabetização, Leitura e Escrita GT10 Claudia Maria Mendes Gontijo (UFES) Política da Educação Superior GT11 Educação GT23 Claudia Maria Ribeiro (UFLA) Educação e Arte GT24 Monique Andries Nogueira (UFRJ) #12 dos Reis Silva Júnior (UFSCar) Currículo GT12 Antônio Carlos Rodrigues de Amorim (UNICAMP) Educação

Paraná, Universidade Federal do



Microsoft Academic Search

with the immunologic status and evolution of the patients infected with the HIV. METHODS: The medical records of 419 patients hospitalized infected with the HIV from January-85 to November-93 were reviewed. RESULTS: We identified 51 (12%) patients with pleural pathology (PP). We analyze the immunologic status, risk factors, years of infection, characteristic of pleural fluid, treatment, evolution and follow-up. Ali

J. Hernández Borge; J. Muñoz Méndez; R. Villagómez Cerrato; C. García Polo


Predação de Opisthocomus hoazin por Spizaetus ornatus e de Bubulcus ibis por Bubo virginianus em Tocantins, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predation of Cattle Egret by the Great Horned Owl and Hoazin by the Ornate Hawk-Eagle in western Tocantins State, Brazil. We report the predation of Hoazin Opisthocomus hoazin by an immature Ornate Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus ornatus, a new prey for this species in Brazil. The Ornate Hawk-Eagle roosted together with Hoazin assembly in branches of Sapium haematospermum, typical river borderline vegetation.

Túlio Dornas; Renato Torres Pinheiro


Identificación de péptidos miméticos al epítopo reconocido por el anticuerpo monoclonal específico por el EGF, CB-EGF1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of peptide mimics of the epitope recognized by CB-EGF1, a monoclonal antibody EGF specific. As part of an integral structure and function study, we characterized the natural epitope on the EGF recognized by the CB-EGF1 monoclonal antibody, by using peptides displayed on the coat protein of filamentous bacteriophages. Data analyzed demonstrated that the CB-EGF1 monoclonal antibody recognizes a conformational

Yaquelin Puchades; Ariana G Ojalvo; Yanet García; Glay Chinea; Haydée Gerónimo; Nelson S Vispo


Microbiological basis of phosphate removal in the activated sludge process for the treatment of wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several strains resembling members of theAcinetobacter-Moraxella-Mima group of bacteria were isolated from activated sludge-type sewage treatment plants designed for phosphate removal. The bacteria are obligate aerobes but utilize as carbon and energy sources low-molecular intermediates generated anaerobically, particularly acetate and ethanol. These bacteria can be shown to be responsible for the phosphate luxury uptake occurring in these treatment plants. The

G. W. Fuhs; Min Chen



Numerical taxonomy of gram-negative, nonmotile, nonfermentative bacteria isolated during chilled storage of lamb carcasses.  

PubMed Central

A numerical taxonomic study using 75 characters was performed with 132 strains of gram-negative, nonmotile, nonfermentative bacteria selected on the basis of lack of motility and Gram reaction among 1,200 cultures isolated during aerobic storage of lamb carcasses. At the 80% similarity level (SSM), eight clusters were formed. Strains in clusters 1 to 6 could be identified as members of the family Moraxellaceae and, more specifically, as members of the Psychrobacter-[Moraxella] phenylpyruvica subgroup. Of these strains, clusters 1 and 2 (88 strains) were identified as [Moraxella] phenylpyruvica and cluster 3 (15 strains) was identified as Psychrobacter immobilis. Clusters 4, 5, and 6 were not identifiable with any species. Clusters 7 and 8 consisted of 14 strains considered nonmotile variants of Pseudomonas fragi. The highest separation indices corresponded to acid production from certain carbohydrates (melibiose, L-arabinose, and cellobiose). Although strains of Psychrobacter-Moraxella clusters were relatively frequently identified at the completion of slaughter, very few cultures were detected on spoiled carcasses. It appears, therefore, that this group of organisms has only low spoilage potential. PMID:1637162

Prieto, M; García-Armesto, M R; García-López, M L; Otero, A; Moreno, B



Avaliação in vitro do colar de implantes cone Morse de diferentes diâmetros sob cargas cêntrica e excêntrica: estudo por meio da Interferometria Eletrônica por Padrões de Speckle.  

E-print Network

??Cargas oclusais excessivas podem promover tensões exageradas às estruturas de implantes/pilares/próteses, resultando em deformação, desadaptação ou mesmo fratura dos componentes e do próprio implante. Além… (more)

Sergio Rodrigues Sizo




E-print Network


Escolano, Francisco


Clinicomicrobiological profile of children with acute pharyngitis with special reference to streptococcol grouping.  


A total of 100 patients of acute pharyngitis were evaluated clinically and investigated microbiologically. Eighty patients proved culture positive acute pharyngitis, among them 17 patients proved positive for beta-haemolytic streptococci, 14 patients for Staphylococcus aureus, 24 for pneumococci, 13 patients for Streptococcus viridans, 3 for Brahmanella catarrhalis, 4 for coagulase negative staphylococci, 5 had mixed infection. Further streptococcal grouping was carried out on these isolates. Out of 17 isolates of beta-haemolytic streptococci 13 (76.47%) belonged to group A and 2 each (11.76%) belonged to group C and group G. PMID:23469573

Patil, Harsha B; Shahapur, Praveen R



Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.


Parcelas de agrado alrededor de Santiago y Valparaíso: ¿Migración por amenidad a la chilena?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article analyzes the legal framework, distribution and spatial structure of amenity migration in mountain regions in Chile (Cordillera de la Costa, Cordi- llera de los Andes) and their trends in recent decades. Presents three case studies, two in mountainous regions and one in a semi-mountainous area. Ba- sed on qualitative data (interview with experts), and the relations between neig-

Rodrigo Hidalgo; Axel Borsdorf; Felipe Plaza



Los dioses en sí mismos: lo afrocubano en Requiem por Yarini de Carlos Felipe  

E-print Network

desenvuelve en el ambiente mágico donde Yarini es una representación humana del Oricha Changó, y el ocultismo controla toda la realidad terrenal. Esta asociación entre Yarini y Changó viene del hecho de que tanto el chulo como el dios aparecen dominando lo...

Linares-Ocanto, Luis



Sintomas Depressivos e Qualidade de Vida em Indivíduos com Epilepsia por Esclerose Mesial Temporal  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Introdução: Dificuldades no trabalho, em relacionamentos interpessoais, familiares e sociais, a percepção do estigma, da discriminação dentre outros têm sido associados aos estados depressivos interictais, influen- ciando negativamente a qualidade de vida (QV) das pessoas com epilepsia. A depressão tem alta prevalência (20 a 55%) nas epilepsias, sendo vista como o fator mais importante no julgamento do paciente sobre

Neide Barreira Alonso; Tatiana Indelicato da Silva; Ana Carolina Westphal; Auro Mauro Azevedo



Microsoft Academic Search

Case report: We describe the case of a patient suffe- ring from acute visual loss soon after watching a solar eclipse. Optical coherence tomography was the main diagnostic tool used. Discussion: Solar retinopathy is now an unusual cause of visual loss, although there are still some cases diagnosed, especially after viewing solar eclipses. Optical coherence tomography is suitable for detecting



Diplomaturas y Licenciaturas por facultades y escuelas en Centros Propios de la UAM TITULACIONES (ESTUDIOS)  

E-print Network

PROFESORADO Y EDUCACI�N Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte Psicopedagogía Maestro en Audición y Aplicaciones del Arte en la Integración Social Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte Innovación y

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad


PROGRAMA DE MAESTRA Y DOCTORADO EN INGENIERA Subcomit Acadmico por Campo del Conocimiento  

E-print Network

para tratamiento de aguas residuales Dr. Simón González y Dr. Oscar González (Campus CU) Dra. Gabriela aguas residuales Dr. Pedro Martínez Pereda y Dr. Eduardo Vega (Campus CU) Dr. Simón González y Dr. Oscar) Tratamiento anaerobio de aguas residuales y lodos Dr. Adalberto Noyola (Campus CU) y Dr. Juan Manuel Morgan

Islas, León


Ausencia de interferencias analíticas por anestésicos locales en constituyentes bioquímicos del suero  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obtaining blood samples for analysis in paediatric patients is a complex process due to the small calibre of veins and arteries, and their fragility, and in particular, the nervous stress that these patients suffer during the extraction. This situation means that the quantity of blood is limited or insufficient and biochemical measurements cannot be made. There is currently great interest

Aránzazu Martín García; Esperanza Fuente Souviron; Ana Franco Lovaco



Timectomía por videotoracoscopia asistida con bloqueo anestésico paravertebral bilateral en pacientes miasténicos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Thymectomy continues to be the treatment of choice for certain patients with myasthenia gravis. As surgical techniques have developed, anesthesiologists have con- sidered the need to adapt anesthetic techniques to improve care of patients undergoing this procedure. We describe the anesthetic management of 2 patients under- going thymectomy performed with a bilateral thoracos- copic approach. Because it is best

J. L. López-Berlanga; I. Garutti; E. Martínez-Campos; P. Piñeiro; D. Salvatierra



Microsoft Academic Search

Soil redistribution due to tillage practices has been identified as an intensive soil erosion process. The long-term effects of this intensive soil redistribution within agricultural fields have resulted in a drastic modification of the landscapes. This paper presents several cases of field features observed in agricultural fields of contrasted agronomical and environmental conditions in Central Spain, Tuscany (Italy) and Central




E-print Network

that the muscle fatigue process is not linearly increasing through the duration of an isometric exercise. Thus, we propose separately evaluating fatigability in three phases of the exercise. This methodology, combined

Carvalho, João Luiz


Master equipment list 500 CFM portable exhauster POR-005 skid C  

SciTech Connect

The Master Equipment List (MEL) lists all the major components of the 500 cfm exhauster PORO5. The purpose of this Master Equipment List is to provide basic information and references to other documents for the listed components.




Necrose cutânea induzida por antagonistas da vitamina K Skin necrosis induced by vitamin K antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral anticoagulants acting via vitamin K antagonists have long been employed in the clinical practice. However, difficulties related to the management of treatment regimens and complications still persist. Among the complications, bleeding disorders are widely known, but oth- ers should also be taken into consideration, such as warfarin-induced skin necrosis. The pathophysiology of this rare but severe complication is still

Jose Manoel da Silva; Fernando Thomazinho; Wander Eduardo Sardinha; Igor Schincariol Perozin; Domingos de Morais Filho



Producción de Nuez en Nogales (Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch) Atacados por Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (Duggar) Hennebert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nut production was compared in healthy and diseased pecan trees with cotton root rot (Phymatotrichopsis omnivora), established under different management and soil conditions. Healthy and diseased pecan trees with different severity were selected from orchards la Barranca, Florida, and Florencia, to evaluate nut production during three years for the first orchard, and for four years in the other two. Significant

José Alfredo Samaniego-Gaxiola; Teodoro Herrera-Pérez


Avaliação estrutural e reologica de emulsões simples e multiplas estabilizadas por caseinato de sodio e jatai.  

E-print Network

??Proteínas e polissacarídeos são amplamente utilizados em emulsões alimentícias como agentes emulsificantes e estabilizantes. Entretanto, a presença de ambos biopolímeros em solução aquosa pode resultar… (more)

Fabiana de Assis Perrechil



Religião e uso de drogas por adolescentes Religion and drug use by adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction Many international studies show that religion is an important dimension modulating the use of alcohol and drugs by adolescents. Objectives: to determine which religious variables are associated to frequent or heavy use of alcohol, tobacco and drugs among adolescents in inter- mediate and high schools in Campinas, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study using a self-report anonymous questionnaire was administered

Paulo Dalgalarrondo


Laboratorio de Sistemtica Humana El Laboratorio de Sistemtica Humana est compuesto por dos grupos de investigacin  

E-print Network

, J. F. (2012). «Conference Report: The Neurosciences and Music - IV - Learning and Memory». Psychomusicology: Music, Mind & Brain, 22(1), 1-4. -- Nadal, M., Gálvez, A., Gomila, A. (2013) «A History:// Máster en Cognición y Evolución Humana: Doctorado en Cognición y

Oro, Daniel



Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we have studied the degradation of Antioxidant Activities by thermic treat- ment at 70, 80 y 90ºC in juices of varios citrus: orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarins (Citrus reticu- lata), lemon (Citrus limon), pomelo (Citrus paradisi) y lime Rangpur (Citrus limonia Osbeck). Antioxidant Activities were measured using the DPPH method. Antioxidant Activities degradation follows a zero-order reaction.



Prof. Sylvio Canuto, IFUSP O processo de submisso, editorao e reviso por  

E-print Network

of Computational Methods in Science and Engineering ·Editorial Board of the Advances in Physical Chemistry (online of Molecular Spectroscopy · Theochem (now: Computational and Theoretical Chemistry) · Journal of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry · Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics (PCCP) · Physical Review A, B, E · Physical

Souza, Max O.


Detección y estudio de las perturbaciones generadas en la atmósfera por los eventos \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Benguela Niño are extreme events, usually warm and intermittent. They affect the west coast of Africa. Unlike its homonymous of the Pacific ocean (ENSO), the available information about the modifications introduced in the atmosphere by these events is scarcely known. This contribution shows the abrupt perturbations generated in the atmosphere by the events El Niño Benguela during the last

Patricia del Valle Repossi; Pablo Osvaldo Canziani



Datos epidemiológicos del trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad en una muestra de niños marabinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Aims. This study reports the findings of a research project aimed at determining the rate of prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in school-aged children. Patients and methods. Different behavioural and cognitive measures were administered to a sample of children between 3 and 13 years of age obtained by means of a multistage sampling procedure that was stratified

J. A. Peña


Quantificação de nitrofurazona e de nitrofurantoína em medicamentos por espectrofotometria de refletância difusa e de transmissão.  

E-print Network

??A nitrofurazona e a nitrofurantoína são substâncias derivadas dos nitrofuranos e comercializadas em preparações farmacêuticas com ação bactericida, antifúngica e antimicrobiana com um amplo espectro… (more)

Marcio das Neves Palumbo




PubMed Central

Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con el propósito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utilizó una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente más prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron más prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a través del currículo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

Fernández Rodríguez, María del C.; Squiabro, José Calderón



PROPUESTA DE MINOR La siguiente ficha de proposicin de minor ser evaluada por el Consejo de  

E-print Network

Introducción a la Astrofísica y Relatividad General el alumno aprenderá sobre la formulación relativista de la 10 FI 3103 Electrodinámica 15 FI 40E Introducción a la Astrofísica y Relatividad General 10 Cursos en la cosmología. En el curso de Física Moderna el alumno aprenderá los conceptos de la Relatividad

Rapaport, Iván



Microsoft Academic Search

Este art´ iculo presenta un nuevo metodo de integracion numerica de ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias basado en la cuantificacion de las variables de estado. Utilizando conceptos de integracion impl´ icita, el nuevo metodo denominado BQSS (Backward Quantized State Systems) permite integrar sistemas stiff de manera eficiente. Siendo el primer metodo de cuantificacion para sistemas stiff, BQSS es en s´ iu n

Ernesto Kofman; Gustavo Migoni


Producao d Dijatos por Dupla Troca de Pomeron Exclusiva no Experimento D0  

SciTech Connect

The first search for exclusive diffractive dijet production with invariant mass {approx}> 100 GeV in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is performed. The set of data used is the Run IIa, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV taken with the D0 detector. At 95% CL, an upper limit for the ratio between the number of diffractive exclusive events and the number of non diffractive events is set to be 7.5 x 10{sup -6}, excluding two of the three models proposed to explain this production.

Rangel, Murilo, Santana; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF



Universidad de Alicante PRESUPUESTOS 2013 9.-Presupuesto de gastos por programas  

E-print Network

(ayudas transporte) Movilidad estudiantes Movilidad PDI PEM, practicum, prácticas de campo Plan de (Estudiantes y Titulados) Movilidad estudiantes 70%FGUA Cap.6: 100% SIBID Difusión de las tecnologías de la ENS/ENI Evaluación de la calidad Gobierno ti Movilidad PAS Plan de Formación Protocolo Pruebas acceso

Escolano, Francisco


Un caso de pseudomiasis por larvas de Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) en un bovino  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. A case of bovine pseudomyiasis caused by Her- metia illucens larvae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae). Introduction. Hermetia illucens is a dipterous which can produce gastroenteric pseudomyasis in humans and domestic animals. The larvae develop in a wide range of animal and vegetable decaying materials and can be accidentally ingested by

Pablo Manrique-Saide; Roger I. Rodríguez-Vivas; Manuel Quiñones Rodríguez


Alterações comportamentais do golfinho Sotalia guianensis (Gervais, 1953) provocadas por embarcações  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral alterations in the gray dolphin Sotalia guianensis (Gervais, 1953) caused by sea traffic. Behavioral responses by Sotalia guianensis dolphins in the presence of touristic sea traffic in the bay of Curral, Pipa-RN, Brazil, were measured. The dolphins changed their behavior when boats were closer than 100 meters. The main behavioral alterations were that the dolphins remained submerged for longer

Anderson Luis; Francielli Cristine Cunha Melo


Listado de cursos por temtica Artes plsticas y visuales en Alicante (1960-2013)  

E-print Network

'estat espanyol El lenguaje en las redes sociales: de facebook a whatsapp CIENCIAS DE LA EDUCACI�N Realitat 2 Espinosa: dialectología y sociolingüistica en el contexto histórico y social del contacto de lenguas. CURSO ordenamiento jurídico?. CURSO CANCELADO CIENCIAS SOCIALES Intervención con menores hijos/as de víctimas de

Escolano, Francisco


Mielopatia por deficiência de vitamina B12 apresentando-se como mielite transversa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin B12 deficiency may induce neuropathy, myelopathy, dementia and optic neuropathy. The diagnosis is established by vitamin B12, homocysteine and methylmalonic acid measurements. Myelin and axon destruction in the white matter of the spinal cord are observed. The posterior column of the cervical and thoracic level is the most common involved area. The involvement of the anterior column is restricted

Luiz Felipe Rocha Vasconcellos; Rosalie Branco Corrêa; Leila Chimelli; Fernanda Nascimento; Adriane Baptista Fonseca; Janaina Nagel; Sergio Augusto Pereira Novis; Maurice Vincent




E-print Network

DEGAUQUE * Ineris - **Umversite des Sciences et techniques de Lilie ABSTRACT Remote control of mobile machines a research program, in collaboration with the Vmversiti des Sciences et Techniques de Lilie to sauty, high pressure water tunnels), this microwave transmission System hos a definitie Potential for remote

Boyer, Edmond


Understanding+EasyMock+ Por3olioApp++EasyMock+&+JUnit+  

E-print Network

+ · App+uses+a+stock+market+service+to+retrieve+ stock+prices+(such+as+NASDAQ)+ · Wouldn't+hit+the+real+stock+market+ · StockMarket+interface+ ­to+retrieve+the+stock+prices+ ­We+will+mock+this+ WriMng+test+cases+ · Line+1+­+createMock()+G+ask+EasyMock+to+create+a+ mock+object+for+our+StockMarket+interface+ · Line+2+­+expect

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of


Avaliação da infecção por morbilivírus em cetáceos arrojados na costa portuguesa.  

E-print Network

??Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária O Dolphin morbilivírus (DMV) e o Porpoise morbillivirus (PMV) são membros da subfamília Paramyxovirinae, família Paramyxoviridae. Estes vírus… (more)

Bento, Maria Carolina Rocha de Medeiros



Título del artículo: Terminología pedagógica específica al enfoque por competencias : El concepto de competencia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of competence has crystallized numerous debates between those who use different concepts to refer to a same reality, and those who use the same concept to represent different realities (Roegiers, 2004). Without trying to enter into the debate, we first present different definitions incountered in the literature, definitions which we will analyze and compare with the purpose of




16 FEBRUARY 2005 hree in the morning, too much coffee, and hours of por-  

E-print Network

. They began building the bell tower in the 1170s, but stopped after putting up only three stories when, with the pepper, leather, and fur trades and so many people coming and going. . .a great place to grow up in

Brown, Ezra


No-Three-in-Line-in-3D Attila Por1  

E-print Network

No-Three-in-Line-in-3D Attila P´or1 and David R. Wood1,2 1 Department of Applied Mathematics-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004 #12;396 Attila P´or and David R. Wood Theorem 1. The maximum number of points

Wood, David R.


El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.…

Padgett, Ron


ISDA 2010, Montpellier, June 28-30, 2010 1 IDENTIFICACIN DE CRITERIOS UTILIZADOS POR  

E-print Network

by traditional Mapuche specialists relative to adaptation and domestication of vegetal species on his home garden of " aesthetic and sensory value " and the third criteria "inheritance" with "Biodiversity conservation " present

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Chemotherapy induced neuropathy in clinical practice Neuropatía inducida por quimioterapia en la práctica clínica  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Neuropathic pain is a common symptom amongst patients with chemotherapy induced peripheral nerve neurotoxicity, and symptoms are indistinguishable from those seen with toxic neuropathy from other causes. The neuropathy is predominantly sensory and follows a glove-stocking distribution and associates with burning pain. Autonomic neuropathy manifested as constipation frequently occurs. There are some risk factors for neuropathy caused by chemotherapy:

Camilo E. Fadul


¿Qué opinan pediatras y residentes de Pediatría sobre la rotación por Atención Primaria?  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionSince 2007, on a mandatory, pediatric residents (PR) have been obliged to rotate into primary health care centers for 3 months. On disagreeing with the type of rotation proposed, the teaching group of the Spanish Primary Care Pediatrics Association (AEPap) was raised to find out the views of Hospital Pediatricians (PH), Pediatrics Health Care (PHC) and PR in terms of

J. M. García Puga; C. Villazán Pérez; B. Domínguez Aurrecoechea; R. Ugarte Líbano



Indução de resistência sistêmica por rizobactérias e comunicação na rota de sinalização para uma defesa refinada  

Microsoft Academic Search

RHIZOBACTERIA-INDUCED SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE AND\\u000aPATHWAY CROSS TALK TO FINE-TUNE DEFENSE\\u000aEvolution has provided plants with sophisticated defensive\\u000astrategies to “perceive” attack by pathogens and insects, and to translate that\\u000a“perception” into an appropriate adaptive response. Plant innate immunity is\\u000abased on a surprisingly complex response that is highly flexible in its capacity\\u000ato recognize and respond to the invader encountered.

C. M. J. Pieterse; J. A. van Pelt; A. C. M. van Wees; J. Ton; B. W. M. Verhagen; K. Léon-Kloosterziel; S. Hase; M. de Vos; V. van Oosten; Maria J. Pozo; S. H. Spoel; S. van der Ent; A. Koornneef; A. Chalfun-Junior; M. L. V. Resende; L. C. van Loon



Tromboprofilaxis durante inmovilización por lesión traumática no quirúrgica del miembro inferior. Un enfoque extrahospitalario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin is efficient, effective and generates savings in health costs in hospitals. However, outside hospitals, there are situations of apparent risk of thrombosis, where there seems to be no such consensus. This occurs in traumatic lower limb injuries which are not undergoing surgery and need a period of immobilization. These are processes with multidisciplinary interventions

R. Garrastazu; J. R. Fernández-Fonfria


El enfoque distributivo en el análisis de la discriminación salarial por razón de género  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se presentan las ventajas de analizar el problema de la discriminación salarial desde una perspectiva distributiva, considerando la experiencia discriminatoria de forma individualizada. Para ello se muestran las limitaciones tanto de los procedimientos clásicos (centrados únicamente en la media de la distribución salarial), como de recientes metodologías distributivas basadas en la utilización de regresiones cuantílicas y en

Coral del Río Otero; Carlos Gradín Lago; Olga Cantó Sánchez




Microsoft Academic Search

En la investigación se realizaron encuestas a mujeres gerentes de pequeñas y medianas empresas de Ciudad Valles S.L.P para conocer si han sido afectadas al ser seleccionadas, en su capacitación, prestaciones o en su ascenso, confirmándose que el 64% de ellas han sufrido algún tipo de discriminación, esto sin considerar que muchas se han visto afectadas en varios de los

Ana Diana Betancourt Enríquez; Blanca Torres Espinosa; Xochitl Tamez Martinez; Sonia Hernández Reséndiz



Diferencias en el desempleo por género. ¿ Hay discriminación en el acceso al trabajo?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esta investigación analiza la iferencia existente entre las tasas de desempleo de hombres y mujeres en Colombia. Se observa que la tasa de desempleo de la mujer siempre ha sido superior a la del hombre y que en los últimos años la diferencia ha disminuido. Se busca establecer cuáles son las características de la mujer que hacen que su tasa

Mauricio Amador Pilonieta; Paula Herrera Idárraga



Violencia y prosocialidad en los contenidos televisivos infantiles visionados por menores  

E-print Network

telebista-saioen edukiei buruzko azterketa bat oinarrian harturik, eta, bestetik, eduki bortitzen pertzeptzioari buruzko galdetegi bat, 4-12 urte 1 children programmes. We see gender differences on violence apprecial. Keywords: Television Contents

Escolano, Francisco



Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to characterize the morphological variables, by game position (GP), of male athletes who participated on the X Pan-American Games in Team Handball (XPGTH) and also to analyse the very same variables of the best athletes by in relation to other athletes who played in the same GP. 103 athletes were measured, and the nacional

Maria Fátima Glaner


508 Mastozoologa Neotropical, 2009 por la presencia del bosque nativo y la proteccin  

E-print Network

, y una menor tolerancia a los cambios en el paisaje respecto al puma. Mientras las áreas aptas para el jaguar también fueron aptas para el puma, el 54% de las áreas aptas para el puma no fueron consideradas con aptitud para el jaguar, demostrando la mayor resiliencia del puma a la fragmentación y pérdida

Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad


MA47A Optimizacion Combinatorial Distribucion horaria: 2 catedras + 1 auxiliar por semana  

E-print Network

eficiencia computacional. Entregar elementos para reconocer la complejidad computacional de un problema de´istica de optimizaci´on basada en la estrategia glotona. Mejoras y eficiencia computacional. Referencias-Warshall. Eficiencia computacional. Determinaci´on de un conjunto maximal de rutas m´as cortas disjuntas en el sentido

Rapaport, Iván


Análisis químicos realizados en casos de intoxicaciones por detergentes y limpiadores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicological analysis performed in cases of poi- sonings due to detergents and cleansers. This paper is a review of 21 cases related to poisonings due to cleansers. They are either intentional or of accidental or even criminal origin. They are forensic and clinic cases that have been studied by the Chemistry Department in the Institute of Toxicology (Madrid) from 1998

Almarza E; Martínez MA



Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed



Advanced Decontamination Technologies: Irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial food-borne illnesses account for an estimated 76 million cases, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths each year in the United States (CDCP, 2005), and 5,300 food-borne outbreaks in Europe resulted in 5,330 hospitalizations and 24 deaths in 2005 (Aymerich, Picouet, & Monfort, 2008). Major food-borne pathogens of concern include Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum/perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophylia, and Bacillus cereu, and spoilage microorganisms include Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter/Moraxella, Aeromonas, Alteromonas putrefaciens, Lactobacillus, and Brochothrix thermosphecta (Mead et al., 1999).

Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong U.


Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan.  


Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed



In Vitro Activities of ABT-773, a New Ketolide, against Aerobic and Anaerobic Pathogens Isolated from Antral Sinus Puncture Specimens from Patients with Sinusitis  

PubMed Central

The comparative in vitro activities of ABT-773 against 207 aerobic and 162 anaerobic antral sinus puncture isolates showed that erythromycin-resistant pneumococcal strains were susceptible to ABT-773 (?0.125 ?g/ml); the MIC at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited for Haemophilus influenzae and other Haemophilus spp. was 4 ?g/ml; and all Moraxella spp. and beta-lactamase-producing Prevotella species strains were inhibited by ?0.125 ?g/ml. Among the anaerobes tested, only fusobacteria (45%) required ?4 ?g of ABT-773/ml for inhibition. ABT-773 may offer a therapeutic alternative for sinus infections. PMID:11451698

Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Conrads, Georg; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi; Tyrrell, Kerin



The aerobic psychotrophic populations on meat and meat contact surfaces in a meat production system and on meat stored at chill temperatures.  


At a city abattoir, a wholesaler and 10 different supermarkets, surface microbiological samples were taken of carcasses, hands and apron fronts of members of staff and equipment (mincers and saws). In addition, minced meat, packaged and displayed in chilled cabinets, was also sampled. Carcasses, personnel surfaces and equipment were monitored by a modified agar sausage technique. From each of the highest dilution psychotrophic plate counts, five colonies were selected randomly, isolated and identified (1265 in total). Microbes developing on chilled meat were also isolated from other surfaces in the production chain. On chilled meat (51%) and at the abattoir (36%) pseudomonads were the predominant organisms followed by the Gram-positive cocci on chilled meat and by Acinetobacter, Moraxella and Alcaligenes spp. at the abattoir. At the wholesaler Gram-positive cocci (32%) predominated, followed by Alcaligenes, Moraxella and Alcaligenes spp. Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Neisseriaceae and related genera, Gram-positive cocci, species from the coryneform groups of bacteria and yeasts were identified from all the surfaces monitored. Identification with the API NE20 was unsatisfactory. Enterbacteriaceae, lactobacilli and endospore-forming bacteria were identified occasionally, but their significance as contaminating organisms seems low. No Salmonella spp. were identified. PMID:2112534

Nortjé, G L; Nel, L; Jordaan, E; Badenhorst, K; Goedhart, E; Holzapfel, W H



Análisis comparativo de las ecuaciones desarrolladas por Jackson et al y por el American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) para predecir el consumo máximo de oxígeno en estudiantes de fisioterapia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveComparativily to analyze the equations developed by Jackson et al, in order to prediction of functional capacity aerobic exercise without making exercise (Nonexercise regression models to estimate peak oxygen consumption [PAR\\/PAF]) and the calculation made in endless band propose by ACSM (American College of Sports Medicine) in a group of students physical therapy.

R. Ramírez Vélez; P. Delgado



Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras  

SciTech Connect

Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.



Integração dos Ambientes Livres WEKA e ImageJ na Construção de Interfaces Guiadas por Sinais Visuais  

Microsoft Academic Search

WEKA and ImageJ are free-softwares, not well-known in Brazil, but that of- fer a great variety of resources for, respectivelly, machine learning and digital image processing algorithms implementations. The present work, besides presenting these packages, describes how they have been integrated to create two prototypes of systems with a humam-computer interface based on visual-input. Two differents ...

Hemerson Pistori; Mauro Conti Pereira



Comienza la construcción de instalación patrocinada por el NCI en Puerto Rico para realizar estudios clínicos sobre el cáncer

El gobierno de Puerto Rico ha destinado $196 millones de dólares para construir un hospital oncológico de 287 000 pies cuadrados en San Juan, que contará con 96 camas. El nuevo hospital es el primero en su clase en la región caribeña y en él se llevarán a cabo tratamientos para el cáncer y estudios clínicos.


PROPUESTA DE MINOR La siguiente ficha de proposicin de minor ser evaluada por el Consejo de Escuela para su  

E-print Network

permitirán desarrollar software eficiente de mediana complejidad, entendiendo los fundamentos de la Ciencia electivos seleccionados, se priorizan ciertos resultados: - Área de Algoritmos: Entender los fundamentos Sistemas Operativos 10 6 CC4301 Arquitectura de Computadores 10 6 CC4303 Redes 10 6 Cursos Electivos del

Rapaport, Iván


Listado de cursos de verano por fecha de realizacin SEMANA DEL 1 DE JULIO AL 7 DE JULIO  

E-print Network

Derecho privado e Internet Jornadas sobre extranjería Laboratorio de bioquímica clínica: fundamentos y dimensión de la seguridad El lenguaje en las redes sociales: de facebook a whatsapp Herramientas de

Escolano, Francisco


Dolor durante biopsia de próstata guiada por ultrasonografía transrectal: Comparación del uso o no de Xilocaína gel como anestésico local  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction : The prostate biopsy guided by ultrasound is the method of choice for early diagnosis of prostate cancer, is a safe whose main trouble is that it feels discomfort during the procedure. Material and methods : From July 2004 until March 2005 we prospectively studied 114 patients who underwent trans - rectal ultrasound guided needle biopsy of the prostate,

Gilmer A. Díaz Pérez; Luis Meza Montoya; Carlos Morante Deza; Mariela Pow-Sang Godoy; Víctor Destefano Urrutia




E-print Network

título de livro contestando o centralismo do Estado francês, passou a ser parte das expressões. Instituto de Ciências Humanas e Filosofia ­ Programa de Pós-Graduação em Sociologia e Direito. Niterói ­ RJ a segunda guerra mundial, notadamente através do impacto do livro de

Boyer, Edmond



E-print Network

XVIII CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE CI�NCIA E TECNOLOGIA DE ALIMENTOS DETERMINA��O N�O DESTRUTIVA DE Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul, 4 Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos ­ Campinas, 5 Falculdade de Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade Estadual de Campinas, neura

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.



Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen embrittlement is believed to be one of the main reasons for cracking of structures under stress. High strength steels in these structures often include a ferritic core made of alpha-iron (body centered cubic lattice). We compute the interaction of atomic hydrogen with iron using first principles. The interstitial hydrogen can be placed in two high symmetry positions: octahedral and

J. Sánchez; P. de Andrés; J. Fullea; C. Andrade


Cuadernos de Antropologa, ISSN: 1409-3138, No. 21. Ao 2011 Dej el chianti por el yaj  

E-print Network

. Palabras clave: Yajé, Banisteriopsis caapi, Ayahuasca, Chamanismo, Colombia Abstract This essay will expose" in Bogota, Colombia. Key words: Yajé, Banisteripsis caapi, Ayahuasca, Shamanism, Colombia Mauro es alto, de.000 personas de la comunidad indígena kuna. 3 El yajé (Banisteriopsis Caapi) o ayahuasca -el nombre con el cual

Paris-Sud XI, Université de



Microsoft Academic Search

Soil pollution has been studied after the spill of the Aznalcollars mine (As, Zn, Cd, Cu y Pb) between July 1998 and December 2001, both in total concentrations, as in soluble and bioavailable elements. The main remediation measures realized in that period were: Cleaning-up of the tailings and polluted soils, and application of amendment materials (liming). The results indicate that,



Artculo publicado en Geogaceta, 25: 7-10. 1999 Estimacin de los recursos drenados por el acufero de la  

E-print Network

). Avda. Fuentenueva, s/n. 18071 Granada (**) CSIC e Instituto del Agua (Univ. Granada). c/ Rector López m en el sector central. Las alimentación procede de la infiltración de aguas superficiales (~70 %), de aportaciones laterales ocultas (~15 %) y de la lluvia útil caída sobre su superficie (~15 %). La

Castillo, Antonio



Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results obtained in the treatment of vinasse from an alcohol distillery through a process of electrocoagulation - electroflotatión. Operating variables such as initial pH of the solution, current density and concentration of NaCl, as supporting electrolyte, were evaluated in a 2 3 factorial design using aluminum electrodes in a monopolar arrangement. The results show that this




La Accin Innovative Training Networks (ITN) tiene como objetivo formar, por medio de una red internacional de centros pblicos y  

E-print Network

. 10:00 Acciones Marie Sklodowska Curie: Convocatorias 2015 Innovative Training Networks (ITN´Enginyeria Química de la Universitat de València. Evaluadora. 13:15 Otras Acciones Marie Sklodowska Curie: próximas - Nivell 3 Avda. Blasco Ibañez, 13 Valencia Horizonte2020 INNOVATIVE TRAINING NETWORKS Marie Sklodowska

Escolano, Francisco


Redes sociales personales y calidad de vida en personas desplazadas por violencia política: el caso de Barranquilla (Colombia) 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is based on a research that explored the relations between the Personal Social Network of people who have been displaced because of political violence and their Quality of Life in Health. These relations can be modified by the time of being in the new place of refuge - less than three months and more of one year. The

Jorge Enrique Palacio Sañudo



Curación asistida por presión negativa comparada con curación convencional en el tratamiento del pie diabético amputado. Ensayo clínico aleatorio  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionFoot amputation wounds in patients with diabetes are complex and treatment is often difficult. At the moment negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is widely used for the treatment of several types of wounds. Nevertheless, the clinical evidence to support the application of this dressing in foot amputation wounds in patients with diabetes is scarce. The aim of this study was

Gustavo Sepúlveda; Manuel Espíndola; Mauricio Maureira; Edgardo Sepúlveda; José Ignacio Fernández; Claudia Oliva; Antonio Sanhueza; Manuel Vial; Carlos Manterola



Estimação da maturidade óssea utilizando dimensões dos centros de ossificação extraídas por SNAKES - modelos de contornos ativos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skeletal age assessment is one of the important features in analyze of carpal radiography in the pediatric radiology area. Skeletal age can be assessed using a set of features extracted from the hand bones ossification centers. The methods most widely used for bone age determination presents high complexity degree for estimation and this task is extremely complex and time-consuming producing

C. J. Olivete; E. L. L. Rodrigues


Servicio de Idiomas: distribucin del nmero de alumnos por idiomas ( 2007 / 2008 ) ESPAOL INGLS FRANCS ALEMN ITALIANO  

E-print Network


Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad


Efectos de Campos Magnéticos en las Tasas de Consumo de Madera por Coptotermes formosanus, la Termita Subterránea de Formosa.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sixty groups of 500 workers and 50 soldiers of Coptotermes formosanus were maintained in costume designed containers and fed with a piece of red oak wood (Quercus rubra). Twenty of these groups were exposed to permanent magnets with a flux of 800 G. Another 20 groups were exposed to a permanent mag...


Ventilación dirigida contrastada y entrenamiento muscular aeróbico-anaeróbico mejoran un paciente con EPOC severo por enfisema pulmonar  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo analyze the effects of the combination of Comprehensive Directed Breathing (CDB) with training Square Wave Endurance Exercise Test (SWEET), 4-min aerobic and 1-min anaerobic repeated nine times in 45min, with oxygen therapy during exercise, in a patient (73 years) with severe COPD, hyperinflation and hypoxemia during exercises.

M. Giménez; D. López; E. Abril; N. Martin; M. Darias; A. Gómez



Mircoles 6 de marzo 16:00 h. Igualdad y no discriminacin por razn de sexo en Naciones Unidades.  

E-print Network

:00 h. Mesa redonda: El poder del discurso. Análisis de la paridad en la LOIMH. Cristina Pérez. Licenciada en Ciencias Políticas y de la Administración. Máster en Género y Políticas de Igualdad. Discursos de Igualdad. 17:00 h. Igualdad de mujeres y hombres y partidos políticos: discursos y prácticas. Mar

Valencia, Universidad de


A Rodaviva das Tecnologias Novas tecnologias do origem, em geral, a novos modelos de negcio que por sua vez  

E-print Network

A Roda­viva das Tecnologias Novas tecnologias dão origem, em geral, a novos modelos de negócio que palavras, velhas tecnologias reaparecem com uma nova roupagem como se submetidas a um processo de mundo. O uso dos browsers para utilizar esses servidores é nada mais do que uma nova roupagem para um


Balance de las fichas muda colectadas por el C.C.E.M. en España hasta diciembre de 1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

En aquest article es detallen el nombre de fitxes muda (324 fitxes de 51 espècies) recollides pel C.C.E.M. durant dos anys d'existència d'aquesta seció de S.E.O. Una primera lectura d'aquestes dades ens permet incloure la península Ibèrica en la zona de muda postnupcial de diverses espècies les quals, fins ara, es pensava que mudaven a la meitat nord d'Àfrica.

Josep Lascurain i Golferichs




Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of biomass caused by the grasshopper Melanoplus lakinus (Scudder) was assessed in arbosufrutescent medium grassland composed of Chloris virgata Sw. and Rynchelytrum repens (Willd.) C.E. Hubb., associated with Bouteloua gracilis (Willd. ex Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths and B. curtipendula (Michx.) Torr. The study area was Castillo Nájera, Durango, Mexico. Three densities of grasshopper (7, 14 and 28 insects\\/m



Identificação de fissuras em sementes de arroz após a secagem artificial, por meio de raios-X  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vegetable unit used as rice seed is a caryopsis protected by glumes, which obstruct the visualization of internal damages. X-ray radiographs in rice seeds make possible to see and identify fissures, without preparing the seeds. The objective of this work was to determine parameters that may be possible to obtain radiographs of rice seeds to evaluate fissures, after drying

Nilson Lemos de Menezes; Silvio Moure Cícero; Francisco Amaral Villela



Infecção por helmintos gastrintestinais em cães (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758) errantes procedentes do município de Recife - PE.  

E-print Network

??Os helmintos gastrintestinais assumem importância significativa na etiologia das gastrenterites em caninos, sendo as helmintoses de origem canina um problema mundial e de prevalência elevada,… (more)

Auxiliadora de Moraes Ostermann



Educação de língua inglesa e novos letramentos: espaços de mudanças por meio dos ensinos técnicos e tecnológicos.  

E-print Network

??The technical education and the technology/vocational education are at stake in government decisions and discussions. This research investigates the encounter between English language education and… (more)

Daniel de Mello Ferraz




E-print Network

ON THE CONNECTIVITY OF VISIBILITY GRAPHS MICHAEL S. PAYNE, ATTILA P´OR, PAVEL VALTR, AND DAVID R Council. Michael Payne is supported by an Australian Postgraduate Award from the Australian Federal Gov

Wood, David R.


Extração de batimetria por sensoriamento remoto de áreas rasas dos sistemas estuarinos do Estado do Paraná - Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite images offers, at low costs, bathymetric maps of areas that are difficult to cover for traditional hydrographic methods. In the north area of the Estuarine Complex of Paranaguá the last bathymetric update was made in the 50's, and in the inner part of the Guaratuba Bay there are no bathymetric data. A bathymetric mapping of these areas, even without

Lilian Anne Krug



Prevención de la infección por Salmonella enterica subespecie enterica serotipo Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) en pollos mediante un bacteriófago .  

E-print Network

??Infections C caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) are an important cause foodborne diseases, epidemiologically associated with the consumption of poultry… (more)

Borie, Consuelo



LIVRO VERDE Por uma Europa sem fumo: opções estratégicas a nível comunitário (apresentado pela Comissão) PT PT ÍNDICE  

E-print Network

1. Considerações em matéria de saúde............................................................................. 5 1.1. Impacto na saúde da exposição ao FTA....................................................................... 5 1.2. Níveis de exposição..................................................................................................... 6 1.3. Impacto de uma iniciativa em prol de zonas sem fumo............................................... 7 2. Considerações de índole económica............................................................................ 7 2.1. Incidências económicas................................................................................................ 7 2.2. Impacto de uma iniciativa em prol de zonas sem fumo............................................... 8 2.3. Eventuais consequências involuntárias........................................................................ 8 3. Considerações de índole social.................................................................................... 9 3.1. Apoio da opinião pública à legislação antitabaco........................................................ 9 3.2. Incidência no consumo de tabaco................................................................................ 9 3.3. Incidência na equidade social....................................................................................... 9 4. Dinâmica de acção..................................................................................................... 10

I. Introdução; Ii. Justificação; Da Acção



Role of Neutral Metabolites in Microbial Conversion of 3?-Acetoxy-19-Hydroxycholest-5-Ene into Estrone  

PubMed Central

Biotransformation of 3?-acetoxy-19-hydroxycholest-5-ene (19-HCA, 6 g) by Moraxella sp. was studied. Estrone (712 mg) was the major metabolite formed. Minor metabolites identified were 5?-androst-1-en-19-ol-3,17-dione (33 mg), androst-4-en-19-ol-3,17-dione (58 mg), androst-4-en-9?,19-diol-3,17-dione (12 mg), and androstan-19-ol-3,17-dione (1 mg). Acidic metabolites were not formed. Time course experiments on the fermentation of 19-HCA indicated that androst-4-en-19-ol-3,17-dione was the major metabolite formed during the early stages of incubation. However, with continuing fermentation its level dropped, with a concomitant increase in estrone. Fermentation of 19-HCA in the presence of specific inhibitors or performing the fermentation for a shorter period (48 h) did not result in the formation of acidic metabolites. Resting-cell experiments carried out with 19-HCA (200 mg) in the presence of ?,??-bipyridyl led to the isolation of three additional metabolites, viz., cholestan-19-ol-3-one (2 mg), cholest-4-en-19-ol-3-one (10 mg), and cholest-5-en-3?,19-diol (12 mg). Similar results were also obtained when n-propanol was used instead of ?,??-bipyridyl. Resting cells grown on 19-HCA readily converted both 5?-androst-1-en-19-ol-3,17-dione and androst-4-en-19-ol-3,17-dione into estrone. Partially purified 1,2-dehydrogenase from steroid-induced Moraxella cells transformed androst-4-en-19-ol-3,17-dione into estrone and formaldehyde in the presence of phenazine methosulfate, an artificial electron acceptor. These results suggest that the degradation of the hydrocarbon side chain of 19-HCA does not proceed via C22 phenolic acid intermediates and complete removal of the C17 side chain takes place prior to the aromatization of the A ring in estrone. The mode of degradation of the sterol side chain appears to be through the fission of the C17-C20 bond. On the basis of these observations, a new pathway for the formation of estrone from 19-HCA in Moraxella sp. has been proposed. PMID:16349252

Madyastha, K. M.; Shankar, V. N.



Far from superficial: microbial diversity associated with the skin and mucus of fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During horizontal or water-borne infection involving an obligate pathogen (e.g. – Aeromonas salmonicida, cause of furunculosis), the pathogen interacted with and influenced the microbial diversity of the dermal mucus of fish. Prior to infection, the prevalent bacterial flora cultured from juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) included Pseudomonas fluorescens, Comomonas terrigenia, Acinetobacter sp., Moraxella sp., Pseudomonas dimunita, Alcaligenes denitrificans, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, and Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Serratia liquefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, other motile Aeromonas spp., and Corynebacterium aquaticum. After A. salmonicida was initially detected in this population as an external mucus infection, Acinetobacter sp., Moraxella sp., C. terrigenia, P. fluorescens, and P. dimunita, Staphylococcus sp., and A. hydrophila, were also present in appreciable numbers. Within several weeks, however, the A. salmonicida infection amplified and composed 78% of the total flora in the mucus. Only P. dimunita (4%). P. fluorescens (2%), and C. terrigenia (1%) were cultured at that time and more than a third of these fish showed evidence of a systemic A. salmonicida infection within their kidneys. Eight weeks after oral oxytetracycline treatments, A. salmonicida was no longer isolated from the mucus or kidneys of any fish and glucose inert or other oxidative microbes (e.g., P. fluorescens, C. terrigenia, Acinetobacter sp., Moraxella sp.) were beginning to repopulate the external surface of the salmon in increasing frequency. Still present and composing fairly large percentages of the total flora were A. hydrophila, as well as Enterobacter sp., and P. putrefaciens. A normal microbial diversity was re-established as the fish recovered. In another investigation, reduced biological diversity was noted in the dermal mucus among smallmouth bass that were sampled from the Jackson River (Covington, VA). In these fish, A. hydrophila and P. putrefaciens were the two predominant microorganisms composing 49.5% and 31.2% of the total bacterial flora, despite the absence of systemic infection or any other clinical signs of disease. In another instance, P. fluorescens was the sole bacterium associated with the surface of Atlantic salmon eggs regardless of their viability at the eyed stage of development. Collectively, these results indicate that the kinetics and distributions of the surface bacterial flora on aquatic organisms is affected by numerous factors including pathogen invasion, environmental conditions, and fish culture practices.

Cipriano, Rocco C.; Dove, Alistair



[Clinical evaluations of flomoxef in respiratory tract infections].  


Flomoxef (FMOX, 6315-S), a new antibacterial drug, was administered to 9 cases with respiratory tract infections for a duration of 8 approximately 16 days at a daily dose of 2 g. Diagnosis of these patients were bronchopneumonia 5 cases, chronic bronchitis 3 cases and acute bronchitis 1 case. From transtracheal aspiration several organisms were isolated; Haemophilus influenzae was isolated in 3 cases, Streptococcus pneumoniae in 3 cases, H. influenzae plus Branhamella catarrhalis in 1 case, Streptococcus dysgalactiae plus Neisseria meningitidis in 1 case and Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum in 1 case. The clinical efficacy was good in all 9 cases, the efficacy rate was 100%. All the bacteria were eliminated. Side effects were not observed. From these results, it appears that FMOX is a valuable drug in the treatment of respiratory tract infections. PMID:3444019

Mikasa, K; Sawaki, M; Ako, H; Narita, N



Nasopharyngeal culture with quantitative analysis of pathogenes in chronic otitis media with effusion. Effects on pathogen yield of different swabs and transport methods.  


The influence of different swabs and transport media on nasopharyngeal culture pathogen recovery has been studied in patients with chronic otitis media with effusion. Transport times of less than two hours have been used. Protecting the cotton wire swab with a polyethylene shealth to prevent contamination by nasal flora did not have any significant influence either on the recovery of potential pathogens or on the contaminating nasal flora. Facilitating a quantitative analysis of the nasopharyngeal culture by transporting the specimen in empty tubes gave a pathogen recovery rate similar to that with transport in Stuart medium, whereas an attempt at transporting in sodium chloride or prereduced PY broth led to significantly lower yields of Branhamella catarrhalis (p less than 0.01) and in PY broth on Haemophilus influenzae as well (p less than 0.01). PMID:2502161

Hemlin, C; Brauner, A; Carenfelt, C; Wretlind, B





The alcohol-insoluble polysaccharides of gonococcus and meningococcus were found to contain 4.2 and 3.7 per cent nitrogen respectively, to be protein-free by chemical test, to reduce FehIing-Benedict solution only after hydrolysis. They were non-toxic for rabbits and mice, and failed to engender antibodies (precipitins) in rabbits. They produced no cutaneous reactions in normal, snuffle-free rabbits, but caused typical allergic reactions of the delayed type in rabbits rendered hypersensitive to these organisms. Both carbohydrates reacted in high dilution with Antipneumococcus Serum Type III. For comparison, carbohydrates were prepared also from Micrococcus catarrhalis, Streptococcus hemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and a rough strain of pneumococcus. PMID:19870232

Miller, C P; Boor, A K



Rapid method for identification of gram-negative, nonfermentative bacilli.  

PubMed Central

A rapid system (OA), based on oxidative attack of substrates, was developed for identification of gram-negative, nonfermentative bacillia (NFB). One hundred and twelve strains of NFB from 25 species (representing the genera Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Acinetobacter, Bordetella, Flavobacterium, Moraxella, and Xanthomonas) were assayed by OA, buffered single substrate, and oxidative/fermentative methods. The 38 substrates consisted of salts of organic acids, nitrogen-containing compounds, alcohols, and carbohydrates. Ninety-four percent of the test strains were identified by the OA method in 24 h, and 99% were identifiable in 48 h. Reproducibility was 99%. Correlation with buffered single substrate was 98% (all substrates) and 90% with the oxidative/fermentative method (carbohydrates only). Biochemical profiles of all strains are presented, as well as tables showing the most useful tests for identification. PMID:780371

Otto, L A; Pickett, M J



Enumeration and Characterization of Bacterial Colonists of a Submersed Aquatic Plant, Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.)  

PubMed Central

A simple procedure for enumerating and grouping the bacterial colonists of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) is described. Colony characteristics of bacteria associated with M. spicatum were better defined and more stable on nutrient-poor, diluted nutrient broth agar than on high-nutrient media. Acinetobacter, Cytophaga, Flavobacterium, Moraxella, Pseudomonas and/or Alcaligenes, and Vibrio/Aeromonas spp., as well as two highly fastidious unidentified bacterial groups (gram-negative rods and gram-negative cocci), were associated with cultured watermilfoil during January, February, May, June, July, and August 1988. In Lake Wingra (Madison, Wis.), Micrococcus spp. and enterobacters were also associated with Eurasian watermilfoil during July, August, and October 1987. PMID:16348792

Chand, T.; Harris, R. F.; Andrews, J. H.



The structure of lactoferrin-binding protein B from Neisseria meningitidis suggests roles in iron acquisition and neutralization of host defences.  


Pathogens have evolved a range of mechanisms to acquire iron from the host during infection. Several Gram-negative pathogens including members of the genera Neisseria and Moraxella have evolved two-component systems that can extract iron from the host glycoproteins lactoferrin and transferrin. The homologous iron-transport systems consist of a membrane-bound transporter and an accessory lipoprotein. While the mechanism behind iron acquisition from transferrin is well understood, relatively little is known regarding how iron is extracted from lactoferrin. Here, the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (N-lobe) of the accessory lipoprotein lactoferrin-binding protein B (LbpB) from the pathogen Neisseria meningitidis is reported. The structure is highly homologous to the previously determined structures of the accessory lipoprotein transferrin-binding protein B (TbpB) and LbpB from the bovine pathogen Moraxella bovis. Docking the LbpB structure with lactoferrin reveals extensive binding interactions with the N1 subdomain of lactoferrin. The nature of the interaction precludes apolactoferrin from binding LbpB, ensuring the specificity of iron-loaded lactoferrin. The specificity of LbpB safeguards proper delivery of iron-bound lactoferrin to the transporter lactoferrin-binding protein A (LbpA). The structure also reveals a possible secondary role for LbpB in protecting the bacteria from host defences. Following proteolytic digestion of lactoferrin, a cationic peptide derived from the N-terminus is released. This peptide, called lactoferricin, exhibits potent antimicrobial effects. The docked model of LbpB with lactoferrin reveals that LbpB interacts extensively with the N-terminal lactoferricin region. This may provide a venue for preventing the production of the peptide by proteolysis, or directly sequestering the peptide, protecting the bacteria from the toxic effects of lactoferricin. PMID:25286931

Brooks, Cory L; Arutyunova, Elena; Lemieux, M Joanne



Cervid Herpesvirus 2, the Primary Agent in an Outbreak of Infectious Keratoconjunctivitis in Semidomesticated Reindeer ?  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) occurred in semidomesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Troms County, Norway, in February 2009. Twenty-eight animals with clinical symptoms and 12 apparently healthy animals were investigated. They ranged in age from calves of the year to 4-year-old animals (mean, 1.9 years; standard deviation, ±0.9). The seroprevalence of antibodies against cervid herpesvirus 2 (CvHV2) was 86% in animals with IKC and 42% in unaffected animals. For the 28 clinically affected animals, CvHV2 was detected by PCR in swabs obtained from the eye (82%), nose (64%), and vagina (24%), and CvHV2 was isolated from eye swabs from 8 animals. Virus was not isolated from clinically unaffected animals but was detected by PCR in eye swab samples from five of them. The viral activity, assessed by the ability to cause a cytopathic effect in cell culture, increased with the severity of clinical symptoms, but in severe clinical cases, virus was absent and secondary bacterial infections were dominant. Moraxella sp. isolates were obtained from seven animals, and those from two animals were identified as Moraxella bovoculi. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp., and Arcanobacterium pyogenes were also isolated. It is concluded that CvHV2, which is endemic in reindeer, can cause IKC, probably most commonly as a primary infection of calves. This can be a very painful and devastating disease of economic importance for reindeer herders. This is the first report of CvHV2 as the primary agent of IKC in reindeer. This is also the first isolation of this virus in reindeer under natural herding conditions. PMID:19726598

Tryland, Morten; Das Neves, Carlos G.; Sunde, Marianne; Mørk, Torill



Associated bacterial flora, growth, and toxicity of cultured benthic dinoflagellates Ostreopsis lenticularis and Gambierdiscus toxicus.  

PubMed Central

The growth, toxicity, and associated bacterial flora of 10 clonal cultures of the toxic benthic dinoflagellates Ostreopsis lenticularis and Gambierdiscus toxicus isolated from the coastal waters of southwest Puerto Rico have been examined. Clonal cultures of O. lenticularis grew more rapidly and at broader temperature ranges than those of G. toxicus. All five Ostreopsis clones were toxic, while only one of the five Gambierdiscus clones was poisonous. The degree of toxicity among poisonous clones was highly variable. The number of associated bacterial genera and their frequency of occurrence were quite variable among clones of both dinoflagellate genera. Bacterial isolates represented six genera (Nocardia, Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Flavobacterium, and Moraxella) in addition to coryneform bacteria. Extracts of dinoflagellate-associated bacteria grown in pure culture were not toxic. Gambierdiscus clones were characterized by the frequent presence of Pseudomonas spp. (four of five clones) and the absence of coryneforms. In O. lenticularis, only one of five clones showed the presence of Pseudomonas spp., and Moraxella sp. was absent altogether. Detailed analyses of toxicity and associated microflora in a selected Ostreopsis clone, repeatedly cultivated (four times) over a period of 160 days, showed that peak cell toxicities developed in the late static and early negative culture growth phases. Peak Ostreopsis cell toxicities in the stationary phase of culture growth were correlated with significant increases in the percent total bacteria directly associated with these cells. Changes in the quantity of bacteria directly associated with microalgal cell surfaces and extracellular matrices during culture growth may be related to variability and degree of toxicity in these laboratory-cultured benthic dinoflagellates. PMID:2705766

Tosteson, T R; Ballantine, D L; Tosteson, C G; Hensley, V; Bardales, A T



Diversity of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Bacteria from Chilean Salmon Farms  

PubMed Central

Twenty-five distinct tetracycline-resistant gram-negative bacteria recovered from four Chilean fish farms with no history of recent antibiotic use were examined for the presence of tetracycline resistance (tet) genes. Sixty percent of the isolates carried 1 of the 22 known tet genes examined. The distribution was as follows. The tet(A) gene was found in six isolates. The tet(B) gene was found in two isolates, including the first description in the genus Brevundimonas. Two isolates carried the tet(34) and tet(B) genes, including the first description of the tet(34) gene in Pseudomonas and Serratia and the first description of the tet(B) gene in Pseudomonas. The tet(H) gene was found in two isolates, which includes the first description in the genera Moraxella and Acinetobacter. One isolate carried tet(E), and one isolate carried tet(35), the first description of the gene in the genus Stenotrophomonas. Finally, one isolate carried tet(L), found for the first time in the genus Morganella. By DNA sequence analysis, the two tet(H) genes were indistinguishable from the previously sequenced tet(H) gene from Tn5706 found in Pasteurella multocida. The Acinetobacter radioresistens isolate also harbored the Tn5706-associated 1,063-bp IS element IS1597, while the Moraxella isolate carried a 1,026-bp IS-like element whose 293-amino-acid transposase protein exhibited 69% identity and 84% similarity to the transposase protein of IS1597, suggesting the presence of a novel IS element. The distribution of tet genes from the Chilean freshwater ponds was different than those that have previously been described from other geographical locations, with 40% of the isolates carrying unidentified tetracycline resistance genes. PMID:12604516

Miranda, Claudio D.; Kehrenberg, Corinna; Ulep, Catherine; Schwarz, Stefan; Roberts, Marilyn C.



Amino acid conjugated sophorolipids: A new family of biologically active functionalized glycolipids.  


Sophorolipids (SLs) are extra cellular glycolipids produced by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 when grown in the presence of glucose and fatty acids. These compounds have a disaccharide head group connected to a long-chain hydroxyl-fatty acid by a glycosidic bond. To explore structure-activity of modified SLs, a new family of amino acid-SL derivatives was prepared. Synthesized analogs consist of amino acids linked by amide bonds formed between their alpha-amino moiety and the carboxyl group of ring-opened SL fatty acids. Their preparation involved the following: (i) hydrolysis of a natural SL mixture with aqueous alkali to give SL free acids, (ii) coupling of free acids to protected amino acids using dicarbodiimide, and (iii) removing amino acid carboxyl protecting groups. These conjugates were evaluated for their antibacterial, anti-HIV, and spermicidal activity. All tested analogs showed antibacterial activity against both gram +ve and gram -ve organisms. Leucine-conjugated SL was most efficient. For example, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for Moraxella sp. and E. coli were 0.83 and 1.67 mg/mL, respectively. Among the alkyl esters of amino acid conjugated SLs, the ethyl ester of leucine-SLs was most active. Against Moraxella sp., S. sanguinis, and M. imperiale, MIC values are 7.62 x 10(-4), 2.28 x 10-(3) and 1.67 mg/mL, respectively. All compounds displayed virus-inactivating activity with 50% effective concentrations (EC50) below 200 microg/mL. The EC50 of leucine-SL ethyl ester was 24.1 microg/mL, showing that it is more potent than commercial spermicide nonoxynol-9 (EC50 approximately 65 microg/mL). PMID:17105232

Azim, Abul; Shah, Vishal; Doncel, Gustavo F; Peterson, Nicholas; Gao, Wei; Gross, Richard



Análisis comparativo del VO 2máx estimado mediante las ecuaciones desarrolladas por Jackson et al y el American College of Sport Medicine en corredores de maratón  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundReduced cardiorespiratory function is an independent risk factor for mortality by all causes, but mainly for coronary heart disease. Nevertheless, there are many difficulties in evaluating it by exercise testing in the epidemiological context. Alternative forms of evaluation have therefore been suggested using non-exercise regression models.

Robinson Ramírez Vélez; Ricardo Antonio Agredo Zuñiga; José Guillermo Ortega Ávila; Viviana Andrea Dosman González; Carlos Alejandro López Alban



Predação de embriões por girinos de Bokermannohyla alvarengai (Anura, Hylidae) em riacho temporário na Serra do Ouro Branco, Minas Gerais, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O comportamento oofágico e o canibalismo são bastante difundidos entre girinos de diversas famílias de anuros, sendo o último particularmente comum em ambientes temporários, tais como o riacho do presente estudo. Este artigo relata um evento de predação no campo, no qual girinos de Bokermannohyla alvarengai se alimentaram de embriões co-específicos. Esta é uma importante fonte de alimento com

Vinícius A. São Pedro; Leandro O. Drummond; Henrique C. Costa; Vítor D. Fernandes; Renato N. Feio


Experimental Iotophoresis with Radio-Isotopes. II. Ionic Conduction in Each Tissue; IONTOFORESIS EXPERIMENTAL CON RADIOISOTOPOS. II. CONDUCCION IONICA POR CADA TEJIDO  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments were made to determine the degree of ion ; conduction in each individual tissue (skin, muscle, and bone). In the ; preparation, two of the tissues were removed and the third was left in situ. ; Radioactivity determinations were made in distantly located tissues and in the ; blood. It was found that the distribution gradients

U. Gelos; V. H. G. Panizza; M. A. P. Queirolo



Atividades melanogÃnica, genotÃxica e antiproliferativa de extratos de Brosimum gaudichaudii TrÃcul e Dorstenia brasiliensis Lam induzidas por radiaÃÃo UVA.  

E-print Network

??As furanocumarinas lineares ou psoralenos sÃo fotossensibilizadores empregados na dermatologia associados a ultravioleta A no tratamento de doenÃas como o vitiligo. A fotoquimioterapia tem reaÃÃes… (more)

Adriana Elias Pires Quevedo



Relación entre Condiciones de Suelo y Manejo de Huertas de Nogal Pecanero Carya illinoensis Koch con la Dinámica de la Pudrición Texana, causada por Phymatotrichum omnivorum Duggar  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1995 to 1998, 26 plots of three ha each were selected in commercial walnut orchards. The objective of the survey was to relate the dynamics of Phymatotrichum root rot with orchard management and soil condition. The management variables were: age of the trees, plantation distance, trees\\/ha, pest management, number of irrigations and incidence of diseased trees (in 1995); for

José Alfredo Samaniego-Gaxiola; Teodoro Herrera-Pérez; Jesús Santamaría-César



EDITAL N 409/14 -PROGEPE CONCURSO PBLICO Por delegao de competncia do Magnfico Reitor da Universidade Federal do Paran, conforme  

E-print Network

: Graduação em Nutrição com Doutorado em Alimentação, ou em Ciência da Nutrição, ou em Nutrição e Alimentos, ou em Nutrição Humana, ou em Tecnologia de Alimentos, ou em Engenharia de Alimentos, ou em Ciência de Alimentos, obtidos na forma da lei. Tipos de Provas: Escrita (classificatória e eliminatória), Didática

Paraná, Universidade Federal do


"Pig in a poke (gato por liebre)": the "mota" (Calophysus macropterus) fishery, molecular evidence of commercialization in Colombia and toxicological analyses.  


Overfishing has affected the population abundance trends of many commercial fish species. In the Amazon, the fishery of a catfish commonly known as "mota" or "piracatinga" (Calophysus macropterus) has become an important economic activity in the region as this species has replaced a number of other overexploited great catfish species in the markets. Due to this high exploitation, ways in which to increase captures have been identified. One strategy is to use decomposing animal carcasses as bait. Such strategy has increased the hunting pressure on endangered species such as caimans and river dolphins. We investigated which catfish species are currently commercialized in Colombian fish markets using DNA barcoding, and measured mercury concentration in the tissues of fish molecularly identified as C. macropterus. We collected 86 fish samples in markets of four Colombian cities. Sixty-eight of these were identified molecularly as C.macropterus. The mercury concentration of 29 such samples was analyzed. Samples presented total Hg concentrations higher than the limit for human consumption established by the WHO (0.5 ?g/g). These results are worrisome and suggest that (1) C. macropterus is a widely used fish species for human consumption in Colombia and (2) C. macropterus has high concentrations of total Hg, making its consumption a public health risk. Results presented here suggest that C. macropterus has replaced capaz in most Colombian markets. This fishery threatens wild species of river dolphins and caimans, and is also a public health risk given the high mercury levels we found in a subsample of these fishes. PMID:24419666

Salinas, Cristian; Cubillos, Juan Camilo; Gómez, Rigoberto; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana



Desenvolvimento do porta-enxerto SO 4 de videira afetado pelo número de gemas da estaca e por fungos micorrízicos arbusculares  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of two AMF (Gigaspora margarita and Scutellospora heterogama) on rooting and vegetative development of SO 4 (Vitis berlandieri x Vitis riparia) grapevine rootstock with different cutting length (one, two or three buds) was evaluated. The number of leafs and roots, the matter weight and dry roots and stems, and the bud size were measured a ten- month period.

Paulo Vitor; Dutra de Souza; Heleno Facchin; Anderson André Dias



NEL R E VIEW - H AR V A RD R E POR T The role of stress in neurodegenerative diseases and mental disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Evidence for a connection between stress and selected neuro degene- rative diseases as well as mental disorders is analyzed. Does stress cause or exacerbate related pathophysiological disease processes? METHOD: The stress phenomenon is illustrated and the impact of stress on the nervous system, neurodegenerative diseases, and mental disorders is examined. The connection between stress and the hippocampus - and

Tobias Esch; George B. Stefano; Gregory L. Fricchione; Herbert Benson



Microsoft Academic Search

El venado cola blanca (Odocoileus virginianus) habita el bosque tropical de Chamela en la costa Pacífica del estado de Jalisco, México. En esta región la vegetación dominante es el bosque tropical caducifolio el cual se establece en las colinas y se caracteriza porque en el estrato arbóreo y sotobosque dominan especies que pierden sus hojas durante seis a siete meses




Multiscale Habitat Selection by Ruffed Grouse at Low Population Densities (Seleccin de Hbitat a Varias Escalas por Bonasa umbellus a Densidades Poblacionales Bajas)  

E-print Network

Multiscale Habitat Selection by Ruffed Grouse at Low Population Densities (Selección de Hábitat HAbITAT SELECTION by RUffED GROUSE AT LOw POPULATION DENSITIES Selección de Hábitat a Varias Escalas

Gutiérrez, R.J.


Las nociones de calidad percibidas por productores queseros de Tandil, Argentina: diversidad de estrategias y tensiones en procesos de desarrollo territorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

El partido de Tandil tiene una larga historia y tradición en la producción láctea y la elaboración de quesos. La actividad quesera en la zona comienza a mediados del siglo XIX. Tradicionales, locales y naturales son los significantes asociados a los quesos tandileros, cuyo saber hacer se ha trasmitido a través de generaciones. Desde fines de los ´90, en un

Irene Velarde; P. Vimo; M. A. Corradetti; P. Vertiz; J. Otero; J. Raimundi; L. Fernandez; C. Lozano; F. Espinoza




Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, starting from dose rate in air due to gamma emitter radionuclides in soil, changes in dose rate due to source mobility in deep soil are studied. Dose rate is assessed using a Monte Carlo simulation (DAGES code) at a 1 m height above ground for an arbitrary distribution of the contaminant in soil. The radionuclides vertical mobility

M. Rizzotto; H. Velasco; N. Merkis; J. Toso


Comparacion de Modelos de Educacion Sexual en El Conocimiento y Cambio de Actitudes en Practicas Sexuales por Alumnos de Nivel Superior en La Region De Caguas, Puerto Rico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of…

Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.



Detección del Efecto de un Extracto Vegetal Antimicrobiano Sobre Plantas de Agave (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) Cultivadas in vitro Utilizando Fluorescencia Inducida por Laser (LIF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of antimicrobial compounds derived from plants is an alternative to avoid o reduce the negative effects that antibiotics have shown on development and growth of plant species in vitro. In this work, the laser-induced fluorescence was used as a non-invasive and non-destructive tool to detect the effect of the addition of the commercial grapefruit extract (citricidal ®) on

Eva Noemí Obledo-Vázquez; Norma Flores-Verduzco; Jesús Cervantes-Martínez; Centro de Investigación; Asistencia en Tecnología; Guadalajara Jalisco




Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the biomass produced from the industrial residues and agricultural waste of Agave tequilana Weber (Agave azul) generated in the production of tequila, demonstrated a high potential for Pb (II) removal from aqueous solution. The biosorption capacity of Agave azul leaves biomass was evaluated in batch experiments. These experiments included pH profile, time dependence, and the determination of

J. Romero-González; F. Parra-Vargas; I. Cano-Rodríguez; E. Rodríguez; J. Ríos-Arana; R. Fuentes-Hernández; J. Ramírez-Flores



Efeito tópico de iodo-povidona 0,5% comparado com natamicina 5% em ceratites fúngicas causadas por Fusarium solani em um modelo animal de coelhos: estudo piloto  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of topical administration of 0.5% povidone-iodine in experimental Fusarium solani keratitis in rabbits. Methods: Fungal keratitis caused by Fusarium solani was induced in the right eye of 24 New Zealand rabbits. The rabbits were randomly divided into 3 different treatment groups: Group I (povidone-iodine) - treated with topical 0.5% povidone-iodine; Group II (natamycin) - treated

Lauro Augusto de Oliveira; Thales Takeo Takata; Olga Fischman Gompertz; Luciene Barbosa de Sous; Mark J. Mannis


Effect of Diesel Engine Converted to Sequential Por t Injection Compressed Natural Gas Engine on the Cylinder Pressure vs Crank Angle in Variation Engine Speeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diesel engine converted to compressed natural gas (CNG) engine effect is lower in performance. Problem statement : The hypothesis is that the lower performance of C NG engine is caused by the effect of lower in engine cylinder pr essure. Are the CNG engine is lower cylinder pressure than diesel engine? This research is condu cted to investigate the

Abdul Rahim Ismail




Microsoft Academic Search

In order to know the preference of twelve fodder species (Chlo- rophora tinctoria, Morus alba, Pithecellobium pedicellare, Gliri- cidia sepium, Guazuma ulmifolia, Cordia alba, Trichantera gi- gantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Azadirachta indica and Samanea saman) a cafeteria trial was carried out in goats at Trujillo State, Venezuela. An ex- perimental square latin design with evaluation period of

Danny Eugenio García; María Gabriela Medina; Tyrone Clavero; Johny Humbría; Alfredo Baldizán; Carlos Domínguez



The effects of the porous buffer layer and doping with dysprosium on internal stresses in the GaInP:Dy/por-GaAs/GaAs(100) heterostructures  

SciTech Connect

In structures with a porous buffer layer, residual internal stresses caused by a mismatch between the crystal-lattice parameters of the epitaxial GaInP alloy and the GaAs substrate are redistributed to the porous layer that acts as a buffer and is conducive to disappearance of internal stresses. Doping of the epitaxial layer with dysprosium exerts a similar effect on the internal stresses in the film-substrate structure.

Seredin, P. V.; Gordienko, N. N.; Glotov, A. V.; Zhurbina, I. A.; Domashevskaya, E. P. [Voronezh State Technical University (Russian Federation); Arsent'ev, I. N., E-mail:; Shishkov, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)



Efectividad, seguridad y coste-efectividad de la terapia por presión negativa tópica para el tratamiento de las heridas crónicas: una revisión sistemática  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is used to promote wound healing by using suction to drain excess fluid from wounds. A systematic literature review was undertaken to assess the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of NPWT for the treatment of chronic wounds. Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL and the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Trials Register were searched. A total of 9 randomized controlled

María Trujillo-Martín; Lidia García-Pérez; Pedro Serrano-Aguilar



Artigo Original A hospitalização por asma e a carência de acompanhamento ambulatorial* Asthma-related hospitalizations and lack of outpatient follow-up treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether the children and adolescents with acute asthma attacks admitted to two public hospitals in the city of Recife, Brazil underwent outpatient follow-up treatment for the prevention and control of asthma. Methods: A prospective case series study of hospitalized patients with asthma. The patients were asked to complete a questionnaire at admission in order to determine the

Emanuel Sarinho; Gladys Reis; Silva de Queiroz; Maria Laura Campelo de Melo Dias; Alexandre Jorge Queiroz




Microsoft Academic Search

The rational use of irrigation water and fertilizers is essential to improve farmer's income and to preserve the environment. The application of fertilizers along with irrigation water is a recently introduced technological alternative to traditional fertilization which is meant to improve crop yields, save water and electric energy, and also to reduce operation costs of water pumping equipments. The objective

Laurencio Rosano-Méndez; Luis Rendón-Pimentel; Pedro Pacheco-Hernández; Jorge D. Etchevers-Barra; Jesús Chávez-Morales; Humberto Vaquera-Huerta; Coordinación de Riego




Microsoft Academic Search

Se detennino el efecto de hacer el desle- Cultural practices to control of mango chado de frutos de mango en el suelo y sobre una stem-end rot caused by Botryodiplodia theo- lamina de hierro galvanizado (lamina de zinc), bromaes Pat. The following practices were eva- eliminando 0 dejando el pedunculo para ambos luated for the control of stem-end rot of

Eugenia Gonzalez; Gerardina Umana; Luis Felipe Arauz


Efecto de la ventilación por presión positiva sobre los parámetros productivos de pollo de engorda, durante siete semanas en casetas de ambiente natural  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of positive pressure ventilation upon productive performance of commercial broilers was evaluated. 1524 one- day-old Peterson x Avian Farm unsexed chicks were housed in a natural environment house with two sections; each section was divided into six subsections. Birds were randomly assigned in two groups with six repetitions each one. In the section where the experimental birds were

Daniel Marrufo Villa



Communicating with Mexican Americans: Por Su Buena Salud = Communicando Con Mexico Americanos: For Their Good Health. Proceedings of the Conference (Houston, TX, September 13-14, 1979).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conference focused on the role of the Mexican American's cultural language, tradition, life style, health practices, and media utilization in the design of effective health education and information programs. Representing various local, state, and national health, education, and media organizations, the 108 participants attended sessions on…

Moore, Thomas J., Ed.; And Others


Análise de corte seletivo na Amazônia Legal em imagens ALOS PALSAR a partir de verificação por modelo de mistura espectral em imagem CBERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selective logging can be the first step for total deforestation of areas in the Legal Amazon. This type of management can be monitored by the application of Linear Model of Spectral Moisture (LMSM). This methodology of indentifying selective logging, suffers a great limitation due to clouds in the images. The monitoring through satellites with radar sensors is a methodology

Eline Amorim Xavier; Cenira Rodrigues de Freitas; Rodrigo Antônio de Souza


Classificação da cobertura do solo por meio de imagem CBERS na área do entorno da Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, Manaus-AM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work had as objective to classify the soil covering from the area that surrounds Adolpho Ducke Forest Reservation, located to northeast of the city of Manaus, among the coordinates 59º 52 ' 40 \\

José de Ribamar; Pinheiro Júnior


Mass transfer and phenolic profile of strawberries upon refrigerated osmodehydration Transferencia de masa y perfil fenólico de las fresas cuando son osmo-deshidratadas por refrigeración  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole strawberries were osmodehydrated at low temperature (5 °C) in a sucrose syrup (500 g\\/kg of solution) for different processing times (24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h); after the treatment, water loss, solid gain, and weight reduction were recorded. Next, the osmodehydrated samples were frozen, and after a 5-month storage at ?18 °C they were analyzed for drip loss, titratable acidity,

G. Blanda; L. Cerretani; A. Cardinali; E. Boselli; A. Bendini



A Roda-viva das Tecnologias Novas tecnologias do origem, em geral, a novos modelos de negcio que por sua vez  

E-print Network

A Roda-viva das Tecnologias Novas tecnologias dão origem, em geral, a novos modelos de negócio que palavras, velhas tecnologias reaparecem com uma nova roupagem como se submetidas a um processo de mundo. O uso dos browsers para utilizar esses servidores é nada mais do que uma nova roupagem para um



Microsoft Academic Search

Maize is the main staple food in the Mexican diet and is also the most important irrigated crop. However, water shortage is very serious in México, and food security cannot be maintained without irrigation. To address this problem, the effect of maize density sowing was evaluated using a subsurface drip irrigation system. There were no differences in forage and grain

Aurelio Guevara-Escobar; Gabriela Barcenas-Huante; Francisco R. Salazar-Martínez; Enrique González-Sosa; Humberto Suzán-Azpiri; Monsanto México


Almacenamiento de presas por el Alcaudón real (Lanius excubitor) en la Serena (Badajoz) y la Sierra de Cabo de Gata (Almería)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Durant una visita a la Serena (Badajoz, 29.12.89) i a la serra de Cabo de Gata (Almería, 07.01.91) es van recol·lectar 55 preses empalades de botxí. A la Serena la majoria de les preses eren rèptils i aràcnids (n=25). Totes les preses estaven empalades en filferro espinós, probablement a causa de la manca d'arbres i arbusts a la zona. A

Ángel Hernández; José María Salgado



Influência de cloreto de sódio e de cobre na produção de biomassa e biosurfactante por uma nova amostra de Geobacillus stearothermophilus UCP 986  

Microsoft Academic Search

It grows the aquatic environment contamination for recalcitrant residues, such as oleaginosos residues and heavy metals. These types of contaminants can be treated by process physical, chemistry and biologic. The biological treatment, in general, uses microorganism's autochthones from impacted environment. These microorganisms present special characteristics that make possible its attack to chemical compounds considering it's difficult degradation. In marine environments,

Mabel Calina de França; Beatriz Susana; Ovruski de Ceballos; Clarissa Daisy; Costa Albuquerque; Galba Maria de Campos-Takaki



Report of a human accident caused by Conus regius (Gastropoda, Conidae) Relato de um acidente em ser humano causado por Conus regius (Gastropoda, Conidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conus regius is a venomous mollusc in the Conidae family, which includes species responsible for severe or even fatal accidents affecting human beings. This is the first report on a clinical case involving this species. It consisted a puncture in the right hand of a diver who presented paresthesia and movement difficulty in the whole limb. The manifestations disappeared after

Vidal Haddad Junior; Marcus Coltro; Luiz Ricardo; L. Simone


IEE 2310 Sistemas de Potencia 1 Semestre 2007 Fecha de entrega : Da lunes 18 de junio hasta las 18:00 por email a  

E-print Network

mediante el uso del programa computacional PowerWorld1 . El sistema de referencia a simular y sus datos se muestran en la figura, realice un estudio de análisis de fallas utilizando la herramienta computacional estudiantes, que permite analizar sistemas de hasta 12 barras, se encuentra en

Rudnick, Hugh


Evaluating approaches to measuring ocular pain in bovine calves with corneal scarification and infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis-associated corneal ulcerations.  


Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) is a common ocular disease in cattle, associated with a 6.8 to 13.6 kg decrease in weaning weight. Antibiotic therapy is available but it is unclear if pain mitigation as an adjunct therapy would reduce the weight loss associated with IBK. Before assessing the impact of pain mitigation therapies, it is first necessary to validate approaches to qualifying ocular pain. The objective of this study was to evaluate approaches to qualifying ocular pain in bovine calves (Bos taurus) with IBK. Our a priori assumption was that scarification or corneal ulcerations consistent with IBK are painful compared to normal eyes. To quantify this difference in pain, we assessed 4 tools: pressure algometry-mechanical nociceptive threshold (PA-MNT), corneal touch thresholds (CTT) obtained with the use of a Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer, and assessment for the presence of blepharospasm and photophobia as metrics for pain. Using a 1-eye randomized controlled challenge trial, 31 calves with healthy eyes were randomly allocated to treatment groups, and then a left or right eye was randomly assigned for corneal scarification and inoculation with Moraxella bovoculi or Moraxella bovis. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used for PA-MNT, with significance set at P < 0.05. A log (base 10) transformation was used to stabilize the variance, and Tukey's t tests were used to test differences between assessment days for each landmark. Calves had statistically significantly lower PA-MNT scores (which indicates more pain) the day after scarification relative to baseline measurements (4 d before scarification). For example, at 1 landmark the median PA-MNT (kg/force) prescarification was 4.82 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.92-5.93) and 3.43 (95% CI: 2.79-4.22) postscarification. These data suggest PA-MNT may be a tool for quantifying ocular pain in calves. No differences (P < 0.1) in PA-MNT scores between scarified and not-scarified eyes were detected for any landmark on any day. This result suggests that the pain response occurs over the entire face, not just the affected eye. Corneal ulcerations consistent with IBK were not associated with statistically significant differences in PA-MNT or CTT at eye or calf levels. Not surprisingly, scarified eyes were more likely to exhibit blepharospasm and photophobia compared to healthy eyes. Due to blepharospasm, the use of the Cochet-Bonnet to evaluate corneal sensitivity by CTT was of limited value. PMID:24504043

Dewell, R D; Millman, S T; Gould, S A; Tofflemire, K L; Whitley, R D; Parsons, R L; Rowe, E W; Liu, F; Wang, C; O'Connor, A M



[Acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and biofilm].  


The lower respiratory tract of patients affected by COPD is constantly colonized by pathogenic microrganisms such as H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae. Role of bacterial colonization of big and small airways in patients affected by COPD is still unclear but it is likely to play a role in directly or indirectly maintaining the vicious circle of infection/inflammation. Colonizer pathogens are capable to stimulate mucus production, to alter the ciliary function by inducing dyskinesia and stasis; in addition, they represent a strong stimulus for neutrophils to come in the airways, which release elastase that, in turn, inhibit the mucus-ciliary function. The same pathogens are responsible for epithelial damage and chronic inflammation, by releasing neutrophilic elastase, leading to the damage progression and obstruction. Recent studies have also shown that infection sustained by H. influenzae is not limited to bronchial mucosa, i.e. surface epithelial cells, but that the pathogen is capable to penetrate cells, so spreading the infection in sub-epithelial cellular layers. In addition, the ability to produce biofilm is another possible defence mechanism which allows them to grow and colonise. Such a mechanism could in part explain the lack of response to antimicrobials and contribute to stimulation of parenchymal inflammatory response, the cause of pathological-anatomic damage which occurs in COPD. The impossibility to eradicate chronic infection and bacterial exacerbations of COPD are likely the elements that promt and worsen obstruction, so determining the disease's progression. PMID:19696555

Legnani, Delfino



[Drug sensitivity and beta-lactamase producibility of various types of bacteria clinically isolated during the period from December 1999 to February 2000].  


beta-Lactamase activity and drug sensitivity were measured in 744 strains from 8 species of bacteria isolated at medical institutions in Chikugo District of Fukuoka Prefecture during the period from December 1999 to February 2000. Nitrocefin test revealed that beta-lactamase was positive in 48% of S. aureus, 7% of H. influenzae, and 92% of M. catarrhalis, and acidometry revealed that penicillinase/cephalosporinase were positive in 13%/14% of E. coli, 22%/8% of K. pneumoniae, 47%/97% of E. cloacae, 3%/65% of S. marcescens, and 10%/36% of P. aeruginosa. Based on the assessment of the MIC values of various types of antibacterial drugs for beta-lactamase-producing strains, there were 11 strains (1 strain of K. pneumonia, 6 strains of E. cloacae, and 4 strains of P. aeruginosa) of class-B beta-lactamase-producing bacteria out of a total of 496 strains of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results of PCR analysis suggested that 1 strain of K. pneumonia, 1 strain of E. cloacae, and 4 strains of P. aeruginosa produced metallo-beta-lactamase. There was no strain (E. coli and K. pneumoniae) of ESBL-producing bacteria. BLNAR strains, on the other hand, were found in 9% (9/100) of H. influenzae. PMID:12599532

Hashimoto, Kouji; Kinosita, Chie; Yoshinaga, Hideko; Sonda, Yukari; Itoyama, Takako; Oyamada, Kazunori; Kajimura, Katsunari; Kondou, Masaharu; Sagawa, Kimitaka; Ouno, Tadashi; Kawamoto, Keiko; Souda, Katsumi; Hara, Kazumi; Kakihara, Miyako; Tanaka, Tetsuo; Ryutou, Miwako; Shichiji, Akiko; Nakashima, Kayoko; Ishibashi, Kazushige; Tabira, Reiko; Yamamoto, Shigeko; Nishida, Masahiro; Tsutsumi, Yasunori



New consensus guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of infrequently isolated or fastidious bacteria.  


The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recently published a new laboratory guideline for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of infrequently encountered or fastidious bacteria not covered in previous CLSI publications. The organisms include Aeromonas species, Bacillus species, and Vibrio species that may cause infections following environmental exposure. Fastidious organisms that may cause endocarditis or medical device infections include Abiotrophia and Granulicatella species; coryneform bacteria; Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella group gram-negative rods; and the instrinsically vancomycin-resistant gram-positive organisms Erysipelothrix, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, and Pediococcus species. Organisms not previously covered in depth in CLSI guidelines include Branhamella catarrhalis, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Listeria species, and Pasteurella species. Clinically important drug resistance has been reported for each of these organisms. The guidelines provide recommendations for when it may be important to test these organisms, how standard methods may be easily adapted for testing, and appropriate interpretive criteria for results. Communication with infectious diseases clinicians prior to performing such testing is emphasized. PMID:17173232

Jorgensen, James H; Hindler, Janet F



[Infections in chronic obstructive pulmonery disease].  


Infection plays an important role in COPD, particularly during exacerbations. The principal pathogens involved in exacerbations are viruses (influenza and parainfluenza virus, picornavirus, and respiratory syncytial virus). Bacteria (mainly Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Branhamella catarrhalis) are isolated from sputum in approximately 50% of exacerbations and 25% of patients with stable state. Recent data favor of a proinflammatory role of these bacteria in the natural history of the disease. The role of atypical pathogens like Chlamydia pneumoniae may be underestimated. Trials of antibiotic treatment have shown a slight but significant benefit, particularly in patients with recent-onset purulent sputum. The benefit is more significant in patients with stable severe obstructive disease. Guidelines have been published in industrialized countries on the use of antibiotics in this indication. The role of infections in the pathogenesis of obstructive lesions is controversial. Some authors have forwarded a "vicious circle" hypothesis, in which impairment of mucociliary clearance by tobacco smoke contributes to bronchial colonization by bacteria, and this further impairs mucociliary clearance and promotes airway epithelial injury. COPD is a major risk factor for community-acquired pneumonia. PMID:15368925

Leophonte, Paul



Serological classification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed Central

Hybrid cells producing monoclonal antibodies against antigens of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were obtained by the polyethylene glycol-mediated fusion of mouse myeloma cells and lymphocytes from mice immunized with gonococcal protein I or outer membrane proteins. From four fusions, 16 phenotypically stable, independently cloned hybrid cell lines were selected for continued study. Each of the cell lines produced a characteristically different monoclonal antibody which reacted in immunoprecipitation assays with a unique antigenic determinant on protein I of the outer membrane complex of the bacteria. In antibody binding, immunofluorescence, and coagglutination assays these antibodies each reacted with a restricted group of N. gonorrhoeae strains. None of the monoclonal antibodies reacted with 17 other different species of Neisseria or with Branhamella catarrhalis. When tested on 34 N. gonorrhoeae reference serotyping strains, the monoclonal antibodies demonstrated serological relationships between the strains which paralleled those observed with conventional polyvalent antisera. These antibodies now provide standardized reagents for the rapid and precise serological characterization of many strains of N. gonorrhoeae. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:6807844

Tam, M R; Buchanan, T M; Sandström, E G; Holmes, K K; Knapp, J S; Siadak, A W; Nowinski, R C



Aetiology of Pulmonary Symptoms in HIV-Infected Smear Negative Recurrent PTB Suspects in Kampala, Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Previously treated TB patients with pulmonary symptoms are often considered recurrent TB suspects in the resource-limited settings, where investigations are limited to microscopy and chest x-ray. Category II anti-TB drugs may be inappropriate and may expose patients to pill burden, drug toxicities and drug-drug interactions. Objective To determine the causes of pulmonary symptoms in HIV-infected smear negative recurrent pulmonary tuberculosis suspects at Mulago Hospital, Kampala. Methods Between March 2008 and December 2011, induced sputum samples of 178 consented HIV-infected smear negative recurrent TB suspects in Kampala were subjected to MGIT and LJ cultures for mycobacteria at TB Reference Laboratory, Kampala. Processed sputum samples were also tested by PCR to detect 18S rRNA gene of P.jirovecii and cultured for other bacteria. Results Bacteria, M. tuberculosis and Pneumocystis jirovecii were detected in 27%, 18% and 6.7% of patients respectively and 53.4% of the specimens had no microorganisms. S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae were 100% susceptible to chloramphenicol and erythromycin but co-trimoxazole resistant. Conclusion At least 81.5% of participants had no microbiologically-confirmed TB. However our findings call for thorough investigation of HIV-infected smear negative recurrent TB suspects to guide cost effective treatment. PMID:24312650

Okwera, Alphonse; Bwanga, Freddie; Najjingo, Irene; Mulumba, Yusuf; Mafigiri, David K.; Whalen, Christopher C.; Joloba, Moses L.



Nonfermentative bacilli: evaluation of three systems for identification.  

PubMed Central

Three systems for the identification of nonfermentative bacilli were evaluated for their rapidity and accuracy of identification of 217 strains. Two of the systems, API 20E (API) and Oxi/Ferm tube (OxiF), are available as kits; the oxidative attack (OA) system is not commerically available. The overall accuracies of the OA, API, and OxiF systems were 91, 69, and 50%, respectively. Identification within 48 h was achieved for 98% of the strains by OA, for 50% by API, and for 18% by OxiF. Most of the organisms that were either misidentified or not identified by API and OxiF were those nonfermentative bacilli which are relatively more fastidious or rarely encountered or both. All three systems accurately identified nonfermentative bacilli commonly isolated at Olive View Medical Center, namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter anitratus, Pseudomonas maltophilia, Acinetobacter lwoffi, saccharolytic flavobacteria (CDC IIb), moraxellae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas putida. The OA system identified 100% of the above organisms correctly, API identified 99.4%, and OxiF identified 99.3%. Since these organisms comprise 92% of the total number of nonfermentative bacilli isolated at Olive View Medical Center, we conclude that both API and OxiF may be useful alternatives to conventional methods, based on accuracy of identification alone. These two systems were considered substantially inferior to the OA system when both accuracy and rapidity of identification were taken into account. PMID:389945

Otto, L A; Blachman, U



Identification of airborne bacterial and fungal species in the clinical microbiology laboratory of a university teaching hospital employing ribosomal DNA (rDNA) PCR and gene sequencing techniques.  


Universal or "broad-range" PCR-based ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed on a collection of 58 isolates (n = 30 bacteria + 28 fungi), originating from environmental air from several locations within a busy clinical microbiology laboratory, supporting a university teaching hospital. A total of 10 bacterial genera were identified including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative genera. Gram-positive organisms accounted for 27/30 (90%) of total bacterial species, consisting of seven genera and included (in descending order of frequency) Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Paenibacillus, Arthrobacter, Janibacter and Rothia. Gram-negative organisms were less frequently isolated 3/30 (10%) and comprised three genera, including Moraxella, Psychrobacter and Haloanella. Eight fungal genera were identified among the 28 fungal organisms isolated, including (in descending order of frequency) Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Thanatephorus, Absidia, Eurotium, Paraphaeosphaeria and Tritirachium, with Cladosporium accounting for 10/28 (35.7%) of the total fungal isolates. In conclusion, this study identified the presence of 10 bacterial and eight fungal genera in the air within the laboratory sampled. Although this reflected diversity of the microorganisms present, none of these organisms have been described previously as having an inhalational route of laboratory-acquired infection. Therefore, we believe that the species of organisms identified and the concentration levels of these airborne contaminants determined, do not pose a significant health and safety threat for immunocompotent laboratory personnel and visitors. PMID:20183192

Nagano, Yuriko; Walker, Jim; Loughrey, Anne; Millar, Cherie; Goldsmith, Colin; Rooney, Paul; Elborn, Stuart; Moore, John



A Study on the Nature of Association between Demodex Mites and Bacteria Involved in Skin and Meibomian Gland Lesions of Demodectic Mange in Cattle  

PubMed Central

The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria involved in bovine demodectic mange lesions and the normal flora inhabiting the skin of noninfected animals was investigated. Demodex bovis and D. ghanensis mites were isolated from the infected purulent material extracted from skin and meibomian gland lesions, respectively. The mites could not be demonstrated in skin brushings or impression smears from the eyes of noninfected cattle. Pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A)) and opportunistic organisms (Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Trueperella pyogenes) were isolated from skin lesions of demodectic mange, and Moraxella bovis and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from meibomian gland lesions. Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A) were isolated from skin brushings from noninfected cattle. The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria in demodectic mange lesions is synergistic and of equal significance. Pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria facilitated the establishment of Demodex mites in the lesions produced and provided an excellent microclimate for the mites to propagate and reproduce, resulting in severe and progressive disease. The “high-turnover” granulomatous reaction which characterized the histopathological changes proved that Demodex mites and associated bacteria were persistent and immunogenic. PMID:25177514

Abu-Samra, Mukhtar Taha; Shuaib, Yassir Adam



Unbalanced restriction impairs SOS-induced DNA repair effects.  


The contribution of a type II restriction-modification system (R-M system) to genome integrity and cell viability was investigated. We established experimental conditions which enabled the achievement of hemimethylated and unmethylated states for the specific bases of the recognition sequences of the host's DNA. To achieve this, we constructed the MboII R-M system containing only one (i.e. M2.MboII) out of two functional MboII methyltransferases found in Moraxella bovis. Using the incomplete R-M system we were able to perturb the balance between methylation and restriction in an inducible manner. We demonstrate that upon the SOS-induced DNA repair in the mitomycin C treated cells, restriction significantly reduces cell viability. Similar results for the well-studied wild type EcoRI R-M system, expressed constitutively in Escherichia coli, were obtained. Our data provide further insights into the benefits and disadvantages of maintaining of a type II R-M system, highlighting its impact on host cell fitness. PMID:20134230

Katna, Anna; Boratynski, Robert; Furmanek-Blaszk, Beata; Zolcinska, Natalia; Sektas, Marian



Microbiological evaluation of the new VITEK 2 Neisseria-Haemophilus identification card.  


VITEK 2 is an automated identification system for diverse bacterial and fungal species. A new card (the Neisseria-Haemophilus [NH] card) for the identification of Neisseria spp., Haemophilus spp., and other fastidious gram-negative or gram-variable microorganisms has been developed, but its performance in a routine clinical laboratory has not yet been evaluated. In this study, a total of 188 bacterial strains belonging to the genera Actinobacillus, Campylobacter, Capnocytophaga, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Gardnerella, Haemophilus, Kingella, Moraxella, and Neisseria were investigated. The NH card was able to identify 171 strains (91%) correctly without the need for extra tests; one strain (0.5%) was misidentified, and five strains (2.7%) could not be classified. Eleven strains (5.8%) were identified with a low level of discrimination, and simple additional tests were required to increase the correct-identification rate to 96.8%. The results were available within 6 h. Based on these results, the new VITEK 2 NH card appears to be a good method for the identification of diverse groups of fastidious organisms, which would otherwise require testing with multiple systems. However, more work is needed to evaluate the performance of VITEK 2 with regard to Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella bacteria because of the insufficient number of strains tested in this study. Moreover, further reduction of the detection time would be desirable. PMID:17728469

Valenza, Giuseppe; Ruoff, Claudia; Vogel, Ulrich; Frosch, Matthias; Abele-Horn, Marianne



Characterization of the oral microbiota of healthy cats using next-generation sequencing.  


The healthy feline oral cavity harbours a rich assemblage of microorganisms, which have not previously been well characterized using modern sequencing technology. The goal of this study was to accurately describe the oral microbiota of 11 healthy cats using next-generation sequencing. Sequencing generated a total of 10,177 operational taxonomic units, representing 273 genera from 18 bacterial phyla. Eight bacterial phyla made up 97.6% of sequences: Proteobacteria (75.2%), Bacteroidetes (9.3%), Firmicutes (6.7%), SR1 (2.7%), Spirochaetes (1.8%), Fusobacteria (1.3%), and Actinobacteria (0.6%). The most prevalent genus-level phylotypes were: an unclassified Pasteurellaceae (18.7%), Moraxella (10.9%), Thermomonas (6.9%), an unclassified Comamonadaceae (5.6%), Neisseria (4.9%), an unclassified Moraxellaceae (4.4%), and Pasteurella (4.3%). Results suggest that the feline oral microbiota are largely conserved between cats at the phylum level, and that the population is highly diverse, rich and even. A strong core microbiome was evident among all cats, yet significant differences in oral bacterial populations were observed across cats in each household. PMID:24680670

Sturgeon, A; Pinder, S L; Costa, M C; Weese, J S



A Study on the Nature of Association between Demodex Mites and Bacteria Involved in Skin and Meibomian Gland Lesions of Demodectic Mange in Cattle.  


The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria involved in bovine demodectic mange lesions and the normal flora inhabiting the skin of noninfected animals was investigated. Demodex bovis and D. ghanensis mites were isolated from the infected purulent material extracted from skin and meibomian gland lesions, respectively. The mites could not be demonstrated in skin brushings or impression smears from the eyes of noninfected cattle. Pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A)) and opportunistic organisms (Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Trueperella pyogenes) were isolated from skin lesions of demodectic mange, and Moraxella bovis and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from meibomian gland lesions. Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A) were isolated from skin brushings from noninfected cattle. The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria in demodectic mange lesions is synergistic and of equal significance. Pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria facilitated the establishment of Demodex mites in the lesions produced and provided an excellent microclimate for the mites to propagate and reproduce, resulting in severe and progressive disease. The "high-turnover" granulomatous reaction which characterized the histopathological changes proved that Demodex mites and associated bacteria were persistent and immunogenic. PMID:25177514

Abu-Samra, Mukhtar Taha; Shuaib, Yassir Adam



Azithromycin, fluoroquinolone and chloramphenicol resistance of non-chlamydia conjunctival bacteria in rural community of Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Aim: To determine profiles of non-chlamydia conjunctival bacteria and their antimicrobial susceptibility from adults who underwent trachomatous trichiasis surgery in rural areas of Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in rural districts in West Gojjam administrative zone. Conjunctival swabs were collected during surgery and transported using Stuart transport broth (Oxoid, UK). Antibiotic susceptibility of conjunctival isolates was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method. Results: Non-chlamydia pathogenic bacteria were recovered from conjunctiva of 438 (31%) participants before treatment. The isolated conjunctival bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Streptococcus group (A, C, F and G), Enterococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella spp., Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp., Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacter spp. Overall, resistance rates of 57.8% to azithromycin and 68.5% to chloramphenicol were found. However, 86-94.4% sensitivity was demonstrated to ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. Moderate sensitivity rates (61.8-78.4%) were observed to ceftriaxone, tetracycline and cotrimoxazole. Conclusion: Fluoroquinolones that have activity against the majority of bacterial isolates were potent at in vitro. However, unacceptably high levels of resistance to azithromycin and chloramphenicol in rural community indicated a need for further study and antimicrobial resistance surveillance. PMID:23571246

Abera, Bayeh; Kibret, Mulugeta



Crystal structure of MboIIA methyltransferase.  

SciTech Connect

DNA methyltransferases (MTases) are sequence-specific enzymes which transfer a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) to the amino group of either cytosine or adenine within a recognized DNA sequence. Methylation of a base in a specific DNA sequence protects DNA from nucleolytic cleavage by restriction enzymes recognizing the same DNA sequence. We have determined at 1.74 {angstrom} resolution the crystal structure of a {beta}-class DNA MTase MboIIA (M {center_dot} MboIIA) from the bacterium Moraxella bovis, the smallest DNA MTase determined to date. M {center_dot} MboIIA methylates the 3' adenine of the pentanucleotide sequence 5'-GAAGA-3'. The protein crystallizes with two molecules in the asymmetric unit which we propose to resemble the dimer when M {center_dot} MboIIA is not bound to DNA. The overall structure of the enzyme closely resembles that of M {center_dot} RsrI. However, the cofactor-binding pocket in M {center_dot} MboIIA forms a closed structure which is in contrast to the open-form structures of other known MTases.

Osipiuk, J.; Walsh, M. A.; Joachimiak, A.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Gdansk; Medical Research Council France



Microbial fouling of reverse-osmosis membranes used in advanced wastewater treatment technology: chemical, bacteriological, and ultrastructural analyses.  

PubMed Central

Biofouling of reverse-osmosis membranes was investigated at an advanced wastewater treatment facility. Cellulose diacetate membranes operated for approximately 4,000 h became uniformly coated with a mucilaginous fouling layer. The fouling material was approximately 93% water by weight, and nearly 90% of the dehydrated residue was organic in composition. Calcium, phosphorous, sulfur, and chlorine were the major inorganic constituents detected. Protein and carbohydrate represented as much as 30 and 17%, respectively, of the dry weight of the biofilm. Bacteriological plate counts indicated up to 5.6 X 10(6) CFU/cm2 of membrane surface. Accumulation of [3H]glucose in the biofilm and measurement of ATP indicated that the fouling bacteria were metabolically active in situ. The genus Acinetobacter and the Flavobacterium-Moraxella group were the major generic groups associated with the feedwater surface of the membrane, whereas species of the generic groups Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas-Alcaligenes, and Bacillus-Lactobacillus predominated on the permeate water surface. Electron microscopy revealed that the biofilm on the feedwater surface of the membrane was 10 to 20 microns thick and was composed of several layers of compacted bacterial cells, many of which were partially or completely autolyzed. The bacteria were firmly attached to the membrane surface by an extensive network of extracellular polymeric fibrils. Polyester (Texlon) support fibers located on the permeate surface of the reverse osmosis membranes were sparsely colonized, suggesting bacterial regrowth in the product water collection system. Images PMID:6847180

Ridgway, H F; Kelly, A; Justice, C; Olson, B H



Effects of pipe materials on chlorine-resistant biofilm formation under long-term high chlorine level.  


Drinking water distribution systems are composed of various pipe materials and may harbor biofilms even in the continuous presence of disinfectants. Biofilms formation on five pipe materials (copper (Cu), polyethylene (PE), stainless steel (STS), cast iron (CI), and concrete-coated polycarbonate (CP)) within drinking water containing 1.20 mg/L free chlorine, was investigated by flow cytometry, heterotrophic plate counts, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. Results showed that the biofilms formation varied in pipe materials. The biofilm formed on CP initially emerged the highest biomass in 12 days, but CI presented the significantly highest biomass after 28 days, and Cu showed the lowest bacterial numbers before 120 days, while STS expressed the lowest bacterial numbers after 159 days. In the biofilm community structure, Moraxella osloensis and Sphingomonas sp. were observed in all the pipe materials while Bacillus sp. was detected except in the CP pipe and Stenotrophomonas maltophila was found from three pipe materials (Cu, PE, and STS). Other bacteria were only found from one or two pipe materials. It is noteworthy that there are 11 opportunistic pathogens in the 17 classified bacterial strains. This research has afforded crucial information regarding the influence of pipe materials on chlorine-resistant biofilm formation. PMID:24828580

Zhu, Zebing; Wu, Chenguang; Zhong, Dan; Yuan, Yixing; Shan, Lili; Zhang, Jie



Purification and partial characterization of a novel antibacterial agent (Bac1829) Produced by Staphylococcus aureus KSI1829.  

PubMed Central

A novel antimicrobial agent from Staphylococcus aureus KSI1829, designated Bac1829, was purified by sequential steps of ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephadex G-50 gel filtration chromatography, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Purified Bac1829 has a molecular mass of 6,418 +/- 2 Da. The peptide in heat stable, since full biological activity is retained after heating at 95 degrees C for 15 min, and it is destroyed by digestion with proteases. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed a high concentration of Ala and Gly residues, which respectively comprised 24 and 19% of the total amino acid content. Additionally, high levels of hydrophobic amino acids were present, accounting for the hydrophobic nature of Bac1829. Purified Bac1829 killed exponentially growing Corynebacterium renale in a dose-dependent manner by a bactericidal mode of action. A partial inhibitory spectrum analysis revealed that the following organisms were sensitive to the inhibitory activity of Bac1829: S. aureus RN4220, Streptococcus suis, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, C. renale, Corynebacterium diptheriae, Haemophilus parasuis, Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella bronchoseptica, Moraxella bovis, and Pasteurella multocida. PMID:8795206

Crupper, S S; Iandolo, J J



CDIGO DIA HORA AULA CURSO TITULACION ASIGNATURA 1003306 13/06/2014 12:00 Ningn Matriculado 1 I.T. Industrial (Qumica Industrial) Expresin Grfica y Diseo Asistido por Ordenador  

E-print Network

.T. Industrial (Química Industrial) Tratamiento de Aguas Residuales 1003324 24/06/2014 15:00 005 Aulario III 3 I.T. Industrial (Química Industrial) Seguridad e Higiene Industriales 1003330 23/06/2014 15:00 002 Aulario I 3 I

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad



Microsoft Academic Search

The biosorption and reduction of Cr (VI) onto packed columns of Agave lechuguilla were analyzed using an advection-dispersion with a first order reaction (ADR) model and its analytical solution. Design parameters, such as an axial dispersion coefficient, a retardation factor, a distribution coefficient, and a general first-order decay constant, were estimated as functions of inlet metal ion concentration, pH, operation

J. Romero-González; I. Cano-Rodríguez; J. C. Walton; J. R. Peralta-Vide; E. Rodríguez



Algunas consideraciones sobre la contaminación ambiental en la obtención y uso de fundentes para la soldadura automática por arco sumergido Some considerations about the environmental contamination in the fluxes obtaining and use in the submerged arc welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper a some considerations about the environmental contamination during the obtaining process and use welding fluxes for submerged arc welding process are given. Is appreciated that the processes GMAW, SMAW and FCAW are those more studied regarding the indicative of environmental contamination, but solely related with the affections on the operatives and welders. However, the productive processes of

Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica; Eriel Pérez Zapico; Carlos R. Gómez Pérez; Rafael Quintana Puchol; Lorenzo Perdomo González


High prevalence of immunoglobulin A deficiency in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus detected by ELISA Alta prevalência de deficiência de imunoglobulina A detectada por ELISA em pacientes com diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To measure serum levels of immunoglobulin A by immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA) in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM-1) patients and to verify the prevalence of immunoglobulin A deficiency (IgAD) in diabetic patients. Methods: The serum immunoglobulin A level was determined in 149 DM-1 patients by three methods. IgAD was defined as serum immunoglobulin A level lower than 5 mg\\/dl. If

Loraine Farias Landgraf; Nelson Augusto Rosário; Juliana Ferreira de Moura; Katherine Andrew Wells; Bonald Cavalcanti Figueiredo


Crystal structure of bis-(4-nitro-aniline-?N (1))(5,10,15,20-tetra-phenyl-por-phy-rin-ato-?(4) N)cobalt(III) chloride di-chloro-methane monosolvate.  


The reaction of [Co(III)(TPP)Cl] (TPP is the dianion of 5,10,15,20-tetra-phenyl-porphyrin) with an excess of 4-nitro-aniline in di-chloro-methane leads to the title compound, [Co(III)(C44H28N4)(C6H6N2O2)2]Cl·CH2Cl2. The Co(III) ion lies on an inversion centre and is octa-hedrally coordinated by two N atoms of the NH2 groups of the two 4-nitro-aniline trans-axial ligands and four pyrrole N atoms of the porphyrin. The asymmetric unit contains one half of the [Co(III)(TPP)(4-nitro-aniline)2](+) ion complex, one chloride counter-ion (lying on a twofold rotation axis) and one half di-chloro-methane solvent mol-ecule, where the C atom lies on a twofold rotation axis. The average equatorial Co-N(pyrrole) distance (Co-Np) is 1.982?(2)?Å and the axial Co-N(4-nitro-aniline) bond length is 2.006?(2)?Å. The crystal packing is stabilized by an N-H?Cl hydrogen bond between the N atom of the amino group of the 4-nitro-aniline axial ligand and the chloride counter-ion. The supra-molecular architecture is further stabilized by weak C-H?? inter-actions. PMID:25309176

Belghith, Yassine; Mansour, Anissa; Nasri, Habib



La producción familiar como alternativa de un desarrollo sostenible para la Amazonía; Lecciones aprendidas de iniciativas de uso forestal por productores familiares en la Amazonía boliviana, brasilera, ecuatoriana y peruana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Between 2005 and 2009, the EU-financed project ForLive set out to analyse promising local forest management initiatives in the Amazon Basin in four countries: Ecuador, Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru. Researchers aimed to identify locally viable practices that benefit livelihoods and ecological stabilisation of landscapes, as well as to define ways to promote these practices as a basis for sound

B. Pokorny; J. Godar; L. Hoch; J. Johnson; Koning de J; G. Medina; R. Steinbrenner; V. Vos; J. Weigelt



Perdidos en la selva. Un estudio del proceso de re-arriage y de desarrollo local de la Comunidad-Cooperativa Unión Maya Itza, formada por campesinos guatemaltecos, antiguos refugiados, reasentados en el Departamento de El Petén, Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lost in the forest<\\/strong> : A study of the reintegration, re-rooting, and endogenous development process of the communal co-operative Unión Maya Itzá, formed by Guatemalan peasants, former refugees in Mexico, resettled in the Department of Petén, Guatemala.

Lost in the Forest: the return of the refugees to the El Quetzal \\

Vaeren van der P




Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic study of the balances of the principal elements in a Pinus radiata D. Don forest system was carried out during two consecutive years (1997\\/8), in a forest plot situated in the centre of Galicia (Alto de O Martelo, A Coruña, NW Spain). The aim of the study was to obtain data that would allow reference levels to be



Síndrome de Wolff-Parkinson-White e outras Vias Acessórias Atrioventriculares em 1465 Pacientes Submetidos à Ablação por Radiofreqüência Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and other Atrioventricular Accessory Pathways in 1,465 Patients Undergoing Radio-Frequency Ablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several studies analyzed clinical and electrophysiological data for patients with accessory pathways, most of them not Brazilian and based on a relatively small number of patients. Objective: To describe the number and location of the accessory pathways in Brazilian patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of 1,465 consecutive patients with accessory pathways who u n

Iara Atié; Washington Maciel; Eduardo Andréa; Nilson Araújo; Hecio Carvalho; Luís Belo; Leonardo Siqueira; Cláudio Munhoz; Rodrigo Cosenza; Fabiana Mitidieri; Lara Fonseca; Cristiane Bortoluzzo; Tarik Arcoverde; Bruno Andréa; Jacob Atié


Caracterizaci\\'on de austenita expandida generada por cementaci\\'on i\\'onica de aceros inoxidables. Estudio de la estabilidad frente a la irradiaci\\'on con haces de iones ligeros energ\\'eticos  

E-print Network

This thesis was focused on the surface modification with plasma discharge. Austenitic AISI 316L stainless steel sample was carburised under different experimental conditions and mechanical properties have been studied (thickness, lattice parameter, elemental composition, hardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance). After that, steel substrates have been nitrided or carburised in order to analyse their stability under ion bombardment using a plasma focus device. Helium and deuterium were the gases used in 0, 1, 5, and 10 discharges. Optical and X-ray characterisations were used. Finally, using magnetron sputtering nitrided/carburised samples were coated with an AlN thin film in order to study their stability under long treatments at high temperatures.

Molleja, Javier García



PREFERENCIA Y DISPOSICIÓN DEL CONSUMIDOR A PAGAR POR UN SELLO DE CALIDAD CERTIFICADA: IMPLICANCIAS PARA PRODUCTORES DE ALIMENTOS DE ORIGEN CAMPESINO Consumer preference and willingness to pay for an officially certified quality label: Implications for small farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T A study was carried out in Chile in order to evaluate consumer preference and willingness to pay for a certified quality label on traditional food products, employing conjoint analysis method. A total of 234 individuals were interviewed in two Chilean cities, Santiago and Talca. A homemade blackberry jam and three product attributes

Carlos Padilla; Pablo Villalobos; Achim Spiller; Guy Henry



Microsoft Academic Search

La comunicación es el resultado de la necesidad de interacción del hombre con sus semejantes para conocer y dominar su entorno en la búsqueda incesante de mejores condiciones de supervivencia. De este modo, y aparejado a su propio desarrollo, ésta ha jugado un papel fundamental en la historia de la humanidad

Yamisleydis Popa Báez; Rolando Rodríguez González



Actas del Congreso Internacional "Amrica Latina: La autonoma de una regin", organizado por el Consejo Espaol de Estudios Iberoamericanos (CEEIB) y la Facultad de Ciencias Polticas y Sociologa de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM),  

E-print Network

-84-92755-88-2 #12;ÁREA DE RELACIONES INTERNACIONALES Y COOPERACI�N 1318 MOVILIDAD INTRARREGIONAL EN AM�RICA LATINA movilidad intrarregional de América Latina. La movilidad supone una constante en la región. El contexto que dificulta su asociación a una clara movilidad sur-sur, sur ­ norte, norte-sur. Introducción

Boyer, Edmond



Microsoft Academic Search

PALABRAS CLAVE. Agave tequilana Weber, residuos orgánicos, fermentación, bioconversión. ABSTRACT. This paper presents a bibliographical review with the purpose of identifying and analyzing alternatives to process the pulp of the plant \\

Yolanda González García; Orfil González Reynoso; Jesús Nungaray Arellano


FOLATOS Y SU DISPONIBILIDAD EN ALIMENTOS EVALUADOS POR CROMATOGRAFÍA LÍQUIDA (HPLC). VALIDACIÓN Y APLICACIONES EN CALIDA NUTRICIONAL DE ALIMENTOS Folates and their Availability in Foods Evaluated by Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Validation and Application in Food Nutritional Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article it is presented the most precise chromatographic method to determine the different forms of B9 vitamin (folic acid or folacin) in foods, besides their availability (mono or polyglutamates). It is based in high performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC) which protocol permits the extraction, purification and separation of folic acid and its different derivatives forms. This method has


Actas del Congreso Internacional "Amrica Latina: La autonoma de una regin", organizado por el Consejo Espaol de Estudios Iberoamericanos (CEEIB) y la Facultad de Ciencias Polticas y Sociologa de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM),  

E-print Network

redes sociales digitales en amplios sectores de la sociedad han venido impactando la forma (y el fondo Estado en relación a su enraizamiento social y capacidad infraestructural. Destacando este aspecto menos actores sociales, sino planteando algunas preguntas relevantes" (Castells, La era de la Información. La

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Actas del Congreso Internacional "Amrica Latina: La autonoma de una regin", organizado por el Consejo Espaol de Estudios Iberoamericanos (CEEIB) y la Facultad de Ciencias Polticas y Sociologa de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM),  

E-print Network

ascenso en las encuestas fue atribuido al internet y en particular al uso de redes sociales, las cuales se Manizales. Se trata de una investigación enmarcada en el planteamiento de los sistemas sociales de Niklas

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


La Ctedra Prosegur-UA tiene por objeto ser un espacio de debate, reflexin e investigacin sobre el estudio de la gestin del talento en las organizaciones. Se ocupar de desarrollar programas formativos y tareas de  

E-print Network

de recursos humanos y gestión de redes sociales en la empresa. Investigación para el diseño e comunicación y en especial en redes sociales. DIRECCI�N POSTAL Universidad de Alicante Carretera de San Vicente imagen y reputación social de ambas marcas. La razón de ser de la Cátedra Prosegur-UA está explicitada

Escolano, Francisco


Vistazos Intimos De Puebla; Una Compilacion De Informes Individuales Preparados Por Los Participantes Del Instituto De Verano (NDEA) (Close-ups on Puebla; A Compilation of Individual Reports Prepared by the Participants of the NDEA Summer Institute).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The individual and committee reports on the sociology of Puebla, Mexico, which are collected here, were written by participants in an NDEA Summer Institute program of the University of Wichita, Kansas. The underlying motives of the program, described in the preface, were to provide participants with real language experience and a chance to…

Wichita State Univ., KS.



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O presente artigo apresenta a experiência vivenciada no estágio de formação de psicólogo na área de Psicologia Organizacional e do Trabalho. O estágio foi realizado em uma Instituição Hospitalar não governamental que presta atendimento específico ao tratamento de uma patologia de alta complexidade, situado na cidade de Londrina- Pr. Inicialmente foi realizado um Diagnóstico Organizacional com o objetivo de

Andréa Mita; Ana Paula Takahashi; Jacqueline Montilha Leonardi; Mari Teresa Molinari; Elen Gongora Moreira


John Tracy Clinic: Programa de Ensenanza por Correspondencia para Los Padres de Ninos Sordo-Ciegos de Edad Preescolar (John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf-Blind Children).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written in Spanish, the document contains a correspondence learning program for parents of deaf blind preschoolers. An introductory section gives preliminary instructions, an introduction to sign language, and a list of resources for deaf blind children. Twelve lessons follow with information on: the parent's role in teaching the child, visual…

Thielman, Virginia B.; And Others


Depredación de aves acuáticas por la nutria neotropical (Lontra longicaudis annectens), en el río Yaqui, Sonora, México Aquatic bird predation by neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis annectens), at Río Yaqui, Sonora, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the predation of aquatic birds by neotropical river otters (L. longicaudis annectens) at Río Yaqui, Sonora. As many as 25 skulls, post-cranial skeletons and feathers were found at river otter feeding sites. The neotropical cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) was the most predated bird with 16 individuals, followed by Mexican mallard (Anas platyrhynchos diazi) with 4 individuals, great egret (Ardea

Juan Pablo Gallo-Reynoso; Nadia Nayeli Ramos-Rosas; Óscar Rangel-Aguilar


«Amigos con derecho a roce»: una oportunidad para contraer la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana en hombres homo\\/bixesuales con prácticas sexuales de alto riesgo  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveDespite prevention efforts, the prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) remains substantial among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study describes and analyzes how a group of MSM manages sexual risk with sexual partners.

Percy Fernández-Dávila



224. Toda cosa tiene un lado bueno y otro malo: aprende a buscarlos. Toma todo por el lado conveniente. Nunca en forma rabiosa, aunque venga as. Todas las cosas tienen un derecho y  

E-print Network

conveniente. Nunca en forma rabiosa, aunque venga así. Todas las cosas tienen un derecho y un revés. De modo. En palabras de Gracián, todas las cosas tienen un derecho y un revés y los fracasos temporales en la

Muiño, Ricardo Díez


Temperatura ambiental en la crianza del pollo de engorda sobre los parámetros productivos y la mortalidad por el síndrome ascítico Ambient temperature effect on productive parameters and ascites syndrome mortality in broilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A test was carried out to assess different exposure time periods to artificial heating during brooding on productive parameters and ascites mortality in broilers. Two thousand seven hundred, one-day-old, Ross chickens were maintained in production until 53 days of age. Birds were distributed following a complete randomized design, in three treatment groups with nine replicates of 100 birds each. Treatments

José Arce Menocal; Eduardo Gutiérrez; Ernesto Avila


Productividad y mortalidad por síndrome ascítico en pollos de engorda alimentados con dietas granuladas o en harina Productivity and Ascites syndrome mortality in broilers fed mash or pellet diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pellet and mash feed use in broiler chicks on productive performance and Ascites mortality in the Valley of Mexico was evaluated using a total of 276 one-day-old, Ross x Ross male broilers. Chicks were randomly assigned to two treatments, six replicates per treatment, 23 chicks per replicate. Treatments were: a) chickens fed pellet diets ad libitum; and

Arturo Cortés Cuevas; Antonio Estrada Contreras; Ernesto Ávila González


Aplicação de planejamento fatorial fracionário e box-behnken para otimização de extração com microgota para determinação de tricloroanisol e tribromoanisol de amostras de vinho por cromatografia a gás.  

E-print Network

??Neste trabalho foi desenvolvida uma metodologia analítica para determinação de 2,4,6-tricloroanisol e 2,4,6-tribromoanisol, os quais proporcionam cheiro de mofo ao vinho. A metodologia desenvolvida baseou-se… (more)

Edmar Martendal



Appraisal of Japan's Plan to Double Income (Observations sur le plan du Japon desité à doubler le revenu national) (Apreciación del plan adoptado por el Japón para doblar su ingreso nacional)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le Japon a adopté un plan décennal visant à doubler son revenu national à partir de 1961, en vue de maintenir le taux élevé de croissance économique qu'il a réalisé dans la décennie des années 1950. La rapide expansion économique de ces dernières années a été marquée notamment par l'activité de l'investissement privé dans des industries telles que sidérurgiques, mécaniques,

M. Fujioka



Estudo Comparativo entre os Constituintes Voláteis Liberados por Machos Ceratitis Capitata e Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) e seus Frutos Hospedeiros Preferencial Averrhoa carambola L. e Secundário, Carica papaya L.  

E-print Network

??Os machos de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) liberam uma mistura complexa de constituintes químicos para atrair machos e fêmeas coespecíficos (feromônio de agregação). Nas espécies de… (more)

Carlos Eduardo da Silva



Hospitalizações por asma: impacto de um programa de controle de asma e rinite alérgica em Feira de Santana (BA)* Hospitalizations for asthma: impact of a program for the control of asthma and allergic rhinitis in Feira de Santana, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the impact of the Programa de Controle da Asma e Rinite Alérgica em Feira de Santana (ProAR-FS, Program for the Control of Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis in Feira de Santana) on the frequency of hospitalizations for asthma in patients monitored at a referral center for one year. Methods: This was a historical control study involving 253 consecutive

Heli Vieira Brandão; Constança Margarida; Eduardo Vieira Ponte; Álvaro Augusto Cruz


Investigação dos efeitos de substâncias liberadas por materiais utilizados no tratamento da Hipersensibilidade Dentinária (Gluma e Biovidro), associados ou não à laser fototerapia, na proliferação e diferenciação de células mesenquimais de polpa dentária humana.  

E-print Network

??A incidência da hipersensibilidade dentinária (HD) tem aumentado. Agentes dessensibilizantes como o Gluma Desensitizer® (Heraeus), ou os Biovidros, bem como tratamentos considerados bioestimuladores como a… (more)

Talita Christine Camilo Lopez



VISIÓN GENERAL DE LA EVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO EN SALUD INFANTIL EMPLEANDO UN ENFOQUE POR ETAPAS DE DESARROLLO (American translation is: Overview of a Life Stage Approach to Children's Health Risk Assessment)  

EPA Science Inventory

Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina....


Crystal structure of bis­(4-nitro­aniline-?N 1)(5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­por­phy­rin­ato-?4 N)cobalt(III) chloride di­chloro­methane monosolvate  

PubMed Central

The reaction of [CoIII(TPP)Cl] (TPP is the dianion of 5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrin) with an excess of 4-nitro­aniline in di­chloro­methane leads to the title compound, [CoIII(C44H28N4)(C6H6N2O2)2]Cl·CH2Cl2. The CoIII ion lies on an inversion centre and is octa­hedrally coordinated by two N atoms of the NH2 groups of the two 4-nitro­aniline trans-axial ligands and four pyrrole N atoms of the porphyrin. The asymmetric unit contains one half of the [CoIII(TPP)(4-nitro­aniline)2]+ ion complex, one chloride counter-ion (lying on a twofold rotation axis) and one half di­chloro­methane solvent mol­ecule, where the C atom lies on a twofold rotation axis. The average equatorial Co—N(pyrrole) distance (Co—Np) is 1.982?(2)?Å and the axial Co—N(4-nitro­aniline) bond length is 2.006?(2)?Å. The crystal packing is stabilized by an N—H?Cl hydrogen bond between the N atom of the amino group of the 4-nitro­aniline axial ligand and the chloride counter-ion. The supra­molecular architecture is further stabilized by weak C—H?? inter­actions. PMID:25309176

Belghith, Yassine; Mansour, Anissa; Nasri, Habib



Non-capsulated and capsulated Haemophilus influenzae in children with acute otitis media in Venezuela: a prospective epidemiological study  

PubMed Central

Background Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Streptococcus pneumoniae are major causes of bacterial acute otitis media (AOM). Data regarding AOM are limited in Latin America. This is the first active surveillance in a private setting in Venezuela to characterize the bacterial etiology of AOM in children < 5 years of age. Methods Between December 2008 and December 2009, 91 AOM episodes (including sporadic, recurrent and treatment failures) were studied in 87 children enrolled into a medical center in Caracas, Venezuela. Middle ear fluid samples were collected either by tympanocentesis or spontaneous otorrhea swab sampling method. Standard laboratory and microbiological techniques were used to identify bacteria and test for antimicrobial resistance. The results were interpreted according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2009 for non-meningitis isolates. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.1 and Microsoft Excel (for graphical purposes). Results Overall, bacteria were cultured from 69.2% (63 of the 91 episodes); at least one pathogen (S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, S. pyogenes or M. catarrhalis) was cultured from 65.9% (60/91) of episodes. H. influenzae (55.5%; 35/63 episodes) and S. pneumoniae (34.9%; 22/63 episodes) were the most frequently reported bacteria. Among H. influenzae isolates, 62.9% (22/35 episodes) were non-capsulated (NTHi) and 31.4% (11/35 episodes) were capsulated including types d, a, c and f, across all age groups. Low antibiotic resistance for H. influenzae was observed to amoxicillin/ampicillin (5.7%; 2/35 samples). NTHi was isolated in four of the six H. influenzae positive samples (66.7%) from recurrent episodes. Conclusions We found H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae to be the main pathogens causing AOM in Venezuela. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines with efficacy against these bacterial pathogens may have the potential to maximize protection against AOM. PMID:22335965