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1

Moraxella Catarrhalis: A Common Cause of Childhood Illnesses  

MedlinePLUS

... Childhood Illnesses Health Issues Listen Moraxella Catarrhalis: A Common Cause of Childhood Illnesses Article Body A number of common childhood illnesses, including some middle ear (otitis media) ...

2

Moraxella catarrhalis in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Moraxella catarrhalis is frequently present in the sputum of adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Little is known about the role of M. catarrhalis in this common disease. Objective: To elucidate the burden of disease, the dynamics of carriage, and immune responses to M. catarrhalis in COPD. Methods: Prospective cohort study of 104 adults with COPD in an outpatient clinic at the Buffalo Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Measurements: Clinical information, sputum cultures, molecular typing of isolates, and immunoassays to measure antibodies to M. catarrhalis. Main Results: Over 81 months, 104 patients made 3,009 clinic visits, 560 during exacerbations. Molecular typing identified 120 episodes of acquisition and clearance of M. catarrhalis in 50 patients; 57 (47.5%) of the acquisitions were associated with clinical exacerbations. No instances of simultaneous acquisition of a new strain of another pathogen were observed. The duration of carriage of M. catarrhalis was shorter with exacerbations compared with asymptomatic colonization (median, 31.0 vs. 40.4 days; p = 0.01). Reacquisition of the same strain was rare. The intensity of the serum IgG response was greater after exacerbations than asymptomatic colonization (p = 0.009). Asymptomatic colonization was associated with a greater frequency of a sputum IgA response than exacerbation (p = 0.009). Conclusions: M. catarrhalis likely causes approximately 10% of exacerbations of COPD, accounting for approximately 2 to 4 million episodes annually. The organism is cleared efficiently after a short duration of carriage. Patients develop strain-specific protection after clearance of M. catarrhalis from the respiratory tract. PMID:15805178

Murphy, Timothy F.; Brauer, Aimee L.; Grant, Brydon J. B.; Sethi, Sanjay

2005-01-01

3

Reciprocal Genetic Transformation Between Neisseria catarrhalis and Moraxella nonliquefaciens  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Deoxyribonucleate (DNA) preparations from Moraxella izoialiquefuiens elicited genetic transformation of Neisseria catarrhalis recipient cells, and vice versa. The frequency was low (0.0005% transformation for the most reactive of six strains), as might be expected of an interaction between two organisms as dissimilar as a rod and a coccus. Evidence that the hereditary change (attainment by susceptible cells of resistance

B. W. CATLIN

1964-01-01

4

The Immunoglobulin D-Binding Protein MID from Moraxella catarrhalis Is Also an Adhesin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moraxella catarrhalis immunoglobulin D (IgD)-binding protein (MID) is a 200-kDa outer membrane protein displaying a unique and specific affinity for human IgD. MID is found in the majority of M. catarrhalis strains. In the present paper, we show that MID-expressing M. catarrhalis strains agglutinate human eryth- rocytes and bind to type II alveolar epithelial cells. In contrast, M. catarrhalis

Arne Forsgren; Marta Brant; Mirela Karamehmedovic; Kristian Riesbeck

2003-01-01

5

Complete Genome Assembly of a Quality Control Reference Isolate, Moraxella catarrhalis Strain ATCC 25240.  

PubMed

Generally an opportunistic pathogen in the United States, Moraxella catarrhalis has acquired resistance to multiple antibacterial/antimicrobial agents. Here, we present the complete 1.9-Mb genome of M. catarrhalis strain ATCC 25240, as deposited in NCBI under the accession number CP008804. PMID:25237030

Daligault, H E; Davenport, K W; Minogue, T D; Bishop-Lilly, K A; Bruce, D C; Chain, P S; Coyne, S R; Frey, K G; Jaissle, J; Koroleva, G I; Ladner, J T; Lo, C-C; Meincke, L; Munk, C; Palacios, G F; Redden, C L; Johnson, S L

2014-01-01

6

Complete Genome Assembly of a Quality Control Reference Isolate, Moraxella catarrhalis Strain ATCC 25240  

PubMed Central

Generally an opportunistic pathogen in the United States, Moraxella catarrhalis has acquired resistance to multiple antibacterial/antimicrobial agents. Here, we present the complete 1.9-Mb genome of M. catarrhalis strain ATCC 25240, as deposited in NCBI under the accession number CP008804. PMID:25237030

Daligault, H. E.; Davenport, K. W.; Minogue, T. D.; Bishop-Lilly, K. A.; Bruce, D. C.; Chain, P. S.; Coyne, S. R.; Frey, K. G.; Jaissle, J.; Koroleva, G. I.; Ladner, J. T.; Lo, C.-C.; Meincke, L.; Munk, C.; Palacios, G. F.; Redden, C. L.

2014-01-01

7

Identification of a bacteriocin and its cognate immunity factor expressed by Moraxella catarrhalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bacteriocins are antimicrobial proteins and peptides ribosomally synthesized by some bacteria which can effect both intraspecies and interspecies killing. RESULTS: Moraxella catarrhalis strain E22 containing plasmid pLQ510 was shown to inhibit the growth of M. catarrhalis strain O35E. Two genes (mcbA and mcbB) in pLQ510 encoded proteins predicted to be involved in the secretion of a bacteriocin. Immediately downstream

Ahmed S Attia; Jennifer L Sedillo; Todd C Hoopman; Wei Liu; Lixia Liu; Chad A Brautigam; Eric J Hansen

2009-01-01

8

Synthesis and Characterization of Lipooligosaccharide-Based Conjugates as Vaccine Candidates for Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis is an important cause of otitis media and sinusitis in children and of lower respiratory tract infections in adults. Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is a major surface antigen of the bacterium and elicits bactericidal antibodies. Treatment of the LOS from strain ATCC 25238 with anhydrous hydrazine reduced its toxicity 20,000-fold, as assayed in the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test.

XIN-XING GU; JING CHEN; STEPHEN J. BARENKAMP; JOHN B. ROBBINS; CHAO-MING TSAI; DAVID J. LIM; JAMES BATTEY

1998-01-01

9

Moraxella catarrhalis Expresses a Cardiolipin Synthase That Impacts Adherence to Human Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

The major phospholipid constituents of Moraxella catarrhalis membranes are phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and cardiolipin (CL). However, very little is known regarding the synthesis and function of these phospholipids in M. catarrhalis. In this study, we discovered that M. catarrhalis expresses a cardiolipin synthase (CLS), termed MclS, that is responsible for the synthesis of CL within the bacterium. The nucleotide sequence of mclS is highly conserved among M. catarrhalis isolates and is predicted to encode a protein with significant amino acid similarity to the recently characterized YmdC/ClsC protein of Escherichia coli. Isogenic mclS mutant strains were generated in M. catarrhalis isolates O35E, O12E, and McGHS1 and contained no observable levels of CL. Site-directed mutagenesis of a highly conserved HKD motif of MclS also resulted in a CL-deficient strain. Moraxella catarrhalis, which depends on adherence to epithelial cells for colonization of the human host, displays significantly reduced levels of adherence to HEp-2 and A549 cell lines in the mclS mutant strains compared to wild-type bacteria. The reduction in adherence appears to be attributed to the absence of CL. These findings mark the first instance in which a CLS has been related to a virulence-associated trait. PMID:24142255

Buskirk, Sean W.

2014-01-01

10

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Promotes Moraxella catarrhalis-Induced Ascending Experimental Otitis Media  

PubMed Central

Otitis media (OM) is a polymicrobial disease wherein prior or concurrent infection with an upper respiratory tract virus plays an essential role, predisposing the middle ear to bacterial invasion. In episodes of acute bacterial OM, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most commonly isolated virus and thus serves as an important co-pathogen. Of the predominant bacterial agents of OM, the pathogenesis of disease due to Moraxella catarrhalis is the least well understood. Rigorous study of M. catarrhalis in the context of OM has been significantly hindered by lack of an animal model. To bridge this gap, we assessed whether co-infection of chinchillas with M. catarrhalis and RSV would facilitate ascension of M. catarrhalis from the nasopharynx into the middle ear. Chinchillas were challenged intranasally with M. catarrhalis followed 48 hours later by intranasal challenge with RSV. Within 7 days, 100% of nasopharynges were colonized with M. catarrhalis and homogenates of middle ear mucosa were also culture-positive. Moreover, within the middle ear space, the mucosa exhibited hemorrhagic foci, and a small volume of serosanguinous effusion was present in one of six ears. To improve upon this model, and based on epidemiologic data, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) was included as an additional bacterial co-pathogen via intranasal administration four days before M. catarrhalis challenge. With this latter protocol, M. catarrhalis was cultured from the nasopharynx and middle ear homogenates of a maximum of 88% and 79% animals, respectively, for up to 17 days after intranasal challenge with M. catarrhalis. Additionally, hemorrhagic foci were observed in 79% of middle ears upon sacrifice. Thus, these data demonstrated that co-infection with RSV and NTHI predisposed to M. catarrhalis-induced ascending experimental OM. This model can be used both in studies of pathogenesis as well as to investigate strategies to prevent or treat OM due to M. catarrhalis. PMID:22768228

Brockson, M. Elizabeth; Novotny, Laura A.; Jurcisek, Joseph A.; McGillivary, Glen; Bowers, Martha R.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.

2012-01-01

11

Moraxella catarrhalis induces ERK and NF B-dependent COX2 and prostaglandin E2 in lung epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moraxella catarrhalis is a major cause of infectious exacerbations of chronic obstructive lung disease. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), are considered to be important regulators of lung function. The present authors tested the hypothesis that M. catarrhalis induces COX-2-dependent PGE2 production in pulmonary epithelial cells. In the present study, the authors demonstrate that M. catarrhalis specifically induces

P. D. N'Guessan; B. Temmesfeld-Wollbruck; J. Zahlten; J. Eitel; S. Zabel; B. Schmeck; B. Opitz; S. Hippenstiel; N. Suttorp; H. Slevogt

2007-01-01

12

Identification of a bacteriocin and its cognate immunity factor expressed by Moraxella catarrhalis  

PubMed Central

Background Bacteriocins are antimicrobial proteins and peptides ribosomally synthesized by some bacteria which can effect both intraspecies and interspecies killing. Results Moraxella catarrhalis strain E22 containing plasmid pLQ510 was shown to inhibit the growth of M. catarrhalis strain O35E. Two genes (mcbA and mcbB) in pLQ510 encoded proteins predicted to be involved in the secretion of a bacteriocin. Immediately downstream from these two genes, a very short ORF (mcbC) encoded a protein which had some homology to double-glycine bacteriocins produced by other bacteria. A second very short ORF (mcbI) immediately downstream from mcbC encoded a protein which had no significant similarity to other proteins in the databases. Cloning and expression of the mcbI gene in M. catarrhalis O35E indicated that this gene encoded the cognate immunity factor. Reverse transcriptase-PCR was used to show that the mcbA, mcbB, mcbC, and mcbI ORFs were transcriptionally linked. This four-gene cluster was subsequently shown to be present in the chromosome of several M. catarrhalis strains including O12E. Inactivation of the mcbA, mcbB, or mcbC ORFs in M. catarrhalis O12E eliminated the ability of this strain to inhibit the growth of M. catarrhalis O35E. In co-culture experiments involving a M. catarrhalis strain containing the mcbABCI locus and one which lacked this locus, the former strain became the predominant member of the culture after overnight growth in broth. Conclusion This is the first description of a bacteriocin and its cognate immunity factor produced by M. catarrhalis. The killing activity of the McbC protein raises the possibility that it might serve to lyse other M. catarrhalis strains that lack the mcbABCI locus, thereby making their DNA available for lateral gene transfer. PMID:19781080

2009-01-01

13

Comprehensive Antigen Screening Identifies Moraxella catarrhalis Proteins That Induce Protection in a Mouse Pulmonary Clearance Model  

PubMed Central

Moraxella catarrhalis is one of the three most common causative bacterial pathogens of otitis media, however no effective vaccine against M. catarrhalis has been developed so far. To identify M. catarrhalis vaccine candidate antigens, we used carefully selected sera from children with otitis media and healthy individuals to screen small-fragment genomic libraries that are expressed to display frame-selected peptides on a bacterial cell surface. This ANTIGENome technology led to the identification of 214 antigens, 23 of which were selected by in vitro or in vivo studies for additional characterization. Eight of the 23 candidates were tested in a Moraxella mouse pulmonary clearance model, and 3 of these antigens induced significantly faster bacterial clearance compared to adjuvant or to the previously characterized antigen OmpCD. The most significant protection data were obtained with the antigen MCR_1416 (Msp22), which was further investigated for its biological function by in vitro studies suggesting that Msp22 is a heme binding protein. This study comprises one of the most exhaustive studies to identify potential vaccine candidate antigens against the bacterial pathogen M. catarrhalis. PMID:23671716

Verhaegh, Suzanne J. C.; Niebisch, Axel; Hanner, Markus; Selak, Sanja; Schuler, Wolfgang; Morfeldt, Eva; Hellberg, Christel; Nagy, Eszter; Lundberg, Urban; Hays, John P.; Meinke, Andreas; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta

2013-01-01

14

Susceptibility of clinical Moraxella catarrhalis isolates in British Columbia to six empirically prescribed antibiotic agents  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Moraxella catarrhalis is a commensal organism of the respiratory tract that has emerged as an important pathogen for a variety of upper and lower respiratory tract infections including otitis media and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Susceptibility testing of M catarrhalis is not routinely performed in most diagnostic laboratories; rather, a comment predicting susceptibility based on the literature is attached to the report. The most recent Canadian report on M catarrhalis antimicrobial susceptibility was published in 2003; therefore, a new study at this time was of interest and importance. OBJECTIVE: To determine the susceptibility of M catarrhalis isolates from British Columbia to amoxicillin-clavulanate, doxycycline, clarithromycin, cefuroxime, levofloxacin and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole. METHODS: A total of 117 clinical M catarrhalis isolates were isolated and tested from five Interior hospitals and two private laboratory centres in British Columbia between January and December 2012. Antibiotic susceptibility of M catarrhalis isolates was characterized using the Etest (E-strip; bioMérieux, USA) according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. RESULTS: All isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate, doxycycline, clarithromycin, levofloxacin and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole. One isolate was intermediately resistant to cefuroxime, representing a 99.15% sensitivity rate to the cephem agent. Cefuroxime minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) inhibiting 50% and 90% of organisms (MIC50 and MIC90) were highest among the antibiotics tested, and the MIC90 (3 ?g/mL) of cefuroxime reached the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoint of susceptibility. DISCUSSION: The antibiotic susceptibility of M catarrhalis isolates evaluated in the present study largely confirms the findings of previous surveillance studies performed in Canada. Cefuroxime MICs are in the high end of the sensitive range and the MIC50 and MIC90 observed in the present study are the highest ever reported in Canada. CONCLUSION: Although cefuroxime MICs in M catarrhalis are high, all agents tested showed antimicrobial activity, supporting their continued therapeutic and empirical use.

Bandet, Tamara; Whitehead, Sue; Blondel-Hill, Edith; Wagner, Ken; Cheeptham, Naowarat

2014-01-01

15

Role of the Zinc Uptake ABC Transporter of Moraxella catarrhalis in Persistence in the Respiratory Tract  

PubMed Central

Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory tract pathogen that causes otitis media in children and lower respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We have identified and characterized a zinc uptake ABC transporter that is present in all strains of M. catarrhalis tested. A mutant in which the znu gene cluster is knocked out shows markedly impaired growth compared to the wild type in medium that contains trace zinc; growth is restored to wild-type levels by supplementing medium with zinc but not with other divalent cations. Thermal-shift assays showed that the purified recombinant substrate binding protein ZnuA binds zinc but does not bind other divalent cations. Invasion assays with human respiratory epithelial cells demonstrated that the zinc ABC transporter of M. catarrhalis is critical for invasion of respiratory epithelial cells, an observation that is especially relevant because an intracellular reservoir of M. catarrhalis is present in the human respiratory tract and this reservoir is important for persistence. The znu knockout mutant showed marked impairment in its capacity to persist in the respiratory tract compared to the wild type in a mouse pulmonary clearance model. We conclude that the zinc uptake ABC transporter mediates uptake of zinc in environments with very low zinc concentrations and is critical for full virulence of M. catarrhalis in the respiratory tract in facilitating intracellular invasion of epithelial cells and persistence in the respiratory tract. PMID:23817618

Brauer, Aimee L.; Kirkham, Charmaine; Johnson, Antoinette; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Malkowski, Michael G.

2013-01-01

16

Enhancement of Clearance of Bacteria from Murine Lungs by Immunization with Detoxified Lipooligosaccharide from Moraxella catarrhalis Conjugated to Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moraxella catarrhalis strain 25238 detoxified lipooligosaccharide (dLOS)-protein conjugates induced a sig- nificant rise of bactericidal anti-LOS antibodies in animals. This study reports the effect of active or passive immunization with the conjugates or their antiserum on pulmonary clearance of M. catarrhalis in an aerosol challenge mouse model. Mice were injected subcutaneously with dLOS-tetanus toxoid (dLOS-TT), dLOS- high-molecular-weight proteins (dLOS-HMP) from

WEI-GANG HU; JING CHEN; JAMES F. BATTEY; XIN-XING GU

2000-01-01

17

Inactivation of the Moraxella catarrhalis Superoxide Dismutase SodA Induces Constitutive Expression of Iron-Repressible Outer Membrane Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many pathogens produce one or more superoxide dismutases (SODs), enzymes involved in the detoxification of endogenous and exogenous reactive oxygen species that are encountered during the infection process. One detectable cytoplasmic SOD was identified in the human mucosal pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis, and the gene responsible for the SOD activity, sodA, was isolated from a recent pediatric clinical isolate (strain 7169).

Nicole R. Luke; Richard J. Karalus; Anthony A. Campagnari

2002-01-01

18

A new intra-NALT route elicits mucosal and systemic immunity against Moraxella catarrhalis in a mouse challenge model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucosally administered antigens are often poorly immunogenic due to the difficulty of transporting antigens through the mucosal epithelium. We investigated a new route of intranasal-associated lymphoid tissue (intra-NALT) administration of antigens to circumvent the antigen transportation barrier. A comparative study was carried out on mice administered with killed whole cells of Moraxella catarrhalis strain 25238 plus cholera toxin (CT) by

Yingchun Hou; Wei-Gang Hu; Takashi Hirano; Xin-Xing Gu

2002-01-01

19

Innate immune properties of selected human neuropeptides against Moraxella catarrhalis and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae  

PubMed Central

Background Considerable evidence supports the concept of active communication between the nervous and immune systems. One class of such communicators are the neuropeptides (NPs). Recent reports have highlighted the antimicrobial activity of neuropeptides, placing them among the integral components of innate immune defense. This study examined the action of four human neuropeptides: calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP) and somatostatin (SOM), which are accessible in the upper respiratory tract, against two human-specific respiratory pathogens. We studied: (i) neuropeptide-mediated direct antibacterial activity exerted against Moraxella catarrhalis and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, and (ii) indirect immunomodulatory role of these neuropeptides in the neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis of indicated pathogens. Results We found that 100 micromolar concentrations of CGRP, NPY, SP, and SOM effectively permeabilized bacterial membranes and showed (except SOM) bactericidal activity against both pathogens. SOM acted only bacteriostatically. However the killing efficacy was dependent on the bactericidal assay used. The rank order of killing NP effect was: NPY ? CGRP > SP >> SOM and correlated with their potency to permeabilize bacterial membranes. The killing and permeabilization activity of the analyzed NPs showed significant correlation with several physicochemical properties and amino acid composition of the neuropeptides. M. catarrhalis was more sensitive to neuropeptides than nontypeable H. influenzae. The immunomodulatory bimodal effect of physiological concentrations of CGRP, NPY, and SP on the phagocytic function of human neutrophils against M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae was observed both in the ingestion (pathogen uptake) and reactive oxygen species generation stages. This effect was also dependent on the distinct type of pathogen recognition (opsonic versus nonopsonic). Conclusions The present results indicate that neuropeptides such as CGRP, NPY, and SP can effectively participate in the direct and indirect elimination of human-specific respiratory pathogens. Because the studied NPs show both direct and indirect modulating antimicrobial potency, they seem to be important molecules involved in the innate host defense against M. catarrhalis and nontypeable H. influenzae. PMID:22551165

2012-01-01

20

Activities of Ceftobiprole, a Novel Broad-Spectrum Cephalosporin, against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis  

PubMed Central

Ceftobiprole, a broad-spectrum pyrrolidinone-3-ylidenemethyl cephem currently in phase III clinical trials, had MICs between 0.008 ?g/ml and 8.0 ?g/ml for 321 clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and between ?0.004 ?g/ml and 1.0 ?g/ml for 49 clinical isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis. Ceftobiprole MIC50 and MIC90 values for H. influenzae were 0.06 ?g/ml and 0.25 ?g/ml for ?-lactamase-positive strains (n = 262), 0.03 ?g/ml and 0.25 ?g/ml for ?-lactamase-negative strains (n = 40), and 0.5 ?g/ml and 2.0 ?g/ml for ?-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strains (n = 19), respectively. Ceftobiprole MIC50 and MIC90 values for ?-lactamase-positive M. catarrhalis strains (n = 40) were 0.12 ?g/ml and 0.5 ?g/ml, respectively, whereas the ceftobiprole MIC range for ?-lactamase-negative M. catarrhalis strains (n = 9) was ?0.004 to 0.03 ?g/ml. Ceftriaxone MICs usually were generally at least twofold lower than those of ceftobiprole, whereas amoxicillin-clavulanate MICs usually were higher than those of ceftobiprole. Azithromycin and telithromycin had unimodal MIC distributions against H. influenzae, with MIC90 values of azithromycin and telithromycin of 2 ?g/ml and 4 ?g/ml, respectively. Except for selected quinolone-nonsusceptible H. influenzae strains, moxifloxacin proved highly active, with MIC90 values of 0.12 ?g/ml. Time-kill analyses showed that ceftobiprole, ceftriaxone, cefpodoxime, amoxicillin-clavulanate, azithromycin, telithromycin, and moxifloxacin were bactericidal at 2× MIC by 24 h against all 10 H. influenzae strains surveyed. Only modest increases in MICs were found for H. influenzae or M. catarrhalis clones after 50 serial passages in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of ceftobiprole, and single-passage selection showed that the selection frequency of H. influenzae or M. catarrhalis clones with elevated ceftobiprole MICs is quite low. PMID:16723565

Bogdanovich, Tatiana; Clark, Catherine; Ednie, Lois; Lin, Gengrong; Smith, Kathy; Shapiro, Stuart; Appelbaum, Peter C.

2006-01-01

21

Substrate binding protein SBP2 of a putative ABC transporter as a novel vaccine antigen of Moraxella catarrhalis.  

PubMed

Moraxella catarrhalis is a common respiratory tract pathogen that causes otitis media in children and infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Since the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines with/without protein D of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, M. catarrhalis has become a high-priority pathogen in otitis media. For the development of antibacterial vaccines and therapies, substrate binding proteins of ATP-binding cassette transporters are important targets. In this study, we identified and characterized a substrate binding protein, SBP2, of M. catarrhalis. Among 30 clinical isolates tested, the sbp2 gene sequence was highly conserved. In 2 different analyses (whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry), polyclonal antibodies raised to recombinant SBP2 demonstrated that SBP2 expresses epitopes on the bacterial surface of the wild type but not the sbp2 mutant. Mice immunized with recombinant SBP2 showed significantly enhanced clearance of M. catarrhalis from the lung compared to that in the control group at both 25-?g and 50-?g doses (P < 0.001). We conclude that SBP2 is a novel, attractive candidate as a vaccine antigen against M. catarrhalis. PMID:24914218

Otsuka, Taketo; Kirkham, Charmaine; Johnson, Antoinette; Jones, Megan M; Murphy, Timothy F

2014-08-01

22

Differential Virulence Gene Expression of Group A Streptococcus Serotype M3 in Response to Co-Culture with Moraxella catarrhalis  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus, GAS) and Moraxella catarrhalis are important colonizers and (opportunistic) pathogens of the human respiratory tract. However, current knowledge regarding colonization and pathogenic potential of these two pathogens is based on work involving single bacterial species, even though the interplay between respiratory bacterial species is increasingly important in niche occupation and the development of disease. Therefore, to further define and understand polymicrobial species interactions, we investigated whether gene expression (and hence virulence potential) of GAS would be affected upon co-culture with M. catarrhalis. For co-culture experiments, GAS and M. catarrhalis were cultured in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with 0.2% yeast extract (THY) at 37°C with 5% CO2 aeration. Each strain was grown in triplicate so that triplicate experiments could be performed. Bacterial RNA was isolated, cDNA synthesized, and microarray transcriptome expression analysis performed. We observed significantly increased (?4-fold) expression for genes playing a role in GAS virulence such as hyaluronan synthase (hasA), streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z (smeZ) and IgG endopeptidase (ideS). In contrast, significantly decreased (?4-fold) expression was observed in genes involved in energy metabolism and in 12 conserved GAS two-component regulatory systems. This study provides the first evidence that M. catarrhalis increases GAS virulence gene expression during co-culture, and again shows the importance of polymicrobial infections in directing bacterial virulence. PMID:23626831

Verhaegh, Suzanne J. C.; Flores, Anthony R.; van Belkum, Alex; Musser, James M.; Hays, John P.

2013-01-01

23

Role of the Oligopeptide Permease ABC Transporter of Moraxella catarrhalis in Nutrient Acquisition and Persistence in the Respiratory Tract.  

PubMed

Moraxella catarrhalis is a strict human pathogen that causes otitis media in children and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults, resulting in significant worldwide morbidity and mortality. M. catarrhalis has a growth requirement for arginine; thus, acquiring arginine is important for fitness and survival. M. catarrhalis has a putative oligopeptide permease ABC transport operon (opp) consisting of five genes (oppB, oppC, oppD, oppF, and oppA), encoding two permeases, two ATPases, and a substrate binding protein. Thermal shift assays showed that the purified recombinant substrate binding protein OppA binds to peptides 3 to 16 amino acid residues in length regardless of the amino acid composition. A mutant in which the oppBCDFA gene cluster is knocked out showed impaired growth in minimal medium where the only source of arginine came from a peptide 5 to 10 amino acid residues in length. Whether methylated arginine supports growth of M. catarrhalis is important in understanding fitness in the respiratory tract because methylated arginine is abundant in host tissues. No growth of wild-type M. catarrhalis was observed in minimal medium in which arginine was present only in methylated form, indicating that the bacterium requires l-arginine. An oppA knockout mutant showed marked impairment in its capacity to persist in the respiratory tract compared to the wild type in a mouse pulmonary clearance model. We conclude that the Opp system mediates both uptake of peptides and fitness in the respiratory tract. PMID:25156736

Jones, Megan M; Johnson, Antoinette; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Kirkham, Charmaine; Brauer, Aimee L; Malkowski, Michael G; Murphy, Timothy F

2014-11-01

24

Comparative analysis and supragenome modeling of twelve Moraxella catarrhalis clinical isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: M. catarrhalis is a gram-negative, gamma-proteobacterium and an opportunistic human pathogen associated with otitis media (OM) and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). With direct and indirect costs for treating these conditions annually exceeding $33 billion in the United States alone, and nearly ubiquitous resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among M. catarrhalis clinical isolates, a greater understanding of this

Jeremiah J Davie; Josh Earl; Stefan PW de Vries; Azad Ahmed; Fen Z Hu; Hester J Bootsma; Kim Stol; Peter WM Hermans; Robert M Wadowsky; Garth D Ehrlich; John P Hays; Anthony A Campagnari

2011-01-01

25

Outer Membrane Protein OlpA Contributes to Moraxella catarrhalis Serum Resistance via Interaction With Factor H and the Alternative Pathway.  

PubMed

Factor H is an important complement regulator of the alternative pathway commonly recruited by pathogens to achieve increased rates of survival in the human host. The respiratory pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis, which resides in the mucosa, is highly resistant to the bactericidal activity of serum and causes otitis media in children and respiratory tract infections in individuals with underlying diseases. In this study, we show that M. catarrhalis binds factor H via the outer membrane protein OlpA. M. catarrhalis serum resistance was dramatically decreased in the absence of either OlpA or factor H, demonstrating that this inhibition of the alternative pathway significantly contributes to the virulence of M. catarrhalis. PMID:24771863

Bernhard, Sara; Fleury, Christophe; Su, Yu-Ching; Zipfel, Peter F; Koske, Iris; Nordström, Therése; Riesbeck, Kristian

2014-10-15

26

Comparative analysis and supragenome modeling of twelve Moraxella catarrhalis clinical isolates  

PubMed Central

Background M. catarrhalis is a gram-negative, gamma-proteobacterium and an opportunistic human pathogen associated with otitis media (OM) and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). With direct and indirect costs for treating these conditions annually exceeding $33 billion in the United States alone, and nearly ubiquitous resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among M. catarrhalis clinical isolates, a greater understanding of this pathogen's genome and its variability among isolates is needed. Results The genomic sequences of ten geographically and phenotypically diverse clinical isolates of M. catarrhalis were determined and analyzed together with two publicly available genomes. These twelve genomes were subjected to detailed comparative and predictive analyses aimed at characterizing the supragenome and understanding the metabolic and pathogenic potential of this species. A total of 2383 gene clusters were identified, of which 1755 are core with the remaining 628 clusters unevenly distributed among the twelve isolates. These findings are consistent with the distributed genome hypothesis (DGH), which posits that the species genome possesses a far greater number of genes than any single isolate. Multiple and pair-wise whole genome alignments highlight limited chromosomal re-arrangement. Conclusions M. catarrhalis gene content and chromosomal organization data, although supportive of the DGH, show modest overall genic diversity. These findings are in stark contrast with the reported heterogeneity of the species as a whole, as wells as to other bacterial pathogens mediating OM and COPD, providing important insight into M. catarrhalis pathogenesis that will aid in the development of novel therapeutic regimens. PMID:21269504

2011-01-01

27

Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in the United States in 1996–1997 respiratory season  

Microsoft Academic Search

A U.S. surveillance study of antimicrobial resistance in respiratory tract pathogens in the respiratory season (1996–1997) is reported that induced 11,368 isolates from 434 institutions in 45 states and the District of Columbia. ?-lactamase was produced by 33.4% of Haemophilus influenzae and 92.7% of Moraxella catarrhalis. Of the 9,190 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates tested, 33.5% were not susceptible to penicillin (MIC

Clyde Thornsberry; Penny Ogilvie; James Kahn; Yolanda Mauriz

1997-01-01

28

Identification of a 3-Deoxy-d-manno-Octulosonic Acid Biosynthetic Operon in Moraxella catarrhalis and Analysis of a KdsA-Deficient Isogenic Mutant  

PubMed Central

Lipooligosaccharide (LOS), a predominant surface-exposed component of the outer membrane, has been implicated as a virulence factor in the pathogenesis of Moraxella catarrhalis infections. However, the critical steps involved in the biosynthesis and assembly of M. catarrhalis LOS currently remain undefined. In this study, we used random transposon mutagenesis to identify a 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid (KDO) biosynthetic operon in M. catarrhalis with the gene order pyrG-kdsA-eno. The lipid A-KDO molecule serves as the acceptor onto which a variety of glycosyl transferases sequentially add the core and branch oligosaccharide extensions for the LOS molecule. KdsA, the KDO-8-phosphate synthase, catalyzes the first step of KDO biosynthesis and is an essential enzyme in gram-negative enteric bacteria for maintenance of bacterial viability. We report the construction of an isogenic M. catarrhalis kdsA mutant in strain 7169 by allelic exchange. Our data indicate that an LOS molecule consisting only of lipid A and lacking KDO glycosylation is sufficient to sustain M. catarrhalis survival in vitro. In addition, comparative growth and susceptibility assays were performed to assess the sensitivity of 7169kdsA11 compared to that of the parental strain. The results of these studies demonstrate that the native LOS molecule is an important factor in maintaining the integrity of the outer membrane and suggest that LOS is a critical component involved in the ability of M. catarrhalis to resist the bactericidal activity of human sera. PMID:14573664

Luke, Nicole R.; Allen, Simon; Gibson, Bradford W.; Campagnari, Anthony A.

2003-01-01

29

Susceptibilities of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis to ABT-773 Compared to Their Susceptibilities to 11 Other Agents  

PubMed Central

The activity of the ketolide ABT-773 against Haemophilus and Moraxella was compared to those of 11 other agents. Against 210 Haemophilus influenzae strains (39.0% ?-lactamase positive), microbroth dilution tests showed that azithromycin and ABT-773 had the lowest MICs (0.5 to 4.0 and 1.0 to 8.0 ?g/ml, respectively), followed by clarithromycin and roxithromycin (4.0 to >32.0 ?g/ml). Of the ?-lactams, ceftriaxone had the lowest MICs (?0.004 to 0.016 ?g/ml), followed by cefixime and cefpodoxime (0.008 to 0.125 and ?0.125 to 0.25 ?g/ml, respectively), amoxicillin-clavulanate (0.125 to 4.0 ?g/ml), and cefuroxime (0.25 to 8.0 ?g/ml). Amoxicillin was only active against ?-lactamase-negative strains, and cefprozil had the highest MICs of all oral cephalosporins tested (0.5 to >32.0 ?g/ml). Against 50 Moraxella catarrhalis strains, all of the compounds except amoxicillin and cefprozil were active. Time-kill studies against 10 H. influenzae strains showed that ABT-773, at two times the MIC, was bactericidal against 9 of 10 strains, with 99% killing of all strains at the MIC after 24 h; at 12 h, ABT-773 gave 90% killing of all strains at two times the MIC. At 3 and 6 h, killing by ABT-773 was slower, with 99.9% killing of four strains at two times the MIC after 6 h. Similar results were found for azithromycin, with slightly slower killing by erythromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin, especially at earlier times. ?-Lactams were bactericidal against 8 to 10 strains at two times the MIC after 24 h, with slower killing at earlier time periods. Most compounds gave good killing of five M. catarrhalis strains, with ?-lactams killing more rapidly than other drugs. ABT-773 and azithromycin gave the longest postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of the ketolide-macrolide-azalide group tested (4.4 to >8.0 h), followed by clarithromycin, erythromycin, and roxithromycin. ?-Lactam PAEs were similar and shorter than those of the ketolide-macrolide-azalide group for all strains tested. PMID:11120946

Credito, Kim L.; Lin, Gengrong; Pankuch, Glenn A.; Bajaksouzian, Saralee; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

2001-01-01

30

Susceptibilities of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis to ABT-773 compared to their susceptibilities to 11 other agents.  

PubMed

The activity of the ketolide ABT-773 against Haemophilus and Moraxella was compared to those of 11 other agents. Against 210 Haemophilus influenzae strains (39.0% beta-lactamase positive), microbroth dilution tests showed that azithromycin and ABT-773 had the lowest MICs (0.5 to 4.0 and 1.0 to 8.0 microg/ml, respectively), followed by clarithromycin and roxithromycin (4.0 to >32.0 microg/ml). Of the beta-lactams, ceftriaxone had the lowest MICs (32.0 microg/ml). Against 50 Moraxella catarrhalis strains, all of the compounds except amoxicillin and cefprozil were active. Time-kill studies against 10 H. influenzae strains showed that ABT-773, at two times the MIC, was bactericidal against 9 of 10 strains, with 99% killing of all strains at the MIC after 24 h; at 12 h, ABT-773 gave 90% killing of all strains at two times the MIC. At 3 and 6 h, killing by ABT-773 was slower, with 99.9% killing of four strains at two times the MIC after 6 h. Similar results were found for azithromycin, with slightly slower killing by erythromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin, especially at earlier times. beta-Lactams were bactericidal against 8 to 10 strains at two times the MIC after 24 h, with slower killing at earlier time periods. Most compounds gave good killing of five M. catarrhalis strains, with beta-lactams killing more rapidly than other drugs. ABT-773 and azithromycin gave the longest postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of the ketolide-macrolide-azalide group tested (4.4 to >8.0 h), followed by clarithromycin, erythromycin, and roxithromycin. beta-Lactam PAEs were similar and shorter than those of the ketolide-macrolide-azalide group for all strains tested. PMID:11120946

Credito, K L; Lin, G; Pankuch, G A; Bajaksouzian, S; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

2001-01-01

31

Activities and Postantibiotic Effects of Gemifloxacin Compared to Those of 11 Other Agents against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis  

PubMed Central

The activity of gemifloxacin against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis was compared to those of 11 other agents. All quinolones were very active (MICs, ?0.125 ?g/ml) against 248 quinolone-susceptible H. influenzae isolates (40.7% of which were ?-lactamase positive); cefixime (MICs, ?0.125 ?g/ml) and amoxicillin-clavulanate (MICs ?4.0 ?g/ml) were active, followed by cefuroxime (MICs, ?16.0 ?g/ml); azithromycin MICs were ?4.0 ?g/ml. For nine H. influenzae isolates with reduced quinolone susceptibilities, the MICs at which 50% of isolates are inhibited (MIC50s) were 0.25 ?g/ml for gemifloxacin and 1.0 ?g/ml for the other quinolones tested. All strains had mutations in GyrA (Ser84, Asp88); most also had mutations in ParC (Asp83, Ser84, Glu88) and ParE (Asp420, Ser458), and only one had a mutation in GyrB (Gln468). All quinolones tested were equally active (MICs, ?0.06 ?g/ml) against 50 M. catarrhalis strains; amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefixime, cefuroxime, and azithromycin were very active. Against 10 H. influenzae strains gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, and trovafloxacin at 2× the MIC and ciprofloxacin at 4× the MIC were uniformly bactericidal after 24 h, and against 9 of 10 strains grepafloxacin at 2× the MIC was bactericidal after 24 h. After 24 h bactericidal activity was seen with amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2× the MIC for all strains, cefixime at 2× the MIC for 9 of 10 strains, cefuroxime at 4× the MIC for all strains, and azithromycin at 2× the MIC for all strains. All quinolones except grepafloxacin (which was bactericidal against four of five strains) and all ß-lactams at 2× to 4× the MIC were bactericidal against five M. catarrhalis strains after 24 h; azithromycin at the MIC was bactericidal against all strains after 24 h. The postantibiotic effects (PAEs) against four quinolone-susceptible H. influenzae strains were as follows: gemifloxacin, 0.3 to 2.3 h; ciprofloxacin, 1.3 to 4.2 h; levofloxacin, 2.8 to 6.2 h; sparfloxacin, 0.6 to 3.0 h; grepafloxacin, 0 to 2.1 h; trovafloxacin, 0.8 to 2.8 h. At 10× the MIC, no quinolone PAEs were found against the strain for which quinolone MICs were increased. Azithromycin PAEs were 3.7 to 7.3 h. PMID:10681330

Davies, Todd A.; Kelly, Linda M.; Hoellman, Dianne B.; Ednie, Lois M.; Clark, Catherine L.; Bajaksouzian, Saralee; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

2000-01-01

32

Use of the Chinchilla Model to Evaluate the Vaccinogenic Potential of the Moraxella catarrhalis Filamentous Hemagglutinin-like Proteins MhaB1 and MhaB2  

PubMed Central

Moraxella catarrhalis causes significant health problems, including 15–20% of otitis media cases in children and ?10% of respiratory infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The lack of an efficacious vaccine, the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates, and high carriage rates reported in children are cause for concern. In addition, the effectiveness of conjugate vaccines at reducing the incidence of otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae suggest that M. catarrhalis infections may become even more prevalent. Hence, M. catarrhalis is an important and emerging cause of infectious disease for which the development of a vaccine is highly desirable. Studying the pathogenesis of M. catarrhalis and the testing of vaccine candidates have both been hindered by the lack of an animal model that mimics human colonization and infection. To address this, we intranasally infected chinchilla with M. catarrhalis to investigate colonization and examine the efficacy of a protein-based vaccine. The data reveal that infected chinchillas produce antibodies against antigens known to be major targets of the immune response in humans, thus establishing immune parallels between chinchillas and humans during M. catarrhalis infection. Our data also demonstrate that a mutant lacking expression of the adherence proteins MhaB1 and MhaB2 is impaired in its ability to colonize the chinchilla nasopharynx, and that immunization with a polypeptide shared by MhaB1 and MhaB2 elicits antibodies interfering with colonization. These findings underscore the importance of adherence proteins in colonization and emphasize the relevance of the chinchilla model to study M. catarrhalis–host interactions. PMID:23844117

Shaffer, Teresa L.; Balder, Rachel; Buskirk, Sean W.; Hogan, Robert J.; Lafontaine, Eric R.

2013-01-01

33

Development of a Disk Diffusion Method for Testing Moraxella catarrhalis Susceptibility Using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute Methods: a SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program Report?  

PubMed Central

Currently, there is no Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) disk diffusion method for testing Moraxella catarrhalis susceptibility. We examined 318 clinical strains of M. catarrhalis obtained as part of the SENTRY (Asia-Pacific) Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, plus two ATCC strains. MICs were determined by the CLSI standard broth microdilution method, and zone diameters were determined on Mueller-Hinton agar incubated in 5% CO2. All strains were examined for the presence of BRO-1 and BRO-2 ?-lactamases by using molecular techniques. Tentative zone diameter interpretive criteria were successfully developed for 19 antimicrobial agents, including nine ?-lactams, using current MIC interpretive criteria where available or wild-type cutoff values where no prior criteria were available. The proposed interpretive criteria were highly accurate, with ?0.7% very major (falsely susceptible) and ?1.0% major (falsely resistant) errors, respectively. PMID:19458179

Bell, Jan M.; Turnidge, John D.; Jones, Ronald N.

2009-01-01

34

A Novel Group of Moraxella catarrhalis UspA Proteins Mediates Cellular Adhesion via CEACAMs and Vitronectin  

PubMed Central

Moraxella catarrhalis (Mx) is a common cause of otitis media and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, an increasing worldwide problem. Surface proteins UspA1 and UspA2 of Mx bind to a number of human receptors and may function in pathogenesis. Genetic recombination events in the pathogen can generate hybrid proteins termed UspA2H. However, whether certain key functions (e.g. UspA1-specific CEACAM binding) can be exchanged between these adhesin families remains unknown. In this study, we have shown that Mx can incorporate the UspA1 CEACAM1-binding region not only into rare UspA1 proteins devoid of CEACAM-binding ability, but also into UspA2 which normally lack this capacity. Further, a screen of Mx isolates revealed the presence of novel UspA2 Variant proteins (UspA2V) in ?14% of the CEACAM-binding population. We demonstrate that the expression of UspA2/2V with the CEACAM-binding domain enable Mx to bind both to cell surface CEACAMs and to integrins, the latter via vitronectin. Such properties of UspA2/2V have not been reported to date. The studies demonstrate that the UspA family is much more heterogeneous than previously believed and illustrate the in vivo potential for exchange of functional regions between UspA proteins which could convey novel adhesive functions whilst enhancing immune evasion. PMID:23049802

Hill, Darryl J.; Whittles, Cheryl; Virji, Mumtaz

2012-01-01

35

Differences in complement activation between complement-resistant and complement-sensitive Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis strains occur at the level of membrane attack complex formation.  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of resistance to human complement-mediated killing in Moraxella catarrhalis was studied by comparing different complement-sensitive and complement-resistant M. catarrhalis strains in a functional bystander hemolysis assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for soluble terminal complement complexes. Complement-resistant stains appeared to activate complement to the same extent as, or even slightly better than, complement-sensitive strains. This indicates that complement-resistant strains do not inhibit classical or alternative pathway activation but interfere with complement at the level of membrane attack complex formation. A clear difference in dose-response curves for resistant and sensitive strains was observed both in the bystander hemolysis assay and in the ELISA. Complement-resistant strains showed optimum curves, whereas complement-sensitive strains gave almost linear curves. We conclude that resistant strains bind and/or inactivate one of the terminal complement components or intermediates involved in membrane attack complex formation. Trypsin, known to abolish complement resistance, changed the optimum dose-response curve of a resistant strain to a linear one, which strongly suggests that complement resistance is mediated by an M. catarrhalis-associated protein. This protein acts directly or through the binding of a terminal complement inhibitor present in serum. PMID:8300216

Verduin, C M; Jansze, M; Hol, C; Mollnes, T E; Verhoef, J; van Dijk, H

1994-01-01

36

Comparative Analysis of the Humoral Immune Response to Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae Surface Antigens in Children Suffering from Recurrent Acute Otitis Media and Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion  

PubMed Central

A prospective clinical cohort study was established to investigate the humoral immune response in middle ear fluids (MEF) and serum against bacterial surface proteins in children suffering from recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM) and chronic otitis media with effusion (COME), using Luminex xMAP technology. The association between the humoral immune response and the presence of Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the nasopharynx and middle ear was also studied. The levels of antigen-specific IgG, IgA, and IgM showed extensive interindividual variation. No significant differences in anti-M. catarrhalis and anti-S. pneumoniae serum and MEF median fluorescence intensity (MFI) values (anti-M. catarrhalis and antipneumococcal IgG levels) were observed between the rAOM or COME groups for all antigens tested. No significant differences were observed for M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae colonization and serum IgG levels against the Moraxella and pneumococcal antigens. Similar to the antibody response in serum, no significant differences in IgG, IgA, and IgM levels in MEF were observed for all M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae antigens between OM M. catarrhalis- or S. pneumoniae-positive and OM M. catarrhalis- or S. pneumonia-negative children suffering from either rAOM or COME. Finally, results indicated a strong correlation between antigen-specific serum and MEF IgG levels. We observed no significant in vivo expressed anti-M. catarrhalis or anti-S. pneumoniae humoral immune responses using a range of putative vaccine candidate proteins. Other factors, such as Eustachian tube dysfunction, viral load, and genetic and environmental factors, may play a more important role in the pathogenesis of OM and in particular in the development of rAOM or COME. PMID:22539468

Stol, Kim; de Vogel, Corne P.; Riesbeck, Kristian; Lafontaine, Eric R.; Murphy, Timothy F.; van Belkum, Alex; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Hays, John P.

2012-01-01

37

Comparative analysis of the humoral immune response to Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae surface antigens in children suffering from recurrent acute otitis media and chronic otitis media with effusion.  

PubMed

A prospective clinical cohort study was established to investigate the humoral immune response in middle ear fluids (MEF) and serum against bacterial surface proteins in children suffering from recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM) and chronic otitis media with effusion (COME), using Luminex xMAP technology. The association between the humoral immune response and the presence of Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the nasopharynx and middle ear was also studied. The levels of antigen-specific IgG, IgA, and IgM showed extensive interindividual variation. No significant differences in anti-M. catarrhalis and anti-S. pneumoniae serum and MEF median fluorescence intensity (MFI) values (anti-M. catarrhalis and antipneumococcal IgG levels) were observed between the rAOM or COME groups for all antigens tested. No significant differences were observed for M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae colonization and serum IgG levels against the Moraxella and pneumococcal antigens. Similar to the antibody response in serum, no significant differences in IgG, IgA, and IgM levels in MEF were observed for all M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae antigens between OM M. catarrhalis- or S. pneumoniae-positive and OM M. catarrhalis- or S. pneumonia-negative children suffering from either rAOM or COME. Finally, results indicated a strong correlation between antigen-specific serum and MEF IgG levels. We observed no significant in vivo expressed anti-M. catarrhalis or anti-S. pneumoniae humoral immune responses using a range of putative vaccine candidate proteins. Other factors, such as Eustachian tube dysfunction, viral load, and genetic and environmental factors, may play a more important role in the pathogenesis of OM and in particular in the development of rAOM or COME. PMID:22539468

Verhaegh, Suzanne J C; Stol, Kim; de Vogel, Corné P; Riesbeck, Kristian; Lafontaine, Eric R; Murphy, Timothy F; van Belkum, Alex; Hermans, Peter W M; Hays, John P

2012-06-01

38

Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Alloiococcus otitidis in young children in the era of pneumococcal immunization, Taiwan.  

PubMed

We applied a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae and detected 3 other respiratory pathogens--Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Alloiococcus otitidis--simultaneously by PCR, in the nasopharynx of 386 children aged under 5 y. S. pneumoniae was the most common pathogen carried by children in all age groups, with the rate ranging from 15.8% in children aged 3-4 y to 28.6% in children aged 2-3 y. H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis showed similar carriage rates across all the age groups. Only 2 young children (0.5%) carried A. otitidis. Higher carriage of S. pneumoniae was found in children who had not received the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). Cefotaxime non-susceptibility was high (51.4%) in S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal isolates. Serotype 6B was the most common in fully immunized carriers and also in those who received catch-up immunization. Due to low PCV7 coverage in Taiwan, the carriage of vaccine and non-vaccine serotypes of S. pneumoniae in children remains common. PMID:21892897

Janapatla, Rajendra-Prasad; Chang, Hsin-Ju; Hsu, Mei-Hua; Hsieh, Yu-Chia; Lin, Tzou-Yien; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

2011-12-01

39

A fluorescent multiplexed bead-based immunoassay (FMIA) for quantitation of IgG against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis protein antigens.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are pathogens commonly associated with infectious diseases in childhood. This study aimed to develop a fluorescent multiplexed bead-based immunoassay (FMIA) using recombinant proteins for the quantitation of serum IgG antibodies against these bacteria. Eight pneumococcal proteins (Ply, CbpA, PspA1, PspA2, PcpA, PhtD, SP1732-3 and SP2216-1), 3 proteins of H. influenzae (NTHi Protein D, NTHi0371-1, NTHi0830), and 5 proteins of M. catarrhalis (MC Omp CD, MC_RH4_2506, MC_RH4_1701, MC_RH4_3729-1, MC_RH4_4730) were used to develop the FMIA. Optimal coupling concentrations for each protein, comparison of singleplex and multiplex assays, specificity, reproducibility, and correlation to ELISA for six pneumococcal antigens were determined for validation. FMIA was then used to analyze acute and convalescent paired serum samples of 50 children with non-severe pneumonia. The coupling concentrations varied for different antigens, ranging from 1.6 to 32?g of protein/million beads. Correlation between singleplexed and multiplexed assays was excellent, with R?0.987. The FMIA was specific, reaching >92% homologous inhibition for all specificities; heterologous inhibition ?20% was found only in six cases. The assay was repeatable, with averages of intra-assay variation ?10.5%, day-to-day variation ?9.7% and variation between technicians ?9.1%. Comparison with ELISA for pneumococcal antigens demonstrated good correlation with R ranging from 0.854 (PspA2) to 0.976 (PcpA). The samples from children showed a wide range of antibody concentrations and increases in convalescent samples. In conclusion, the FMIA was sensitive, specific, and repeatable, using small amounts of recombinant proteins and sera to detect antibodies against S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. The methodology would be suitable for studies investigating etiological diagnosis and in experimental vaccine studies. PMID:24530690

Andrade, Dafne C; Borges, Igor C; Laitinen, Hanna; Ekström, Nina; Adrian, Peter V; Meinke, Andreas; Barral, Aldina; Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana M; Käyhty, Helena

2014-03-01

40

Susceptibilities of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis to ABT-773 Compared to Their Susceptibilities to 11 Other Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of the ketolide ABT-773 against Haemophilus and Moraxella was compared to those of 11 other agents. Against 210 Haemophilus influenzae strains (39.0% b-lactamase positive), microbroth dilution tests showed that azithromycin and ABT-773 had the lowest MICs (0.5 to 4.0 and 1.0 to 8.0 mg\\/ml, respectively), followed by clarithromycin and roxithromycin (4.0 to >32.0 mg\\/ml). Of the b-lactams, ceftriaxone

KIM L. CREDITO; GENGRONG LIN; GLENN A. PANKUCH; SARALEE BAJAKSOUZIAN; MICHAEL R. JACOBS; PETER C. APPELBAUM

2001-01-01

41

Antimicrobial activity of cefditoren tested against contemporary (2004-2006) isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis responsible for community-acquired respiratory tract infections in the United States.  

PubMed

Among orally administered cephalosporins, aminopenicillins (+/- clavulanate), and macrolides, cefditoren was the most potent agent against Haemophilus influenzae (MIC(50/90), < or =0.008/0.03 microg/mL; 316 isolates including 100 beta-lactamase-positive and 10 beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant [BLNAR]) and was 32-, 64-, and 512-fold more potent than cefdinir, cefuroxime, and cefprozil, respectively. Cefditoren (MIC(50), 0.03 microg/mL) was also > or =32-fold more active against BLNAR phenotypes, although newer macrolides provided complete coverage against these strains. All Moraxella catarrhalis isolates were inhibited by cefditoren (0.5 microg/mL), including beta-lactamase producers (MIC(50), 0.12 vs < or =0.008 microg/mL). Cefditoren retains potent activity against respiratory tract isolates in the United States, including those with resistance phenotypes. PMID:18353594

Biedenbach, Douglas J; Jones, Ronald N; Fritsche, Thomas R

2008-06-01

42

Characterization of a Moraxella species that causes epistaxis in macaques  

PubMed Central

Bacteria of the genus Moraxella have been isolated from a variety of mammalian hosts. In a prior survey of bacteria that colonize the rhesus macaque nasopharynx, performed at the Tulane National Primate Research Center, organisms of the Moraxella genus were isolated from animals with epistaxis, or “bloody nose syndrome.” They were biochemically identified as Moraxella catarrhalis, and cryopreserved. Another isolate was obtained from an epistatic cynomolgus macaque at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. Based on differences in colony and cell morphologies between rhesus and human M. catarrhalis isolates, we hypothesized that the nonhuman primate Moraxella might instead be a different species. Despite morphological differences, the rhesus isolates, by several biochemical tests, were indistinguishable from M. catarrhalis. Analysis of the cynomolgus isolate by Vitek 2 Compact indicated that it belonged to a Moraxella group, but could not differentiate among species. However, sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene from four representative rhesus isolates and the cynomolgus isolate showed closest homology to Moraxella lincolnii, a human respiratory tract inhabitant, with 90.16% identity. To examine rhesus macaques as potential hosts for M. catarrhalis, eight animals were inoculated with human M. catarrhalis isolates. Only one of the animals was colonized and showed disease, whereas four of four macaques became epistatic after inoculation with the rhesus Moraxella isolate. The nasopharyngeal isolates in this study appear uniquely adapted to a macaque host and, though they share many of the phenotypic characteristics of M. catarrhalis, appear to form a genotypically distinct species. PMID:20667430

Embers, Monica E.; Doyle, Lara A.; Whitehouse, Chris A.; Selby, Edward B.; Chappell, Mark; Philipp, Mario T.

2014-01-01

43

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-related cell adhesion molecules are co-expressed in the human lung and their expression can be modulated in bronchial epithelial cells by non-typable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, TLR3, and type I and II interferons  

PubMed Central

Background The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-related cell adhesion molecules CEACAM1 (BGP, CD66a), CEACAM5 (CEA, CD66e) and CEACAM6 (NCA, CD66c) are expressed in human lung. They play a role in innate and adaptive immunity and are targets for various bacterial and viral adhesins. Two pathogens that colonize the normally sterile lower respiratory tract in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are non-typable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) and Moraxella catarrhalis. Both pathogens bind to CEACAMs and elicit a variety of cellular reactions, including bacterial internalization, cell adhesion and apoptosis. Methods To analyze the (co-) expression of CEACAM1, CEACAM5 and CEACAM6 in different lung tissues with respect to COPD, smoking status and granulocyte infiltration, immunohistochemically stained paraffin sections of 19 donors were studied. To address short-term effects of cigarette smoke and acute inflammation, transcriptional regulation of CEACAM5, CEACAM6 and different CEACAM1 isoforms by cigarette smoke extract, interferons, Toll-like receptor agonists, and bacteria was tested in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells by quantitative PCR. Corresponding CEACAM protein levels were determined by flow cytometry. Results Immunohistochemical analysis of lung sections showed the most frequent and intense staining for CEACAM1, CEACAM5 and CEACAM6 in bronchial and alveolar epithelium, but revealed no significant differences in connection with COPD, smoking status and granulocyte infiltration. In NHBE cells, mRNA expression of CEACAM1 isoforms CEACAM1-4L, CEACAM1-4S, CEACAM1-3L and CEACAM1-3S were up-regulated by interferons alpha, beta and gamma, as well as the TLR3 agonist polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). Interferon-gamma also increased CEACAM5 expression. These results were confirmed on protein level by FACS analysis. Importantly, also NTHI and M. catarrhalis increased CEACAM1 mRNA levels. This effect was independent of the ability to bind to CEACAM1. The expression of CEACAM6 was not affected by any treatment or bacterial infection. Conclusions While we did not find a direct correlation between CEACAM1 expression and COPD, the COPD-associated bacteria NTHi and M. catarrhalis were able to increase the expression of their own receptor on host cells. Further, the data suggest a role for CEACAM1 and CEACAM5 in the phenomenon of increased host susceptibility to bacterial infection upon viral challenge in the human respiratory tract. PMID:23941132

2013-01-01

44

Lipids of Branhamella catarrhalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.  

PubMed Central

Three strains of Branhamella catarrhalis and three strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were analyzed with regard to their phospholipid and neutral lipid composition. B. catarrhalis (ATCC 23246) contained 5.12 +/- 0.34% lipid, determined gravimetrically, compared to 8.56 +/- 0.15% and 9.73 +/- 0.06% for two strains of N. gonorrhoeae. Cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine were identified in extracts of both species. In addition, B. catarrhalis contained small amounts of phosphatidylcholine, and N. gonorrhoeae contained small amounts of lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine, which accumulated with autolysis accompanying late cell culture growth. The kinetics of change of relative amounts of phospholipids in both species were measured and found to differ substantially. Neutral lipid accounted for 30.4% of the total lipid of B. catarrhalis (ATCC 23246) and 7.6% of the total lipid of N. gonorrhoeae NYH 002. Hydrocarbons, triglycerides, free fatty acids, coenzyme Q, diglycerides, and free hydroxy fatty acids were identified in the neutral lipid fraction of both species. The three strains of N. gonorrhoeae, sensitive, intermediate, and resistant to penicillin, exhibited no significant difference in the composition or metabolism of phospholipid. Images PMID:819418

Beebe, J L; Wlodkowski, T J

1976-01-01

45

Evaluation of a rapid method for identifying Branhamella catarrhalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The speed and precision of hydrolysis of tributyrin to butyric acid as a test to detect Branhamella catarrhalis were evaluated. The test proved consistently reliable in the identification of strains and correctly differentiated B catarrhalis from Neisseria sp. The combination of Gram stain, oxidase, and catalase tests to tributyrin hydrolysis provides a means of positive same day identification of B

J Richards

1988-01-01

46

Moraxella osloensis Gene Expression in the Slug Host Deroceras reticulatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The bacterium Moraxella osloensis is a mutualistic symbiont of the slug-parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. In nature, P. hermaphrodita vectors M. osloensis into the shell cavity of the slug host Deroceras reticulatum in which the bacteria multiply and kill the slug. As M. osloensis is the main killing agent, genes expressed by M. osloensis in the slug are likely to

Ruisheng An; Srinand Sreevatsan; Parwinder S Grewal

2008-01-01

47

Comparative immunochemistry of lipopolysaccharides from Branhamella catarrhalis strains.  

PubMed Central

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were extracted and purified from the type strain and from a clinical isolate of Branhamella catarrhalis. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of glucose, galactose, and glucosamine in different molar proportions in the LPS from these two isolates, whereas there was no difference between the two isolates in the ratios of ketodeoxyoctonate, phosphate, and the fatty acids C12, 3-OH-C12, and 3-OH-C11 present. Heptose or 3-OH-C14 was not detectable in either preparation. LPS from both strains appeared semirough according to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, presenting a core polysaccharide plus one repeating unit. Immunoblotting, passive hemolysis, and hemolysis inhibition assays using anti-LPS antibodies from immunized rabbits demonstrated cross-reactivity between the LPS preparations; however, antigenic dissimilarities were also found, suggesting that more than one serotype may exist. The lipid A isolated from the two LPS was serologically identical and exhibited cross-reactivity with lipid A of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The B. catarrhalis LPS were biologically active, causing lethality in D-galactosamine-sensitized C57/BL6 mice and inducing Limulus amoebocyte lysate gelation. Images PMID:1908833

Fomsgaard, J S; Fomsgaard, A; H?iby, N; Bruun, B; Galanos, C

1991-01-01

48

Injury and Destruction of Moraxella-Acinetobacter in the Radappertization Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some highly radiation-resistant Moraxella-Acinetobacter (M-A) may survive the radappertization process for meat preservation, because these vegetative bacteria are more resistant than spores to radiation. They are, however, more susceptible than spores to...

R. B. Maxcy, D. B. Rowley

1981-01-01

49

Characterization of the First Molluscicidal Lipopolysaccharide from Moraxella osloensis  

PubMed Central

Moraxella osloensis is a bacterium that is mutualistically associated with Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, a nematode that has potential for the biocontrol of mollusk pests, especially the slug Deroceras reticulatum. We discovered that purified M. osloensis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) possesses a lethal toxicity to D. reticulatum when administered by injection but no contact or oral toxicity to this slug. The toxicity of the LPS resides in the lipid A moiety. M. osloensis LPS was semiquantitated at 6 × 107 endotoxin units per mg. The LPS is a rough-type LPS with an estimated molecular weight of 5,300. Coinjection of galactosamine with the LPS increased the LPS's toxicity to the slug two- to four-fold. The galactosamine-induced sensitization of the slug to the LPS was reversed completely by uridine. PMID:12788774

Tan, Li; Grewal, Parwinder S.

2003-01-01

50

Characterization of the first molluscicidal lipopolysaccharide from Moraxella osloensis.  

PubMed

Moraxella osloensis is a bacterium that is mutualistically associated with Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, a nematode that has potential for the biocontrol of mollusk pests, especially the slug Deroceras reticulatum. We discovered that purified M. osloensis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) possesses a lethal toxicity to D. reticulatum when administered by injection but no contact or oral toxicity to this slug. The toxicity of the LPS resides in the lipid A moiety. M. osloensis LPS was semiquantitated at 6 x 10(7) endotoxin units per mg. The LPS is a rough-type LPS with an estimated molecular weight of 5,300. Coinjection of galactosamine with the LPS increased the LPS's toxicity to the slug two- to four-fold. The galactosamine-induced sensitization of the slug to the LPS was reversed completely by uridine. PMID:12788774

Tan, Li; Grewal, Parwinder S

2003-06-01

51

Moraxella Species Are Primarily Responsible for Generating Malodor in Laundry  

PubMed Central

Many people in Japan often detect an unpleasant odor generated from laundry that is hung to dry indoors or when using their already-dried laundry. Such an odor is often described as a “wet-and-dirty-dustcloth-like malodor” or an “acidic or sweaty odor.” In this study, we isolated the major microorganisms associated with such a malodor, the major component of which has been identified as 4-methyl-3-hexenoic acid (4M3H). The isolates were identified as Moraxella osloensis by morphological observation and biochemical and phylogenetic tree analyses. M. osloensis has the potential to generate 4M3H in laundry. The bacterium is known to cause opportunistic infections but has never been known to generate a malodor in clothes. We found that M. osloensis exists at a high frequency in various living environments, particularly in laundry in Japan. The bacterium showed a high tolerance to desiccation and UV light irradiation, providing one of the possible reasons why they survive in laundry during and even after drying. PMID:22367080

Mitani, Asako; Niwano, Yu; Takeuchi, Kohei; Tanaka, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Noriko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Hitomi, Jun

2012-01-01

52

Moraxella osloensis Gene Expression in the Slug Host Deroceras reticulatum  

PubMed Central

Background The bacterium Moraxella osloensis is a mutualistic symbiont of the slug-parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. In nature, P. hermaphrodita vectors M. osloensis into the shell cavity of the slug host Deroceras reticulatum in which the bacteria multiply and kill the slug. As M. osloensis is the main killing agent, genes expressed by M. osloensis in the slug are likely to play important roles in virulence. Studies on pathogenic interactions between bacteria and lower order hosts are few, but such studies have the potential to shed light on the evolution of bacterial virulence. Therefore, we investigated such an interaction by determining gene expression of M. osloensis in its slug host D. reticulatum by selectively capturing transcribed sequences. Results Thirteen M. osloensis genes were identified to be up-regulated post infection in D. reticulatum. Compared to the in vitro expressed genes in the stationary phase, we found that genes of ubiquinone synthetase (ubiS) and acyl-coA synthetase (acs) were up-regulated in both D. reticulatum and stationary phase in vitro cultures, but the remaining 11 genes were exclusively expressed in D. reticulatum and are hence infection specific. Mutational analysis on genes of protein-disulfide isomerase (dsbC) and ubiS showed that the virulence of both mutants to slugs was markedly reduced and could be complemented. Further, compared to the growth rate of wild-type M. osloensis, the dsbC and ubiS mutants showed normal and reduced growth rate in vitro, respectively. Conclusion We conclude that 11 out of the 13 up-regulated M. osloensis genes are infection specific. Distribution of these identified genes in various bacterial pathogens indicates that the virulence genes are conserved among different pathogen-host interactions. Mutagenesis, growth rate and virulence bioassays further confirmed that ubiS and dsbC genes play important roles in M. osloensis survival and virulence, respectively in D. reticulatum. PMID:18226222

An, Ruisheng; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Grewal, Parwinder S

2008-01-01

53

Association of Mucoid Encapsulated Moraxella duplex var. nonliquefaciens with Chronic Bronchitis  

PubMed Central

The recovery of two strains of highly mucoid encapsulated Moraxella duplex var. nonliquefaciens from the sputum of two patients suffering from chronic bronchitis is described. The biochemical, morphological, and pathogenic characteristics of this microorganism are discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:5645417

Bottone, Edward; Allerhand, Jona

1968-01-01

54

Endotoxin Activity of Moraxella osloensis against the Grey Garden Slug, Deroceras reticulatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moraxella osloensis is a gram-negative bacterium associated with Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, a slug- parasitic nematode that has prospects for biological control of mollusk pests, especially the grey garden slug, Deroceras reticulatum. This bacterium-feeding nematode acts as a vector that transports M. osloensis into the shell cavity of the slug, and the bacterium is the killing agent in the nematode-bacterium complex. We

Li Tan; Parwinder S. Grewal

2002-01-01

55

Septic Arthritis Due to Moraxella osloensis in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)  

PubMed Central

A 5.5-y-old Chinese-origin female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral hindlimb lameness. The primate had been group-reared in an SPF breeding colony and was seronegative for Macacine herpesvirus 1, SIV, simian retrovirus type D, and simian T-lymphotropic virus. The macaque's previous medical history included multiple occasions of swelling in the left tarsus, and trauma to the right arm and bilateral hands. In addition, the macaque had experienced osteomyelitis of the left distal tibia and rupture of the right cranial cruciate ligament that had been surgically repaired. Abnormal physical examination findings on presentation included a thin body condition, mild dehydration, and bilaterally swollen stifles that were warm to the touch, with the right stifle more severely affected. Mild instability in the left stifle was noted, and decreased range of motion and muscle atrophy were present bilaterally. Hematologic findings included marked neutrophilia and lymphopenia and moderate anemia. Arthrocentesis and culture of joint fluid revealed Moraxella-like organisms. Treatment with enrofloxacin was initiated empirically and subsequently switched to cephalexin, which over time alleviated the joint swelling and inflammation. Definitive diagnosis of Moraxella osloensis septic arthritis was made through isolation of the organism and sequencing of the 16S rDNA region. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of Moraxella osloensis septic arthritis in a rhesus macaque. PMID:24326229

Wren, Melissa A; Caskey, John R; Liu, David X; Embers, Monica E

2013-01-01

56

Antigenicity and other characteristics of Moraxella (Hemophilus) bovis  

E-print Network

Inoculation of Mice with M. Bovis Zumber ~ln ected. Material Infected Bouts Dosage Besults In ml. Infected Embryo Zlulds Intraocular 0. 01 Infected. Embryo Fluids Onto the Eye- ball G. 2 Eeg. Table 9 - Zffect of Intracranial Inoculation oi' Mice...) Yeast Dialyeate Solution Distillecl H20 to ma!ce 10 ~ 0 gm. 1. 5 gm. 2. 5 gm. 0. 5 gm. Q. EE gm. 1. 0 ml. l. 0 ml. 2. 5 ml. , 01 gm. 100 ' 0 ml. 1000. 0 rrrl. B tissue: culture medium was pc eirared by acid ing 0. 1 por cent, yea t extract...

Henson, James Bond

2012-06-07

57

Modified oxidation-fermentation medium for detection of acid production from carbohydrates by Neisseria spp. and Branhamella catarrhalis.  

PubMed Central

A modified oxidation-fermentation medium was developed as a practical medium for highly sensitive and specific detection of acid production from carbohydrates by Neisseria spp. and Branhamella catarrhalis. A total of 756 strains representing 17 Neisseria spp. and Branhamella catarrhalis were tested in this medium, in which the protein concentration was reduced relative to the carbohydrate concentration, phenol red was substituted for bromthymol blue at a low concentration, and the initial pH was adjusted to 7.2. Sugar utilization patterns were consistent with published results and with other cultural and biochemical characteristics for these species. The reactions obtained using this medium were qualitatively better and more reproducible than those obtained in cystine-Trypticase agar (BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, Md.) medium. PMID:6885992

Knapp, J S; Holmes, K K

1983-01-01

58

Bacterial differentiation within Moraxella bovis colonies growing at the interface of the agar medium with the Petri dish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moraxella bouis was found to colonize the interface between agar and the polystyrene Petri dish, producing circular colonies when the inoculum was stabbed at a single point. The bacteria occurred in a thin layer of nearly uniform thickness, and colonial expansion occurred in at least two temporal phases. In the first phase, the radial colonial expansion was slow and non-linear.

JOHN C. MCMICHAEL

1992-01-01

59

A Study of the Moraxella Group II. Oxidative-negative Species (Genus Acinetobacter)1  

PubMed Central

A number of nutritional and biochemical properties of more than 100 strains of the oxidase-negative moraxellas (the Mima-Herellea-Acinetobacter group of bacteria) were studied. These properties included the range of carbon sources that can support growth, the utilization of nitrate, the production of proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes, and the reactions involved in the oxidation of sugars and of aromatic compounds. No evidence could be obtained for the accumulation of either poly-?-hydroxybutyrate or polysaccharide as intracellular reserve materials. Of 158 different compounds tested, the group as a whole could use 85 as sole carbon sources for growth. The nutritional spectra of the individual strains, however, differed widely, with a range of from 17 to 74 alternative substrates. On the basis of 56 selected nutritional and physiological characters used for a numerical analysis, the collection could be divided into two major groups of strains comprising at least seven less clearly defined clusters. Neither the hydrolysis of gelatin nor acid production from aldose sugars was found to be a reliable index of strain affinities indicated by the phenotypic analysis, although both properties were of some use in distinguishing between the subgroups. For reasons that are discussed, we propose that the oxidase-negative moraxellas be placed in the genus Acinetobacter Brisou and Prévot, for which a modified description is presented. A. calco-aceticus (Beijerinck) is proposed as the type species, of which anitratum is regarded as a synonym or variety. On the basis of the present studies and unpublished supporting evidence provided by M. Mandel on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) composition and by J. Johnson on DNA homologies, it is proposed that two other species in the genus, A. lwoffi (Audureau) and A. hemolysans (Henriksen), as well as one subspecies, A. hemolysans haemolyticus (Stenzel and Mannheim), be recognized provisionally. Images PMID:5650064

Baumann, P.; Doudoroff, M.; Stanier, R. Y.

1968-01-01

60

Pathogenicity of Moraxella osloensis, a Bacterium Associated with the Nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, to the Slug Deroceras reticulatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moraxella osloensis, a gram-negative bacterium, is associated with Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, a nema- tode parasite of slugs. This bacterium-feeding nematode has potential for the biological control of slugs, especially the grey garden slug, Deroceras reticulatum. Infective juveniles of P. hermaphrodita invade the shell cavity of the slug, develop into self-fertilizing hermaphrodites, and produce progeny, resulting in host death. However, the role

LI TAN; PARWINDER S. GREWAL

2001-01-01

61

The subgenus names Moraxella and Branhamella (in the genus Moraxella) are not in accordance with the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria and are therefore not validly published: Supplementary information to Opinion 83. Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes.  

PubMed

The publication of Opinion 83, which dealt with the VALID PUBLICATION: of the subgenus names Moraxella and Branhamella (in the genus Moraxella), has highlighted a problem relating to the absence of descriptions associated with these names at the time they were EFFECTIVELY PUBLISHED: . This calls into question whether the ruling outlined in Opinion 83, that these names should have qualified for inclusion on the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, and their inclusion on Validation List 15 are not in accordance with Rule 27 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria governing the VALID PUBLICATION: of a name. The subgenus names Moraxella and Branhamella (in the genus Moraxella) are not to be considered to be included on the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, nor are they to be considered to be VALIDLY PUBLISHED: by inclusion on Validation List 15. PMID:25288666

Tindall, B J

2014-10-01

62

Occurrence of two different forms of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase in a Moraxella sp.  

PubMed Central

Two alternative forms of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (PCase) have been purified from Moraxella sp. strain GU2, a bacterium that is able to grow on guaiacol or various other phenolic compounds as the sole source of carbon and energy. One of these forms (PCase-P) was induced by protocatechuate and had an apparent molecular weight of 220,000. The second form (PCase-G) was induced by guaiacol or other phenolic compounds, such as 2-ethoxyphenol or 4-hydroxybenzoate. It appeared to be smaller (Mr 158,000), and its turnover number was about double that of the former enzyme. Both dioxygenases had similar properties and were built from the association of equal amounts of nonidentical subunits, alpha and beta, which were estimated to have molecular weights of 29,500 and 25,500, respectively. The (alpha beta)3 and (alpha beta)4 structures were suggested for PCases G and P, respectively. On the basis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the alpha and beta polypeptides of PCase-G differed from those of PCase-P. Amino acid analysis supported this conclusion. Both PCases, however, had several other properties in common. It is proposed that both isoenzymes were generated from different sets of alpha and beta subunits, and the significance of these data is discussed. Images PMID:2541659

Sterjiades, R; Pelmont, J

1989-01-01

63

Endotoxin activity of Moraxella osloensis against the grey garden slug, Deroceras reticulatum.  

PubMed

Moraxella osloensis is a gram-negative bacterium associated with Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, a slug-parasitic nematode that has prospects for biological control of mollusk pests, especially the grey garden slug, Deroceras reticulatum. This bacterium-feeding nematode acts as a vector that transports M. osloensis into the shell cavity of the slug, and the bacterium is the killing agent in the nematode-bacterium complex. We discovered that M. osloensis produces an endotoxin(s), which is tolerant to heat and protease treatments and kills the slug after injection into the shell cavity. Washed or broken cells treated with penicillin and streptomycin from 3-day M. osloensis cultures were more pathogenic than similar cells from 2-day M. osloensis cultures. However, heat and protease treatments and 2 days of storage at 22 degrees C increased the endotoxin activity of the young broken cells but not the endotoxin activity of the young washed cells treated with the antibiotics. This suggests that there may be a proteinaceous substance(s) that is structurally associated with the endotoxin(s) and masks its toxicity in the young bacterial cells. Moreover, 2 days of storage of the young washed bacterial cells at 22 degrees C enhanced their endotoxin activity if they were not treated with the antibiotics. Furthermore, purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the 3-day M. osloensis cultures was toxic to slugs, with an estimated 50% lethal dose of 48 microg per slug, thus demonstrating that the LPS of M. osloensis is an endotoxin that is active against D. reticulatum. This appears to be the first report of a biological toxin that is active against mollusks. PMID:12147494

Tan, Li; Grewal, Parwinder S

2002-08-01

64

Endotoxin Activity of Moraxella osloensis against the Grey Garden Slug, Deroceras reticulatum  

PubMed Central

Moraxella osloensis is a gram-negative bacterium associated with Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, a slug-parasitic nematode that has prospects for biological control of mollusk pests, especially the grey garden slug, Deroceras reticulatum. This bacterium-feeding nematode acts as a vector that transports M. osloensis into the shell cavity of the slug, and the bacterium is the killing agent in the nematode-bacterium complex. We discovered that M. osloensis produces an endotoxin(s), which is tolerant to heat and protease treatments and kills the slug after injection into the shell cavity. Washed or broken cells treated with penicillin and streptomycin from 3-day M. osloensis cultures were more pathogenic than similar cells from 2-day M. osloensis cultures. However, heat and protease treatments and 2 days of storage at 22°C increased the endotoxin activity of the young broken cells but not the endotoxin activity of the young washed cells treated with the antibiotics. This suggests that there may be a proteinaceous substance(s) that is structurally associated with the endotoxin(s) and masks its toxicity in the young bacterial cells. Moreover, 2 days of storage of the young washed bacterial cells at 22°C enhanced their endotoxin activity if they were not treated with the antibiotics. Furthermore, purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the 3-day M. osloensis cultures was toxic to slugs, with an estimated 50% lethal dose of 48 ?g per slug, thus demonstrating that the LPS of M. osloensis is an endotoxin that is active against D. reticulatum. This appears to be the first report of a biological toxin that is active against mollusks. PMID:12147494

Tan, Li; Grewal, Parwinder S.

2002-01-01

65

Injury and destruction of Moraxella-Acinetobacter in the radappertization process. Final Report Apr 78-1 May 80  

SciTech Connect

Some highly radiation-resistant Moraxella-Acinetobacter (M-A) may survive the radappertization process for meat preservation, because these vegetative bacteria are more resistant than spores to radiation. They are, however, more susceptible than spores to other destructive factors. This work was to determine the effect of some environmental factors that influence the radappertization process. M-A, M. radiodurans, and B. cereus spores varied greatly in their response to changes in temperature of radiation and menstruum in which they were suspended. Available water was critical in response of vegetative cells to radiation. Salts at the level incorporated into meat for the radappertization process suppressed growth of both injured and uninjured M-A. This effect was attributed to reduction in water activity of the menstruum. Freezing and thawing of M-A indicated some destruction and some injury. The injured cells recovered during subsequent incubation. Thus, specific food products and conditions of radappertization must be considered for setting processing parameters. When all the factors of injury, destruction, and suppression of microbial growth are considered in the radappertization process, it is apparent there is little likelihood any of the low number of naturally occurring M-A cells would survive.

Maxcy, R.B.; Rowley, D.B.

1981-02-01

66

Pathogenicity of Moraxella osloensis, a bacterium associated with the nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, to the slug Deroceras reticulatum.  

PubMed

Moraxella osloensis, a gram-negative bacterium, is associated with Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, a nematode parasite of slugs. This bacterium-feeding nematode has potential for the biological control of slugs, especially the grey garden slug, Deroceras reticulatum. Infective juveniles of P. hermaphrodita invade the shell cavity of the slug, develop into self-fertilizing hermaphrodites, and produce progeny, resulting in host death. However, the role of the associated bacterium in the pathogenicity of the nematode to the slug is unknown. We discovered that M. osloensis alone is pathogenic to D. reticulatum after injection into the shell cavity or hemocoel of the slug. The bacteria from 60-h cultures were more pathogenic than the bacteria from 40-h cultures, as indicated by the higher and more rapid mortality of the slugs injected with the former. Coinjection of penicillin and streptomycin with the 60-h bacterial culture reduced its pathogenicity to the slug. Further work suggested that the reduction and loss of pathogenicity of the aged infective juveniles of P. hermaphrodita to D. reticulatum result from the loss of M. osloensis from the aged nematodes. Also, axenic J1/J2 nematodes were nonpathogenic after injection into the shell cavity. Therefore, we conclude that the bacterium is the sole killing agent of D. reticulatum in the nematode-bacterium complex and that P. hermaphrodita acts only as a vector to transport the bacterium into the shell cavity of the slug. The identification of the toxic metabolites produced by M. osloensis is being pursued. PMID:11679319

Tan, L; Grewal, P S

2001-11-01

67

Pathogenicity of Moraxella osloensis, a Bacterium Associated with the Nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, to the Slug Deroceras reticulatum  

PubMed Central

Moraxella osloensis, a gram-negative bacterium, is associated with Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, a nematode parasite of slugs. This bacterium-feeding nematode has potential for the biological control of slugs, especially the grey garden slug, Deroceras reticulatum. Infective juveniles of P. hermaphrodita invade the shell cavity of the slug, develop into self-fertilizing hermaphrodites, and produce progeny, resulting in host death. However, the role of the associated bacterium in the pathogenicity of the nematode to the slug is unknown. We discovered that M. osloensis alone is pathogenic to D. reticulatum after injection into the shell cavity or hemocoel of the slug. The bacteria from 60-h cultures were more pathogenic than the bacteria from 40-h cultures, as indicated by the higher and more rapid mortality of the slugs injected with the former. Coinjection of penicillin and streptomycin with the 60-h bacterial culture reduced its pathogenicity to the slug. Further work suggested that the reduction and loss of pathogenicity of the aged infective juveniles of P. hermaphrodita to D. reticulatum result from the loss of M. osloensis from the aged nematodes. Also, axenic J1/J2 nematodes were nonpathogenic after injection into the shell cavity. Therefore, we conclude that the bacterium is the sole killing agent of D. reticulatum in the nematode-bacterium complex and that P. hermaphrodita acts only as a vector to transport the bacterium into the shell cavity of the slug. The identification of the toxic metabolites produced by M. osloensis is being pursued. PMID:11679319

Tan, Li; Grewal, Parwinder S.

2001-01-01

68

Fermentation Products of Solvent Tolerant Marine Bacterium Moraxella spp. MB1 and Its Biotechnological Applications in Salicylic Acid Bioconversion  

PubMed Central

As part of a proactive approach to environmental protection, emerging issues with potential impact on the environment is the subject of ongoing investigation. One emerging area of environmental research concerns pharmaceuticals like salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of various analgesics including aspirin. It is a common component of sewage effluent and also an intermediate in the degradation pathway of various aromatic compounds which are introduced in the marine environment as pollutants. In this study, biotransformation products of salicylic acid by seaweed, Bryopsis plumosa, associated marine bacterium, Moraxella spp. MB1, have been investigated. Phenol, conjugates of phenol and hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaroyl, caffeoyl, feruloyl and trihydroxy cinnamyl) with salicylic acid (3–8) were identified as the bioconversion products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These results show that the microorganism do not degrade phenolic acid but catalyses oxygen dependent transformations without ring cleavage. The degradation of salicylic acid is known to proceed either via gentisic acid pathway or catechol pathway but this is the first report of biotransformation of salicylic acid into cinnamates, without ring cleavage. Besides cinnamic acid derivatives (9–12), metabolites produced by the bacterium include antimicrobial indole (13) and ?-carbolines, norharman (14), harman (15) and methyl derivative (16), which are beneficial to the host and the environment. PMID:24391802

Wahidullah, Solimabi; Naik, Deepak N.; Devi, Prabha

2013-01-01

69

Assessment of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J killing of Moraxella bovis in an in vitro model of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the potential of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J as an alternative non-chemotherapeutic treatment of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). To accomplish this, various parameters of B. bacteriovorus predation of Moraxella bovis were determined in vitro. Initial passage of B. bacteriovorus using M. bovis as prey required 10 d for active cultures to develop compared with 2 d for culture on normal Escherichia coli prey; however by the 5th passage, time to active predatory morphology was reduced to 2 d. This high passage B. bacteriovorus culture [1 × 1010 plaque forming units (PFU)/mL] killed 76% of M. bovis [1 × 107 colony forming units (CFU)/mL] present in suspension broth in a 4 h assay. The minimal level of M. bovis supporting B. bacteriovorus predation was 1 × 104 CFU/mL. To assess the ability of B. bacteriovorus to kill M. bovis on an epithelial surface mimicking IBK, an in vitro assay with Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells inoculated with 4 × 107 CFU/mL M. bovis was used. Treatment with a B. bacteriovorus suspension (1.6 × 1011 PFU/mL) decreased adherence of M. bovis to MDBK cells by 6-fold at 12 h of treatment, as well as decreased the number of unattached M. bovis cells by 1.4-fold. This study demonstrates that B. bacteriovorus has potential as an effective biological control of M. bovis at levels likely present in IBK-infected corneal epithelia and ocular secretions. PMID:22468026

Boileau, Melanie J.; Clinkenbeard, Kenneth D.; Iandolo, John J.

2011-01-01

70

Ocular Immune Responses in Steers following Intranasal Vaccination with Recombinant Moraxella bovis Cytotoxin Adjuvanted with Polyacrylic Acid  

PubMed Central

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) caused by Moraxella bovis is the most common eye disease of cattle. The pathogenesis of M. bovis requires the expression of pili that enable the organism to attach to the ocular surface and an RTX (repeats in the structural toxin) toxin (cytotoxin or hemolysin), which is cytotoxic to corneal epithelial cells. In this pilot study, ocular mucosal immune responses of steers were measured following intranasal (i.n.) vaccination with a recombinant M. bovis cytotoxin adjuvanted with polyacrylic acid. Beef steers were vaccinated with either 500 ?g (n = 3) or 200 ?g (n = 3) of recombinant M. bovis cytotoxin plus adjuvant. Control group steers (n = 2) were vaccinated with adjuvant alone, and all steers were given a booster on day 21. Antigen-specific tear IgA and tear IgG, tear cytotoxin-neutralizing antibody responses, and serum cytotoxin-neutralizing antibody responses were determined in samples collected prevaccination and on days 14, 28, 42, and 55. Changes in tear antigen-specific IgA levels from day 0 to days 28, 42, and 55 were significantly different between groups; however, in post hoc comparisons between individual group pairs at the tested time points, the differences were not significant. Our results suggest that i.n. vaccination of cattle with recombinant M. bovis cytotoxin adjuvanted with polyacrylic acid effects changes in ocular antigen-specific IgA concentrations. The use of intranasally administered recombinant M. bovis cytotoxin adjuvanted with polyacrylic acid could provide an alternative to parenteral vaccination of cattle for immunoprophylaxis against IBK. PMID:24334685

Edman, Judy M.; Chigerwe, Munashe

2014-01-01

71

Antigenic relationships of Moraxella bovis isolates recovered from outbreaks of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay between 1983 and 2000  

PubMed Central

Cross-reactivity indices (CRIs) of 28 isolates of Moraxella bovis recovered from outbreaks of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in Argentina (A, 11 isolates), Brazil (B, 7), and Uruguay (U, 10) between 1983 and 2000 were estimated. Hyperimmune sera were produced in rabbits and antibody titres determined with each isolate. Isolates showing CRIs3 70 were placed in the same group. Group I had 13 isolates (A, 1; B, 6; U, 6); group II had 6 isolates (A, 4; U, 2); groups III, IV, and V had 2 isolates each, recovered in Argentina; group VI had 2 isolates, from Uruguay; and group VII had 1 isolate, from Brazil. The CRIs3 70 between vaccine strains and isolates recovered before and after 1990 were 58% and 42%, 50% and 50%, and 33% and 67% with vaccine strains 2419, 2358, and 2439, respectively. Isolate 273, from Uruguay, showed CRIs > 70 with 78% of the isolates and is recommended as the vaccine strain. PMID:14620871

Conceição, Fabrício Rochedo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Cobo, Ana Lia; Gil-Turnes, Carlos

2003-01-01

72

The in vitro effects of faropenem on lower respiratory tract pathogens isolated in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faropenem is a new oral penem with a structure different from current ?-lactams including carbapenems. The susceptibility of Streptococcuspneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis to faropenem, a macrolide, a ?-lactam, a ?-lactam\\/?-lactamase inhibitor combination and two fluoroquinolones was investigated. S. pneumoniae was the most susceptible of the three species to faropenem. The MIC90s of faropenem against M. catarrhalis and H.

F. Walsh; A. K. B. Amyes; S. G. B. Amyes

2003-01-01

73

Epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carriage of respiratory bacterial pathogens in children and adults: cross-sectional surveys in a population with high rates of pneumococcal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence of carriage of respiratory bacterial pathogens, and the risk factors for and serotype distribution of pneumococcal carriage in an Australian Aboriginal population. METHODS: Surveys of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis were conducted among adults (?16 years) and children (2 to 15 years) in four rural communities in 2002 and

Grant A Mackenzie; Amanda J Leach; Jonathan R Carapetis; Janelle Fisher; Peter S Morris

2010-01-01

74

Use of oral cephalosporins in the treatment of acute otitis media in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selection of the most effective antimicrobial to treat acute otitis media (AOM) has become more difficult in recent years because of increasing antibiotic resistance among all AOM pathogens. Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin as well as amoxicillin ranges from 30 to 55% in the USA. Currently, 40–55% of Haemophilus influenzae and 90–100% of Moraxella catarrhalis are resistant to

Itzhak Brook

2004-01-01

75

Genetic Requirement for Pneumococcal Ear Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEar infection or otitis media (OM) accounts for most bacterial respiratory infections in children in both developed and developing nations. Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are the major OM pathogens. However, little is known about the genetic basis of bacterial OM largely due to practical difficulties in conducting research in ear infection models and genetically manipulating clinical

Huaiqing Chen; Yueyun Ma; Jun Yang; Christopher J. O'Brien; Scott L. Lee; Joseph E. Mazurkiewicz; Sauli Haataja; Jing-Hua Yan; George F. Gao; Jing-Ren Zhang; Debbie Fox

2008-01-01

76

Effects of antibiotic treatment in the subset of common-cold patients who have bacteria in nasopharyngeal secretions  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground Upper-respiratory-tract infection is one of the main causes of overuse of antibiotics. We have found previously that bacteria such as Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae can be isolated from the nasopharyngeal secretions of a substantial proportion of adults with upper-respiratory-tract infections. We have assessed the efficacy of co-amoxiclav in patients with common colds but no clinical signs

L Kaiser; D Lew; B Hirschel; R Auckenthaler; A Morabia; A Heald; J Voegli; H Stalder; P Benedict; F Terrier; W Wunderli; L Matter; D Germann

1996-01-01

77

In Vitro Activities of ABT-492, a New Fluoroquinolone, against 155 Aerobic and 171 Anaerobic Pathogens Isolated from Antral Sinus Puncture Specimens from Patients with Sinusitis  

PubMed Central

ABT-492 exhibited excellent in vitro activities against all 326 aerobic and anaerobic antral puncture sinus isolates tested with MICs (in micrograms per milliliter) at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited as follows: Haemophilus influenzae, 0.001; Moraxella catarrhalis, 0.008; and Streptococcus pneumoniae, 0.015. It was four- to sixfold more active than other fluoroquinolones, including against levofloxacin-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Prevotella species. PMID:12937015

Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi A.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Fernandez, Helen T.

2003-01-01

78

In vitro activities of ABT-492, a new fluoroquinolone, against 155 aerobic and 171 anaerobic pathogens isolated from antral sinus puncture specimens from patients with sinusitis.  

PubMed

ABT-492 exhibited excellent in vitro activities against all 326 aerobic and anaerobic antral puncture sinus isolates tested with MICs (in micrograms per milliliter) at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited as follows: Haemophilus influenzae, 0.001; Moraxella catarrhalis, 0.008; and Streptococcus pneumoniae, 0.015. It was four- to sixfold more active than other fluoroquinolones, including against levofloxacin-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Prevotella species. PMID:12937015

Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Merriam, C Vreni; Warren, Yumi A; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Fernandez, Helen T

2003-09-01

79

In vitro antimicrobial activity of GAR936 tested against antibiotic-resistant gram-positive blood stream infection isolates and strains producing extended-spectrum ?-lactamases  

Microsoft Academic Search

GAR-936, a new, semisynthetic glycylcycline, has shown good antibacterial activity against a wide range of clinically important Gram-positive and –negative aerobic bacteria including Streptococcus pneumoniae,Hemophilus influenzae,Moraxella catarrhalis,Neisseria gonorrhoeae, most Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of GAR-936 against a range of Gram-positive and –negative bloodstream isolates including many strains producing

Douglas J Biedenbach; Mondell L Beach; Ronald N Jones

2001-01-01

80

Use of Multiplex PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Four Bacterial Species in Middle Ear Effusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiplex PCR procedure was developed for the simultaneous detection of Alloiococcus otitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in middle ear effusions (MEEs) from patients with chronic otitis media with effusion. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was chosen as the target, and the procedure used one common lower primer and four species-specific upper primers. The reaction was optimized

PANU H. HENDOLIN; AILA MARKKANEN; JUKKA YLIKOSKI; J. JARMO WAHLFORS

1997-01-01

81

Comparative Effectiveness and Safety of Cefdinir and Amoxicillin-Clavulanate in Treatment of Acute Community-Acquired Bacterial Sinusitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cefdinir is an extended-spectrum oral cephalosporin that is active against pathogens commonly seen in acute community-acquired bacterial sinusitis (ACABS), including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus in- fluenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Two randomized, investigator-blind, multicenter trials (one in the United States and one in Europe) compared two dosage regimens of cefdinir (600 mg once a day for 10 days and 300 mg twice

JACK M. GWALTNEY; S. SAVOLAINEN; P. RIVAS; P. SCHENK; W. MICHAEL SCHELD; AUSTIN SYDNOR; CONSTANCE KEYSERLING; A. LEIGH; KENNETH J. TACK

1997-01-01

82

Otitis Media: A Review, with a Focus on Alternative Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Otitis media (OM) is the accumulation of fluids in the middle ear, with or without symptoms of inflammation. The infection\\u000a is caused by dysfunction or obstruction of the eustachian tube and is most commonly diagnosed in children under the age of\\u000a two. The microbiology of OM differs, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis the most commonly isolated

L. M. T. Dicks; H. Knoetze; C. A. van Reenen

2009-01-01

83

Fluoroquinolones for the treatment of respiratory tract infections other than pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A variety of bacterial species are associated with acute respiratory tract infections, including Gram-positive, Gram-negative,\\u000a and atypical pathogens. The most common pathogens include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Legionella species, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Because of cost considerations and specimen collection difficulties, primary care physicians seldom attempt to identify the\\u000a causative pathogen. As a result treatment is necessarily

Donald E. Low

84

Use of an Oligonucleotide Array for Laboratory Diagnosis of Bacteria Responsible for Acute Upper Respiratory Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a diagnostic array of oligonucleotide probes targeting species-specific variable regions of the genes encoding topoisomerases GyrB and ParE of respiratory bacterial pathogens. Suitable broad-range primer sequences were designed based on alignment of gyrB\\/parE sequences from nine different bacterial species. These species included Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Haemophilus influen- zae, Legionella pneumophila, Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus

Stina B. Roth; Jari Jalava; Olli Ruuskanen; Aino Ruohola; Simo Nikkari

2004-01-01

85

One third of middle ear effusions from children undergoing tympanostomy tube placement had multiple bacterial pathogens  

PubMed Central

Background Because previous studies have indicated that otitis media may be a polymicrobial disease, we prospectively analyzed middle ear effusions of children undergoing tympanostomy tube placement with multiplex polymerase chain reaction for four otopathogens. Methods Middle ear effusions from 207 children undergoing routine tympanostomy tube placement were collected and were classified by the surgeon as acute otitis media (AOM) for purulent effusions and as otitis media with effusion (OME) for non-purulent effusions. DNA was isolated from these samples and analyzed with multiplex polymerase chain reaction for Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Alloiococcus otitidis, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Results 119 (57%) of 207 patients were PCR positive for at least one of these four organisms. 36 (30%) of the positive samples indicated the presence of more than one bacterial species. Patient samples were further separated into 2 groups based on clinical presentation at the time of surgery. Samples were categorized as acute otitis media (AOM) if pus was observed behind the tympanic membrane. If no pus was present, samples were categorized as otitis media with effusion (OME). Bacteria were identified in most of the children with AOM (87%) and half the children with OME (51%, p?Moraxella catarrhalis were more frequently identified in middle ear effusions than Streptococcus pneumoniae. Conclusions Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Alloiococcus otitidis, and Moraxella catarrhalis were identified in the middle ear effusions of some patients with otitis media. Overall, we found AOM is predominantly a single organism infection and most commonly from Haemophilus influenzae. In contrast, OME infections had a more equal distribution of single organisms, polymicrobial entities, and non-bacterial agents. PMID:22741759

2012-01-01

86

Bacterial etiology of otitis media with effusion; focusing on the high positivity of Alloiococcus otitidis.  

PubMed

The etiology of otitis media with effusion (OME) is unclear. The bacterial analyses of middle ear effusion (MEE) in OME may reveal important information regarding its etiology. Alloiococcus otitidis, Heamophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis were investigated by using microbiologic culture and a multiplex PCR method in the middle ear fluid of 32 children (54 samples) with chronic OME. PCR yielded positive results in 18 (33.3%) middle ear effusions while culture resulted positive for 3 (5.6%). The PCR method detected A. otitidis in 10 (18.5%) specimens, H. influenzae in 7 (13%), M. catarrhalis in 4 (7.4%) and S. pneumoniae in 2 (3.7%) specimens. The multiplex PCR method enhances the detection rate significantly compared to that of the conventional culture method. A. otitidis is the most common detected pathogen in the MEE of the OME. PMID:11837388

Kalcioglu, M T; Oncel, S; Durmaz, R; Otlu, B; Miman, M C; Ozturan, O

2002-01-01

87

Mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antibiotics in infections of COPD patients.  

PubMed

A key characteristic of airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the persistent presence of bacteria in the lower airways. The most commonly isolated bacteria in the lower respiratory tract of COPD patients are nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, with growing evidence of the significance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in severe COPD disease. This review focuses on the antibiotic resistant mechanisms associated with the gram-negative bacteria H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis and comparison with P. aeruginosa infection because of the recent evidence of its significance in patients with severe COPD disease. These mechanisms of resistance to ?-lactams in H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis are mostly associated with serine ?-lactamases of class A type, whereas P. aeruginosa strains exhibit a much broader repertoire with class A-D type mechanisms. Other mechanisms of antibiotic resistance include membrane permeability, efflux pump systems and mutations in antimicrobial targets. Antimicrobial resistance within biofilm matrices appears to be different to the mechanisms observed when the bacteria are in the planktonic state. P. aeruginosa exhibits a more numerous and diverse range of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in comparison to M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae. The recognition that P. aeruginosa is associated with exacerbations in patients with more severe COPD and that turnover in infecting strains is detected (unlike in cystic fibrosis patients), then further investigation is required to better understand the contribution of antimicrobial resistance and other virulence mechanisms to poor clinical outcomes to improve therapeutic approaches. PMID:21194403

Kyd, Jennelle M; McGrath, John; Krishnamurthy, Ajay

2011-04-01

88

Nasopharyngeal Microbiota in Healthy Children and Pneumonia Patients  

PubMed Central

Our study is the first to compare the nasopharyngeal microbiota of pediatric pneumonia patients and control children by 454 pyrosequencing. A distinct microbiota was associated with different pneumonia etiologies. Viral pneumonia was associated with a high abundance of the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) corresponding to Moraxella lacunata. Patients with nonviral pneumonia showed high abundances of OTUs of three typical bacterial pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae complex, Haemophilus influenzae complex, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Patients classified as having no definitive etiology harbored microbiota particularly enriched in the H. influenzae complex. We did not observe a commensal taxon specifically associated with health. The microbiota of the healthy nasopharynx was more diverse and contained a wider range of less abundant taxa. PMID:24599973

Sakwinska, Olga; Bastic Schmid, Viktoria; Berger, Bernard; Bruttin, Anne; Keitel, Kristina; Lepage, Mélissa; Moine, Deborah; Ngom Bru, Catherine; Gervaix, Alain

2014-01-01

89

Viral-bacterial co-infection in Australian Indigenous children with acute otitis media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Acute otitis media with perforation (AOMwiP) affects 40% of remote Indigenous children during the first 18 months of life.\\u000a Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis are the primary bacterial pathogens of otitis media and their loads predict clinical ear state. Our hypothesis is that antecedent\\u000a respiratory viral infection increases bacterial density and progression to perforation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 366

Michael J Binks; Allen C Cheng; Heidi Smith-Vaughan; Theo Sloots; Michael Nissen; David Whiley; Joseph McDonnell; Amanda J Leach

2011-01-01

90

B Cell Activation by Outer Membrane Vesicles--A Novel Virulence Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Secretion of outer membrane vesicles (OMV) is an intriguing phenomenon of Gram-negative bacteria and has been suggested to play a role as virulence factors. The respiratory pathogens Moraxella catarrhalis reside in tonsils adjacent to B cells, and we have previously shown that M. catarrhalis induce a T cell independent B cell response by the immunoglobulin (Ig) D-binding superantigen MID. Here we demonstrate that Moraxella are endocytosed and killed by human tonsillar B cells, whereas OMV have the potential to interact and activate B cells leading to bacterial rescue. The B cell response induced by OMV begins with IgD B cell receptor (BCR) clustering and Ca2+ mobilization followed by BCR internalization. In addition to IgD BCR, TLR9 and TLR2 were found to colocalize in lipid raft motifs after exposure to OMV. Two components of the OMV, i.e., MID and unmethylated CpG-DNA motifs, were found to be critical for B cell activation. OMV containing MID bound to and activated tonsillar CD19+ IgD+ lymphocytes resulting in IL-6 and IgM production in addition to increased surface marker density (HLA-DR, CD45, CD64, and CD86), whereas MID-deficient OMV failed to induce B cell activation. DNA associated with OMV induced full B cell activation by signaling through TLR9. Importantly, this concept was verified in vivo, as OMV equipped with MID and DNA were found in a 9-year old patient suffering from Moraxella sinusitis. In conclusion, Moraxella avoid direct interaction with host B cells by redirecting the adaptive humoral immune response using its superantigen-bearing OMV as decoys. PMID:20090836

Perez Vidakovics, Maria Laura A.; Jendholm, Johan; Morgelin, Matthias; Mansson, Anne; Larsson, Christer; Cardell, Lars-Olaf; Riesbeck, Kristian

2010-01-01

91

Wheeze in Preschool Age Is Associated with Pulmonary Bacterial Infection and Resolves after Antibiotic Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background Neonates with airways colonized by Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae or Moraxella catarrhalis are at increased risk for recurrent wheeze which may resemble asthma early in life. It is not clear whether chronic colonization by these pathogens is causative for severe persistent wheeze in some preschool children and whether these children might benefit from antibiotic treatment. We assessed the relevance of bacterial colonization and chronic airway infection in preschool children with severe persistent wheezing and evaluated the outcome of long-time antibiotic treatment on the clinical course in such children. Methodology/Principal Findings Preschool children (n?=?42) with severe persistent wheeze but no symptoms of acute pulmonary infection were investigated by bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Differential cell counts and microbiological and virological analyses were performed on BAL samples. Patients diagnosed with bacterial infection were treated with antibiotics for 2–16 weeks (n?=?29). A modified ISAAC questionnaire was used for follow-up assessment of children at least 6 months after bronchoscopy. Of the 42 children with severe wheezing, 34 (81%) showed a neutrophilic inflammation and 20 (59%) of this subgroup had elevated bacterial counts (?104 colony forming units per milliliter) suggesting infection. Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis were the most frequently isolated species. After treatment with appropriate antibiotics 92% of patients showed a marked improvement of symptoms upon follow-up examination. Conclusions/Significance Chronic bacterial infections are relevant in a subgroup of preschool children with persistent wheezing and such children benefit significantly from antibiotic therapy. PMID:22140482

2011-01-01

92

PorSalsa User's Manual  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the use of PorSalsa, a parallel-processing, finite-element-based, unstructured-grid code for the simulation of subsurface nonisothermal two-phase, two component flow through heterogeneous porous materials. PorSalsa can also model the advective-dispersive transport of any number of species. General source term and transport coefficient implementation greatly expands possible applications. Spatially heterogeneous flow and transport data are accommodated via a flexible interface. Discretization methods include both Galerkin and control volume finite element methods, with various options for weighting of nonlinear coefficients. Time integration includes both first and second-order predictor/corrector methods with automatic time step selection. Parallel processing is accomplished by domain decomposition and message passing, using MPI, enabling seamless execution on single computers, networked clusters, and massively parallel computers.

MARTINEZ,MARIO J.; HOPKINS,POLLY L.; REEVES,PAUL C.

2001-06-01

93

Dominance of Haemophilus influenzae in ear discharge from Indigenous Australian children with acute otitis media with tympanic membrane perforation  

PubMed Central

Background Indigenous Australian children living in remote communities experience high rates of acute otitis media with tympanic membrane perforation (AOMwiP). Otitis media in this population is associated with dense nasopharyngeal colonization of three primary otopathogens; Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Little is known about the relative abundance of these pathogens during infection. The objective of this study was to estimate the abundance and concordance of otopathogens in ear discharge and paired nasopharyngeal swabs from children with AOMwiP (discharge of not more than 6 weeks’ duration and perforation size <2%). Methods Culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR) estimation of H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis and total bacterial load were performed on paired nasopharyngeal and ear discharge swabs from 55 Indigenous children with AOMwiP aged 3.5 – 45.6 months and resident in remote communities. Results By culture, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis were detected in 80%, 84% and 91% of nasopharyngeal swabs, and 49%, 33% and 4% of ear discharge swabs, respectively. Using qPCR, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis were detected in 82%, 82%, and 93% of nasopharyngeal swabs, and 89%, 41% and 18% of ear discharge swabs, respectively. Relative abundance of H. influenzae in ear discharge swabs was 0-68% of the total bacterial load (median 2.8%); whereas S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis relative abundances were consistently <2% of the total bacterial load. S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis abundances were significantly lower in ear discharge compared with nasopharyngeal swabs (p?=?0.001, p?catarrhalis in the nasopharynx did not predict ear discharge prevalence and abundances of these pathogens. PCR was substantially more sensitive than culture for ear discharge, and a necessary adjunct to standard microbiology. Quantitative methods are required to understand species abundance in polymicrobial infections and may be needed to measure accurately the microbiological impact of interventions and to provide a better understanding of clinical failure in these children. PMID:24099576

2013-01-01

94

Polymerase Chain Reaction, Bacteriologic Detection and Antibiogram of Bacteria Isolated from Otitis Media with Effusion in Children, Shiraz, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Otitis media with effusion is one of the leading causes of hearing loss in children. Effective treatment of effusion in the middle ear requires appropriate empirical treatment and characterization of responsible pathogens. Objective of the present study was to detect pathogens in clinical samples from patients with otitis media with effusion in our area and to determine the sensitivity profile of isolated organisms to commonly used antibiotics. Methods: Sixty three samples of middle ear effusion were aseptically obtained from 36 children, who had been treated up to at least two weeks before sampling. They were analyzed using standard bacteriological and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were also performed. Results: PCR analysis showed that DNA of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were present in 60 (95.2%) of the samples. The culture-positive effusion for Streptococcus Pneumoniae, HaemophilusInfluenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis was 34.9%. Almost all isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniaee were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, and none of them was sensitive to co-trimoxazole. None of H. Influenzae isolates was sensitive to erythromycin, cefixim, co-trimoxazole, ampicillin and amoxicillin. None of M. Catarrhalis isolates was sensitive to ceftriaxone, co-trimoxazole, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Conclusion: Compared with other studies using PCR method, the number of H. influenza isolates was in higher in the present study (95.2%). Antibiotic sensitivity profiles of pathogens isolated in this study were different from others. Thus, we can determine empirical antibiotic therapy based on sensitivity profile in our geographic area. PMID:23115412

Shishegar, Mahmood; Faramarzi, Abolhasan; Kazemi, Tayyebe; Bayat, Akbar; Motamedifar, Mohammad

2011-01-01

95

Concurrent Assay for Four Bacterial Species Including Alloiococcus Otitidis in Middle Ear, Nasopharynx and Tonsils of Children with Otitis Media with Effusion: A Preliminary Report  

PubMed Central

Objectives To detect the prevalences of Alloiococcus otitidis, as well as Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in children with chronic otitis media with effusion (OME) and to simultaneously investigate the colonization of these bacteria in the nasopharynx and palatine tonsils of these patients. Methods The study included 34 pediatric patients with OME, and 15 controls without OME. In the study group, A. otitidis, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis were investigated in the samples obtained from middle ear effusions (MEE), nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and tonsillar swabs (TS), using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and conventional culture methods. Only the samples obtained from NPS and TS were studied with the same techniques in the control group. Results A. otitidis was isolated only in MEE and only with multiplex PCR method. A. otitidis, S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis, H. influenzae were identified in 35%, 8.8%, 8.8%, and 2.9%, respectively, in 34 MEE. A. otitidis was not isolated in NPS or TS of the study and the control groups. Conclusion The prevalence of A.otitidis is high in children with OME and A.otitidis doesn't colonize in the nasopharynx or tonsil. PMID:22737288

Tastan, Eren; Yucel, Mihriban; Aydogan, Filiz; Karakoc, Esra; Arslan, Necmi; Kantekin, Yunus; Demirci, Munir

2012-01-01

96

The prevalence of middle ear pathogens in the outer ear canal and the nasopharyngeal cavity of healthy young adults.  

PubMed

Culturing middle ear fluid samples from children with chronic otitis media with effusion (OME) using standard techniques results in the isolation of bacterial species in approximately 30-50% of the cases. Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis, the classic middle ear pathogens of acute otitis media, are involved but, recently, several studies suggested Alloiococcus otitidis as an additional pathogen. In the present study, we used species-specific PCRs to establish the prevalence, in both the nasopharyngeal cavity and the outer ear, of H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, S. pneumoniae and A. otitidis. The study group consisted of 70 healthy volunteers (aged 19-22 years). The results indicate a high prevalence (>80%) of A. otitidis in the outer ear in contrast to its absence in the nasopharynx. H. influenzae was found in both the outer ear and the nasopharynx (6% and 14%, respectively), whereas S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis were found only in the nasopharynx (9% and 34%, respectively).A. otitidis, described as a fastidious organism, were able to be cultured using an optimized culture protocol, with prolonged incubation, which allowed the isolation of A. otitidis in five of the nine PCR-positive samples out of the total of ten samples tested. Given the absence of the outer ear inhabitant A. otitidis from the nasopharynx, its role in the aetiology of OME remains ambiguous because middle ear infecting organisms are considered to invade the middle ear from the nasopharynx through the Eustachian tube. PMID:19895585

De Baere, T; Vaneechoutte, M; Deschaght, P; Huyghe, J; Dhooge, I

2010-07-01

97

Activity of moxifloxacin on biofilms produced in vitro by bacterial pathogens involved in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess whether moxifloxacin is able to inhibit the synthesis of and to disrupt biofilms produced in vitro by bacterial pathogens involved in acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Three strains each of Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli recently isolated from clinical respiratory specimens and capable of slime production were used. Biofilm formation on polystyrene plates was quantified spectrophotometrically by established methodologies. Moxifloxacin (0.5 mg/L) inhibited slime synthesis by >70% in S. aureus, H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae, 45-70% in E. coli and 35-70% in M. catarrhalis. Disruption of pre-formed structures was also promoted by moxifloxacin both for initial (5h) and mature (48 h) biofilms. Drug concentrations reached during therapy (0.5-4 mg/L) resulted in a breakdown of initial biofilm of 60-80% in H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae, 48-86% in S. aureus, 37-69% in M. catarrhalis and 51-71% in E. coli. Mature biofilms were less susceptible to degradation. Moxifloxacin at concentrations that can be achieved in the bronchial mucosa during therapy therefore promotes a significant inhibition of biofilm synthesis and induces slime disruption, a feature that may be instrumental in reducing the exacerbations so frequently observed in this condition. PMID:17768034

Roveta, S; Schito, A M; Marchese, A; Schito, G C

2007-11-01

98

Las infecciones emergentes transmitidas por garrapatas  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenLas infecciones transmitidas por garrapatas aparecen por todo el mundo y son bien conocidas desde hace más de 100 años. Algunas enfermedades transmitidas por garrapatas son muy comunes mientras que otras son extremadamente raras. Las técnicas genéticas moleculares modernas (y la mayor disponibilidad de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa) han llevado al descubrimiento y la clasificación de nuevos

Ingomar Mutz

2009-01-01

99

Simultaneous Assay for Four Bacterial Species Including Alloiococcus otitidis Using Multiplex-PCR in Children With Culture Negative Acute Otitis Media  

PubMed Central

Background The 3 most commonly encountered bacteria in acute otitis media (AOM) are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Conventional culture methods detect these pathogens in only 60% to 70% of cases of AOM. Alloiococcus otitidis, another potential pathogen, has often been ignored. Methods Tympanocentesis was performed in 97 children with AOM presenting with a bulging tympanic membrane (TM) producing 170 middle ear fluids (MEFs). S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, and A. otitidis were isolated in 21%, 32%, 8%, and 0% of MEFs, respectively; no otopathogen was isolated in 29% of MEFs. In nasopharyngeal cultures at the time of AOM diagnosis, 34%, 36%, 17%, and 0% and in oropharyngeal cultures, 7%, 31%, 11%, and 0% grew S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, and A. otitidis, respectively. No otopathogen was isolated in 23% of nasopharyngeal and 20% of oropharyngeal cultures. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect DNA of the 4 bacterial species in culture negative samples. Results All culture-positive MEF, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal samples tested were also multiplex-PCR positive, indicating the reliability of the method. Culture-negative samples of MEF from children with a bulging TM yielded S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, and A. otitidis DNA in 51%, 35%, 14%, and 32% of MEF, in 45%, 31%, 10%, and 9% of nasopharyngeal and in 31%, 23%, 0%, and 3% of oropharyngeal, respectively. In 9% of the cases A. otitidis DNA was found without detection of a second organism in MEF. Conclusions Conventional culture detected otopathogens in MEF of children with a bulging TM in 71%; using multiplex-PCR, otopathogens were detected in 88% of MEF (P < 0.01). Similar improved detection of otopathogens was noted with nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal cultures. PMID:20335823

Kaur, Ravinder; Adlowitz, Diana G.; Casey, Janet R.; Zeng, Mingtao; Pichichero, Michael E.

2013-01-01

100

On the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol.  

PubMed

Secoiridoides (oleuropein and derivatives), one of the major classes of polyphenol contained in olives and olive oil, have recently been shown to inhibit or delay the rate of growth of a range of bacteria and microfungi but there are no data in the literature concerning the possible employment of these secoiridoides as antimicrobial agents against pathogenic bacteria in man. In this study five ATCC standard bacterial strains (Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 9006, Moraxella catarrhalis ATCC 8176, Salmonella typhi ATCC 6539, Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923) and 44 fresh clinical isolates (Haemophilus influenzae, eight strains, Moraxella catarrhalis, six strains, Salmonella species, 15 strains, Vibrio cholerae, one strain, Vibrio alginolyticus, two strains, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, one strain, Staphylococcus aureus, five penicillin-susceptible strains and six penicillin-resistant strains), causal agents of intestinal or respiratory tract infections in man, were tested for in-vitro susceptibility to two olive (Olea europaea) secoiridoides, oleuropein (the bitter principle of olives) and hydroxytyrosol (derived from oleuropein by enzymatic hydrolysis and responsible for the high stability of olive oil). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) calculated in our study are evidence of the broad antimicrobial activity of hydroxytyrosol against these bacterial strains (MIC values between 0.24 and 7.85 microg mL(-1) for ATCC strains and between 0.97 and 31.25 microg mL(-1) for clinically isolated strains). Furthermore oleuropein also inhibited (although to a much lesser extent) the growth of several bacterial strains (MIC values between 62.5 and 500 microg mL(-1) for ATCC strains and between 31.25 and 250 microg mL(-1) for clinical isolates); oleuropein was ineffective against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. These data indicate that in addition to the potential employment of its active principles as food additives or in integrated pest-management programs, Olea europaea can be considered a potential source of promising antimicrobial agents for treatment of intestinal or respiratory tract infections in man. PMID:10504039

Bisignano, G; Tomaino, A; Lo Cascio, R; Crisafi, G; Uccella, N; Saija, A

1999-08-01

101

Cloning, sequencing, and characterization of the gene encoding FrpB, a major iron-regulated, outer membrane protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.  

PubMed Central

FrpB (for Fe-regulated protein B) is a 76-kDa outer membrane protein that is part of the iron regulon of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis. The frpB gene from gonococcal strain FA19 was cloned and sequenced. FrpB was homologous to several TonB-dependent outer membrane receptors of Escherichia coli as well as HemR of Yersinia enterocolitica and CopB of Moraxella catarrhalis. An omga insertion into the frpB coding sequence caused a 60% reduction in 55Fe uptake from heme, but careful analysis suggested that this effect was nonspecific. While FrpB was related to the family of TonB-dependent proteins, a function in iron uptake could not be documented. PMID:7721696

Beucher, M; Sparling, P F

1995-01-01

102

Paranasal sinuses and middle ear infections: what do they have in common?  

PubMed

Otitis media and sinusitis are among the most common pediatric diseases and they share common features. Although the anatomy, physiology and disease processes are not identical, knowledge of the pathophysiology of middle ear disorders often provides to the pediatrician a useful understanding of sinus diseases. The same risk factors identified for otitis media may play a pivotal role in the development of sinusitis. Moreover, as both paranasal sinuses and middle ear acquire respiratory pathogens from nasopharynx, acute sinusitis is usually caused by the same bacterial pathogens that cause acute otitis media, with a major role for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, while anaerobes may predominate in chronic disease. A responsibility of bacterial biofilms in chronic sinusitis, similarly to otitis media, has been recently suggested. Biofilms, three-dimensional aggregates of bacteria, are refractory to antibiotics and thus might explain why some patients improve while on antibiotics but relapse after completion of therapy. PMID:17767605

Marchisio, P; Ghisalberti, E; Fusi, M; Baggi, E; Ragazzi, M; Dusi, E

2007-11-01

103

The efficacy of cefdinir in acute bacterial rhinosinusitis.  

PubMed

Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis is a common infection resulting in substantial morbidity. Cefdinir, an oral cephalosporin, has extended-spectrum, bactericidal activity against common acute bacterial rhinosinusitis pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Cefdinir shows rapid oral absorption and good respiratory tissue penetration, and may be administered once daily. In randomised clinical trials, cefdinir showed efficacy similar to that of other recommended regimens in the treatment of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis, namely amoxicillin/clavulanate and levofloxacin. Cefdinir is well tolerated and has shown a low propensity to suppress the normal commensal flora. Cefdinir oral suspension is rated highly by children in terms of its taste and smell. As the only once-daily beta-lactam currently recommended by acute bacterial rhinosinusitis guidelines (for first-line use in patients with mild acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and no recent antibacterial use), cefdinir offers a convenient and attractive treatment option. PMID:16722817

Hadley, James A

2006-06-01

104

Community-acquired upper respiratory tract infections and the role of third-generation oral cephalosporins.  

PubMed

Common community-acquired infections include those of the upper respiratory tract. In the 1990s, the antimicrobial treatment of upper respiratory tract infections focused on penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, following the introduction of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, a decrease in invasive pneumococcal disease occurred, and in the case of otitis media a shift towards Haemophilus influenzae as the predominant causative pathogen was observed. Future antimicrobial therapy for outpatient upper respiratory tract infections may need to focus on pathogens such as penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae, beta-lactamase-producing H. influenzae, beta-lactamase-negative amoxicillin-resistant H. influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. In these circumstances, third-generation oral cephalosporins, such as cefixime and cefdinir, could be increasingly used as an optional first-line therapy in community practice for upper respiratory tract infections suspected to be caused by these key pathogens, as an alternative to amoxicillin-clavulanate. PMID:20014898

Hedrick, James A

2010-01-01

105

Dynamics of nasopharyngeal colonization by potential respiratory pathogens.  

PubMed

Studies have shown that colonization of the nasopharynx by potential respiratory pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis is established early in childhood, although rates vary greatly according to locality, sampling frequency, individual and social factors. Factors influencing colonization and elimination are not as yet fully understood, but adhesion to mucosal receptors and immune responses are implicated in addition to bacterial properties and colonization resistance dynamics. Colonization in children and adults has been intensively studied in various localities. Potential pathogens are more likely to colonize the nasopharynx of children prone to recurrent otitis media, where impaired local immunity and repeated exposure to respiratory pathogens are additional risk factors. Adults with chronic respiratory tract disease also have higher carriage rates. The factors contributing to increased risk of carriage of potential respiratory pathogens, as well as to clinical infection and antimicrobial resistance, are summarized in this review. PMID:12556435

García-Rodríguez, J A; Fresnadillo Martínez, M J

2002-12-01

106

Spectra/Por Easy-to-Use  

E-print Network

dialysis which combine efficiency and convenience. They are pre-assembled dialy- sis tubes that floatSpectra/Por® Easy-to-Use Dialysis Membrane Products Micro DispoDialyzer® Float-A-Lyzer® DispoDialyzer® A Dialysis Device for Ultra Micro Volume Samples The Micro DispoDialyzer was developed for efficiently dia

Lebendiker, Mario

107

EDITAL COMPLETO PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFERNCIA EXTERNA  

E-print Network

1 EDITAL COMPLETO PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFER�NCIA EXTERNA (BRASIL) PERÍODO 2014.1 PRAZO PARA deverá entregar a convalidação dos estudos concedida pela Secretaria Estadual de Educação, no Brasil. Se, do qual conste: A forma de ingresso / processo seletivo (vestibular, ENEM, transferência externa

108

Photodynamic therapy with water-soluble phtalocyanines against bacterial biofilms in teeth root canals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study presents the PDT with metal phthalocyanines on biofilms grown in root canals of ten representatives of the Gram-positive and the Gram-negative bacterial species and a fungus Candida albicans which cause aqute teeth infections in root canals.. The extracted human single-root teeth infected for 48 h with microorganisms in conditions to form biofilms of the above pathogens were PDT treated. The stage of biofilm formation and PDT effect of the samples of the teeth were determined by the scaning electron microscopy and with standard microbial tests. The PDT treating procedure included 10 min incubation with the respected phthalocyanine and irradiated with 660 nm Diode laser for 10 min. The most strongly antibacterial activity was achieved with zinc(II) phthalocyanine (ZnPc) against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis. The other Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans were 10-100 times more resistant than the Gram-positive species. The Gram-negative Moraxella catarrhalis and Acinetobacter baumannii were more sensitive than the enterobacteria, but eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in biofilm was insignificant. The influence of the stage of biofilm formation and the initial conditions (bacterial density, photosensitizer concentration and energy fluence of radiation) to the obtained level of inactivation of biofilms was investigated. The PDT with ZnPc photosensitizers show a powerful antimicrobial activity against the most frequent pathogens in endodontic infections and this method for inactivation of pathogens may be used with sucsses for treatment of the bacterial biofilms in the root canals.

Gergova, Raina; Georgieva, Tzvetelina; Angelov, Ivan; Mantareva, Vanya; Valkanov, Serjoga; Mitov, Ivan; Dimitrov, Slavcho

2012-06-01

109

Prediction of the Pathogens That Are the Cause of Pneumonia by the Battlefield Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Commensal organisms are frequent causes of pneumonia. However, the detection of these organisms in the airway does not mean that they are the causative pathogens; they may exist merely as colonizers. In up to 50% cases of pneumonia, the causative pathogens remain unidentified, thereby hampering targeting therapies. In speculating on the role of a commensal organism in pneumonia, we devised the battlefield hypothesis. In the “pneumonia battlefield,” the organism-to-human cell number ratio may be an index for the pathogenic role of the organism. Using real-time PCR reactions for sputum samples, we tested whether the hypothesis predicts the results of bacteriological clinical tests for 4 representative commensal organisms: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas spp., and Moraxella catarrhalis. The cutoff value for the organism-to-human cell number ratio, above which the pathogenic role of the organism was suspected, was set up for each organism using 224 sputum samples. The validity of the cutoff value was then tested in a prospective study that included 153 samples; the samples were classified into 3 groups, and each group contained 93%, 7%, and 0% of the samples from pneumonia, in which the pathogenic role of Streptococcus pneumoniae was suggested by the clinical tests. The results for Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas spp., and Moraxella catarrhalis were 100%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. The battlefield hypothesis enabled legitimate interpretation of the PCR results and predicted pneumonia in which the pathogenic role of the organism was suggested by the clinical test. The PCR reactions based on the battlefield hypothesis may help to promote targeted therapies for pneumonia. The prospective observatory study described in the current report had been registered to the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) registry before its initiation, where the UMIN is a registry approved by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). The UMIN registry number was UMIN000001118: A prospective study for the investigation of the validity of cutoff values established for the HIRA-TAN system (April 9, 2008). PMID:21909436

Hirama, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Miyazawa, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Hashikita, Giichi; Kishi, Etsuko; Tachi, Yoshimi; Takahashi, Shun; Kodama, Keiji; Egashira, Hiroshi; Yokote, Akemi; Kobayashi, Kunihiko; Nagata, Makoto; Ishii, Toshiaki; Nemoto, Manabu; Tanaka, Masahiko; Fukunaga, Koichi; Morita, Satoshi; Kanazawa, Minoru; Hagiwara, Koichi

2011-01-01

110

Nutrition, antigenicity and serological characteristics of different strains of Moraxella bovis  

E-print Network

with tissue culture Media 199. The medium was selected and bacterin prepared from strains E-100, VRF-5 and L-200. Each product was injected into five rabbits in sn effort to detect variation in antigenicity of various strains of M. bovis. In the first... with tissue culture Media 199. The medium was selected and bacterin prepared from strains E-100, VRF-5 and L-200. Each product was injected into five rabbits in sn effort to detect variation in antigenicity of various strains of M. bovis. In the first...

Chowdhury, T. I. M. Fazlayrabbi

2012-06-07

111

Ulcerative blepharitis and conjunctivitis in adult dairy cows and association with Moraxella bovoculi  

PubMed Central

Nine lactating dairy cows were evaluated because of eye lesions. Examination revealed mild to severe ulceration of the lower and/or upper eyelids, mild to severe swelling surrounding affected eyes, and profuse lacrimation. Lesions typically affected 1 eye, and involved the eyelid skin and conjunctiva. Oxytetracycline treatment led to cure within 2 wk. PMID:20592830

Galvao, Klibs N.; Angelos, John A.

2010-01-01

112

Analytica Chimica Acta 470 (2002) 7986 Microbial biosensor for p-nitrophenol using Moraxella sp.  

E-print Network

to the buffer pH, temperature, time of cell growth and weight of cells immobilized. The best sensitivity and response time were obtained using a sensor constructed with 0.3 mg of cells and operating in pH 7.5, 20 m monitoring [3]. Biosensor technology based on enzyme or micro- organism is well suited for rapid, cost-effective

Chen, Wilfred

113

Antimicrobial Resistance Trends among Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Pathogens in Greece, 2009-2012  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance trends of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from patients with community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs) in Crete, Greece, over a 4-year period (2009–2012). A total of 588 community-acquired respiratory pathogens were isolated during the study period. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common organism responsible for 44.4% of CARTIs, followed by Haemophilus influenzae (44.2%) and Moraxella catarrhalis (11.4%). Among S. pneumoniae, the prevalence of isolates with intermediate- and high-level resistance to penicillin was 27.2% and 12.3%, respectively. Macrolide resistance slightly decreased from 29.4% over the period 2009-2010 to 28.8% over the period 2011-2012. Multiresistance was observed among 56 (54.4%) penicillin nonsusceptible isolates. A nonsignificant increase in resistance of H. influenzae isolates was noted for ?-lactams, cotrimoxazole, and tetracycline. Among the 67 M. catarrhalis tested, 32 produced beta-lactamase and were resistant to ampicillin. Macrolide resistance decreased over the study period. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, and the fluoroquinolones. Although a decreasing trend in the prevalence of resistance of the three most common pathogens involved in CARTIs was noted, continuous surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility at the local and national level remains important, in order to guide appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy. PMID:24592201

Maraki, Sofia; Papadakis, Ioannis S.

2014-01-01

114

Nasopharyngeal carriage of potential bacterial pathogens related to day care attendance, with special reference to the molecular epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae.  

PubMed

Nasopharyngeal carriage of Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis was studied in 259 children attending day care centers (DCC) in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and in 276 control children. The DCC children were sampled a second time after 4 weeks. Carriage rates for DCC children and controls were 58 and 37% for S. pneumoniae, 37 and 11% for H. influenzae, and 80 and 48% for M. catarrhalis, respectively. No increased antibiotic resistance rates were found in strains isolated from DCC children. All H. influenzae isolates were typed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Evidence for frequent transmission of H. influenzae strains within DCC was found. In the control group only two isolates (4%) displayed identical RAPD types versus 38% of strains from DCC children. Colonization with H. influenzae appeared to be short-lived in these children; more than half of the children harboring H. influenzae in the first sample were negative in the second sample, whereas most children still positive in the second sample had a different genotype than in the first sample. Of the newly acquired strains in the second sample, 40% were identical to a strain that had been found in a child in the same DCC in the first sample. DCC are to be considered epidemiological niches with a high potential for the spread of pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:12149338

Peerbooms, Paul G H; Engelen, Marlene N; Stokman, Dominique A J; van Benthem, Birgit H B; van Weert, Maria-Lucia; Bruisten, Sylvia M; van Belkum, Alex; Coutinho, Roel A

2002-08-01

115

Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Potential Bacterial Pathogens Related to Day Care Attendance, with Special Reference to the Molecular Epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae  

PubMed Central

Nasopharyngeal carriage of Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis was studied in 259 children attending day care centers (DCC) in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and in 276 control children. The DCC children were sampled a second time after 4 weeks. Carriage rates for DCC children and controls were 58 and 37% for S. pneumoniae, 37 and 11% for H. influenzae, and 80 and 48% for M. catarrhalis, respectively. No increased antibiotic resistance rates were found in strains isolated from DCC children. All H. influenzae isolates were typed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Evidence for frequent transmission of H. influenzae strains within DCC was found. In the control group only two isolates (4%) displayed identical RAPD types versus 38% of strains from DCC children. Colonization with H. influenzae appeared to be short-lived in these children; more than half of the children harboring H. influenzae in the first sample were negative in the second sample, whereas most children still positive in the second sample had a different genotype than in the first sample. Of the newly acquired strains in the second sample, 40% were identical to a strain that had been found in a child in the same DCC in the first sample. DCC are to be considered epidemiological niches with a high potential for the spread of pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:12149338

Peerbooms, Paul G. H.; Engelen, Marlene N.; Stokman, Dominique A. J.; van Benthem, Birgit H. B.; van Weert, Maria-Lucia; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; van Belkum, Alex; Coutinho, Roel A.

2002-01-01

116

Impact of Experimental Human Pneumococcal Carriage on Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Densities in Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

Colonization of the nasopharynx by Streptococcus pneumoniae is a necessary precursor to pneumococcal diseases that result in morbidity and mortality worldwide. The nasopharynx is also host to other bacterial species, including the common pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. To better understand how these bacteria change in relation to pneumococcal colonization, we used species-specific quantitative PCR to examine bacterial densities in 52 subjects 7 days before, and 2, 7, and 14 days after controlled inoculation of healthy human adults with S. pneumoniae serotype 6B. Overall, 33 (63%) of subjects carried S. pneumoniae post-inoculation. The baseline presence and density of S. aureus, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis were not statistically associated with likelihood of successful pneumococcal colonization at this study’s sample size, although a lower rate of pneumococcal colonization in the presence of S. aureus (7/14) was seen compared to that in the presence of H. influenzae (12/16). Among subjects colonized with pneumococci, the number also carrying either H. influenzae or S. aureus fell during the study and at 14 days post-inoculation, the proportion carrying S. aureus was significantly lower among those who were colonized with S. pneumoniae (p?=?0.008) compared to non-colonized subjects. These data on bacterial associations are the first to be reported surrounding experimental human pneumococcal colonization and show that co-colonizing effects are likely subtle rather than absolute. PMID:24915552

Shak, Joshua R.; Cremers, Amelieke J. H.; Gritzfeld, Jenna F.; de Jonge, Marien I.; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Vidal, Jorge E.; Klugman, Keith P.; Gordon, Stephen B.

2014-01-01

117

Five-year prospective study of paediatric acute otitis media in Rochester, NY: modelling analysis of the risk of pneumococcal colonization in the nasopharynx and infection.  

PubMed

During a 5-year prospective study of nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization and acute otitis media (AOM) infections in children during the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) era (July 2006-June 2011) we studied risk factors for NP colonization and AOM. NP samples were collected at ages 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, and 30 months during well-child visits. Additionally, NP and middle ear fluid (MEF) samples were collected at onset of every AOM episode. From 1825 visits (n = 464 children), 5301 NP and 570 MEF samples were collected and analysed for potential otopathogens. Daycare attendance, NP colonization by Moraxella catarrhalis, and siblings aged <5 years increased the risk of Streptococcus pneumoniae NP colonization. NP colonization with S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis, or Haemophilus influenzae and a family history of OM increased the risk of AOM. Risk factors that increase the risk of pneumococcal AOM will be important to reassess as we move into a new 13-valent PCV era, especially co-colonization with other potential otopathogens. PMID:24480055

Friedel, V; Zilora, S; Bogaard, D; Casey, J R; Pichichero, M E

2014-10-01

118

Reconstrução tridimensional de arcos magnéticos por tomografia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uma explosão solar é uma variação súbita do brilho que ocorre nas regiões ativas da atmosfera solar. Estas regiões são constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética e em cenários bem complexos como visto recentemente através de experimentos embarcados em satélites operando instrumentos em raios X moles e ultra-violeta distante. A energia magnética, que pode ser armazenada por um período de horas até dias em configurações magnéticas estressadas, é subitamente lançada na atmosfera solar e transferida para partículas como elétrons, prótons e núcleos pesados, que são acelerados e/ou aquecidos, produzindo radiação eletromagnética. A proposta final deste projeto é determinar as características espaciais de alta resolução da emissão e polarização girossincrotrônica de explosões solares em ambientes complexos de campos magnéticos. Os recentes resultados da emissão difusa em EUV apresentado pelos satélites TRACE e SOHO dos arcos magnéticos conectando as diferentes polaridades magnéticas sobre as regiões ativas possibilitam novas abordagens sobre o papel do campo magnético na emissão em rádio. Nesta etapa apresentamos os resultados da reconstrução da geometria tridimensional das linhas de força destes arcos utilizando técnicas tomográficas, a partir de imagens de alta resolução espacial obtidas pelo instrumento EIT (Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope), além da modelagem das induções magnéticas por um campo dipolar e as densidades de partículas aceleradas. Utilizamos para a reconstrução geométrica, imagens tomadas em vários ângulos dos arcos devido à rotacão solar. Com estes resultados, daremos continuidade ao projeto, com os cálculos da transferência radiativa nos modos ordinário e extraordinário de propagação da radiação girossincrotrônica de explosões solares.

Simões, P. J. A.; Costa, J. E. R.

2003-08-01

119

Postantibiotic and post-beta-lactamase inhibitor effects of amoxicillin plus clavulanate.  

PubMed Central

The postantibiotic effect (PAE) of amoxicillin-clavulanate was studied for strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli. A PAE of approximately 2 h was seen for beta-lactamase-positive and -negative strains of S. aureus following 2 h of exposure to twice the MIC and did not increase at 16 times the MIC. The PAE observed with H. influenzae was clearly related to the growth rate of the organism. A PAE of 0.8 h was found for amoxicillin (four times the MIC) against a beta-lactamase-negative strain of H. influenzae (generation time, 26.3 min) and a PAE of 1.74 h was found for amoxicillin-clavulanate (twice the MIC) against a beta-lactamase-positive strain (generation time, 32.2 min). When the beta-lactamase-positive strain was growing more slowly (generation time, 120 min), the PAE of amoxicillin-clavulanate increased to > 3.32 h. The PAE of amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2/1 micrograms/ml on a beta-lactamase-producing strain of M. catarrhalis was > 2.9 h, and, as expected, the PAEs of twice the MIC on K. pneumoniae and E. coli were generally short (< 1 h). The post-beta-lactamase inhibitor effect (PLIE), determined after removal of only clavulanate, was also examined for beta-lactamase-positive strains. This was more prolonged (approximately 3 to 4 h) than the corresponding PAE for S. aureus, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis. The PLIE was related to the amount of beta-lactamase produced and required the presence of amoxicillin in the initial exposure period. These data may have implications for reducing the dosage of amoxicillin-clavulanate. PMID:9124843

Thorburn, C E; Molesworth, S J; Sutherland, R; Rittenhouse, S

1996-01-01

120

Upper respiratory tract microbial communities, acute otitis media pathogens, and antibiotic use in healthy and sick children.  

PubMed

The composition of the upper respiratory tract microbial community may influence the risk for colonization by the acute otitis media (AOM) pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. We used culture-independent methods to describe upper respiratory tract microbial communities in healthy children and children with upper respiratory tract infection with and without concurrent AOM. Nasal swabs and data were collected in a cross-sectional study of 240 children between 6 months and 3 years of age. Swabs were cultured for S. pneumoniae, and real-time PCR was used to identify S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis. The V1-V2 16S rRNA gene regions were sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing. Microbial communities were described using a taxon-based approach. Colonization by S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis was associated with lower levels of diversity in upper respiratory tract flora. We identified commensal taxa that were negatively associated with colonization by each AOM bacterial pathogen and with AOM. The balance of these relationships differed according to the colonizing AOM pathogen and history of antibiotic use. Children with antibiotic use in the past 6 months and a greater abundance of taxa, including Lactococcus and Propionibacterium, were less likely to have AOM than healthy children (odds ratio [OR], 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25 to 0.85). Children with no antibiotic use in the past 6 months, a low abundance of Streptococcus and Haemophilus, and a high abundance of Corynebacterium and Dolosigranulum were less likely to have AOM (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.83). An increased understanding of polymicrobial interactions will facilitate the development of effective AOM prevention strategies. PMID:22752171

Pettigrew, Melinda M; Laufer, Alison S; Gent, Janneane F; Kong, Yong; Fennie, Kristopher P; Metlay, Joshua P

2012-09-01

121

Upper Respiratory Tract Microbial Communities, Acute Otitis Media Pathogens, and Antibiotic Use in Healthy and Sick Children  

PubMed Central

The composition of the upper respiratory tract microbial community may influence the risk for colonization by the acute otitis media (AOM) pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. We used culture-independent methods to describe upper respiratory tract microbial communities in healthy children and children with upper respiratory tract infection with and without concurrent AOM. Nasal swabs and data were collected in a cross-sectional study of 240 children between 6 months and 3 years of age. Swabs were cultured for S. pneumoniae, and real-time PCR was used to identify S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis. The V1-V2 16S rRNA gene regions were sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing. Microbial communities were described using a taxon-based approach. Colonization by S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis was associated with lower levels of diversity in upper respiratory tract flora. We identified commensal taxa that were negatively associated with colonization by each AOM bacterial pathogen and with AOM. The balance of these relationships differed according to the colonizing AOM pathogen and history of antibiotic use. Children with antibiotic use in the past 6 months and a greater abundance of taxa, including Lactococcus and Propionibacterium, were less likely to have AOM than healthy children (odds ratio [OR], 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25 to 0.85). Children with no antibiotic use in the past 6 months, a low abundance of Streptococcus and Haemophilus, and a high abundance of Corynebacterium and Dolosigranulum were less likely to have AOM (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.83). An increased understanding of polymicrobial interactions will facilitate the development of effective AOM prevention strategies. PMID:22752171

Laufer, Alison S.; Gent, Janneane F.; Kong, Yong; Fennie, Kristopher P.; Metlay, Joshua P.

2012-01-01

122

Comprometimento órbito-craniano por tumores malignos sinonasais: estudo por tomografia computadorizada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumores malignos das cavidades sinonasais são raros e freqüentemente diagnosticados em estágio avan- çado da doença. A extensão destes tumores para locais críticos como a órbita e o crânio gera dificuldades no tratamento destas lesões. Dez pacientes com neoplasia maligna sinonasal, sem qualquer tratamento prévio e com evidência radiológica de extensão órbito-craniana, foram estudados por tomografia computa- dorizada. Dos dez

Ana Célia Baptista; Edson Marchiori; Edson Boasquevisque; Carlos Eduardo Lassance Cabral

2002-01-01

123

Candidatos selecionados por ordem alfabtica Aldo Roberto Pereira  

E-print Network

PPGAU UFSC Candidatos selecionados por ordem alfabética Aldo Roberto Pereira Ana Lúcia Moraes Ana Fernando Lauro Pereira Fernando Ramos Lebgler Glória Silva do Amaral Isabel Machado Canabarro Isabela Moreira Rosemar da Silva Sandra Regina Velasques Pereira Walquiria Martins Suplentes (por ordem de

Floeter, Sergio Ricardo

124

Infección por VIH y el riesgo de cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Hoja informativa que describe el mayor riesgo de ciertos tipos de cánceres que presentan las personas con infección por VIH. Dichos cánceres son el sarcoma de Kaposi, los linfomas de Hodgkin y no Hodgkin, y los cánceres de ano, de cérvix, de hígado y de pulmón. Trata también de lo que las personas con infección por VIH pueden hacer para reducir su riesgo de cáncer o para detectar temprano la enfermedad.

125

System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

Nelson, O.D.

1998-07-25

126

Intoxicación por administración parenteral de insecticidas organoclorados e hidrocarburos aromáticos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: La intoxicación por vía parenteral debida a insectici- das organoclorados e hidrocarburos aromáticos, es muy poco frecuente. La toxicidad comporta efectos locales y sistémicos que pueden llegar a comprometer la vida del paciente. Se pre- senta el caso clínico de un varón que desarrolló una importante reacción local necrótico-inflamatoria, con leve afectación sisté- mica hepática y renal, tras administrarse

Martínez-Pérez J; Muñoz E; Santiago Nogué

127

UN LABORATORIO DE DISEÑO DIGITAL EN VHDL: APRENDIZAJE POR PROYECTOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

El aprendizaje del lenguaje VHDL en la Ingeniería Electrónica necesita de una constante realización práctica de ejercicios, tanto de simulación como de implementación. Por ello, este trabajo describe la metodología llevada a cabo para conseguir que el aprendizaje de este lenguaje de descripción hardware sea efectivo y rápido, especialmente en lo referido al VHDL orientado a síntesis hardware. Se han

A. ROSADO; M. BATALLER; J. GUERRERO; J. MUÑOZ; J. VILA

128

I CONGRESO INTERNACIONAL DEL AGUA .... por la vida  

E-print Network

I CONGRESO INTERNACIONAL DEL AGUA .... por la vida Jueves 09 y viernes 10 de junio de 2005/Ciudad. Temática: Riesgos y agua. Hacia una redefinición del riesgo para una mejor gestión social. Julien Rebotier (IHEAL), Paris 3 ­ Sorbonne Nouvelle. Los riesgos socionaturales y el agua, un enfoque renovado para una

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

129

Nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens conducted by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy in 2008: general view of the pathogens' antibacterial susceptibility.  

PubMed

For the purpose of nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens collected from patients in Japan, the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy conducted a third year of nationwide surveillance during the period from January to April 2008. A total of 1,097 strains were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections. Susceptibility testing was evaluable with 987 strains (189 Staphylococcus aureus, 211 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 6 Streptococcus pyogenes, 187 Haemophilus influenzae, 106 Moraxella catarrhalis, 126 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 162 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). A total of 44 antibacterial agents, including 26 ?-lactams (four penicillins, three penicillins in combination with ?-lactamase inhibitors, four oral cephems, eight parenteral cephems, one monobactam, five carbapenems, and one penem), three aminoglycosides, four macrolides (including a ketolide), one lincosamide, one tetracycline, two glycopeptides, six fluoroquinolones, and one oxazolidinone were used for the study. Analysis was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). The incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was as high as 59.8%, and those of penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PISP and PRSP) were 35.5 and 11.8%, respectively. Among H. influenzae, 13.9% of them were found to be ?-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin (ABPC)-intermediately resistant (BLNAI), 26.7% to be ?-lactamase-non-producing ABPC-resistant (BLNAR), and 5.3% to be ?-lactamase-producing ABPC-resistant (BLPAR) strains. A high frequency (76.5%) of ?-lactamase-producing strains was suspected in Moraxella catarrhalis isolates. Four (3.2%) extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae were found among 126 strains. Four isolates (2.5%) of P. aeruginosa were found to be metallo ?-lactamase-producing strains, including three (1.9%) suspected multidrug-resistant strains showing resistance to imipenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. Continual national surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory pathogens is crucial in order to monitor changing patterns of susceptibility and to be able to update treatment recommendations on a regular basis. PMID:21409533

Niki, Yoshihito; Hanaki, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Yagisawa, Morimasa; Kohno, Shigeru; Aoki, Nobuki; Watanabe, Akira; Sato, Junko; Hattori, Rikizo; Koashi, Naoto; Terada, Michinori; Kozuki, Tsuneo; Maruo, Akinori; Morita, Kohei; Ogasawara, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Yoshisaburo; Matsuda, Kenji; Nakanishi, Kunio; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Takeuchi, Kenichi; Fujimura, Seiichi; Takeda, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Hideki; Sato, Naohito; Niitsuma, Katsunao; Saito, Miwako; Koshiba, Shizuko; Kaneko, Michiyo; Miki, Makoto; Nakanowatari, Susumu; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Utagawa, Mutsuko; Nishiya, Hajime; Kawakami, Sayoko; Aoki, Yasuko; Chonabayashi, Naohiko; Sugiura, Hideko; Ichioka, Masahiko; Goto, Hajime; Kurai, Daisuke; Saraya, Takeshi; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Yoshida, Koichiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Tsukada, Hiroki; Imai, Yumiko; Honma, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Toshinobu; Kawai, Atsuro; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Takesue, Yoshio; Wada, Yasunao; Miyara, Takeyuki; Toda, Hirofumi; Mitsuno, Noriko; Fujikawa, Yasunori; Nakajima, Hirokazu; Kubo, Shuichi; Ohta, Yoshio; Mikasa, Keiichi; Kasahara, Kei; Koizumi, Akira; Sano, Reiko; Yagi, Shinichi; Takaya, Mariko; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Kusano, Nobuchika; Mihara, Eiichiro; Nose, Motoko; Kuwabara, Masao; Fujiue, Yoshihiro; Ishimaru, Toshiyuki; Matsubara, Nobuo; Kawasaki, Yuji; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Masui, Kayoko; Kido, Masamitsu; Ota, Toshiyuki; Honda, Junichi; Kadota, Junichi; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Aoki, Yosuke; Nagasawa, Zenzo; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Fujita, Jiro; Tateyama, Masao; Totsuka, Kyoichi

2011-08-01

130

Nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens conducted by the Surveillance Committee of Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases, and Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology in 2009: general view of the pathogens' antibacterial susceptibility.  

PubMed

For the purpose of nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens from patients in Japan, the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy (JSC) started a survey in 2006. From 2009, JSC continued the survey in collaboration with the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases and the Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology. The fourth-year survey was conducted during the period from January and April 2009 by the three societies. A total of 684 strains were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections. Susceptibility testing was evaluable with 635 strains (130 Staphylococcus aureus, 127 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 4 Streptococcus pyogenes, 123 Haemophilus influenzae, 70 Moraxella catarrhalis, 78 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 103 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). A maximum of 45 antibacterial agents including 26 ?-lactams (four penicillins, three penicillins in combination with ?-lactamase inhibitors, four oral cephems, eight parenteral cephems, one monobactam, five carbapenems, and one penem), four aminoglycosides, four macrolides (including ketolide), one lincosamide, one tetracycline, two glycopeptides, six fluoroquinolones, and one oxazolidinone were used for the study. Analysis was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). Incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was as high as 58.5 %, and that of penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PISP and PRSP) was 6.3 % and 0.0 %, respectively. Among H. influenzae, 21.1 % of them were found to be ?-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin (ABPC)-intermediately resistant (BLNAI), 18.7 % to be ?-lactamase-non-producing ABPC-resistant (BLNAR), and 5.7 % to be ?-lactamase-producing ABPC-resistant (BLPAR) strains. A high frequency (76.5 %) of ?-lactamase-producing strains has been suspected in Moraxella catarrhalis isolates. Four (3.2 %) extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae were found among 126 strains. Four isolates (2.5 %) of P. aeruginosa were found to be metallo-?-lactamase-producing strains, including three (1.9 %) suspected multi-drug resistant strains showing resistance against imipenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. Continuous national surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory pathogens is crucial to monitor changing patterns of susceptibility and to be able to update treatment recommendations on a regular basis. PMID:22766652

Watanabe, Akira; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Kohno, Shigeru; Aoki, Nobuki; Oguri, Toyoko; Sato, Junko; Muratani, Tetsuro; Yagisawa, Morimasa; Ogasawara, Kazuhiko; Koashi, Naoto; Kozuki, Tsuneo; Komoto, Akira; Takahashi, Yoshisaburo; Tsuji, Toshikatsu; Terada, Michinori; Nakanishi, Kunio; Hattori, Rikizo; Hirako, Yukio; Maruo, Akinori; Minamitani, Shinichi; Morita, Kohei; Wakamura, Tomotaro; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Hanaki, Hideaki; Ohsaki, Yoshinobu; Honda, Yasuhito; Sasaoka, Shoichi; Takeda, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Hideki; Sugai, Atsuko; Miki, Makoto; Nakanowatari, Susumu; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Utagawa, Mutsuko; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Takasaki, Jin; Konosaki, Hisami; Aoki, Yasuko; Shoji, Michi; Goto, Hajime; Saraya, Takeshi; Kurai, Daisuke; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Katono, Yasuhiro; Kawana, Akihiko; Saionji, Katsu; Miyazawa, Naoki; Sato, Yoshimi; Watanuki, Yuji; Kudo, Makoto; Ehara, Shigeru; Tsukada, Hiroki; Imai, Yumiko; Watabe, Nobuei; Aso, Sakura; Honma, Yasuo; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Yamagishi, Yuka; Takesue, Yoshio; Wada, Yasunao; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Mitsuno, Noriko; Mikasa, Keiichi; Kasahara, Kei; Uno, Kenji; Sano, Reiko; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Takaya, Mariko; Kuwabara, Masao; Watanabe, Yaeko; Doi, Masao; Shimizu, Satomi; Negayama, Kiyoshi; Kadota, Junichi; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Honda, Junichi; Fujita, Masaki; Iwata, Satoshi; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Ezaki, Takayuki; Onodera, Shoichi; Kusachi, Shinya; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Michio; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Niki, Yoshihito; Matsumoto, Tetsuro

2012-10-01

131

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Modithromycin, a Novel 6,11-Bridged Bicyclolide, against Respiratory Pathogens, Including Macrolide-Resistant Gram-Positive Cocci?  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activities of modithromycin against Gram-positive and -negative respiratory pathogens, including macrolide-resistant cocci with different resistance mechanisms, were compared with those of other macrolide and ketolide agents. MICs were determined by the broth microdilution method. All 595 test strains used in this study were isolated from Japanese medical facilities. The erm (ribosome methylase) and/or mef (efflux pump) gene, which correlated with resistance to erythromycin as well as clarithromycin and azithromycin, was found in 81.8%, 21.3%, and 23.2% of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains, respectively. Modithromycin showed MIC90s of 0.125 ?g/ml against these three cocci, including macrolide-resistant strains. In particular, the MIC of modithromycin against ermB-carrying S. pyogenes was ?32-fold lower than that of telithromycin. The activities of modithromycin as well as telithromycin were little affected by the presence of mefA or mefE in both streptococci. Against Gram-negative pathogens, modithromycin showed MIC90s of 0.5, 8, and 0.031 ?g/ml against Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Legionella spp., respectively. The MICs of modithromycin against M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae were higher than those of telithromycin and azithromycin. However, modithromycin showed the most potent anti-Legionella activity among the macrolide and ketolide agents tested. These results suggested that the bicyclolide agent modithromycin is a novel class of macrolides with improved antibacterial activity against Gram-positive cocci, including telithromycin-resistant streptococci and intracellular Gram-negative bacteria of the Legionella species. PMID:21220534

Sato, Takafumi; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Soichiro; Iwata, Morihiro; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Yamaguchi, Keizo

2011-01-01

132

Multistep Resistance Development Studies of Ceftaroline in Gram-Positive and -Negative Bacteria?  

PubMed Central

Ceftaroline, the active component of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive and -negative isolates. This study evaluated the potential for ceftaroline and comparator antibiotics to select for clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis with elevated MICs. S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes isolates in the present study were highly susceptible to ceftaroline (MIC range, 0.004 to 0.25 ?g/ml). No streptococcal strains yielded ceftaroline clones with increased MICs (defined as an increase in MIC of >4-fold) after 50 daily passages. Ceftaroline MICs for H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were 0.06 to 2 ?g/ml for four strains and 8 ?g/ml for a ?-lactamase-positive, efflux-positive H. influenzae with a mutation in L22. One H. influenzae clone with an increased ceftaroline MIC (quinolone-resistant, ?-lactamase-positive) was recovered after 20 days. The ceftaroline MIC for this isolate increased 16-fold, from 0.06 to 1 ?g/ml. MICs for S. aureus ranged from 0.25 to 1 ?g/ml. No S. aureus isolates tested with ceftaroline had clones with increased MIC (>4-fold) after 50 passages. Two E. faecalis isolates tested had ceftaroline MICs increased from 1 to 8 ?g/ml after 38 days and from 4 to 32 ?g/ml after 41 days, respectively. The parental ceftaroline MIC for the one K. pneumoniae extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-negative isolate tested was 0.5 ?g/ml and did not change after 50 daily passages. PMID:21343467

Clark, Catherine; McGhee, Pamela; Appelbaum, Peter C.; Kosowska-Shick, Klaudia

2011-01-01

133

Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Other Respiratory Bacterial Pathogens in Low and Lower-Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in low income countries where pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are still underused. In countries where PCVs have been introduced, much of their efficacy has resulted from their impact on nasopharyngeal carriage in vaccinated children. Understanding the epidemiology of carriage for S. pneumoniae and other common respiratory bacteria in developing countries is crucial for implementing appropriate vaccination strategies and evaluating their impact. Methods and Findings We have systematically reviewed published studies reporting nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Neisseria meningitidis in children and adults in low and lower-middle income countries. Studies reporting pneumococcal carriage for healthy children <5 years of age were selected for a meta-analysis. The prevalences of carriage for S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis were generally higher in low income than in lower-middle income countries and were higher in young children than in adults. The prevalence of S. aureus was high in neonates. Meta-analysis of data from young children before the introduction of PCVs showed a pooled prevalence estimate of 64.8% (95% confidence interval, 49.8%–76.1%) in low income countries and 47.8% (95% confidence interval, 44.7%–50.8%) in lower-middle income countries. The most frequent serotypes were 6A, 6B, 19A, 19F, and 23F. Conclusions In low and lower-middle income countries, pneumococcal carriage is frequent, especially in children, and the spectrum of serotypes is wide. However, because data are limited, additional studies are needed to adequately assess the impact of PCV introduction on carriage of respiratory bacteria in these countries. PMID:25084351

Adegbola, Richard A.; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Hill, Philip C.; Roca, Anna; Usuf, Effua; Hoet, Bernard; Greenwood, Brian M.

2014-01-01

134

Effects of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D-Conjugate Vaccine on Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Colonization in Young Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background.?This study evaluated the effects of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D–conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization compared with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) in young children. Methods.?A randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands, initiated 2 years after 7vCRM introduction, was conducted between 1 April 2008 and 1 December 2010. Infants (N = 780) received either PHiD-CV or 7vCRM (2:1) at 2, 3, 4, and 11–13 months of age. Nasopharyngeal samples taken at 5, 11, 14, 18, and 24 months of age were cultured to detect Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Polymerase chain reaction assays quantified H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae and confirmed H. influenzae as nontypeable (NTHi). Primary outcome measure was vaccine efficacy (VE) against NTHi colonization. Results.?In both groups, NTHi colonization increased with age from 33% in 5-month-olds to 65% in 24-month-olds. Three months postbooster, VE against colonization was 0.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], ?21.8% to 18.4%) and VE against acquisition 10.9% (95% CI, ?31.3% to 38.9%). At each sampling moment, no differences between groups in either NTHi prevalence or H. influenzae density were detected. Streptococcus pneumoniae (range, 39%–57%), M. catarrhalis (range, 63%­–69%), and S. aureus (range, 9%–30%) colonization patterns were similar between groups. Conclusions.?PHiD-CV had no differential effect on nasopharyngeal NTHi colonization or H. influenzae density in healthy Dutch children up to 2 years of age, implying that herd effects for NTHi are not to be expected. Other bacterial colonization patterns were also similar. Clinical Trials Registration?NCT00652951. PMID:23118268

van den Bergh, Menno R.; Spijkerman, Judith; Swinnen, Kristien M.; Francois, Nancy A.; Pascal, Thierry G.; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode; IJzerman, Ed P. F.; Bruin, Jacob P.; van der Ende, Arie; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.

2013-01-01

135

Beginning antibiotics for acute rhinosinusitis and choosing the right treatment.  

PubMed

Acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) is an extremely common problem in both children and adults. There are three clinical presentations of acute sinusitis: (1) onset with persistent symptoms (nasal symptoms or cough or both for > 10 but < 30 d without evidence of improvement); (2) onset with severe symptoms (high fever and purulent nasal discharge for 3-4 consecutive days); and (3) onset with worsening symptoms (respiratory symptoms, with or without fever, which worsen after several days of improvement). Images to confirm the presence of acute sinusitis are necessary in older children (> 6 years) and adults to enhance the certainty of diagnosis. The predominant bacterial species that are implicated in acute sinusitis are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in children. In the last decade, there has been an increasing prevalence of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, and beta-lactamase-producing H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. Although there has been some controversy in the literature regarding the effectiveness of antibiotics in the treatment of ABS, most studies in which the diagnosis of acute bacterial sinusitis is confirmed with images and appropriate anti-biotics are prescribed show superior outcomes in recipients of antibiotics. Therapy may be initiated with high-dose amoxicillin or amoxicillin-clavulanate. In penicillin-allergic patients or those who are unresponsive to amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate is appropriate. Alternatives include cefuroxime, cefpodoxime, or cefdinir. In cases of serious drug allergy, clarithromycin or azithromycin may be prescribed. The optimal duration of therapy is unknown. Some recommend treatment until the patient becomes free of symptoms and then for an additional 7 d. PMID:16785586

Wald, Ellen R

2006-06-01

136

[Yearly changes in antibacterial activities of cefozopran against various clinical isolates between 1996 and 2000--II. Gram-negative bacteria].  

PubMed

The in vitro antibacterial activities of cefozopran (CZOP), an agent of cephems, against various clinical isolates obtained between 1996 and 2000 were yearly evaluated and compared with those of other cephems, oxacephems, and carbapenems. Thirty-two species 2,697 strains of Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from the clinical materials annually collected from January to December, and consisted of Moraxella subgenus Branhamella catarrhalis (n = 125), Escherichia coli (n = 250), Citrobacter freundii (n = 153), Citrobacter koseri (n = 97), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 150), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 100), Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 50), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 125), Serratia marcescens (n = 153), Proteus mirabillis (n = 103), Proteus vulgaris (n = 77), Morganella morganii (n = 141), Providencia spp. (P. alcalifaciens, P. rettgeri, P. stuartii; n = 154), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 211), Pseudomonas putida (n = 49), Burkholderia cepacia (n = 102), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 101), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 210), Acinetobactor baumannii (n = 63), Acinetobactor Iwoffii (n = 30), Bacteroides fragilis group (B. fragilis, B. vulgatus, B. distasonis, B. ovatus, B. thetaiotaomicron; n = 129), and Prevotella spp. (P. melaninogenica, P. intermedia, P. bivia, P. oralis, P. denticola; n = 124). CZOP possessed stable antibacterial activities against M. (B.) catarrhalis, E. coli, C. freundii, C. koseri, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, E. aerogenes, E. cloacae, S. marcescens, P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, M. morganii, Providencia spp., P. aeruginosa, and A. lowffii throughout 5 years. The MIC90 of CZOP against those strains were consistent with those obtained from the studies performed until the new drug application approval. On the other hand, the MIC90 of CZOP against H. influenzae yearly obviously increased with approximately 65-time difference during study period. The MIC90 of cefpirome, cefepime, and flomoxef against H. influenzae also yearly tended to rise. The present results demonstrated that CZOP had maintained the antibacterial activity against almost Gram-negative strains tested. However, the decrease in the antibacterial activity of CZOP against H. influenzae was suggested. PMID:12071094

Suzuki, Yumiko; Nishinari, Chisato; Endo, Harumi; Tamura, Chieko; Jinbo, Keiko; Hiramatsu, Nobuyoshi; Akiyama, Kazumitsu; Koyama, Tsuneo

2002-04-01

137

[Yearly changes in antibacterial activities of cefozopran against various clinical isolates between 1996 and 2001--II. Gram-negative bacteria].  

PubMed

The in vitro antibacterial activities of cefozopran (CZOP), an agent of cephems, against various clinical isolates obtained between 1996 and 2001 were yearly evaluated and compared with those of other cephems, oxacephems and carbapenems. A total of 3,245 strains in 32 species of Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from the clinical materials annually collected from January to December, and consisted of Moraxella subgenus Branhamella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter koseri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabillis, Proteus vulgaris, Morganella morganii, Providencia spp. (P. alcalifaciens, P. rettgeri, P. stuartii), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Haemophilus influenzae, Acinetobactor baumannii, Acinetobactor lwoffii, Bacteroides fragilis group (B. fragilis, B. vulgatus, B. distasonis, B. ovatus, B. thetaiotaomicron), and Prevotella spp. (P. melaninogenica, P. intermedia, P. bivia, P. oralis, P. denticola). CZOP possessed stable antibacterial activities against M. (B.) catarrhalis, E. coli, C. freundii, C. koseri, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, E. aerogenes, E. cloacae, S. marcescens, P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, M. morganii, Providencia spp., P. aeruginosa, and A. lwoffii throughout 6 years. The MIC90 of CZOP against those strains were consistent with those obtained from the studies performed until the new drug application approval. On the other hand, the MIC90 of CZOP against H. influenzae yearly obviously increased with approximately 64-time difference during the study period. The MIC90 of cefpirome, cefepime, and flomoxef against H. influenzae also yearly tended to rise. The present results demonstrated that CZOP had maintained the antibacterial activity against almost Gram-negative strains tested. However, the decrease in antibacterial activities of CZOP against B. cepacia, and H. influenzae was suggested. PMID:14567255

Suzuki, Yumiko; Nishinari, Chisato; Endo, Harumi; Hiramatsu, Nobuyoshi; Akiyama, Kazumitsu; Koyama, Tsuneo

2003-08-01

138

Associations between Pathogens in the Upper Respiratory Tract of Young Children: Interplay between Viruses and Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background High rates of potentially pathogenic bacteria and respiratory viruses can be detected in the upper respiratory tract of healthy children. Investigating presence of and associations between these pathogens in healthy individuals is still a rather unexplored field of research, but may have implications for interpreting findings during disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We selected 986 nasopharyngeal samples from 433 6- to 24-month-old healthy children that had participated in a randomized controlled trial. We determined the presence of 20 common respiratory viruses using real-time PCR. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Staphylococcus aureus were identified by conventional culture methods. Information on risk factors was obtained by questionnaires. We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses followed by partial correlation analysis to identify the overall pattern of associations. S. pneumoniae colonization was positively associated with the presence of H. influenzae (adjusted odds ratio 1.60, 95% confidence interval 1.18–2.16), M. catarrhalis (1.78, 1.29–2.47), human rhinoviruses (1.63, 1.19–2.22) and enteroviruses (1.97, 1.26–3.10), and negatively associated with S. aureus presence (0.59, 0.35–0.98). H. influenzae was positively associated with human rhinoviruses (1.63, 1.22–2.18) and respiratory syncytial viruses (2.78, 1.06–7.28). M. catarrhalis colonization was positively associated with coronaviruses (1.99, 1.01–3.93) and adenoviruses (3.69, 1.29–10.56), and negatively with S. aureus carriage (0.42, 0.25–0.69). We observed a strong positive association between S. aureus and influenza viruses (4.87, 1.59–14.89). In addition, human rhinoviruses and enteroviruses were positively correlated (2.40, 1.66–3.47), as were enteroviruses and human bocavirus, WU polyomavirus, parainfluenza viruses, and human parechovirus. A negative association was observed between human rhinoviruses and coronaviruses. Conclusions/Significance Our data revealed high viral and bacterial prevalence rates and distinct bacterial-bacterial, viral-bacterial and viral-viral associations in healthy children, hinting towards the complexity and potential dynamics of microbial communities in the upper respiratory tract. This warrants careful consideration when associating microbial presence with specific respiratory diseases. PMID:23082199

van den Bergh, Menno R.; Biesbroek, Giske; Rossen, John W. A.; de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A. A.; Bosch, Astrid A. T. M.; van Gils, Elske J. M.; Wang, Xinhui; Boonacker, Chantal W. B.; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Bruin, Jacob P.

2012-01-01

139

National and regional assessment of antimicrobial resistance among community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens identified in a 2005-2006 U.S. Faropenem surveillance study.  

PubMed

Surveillance studies conducted in the United States over the last decade have revealed increasing resistance among community-acquired respiratory pathogens, especially Streptococcus pneumoniae, that may limit future options for empirical therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the scope and magnitude of the problem at the national and regional levels during the 2005-2006 respiratory season (the season when community-acquired respiratory pathogens are prevalent) in the United States. Also, since faropenem is an oral penem being developed for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, another study objective was to provide baseline data to benchmark changes in the susceptibility of U.S. respiratory pathogens to the drug in the future. The in vitro activities of faropenem and other agents were determined against 1,543 S. pneumoniae isolates, 978 Haemophilus influenzae isolates, and 489 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates collected from 104 U.S. laboratories across six geographic regions during the 2005-2006 respiratory season. Among S. pneumoniae isolates, the rates of resistance to penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and cefdinir were 16, 6.4, and 19.2%, respectively. The least effective agents were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) and azithromycin, with resistance rates of 23.5 and 34%, respectively. Penicillin resistance rates for S. pneumoniae varied by region (from 8.7 to 22.5%), as did multidrug resistance rates for S. pneumoniae (from 8.8 to 24.9%). Resistance to beta-lactams, azithromycin, and SXT was higher among S. pneumoniae isolates from children than those from adults. beta-Lactamase production rates among H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates were 27.4 and 91.6%, respectively. Faropenem MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited were 0.5 mug/ml for S. pneumoniae, 1 mug/ml for H. influenzae, and 0.5 mug/ml for M. catarrhalis, suggesting that faropenem shows promise as a treatment option for respiratory infections caused by contemporary resistant phenotypes. PMID:17908940

Critchley, Ian A; Brown, Steven D; Traczewski, Maria M; Tillotson, Glenn S; Janjic, Nebojsa

2007-12-01

140

[Antibacterial activity for clinical isolates from pediatric patients of clavulanic acid/amoxicillin (1: 14) -outcomes of special drug use investigation on antibacterial activity (annual changes)].  

PubMed

As a special drug use investigation, we monitored and assessed trends in antibacterial activity of clavulanic acid/amoxicillin (1:14) (hereafter, "CVA/AMPC (1:14)") and other antimicrobial agents for clinical isolates from pediatric patients with otitis media or respiratory, skin, and urinary tract infections. Against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis isolated and identified from otorrhea, epipharynx and rhinorrhea of pediatric patients with otitis media, the MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) in five years between 2006-2010 were 1 microg/mL for S. pneumoniae and 8 microg/mL for H. influenzae and 0.25-0.5microg/mL for M catarrhalis. The changes of MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) for penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) and beta-lactamase non-producing H. influenzae were two times, and no decrease in drug susceptibility was found in the period of the present investigation. In addition, the MIC changes of other antimicrobial agents for these three organisms were approximately two to four times as well. Against organisms isolated and identified from pus, sputum, pharynx, skin and urine of pediatric patients with respiratory, skin, and urinary tract infections, the MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) in four years between 2008-2011 were 1 microg/mL for S. pneumoniae, < or =0.06microg/mL for penicillin susceptible S. pneumoniae (PSSP) without any change, 0.5-1 microg/mL for penicillin intermediate resistant S. pneumoniae (PISP) with a twofold change and 1 microg/mL for PRSP with no change. The MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) were 2-8 microg/mL for S. aureus with a fourfold change, 2 microg/mL for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus without any change, 4-8 microg/mL for H. influenzae with a twofold change. Against beta-lactamase non-producing H. influenzae, MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) were 1 microg/mL for beta-lactamase negative ampicillin susceptible (BLNAS), 8 microg/mL for beta-lactamase negative ampicillin resistant (BLNAR), showing no change. Neither Streptococcus pyogenes or Klebsiella pneumoniae demonstrated any change and M. catarrhalis and Escherichia coli showed twofold changes of MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1: 14). In the present investigation conducted to monitor annual changes in antibacterial activity intended for pediatric patients with otitis media or other infections, there was no significant change in antibacterial activity of CVA/AMPC (1: 14). PMID:24167843

Ishida, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Naomi; Okano, Hideyuki; Hara, Terufumi; Yoshida, Pascal

2013-06-01

141

Respiratory pathogens: assessing resistance patterns in Europe and the potential role of grepafloxacin as treatment of patients with infections caused by these organisms.  

PubMed

Although most respiratory tract infections (RTI) are caused by viruses, various bacteria, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, are common causes of community-acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, otitis media and sinusitis. Empirical antibiotic therapy of patients with RTI must take account of the increasing prevalence of resistance among the predominant pathogens. Europe-wide susceptibility surveillance studies have revealed that resistance to penicillin and macrolides is highly prevalent among isolates of S. pneumoniae from France and Spain. Uniquely, in Italy, macrolide resistance is highly prevalent while the prevalence of penicillin resistance is low. Resistance to other antibiotic classes, including chloramphenicol, doxycycline and, in particular, co-trimoxazole, is associated with penicillin resistance in pneumococci, but resistance to the fluoroquinolones is rare. beta-Lactamase production is the principal mechanism of resistance in isolates of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, with fluoroquinolone resistance being detected rarely in these pathogens. In 1998 a surveillance study involving 15 European countries determined the susceptibilities of many respiratory pathogens to a range of antimicrobials, including grepafloxacin. The MIC(90) of grepafloxacin for 1251 isolates of S. pneumoniae was 0.25 mg/L, the MICs for only five strains being >2 mg/L, and 99.4% of all of the isolates tested were inhibited by concentrations catarrhalis was 0.03 mg/L. The MIC(90)s for 1164 isolates of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and 435 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae were 0.12 and 0.25 mg/L, respectively. Other studies have shown grepafloxacin to be highly active against clinical isolates of Legionella pneumophila (MIC(90) 0.015 mg/L), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MIC(90) 0.5 mg/L) and Chlamydia pneumoniae (MICs 0.06-0.12 mg/L). Current susceptibility data indicate that fluoroquinolone resistance rates among bacterial respiratory tract pathogens are low in European countries. The enhanced potency and activity of grepafloxacin against isolates of S. pneumoniae, including those exhibiting resistance to unrelated classes of antibiotics, together with its activity against other respiratory tract pathogens, suggest that this drug has considerable potential as empirical therapy of patients with a wide range of RTI. PMID:10719006

Felmingham, D

2000-03-01

142

In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activities of S-4661, a New Carbapenem  

PubMed Central

The in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of S-4661, a new 1?-methylcarbapenem, were compared with those of imipenem, meropenem, biapenem, cefpirome, and ceftazidime. The activity of S-4661 against methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and streptococci was comparable to that of imipenem, with an MIC at which 90% of the strains tested were inhibited (MIC90) equal to 0.5 ?g/ml or less. S-4661 was highly active against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis, with MIC90s ranging from 0.032 to 0.5 ?g/ml. Against imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S-4661 was the most active among test agents (MIC90, 8 ?g/ml). Furthermore, S-4661 displayed a high degree of activity against many ceftazidime-, ciprofloxacin-, and gentamicin-resistant isolates of P. aeruginosa. The in vivo efficacy of S-4661 against experimentally induced infections in mice caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and drug-resistant P. aeruginosa, reflected its potent in vitro activity and high levels in plasma in mice. We conclude that S-4661 is a promising new carbapenem for the treatment of infections caused by gram-positive and -negative bacteria, including penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and drug-resistant P. aeruginosa. PMID:9449267

Tsuji, Masakatsu; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Ohno, Akira; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Yamaguchi, Keizo

1998-01-01

143

Antiadhesive and antibiofilm activity of hyaluronic acid against bacteria responsible for respiratory tract infections.  

PubMed

To address the problem of limited efficacy of existing antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial biofilm, it is necessary to find alternative remedies. One candidate could be hyaluronic acid; this study therefore aimed to evaluate the in vitro antiadhesive and antibiofilm activity of hyaluronic acid toward bacterial species commonly isolated from respiratory infections. Interference exerted on bacterial adhesion was evaluated by using Hep-2 cells, while the antibiofilm activity was assessed by means of spectrophotometry after incubation of biofilm with hyaluronic acid and staining with crystal violet. Our data suggest that hyaluronic acid is able to interfere with bacterial adhesion to a cellular substrate in a concentration-dependent manner, being notably active when assessed as pure substance. Moreover, we found that Staphylococcus aureus biofilm was more sensitive to the action of hyaluronic acid than biofilm produced by Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. In conclusion, hyaluronic acid is characterized by notable antiadhesive properties, while it shows a moderate activity against bacterial biofilm. As bacterial adhesion to oral cells is the first step for colonization, these results further sustain the role of hyaluronic acid in prevention of respiratory infections. PMID:24698341

Drago, Lorenzo; Cappelletti, Laura; De Vecchi, Elena; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Torretta, Sara; Mattina, Roberto

2014-10-01

144

Pharmacokinetics of cefuroxime axetil and cefaclor: relationship of concentrations in serum to MICs for common respiratory pathogens.  

PubMed Central

The pharmacokinetics of single doses of cefaclor at 250 and 375 mg and cefuroxime axetil at 250 mg administered under optimal conditions (i.e., cefuroxime axetil after food and cefaclor in the fasted state) were studied in 24 healthy male volunteers. Drug concentrations in serum were related to MICs for common respiratory tract pathogens by using data generated from a recently completed national survey. The time the concentrations in serum exceeded the MICs for Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella (formerly Branhamella) catarrhalis were significantly greater (P less than 0.05) for cefuroxime axetil at 250 mg than for cefaclor at 250 or 375 mg. With the recommended dosing regimens (cefuroxime axetil at 250 mg and cefaclor at 375 mg twice daily or cefaclor at 250 mg three times daily), cefuroxime concentrations exceed the MIC for 90% of the strains tested for a greater time period than cefaclor concentrations with either regimen. The reasons for this difference are (i) the greater potency and slower clearance of cefuroxime compared with those of cefaclor and (ii) the greater sensitivity of these pathogens to cefuroxime. PMID:1952858

James, N C; Donn, K H; Collins, J J; Davis, I M; Lloyd, T L; Hart, R W; Powell, J R

1991-01-01

145

Comparative Study of Immune Status to Infectious Agents in Elderly Patients with Multiple Myeloma, Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia, and Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance ?  

PubMed Central

Whereas patients with multiple myeloma (MM) have a well-documented susceptibility to infections, this has been less studied in other B-cell disorders, such as Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). We investigated the humoral immunity to 24 different pathogens in elderly patients with MM (n = 25), WM (n = 16), and MGUS (n = 18) and in age-matched controls (n = 20). Antibody titers against pneumococci, staphylococcal alpha-toxin, tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, and varicella, mumps, and rubella viruses were most depressed in MM patients, next to lowest in WM and MGUS patients, and highest in the controls. In contrast, levels of antibodies specific for staphylococcal teichoic acid, Moraxella catarrhalis, candida, aspergillus, and measles virus were similarly decreased in MM and MGUS patients. Comparable titers in all study groups were seen against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), borrelia, toxoplasma, and members of the herpesvirus family. Finally, a uniform lack of antibodies was noted against Streptococcus pyogenes, salmonella, yersinia, brucella, francisella, and herpes simplex virus type 2. To conclude, although MM patients displayed the most depressed humoral immunity, significantly decreased antibody levels were also evident in patients with WM and MGUS, particularly against Staphylococcus aureus, pneumococci, and varicella. Conversely, immunity was retained for Hib and certain herpesviruses in all study groups. PMID:21508164

Karlsson, Johanna; Andreasson, Bjorn; Kondori, Nahid; Erman, Evelina; Riesbeck, Kristian; Hogevik, Harriet; Wenneras, Christine

2011-01-01

146

NB2001, a Novel Antibacterial Agent with Broad-Spectrum Activity and Enhanced Potency against ?-Lactamase-Producing Strains  

PubMed Central

Enzyme-catalyzed therapeutic activation (ECTA) is a novel prodrug strategy to overcome drug resistance resulting from enzyme overexpression. ?-Lactamase overexpression is a common mechanism of bacterial resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics. We present here the results for one of the ?-lactamase ECTA compounds, NB2001, which consists of the antibacterial agent triclosan in a prodrug form with a cephalosporin scaffold. Unlike conventional ?-lactam antibiotics, where hydrolysis of the ?-lactam ring inactivates the antibiotic, hydrolysis of NB2001 by ?-lactamase releases triclosan. Evidence supporting the proposed mechanism is as follows. (i) NB2001 is a substrate for TEM-1 ?-lactamase, forming triclosan with a second-order rate constant (kcat/Km) of greater than 77,000 M?1 s?1. (ii) Triclosan is detected in NB2001-treated, ?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli but not in E. coli that does not express ?-lactamase. (iii) NB2001 activity against ?-lactamase-producing E. coli is decreased in the presence of the ?-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid. NB2001 was similar to or more potent than reference antibiotics against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae. NB2001 is also active against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter cloacae. The results indicate that NB2001 is a potent, broad-spectrum antibacterial agent and demonstrate the potential of ECTA in overcoming ?-lactamase-mediated resistance. PMID:11959554

Li, Qing; Lee, Jean Y.; Castillo, Rosario; Hixon, Mark S.; Pujol, Catherine; Doppalapudi, Venkata Ramana; Shepard, H. Michael; Wahl, Geoffrey M.; Lobl, Thomas J.; Chan, Ming Fai

2002-01-01

147

Microbiology of acute sinusitis in Mexican patients.  

PubMed

Acute bacterial sinusitis is a common disorder affecting children and adults. We performed a study to assess the bacteriology of acute sinusitis in a community hospital in Mexico City. Patients with an acute exacerbation of persistent sinusitis or acute sinusitis were enrolled. Aspiration of sinus secretions was performed and aspirates were sent for culture. All patients received antibiotic treatment for the infection based on microbiologic sensitivity reports. Follow-up consultation included endoscopy and a computed tomography scan of paranasal sinuses to assess response to treatment. A total of 110 patients were enrolled for evaluation. Forty nine percent of patients were women; median age was 31 years. A total of 136 cultures were recovered for analysis. Twenty seven percent of cultures were negative. Isolated organisms were Haemophilus influenzae (26%), Moraxella catarrhalis (15%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (14%), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (7%), enterobacteriaceae (6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2%) and miscellaneous (3%). Twenty eight percent of H. influenzae strains were resistant to ampicillin. Penicillin-sensitive S. pneumoniae (PSSP) and penicillin-intermediate-resistant S. pneumoniae (PISP) accounted for 21% and 79% of the S. pneumoniae strains, respectively. H. influenzae was the most common isolated organism. About 55% of those isolates were found in patients <18 years old and only 25% were resistant to ampicillin. Sinus endoscopy continues to be a useful diagnostic tool in addition to imaging studies in sinus infection and should be pursued by the clinician whenever feasible. PMID:16513492

Tellez, Ildefonso; Duran Alba, Luz M; Reyes, Margarita Gutierrez; Patton, Elena; Hesles, Hector De la Garza

2006-04-01

148

In vitro evaluation of BAY Y3118, a new full-spectrum fluoroquinolone.  

PubMed

BAY Y3118, 1-cyclopropyl-7-(2,8-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-8-yl)-6-fluoro-8- chloro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid hydrochloride, is a new fluoroquinolone with antibacterial activity against an expanded spectrum of species including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and also anaerobes such as Bacteriodes fragilis and Clostridium perfringens. MIC90s for S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. faecalis, and S. pneumoniae clinical isolates were 0.125, 0.25, 0.125 and 0.25 micrograms/ml, respectively. Against methicillin- and/or quinolone-resistant S. aureus, MIC50 levels of BAY Y3118 were 10- to 100-fold lower than those of tosufloxacin, sparfloxacin, or ciprofloxacin. The potency of BAY Y3118 against all members of the Enterobacteriaceae generally was equal to or 2-fold greater than that of ciprofloxacin or tosufloxacin. BAY Y3118 was also highly active against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Increasing inoculum concentrations had a minimal effect on MIC determinations. The drug was determined to be bactericidal based upon reference MBCs and time-kill curves. From the results presented here, it was concluded that this new compound surpasses other known 4-quinolones both in spectrum and activity and that its further evaluation by in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies seems warranted. PMID:1288961

Bremm, K D; Petersen, U; Metzger, K G; Endermann, R

1992-01-01

149

In vitro antibacterial activities of PD 138312 and PD 140248, new fluoronaphthyridines with outstanding gram-positive potency.  

PubMed Central

PD 138312 and PD 140248 are new quinolones with high in vitro activities against a wide spectrum of bacterial species, notably including gram-positive isolates. The respective MICs (in micrograms per milliliter) of PD 138312 and PD 140248 capable of inhibiting > or = 90% of the strains were < or = 0.06 and < or = 0.06 for oxacillin-susceptible and -resistant staphylococci, streptococci (including Streptococcus pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. pneumoniae, and viridans group streptococci), Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 0.125 and 0.03 for Legionella pneumophila; 0.25 and 0.125 for Listeria monocytogenes; 0.25 and 0.25 for Enterococcus faecalis; 0.5 and 0.06 for anaerobic gram-positive cocci; 0.5 and 0.25 for Acinetobacter spp.; 0.5 and 0.5 for members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (excluding Serratia marcescens); 2 and 0.5 for Bacteroides fragilis; 2 and 2 for Serratia marcescens and ciprofloxacin-resistant staphylococci; and 8 and 4 for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:8109918

Huband, M D; Cohen, M A; Meservey, M A; Roland, G E; Yoder, S L; Dazer, M E; Domagala, J M

1993-01-01

150

Clinically applicable multiplex PCR for four middle ear pathogens.  

PubMed

The multiplex PCR method for the detection of Alloiococcus otitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (P. H. Hendolin, A. Markkanen, J. Ylikoski, and J. J. Wahlfors, J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:2854-2858, 1997) in middle ear effusions (MEEs) was modified to be better suited for clinical use. To detect false-negative results, an internal amplification was added to the reaction, and to prevent carryover contamination, the dUTP-uracil-N-glycosidase system was incorporated into the procedure. Labor was minimized by using the heat-activatable AmpliTaq Gold polymerase in order to circumvent manual hot start and by detecting the amplification products on an automated sequencer. The performance of the improved protocol was verified with MEEs from patients with otitis media with effusion. In addition, a ligase detection reaction (LDR) was developed for confirmation of the PCR products. The modifications increased the reliability of the protocol and the hands-off time significantly. However, when two DNA extraction protocols were compared, gram-negative bacteria were detected more often in phenol-treated MEEs (94 versus 46%; P < 0.001), and gram-positive bacteria were detected more often in MEEs dissolved in sodium dodecyl sulfate-NaOH-chaotropic salt (83 versus 27%; P < 0.001). The LDR was found to be 100% specific. In all, the results demonstrate the feasibility of the rapid (7-h) multiplex PCR method for routine laboratory use. PMID:10618075

Hendolin, P H; Paulin, L; Ylikoski, J

2000-01-01

151

Use of multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of four bacterial species in middle ear effusions.  

PubMed

A multiplex PCR procedure was developed for the simultaneous detection of Alloiococcus otitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in middle ear effusions (MEEs) from patients with chronic otitis media with effusion. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was chosen as the target, and the procedure used one common lower primer and four species-specific upper primers. The reaction was optimized by changing the primer concentrations to yield equal amounts of amplification products. The specificity of the reaction was verified with various bacterial species found in the nasopharynx. The performance of the procedure was examined with 25 MEE specimens, and the results were compared to those obtained by conventional culture methods. A detection level of 10 bacterial cells/reaction for each of the study organisms was achieved. By conventional culture methods, 8 (32%) of the specimens showed growth of one of the study organisms. In contrast, 21 (84%) of the specimens tested positive by the multiplex PCR. None of the culture-positive specimens were PCR negative, whereas three (12%) of the PCR-positive specimens tested positive for two of the four study organisms. Thus, the multiplex PCR method improves the detection rate significantly compared to that of the conventional culture method. PMID:9350746

Hendolin, P H; Markkanen, A; Ylikoski, J; Wahlfors, J J

1997-11-01

152

Clinically Applicable Multiplex PCR for Four Middle Ear Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The multiplex PCR method for the detection of Alloiococcus otitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (P. H. Hendolin, A. Markkanen, J. Ylikoski, and J. J. Wahlfors, J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:2854–2858, 1997) in middle ear effusions (MEEs) was modified to be better suited for clinical use. To detect false-negative results, an internal amplification was added to the reaction, and to prevent carryover contamination, the dUTP–uracil-N-glycosidase system was incorporated into the procedure. Labor was minimized by using the heat-activatable AmpliTaq Gold polymerase in order to circumvent manual hot start and by detecting the amplification products on an automated sequencer. The performance of the improved protocol was verified with MEEs from patients with otitis media with effusion. In addition, a ligase detection reaction (LDR) was developed for confirmation of the PCR products. The modifications increased the reliability of the protocol and the hands-off time significantly. However, when two DNA extraction protocols were compared, gram-negative bacteria were detected more often in phenol-treated MEEs (94 versus 46%; P < 0.001), and gram-positive bacteria were detected more often in MEEs dissolved in sodium dodecyl sulfate-NaOH-chaotropic salt (83 versus 27%; P < 0.001). The LDR was found to be 100% specific. In all, the results demonstrate the feasibility of the rapid (7-h) multiplex PCR method for routine laboratory use. PMID:10618075

Hendolin, Panu H.; Paulin, Lars; Ylikoski, Jukka

2000-01-01

153

Use of multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of four bacterial species in middle ear effusions.  

PubMed Central

A multiplex PCR procedure was developed for the simultaneous detection of Alloiococcus otitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in middle ear effusions (MEEs) from patients with chronic otitis media with effusion. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was chosen as the target, and the procedure used one common lower primer and four species-specific upper primers. The reaction was optimized by changing the primer concentrations to yield equal amounts of amplification products. The specificity of the reaction was verified with various bacterial species found in the nasopharynx. The performance of the procedure was examined with 25 MEE specimens, and the results were compared to those obtained by conventional culture methods. A detection level of 10 bacterial cells/reaction for each of the study organisms was achieved. By conventional culture methods, 8 (32%) of the specimens showed growth of one of the study organisms. In contrast, 21 (84%) of the specimens tested positive by the multiplex PCR. None of the culture-positive specimens were PCR negative, whereas three (12%) of the PCR-positive specimens tested positive for two of the four study organisms. Thus, the multiplex PCR method improves the detection rate significantly compared to that of the conventional culture method. PMID:9350746

Hendolin, P H; Markkanen, A; Ylikoski, J; Wahlfors, J J

1997-01-01

154

Otitis media: viruses, bacteria, biofilms and vaccines.  

PubMed

Otitis media typically presents as either acute otitis media (AOM), with symptoms including fever, otalgia, otorrhoea or irritability and short duration; or as otitis media with effusion (OME), which is often asymptomatic and characterised by accumulation of fluid in the middle ear. Diagnostic certainty of otitis media is challenging, given the young age of patients and variability of symptoms. Otitis media predominantly occurs as coincident to viral upper respiratory tract infections and/or bacterial infections. Common viruses that cause upper respiratory tract infection are frequently associated with AOM and new-onset OME. These include respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, adenovirus, parainfluenza and coronavirus. Predominant bacteria that cause otitis media are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Antibiotic therapy does not significantly benefit most patients with AOM, but long-term prophylactic antibiotic therapy can reduce the risk of otitis media recurrence among children at high risk. In Australia, 84% of AOM is treated with antibiotic therapy, which contributes to development of antibiotic resistance. Vaccine development is a key future direction for reducing the world burden of otitis media, but requires polymicrobial formulation and ongoing monitoring and modification to ensure sustained reduction in disease burden. PMID:19883356

Massa, Helen M; Cripps, Allan W; Lehmann, Deborah

2009-11-01

155

Biofilm formation by bacteria isolated from upper respiratory tract before and after adenotonsillectomy.  

PubMed

Failure of antibiotics to eradicate the microbial pathogens primarily responsible for otorhinolaryngological diseases has led to the hypothesis that these microorganisms may be structured in a biolfilm. Aim of the study was to evaluate the ability to produce biofilm among bacteria isolated from tonsils and/or adenoids and nasopharynx. Biopsies and swabs were collected during surgery and after 3 and 6 months in 32 children undergoing adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy. Production of biofilm by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae was evaluated in vitro by means of spectrophotometry after growth in microplates and staining with crystalviolet. Of the isolates from intraoperative samples, 44.7% were either moderate or strong biofilm producers compared with 27% of isolates at 6 months after surgery. A decrease in biofilm production was observed for H. influenzae and S. aureus. In conclusion, the rate of isolation and ability to form biofilm decreased in bacteria isolated subsequent to adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy. This suggests a role for biofilm in pathogenesis of recurrent and chronic pharyngeal diseases and rhinopharingitis. PMID:22515296

Drago, Lorenzo; De Vecchi, Elena; Torretta, Sara; Mattina, Roberto; Marchisio, Paola; Pignataro, Lorenzo

2012-05-01

156

The antimicrobial activity of fruits from some cultivar varieties of Rubus idaeus and Rubus occidentalis.  

PubMed

Raspberries, derived from different cultivar varieties, are a popular ingredient of everyday diet, and their biological activity is a point of interest for researchers. The ethanol-water extracts from four varieties of red (Rubus idaeus'Ljulin', 'Veten', 'Poranna Rosa') and black (Rubus occidentalis'Litacz') raspberries were evaluated in the range of their antimicrobial properties as well as phenolic content - sanguiin H-6, free ellagic acid and anthocyanins. The antimicrobial assay was performed with the use of fifteen strains of bacteria, both Gram-negative and Gram-positive. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts varied and depended on the analysed strain of bacteria and cultivar variety, with the exception of Helicobacter pylori, towards which the extracts displayed the same growth inhibiting activity. Two human pathogens Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Moraxella catarrhalis proved to be the most sensitive to raspberry extracts. Contrary to the extracts, sanguiin H-6 and ellagic acid were only active against eight and nine bacterial strains, respectively. The determined MIC and MBC values of both compounds were several times lower than the tested extracts. The highest sensitivity of Corynebacterium diphtheriae to extracts from both black and red raspberries may be due to its sensitivity to sanguiin H-6 and ellagic acid. PMID:25131001

Krauze-Baranowska, M; Majdan, M; Ha?asa, R; G?ód, D; Kula, M; Fecka, I; Orze?, A

2014-10-24

157

Bacterial Infection in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in 2000: a State-of-the-Art Review  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. The precise role of bacterial infection in the course and pathogenesis of COPD has been a source of controversy for decades. Chronic bacterial colonization of the lower airways contributes to airway inflammation; more research is needed to test the hypothesis that this bacterial colonization accelerates the progressive decline in lung function seen in COPD (the vicious circle hypothesis). The course of COPD is characterized by intermittent exacerbations of the disease. Studies of samples obtained by bronchoscopy with the protected specimen brush, analysis of the human immune response with appropriate immunoassays, and antibiotic trials reveal that approximately half of exacerbations are caused by bacteria. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most common causes of exacerbations, while Chlamydia pneumoniae causes a small proportion. The role of Haemophilus parainfluenzae and gram-negative bacilli remains to be established. Recent progress in studies of the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis of infection in the human respiratory tract and in vaccine development guided by such studies promises to lead to novel ways to treat and prevent bacterial infections in COPD. PMID:11292642

Sethi, Sanjay; Murphy, Timothy F.

2001-01-01

158

The British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Resistance Surveillance Project: a successful collaborative model.  

PubMed

The British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) Resistance Surveillance Project was initiated in light of the need for UK-wide surveillance of antibacterial resistance in key clinical pathogens. The Project comprises two defined-protocol programmes that cover a range of important pathogens and antibacterials related to community-acquired respiratory tract infection and bloodstream infection, respectively. The Respiratory Programme has reported quantitative susceptibility data for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis collected from across the UK and Ireland since 1999. The Bacteraemia Programme has reported the susceptibility of a wide range of Gram-positive and -negative organisms since 2001. The sustainability of the Programmes relies on a unique collaborative funding model: sponsorship is provided by a number of pharmaceutical companies in return for the inclusion of their investigational or marketed agents in the study alongside a core panel of established antibacterials. The sponsors have changed over time according to their interest in participating. Results for marketed agents are communicated in a timely manner through the BSAC web site and by presentation and publication, and for investigational agents with the agreement of their sponsors. The Project satisfies the requirement for sustainable defined-protocol high-quality resistance surveillance across the UK and Ireland. PMID:18819978

White, Anthony R

2008-11-01

159

Molecular characterization of a cryptic plasmid from the psychrotrophic antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. 643A.  

PubMed

We report the identification and nucleotide sequence analysis of pKW1, a plasmid of the psychrotrophic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. 643A isolated from the stomach of Antarctic krill Euphasia superba. pKW1 consists of 4583 bp, has a G+C content of 43% and seven putative open reading frames (ORFs). The deduced amino acid sequence from ORF-1 shared significant similarity with the plasmid replicase protein of Psychrobacter cryohalolentis, strain K5. The DNA region immediately downstream of the ORF-1 showed some homology with the Rep-binding sequence of the theta-replicating ColE2-type plasmids. The ORF-3 amino acid sequence revealed amino acid sequence homology with the mobilization protein of Psychrobacter sp. PRwf-1 and Moraxella catarrhalis, with identities of 28% and 25%, respectively. The ORF-4 showed 46% amino acid sequence homology with the putative relaxase/mobilization nuclease MobA of Hafnia alvei and 44% homology with the putative mobilization protein A of Pasterulla multocida. The copy number of pKW1 in Pseudoalteromonas sp. 643A was estimated of 15 copies per chromosome. PMID:18611409

Cie?li?ski, Hubert; Werbowy, Katarzyna; Kur, Józef; Turkiewicz, Marianna

2008-09-01

160

Bacterial pathogens of otitis media and sinusitis: detection in the nasopharynx with selective agar media.  

PubMed

Carriage rates for the bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (Streptococcus pneumoniae [SP], Hemophilus influenzae [HI], and Moraxella catarrhalis [MC]) are of interest. Culture on three selective agars was compared with culture on two standard agars to determine the more accurate method for detection of these species in the nasopharynx of healthy children. Weekly samples were obtained in winter from 18 healthy children (ages 1 through 9 years) as part of a longitudinal study. A 0.1-mL sample of 116 nasopharyngeal aspirate/washes was inoculated onto each of five agars. Two were standard (sheep blood and chocolate), and three were selective (blood with gentamicin for SP; chocolate with vancomycin, bacitracin, and clindamycin for HI; blood with amphotericin B, vancomycin, trimethoprim, and acetazolamide for MC). One technician read the standard plates and another the selective; both were blinded to the results of the other. SP was found in 44% of samples with selective agar versus 25% with standard agar; HI was found in 31% with selective versus 9% with standard; MC was found in 56% with selective versus 37% with standard. Overall, 80% of samples had one or more pathogens detected with selective agars as compared with 58% with standard agars (P =.0004). Selective agars were more accurate than standard agars for detecting otitis pathogens in the nasopharynx, where they are a common part of normal flora in healthy children. PMID:11709658

Dudley, S; Ashe, K; Winther, B; Hendley, J O

2001-11-01

161

Review of the spectrum and potency of orally administered cephalosporins and amoxicillin/clavulanate.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial spectrum and in vitro potency of the most frequently prescribed orally administered cephalosporins (cefaclor, cefdinir, cefpodoxime, cefprozil, cefuroxime axetil, cephalexin) and amoxicillin/clavulanate are reviewed. These beta-lactam agents have been widely used in the outpatient arena for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract and other mild-to-moderate infections. The data presented here were obtained from critical review articles on each of these compounds. Cephalexin and cefaclor were among the least potent and had the narrowest antimicrobial spectrums against the pathogens evaluated. In contrast, cefdinir, cefpodoxime, cefprozil, and cefuroxime were highly active against penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae and retained some activity against penicillin-intermediate strains, whereas amoxicillin/clavulanate was the most active against S. pneumoniae, including most penicillin nonsusceptible strains. Amoxicillin/clavulanate and cefdinir were the most potent compounds against methicillin (oxacillin)-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, whereas cefpodoxime was the most potent compound against Haemophilus influenzae. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefdinir, and cefpodoxime were also active against Moraxella catarrhalis, including beta-lactamase-producing strains. In summary, orally administered "3rd-generation" or extended spectrum cephalosporins exhibited more balanced spectrums of activity against the principal bacterial pathogens responsible for outpatient respiratory tract and other infections when compared with other widely used oral cephalosporins of earlier generations or amoxicillin alone. PMID:17292577

Sader, Helio S; Jacobs, Michael R; Fritsche, Thomas R

2007-03-01

162

Role of oral extended-spectrum cephems in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.  

PubMed

Risk stratification is the recommended approach for treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB) to optimize the chances of clinical success. The suggested oral therapy for "simple or uncomplicated" AECB, which is predominantly a result of infection due to Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, includes advanced macrolides and 2nd- or 3rd-generation cephalosporins, in addition to the older 1st-line agents (aminopenicillins, doxycycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin). In light of increasing resistance of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae to the older agents, the specific directed structural modification of the cephalosporin nucleus resulted in the development of extended-spectrum 3rd-generation oral cephems with enhanced beta-lactamase stability and improved activity against Gram-positive pathogens (penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae and oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus). Analysis of results of double-blind randomized clinical trials assessing efficacy of the extended-spectrum oral cephems published since 2000 demonstrates that both cefdinir and cefditoren have similar point estimates of success in comparison to their comparators (cefuroxime, cefprozil, or Locarbacef), when either the clinical cure or the bacteriologic response was analyzed. Thus, oral extended-spectrum 3rd-generation cephems, which retain antimicrobial efficacy against the traditional respiratory pathogens despite changing resistance patterns, offer excellent coverage against the key pathogens involved in simple or uncomplicated AECB. PMID:17349461

Anzueto, Antonio; Bishai, William R; Pottumarthy, Sudha

2007-03-01

163

Comparing the anterior nare bacterial community of two discrete human populations using Illumina amplicon sequencing.  

PubMed

The anterior nares are an important reservoir for opportunistic pathogens and commensal microorganisms. A barcoded Illumina paired-end sequencing method targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA V1-2 hypervariable region was developed to compare the bacterial diversity of the anterior nares across distinct human populations (volunteers from Germany vs a Babongo Pygmy tribe, Africa). Of the 251 phylotypes detected, 231 could be classified to the genus level and 109 to the species level, including the unambiguous identification of the ubiquitous Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis. The global bacterial community of both adult populations revealed that they shared 85% of the phylotypes, suggesting that our global bacterial communities have likely been with us for thousands of years. Of the 34 phylotypes unique to the non-westernized population, most were related to members within the suborder Micrococcineae. There was an even more overwelming distinction between children and adults of the same population, suggesting a progression of a childhood community of high-diversity comprising species of Moraxellaceae and Streptococcaceae to an adult community of lower diversity comprising species of Propionibacteriaceae, Clostridiales?Incertae Sedis XI, Corynebacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceae. Thus, age was a stronger factor for accounting for differing bacterial assemblages than the origin of the human population sampled. PMID:24354520

Camarinha-Silva, Amélia; Jáuregui, Ruy; Chaves-Moreno, Diego; Oxley, Andrew P A; Schaumburg, Frieder; Becker, Karsten; Wos-Oxley, Melissa L; Pieper, Dietmar H

2014-09-01

164

Specificity in killing pathogens is mediated by distinct repertoires of human neutrophil peptides.  

PubMed

Neutrophil-derived antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs) play an important role in the defense against microbes. Absence of defense is illustrated by neutropenic patients with frequent bacterial and fungal infections. However, the specificity of the antimicrobial effects has not been adequately described. We set out to determine the specific antimicrobial pattern of polypeptides in neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes, PMNs) against 4 potential human pathogens: Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Candida albicans. Protein extracts of human PMNs were separated using high-performance liquid chromatography and fractions were assayed for antimicrobial activity. Fractions displaying antimicrobial activity were separated on SDS-PAGE and characterized using MALDI-MS. Depletion experiments were utilized to determine the contribution of each AMP to the antimicrobial effect. Among the identified AMPs, ?-defensins 1-3, azurocidin, LL-37, lysozyme, calprotectin and lactotransferrin were studied in detail. We found a divergent pattern of killing, that is, certain peptides and proteins exhibited selective activity against specific pathogens, while others displayed a broader antimicrobial activity. ?-Defensins, LL-37 and calprotectin were active against all species, while lactotransferrin exclusively inhibited growth of S. aureus. Conversely, azurocidin was active against all species except S. aureus. Our observations may shed light on bacterial resistance to AMPs and on the elimination of specific bacterial communities on mucosal surfaces. PMID:20820100

Cederlund, Andreas; Agerberth, Birgitta; Bergman, Peter

2010-01-01

165

In vitro activity of tigecycline against 2423 clinical isolates and comparison of the available interpretation breakpoints.  

PubMed

MICs to tigecycline and 12 antimicrobials were performed by microdilution method, against 2423 nonduplicate pathogens recently isolated in 17 Greek hospitals. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) criteria were used comparatively for interpretation of tigecycline MICs. Tigecycline exhibited potent in vitro activity against the majority of the isolates tested. (MIC(90) values of 0.5, 1, 2, 0.125, 1, 0.25, 0.125, and 1 mg/L were observed for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp., Moraxella catarrhalis, Acinetobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., and Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, respectively.) Tigecycline activity was the same, irrespective of the resistance profile to other antimicrobials (Gram-negative pathogens susceptible or resistant to imipenem, Enterococcus spp., S. aureus, or S. pneumoniae isolates, susceptible or resistant to vancomycin, methicillin or penicillin, respectively). Interpretation using EUCAST and FDA breakpoints differed among isolates of K. pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. having tigecycline MICs of 2 to 4 mg/L. In conclusion, tigecycline exhibited potent activity against pathogens recently isolated in a region that experiences high antimicrobial resistance rates. Indications that the available criteria might categorize differently tigecycline susceptibility status in K. pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. isolates were also detected. PMID:19836184

Papaparaskevas, Joseph; Tzouvelekis, Leonidas S; Tsakris, Athanassios; Pittaras, Theodore E; Legakis, Nicholas J

2010-02-01

166

Moxifloxacin in respiratory tract infections.  

PubMed

Moxifloxacin is a fourth-generation fluoroquinolone that has been shown to be effective against respiratory pathogens, including Gram-positive (Streptococcus pneumoniae), Gram-negative (Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis), and atypical strains (Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae), as well as multi-drug resistant S. pneumoniae, including strains resistant to penicillin, macrolides, tetracyclines, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and some fluoroquinolones. Moxifloxacin is highly concentrated in lung tissue, and has demonstrated rapid eradication rates. The bioavailability and half-life of moxifloxacin provides potent bactericidal effects at a dose of 400mg/day. The ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve to MIC of moxifloxacin is the highest among the fluoroquinolones against S. pneumoniae. The clinical efficacy of moxifloxacin has been shown in controlled studies of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (CB) and acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Moxifloxacin has demonstrated a faster resolution of symptoms in CAP and exacerbations of CB patients compared with first-line therapy. It has also demonstrated better eradication in exacerbations of CB compared with standard therapy, in particular the macrolides. Treatment guidelines should take into account the results of clinical trials with moxifloxacin in order to establish the role of this antimicrobial in the therapeutic arsenal against respiratory tract infections. PMID:15757424

Miravitlles, Marc

2005-02-01

167

Helichrysum arenarium subsp. arenarium: phenolic composition and antibacterial activity against lower respiratory tract pathogens.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic content and antibacterial activity of the methanol extract from Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench subsp. arenarium inflorescences against lower respiratory tract pathogens (standard strains and clinical isolates). The extract was characterised by a total phenolic content of 160.17 mg/g. Several caffeic acid conjugates (chlorogenic acid and dicaffeoylquinic acids) and flavonoids (apigenin, naringenin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside and naringenin-O-hexosides) were identified as major constituents by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 was more susceptible to Helichrysum extract than Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619 (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] = 0.62  and 1.25 mg/mL, respectively). The extract exhibited similar antibacterial effects against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae clinical isolates (MIC = 2.5 mg/mL) displaying a higher activity against ampicillin-resistant Moraxella catarrhalis isolate (MIC = 0.15 mg/mL). The combination with ciprofloxacin exhibited additivity against both standard strains (fractional inhibitory concentration [FIC] index = 0.75 and 0.73) and S. aureus isolates (FIC index = 0.62) and synergy against S. pneumoniae isolates (FIC index = 0.5). PMID:24931335

Gradinaru, Adina C; Silion, Mihaela; Trifan, Adriana; Miron, Anca; Aprotosoaie, Ana C

2014-11-01

168

In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of CS-834, a new oral carbapenem.  

PubMed

CS-834 is a prodrug of the carbapenem R-95867, developed by Sankyo Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan. To investigate the possibility that CS-834 may be the first carbapenem usable in an oral dosage form, its in vitro antibacterial activity (as R-95867) and in vivo antibacterial activity were compared with those of cefpodoxime proxetil, cefditoren pivoxil, cefdinir, ofloxacin, imipenem, and amoxicillin. R-95867 had high levels of activity against methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and streptococci, including penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Moraxella catarrhalis, the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (with the exception of Serratia marcescens), Haemophilus influenzae, and Bordetella pertussis; for all these strains, the MICs at which 90% of tested strains are inhibited (MIC90s) were 1.0 microg/ml or less. Against methicillin-resistant staphylococci, enterococci, Serratia marcescens, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, R-95867 showed activity comparable to or slightly less than that of imipenem, with MIC90s ranging from 2 to >128 microg/ml. The in vivo efficacy of oral CS-834 against experimental mouse septicemia caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was better than that of comparative drugs. In murine respiratory infection models, the efficacy of CS-834 reflected not only its potent in vitro activity but also the high levels present in the lungs. PMID:9517932

Yamaguchi, K; Domon, H; Miyazaki, S; Tateda, K; Ohno, A; Ishii, K; Matsumoto, T; Furuya, N

1998-03-01

169

In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activities of CS-834, a New Oral Carbapenem  

PubMed Central

CS-834 is a prodrug of the carbapenem R-95867, developed by Sankyo Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan. To investigate the possibility that CS-834 may be the first carbapenem usable in an oral dosage form, its in vitro antibacterial activity (as R-95867) and in vivo antibacterial activity were compared with those of cefpodoxime proxetil, cefditoren pivoxil, cefdinir, ofloxacin, imipenem, and amoxicillin. R-95867 had high levels of activity against methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and streptococci, including penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Moraxella catarrhalis, the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (with the exception of Serratia marcescens), Haemophilus influenzae, and Bordetella pertussis; for all these strains, the MICs at which 90% of tested strains are inhibited (MIC90s) were 1.0 ?g/ml or less. Against methicillin-resistant staphylococci, enterococci, Serratia marcescens, Brukholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, R-95867 showed activity comparable to or slightly less than that of imipenem, with MIC90s ranging from 2 to >128 ?g/ml. The in vivo efficacy of oral CS-834 against experimental mouse septicemia caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was better than that of comparative drugs. In murine respiratory infection models, the efficacy of CS-834 reflected not only its potent in vitro activity but also the high levels present in the lungs. PMID:9517932

Yamaguchi, Keizo; Domon, Haruki; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Ohno, Akira; Ishii, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Furuya, Nobuhiko

1998-01-01

170

In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activities of L-084, a Novel Oral Carbapenem, against Causative Organisms of Respiratory Tract Infections  

PubMed Central

L-084 (a prodrug of LJC 11,036 [L-036]) is a new oral carbapenem. Here we compared the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of L-036 with those of imipenem, faropenem, ceditoren-pivoxil, cefdinir, amoxicillin, and levofloxacin. The MICs at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited of L-036 against methicillin-susceptible staphylococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae including penicillin-resistant organisms, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae including ampicillin-resistant organisms, Legionella pneumophila, and Moraxella catarrhalis were equal to or less than 1 ?g/ml. In pharmacokinetics studies of L-084 in lungs of mice, the maximum concentration in serum, half-life, and area under the concentration-time curve of this drug were 9.09 ?g/g of tissue, 6.18 h, and 31.0 ?g · h/ml, respectively. In murine respiratory infection models of penicillin-susceptible and -resistant S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, the efficacies of L-084 were better than those of reference drugs. Our results indicate that the in vitro high potency and good distribution in the lungs might be the underlying mechanisms of its efficacy in the murine model of pneumonia. PMID:11120966

Miyazaki, Shuichi; Hosoyama, Takayuki; Furuya, Nobuhiko; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Ohno, Akira; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo

2001-01-01

171

ÓPTIMO DE COBERTURA VEGETAL EN RELACIÓN A LAS PÉRDIDAS DE SUELO POR EROSIÓN HÍDRICA Y LAS PÉRDIDAS DE LLUVIA POR INTERCEPTACIÓN  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Se establece, en una primera aproximación, el óptimo de cobertura en función de las pér- didas de suelo por erosión hídrica y de las pérdidas de lluvia por interceptación, en un mato- rral (romeral), en condiciones ambientales semiáridas mediterráneas, con un mismo tipo de suelo y dos tramos de pendiente de ladera, 11% y 25%. Se utiliza el promedio

Belmonte Serrato; Romero Díaz; López Bermúdez; E. Hernández Laguna

172

POR UNA BELLEZA MS SIMPLE por Blazes Boylan En La sociedad de consumo, libro en el cual Jean Baudrillard propone que en nuestra  

E-print Network

POR UNA BELLEZA MÁS SIMPLE por Blazes Boylan En La sociedad de consumo, libro en el cual Jean, llegados a este punto, el comentario que Baricco hace en Los Bárbaros sobre la industria del libro acceso al mercado editorial, puede comprar cualquier libro aunque nunca haya leído uno: la industria

Geffner, Hector

173

Mitochondrial Porin Por1 and Its Homolog Por2 Contribute to the Positive Control of Snf1 Protein Kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Snf1 is a member of the conserved Snf1/AMP-activated protein kinase (Snf1/AMPK) family involved in regulating responses to energy limitation, which is detected by mechanisms that include sensing adenine nucleotides. Mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) proteins, also known as mitochondrial porins, are conserved in eukaryotes from yeast to humans and play key roles in mediating mitochondrial outer membrane permeability to small metabolites, including ATP, ADP, and AMP. We previously recovered the yeast mitochondrial porin Por1 (yVDAC1) from a two-hybrid screen for Snf1-interacting proteins. Here, we present evidence that Snf1 interacts with Por1 and its homolog Por2 (yVDAC2). Cells lacking Por1 and Por2, but not respiratory-deficient rho0 cells lacking the mitochondrial genome, exhibit reduced Snf1 activation loop phosphorylation in response to glucose limitation. Thus, Por1 and Por2 contribute to the positive control of Snf1 protein kinase. Physical proximity to the VDAC proteins and mitochondrial surface could facilitate Snf1's ability to sense energy limitation. PMID:23104570

Strogolova, Vera; Orlova, Marianna; Shevade, Aishwarya

2012-01-01

174

Identification of two differentially regulated isoforms of protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase ( POR ) from tobacco revealed a wide variety of light- and development-dependent regulations of POR gene expression among angiosperms  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide a in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. Here, we identified two distinct POR cDNAs from tobacco. Both POR isoforms are encoded by a respective single copy gene in tobacco genome. The overall deduced\\u000a amino acid sequences of two tobacco cDNAs, designated here POR1 and POR2, displayed significant identities (?75%), but showed different

Tatsuru Masuda; Naoki Fusada; Toshihiko Shiraishi; Hirofumi Kuroda; Koichiro Awai; Hiroshi Shimada; Hiroyuki Ohta; Ken-ichiro Takamiya

2002-01-01

175

VDAC and the bacterial porin PorB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae share mitochondrial import pathways  

PubMed Central

The human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae induces host cell apoptosis during infection by delivering the outer membrane protein PorB to the host cell’s mitochondria. PorB is a pore-forming ?-barrel protein sharing several features with the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which is involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Here we show that PorB of pathogenic Neisseria species produced by host cells is efficiently targeted to mitochondria. Imported PorB resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane and forms multimers with similar sizes as in the outer bacterial membrane. The mitochondria completely lose their membrane potential, a characteristic previously observed in cells infected with gonococci or treated with purified PorB. Closely related bacterial porins of non-pathogenic Neisseria mucosa or Escherichia coli remain in the cytosol. Import of PorB into mitochondria in vivo is independent of a linear signal sequence. Insertion of PorB into the mitochondrial outer membrane in vitro depends on the activity of Tom5, Tom20 and Tom40, but is independent of Tom70. Our data show that human VDAC and bacterial PorB are imported into mitochondria by a similar mechanism. PMID:11953311

Muller, Anne; Rassow, Joachim; Grimm, Jan; Machuy, Nikolaus; Meyer, Thomas F.; Rudel, Thomas

2002-01-01

176

La servidumbre por deuda en el mbito rural del sur de la India  

E-print Network

4 83 La servidumbre por deuda en el ámbito rural del sur de la India David Picherit David Picherit trabajadores rurales migrantes en el sur de la India negocian y conciben el endeudamiento en un contexto de eventual del estatus. PalaBras clave: servidumbre por deuda, trabajo, migraciones laborales, India

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

177

Colocación de marcapasos diafragmático por toracotomía mínima para tratamiento de hipoincoercible  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Presentamos un caso de hipo incoercible de cuatro años de duración y con clínica de pérdida de peso y fatiga. Refractario al tratamiento médico. Se le implantó un marcapasos diafragmático por vía intratorácica. Este aparato controla los movimientos del diafragma por estimulación eléctrica del nervio frénico. Se consiguió con ello disminuir la intensidad de los episodios de hipo. Este

JUAN JOSÉ FIBLA; GUILLERMO GÓMEZ; CÉSAR FARINA; GASPAR ESTRADA; CARLOS LEÓN

178

Costos generados por la violencia armada en Colombia: 1993-2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este documento incluye un ejercicio de valoración de los costos tanto directos como indirectos que la violencia armada ha impuesto a la economía nacional entre los años 1999 y 2003. Entre los costos considerados se cuentan aquellos generados por el daño a infraestructura energética, vial y aeroportuaria, por fenómenos como el secuestro, al extorsión, el narcotráfico, el desplazamiento forzado, el

Maria Eugenia PINTO BORREGO; Andrés VERGARA BALLEN; Yilberto LAHUERTA PERCIPIANO

2005-01-01

179

Gliding Motility and Por Secretion System Genes Are Widespread among Members of the Phylum Bacteroidetes  

PubMed Central

The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, “Gramella forsetii,” Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility. PMID:23123910

Zhu, Yongtao

2013-01-01

180

Science Highlight April 2011 Structure of N. meningitidis PorB. a) PorB trimer viewed from the top of  

E-print Network

backbone or can have a specific binding mode to LPS. Importantly, TLRs do not undergo affinity maturation of bacterial meningitis, which is a potentially deadly inflammation of the membranes lining the brain unexpected surprises found in the N. meningitidis PorB structure that may improve our understanding of how

Wechsler, Risa H.

181

Successful Mnemonics for "por"/"para" and Affirmative Commands with Pronouns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two mnemonic devices, "4A Rule" and "PERFECT," are described to simplify the learning of two grammar points: the placement of object pronouns with respect to commands and the distinction between "por" and "para." (five references) (LB)

Mason, Keith

1992-01-01

182

Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB  

SciTech Connect

PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP-PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction.

Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T.M. (Weill-Med); (Vanderbilt)

2010-06-25

183

La UA aparece por primera vez entre las 200 mejores universidades del mundo en materia de Qumica  

E-print Network

supone un reconocimiento a la labor realizada por la instituci�n y en concreto por sus investigadores dentro de esta �rea", apunta Enrique Herrero, director del Secretariado de Investigaci�n. En concreto

Escolano, Francisco

184

Evaluation of swabbing methods for estimating the prevalence of bacterial carriage in the upper respiratory tract: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Bacterial carriage in the upper respiratory tract is usually asymptomatic but can lead to respiratory tract infection (RTI), meningitis and septicaemia. We aimed to provide a baseline measure of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis carriage within the community. Self-swabbing and healthcare professional (HCP) swabbing were compared. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Individuals registered at 20 general practitioner practices within the Wessex Primary Care Research Network South West, UK. Participants 10?448 individuals were invited to participate; 5394 within a self-swabbing group and 5054 within a HCP swabbing group. Self-swabbing invitees included 2405 individuals aged 0–4?years and 3349 individuals aged ?5?years. HCP swabbing invitees included 1908 individuals aged 0–4?years and 3146 individuals aged ?5?years. Results 1574 (15.1%) individuals participated, 1260 (23.4%, 95% CI 22.3% to 24.5%) undertaking self-swabbing and 314 (6.2%, 95% CI 5.5% to 6.9%) undertaking HCP-led swabbing. Participation was lower in young children and more deprived practice locations. Swab positivity rates were 34.8% (95% CI 32.2% to 37.4%) for self-taken nose swabs (NS), 19% (95% CI 16.8% to 21.2%) for self-taken whole mouth swabs (WMS), 25.2% (95% CI 20.4% to 30%) for nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and 33.4% (95% CI 28.2% to 38.6%) for HCP-taken WMS. Carriage rates of S. aureus were highest in NS (21.3%). S. pneumoniae carriage was highest in NS (11%) and NPS (7.4%). M. catarrhalis carriage was highest in HCP-taken WMS (28.8%). H. influenzae and P. aeruginosa carriage were similar between swab types. N. meningitidis was not detected in any swab. Age and recent RTI affected carriage of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae. Participant costs were lower for self-swabbing (£41.21) versus HCP swabbing (£69.66). Conclusions Higher participation and lower costs of self-swabbing as well as sensitivity of self-swabbing favour this method for use in large population-based respiratory carriage studies. PMID:25358677

Coughtrie, A L; Whittaker, R N; Begum, N; Anderson, R; Tuck, A; Faust, S N; Jefferies, J M; Yuen, H M; Roderick, P J; Mullee, M A; Moore, M V; Clarke, S C

2014-01-01

185

Nasopharyngeal flora in children with acute otitis media before and after implementation of 7 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in France  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have investigated the impact of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on pneumococcal (Sp) and staphylococcal (Sa) nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage. Few have investigated the impact on Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mc) carriage. We aimed to compare the NP carriage rates in young children with acute otitis media (AOM) before and after PCV7 implementation in France. Methods Prior to PCV7 implementation, we performed 4 successive randomized trials with NP samples. These studies compared several antibiotic regimens for treating AOM in young children (6 to 30 months). After PCV7 implementation, to assess the impact of the vaccination program on NP flora, young children with AOM were enrolled in a prospective surveillance study. In each study, we obtained an NP sample to analyze the carriage rates of Sp, Hi, Mc and Sa and the factors influencing the carriage. Standardized history and physical examination findings were recorded; the methods used for NP swabs (sampling and cultures) were the same in all studies. Results We enrolled 4,405 children (mean age 13.9 months, median 12.8). Among the 2,598 children enrolled after PCV7 implementation, 98.3% were vaccinated with PCV7. In comparing the pre- and post-PCV7 periods, we found a slight but non-significant decrease in carriage rates of pneumococcus (AOR = 0.85 [0.69;1.05]), H. influenzae (AOR = 0.89 [0.73;1.09]) and S. aureus (AOR = 0.92 [0.70;1.19]). By contrast, the carriage rate of M. catarrhalis increased slightly but not significantly between the 2 periods (AOR = 1.08 [0.95;1.2]). Among Sp carriers, the proportion of PCV7 vaccine types decreased from 66.6% to 10.7% (P < 0.001), penicillin intermediate-resistant strains increased from 30.3% to 43.4% (P < 0.001), and penicillin-resistant strains decreased greatly from 22.8% to 3.8% (P < 0.001). The proportion of Hi ß-lactamase-producing strains decreased from 38.6% to 17.1% (P < 0.001). Conclusion The carriage rates of otopathogen species (Sp, Hi, Mc) and Sa did not significantly change in children with AOM after PCV7 implementation in France. However, we observed significant changes in carriage rates of PCV7 vaccine serotypes and penicillin non-susceptible Sp. PMID:22397629

2012-01-01

186

In Silico Studies of Outer Membrane of Neisseria Meningitidis Por A: Its Expression and Immunogenic Properties  

PubMed Central

Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis. PMID:25317403

Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva

2014-01-01

187

Comunicacin entre ProcesosComunicacin entre Procesos por pase de mensajespor pase de mensajes  

E-print Network

librerías especiales Las primitivas principales son: send(destination, this_msg, msg_length) receive(source, a_msg, &how_long) #12;IntroducciónIntroducción Sistemas donde la comunicación por memoria enlaces pueden ser unidireccionales o bidireccionales send(tothisprocess, this_msg, msg_length) receive

Cardinale Villarreal, Yudith C.

188

Pramos de Costa Rica Editado por M. Kappelle y S. P. Horn  

E-print Network

Páramos de Costa Rica Editado por M. Kappelle y S. P. Horn ISBN 9968-927-09-0 Copyright © 2005, Editorial INBio Todos los derechos reservados G, C R1 Matthew S. Lachniet Smithsonian Tropical, Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), 2060 San José, Costa Rica RESUMEN. En este artículo se presenta un breve

Lachniet, Matthew S.

189

Introduccion a la demostracion asistida por ordenador (con Isabelle/Isar)  

E-print Network

Introducci´on a la demostraci´on asistida por ordenador (con Isabelle/Isar) Jos´e A. Alonso Jim recursi´on primitiva . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2 El lenguaje de demostraci´on Isar 15 2.1 Panorama de la sintaxis (simplificada) de Isar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2

Alonso, José A.

190

Consecuencias de la restricción de peso impuesta por el deporte en la infancia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractoActualmente, los competidores jóvenes emprenden programas de entrenamiento que se basan en un nivel elevado de actividad física desde una temprana edad. Este entrenamiento intensivo (volumen e intensidad) aumenta el gasto de energía, que tiene que ser compensado por una mayor ingesta nutricional. Los bailarines de ballet, los patinadores artísticos, los gimnastas o los gimnastas rítmicos comienzan a entrenar a

Nathalie Boisseau

2006-01-01

191

POLARIZAÇÃODO MERCADO DE TRABALHO SOB VIÉS TECNOLÓGICO EIMPACTOS SOBRE DIFERENCIAIS SALARIAIS POR GÊNERO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: este estudo dedica-se à captação dos efeitos da polarização do mercado de trabalho brasileiro sob viés tecnológico e os diferentes impactos sobre a remuneração e absorção de homens e mulheres em ocupações com requerimentos de habilidades sofisticadas. Por intermédio de regressões MQO constata-se um aumento na demanda em ocupações de requerimentos superiores para administração de recursos tecnológicos e não

Gustavo Saddi Bressan; Ana Maria Hermeto Camilo de Oliveira

2011-01-01

192

Insect Queens Sterilize Workers With Chemicals Escrito por Claudia Bringas Reyes  

E-print Network

Insect Queens Sterilize Workers With Chemicals Escrito por Claudia Bringas Reyes viernes, 17 de. Experts suggest that insects may have been using the chemicals to signal fertility for roughly 150 million these pheromones evolved could provide a window onto how social insects developed their cooperative living system

Wenseleers, Tom

193

Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

Friedrich, Daniel S.

2010-01-01

194

Sequence Evolution of the porB Gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis: Evidence of Positive Darwinian Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein 1 (PI) is a major porin of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis and is encoded by a single locus, porB. Alleles of the porB locus of N. gonorrhoeue are assigned to two homology groups, PI(A) and PI(B), on the basis of immunological and structural similarity. In a like manner, alleles of the porB locus of the closely related bacterium,

N. H. Smith; J. Maynard Smith; B. G. Spratt

195

The Neisseria meningitidis ZnuD Zinc Receptor Contributes to Interactions with Epithelial Cells and Supports Heme Utilization when Expressed in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Neisseria meningitidis employs redundant heme acquisition mechanisms, including TonB receptor-dependent and receptor-independent uptakes. The TonB-dependent zinc receptor ZnuD shares significant sequence similarity to HumA, a heme receptor of Moraxella catarrhalis, and contains conserved motifs found in many heme utilization proteins. We present data showing that, when expressed in Escherichia coli, ZnuD allowed heme capture on the cell surface and supported the heme-dependent growth of an E. coli hemA strain. Heme agarose captured ZnuD in enriched outer membrane fractions, and this binding was inhibited by excess free heme, supporting ZnuD's specific interaction with heme. However, no heme utilization defect was detected in the meningococcal znuD mutant, likely due to unknown redundant TonB-independent heme uptake mechanisms. Meningococcal replication within epithelial cells requires a functional TonB, and we found that both the znuD and tonB mutants were defective not only in survival within epithelial cells but also in adherence to and invasion of epithelial cells. Ectopic complementation rescued these phenotypes. Interestingly, while znuD expression was repressed by Zur with zinc as a cofactor, it also was induced by iron in a Zur-independent manner. A specific interaction of meningococcal Fur protein with the znuD promoter was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Thus, the meningococcal ZnuD receptor likely participates in both zinc and heme acquisition, is regulated by both Zur and Fur, and is important for meningococcal interaction with epithelial cells. PMID:22083713

Kumar, Pradeep; Sannigrahi, Soma

2012-01-01

196

In vitro antibacterial activity of doripenem against clinical isolates from French teaching hospitals: proposition of zone diameter breakpoints.  

PubMed

The aims of the study were to determine the in vitro activity of doripenem, a new carbapenem, against a large number of bacterial pathogens and to propose zone diameter breakpoints for clinical categorization in France according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints. The MICs of doripenem were determined by the broth microdilution method against 1,547 clinical isolates from eight French hospitals. The disk diffusion test was performed (10-?g discs) according to the Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie (CASFM) method. The MIC(50/90) (mg/L) values were as follows: methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (0.03/0.25), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (1/2), methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (MSCoNS) (0.03/0.12), methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) (2/8), Streptococcus pneumoniae (0.016/0.25), viridans group streptococci (0.016/2), ?-hemolytic streptococci (?0.008/?0.008), Enterococcus faecalis (2/4), Enterococcus faecium (128/>128), Enterobacteriaceae (0.06/0.25), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.5/8), Acinetobacter baumannii (0.25/2), Haemophilus influenzae (0.12/0.25), and Moraxella catarrhalis (0.03/0.06). According to the regression curve, the zone diameter breakpoints were 24 and 19 mm for MICs of 1 and 4 mg/L, respectively. This study confirms the potent in vitro activity of doripenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter, Enterobacteriaceae, MSSA, MSCoNS, and respiratory pathogens. According to the EUCAST MIC breakpoints (mg/L) ?1/>4 for Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter, and ?1/>1 for streptococci, pneumococci, and Haemophilus, the zone diameter breakpoints could be (mm) ?24/<19 and ?24/<24, respectively. PMID:21088861

Lascols, C; Legrand, P; Mérens, A; Leclercq, R; Armand-Lefevre, L; Drugeon, H B; Kitzis, M D; Muller-Serieys, C; Reverdy, M E; Roussel-Delvallez, M; Moubareck, C; Lemire, A; Miara, A; Gjoklaj, M; Soussy, C-J

2011-04-01

197

Summary of Ceftaroline Activity against Pathogens in the United States, 2010: Report from the Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE) Surveillance Program  

PubMed Central

The Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE) surveillance program is a sentinel resistance monitoring system designed to track the activity of ceftaroline and comparator agents. In the United States, a total of 8,434 isolates were collected during the 2010 surveillance program from 65 medical centers distributed across the nine census regions (5 to 10 medical centers per region). All organisms were isolated from documented infections, including 3,055 (36.2%) bloodstream infections, 2,282 (27.1%) respiratory tract infections, 1,965 (23.3%) acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, 665 (7.9%) urinary tract infections, and 467 (5.5%) miscellaneous other infection sites. Ceftaroline was the most potent ?-lactam agent tested against staphylococci. The MIC90 values were 1 ?g/ml for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; 98.4% susceptible) and 0.5 ?g/ml for methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Ceftaroline was 16- to 32-fold more potent than ceftriaxone against methicillin-susceptible staphylococcal strains. All staphylococcus isolates (S. aureus and CoNS) were inhibited at ceftaroline MIC values of ?2 ?g/ml. Ceftaroline also displayed potent activity against streptococci (MIC90, 0.015 ?g/ml for beta-hemolytic streptococci; MIC90, 0.25 ?g/ml for penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae). Potent activity was also shown against Gram-negative pathogens (Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis). Furthermore, wild-type strains of Enterobacteriaceae (non-extended-spectrum ?-lactamase [ESBL]-producing strains and non-AmpC-hyperproducing strains) were often susceptible to ceftaroline. Continued monitoring through surveillance networks will allow for the assessment of the evolution of resistance as this new cephalosporin is used more broadly to provide clinicians with up-to-date information to assist in antibiotic stewardship and therapeutic decision making. PMID:22470115

Sader, Helio S.; Farrell, David J.; Jones, Ronald N.

2012-01-01

198

The Haemophilus ducreyi Serum Resistance Antigen DsrA Confers Attachment to Human Keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

Haemophilus ducreyi is the etiologic agent of the sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease chancroid. H. ducreyi serum resistance protein A (DsrA) is a member of a family of multifunctional outer membrane proteins that are involved in resistance to killing by human serum complement. The members of this family include YadA of Yersinia species, the UspA proteins of Moraxella catarrhalis, and the Eib proteins of Escherichia coli. The role of YadA, UspA1, and UspA2H as eukaryotic cell adhesins and the function of UspA2 as a vitronectin binder led to our investigation of the cell adhesion and vitronectin binding properties of DsrA. We found that DsrA was a keratinocyte-specific adhesin as it was necessary and sufficient for attachment to HaCaT cells, a keratinocyte cell line, but was not required for attachment to HS27 cells, a fibroblast cell line. We also found that DsrA was specifically responsible for the ability of H. ducreyi to bind vitronectin. We then theorized that DsrA might use vitronectin as a bridge to bind to human cells, but this hypothesis proved to be untrue as eliminating HaCaT cell binding of vitronectin with a monoclonal antibody specific to integrin ?v?5 did not affect the attachment of H. ducreyi to HaCaT cells. Finally, we wanted to examine the importance of keratinocyte adhesion in chancroid pathogenesis so we tested the wild-type and dsrA mutant strains of H. ducreyi in our swine models of chancroid pathogenesis. The dsrA mutant was less virulent than the wild type in both the normal and immune cell-depleted swine models of chancroid infection. PMID:12379693

Cole, Leah E.; Kawula, Thomas H.; Toffer, Kristen L.; Elkins, Christopher

2002-01-01

199

NB2001, a novel antibacterial agent with broad-spectrum activity and enhanced potency against beta-lactamase-producing strains.  

PubMed

Enzyme-catalyzed therapeutic activation (ECTA) is a novel prodrug strategy to overcome drug resistance resulting from enzyme overexpression. beta-Lactamase overexpression is a common mechanism of bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. We present here the results for one of the beta-lactamase ECTA compounds, NB2001, which consists of the antibacterial agent triclosan in a prodrug form with a cephalosporin scaffold. Unlike conventional beta-lactam antibiotics, where hydrolysis of the beta-lactam ring inactivates the antibiotic, hydrolysis of NB2001 by beta-lactamase releases triclosan. Evidence supporting the proposed mechanism is as follows. (i) NB2001 is a substrate for TEM-1 beta-lactamase, forming triclosan with a second-order rate constant (k(cat)/K(m)) of greater than 77,000 M-1 s-1. (ii) Triclosan is detected in NB2001-treated, beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli but not in E. coli that does not express beta-lactamase. (iii) NB2001 activity against beta-lactamase-producing E. coli is decreased in the presence of the beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid. NB2001 was similar to or more potent than reference antibiotics against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae. NB2001 is also active against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter cloacae. The results indicate that NB2001 is a potent, broad-spectrum antibacterial agent and demonstrate the potential of ECTA in overcoming beta-lactamase-mediated resistance. PMID:11959554

Li, Qing; Lee, Jean Y; Castillo, Rosario; Hixon, Mark S; Pujol, Catherine; Doppalapudi, Venkata Ramana; Shepard, H Michael; Wahl, Geoffrey M; Lobl, Thomas J; Chan, Ming Fai

2002-05-01

200

In Vitro Interaction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with Human Middle Ear Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Otitis media (OM) is an inflammation of the middle ear which can be acute or chronic. Acute OM is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). CSOM is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the middle ear characterized by infection and discharge. The survivors often suffer from hearing loss and neurological sequelae. However, no information is available regarding the interaction of P. aeruginosa with human middle ear epithelial cells (HMEECs). Methodology and Findings In the present investigation, we demonstrate that P. aeruginosa is able to enter and survive inside HMEECs via an uptake mechanism that is dependent on microtubule and actin microfilaments. The actin microfilament disrupting agent as well as microtubule inhibitors exhibited significant decrease in invasion of HMEECs by P. aeruginosa. Confocal microscopy demonstrated F-actin condensation associated with bacterial entry. This recruitment of F-actin was transient and returned to normal distribution after bacterial internalization. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of bacteria on the surface of HMEECs, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the internalization of P. aeruginosa located in the plasma membrane-bound vacuoles. We observed a significant decrease in cell invasion of OprF mutant compared to the wild-type strain. P. aeruginosa induced cytotoxicity, as demonstrated by the determination of lactate dehydrogenase levels in culture supernatants of infected HMEECs and by a fluorescent dye-based assay. Interestingly, OprF mutant showed little cell damage compared to wild-type P. aeruginosa. Conclusions and Significance This study deciphered the key events in the interaction of P. aeruginosa with HMEECs in vitro and highlighted the role of bacterial outer membrane protein, OprF, in this process. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CSOM will help in identifying novel targets to design effective therapeutic strategies and to prevent hearing loss. PMID:24632826

Mittal, Rahul; Grati, M'hamed; Gerring, Robert; Blackwelder, Patricia; Yan, Denise; Li, Jian-Dong; Liu, Xue Zhong

2014-01-01

201

Bacterial Distribution in the Lungs of Children with Protracted Bacterial Bronchitis  

PubMed Central

Objectives Flexible bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (FB-BAL) is increasingly used for the microbiological confirmation of protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) in children with a chronic wet cough. At our centre, when performing FB-BAL for microbiological diagnosis we sample 6 lobes (including lingula) as this is known to increase the rate of culture positive procedures in children with cystic fibrosis. We investigated if this is also the case in children with PBB. Methods We undertook a retrospective case note review of 50 children investigated for suspected PBB between May 2011 and November 2013. Results The median (IQR) age at bronchoscopy was 2.9 (1.7–4.4) years and the median (IQR) duration of cough was 11 (8.0–14) months. Positive cultures were obtained from 41/50 (82%) and 16 (39%) of these patients isolated ?2 organisms. The commonest organisms isolated were Haemophilus influenzae (25 patients), Moraxella catarrhalis (14 patients), Staphylococcus aureus (11 patients) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (8 patients). If only one lobe had been sampled (as per the European Respiratory Society guidance) 17 different organisms would have been missed in 15 patients, 8 of whom would have had no organism cultured at all. The FB-BAL culture results led to an antibiotic other than co-amoxiclav being prescribed in 17/41 (41%) patients. Conclusions Bacterial distribution in the lungs of children with PBB is heterogeneous and organisms may therefore be missed if only one lobe is sampled at FB-BAL. Positive FB-BAL results are useful in children with PBB and can influence treatment. PMID:25259619

Narang, Ravi; Bakewell, Kelly; Peach, Jane; Clayton, Sadie; Samuels, Martin; Alexander, John; Lenney, Warren; Gilchrist, Francis J.

2014-01-01

202

Induction of CD69 expression and Th1 cytokines release from human peripheral blood lymphocytes after in vitro stimulation with Alloiococcus otitidis and three middle ear pathogens.  

PubMed

Alloiococcus otitidis is a recently discovered pathogen of otitis media. However, only a limited number of studies are available about the pathogenic and immunological role of A. otitidis. The aim of this study was to investigate the activation and the cytokine production of human peripheral blood lymphocytes at the early immune response after stimulation with A. otitidis. After stimulation of whole human peripheral blood lymphocytes for 18 h with whole killed A. otitidis or the three major middle ear pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis), the expression of CD69 and the production of cytokines were analyzed. The expression of CD69 on T cells and B cells was dose-dependently enhanced after stimulation with A. otitidis. The release of interleukin (IL)-12 was induced after stimulation with A. otitidis, whereas the release of IL-4 was not induced after stimulation with A. otitidis. In addition, the release of interferon (IFN)-gamma was induced after stimulation with A. otitidis. Although the release of IFN-gamma started within 18 h after stimulation with A. otitidis, intracellular production of IFN-gamma was not observed in either CD4+ T cells or CD8+ T cells within 18 h upon stimulation. The patterns of CD69 expression and T helper-type 1 (Th1)-promoting cytokines production were similarly shown when human peripheral blood lymphocytes were stimulated with the other three major pathogens. Our results suggest that A. otitidis has sufficient immunogenic potential to modulate a host immune response, like the other three major middle ear pathogens, and also suggest that the immunogenicity of A. otitidis is very similar, at the early immune response, to that of the three major middle ear pathogens. PMID:15708312

Harimaya, Atsushi; Himi, Tetsuo; Fujii, Nobuhiro; Tarkkanen, Jussi; Carlson, Petteri; Ylikoski, Jukka; Mattila, Petri

2005-03-01

203

Impact of Respiratory Viral Infections on Alpha Hemolytic Streptococci and Otopathogens in the Nasopharynx of Young Children  

PubMed Central

Background We studied nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization in a cohort of children to determine the impact of viral upper respiratory infections (URI) on non-pneumococcal alpha hemolytic streptococci (AHS) and otopathogen colonization in association with acute otitis media (AOM). Methods NP samples were collected routinely when children were aged 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, and 30 months and during episodes of AOM. NP samples were prospectively obtained from 248 children during a 5-year time span; 1,018 during routine visits, 161 at the time of AOM and 59 at follow-up visits 3 weeks after AOM. Results The overall NP colonization rate of AHS was 50.8% during a non-AOM visit but declined to 38.3% during a viral URI with concurrent AOM (p=0.0006). Of 56 AOM visits with paired follow-ups, 6 (10.7%) had AHS in the NP at the time of viral URI and concurrent AOM whereas 29 (51.8%) had AHS at the follow-up (p<0.001). Lower NP colonization rates with AHS were associated with significant increases in Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage during non-AOM visits (p<0.001) and during viral URI and concurrent AOM visits (p=0.003). AHS NP colonization rates were not different when children had a viral URI without AOM versus when they were URI negative, but NP colonization with non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae rates increased (p<0.001) and Moraxella catarrhalis decreased (p<0.001) during viral URI. Conclusion Respiratory viral infections alter NP carriage rates of commensal AHS and otopathogens, including prior to AOM. PMID:23241988

Friedel, Victoria; Chang, Arthur; Wills, Jennifer; Vargas, Roberto; Xu, Qingfu; Pichichero, Michael

2012-01-01

204

In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of PD 0305970 and PD 0326448, New Bacterial Gyrase/Topoisomerase Inhibitors with Potent Antibacterial Activities versus Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Positive and Fastidious Organism Groups?  

PubMed Central

PD 0305970 and PD 0326448 are new bacterial gyrase and topoisomerase inhibitors (quinazoline-2,4-diones) that possess outstanding in vitro and in vivo activities against a wide spectrum of bacterial species including quinolone- and multidrug-resistant gram-positive and fastidious organism groups. The respective MICs (?g/ml) for PD 0305970 capable of inhibiting ?90% of bacterial strains tested ranged from 0.125 to 0.5 versus staphylococci, 0.03 to 0.06 versus streptococci, 0.25 to 2 versus enterococci, and 0.25 to 0.5 versus Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Legionella pneumophila, and Neisseria spp. PD 0326448 MIC90s were generally twofold higher versus these same organism groups. Comparative quinolone MIC90 values were 4- to 512-fold higher than those of PD 0305970. In testing for frequency of resistance, PD 0305970 and levofloxacin showed low levels of development of spontaneous resistant mutants versus both Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Unlike quinolones, which target primarily gyrA and parC, analysis of resistant mutants in S. pneumoniae indicates that the likely targets of PD 0305970 are gyrB and parE. PD 0305970 demonstrated rapid bactericidal activity by in vitro time-kill testing versus streptococci. This bactericidal activity carried over to in vivo testing, where PD 0305970 and PD 0326448 displayed outstanding Streptococcus pyogenes 50% protective doses (PD50s) (oral dosing) of 0.7 and 3.6 mg/kg, respectively (ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin PD50s were >100 and 17.7 mg/kg, respectively). PD 0305970 was also potent in a pneumococcal pneumonia mouse infection model (PD50 = 3.2 mg/kg) and was 22-fold more potent than levofloxacin. PMID:17261623

Huband, Michael D.; Cohen, Michael A.; Zurack, Margaret; Hanna, Debra L.; Skerlos, Laura A.; Sulavik, Mark C.; Gibson, Glenn W.; Gage, Jeffrey W.; Ellsworth, Edmund; Stier, Michael A.; Gracheck, Stephen J.

2007-01-01

205

Cefquinome (HR 111V). In vitro evaluation of a broad-spectrum cephalosporin indicated for infections in animals.  

PubMed

Cefquinome (formerly HR 111V), an aminothiazolyl cephalosporin, was compared with cefepime, cefpirome, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime against 681 clinical cultures and a challenge set of bacteria with well-characterized resistance mechanisms. Cefquinome minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC90) for the enterobacteriaceae ranged from < or = 0.12-2 micrograms/ml with the highest MIC (4 micrograms/ml) obtained among Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, and Providencia stuartii strains. A total of 90% of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa were inhibited by cefquinome at < or = 8 micrograms/ml. Cefquinome activity of particular note for Gram-positive isolates included Corynebacterium jeikeium (MIC90, 8 micrograms/ml) and enterococci (MIC50, 4-8 micrograms/ml). Oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 32-fold less susceptible (MIC90, 16 micrograms/ml) to cefquinome than oxacillin-susceptible (MIC90, 0.5 micrograms/ml) strains. Cefquinome was very potent against fastidious isolates such as Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC90, 0.25-2 micrograms/ml); Haemophilus influenzae (MIC90, 0.06-1 micrograms/ml), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (MIC90, 0.06-0.5 micrograms/ml), and Streptococcus species (MIC90, < or = 0.03-006 micrograms/ml). When tested against organisms possessing Bush group 2 enzymes (including extended spectrum beta-lactamases), cefquinome remained active (MIC, < or = 8 micrograms/ml) against the majority of strains. This compound should be very active against pathogens generally found in animal infections and possesses a potency and spectrum comparable to the "fourth-generation" cephalosporins (cefepime and cefpirome) being investigated for human infectious diseases. PMID:7867299

Murphy, S P; Erwin, M E; Jones, R N

1994-09-01

206

Panel 6: Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Objective To update progress on the effectiveness of vaccine for prevention of acute otitis media (AOM) and identification of promising candidate antigens against Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Review Methods Literature searches were performed in OvidSP and PubMed restricted to articles published between June 2007 and September 2011. Search terms included otitis media, vaccines, vaccine antigens, and each of the otitis pathogens and candidate antigens identified in the ninth conference report. Conclusions The current report provides further evidence for the effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in the prevention of otitis media. Observational studies demonstrate a greater decline in AOM episodes than reported in clinical efficacy trials. Unmet challenges include extending protection to additional serotypes and additional pathogens, the need to prevent early episodes, the development of correlates of protection for protein antigens, and the need to define where an otitis media vaccine strategy fits with priorities for child health. Implications for Practice Acute otitis media continues to be a burden on children and families, especially those who suffer from frequent recurrences. The 7-valent PCV (PCV7) has reduced the burden of disease as well as shifted the pneumococcal serotypes and the distribution of otopathogens currently reported in children with AOM. Antibiotic resistance remains an ongoing challenge. Multiple candidate antigens have demonstrated the necessary requirements of conservation, surface exposure, immunogenicity, and protection in animal models. Further research on the role of each antigen in pathogenesis, in the development of correlates of protection in animal models, and in new adjuvants to elicit responses in the youngest infants is likely to be productive and permit more antigens to move into human clinical trials. PMID:23536534

Pelton, Stephen I.; Pettigrew, Melinda M.; Barenkamp, Stephen J.; Godfroid, Fabrice; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Leach, Amanda; Patel, Janak; Murphy, Timothy F.; Selak, Sanja; Bakaletz, Lauren O.

2014-01-01

207

Building in efficacy: developing solutions to combat drug-resistant S. pneumoniae.  

PubMed

The development of our understanding of the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) principles that determine antimicrobial efficacy has advanced substantially over the last 10 years. We are now in a position to use PK/PD principles to set targets for antimicrobial design and optimisation so that we can predict eradication of specific pathogens or resistant variants when agents are used clinically. Optimisation of PK/PD parameters to enable the treatment of resistant pathogens with oral agents may not be possible with many current agents, such as some cephalosporins, macrolides and fluoroquinolones. Aminopenicillins, however, such as amoxicillin, have linear PK and have a good safety profile even at high doses. The new pharmacokinetically enhanced oral formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanate, 2000/125 mg twice daily, was designed using PK/PD principles to be able to eradicate Streptococcus pneumoniae with amoxicillin MICs of up to and including 4 mg/L, which includes most penicillin-resistant isolates. For amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanate, a time above MIC (T > MIC) of 35-40% of the dosing interval (based on blood levels) is predictive of high bacteriological efficacy. This target was met by the design of a unique bilayer tablet incorporating 437.5 mg of sustained-release sodium amoxicillin in one layer plus 562.5 mg of immediate-release amoxicillin trihydrate and 62.5 mg of clavulanate potassium in the second layer, with two tablets administered for each dose. This unique design extends the bacterial killing time by increasing the T > MIC to 49% of the dosing interval against pathogens with MICs of 4 mg/L, and 60% of the dosing interval against pathogens with MICs of 2 mg/L. Based on these results, this new amoxicillin/clavulanate formulation should be highly effective in treating respiratory tract infections due to drug-resistant S. pneumoniae as well as beta-lactamase-producing pathogens, such as Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. PMID:14759230

Jacobs, M R

2004-04-01

208

In vitro activity of the tricyclic beta-lactam GV104326.  

PubMed Central

GV104326 is a novel tricyclic beta-lactam (a trinem or, formerly, tribactam). The in vitro activity of GV104326 was compared with those of cefuroxime, cefixime, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefpirome, and ciprofloxacin. GV104326 had in vitro activity generally similar to that of cefixime against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (MIC at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited [MIC90], < or = 2 micrograms/ml), with cefuroxime and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid being 8- to 32-fold less active and with cefpirome being 4- to 8-fold more active against members of this family. The trinem had no activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (MIC90, > 128 micrograms/ml) but was the most active agent against Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. GV104326 was particularly active against gram-positive cocci. Ninety percent of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains were susceptible to 0.03 microgram of GV104326 per ml, making it the most active agent studied. Enterococci and Lancefield group A and B streptococci were generally equally or somewhat more susceptible to GV104326 than they were to amoxicillin. Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were highly susceptible to GV104326, and those strains which showed decreased susceptibility to penicillin were generally twofold more susceptible to the trinem than to amoxicillin. Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were highly susceptible to GV104326 (MIC90s, 0.12 and 0.03 microgram/ml, respectively). The anaerobes Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides fragilis, and Peptostreptococcus spp. were more susceptible to the trinems (formerly tribactams) than to the other agents studied. PMID:8723475

Wise, R; Andrews, J M; Brenwald, N

1996-01-01

209

Antimicrobial activity of DU-6681a, a parent compound of novel oral carbapenem DZ-2640.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro antibacterial activity of DU-6681a, a parent compound of DZ-2640, against gram-positive and -negative bacteria was compared with those of penems and cephalosporins currently available. MICs at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited (MIC90s) of the compound for clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, including methicillin-susceptible and -resistant strains, were 0.10, 25, and 12.5 microg/ml, respectively. DU-6681a inhibited the growth of all strains of Streptococcus pyogenes and of penicillin-susceptible and -insusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae at 0.006, 0.025, and 0.20 microg/ml, respectively, and MIC90s of the compound were 6.25 and >100 microg/ml for Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively. MIC90s of DU-6681a were 0.20, 0.10, and 0.025 microg/ml for Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, respectively. For Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the MIC50 and MIC90 of DU-6681a were 25 and 50 microg/ml, respectively. DU-6681a activity was not affected by different media, varied inoculum size (10(4) to 10(7) CFU), or the addition of human serum but was decreased under acidic conditions against gram-negative bacteria, under alkaline conditions against gram-positive bacteria, and in human urine, as was the activity of the other antibiotics tested. The frequency of spontaneous resistance to DU-6681a was less than or equal to those of the reference compounds. Time-kill curve studies demonstrated the bactericidal action of DU-6681a against S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and H. influenzae. PMID:9174181

Tanaka, M; Hohmura, M; Nishi, T; Sato, K; Hayakawa, I

1997-01-01

210

Antimicrobial activity of DU-6681a, a parent compound of novel oral carbapenem DZ-2640.  

PubMed

The in vitro antibacterial activity of DU-6681a, a parent compound of DZ-2640, against gram-positive and -negative bacteria was compared with those of penems and cephalosporins currently available. MICs at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited (MIC90s) of the compound for clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, including methicillin-susceptible and -resistant strains, were 0.10, 25, and 12.5 microg/ml, respectively. DU-6681a inhibited the growth of all strains of Streptococcus pyogenes and of penicillin-susceptible and -insusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae at 0.006, 0.025, and 0.20 microg/ml, respectively, and MIC90s of the compound were 6.25 and >100 microg/ml for Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively. MIC90s of DU-6681a were 0.20, 0.10, and 0.025 microg/ml for Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, respectively. For Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the MIC50 and MIC90 of DU-6681a were 25 and 50 microg/ml, respectively. DU-6681a activity was not affected by different media, varied inoculum size (10(4) to 10(7) CFU), or the addition of human serum but was decreased under acidic conditions against gram-negative bacteria, under alkaline conditions against gram-positive bacteria, and in human urine, as was the activity of the other antibiotics tested. The frequency of spontaneous resistance to DU-6681a was less than or equal to those of the reference compounds. Time-kill curve studies demonstrated the bactericidal action of DU-6681a against S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and H. influenzae. PMID:9174181

Tanaka, M; Hohmura, M; Nishi, T; Sato, K; Hayakawa, I

1997-06-01

211

In vitro and in vivo profiles of ACH-702, an isothiazoloquinolone, against bacterial pathogens.  

PubMed

ACH-702, a novel isothiazoloquinolone (ITQ), was assessed for antibacterial activity against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical isolates and found to possess broad-spectrum activity, especially against antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive strains, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). For Gram-negative bacteria, ACH-702 showed exceptional potency against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and a Neisseria sp. but was less active against members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Good antibacterial activity was also evident against several anaerobes as well as Legionella pneumophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Excellent bactericidal activity was observed for ACH-702 against several bacterial pathogens in time-kill assays, and postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of >1 h were evident with both laboratory and clinical strains of staphylococci at 10 × MIC and similar in most cases to those observed for moxifloxacin at the same MIC multiple. In vivo efficacy was demonstrated against S. aureus with murine sepsis and thigh infection models, with decreases in the number of CFU/thigh equal to or greater than those observed after vancomycin treatment. Macromolecular synthesis assays showed specific dose-dependent inhibition of DNA replication in staphylococci, and biochemical analyses indicated potent dual inhibition of two essential DNA replication enzymes: DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Additional biological data in support of an effective dual targeting mechanism of action include the following: low MIC values (?0.25 ?g/ml) against staphylococcal strains with single mutations in both gyrA and grlA (parC), retention of good antibacterial activity (MICs of ?0.5 ?g/ml) against staphylococcal strains with two mutations in both gyrA and grlA, and low frequencies for the selection of higher-level resistance (<10?¹?). These promising initial data support further study of isothiazoloquinolones as potential clinical candidates. PMID:21464250

Pucci, Michael J; Podos, Steven D; Thanassi, Jane A; Leggio, Melissa J; Bradbury, Barton J; Deshpande, Milind

2011-06-01

212

In Vitro and In Vivo Profiles of ACH-702, an Isothiazoloquinolone, against Bacterial Pathogens?  

PubMed Central

ACH-702, a novel isothiazoloquinolone (ITQ), was assessed for antibacterial activity against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical isolates and found to possess broad-spectrum activity, especially against antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive strains, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). For Gram-negative bacteria, ACH-702 showed exceptional potency against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and a Neisseria sp. but was less active against members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Good antibacterial activity was also evident against several anaerobes as well as Legionella pneumophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Excellent bactericidal activity was observed for ACH-702 against several bacterial pathogens in time-kill assays, and postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of >1 h were evident with both laboratory and clinical strains of staphylococci at 10× MIC and similar in most cases to those observed for moxifloxacin at the same MIC multiple. In vivo efficacy was demonstrated against S. aureus with murine sepsis and thigh infection models, with decreases in the number of CFU/thigh equal to or greater than those observed after vancomycin treatment. Macromolecular synthesis assays showed specific dose-dependent inhibition of DNA replication in staphylococci, and biochemical analyses indicated potent dual inhibition of two essential DNA replication enzymes: DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Additional biological data in support of an effective dual targeting mechanism of action include the following: low MIC values (?0.25 ?g/ml) against staphylococcal strains with single mutations in both gyrA and grlA (parC), retention of good antibacterial activity (MICs of ?0.5 ?g/ml) against staphylococcal strains with two mutations in both gyrA and grlA, and low frequencies for the selection of higher-level resistance (<10?10). These promising initial data support further study of isothiazoloquinolones as potential clinical candidates. PMID:21464250

Pucci, Michael J.; Podos, Steven D.; Thanassi, Jane A.; Leggio, Melissa J.; Bradbury, Barton J.; Deshpande, Milind

2011-01-01

213

Novel carbapenem antibiotics for parenteral and oral applications: in vitro and in vivo activities of 2-aryl carbapenems and their pharmacokinetics in laboratory animals.  

PubMed

SM-295291 and SM-369926 are new parenteral 2-aryl carbapenems with strong activity against major causative pathogens of community-acquired infections such as methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae (including penicillin-resistant strains), Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae (including ?-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strains), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (including ciprofloxacin-resistant strains), with MIC(90)s of ? 1 ?g/ml. Unlike tebipenem (MIC(50), 8 ?g/ml), SM-295291 and SM-369926 had no activity against hospital pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC(50), ? 128 ?g/ml). The bactericidal activities of SM-295291 and SM-369926 against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and ?-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae were equal or superior to that of tebipenem and greater than that of cefditoren. The therapeutic efficacies of intravenous administrations of SM-295291 and SM-369926 against experimentally induced infections in mice caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and ?-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae were equal or superior to that of tebipenem and greater than that of cefditoren, respectively, reflecting their in vitro activities. SM-295291 and SM-369926 showed intravenous pharmacokinetics similar to those of meropenem in terms of half-life in monkeys (0.4 h) and were stable against human dehydropeptidase I. SM-368589 and SM-375769, which are medoxomil esters of SM-295291 and SM-369926, respectively, showed good oral bioavailability in rats, dogs, and monkeys (4.2 to 62.3%). Thus, 2-aryl carbapenems are promising candidates that show an ideal broad spectrum for the treatment of community-acquired infections, including infections caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and ?-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae, have low selective pressure on antipseudomonal carbapenem-resistant nosocomial pathogens, and allow parenteral, oral, and switch therapies. PMID:23147735

Fujimoto, Koichi; Takemoto, Koji; Hatano, Kazuo; Nakai, Toru; Terashita, Shigeyuki; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Eriguchi, Yoshiro; Eguchi, Ken; Shimizudani, Takeshi; Sato, Kimihiko; Kanazawa, Katsunori; Sunagawa, Makoto; Ueda, Yutaka

2013-02-01

214

In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of CS-834, a novel oral carbapenem.  

PubMed Central

CS-834 is a novel oral carbapenem antibiotic. This compound is an ester-type prodrug of the active metabolite R-95867. The antibacterial activity of R-95867 was tested against 1,323 clinical isolates of 35 species and was compared with those of oral cephems, i.e., cefteram, cefpodoxime, cefdinir, and cefditoren, and that of a parenteral carbapenem, imipenem. R-95867 exhibited a broad spectrum of activity covering both gram-positive and -negative aerobes and anaerobes. Its activity was superior to those of the other compounds tested against most of the bacterial species tested. R-95867 showed potent antibacterial activity against clinically significant pathogens: methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus including ofloxacin-resistant strains, Streptococcus pneumoniae including penicillin-resistant strains, Clostridium perfringens, Neisseria spp., Moraxella catarrhalis, most members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, and Haemophilus influenzae (MIC at which 90% of strains are inhibited, < or =0.006 to 0.78 microg/ml). R-95867 was quite stable to hydrolysis by most of the beta-lactamases tested except the metallo-beta-lactamases from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Bacteroides fragilis. R-95867 showed potent bactericidal activity against S. aureus and Escherichia coli. Penicillin-binding proteins 1 and 4 of S. aureus and 1Bs, 2, 3, and 4 of E. coli had high affinities for R-95867. The in vivo efficacy of CS-834 was evaluated in murine systemic infections caused by 16 strains of gram-positive and -negative pathogens. The efficacy of CS-834 was in many cases superior to those of cefteram pivoxil, cefpodoxime proxetil, cefdinir, and cefditoren pivoxil, especially against infections caused by S. aureus, penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, E. coli, Citrobacter freundii, and Proteus vulgaris. Among the drugs tested, CS-834 showed the highest efficacy against experimental pneumonia in mice caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae. PMID:9420035

Fukuoka, T; Ohya, S; Utsui, Y; Domon, H; Takenouchi, T; Koga, T; Masuda, N; Kawada, H; Kakuta, M; Kubota, M; Ishii, C; Ishii, C; Sakagawa, E; Harasaki, T; Hirasawa, A; Abe, T; Yasuda, H; Iwata, M; Kuwahara, S

1997-01-01

215

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of LJC 11,036, an Active Metabolite of L-084, a New Oral Carbapenem Antibiotic with Potent Antipneumococcal Activity  

PubMed Central

LJC 11,036 is the active metabolite of L-084, a novel oral carbapenem that exhibits potent broad-spectrum activity. Antibacterial activities of LJC 11,036 against clinical isolates from respiratory infections, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 52), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 19), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 50), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 53), and Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 53), and from urinary-tract infections, such as Escherichia coli (n = 53) (MICs at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited [MIC90s], 0.1, ?0.006, 0.39, 0.05, 0.05, and 0.05 ?g/ml, respectively), were 2- to 64-fold higher than those of imipenem, cefdinir, and faropenem. Moreover, against these bacterial species, except for H. influenzae, the MIC90s of LJC 11,036 were 4- to 512-fold lower than those of levofloxacin. LJC 11,036 showed bactericidal activity equal or superior to that of imipenem. Bactericidal activity against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) did not vary with the phase of growth. LJC 11,036 had potent activity against various ?-lactamase-producing strains, excluding carbapenemase producers. Against renal dehydropeptidase-I, LJC 11,036 was more stable than imipenem. Furthermore, LJC 11,036 produced in vitro postantibiotic sub-MIC effects against PRSP HSC-3 (6.0 h at one-fourth the MIC) and H. influenzae LJ5 (9.2 h at one-half the MIC). LJC 11,036 showed high binding affinities for PBP1A, -1B, -2A/2X, -2B, and -3 of PRSP and for PBP1B, -2, -3A, and -3B of H. influenzae. PMID:10428928

Hikida, Muneo; Itahashi, Kouju; Igarashi, Atsumi; Shiba, Toshiharu; Kitamura, Masataka

1999-01-01

216

In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of CS-834, a novel oral carbapenem.  

PubMed

CS-834 is a novel oral carbapenem antibiotic. This compound is an ester-type prodrug of the active metabolite R-95867. The antibacterial activity of R-95867 was tested against 1,323 clinical isolates of 35 species and was compared with those of oral cephems, i.e., cefteram, cefpodoxime, cefdinir, and cefditoren, and that of a parenteral carbapenem, imipenem. R-95867 exhibited a broad spectrum of activity covering both gram-positive and -negative aerobes and anaerobes. Its activity was superior to those of the other compounds tested against most of the bacterial species tested. R-95867 showed potent antibacterial activity against clinically significant pathogens: methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus including ofloxacin-resistant strains, Streptococcus pneumoniae including penicillin-resistant strains, Clostridium perfringens, Neisseria spp., Moraxella catarrhalis, most members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, and Haemophilus influenzae (MIC at which 90% of strains are inhibited, < or =0.006 to 0.78 microg/ml). R-95867 was quite stable to hydrolysis by most of the beta-lactamases tested except the metallo-beta-lactamases from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Bacteroides fragilis. R-95867 showed potent bactericidal activity against S. aureus and Escherichia coli. Penicillin-binding proteins 1 and 4 of S. aureus and 1Bs, 2, 3, and 4 of E. coli had high affinities for R-95867. The in vivo efficacy of CS-834 was evaluated in murine systemic infections caused by 16 strains of gram-positive and -negative pathogens. The efficacy of CS-834 was in many cases superior to those of cefteram pivoxil, cefpodoxime proxetil, cefdinir, and cefditoren pivoxil, especially against infections caused by S. aureus, penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, E. coli, Citrobacter freundii, and Proteus vulgaris. Among the drugs tested, CS-834 showed the highest efficacy against experimental pneumonia in mice caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae. PMID:9420035

Fukuoka, T; Ohya, S; Utsui, Y; Domon, H; Takenouchi, T; Koga, T; Masuda, N; Kawada, H; Kakuta, M; Kubota, M; Ishii, C; Ishii, C; Sakagawa, E; Harasaki, T; Hirasawa, A; Abe, T; Yasuda, H; Iwata, M; Kuwahara, S

1997-12-01

217

EFICÁCIA DE TRÊS MEDICAMENTOS NO CONTROLE DA INFECÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL POR TRYPANOSOMA EVANSI EM RATOS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS) LINHAGEM WISTAR.  

E-print Network

??Este trabalho objetivou verificar os achados laboratoriais e histológicos da infecção experimental por Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) evansi (Steel, 1885) Balbiani, 1888, em ratos (Rattus norvegicus) da… (more)

Rovaina Laureano Doyle

2006-01-01

218

Diagn?stico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA  

PubMed Central

Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

Gonzalez-Valcarcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

2011-01-01

219

ANLISE DE SUPERFCIES BOMBARDEADAS POR FEIXES DE ELTRONS AUTOFOCALIZADOS EM UM SISTEMA DE PLAMA  

E-print Network

ANÁLISE DE SUPERFÍCIES BOMBARDEADAS POR FEIXES DE EL�TRONS AUTOFOCALIZADOS EM UM SISTEMA DE PLAMA um considerável aumento de dureza e redução de desgaste no material sem afetar suas propriedades feixes de elétrons deslocando-se em um tubo contento um gás de baixa densidade. A colisão de elétrons com

220

Pramos de Costa Rica Editado por M. Kappelle y S. P. Horn  

E-print Network

Páramos de Costa Rica Editado por M. Kappelle y S. P. Horn ISBN 9968-927-09-0 Copyright © 2005 Correo electrónico: dbarring@zoo.uvm.edu RESUMEN. Los páramos de Costa Rica albergan 25 géneros de endémica de los páramos de Costa Rica y Panamá, lo cual sugiere que estos páramos parecen formar un

Lintilhac, Philip M.

221

Un cuento distribuido por el Instituto Nacional de las Ciencias de la Salud Ambiental  

E-print Network

su cara y se peinó. Se cepilló los dientes y observó el agua saliendo del grifo y yéndose por el Herman moviendo su colita peluda le dijo ­ ¡Así es! Y acaso ¿tomaste agua antes de salir? El agua también ambiente es el aire, el agua, el suelo, y nuestra comida. En realidad, es todo lo que se encuentra

Bezrukov, Sergey M.

222

Gestión por competencias: importante para las pymes maquila de pantalón en índigo en la ciudad de Bogotá  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo presenta una revisión de literatura internacional y nacional, sobre temas como el de competencias, los tipos de competencias, competencias laborales y proceso de implementación de la gestión por competencias. Adicionalmente, se muestra la reseña sobre la gestión por competencias en Colombia, así como la metodología utilizada para el trabajo de campo con relación al tema del artículo y

Nathalia Andrea Martínez Valero; Juan Carlos Rincón Gaviria

2010-01-01

223

[Investigation of bacterial etiology with conventional and multiplex PCR methods in adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia].  

PubMed

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still a serious life-threatening disease, in which the etiologic agent cannot be identified in more than 50% of patients despite advanced diagnostic methods. The most commonly used methods in the determination of CAP etiology are culture and serological tests. Since early and accurate therapy reduces the mortality in CAP cases, rapid and reliable diagnostic methods are needed. The aim of this study was to determine the bacterial etiology in adult patients with CAP by implementing multiplex polymerase chain reaction/reverse line blot hybridization (M-PCR/RLBH) assay combined with conventional methods. A total of 128 cases (94 were male; age range: 19-81 years, mean age: 58) who were admitted to our hospital and clinically diagnosed as CAP between November 2008 - November 2010, were included in the study. Respiratory samples (sputum and/or bronchoalveolar lavage) obtained from patients were searched by M-PCR/RLBH method (Gen ID®, Autoimmun Diagnostika GmbH, Germany) in terms of the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila nucleic acids. The samples were simultaneously inoculated onto 5% sheep blood agar, chocolate agar, haemophilus isolation agar, buffered charcoal yeast extract-selective agar and EMB agar media for cultivation. Serum samples obtained from the cases were tested for IgM and IgG antibodies against C.pneumoniae by microimmunofluorescence (Focus Diagnostic, USA) and against L.pneumophila and M.pneumoniae by indirect immunofluorescence (Euroimmun, Germany) methods. The bacterial etiology was identified in 59 (46.1%) of 128 patients with CAP and a total of 73 pathogens were detected. The leading organism was S.pneumoniae (n= 32, 25%), followed by H.influenzae and M.pneumoniae (n= 9, 7%), gram-negative bacilli (n= 10, 7.8%), M.catarrhalis (n= 6, 4.7%), C.pneumoniae (n= 4, 3.2%), L.pneumophila (n= 2, 1.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (n= 1, 1.4%). Infection with atypical pathogens were detected in 15 (11.7%), and mixed infections in 14 (10.9%) patients. The detection rate of microorganisms (S.pneumoniae, H.influenzae, M.catarrhalis, C.pneumoniae, L.pneumophilia, M.pneumoniae) searched by M-PCR/RLBH method was 41.4% (53/128), while those microorganisms were detected in 23.4% (30/128) of the patients by conventional methods, representing a significant difference (p< 0.05). It was concluded that M-PCR/RLBH method supplemented the determination of bacterial etiology in CAP cases by increasing the rate of detection from 23.4% to 41.4%. The results indicated that empirical treatment of CAP should primarily include antibiotics against S.pneumoniae, M.pneumoniae and H.influenzae in our region. PMID:23188566

Kurutepe, Semra; Ecemi?, Talat; Ozgen, Aylin; Biçmen, Can; Celik, P?nar; Akto?u Özkan, Serir; Sürücüo?lu, Süheyla

2012-10-01

224

Molecular typing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates by pyrosequencing of highly polymorphic segments of the porB gene.  

PubMed

For prevention and control of gonorrhea, an objective, highly discriminating, and reproducible molecular epidemiological characterization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is essential. In the present study, in pursuance of providing such qualities, pyrosequencing technology, a fast real-time DNA sequence analysis, was applied to six short, highly polymorphic porB gene segments, with subsequent genetic variant (genovar) determination of the bacterial isolates. The sequencing templates were obtained by real-time PCR amplification, which also included fluorescence melting curve analysis of the entire porB gene in order to determine the genogroup (porB1a or porB1b allele) prior to pyrosequencing analysis. The PSQ 96 MA system used allowed rapid (in approximately 1.5 h) determination of 96 sequences of 20 to 65 correct nucleotides each. The results were reproducible and mostly in concordance with the results of conventional Sanger dideoxy sequencing, with the exception of shorter read lengths and some uncertainty in determining the correct number of identical nucleotides in homopolymeric segments. The number of sequence variants identified in each of the six highly polymorphic segments of the porB1a and porB1b alleles (encoding surface-exposed amino acid loops of the mature PorB protein) ranged from 5 to 11 and from 8 to 39, respectively. Among porB1a isolates (n = 22) and porB1b isolates (n = 65), 22 and 64 unique genovars, respectively, were identified. All isolates were typeable. The present results provide evidence of a high discriminatory ability, practically the same as that for sequencing of the entire porB gene. In conclusion, the fast and high-throughput pyrosequencing technology can be used for molecular epidemiological characterization of N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:15243040

Unemo, Magnus; Olcén, Per; Jonasson, Jon; Fredlund, Hans

2004-07-01

225

Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOUR?O, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

2011-12-01

226

Genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes of por, encoding cytochrome p450 oxidoreductase, in a Japanese population.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transfers electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and is necessary for microsomal CYP activities. In this study, to find genetic variations and to elucidate the haplotype structures of POR, we comprehensively screened the genetic variations in the 5'-flanking region, all the exons and their flanking introns of POR for 235 Japanese subjects. Seventy-five genetic variations including 26 novel ones were found: 7 were in the 5'-flanking region, 2 in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR, non-coding exon 1), 16 in the coding exons (10 nonsynonymous and 6 synonymous), 45 in the introns, 4 in the 3'-UTR and 1 in the 3'-flanking region. Of these, 4 novel nonsynonymous variations, 86C>T (T29M), 1648C>T (R550W), 1708C>T (R570C) and 1975G>A (A659T), were detected with allele frequencies of 0.002. We also detected known nonsynonymous SNPs 683C>T (P228L), 1237G>A (G413S), 1453G>A (A485T), 1508C>T (A503V), 1510G>A (G504R) and 1738G>C (E580Q) with frequencies of 0.002, 0.009, 0.002, 0.434, 0.002 and 0.002, respectively. Based on the linkage disequilibrium (LD) profiles, the analyzed region could be divided into two LD blocks. For Blocks 1 and 2, 14 and 46 haplotypes were inferred, respectively, and 2 and 6 common haplotypes found in more than 0.03 frequencies accounted for more than 81% of the inferred haplotypes. This study provides fundamental and useful information for the pharmacogenetic studies of drugs metabolized by CYPs in the Japanese population. PMID:21084761

Saito, Yoshiro; Yamamoto, Noboru; Katori, Noriko; Maekawa, Keiko; Fukushima-Uesaka, Hiromi; Sugimoto, Daisuke; Kurose, Kouichi; Sai, Kimie; Kaniwa, Nahoko; Sawada, Jun-Ichi; Kunitoh, Hideo; Ohe, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Saijo, Nagahiro; Okuda, Haruhiro; Tamura, Tomohide

2011-01-01

227

Los dioses en sí mismos: lo afrocubano en Requiem por Yarini de Carlos Felipe  

E-print Network

por Yarini. Felipe es uno de los mejores dramaturgos de la generación anterior a 1959. Sobre su teatro, Riñe Leal comenta: Lo q ue Carlos Felipe ha significado en importancia para nuestra escena es que junto a Virgilio Pinera y Rolando Ferrer le... convencer a Yarini de que ahora todo depende de él porque las fuerzas mágicas ya están de su parte, y para esto le manifiesta: En estos momentos todos los batas de la isla están sonando pidiendo para ti. No hay mano negra de Yoruba maestro, que no esté...

Linares-Ocanto, Luis

2000-04-01

228

Se calcula que los costos del cáncer ascenderán por lo menos a $158.000 millones en 2020  

Cancer.gov

Con base en el crecimiento y en el avance de edad de la población de EE. UU., se proyecta que los gastos médicos por cáncer en el año 2020 ascenderán por lo menos a $158.000 millones (en dólares de 2010); lo que significa un aumento de 27% sobre 2010. Si los instrumentos creados últimamente para diagnosticar, tratar y seguir observando el cáncer continúan subiendo de precio, los gastos médicos por cáncer podrían ascender hasta $207.000 millones. Las proyecciones están basadas en los datos más recientes disponibles acerca de la incidencia del cáncer, de supervivencia y de costos de atención médica.

229

Effect of SPM-based cleaning POR on EUV mask performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning POR and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning POR.

Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.

2011-11-01

230

Immunization with the Recombinant PorB Outer Membrane Protein Induces a Bactericidal Immune Response against Neisseria meningitidis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infections with Neisseria meningitidis are characterized by life-threatening meningitis and septicemia. The meningococcal porin proteins from serogroup B meningococci have been identified as candidates for inclusion in vaccines to prevent such infections. In this study, we investigated the vaccine potential of the PorB porin protein free of other meningococcal components. The porB gene from a strain of Neisseria meningitidis express-

J. Claire Wright; Jeannette N. Williams; Myron Christodoulides; John E. Heckels

2002-01-01

231

Trazodona: ¿Nuevo enfoque selectivo para el tratamiento de los sofocos generados por la deprivación androgénica en el carcinoma prostático?  

Microsoft Academic Search

toxicidad nada despreciable. Dentro del tratamiento no hormonal de esta patología juegan un papel destacado los antidepresivos. Latrazodona,unantidepresivoSARI(inhibidoresdelarecaptacióndeserotonina\\/antagonistadela2A),conunperfildeactua - ciónmásselectivosobrelosreceptoresimplicadosenlossofocos;podríaserdegraninterés.Trazodonamuestraunagranafinidad por los receptores 5-HT 2A y una moderada afinidad por los receptores 5-HT 1A. Comoesconocidolosnivelesdeserotonina(5-hidroxitriptaminao5-HT)enmujerespostmenopáusicasestándisminuidos,nor - malizándoseconlasterapiassustitutivas.Todoellosugierequeladeprivaciónabruptadehormonassexualesdalugaraunareduc - ción en la circulación de serotonina, con el consiguiente aumento de sus receptores 5-HT 2A hipotalámicos. Estos receptores esta - rían implicados

Santiago Vilar González; Francesc Montañá Puig; Sebastiá Sabater Martí; Manuel Aguayo Martos

2009-01-01

232

El MUA acoge una jornada cultural organizada por alumnos de Publicidad Alicante, 9 de marzo de 2012  

E-print Network

Malabares y una muestra de Capoeira y bailes coreográficos abiertos a todo el que quieran participar. A las de Malabares en el patio interior del MUA 12. 00­ 14.45 horas Batukada por el campus y Capoeira en el Talleres de magia en el patio interior del MUA 14.00 ­ 14.45 horas Batukada por el campus y Capoeira en el

Escolano, Francisco

233

Distribucin de los graduados en titulaciones de centros propios en el curso acadmico 2007 / 2008, por centro, plan de estudios y sexo.  

E-print Network

, por centro, plan de estudios y sexo. CENTRO PLAN DE ESTUDIOS TOTAL MUJERES CIENCIAS DIPLOMADO EN académico 2007 / 2008, por centro, plan de estudios y sexo. CENTRO PLAN DE ESTUDIOS TOTAL MUJERES ESC. UNIV

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

234

Substrate-specific modulation of CYP3A4 activity by genetic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR)  

PubMed Central

Objectives CYP3A4 receives electrons from P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to metabolize about 50% of clinically used drugs. There is substantial inter-individual variation in CYP3A4 catalytic activity that is not explained by CYP3A4 genetic variants. CYP3A4 is flexible and distensible, permitting it to accommodate substrates varying in shape and size. To elucidate mechanisms of variability in CYP3A4 catalysis, we examined the effects of genetic variants of POR, and explored the possibility that substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4 differentially affect the ability of POR variants to support catalysis. Methods We expressed human CYP3A4 and four POR variants (Q153R, A287P, R457H, A503V) in bacteria, reconstituted them in vitro and measured the Michaelis constant and maximum velocity with testosterone, midazolam, quinidine and erythromycin as substrates. Results POR A287P and R457H had low activity with all substrates; Q153R had 76–94% of wild type (WT) activity with midazolam and erythromycin, but 129–150% activity with testosterone and quinidine. The A503V polymorphism reduced CYP3A4 activity to 61–77% of wild type with testosterone and midazolam, but had nearly wild type activity with quinidine and erythromycin. Conclusion POR variants affect CYP3A4 activities. The impact of a POR variant on catalysis by CYP3A4 is substrate-specific, probably due to substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4. PMID:20697309

Agrawal, Vishal; Choi, Ji Ha; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Miller, Walter L.

2010-01-01

235

Estudio financiado por NIH muestra un riesgo mayor de cáncer de próstata debido a complementos de vitamina E  

Cancer.gov

De acuerdo a una revisión ulterior de los datos del Estudio del Selenio y la Vitamina E para Prevenir el Cáncer (SELECT), los hombres que tomaron diariamente 400 unidades internacionales (U.I.) de vitamina E tuvieron más cánceres de próstata que los hombres que tomaron un placebo. Los resultados mostraron que, por cada 1 000 hombres, hubo 76 casos de cáncer de próstata entre hombres que tomaron solamente complementos de vitamina E en comparación con 65 casos de cáncer entre hombres que tomaron un placebo durante un período de 7 años; es decir, 11 casos más de cáncer de próstata por cada 1 000 hombres. Esto representa un aumento de 17% en cánceres de próstata en relación con los que tomaron un placebo. Esta diferencia fue estadísticamente significativa y, por lo tanto, es posible que no se deba a la casualidad.

236

Obtención de la curva de luz en la ocultación de 35 Sgr por Júpiter el 6 de marzo de 1996  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La ocultación de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr por Júpiter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso por el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar parámetros físicos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atmósfera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presión) Para lograr ésto se programó la cámara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 imágenes por segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 imágenes de la inmersión y otras tantas de la emersión. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturación del CCD ya que la observación se realizó de día. En este momento las imágenes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reducción.

Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.

237

C ALCULO Y DISE ~NO ASISTIDO POR ORDENADOR DE TOMAS DE TIERRA CON MODELOS DE SUELO NO UNIFORMES  

E-print Network

C ALCULO Y DISE ~NO ASISTIDO POR ORDENADOR DE TOMAS DE TIERRA CON MODELOS DE SUELO NO UNIFORMES suelo no uniformes. La formulacion se ha derivado especialmente para modelos de terreno de dos capas a disposiciones muy simples de los electrodos de tierra en modelos de suelo uniforme, elevados requerimientos

Colominas, Ignasi

238

Mutations in Helicobacter pylori porD and oorD Genes May Contribute to Furazolidone Resistance  

PubMed Central

Aim To determine the rate of furazolidone resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) isolated from gastric biopsy specimens and to explore the relationship between genetic mutations in porD and oorD genes of H. pylori and its resistance to the antibiotic. Methods Gastric biopsy was performed in 83 adult patients aged 31-77 years with gastric complaints. H. pylori was isolated from biopsy specimens of 46 patients. E-test and 2-fold agar dilution method were used to determine the rate of H. pylori resistance to furazolidone. The genes porD and oorD from susceptible and resistant isolates were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and their PCR products were sequenced. Results Resistance to furazolidone was found in 8.7% of H. pylori isolates and 6 mutations were detected in porD and oorD genes of the resistant isolates. Three mutations – G353A, A356G, and C357T – occurred in porD and the other mutations – A041G, A122G, C349A(G) – occurred in oorD genes. Conclusions Changes in 6 amino acids may be associated with the resistance of H. pylori to furazolidone. PMID:16758519

Su, Zhaoliang; Xu, Huaxi; Zhang, Chiyu; Shao, Shihe; Li, Liangju; Wang, Hua; Wang, Huifang; Qiu, Gufeng

2006-01-01

239

La percepcin de los impactos del turismo residencial por parte de la sociedad receptora1 Raquel Huete  

E-print Network

1 La percepción de los impactos del turismo residencial por parte de la sociedad receptora1 Raquel sobre turismo y sociedad. IESA-CSIC Córdoba, febrero de 2008 Resumen La pregunta que orienta el trabajo), indirectamente (técnicos de turismo, presidentes de asociaciones de comerciantes, directores de entidades

Escolano, Francisco

240

Molecular Typing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates by Pyrosequencing of Highly Polymorphic Segments of the porB Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

For prevention and control of gonorrhea, an objective, highly discriminating, and reproducible molecular epidemiological characterization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is essential. In the present study, in pursuance of providing such qualities, pyrosequencing technology, a fast real-time DNA sequence analysis, was applied to six short, highly polymorphic porB gene segments, with subsequent genetic variant (genovar) determination of the bacterial isolates. The sequencing

Magnus Unemo; Per Olcen; Jon Jonasson; Hans Fredlund

2004-01-01

241

Por qu se invierte en plantaciones de Jatropha? Respuestas desde Costa Rica Abigail Fallot a,b,*  

E-print Network

1 Título ¿Por qué se invierte en plantaciones de Jatropha? Respuestas desde Costa Rica Autores, France b CATIE, Programa cambio climático y cuencas, 30501 Turrialba, Costa Rica * Contacto: fallot de plantaciones de Jatropha curcas (Tempate) para biodiesel, analizamos el caso de Costa Rica donde

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

242

Declaración del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre la aprobación de la vacuna de VPH por la FDA  

Cancer.gov

Hace casi dos décadas que los investigadores del NCI y de otras instituciones comenzaron a investigar las causas fundamentales del cáncer cervical. Esta búsqueda científica resultó en la aprobación de hoy de la vacuna GardasilTM por la Food and Drug Administration.

243

Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la seccion de entrada mediante un mayor o menor aporte de corriente al puente. Como consecuencia, la seccion de entrada del paralelo, ya de por si mas voluminosa que lao del serie por el uso de grandes componentes magneticos (bobinas de filtro o de "alisamiento"), result a tambien mas complicada y costosa debido a la necesidad de ser implementada mediante rectificador controlado. Ademas, la regulacion que ofrece el rectificador es pobre, dada su baja frecuencia de conmutacion. En cambio, el circuito serie puede funcionar por encima de la resonancia manteniendo una secuencia de conmutacion sin riesgos de recuperacion inversa y con una corriente de salida practicamente sinusoidal, lo que permite un control de la potencia por variacion de frecuencia. Puesto que la tarea de regulacion se realiza desde el puente inversor, la regulacion resulta mucho mas eficaz y la seccion de entrada se puede implementar mediante un simple rectificador no controlado y un condensador de filtro. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

244

Hiperfenilalaninemia por deficiência de fenilalanina hidroxilase : avaliação da responsividade ao BH4 em pacientes acompanhados no Serviço de Genética Médica do HCPA e que apresentam controle metabólico adequado.  

E-print Network

??Introdução: Estudos recentes, utilizando vários protocolos, têm demonstrado que pacientes com Hiperfenilalaninemia por deficiência de fenilalanina hidroxilase (HPA-PAH) podem apresentar redução das concentrações plasmáticas de… (more)

Tatiéle Nalin

2011-01-01

245

El Parque Municipal de El Campello exhibe Las Meninas realizadas con material reciclado por profesores de la Universidad de Alicante  

E-print Network

reutilizados con el objetivo de fomentar el reciclaje a través del arte. La inauguración de la muestra contó exposición viva". Vida/reciclaje versus muerte/no reciclaje El hilo conductor de la exposición, realizada por (ingeniero industrial), todos ellos de la Universidad de Alicante, es transmitir el mensaje de la vida/reciclaje

Escolano, Francisco

246

Estudio sobre las dosis de radiación y los riesgos de cáncer causados por la prueba atómica “Trinity” realizada en 1945  

Cancer.gov

El NCI tiene planeado realizar entrevistas en profundidad para determinar cuál era la alimentación característica de las poblaciones indígenas americanas, hispanas (latinas) y chicanas que vivían en New Mexico a mediados de 1940 y utilizar información fácilmente disponible sobre la alimentación y el estilo de vida de las poblaciones blancas. Estas entrevistas representan un paso importante para hacer estimaciones de las dosis de radiación generadas por la prueba Trinity.

247

PRACTICA 2: Ecologa aplicada al diseo de medidas correctoras de la fragmentacin de hbitats por infraestructuras lineales de  

E-print Network

para la caracterización y censo de vertebrados del entorno de las estructuras de la A-15 5. Metodología seguimiento de la utilización de las estructuras transversales a la vía Sesión 3: Síntesis ecológica. Análisis tipos de estructuras 3. Análisis conjunto de la utilización por los vertebrados de distintos tipos de

Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

248

TABLA DE ADAPTACIONES DE ASIGNATURAS SUPERADAS EN EL PROGRAMA SIMULTNEO DERECHO-ADE POR LAS ASIGNATURAS DEL GRADO DE ADE  

E-print Network

TABLA DE ADAPTACIONES DE ASIGNATURAS SUPERADAS EN EL PROGRAMA SIMULTÁNEO DERECHO-ADE POR LAS ASIGNATURAS DEL GRADO DE ADE 1º CURSO ADE Créditos Tipo DERECHO-ADE Créditos Tipo Matemáticas I 6 FB Economía de la Empresa 6 FB Derecho de la Empresa 6 FB Derecho Mercantil I 6 OB Matemáticas II 6 FB

Escolano, Francisco

249

Derechos Bsicos de Ausencia La Ley de Ausencia Familiar y Mdica (FMLA-por sus siglas en ingls) exige  

E-print Network

Derechos Básicos de Ausencia La Ley de Ausencia Familiar y Médica (FMLA-por sus siglas en inglés condición de salud seria que le impida al empleado desempeñar su puesto. Derechos de Ausencia Para Familias avisado de una llamada a estado de servicio activo bajo cobertura pueden usar su derecho de ausencia de 12

Rock, Chris

250

TABLA DE ADAPTACIONES DE ASIGNATURAS SUPERADAS EN EL PROGRAMA SIMULTNEO DERECHO-ADE POR LAS ASIGNATURAS DEL GRADO DE DERECHO  

E-print Network

TABLA DE ADAPTACIONES DE ASIGNATURAS SUPERADAS EN EL PROGRAMA SIMULTÁNEO DERECHO-ADE POR LAS ASIGNATURAS DEL GRADO DE DERECHO 1º CURSO DERECHO Créditos Tipo DERECHO-ADE Créditos Tipo Derecho Romano 6 FB Derecho Romano 6 FB Historia del Derecho Español y de las Instituciones 6 FB Historia del Derecho Español

Escolano, Francisco

251

Multiscale Habitat Selection by Ruffed Grouse at Low Population Densities (Seleccin de Hbitat a Varias Escalas por Bonasa umbellus a Densidades Poblacionales Bajas)  

E-print Network

a Varias Escalas por Bonasa umbellus a Densidades Poblacionales Bajas) Author(s): Guthrie S. Zimmerman, R óptimo para Bonasa umbellus. Usamos la fase de densidad poblacional pequeña del ciclo de una población de por Bonasa umbellus a Densidades Poblacionales bajas Abstract. Theory suggests habita

Gutiérrez, R.J.

252

IMPUESTO FEDERAL A LOS SUELDOS GENERADO POR LAS MICROEMPRESAS: CASO CANCÚN, MÉXICO \\/ FEDERAL INCOME TAX ON SALARIES GENERATED BY MICRO-ENTERPRISES: CASE CANCÚN, MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se plantea el objetivo de identificar, a través de una muestra representativa de microempresas (mipyme) de sectores económicos que dependen del turismo, cuáles son los rangos de sueldos y el sector a que pertenecen aquellos que generan una mayor recaudación fiscal o, caso contrario,son mayormente subsidiados por el gobierno. Las obligaciones fiscales para las mipymes en México son múltiples, por

Sergio Lagunas Puls; Miguel Angel Olivares Urbina; Natascha Tamara Post

2012-01-01

253

No es pues de extraar que el tratado siga generando controver-sia. Mientras sus defensores dan crdito al tratado por estimular  

E-print Network

vida de la mayoría de las personas. En Estados Unidos se culpa al tratado por la pérdida de empleos para desplegar políticas adecuadas para el bienestar social. En México, se culpa al TLCAN por crear

Tufts University

254

Proceso de cloracin La cantidad de cloro necesaria es determinada por la cantidad de agua estancada en el pozo. Contacte a la compaa  

E-print Network

Proceso de cloración La cantidad de cloro necesaria es determinada por la cantidad de agua el nivel de agua estática. La profundidad del agua estancada en el pozo será la profundidad del pozo menos el nivel del agua estática. Por ejemplo, un pozo de agua de 110 pies de profundidad con un nivel

255

El Informe Anual a la Nación indica que la tasa de mortalidad por cáncer está bajando el doblesu enfoque especial examina el cáncer entre los indígenas americanos y los nativos de Alaska  

Cancer.gov

Según un nuevo informe de las principales organizaciones oncológicas de la nación, las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer disminuyeron en promedio 2,1 por ciento por año de 2002 a 2004; casi el doble de la disminución anual de 1,1 por ciento por año de 1993 a 2002. Estos resultados se encuentran en el "Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer de 1975 a 2004. Preguntas y respuestas

256

Benefit-risk assessment of telithromycin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to assess the benefits and risks associated with the use of the ketolide antibacterial telithromycin, currently licensed for the treatment of adults with mild to moderate community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Telithromycin is active against both the major (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis) and atypical/intracellular (Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae) CAP pathogens. It is associated with a low potential to select for resistance and has maintained its in vitro activity against isolates of respiratory pathogens in countries where it has been in clinical use for several years. In randomized clinical trials, telithromycin has demonstrated efficacy comparable to the established antibacterial classes (macrolides, fluoroquinolones and beta-lactams) in the treatment of CAP.The safety profile of telithromycin is broadly similar to that of other antibacterials used to treat CAP. The most common adverse events are gastrointestinal adverse effects and headache; these are generally mild to moderate in severity and reversible. Telithromycin appears to be well tolerated by adult patients in all age groups, including those with co-morbid conditions. In common with other antibacterials, telithromycin has the potential to affect the corrected QT interval; the concomitant use of cisapride or pimozide with telithromycin is contraindicated, while telithromycin should be avoided in patients receiving Class IA or Class III antiarrhythmic drugs. Visual disturbances (usually transient) have occurred in a small proportion of patients treated with telithromycin; it is recommended that activities such as driving are minimized during treatment. Telithromycin is contraindicated in patients with myasthenia gravis. Hepatic dysfunction may occur in some patients taking telithromycin; rare cases of acute hepatic failure and severe liver injury, including deaths, have been reported. As telithromycin is an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 system, coadministration of telithromycin with drugs metabolized by this pathway may require dose adjustments (e.g. with benzodiazepines) or a temporary hiatus in the use of the coadministered drug (e.g. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) metabolized by CYP3A4. Telithromycin may potentiate the effects of oral anticoagulants; careful monitoring is recommended in patients receiving telithromycin and oral anticoagulants simultaneously.Although serious and sometimes fatal events have occurred in patients receiving telithromycin therapy, current data indicate that telithromycin offers an acceptable benefit risk ratio in the treatment of mild to moderate CAP. PMID:18558790

Brown, Steven D

2008-01-01

257

In Vitro Activities of RWJ-54428 (MC-02,479) against Multiresistant Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

RWJ-54428 (MC-02,479) is a new cephalosporin with a high level of activity against gram-positive bacteria. In a broth microdilution susceptibility test against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), RWJ-54428 was as active as vancomycin, with an MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC90) of 2 ?g/ml. For coagulase-negative staphylococci, RWJ-54428 was 32 times more active than imipenem, with an MIC90 of 2 ?g/ml. RWJ-54428 was active against S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolates with reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides (RWJ-54428 MIC range, ?0.0625 to 1 ?g/ml). RWJ-54428 was eight times more potent than methicillin and cefotaxime against methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MIC90, 0.5 ?g/ml). For ampicillin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis (including vancomycin-resistant and high-level aminoglycoside-resistant strains), RWJ-54428 had an MIC90 of 0.125 ?g/ml. RWJ-54428 was also active against Enterococcus faecium, including vancomycin-, gentamicin-, and ciprofloxacin-resistant strains. The potency against enterococci correlated with ampicillin susceptibility; RWJ-54428 MICs ranged between ?0.0625 and 1 ?g/ml for ampicillin-susceptible strains and 0.125 and 8 ?g/ml for ampicillin-resistant strains. RWJ-54428 was more active than penicillin G and cefotaxime against penicillin-resistant, -intermediate, and -susceptible strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC90s, 0.25, 0.125, and ?0.0625 ?g/ml, respectively). RWJ-54428 was only marginally active against most gram-negative bacteria; however, significant activity was observed against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC90s, 0.25 and 0.5 ?g/ml, respectively). This survey of the susceptibilities of more than 1,000 multidrug-resistant gram-positive isolates to RWJ-54428 indicates that this new cephalosporin has the potential to be useful in the treatment of infections due to gram-positive bacteria, including strains resistant to currently available antimicrobials. PMID:11302805

Chamberland, Suzanne; Blais, Johanne; Hoang, Monica; Dinh, Cynthia; Cotter, Dylan; Bond, Emmett; Gannon, Carla; Park, Craig; Malouin, Francois; Dudley, Michael N.

2001-01-01

258

In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activities of DC-159a, a New Fluoroquinolone?  

PubMed Central

DC-159a is a new 8-methoxy fluoroquinolone that possesses a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, with extended activity against gram-positive pathogens, especially streptococci and staphylococci from patients with community-acquired infections. DC-159a showed activity against Streptococcus spp. (MIC90, 0.12 ?g/ml) and inhibited the growth of 90% of levofloxacin-intermediate and -resistant strains at 1 ?g/ml. The MIC90s of DC-159a against Staphylococcus spp. were 0.5 ?g/ml or less. Against quinolone- and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, however, the MIC90 of DC-159a was 8 ?g/ml. DC-159a was the most active against Enterococcus spp. (MIC90, 4 to 8 ?g/ml) and was more active than the marketed fluoroquinolones, such as levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and moxifloxacin. The MIC90s of DC-159a against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were 0.015, 0.06, and 0.25 ?g/ml, respectively. The activity of DC-159a against Mycoplasma pneumoniae was eightfold more potent than that of levofloxacin. The MICs of DC-159a against Chlamydophila pneumoniae were comparable to those of moxifloxacin, and DC-159a was more potent than levofloxacin. The MIC90s of DC-159a against Peptostreptococcus spp., Clostridium difficile, and Bacteroides fragilis were 0.5, 4, and 2 ?g/ml, respectively; and among the quinolones tested it showed the highest level of activity against anaerobic organisms. DC-159a demonstrated rapid bactericidal activity against quinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strains both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, DC-159a showed faster killing than moxifloxacin and garenoxacin. The bactericidal activity of DC-159a in a murine muscle infection model was revealed to be superior to that of moxifloxacin. These activities carried over to the in vivo efficacy in the murine pneumonia model, in which treatment with DC-159a led to bactericidal activity superior to those of the other agents tested. PMID:17938194

Hoshino, Kazuki; Inoue, Kazue; Murakami, Yoichi; Kurosaka, Yuichi; Namba, Kenji; Kashimoto, Yoshinori; Uoyama, Saori; Okumura, Ryo; Higuchi, Saito; Otani, Tsuyoshi

2008-01-01

259

In vitro activity of BAY 12-8039, a new fluoroquinolone.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activity of BAY 12-8039, a new fluoroquinolone, was studied in comparison with those of ciprofloxacin, trovafloxacin (CP 99,219), cefpodoxime, and amoxicillin-clavulanate against gram-negative, gram-positive, and anaerobic bacteria. Its activity against mycobacteria and chlamydia was also investigated. BAY 12-8039 was active against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (MIC at which 90% of strains tested were inhibited [MIC90S] < or = 1 microgram/ml, except for Serratia spp. MIC90 2 microgram/ml), Neisseria spp. (MIC90S, 0.015 microgram/ml), Haemophilus influenzae (MIC90, 0.03 microgram/ml), and Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC90, 0.12 micrgram/ml), and these results were comparable to those obtained for ciprofloxacin and trovafloxacin. Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the quinolones were more active than the beta-lactam agents but BAY 12-8039 was less active than ciprofloxacin. Strains of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were fourfold more susceptible to BAY 12-8039 and trovafloxacin (MIC90S, 2 micrograms/ml) than to ciprofloxacin. BAY 12-8039 was as active as trovafloxacin but more active than ciprofloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC90, 0.25 microgram/ml) and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus auerus (MIC90S, 0.12 micrograms/ml). The activity of BAY 12-8039 against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MIC90, 2 micrograms/ml) was lower than that against methicillin-susceptible strains. BAY 12-8039 was active against anaerobes (MIC90S < or = 2 micrograms/ml), being three- to fourfold more active against Bacteroides fragilis, Prevotella spp., and Clostridium difficile than was ciprofloxacin. Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, BAY 12-8039 exhibited activity comparable to that of rifampin (MICs < or = 0.5 micrograms/ml). Against Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae BAY 12-8039 was more active (MICs < or = 0.12 microgram/ml) than either ciprofloxacin or erythromycin and exhibited a greater lethal effect than either to these two agents. The protein binding of BAY 12-8039 was determined at 1 and 5 micrograms/ml as 30 and 26.4%, respectively. The presence of human serum (at 20 or 70%) had no marked effect on the in vitro activity of BAY 12-8039. PMID:8980763

Woodcock, J M; Andrews, J M; Boswell, F J; Brenwald, N P; Wise, R

1997-01-01

260

Update of cefditoren activity tested against community-acquired pathogens associated with infections of the respiratory tract and skin and skin structures, including recent pharmacodynamic considerations.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial resistance rates have noticeably increased among commonly isolated species associated with respiratory tract infections and skin and skin structure infections, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Cefditoren, an oral 3rd-generation-like cephalosporin, has been shown to be very active against many Gram-positive and Gram-negative species with favorable attributes including bactericidal activity and stability against many beta-lactamase enzymes. Clinical trial data worldwide support the use of cefditoren for infections and species that have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA). This review and a contemporary study report provide an update of clinical trial and in vitro data for cefditoren especially against pathogens within the spectrum of activity since 2002. A large collection of 7279 clinical isolates collected during 2002 and 2003 from medical centers in North and Latin America and Europe were tested to confirm cefditoren potency and spectrum compared with other oral cephalosporins and other class agents. Isolates were tested at a reference laboratory using reference broth microdilution methods. Cefditoren was shown to be active against nearly all (>99%) isolates of penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae isolates (MIC(90), < or = 0.03 microg/mL) and was the most potent orally administered cephalosporin against this organism. Cefditoren was the most active oral cephem tested against Haemophilus influenzae (MIC(90), < or = 0.03 microg/mL) and had >99% activity versus both beta-lactamase-positive and beta-lactamase-negative isolates. The potency of cefditoren (MIC(90), 0.5 microg/mL) was similar to that of amoxicillin/clavulanate and cefdinir (MIC(90), 0.25 microg/mL) when tested against Moraxella catarrhalis. Cefditoren was the most potent cephalosporin tested against oxacillin-susceptible S. aureus with an MIC(90) value of only 1 microg/mL, and it was 100% active against the tested beta-hemolytic streptococci. Using the data generated from the large collection of isolates tested in this global surveillance collection, as well as other summarized supporting studies and clinical trial information, we show that cefditoren has sustained in vitro activity and documented clinical efficacy for indications that have been approved by regulators (US-FDA). PMID:19321284

Biedenbach, Douglas J; Jones, Ronald N

2009-06-01

261

New semiphysiological absorption model to assess the pharmacodynamic profile of cefuroxime axetil using nonparametric and parametric population pharmacokinetics.  

PubMed

Cefuroxime axetil is widely used to treat respiratory tract infections. We are not aware of a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for cefuroxime axetil. Our objectives were to develop a semiphysiological population PK model and evaluate the pharmacodynamic profile for cefuroxime axetil. Twenty-four healthy volunteers received 250 mg oral cefuroxime as a suspension after a standardized breakfast. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used for drug analysis, NONMEM and S-ADAPT (results reported) were used for parametric population PK modeling, and NPAG was used for nonparametric population PK modeling. Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict the duration for which the non-protein-bound-plasma concentration was above the MIC (fT(>MIC)). A model with one disposition compartment, a saturable and time-dependent drug release from the stomach, and fast drug absorption from the intestine yielded precise (r > 0.992) and unbiased curve fits and an excellent predictive performance. The apparent clearance was 21.7 liters/h (19.8% coefficient of variation [CV]) and the volume of distribution 38.7 liters (18.3% CV). Robust (>or=90%) probabilities of target attainment (PTAs) were achieved by 250 mg cefuroxime given every 12 h (q12h) or q8h for MICs of MIC) of >or=40% and for MICs of MIC) of >or=65%. For the >or=40% fT(>MIC) target, the PTAs for 250 mg cefuroxime q12h were >or=97.8% for Streptococcus pyogenes and penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae. Cefuroxime at 250 mg q12h or q8h achieved PTAs below 73% or 92%, respectively, for Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae for susceptibility data from various countries. Depending on the MIC distribution, 250 mg oral cefuroxime q8h instead of q12h should be considered, especially for more-severe infections that require near-maximal killing by cefuroxime. PMID:19528278

Bulitta, J B; Landersdorfer, C B; Kinzig, M; Holzgrabe, U; Sorgel, F

2009-08-01

262

In vitro activities of U-100592 and U-100766, novel oxazolidinone antibacterial agents.  

PubMed

Oxazolidinones make up a relatively new class of antimicrobial agents which possess a unique mechanism of bacterial protein synthesis inhibition. U-100592 (S)-N-[[3-[3-fluoro-4-[4-(hydroxyacetyl)-1-piperazinyl]- phenyl]-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinyl]methyl]-acetamide and U-100766 (S)-N-[[3-[3-fluoro-4-(4-morpholinyl)phenyl]- 2-oxo-5-oxazolidinyl]methyl]-acetamide are novel oxazolidinone analogs from a directed chemical modification program. MICs were determined for a variety of bacterial clinical isolates; the respective MICs of U-100592 and U-100766 at which 90% of isolates are inhibited were as follows: methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, 4 and 4 micrograms/ml; methicillin-resistant S. aureus, 4 and 4 micrograms/ml; methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis, 2 and 2 micrograms/ml; methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis, 1 and 2 micrograms/ml; Enterococcus faecalis, 2 and 4 micrograms/ml; Enterococcus faecium, 2 and 4 micrograms/ml; Streptococcus pyogenes, 1 and 2 micrograms/ml; Streptococcus pneumoniae, 0.50 and 1 microgram/ml; Corynebacterium spp., 0.50 and 0.50 micrograms/ml; Moraxella catarrhalis, 4 and 4 micrograms/ml; Listeria monocytogenes, 8 and 2 micrograms/ml; and Bacteroides fragilis, 16 and 4 micrograms/ml. Most strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the gram-positive anaerobes were inhibited in the range of 0.50 to 2 micrograms/ml. Enterococcal strains resistant to vancomycin (VanA, VanB, and VanC resistance phenotypes), pneumococcal strains resistant to penicillin, and M. tuberculosis strains resistant to common antitubercular agents (isoniazid, streptomycin, rifampin, ethionamide, and ethambutol) were not cross-resistant to the oxazolidinones. The presence of 10, 20, and 40% pooled human serum did not affect the antibacterial activities of the oxazolidinones. Time-kill studies demonstrated a bacteriostatic effect of the analogs against staphylococci and enterococci but a bactericidal effect against streptococci. The spontaneous mutation frequencies of S. aureus ATCC 29213 were <3.8 x 10(-10) and <8 x 10(-11) for U-100592 and U-100766, respectively. Serial transfer of three staphylococcal and two enterococcal strains on drug gradient plates produced no evidence of rapid resistance development. Thus, these new oxazolidinone analogs demonstrated in vitro antibacterial activities against a variety of clinically important human pathogens. PMID:8849237

Zurenko, G E; Yagi, B H; Schaadt, R D; Allison, J W; Kilburn, J O; Glickman, S E; Hutchinson, D K; Barbachyn, M R; Brickner, S J

1996-04-01

263

The incidence and aetiology of hospitalised community-acquired pneumonia among Vietnamese adults: a prospective surveillance in Central Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) including Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infectious disease that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The patterns of aetiological pathogens differ by region and country. Special attention must be paid to CAP in Southeast Asia (SEA), a region facing rapid demographic transition. Estimates burden and aetiological patterns of CAP are essential for the clinical and public health management. The purposes of the study are to determine the incidence, aetiological pathogens, clinical pictures and risk factors of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the Vietnamese adult population. Methods A prospective surveillance for hospitalised adult CAP was conducted in Khanh Hoa Province, Central Vietnam. All adults aged ?15 years with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) admitted to a provincial hospital from September 2009 to August 2010 were enrolled in the study. Patients were classified into CAP and non-pneumonic LRTI (NPLRTI) according to the radiological findings. Bacterial pathogens were identified from sputum samples by the conventional culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis; 13 respiratory viruses were identified from nasopharyngeal specimens by PCR. Results Of all 367 LRTI episodes examined, 174 (47%) were CAP. Older age, the presence of underlying respiratory conditions, and higher index score of smoking were associated with CAP. The one-year estimated incidence of hospitalised adult CAP in our study population was 0.81 per 1,000 person years. The incidence increased considerably with age and was highest among the elderly. The case fatality proportion of hospitalised CAP patients was 9.8%. Among 286 sputum samples tested for bacterial PCR, 79 (28%) were positive for H. influenzae, and 65 (23%) were positive for S. pneumoniae. Among 357 samples tested for viral PCR, 73 (21%) were positive for respiratory viruses; influenza A (n?=?32, 9%) was the most common. Conclusions The current adult CAP incidence in Vietnam was relatively low; this result was mainly attributed to the young age of our study population. PMID:23815298

2013-01-01

264

Nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens conducted by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy in 2007: general view of the pathogens' antibacterial susceptibility.  

PubMed

For the purpose of a nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens in patients in Japan, the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy conducted their second year survey, during the period from January to August, 2007. A total of 1178 strains were collected from clinical specimens obtained from adult patients with well-diagnosed respiratory tract infections. Susceptibility testing was evaluable for 1108 strains (226 Staphylococcus aureus, 257 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 6 Streptococcus pyogenes, 206 Haemophilus influenzae, 120 Moraxella catarrhalis, 122 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 171 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). A total of 44 antibacterial agents, including 26 beta-lactams (four penicillins, three penicillins in combination with beta-lactamase inhibitors, four oral cephems, eight parenteral cephems, one monobactam, five carbapenems, and one penem), three aminoglycosides, four macrolides (including ketolide), one lincosamide, one tetracycline, two glycopeptides, six fluoroquinolones, and one oxazolidinone were used for the study. Analysis was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The incidence of methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was high, at 59.7%, and the incidences of penicillin-intermediateresistant and -resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PISP and PRSP) were 30.4% and 5.1%, respectively. Among Haemophilus influenzae strains, 19.9% of them were found to be beta-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin (ABPC)-intermediately-resistant (BLNAI), 29.1% to be beta-lactamasenon-producing ABPC-resistant (BLNAR), and 6.7% to be beta-lactamase-producing ABPC-resistant (BLPAR) strains. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was not isolated. Two isolates (1.2%) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were found to be metallo-beta-lactamase-producing strains, including one (0.6%) suspected multidrug-resistant strain showing resistance to imipenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. These data will be a useful reference for future periodic surveillance studies and for investigations to control resistant infections as well. Continued surveillance is required to prevent the further spread of these antimicrobial resistances. PMID:19554400

Niki, Y; Hanaki, H; Matsumoto, T; Yagisawa, M; Kohno, S; Aoki, N; Watanabe, A; Sato, J; Hattori, R; Terada, M; Koashi, N; Kozuki, T; Maruo, A; Morita, K; Ogasawara, K; Takahashi, Y; Watanabe, J; Takeuchi, K; Fujimura, S; Takeda, H; Ikeda, H; Sato, N; Niitsuma, K; Saito, M; Koshiba, S; Kaneko, M; Miki, M; Nakanowatari, S; Honda, Y; Chiba, J; Takahashi, H; Utagawa, M; Kondo, T; Kawana, A; Konosaki, H; Aoki, Y; Ueda, H; Sugiura, H; Ichioka, M; Goto, H; Kurai, D; Okazaki, M; Yoshida, K; Yoshida, T; Tanabe, Y; Kobayashi, S; Okada, M; Tsukada, H; Imai, Y; Honma, Y; Nishikawa, K; Yamamoto, T; Kawai, A; Kashiwabara, T; Takesue, Y; Wada, Y; Nakajima, K; Miyara, T; Toda, H; Mitsuno, N; Sugimura, H; Yoshioka, S; Kurokawa, M; Munekawa, Y; Nakajima, H; Kubo, S; Ohta, Y; Mikasa, K; Maeda, K; Kasahara, K; Koizumi, A; Sano, R; Yagi, S; Takaya, M; Kurokawa, Y; Kusano, N; Mihara, E; Kuwabara, M; Fujiue, Y; Ishimaru, T; Matsubara, N; Kawasaki, Y; Tokuyasu, H; Masui, K; Negayama, K; Ueda, N; Ishimaru, M; Nakanishi, Y; Fujita, M; Honda, J; Kadota, J; Hiramatsu, K; Aoki, Y; Nagasawa, Z; Suga, M; Muranaka, H; Yanagihara, K; Fujita, J; Tateyama, M; Sunakawa, K; Totsuka, K

2009-06-01

265

Monitoring Shifts in the Conformation Equilibrium of the Membrane Protein Cytochrome P450 Reductase (POR) in Nanodiscs*  

PubMed Central

Nanodiscs are self-assembled ?50-nm2 patches of lipid bilayers stabilized by amphipathic belt proteins. We demonstrate that a well ordered dense film of nanodiscs serves for non-destructive, label-free studies of isolated membrane proteins in a native like environment using neutron reflectometry (NR). This method exceeds studies of membrane proteins in vesicle or supported lipid bilayer because membrane proteins can be selectively adsorbed with controlled orientation. As a proof of concept, the mechanism of action of the membrane-anchored cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is studied here. This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the transfer of electrons from NADPH to cytochrome P450s and thus is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of numerous primary and secondary metabolites in plants. Neutron reflectometry shows a coexistence of two different POR conformations, a compact and an extended form with a thickness of 44 and 79 ?, respectively. Upon complete reduction by NADPH, the conformational equilibrium shifts toward the compact form protecting the reduced FMN cofactor from engaging in unspecific electron transfer reaction. PMID:22891242

Wadsäter, Maria; Laursen, Tomas; Singha, Aparajita; Hatzakis, Nikos S.; Stamou, Dimitrios; Barker, Robert; Mortensen, Kell; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Cárdenas, Marité

2012-01-01

266

Efeitos de um programa de ginástica laboral sobre as principais sintomatologias das lesões por esforço repetitivo / distúrbios osteomusculares relacionados ao trabalho (LER/DORT): dor e fadiga.  

E-print Network

??As LER/DORT (Lesões por Esforços Repetitivos/Distúrbios Osteomusculares Relacionados ao Trabalho) tomaram proporções de grande medida e tornaram-se um problema de interesse e responsabilidade de todos,… (more)

Cynara Cristina Domingues Alves Pereira

2009-01-01

267

Un estudio financiado por los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH) muestra reducción en la mortalidad entre hombres con cáncer de próstata en grado intermedio:  

Cancer.gov

Terapia hormonal por corto tiempo administrada en combinación con radioterapia a hombres con cáncer de próstata en estadio inicial aumentó sus posibilidades de vivir más en comparación con tratamiento de radioterapia sola, según un estudio clínico patrocinado por el NCI. Los beneficios del tratamiento combinado se limitaron principalmente a pacientes con enfermedad de riesgo intermedio y no se observaron en hombres con cáncer de próstata de riesgo bajo, indican los investigadores.

268

Reactions of nitrogen oxides with the five-coordinate Fe(III)(porphyrin) nitrito intermediate Fe(Por)(ONO) in sublimed solids.  

PubMed

Detailed experimental studies are described for reactions of several nitrogen oxides with iron porphyrin models for heme/NxOy systems. It is shown by FTIR and optical spectroscopy and by isotope labeling experiments that reaction of small increments of NO2 with sublimed thin layers of the iron(II) complex Fe(Por) (Por = meso-tetraphenylporphyrinato dianion, TPP, or meso-tetra-p-tolylporphyrinato dianion, TTP) leads to formation of the 5-coordinate nitrito complexes Fe(Por)(eta1-ONO) (1), which are fairly stable but very slowly decompose under vacuum giving mostly the corresponding nitrosyl complexes Fe(Por)(NO). Further reaction of 1 with new NO2 increments leads to formation of the nitrato complex Fe(Por)(eta2-O2NO) (2). The interaction of NO with 1 at low temperature involves ligand addition to give the nitrito-nitrosyl complexes Fe(Por)(eta1-ONO)(NO) (3); however, these isomerize to the nitro-nitrosyl analogs Fe(Por)(eta1-NO2)(NO) (4) upon warming. Experiments with labeled nitrogen oxides argue for an intramolecular isomerization ("flipping") mechanism rather than one involving dissociation and rebinding of NO2. The Fe(III) centers in the 6-coordinate species 3 and 4 are low spin in contrast to 1, which appears to be high-spin, although DFT computations of the porphinato models Fe(P)(nitrite) suggest that the doublet nitro species and the quartet and sextet nitrito complexes are all relatively close in energy. The nitro-nitrosyl complex 4 is stable under an NO atmosphere but decomposes under intense pumping to give a mixture of the ferrous nitrosyl complex Fe(Por)(NO) and the ferric nitrito complex Fe(Por)(eta1-ONO) indicating the competitive dissociation of NO and NO2. Hence, loss of NO from 4 is accompanied with nitro --> nitrito isomerization consistent with 1 being the more stable of the 5-coordinate NO2 complexes of iron porphyrins. PMID:17338521

Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Hovhannisyan, Astghik A; Hakobyan, Manya E; Patterson, James C; Iretskii, Alexei; Ford, Peter C

2007-03-28

269

CELULITIS POR CITOMEGALOVIRUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytomegalovirus cellulitis. Cutaneous lesions in CMV infection are rare, often a late manifestation of systemic infection, and usually herald a fatal course. A 70 year-old woman received a kidney transplantation one month before consulting and immunosuppressive therapy that included cyclosporine A and methylprednisone. She complained of fever, local pain in her right leg, and an erythematous and swelling plaque. She

ALEJANDRO RUIZ LASCANO; RAQUEL KUZNITZKY; ILIANA GARAY; MARIA KURPIS; PABLO MASSARI

270

OJO POR OJO  

Microsoft Academic Search

THIS VIDEO WAS MADE FOR THE OPENING SHOW OF AN ART PAINTING NATIONAL FESTVAL IN MEXICO AND IS A TRIBUTE TO THE EYE, WE USED SEVERAL KINDS OF EYES IN ITS FORM OR IN ITS PARTICULAR NAME THAT YOU FIND IN ESPANISH LENGAGESLIKE THE HURACANS EYE, OR THE EYE OF A NEDLE, BUT NOT A HUMAN EYE. SUPORT WITH MOTIONS

2001-01-01

271

Intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To describe the epidemiologic pattern of acute pesticide poisoning (APP) in a general hospital in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. Material and methods. From 1994 to 1998, 33 patients 13 years of age or older with diagnosis of APP were studied. Descriptive statistics were used to ana- lyze information. Results. Males were frequently affect- ed (82%), specially those coming from rural

Jaime Jesús Durán-Nah; Julián Collí-Quintal

2000-01-01

272

Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

273

Spectroscopic and kinetic characterization of the light-dependent enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) using monovinyl and divinyl substrates.  

PubMed

The enzyme POR [Pchlide (protochlorophyllide) oxidoreductase] catalyses the reduction of Pchlide to chlorophyllide, which is a key step in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. This light-dependent reaction has previously been studied in great detail but recent reports suggest that a mixture of MV (monovinyl) and DV (divinyl) Pchlides may have influenced some of these properties of the reaction. Low-temperature absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy have revealed several spectral differences between MV and DV Pchlides, which were purified from a Rhodobacter capsulatus strain that was shown to contain a mixture of the two pigments. A thorough steady-state kinetic characterization using both Pchlide forms demonstrates that neither pigment appears to affect the kinetic properties of the enzyme. The reaction has also been monitored following illumination at low temperatures and was shown to consist of an initial photochemical step followed by four 'dark' steps for both pigments. However, minor differences were observed in the spectral properties of some of the intermediates, although the temperature dependency of each step was nearly identical for the two pigments. This work provides the first detailed kinetic and spectroscopic study of this unique enzyme using biologically important MV and DV substrate analogues. It also has significant implications for the DV reductase enzyme, which is responsible for converting DV pigments into their MV counterparts, and its position in the sequence of reactions that comprise the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. PMID:16274361

Heyes, Derren J; Kruk, Jerzy; Hunter, C Neil

2006-02-15

274

El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the attitudes…

Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

275

Nuevo sitio web en español del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, (NCI, por sus siglas en inglés) Cancer.gov en español - Silvia Inéz Salazar - transcript  

Cancer.gov

Transmisiones de radio para promover Cancer.gov en espa%XF1ol | Nuevo sitio web en espa%XF1ol del Instituto Nacional del C%XE1ncer, (NCI, por sus siglas en ingl%XE9s) Cancer.gov en espa%XF1ol | Transcripci%XF3n Transmisiones de radio para promover

276

Instituciones al Servicio de los Hispanos están a la vanguardia de la investigación de las desigualdades en salud por cáncer en la comunidad latina  

Cancer.gov

Varias Instituciones al Servicio de los Hispanos forman parte de un grupo de escuelas profesionales y universidades que se han asociado con el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) y cierto número de centros oncológicos regionales para abordar el tema de las desigualdades en salud por cáncer que afectan a la comunidad latina.

277

Estudio financiado por los NIH indica un aumento de la supervivencia en hombres con cáncer de próstata metastásico que reciben quimioterapia desde el inicio de la terapia hormonal  

Cancer.gov

Los hombres con cáncer de próstata metastásico sensible a las hormonas que recibieron el fármaco quimioterapéutico docetaxel al inicio de la terapia hormonal convencional vivieron más tiempo que los pacientes que recibieron solo terapia hormonal, de acuerdo con los resultados preliminares de un estudio clínico controlado y aleatorizado patrocinado por los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH).

278

Ctedra Telefnica -UIB: Sanidad Digital y Turismo Sostenible La Ctedra Telefnica de la UIB para Sanidad Digital y Turismo Sostenible, creada por  

E-print Network

Cátedra Telefónica - UIB: Sanidad Digital y Turismo Sostenible La Cátedra Telefónica de la UIB para Sanidad Digital y Turismo Sostenible, creada por la iniciativa de la Universidad de las Illes Balears y actual e identificar las tendencias sobre el impacto de la tecnología en la sociedad. Se trata de

Oro, Daniel

279

Saturating Mutagenesis of an Essential Gene: a Majority of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae Major Outer Membrane Porin (PorB) Is Mutable  

PubMed Central

The major outer membrane porin (PorB) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an essential protein that mediates ion exchange between the organism and its environment and also plays multiple roles in human host pathogenesis. To facilitate structure-function studies of porin's multiple roles, we performed saturating mutagenesis at the porB locus and used deep sequencing to identify essential versus mutable residues. Random mutations in porB were generated in a plasmid vector, and mutant gene pools were transformed into N. gonorrhoeae to select for alleles that maintained bacterial viability. Deep sequencing of the input plasmid pools and the output N. gonorrhoeae genomic DNA pools identified mutations present in each, and the mutations in both pools were compared to determine which changes could be tolerated by the organism. We examined the mutability of 328 amino acids in the mature PorB protein and found that 308 of them were likely to be mutable and that 20 amino acids were likely to be nonmutable. A subset of these predictions was validated experimentally. This approach to identifying essential amino acids in a protein of interest introduces an additional application for next-generation sequencing technology and provides a template for future studies of both porin and other essential bacterial genes. PMID:24244002

Chen, Adrienne

2014-01-01

280

PRODUTIVIDADE E DESEMPENHO AGRONÔMICO DE DUAS FORRAGEIRAS PARA USO EM TRATAMENTO POR DISPOSIÇÃO NO SOLO DAS ÁGUAS RESIDUÁRIAS DA LAVAGEM E DESPOLPA DE FRUTOS DO CAFEEIRO11  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Com o objetivo de selecionar espécies forrageiras a serem utilizadas como cobertura vegetal de rampas de tratamento de águas residuárias por escoamento superficial, foram cultivados o Azevém Comum (Lolium multiflorum) e a Aveia Preta (Avena strigosa Schreb), submetidas à fertirrigação com águas residuárias da lavagem e despolpa de frutos doa cafeeiro (ARC), numa taxa de aplicação de 250 kg

Andressa Bacchetti PINTO; Antonio Teixeira de MATOS; Danilo Costa FUKUNAGA

281

Síndrome de Munchausen por terceiro simulada como alergia alimentar múltipla: relato de caso Munchausen syndrome by proxy simulating food multiple allergy: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objetivo: Descrever um caso da síndrome de Munchau- sen simulada na forma de alergia alimentar múltipla, cujo diagnóstico pode ter sido retardado, em parte, por alguns resultados de exames subsidiários. Descrição do caso: Paciente do sexo masculino atendido aos 3,5 anos com diarréia e vômitos desde o nascimento. Anterior- mente havia recebido diagnóstico de hiperplasia nodular linfóide no íleo terminal.

Roseli Monteiro Robles; Maria Dirce Benedito; Ulysses Fagundes Neto

282

Brunet Estarelles, Pere J., y Glvez Capell, Francisco, J. (1995). Estructura urbana y movilidad: anlisis del trfico inducido por el Campus de la Universitat de les Illes  

E-print Network

Brunet Estarelles, Pere J., y Gálvez Capellá, Francisco, J. (1995). Estructura urbana y movilidad Nacional de Geografía. Salamanca. Pp: 322-325. ESTRUCTURA URBANA Y MOVILIDAD. ANALISIS DEL TRAFICO INDUCIDO). Estructura urbana y movilidad: análisis del tráfico inducido por el Campus de la Universitat de les Illes

Oro, Daniel

283

MEDIDAS ACORDADAS POR LA DEFENSORIA DE LOS DERECHOS UNIVERSITARIOS DE LA UNAM RELATIVAS A LA SUSPENSION DE LOS PROCEDIMIENTOS ACADEMICOS Y  

E-print Network

MEDIDAS ACORDADAS POR LA DEFENSORIA DE LOS DERECHOS UNIVERSITARIOS DE LA UNAM RELATIVAS A LA Derechos Universitarios Dr. Leoncio Lara Sáenz con fundamento en las disposiciones contenidas tanto en el derechos y obligaciones de los estudiantes y miembros del personal académico en lo relativo a dichos

Arroyo Rodríguez, Víctor

284

Cell Growth Defect Factor1/CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 Plays a Role in Stabilization of Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis[C][W  

PubMed Central

Angiosperms require light for chlorophyll biosynthesis because one reaction in the pathway, the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide, is catalyzed by the light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). Here, we report that Cell growth defect factor1 (Cdf1), renamed here as CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 (CPP1), an essential protein for chloroplast development, plays a role in the regulation of POR stability and function. Cdf1/CPP1 contains a J-like domain and three transmembrane domains, is localized in the thylakoid and envelope membranes, and interacts with POR isoforms in chloroplasts. CPP1 can stabilize POR proteins with its holdase chaperone activity. CPP1 deficiency results in diminished POR protein accumulation and defective chlorophyll synthesis, leading to photobleaching and growth inhibition of plants under light conditions. CPP1 depletion also causes reduced POR accumulation in etioplasts of dark-grown plants and as a result impairs the formation of prolamellar bodies, which subsequently affects chloroplast biogenesis upon illumination. Furthermore, in cyanobacteria, the CPP1 homolog critically regulates POR accumulation and chlorophyll synthesis under high-light conditions, in which the dark-operative Pchlide oxidoreductase is repressed by its oxygen sensitivity. These findings and the ubiquitous presence of CPP1 in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms suggest the conserved nature of CPP1 function in the regulation of POR. PMID:24151298

Lee, Jae-Yong; Lee, Ho-Seok; Song, Ji-Young; Jung, Young Jun; Reinbothe, Steffen; Park, Youn-Il; Lee, Sang Yeol; Pai, Hyun-Sook

2013-01-01

285

Corynebacterium jeikeium jk0268 Constitutes for the 40 Amino Acid Long PorACj, Which Forms a Homooligomeric and Anion-Selective Cell Wall Channel  

PubMed Central

Corynebacterium jeikeium, a resident of human skin, is often associated with multidrug resistant nosocomial infections in immunodepressed patients. C. jeikeium K411 belongs to mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes, the mycolata and contains a channel-forming protein as judged from reconstitution experiments with artificial lipid bilayer experiments. The channel-forming protein was present in detergent treated cell walls and in extracts of whole cells using organic solvents. A gene coding for a 40 amino acid long polypeptide possibly responsible for the pore-forming activity was identified in the known genome of C. jeikeium by its similar chromosomal localization to known porH and porA genes of other Corynebacterium strains. The gene jk0268 was expressed in a porin deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strain. For purification temporarily histidine-tailed or with a GST-tag at the N-terminus, the homogeneous protein caused channel-forming activity with an average conductance of 1.25 nS in 1M KCl identical to the channels formed by the detergent extracts. Zero-current membrane potential measurements of the voltage dependent channel implied selectivity for anions. This preference is according to single-channel analysis caused by some excess of cationic charges located in the channel lumen formed by oligomeric alpha-helical wheels. The channel has a suggested diameter of 1.4 nm as judged from the permeability of different sized hydrated anions using the Renkin correction factor. Surprisingly, the genome of C. jeikeium contained only one gene coding for a cell wall channel of the PorA/PorH type found in other Corynebacterium species. The possible evolutionary relationship between the heterooligomeric channels formed by certain Corynebacterium strains and the homooligomeric pore of C. jeikeium is discussed. PMID:24116064

Norouzy, Amir; Schulz, Robert; Nau, Werner M.; Kleinekathofer, Ulrich; Tauch, Andreas; Benz, Roland

2013-01-01

286

Dependence of the POR and NBOHC defects as function of the dose in hydrogen-treated and untreated KU1 glass fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the performances of the hydrogen-loading technique to reduce the radiation-induced absorption in optical fibers in the visible part of the spectrum. A reduction factor as large as one order of magnitude can be obtained in high dose-rate regime. Based on a spectral deconvolution method, we showed that hydrogen preferentially interacts with NBOHC defects while the number of POR

Benoit Brichard; Alberto Fernandez Fernandez; Hans Ooms; P. Borgermans; F. Berghmans

2003-01-01

287

09/01/2006 04:29 PMRadio Beethoven -Ciencia y Saber: Descubren por qu algunos animales slo usan dos de sus cuatro aletas Page 1 of 1http://www.beethovenfm.cl/microprogramas/tecnologia/33.act  

E-print Network

09/01/2006 04:29 PMRadio Beethoven - Ciencia y Saber: Descubren por qué algunos animales sólo usan Programación Ciencia y Saber Descubren por qué algunos animales sólo usan dos de sus cuatro aletas Los

Long Jr., John H.

288

A etapa de construção, no ciclo de vida de um edifício, responde por uma parcela significativa dos impactos causados pela construção civil no ambiente, principalmente os conseqüentes às perdas de materiais e à geração de resíduos e os referentes às interferências na vizinhança da obra e nos meios físico, biótico e antrópico do local onde a construção é edificada. As perdas de materiais, quer incorporadas ao edifício, quer pela formação de entulho ou por roubo, embora aqui citadas, são abordadas no capítulo \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

É bastante grande a importância dos resíduos gerados nos canteiros de obra, tanto pela quantidade que representam - da ordem de 50% da massa total dos resíduos sólidos produzidos nas áreas urbanas - como pelos impactos que causam, principalmente ao serem levados para locais inadequados. Por isso, são tratados por uma resolução federal, a de nº 307\\/2002 do CONAMA -

CANTEIRO DE OBRAS; Francisco Ferreira Cardoso; Viviane Miranda Araujo

2002-01-01

289

Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infecci?n por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables  

PubMed Central

Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin infectarse por el VIH (sólo un doble negativo tuvo un amplio conocimiento sobre la hepatitis C). Estas intencionalidades no son mutuamente excluyentes. La presencia de varias refuerza la puesta en práctica a diario de comportamientos que pueden ayudar al que se inyecta a mantenerse libre de infecciones durante años. Algunas prácticas que hemos identificado se implementan en grupo y se comunican de UDI a UDI, de esta manera se extienden entre algunas redes sociales de UDI. Conclusiones Los UDI que permanecen sin infectarse planean e implementan estrategias de prevención en circunstancias donde otros UDI aplican prácticas de riesgo. El mantenimiento de la no infección no es, por lo tanto, un resultado del azar, sino más bien el resultado del esfuerzo (agencia) de los UDI. Investigar y extender estas estrategias y tácticas a través de programas de prevención podría contribuir a la prevención del VIH y el VHC. PMID:21915175

MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

2011-01-01

290

Los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón siguen bajando y contribuyen a reducción de índices generales de muertes por cáncer; Informe Anual a la Nación tiene una sección especial de los efectos de otras enfermedades en la supervivencia de pacientes  

Cancer.gov

El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos que tienen otras enfermedades en la supervivencia de pacientes con cáncer.

291

Impacto clínico de la tomografía de emisión por positrones (PET) en pacientes oncológicos y su potencial aplicación en el contexto sanitario y académico nacional  

Microsoft Academic Search

La tomografía de emisión de positrones (PET) es una técnica de medicina nuclear que tiene la\\u000d\\u000acapacidad de detectar el cáncer por medio de mecanismos basados en las alteraciones\\u000d\\u000amoleculares de los procesos neoplásicos. En esta revisión se describen las aplicaciones\\u000d\\u000aoncológicas del PET y se analiza la potencial aplicación de esta tecnología en el contexto\\u000d\\u000asanitario y académico nacional.

Omar Alonso Nuñez

2006-01-01

292

El Informe Anual a la Nación indica que las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer continúan declinando. Se observan tasas menores de cáncer en las poblaciones latinas de los Estados Unidos.  

Cancer.gov

Un informe nuevo de las principales organizaciones oncológicas de la nación informa que el riesgo de los estadounidenses de morir por cáncer continúa descendiendo, y que mantiene una tendencia que comenzó a principios de los años noventa. Preguntas y respuestas

293

Hospital/UF Nivel Cargo Inscritos Vagas Demanda Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal / DF PROGRAMAS POR REA DE SADE Enfermagem em Clnica Cirrgica 11 2 5,50  

E-print Network

Hospital/UF Nivel Cargo Inscritos Vagas Demanda Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal / DF PROGRAMAS POR ÁREA DE SA�DE Enfermagem em Clínica Cirúrgica 11 2 5,50 Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal / DF PROGRAMAS POR ÁREA DE SA�DE Enfermagem em Clínica Médica 15 2 7,50 Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal / DF

Maier, Rudolf Richard

294

El Informe Anual a la Nación indica que las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer continúan declinando: los avances en el tratamiento del cáncer varían según el tipo de cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Las organizaciones oncológicas principales de la nación informan que el riesgo de los estadounidenses de morir de cáncer sigue disminuyendo y que las tasas de casos nuevos de cáncer permanecen estables. El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, de 1975 a 2002, señala que las tasas de mortalidad de cáncer que se observaron para todos los cánceres combinados disminuyeron 1,1 por ciento por año de 1993 a 2002.

295

Coupling Antibody to CNBr Sepharose 1. Dialyze purified antibody against 0.2 M NaHCO3, pH 8.9. Use SpectraPor 2 (12-14 kDal cut off)  

E-print Network

against 500 mM NaPi, pH 7.5. Use SpectraPor 2 (12-14 kDal cut off) tubing. Use twice as much dialysis tubing as needed for the dialyzed volume. This will allow enough space for expansion during dialysis. Use.9. Use SpectraPor 2 (12-14 kDal cut off) tubing and tubing clips. The volume of antibody solution should

Aris, John P.

296

Por que coito interrompido? Por que não? Perspectivas masculinas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Withdrawal is an ancient and prevalent form of male contraception which has largely been ignored by family planning programme managers all over the world. The objective of this study was to understand men's perspectives on withdrawal use, both users and non-users. In-depth interviews with 62 male factory workers in western Turkey are reported, on use of withdrawal, attitudes to family

Nuriye Ortayli; Metin Ozugurlu

297

Por que que as humanidades  

E-print Network

, numa reflexão sobre o país, numa capacidade de ir para além de si mesma e de se voltar para o país. �, no século XXI, não podem deixar de traduzir essa matriz, esse pensamento crítico, numa reflexão sobre os

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

298

Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagn?stico de gastritis atr?fica multifocal asociada con la infecci?n por Helicobacter pylori1  

PubMed Central

RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las biopsias fijadas en alcohol fueron inadecuadas para demostrar H. pylori e interpretar los cambios de displasia. Conclusión El número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados, el método de fijación y la región del estómago donde se obtienen las biopsias son factores muy importantes para lograr una correcta clasificación de la gastritis crónica atrófica multifocal.

Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, Jose Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarIa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

2014-01-01

299

[In vitro susceptibilities to levofloxacin and various antibacterial agents of 12,866 clinical isolates obtained from 72 centers in 2010].  

PubMed

Postmarketing surveillance of levofloxacin (LVFX) has been conducted continuously since 1992. The present survey was performed to investigate in vitro susceptibility of recent clinical isolates in Japan to 30 selected antibacterial agents, focusing on fluoroquinolones (FQs). The common respiratory pathogens Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae continue to show a high susceptibility to FQs. In contrast, widely-prevailing resistance to macrolides was markedly noted among S pneumoniae and S. pyogenes. Regarding H. influenzae, the prevalence of beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant isolates has been increasing year by year (25.8% in 2002, 40.0% in 2004, 50.1% in 2007, and 57.9% in 2010). Enterobacteriaceae showed high susceptibility to FQs, however, prevalence of LVFX-resistant Escherichia coli, including intermediate resistance, was 29.3%, showing an increase over time. Nevertheless, the increase in the prevalence of LVFX-resistant E. coli isolates has slowed since 2007 (8.2% in 2000, 11.8% in 2002, 18.8% in 2004, 26.2% in 2007, and 29.3% in 2010), suggesting the influence of LVFX 500 mg tablets since its approval in 2009. Another Enterobacteriaceae member, Klebsiella pneumoniae, showed low resistance to FQs, in contrast with E. coli. In methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the percentage of FQ-susceptible isolates was low, at 51.6% for susceptibility to sitafloxacin, and at only around 10% for susceptibility to other FQs. However, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were highly susceptible to FQs, with the percentage ranging from 88.5% to 99.1%. The prevalence of FQs-resistant isolates in methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci was higher than that in methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci, although it was lower than the prevalence of FQ-resistance in MRSA. The prevalence of FQs-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates derived from urinary tract infections (UTIs) was 15.4-21.3%, higher than the prevalence of 6.1-12.3% in P. aeruginosa isolates from respiratory tract infections (RTIs). While this trend was consistent with the results of previous surveillance, gradual decreases were noted in the prevalence of FQ-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates derived from UTIs. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa was 2.3% among isolates derived from UTIs and 0.3% among isolates from RTIs, a decrease from the results of 2007. Acinetobacter spp. showed high susceptibility to FQs. Imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, which is currently an emerging issue, was detected at a prevalence of 2.4% (13 isolates). Neisseria gonorrhoeae showed a high resistance of 81.3-82.5%, to FQs. Ceftriaxone (CTRX) continued to show 100% susceptibility until 2007, but the present survey revealed the advent of resistance to CTRX in some clinical isolates. The result of the present survey indicated that although methicillin-resistant staphylococci, Enterococcus faecium, P. aeruginosa from UTIs, N. gonorrhoeae, and E. coli showed resistance of about 20% or more (19.5-89.2%) against the FQs which have been used clinically for over 17 years, the trends observed were similar to the results of previous surveillance. While FQ resistance has been prevailing in E. coli, E. coli still shows more than 70% susceptibility to FQs. The other bacterial species maintained high susceptibility rates of greater than 80%, against FQs. PMID:23173294

Yamaguchi, Keizo; Ohno, Akira; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Iwata, Morihiro

2012-06-01

300

Fumar cigarrillos está relacionado con la mitad de los casos de cáncer de vejiga en mujeres; estudio de los NIH confirma que el riesgo de cáncer de vejiga por fumar es mayor de lo que se calculó anteriormente  

Cancer.gov

Los fumadores actuales de cigarrillos tienen un mayor riesgo de padecer cáncer de vejiga que lo que se informó anteriormente, y ahora el riesgo de las mujeres es comparable al riesgo de los hombres, de acuerdo a un estudio llevado a cabo por científicos del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI). Aunque estudios anteriores mostraron que solo 20 a 30 % de los casos de cáncer en mujeres eran causados por fumar, estos nuevos datos indican que fumar es responsable de aproximadamente la mitad de los casos de cáncer de vejiga en la mujer.

301

Estudio de exámenes selectivos de detección de cáncer en los Estados Unidos indica que las pruebas anuales para detectar cáncer de próstata no tienen un beneficio en la mortalidad por esta enfermedad  

Cancer.gov

Un nuevo e importante informe de un estudio, diseñado para proporcionar respuestas sobre la eficacia de los exámenes de detección de cáncer de próstata, fue difundido hoy por el Estudio de Exámenes Selectivos de Detección de Cáncer de Próstata, Pulmón, Colorrectal y Ovarios (Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian, PLCO), e indicó que los seis exámenes de detección de cáncer de próstata que se hicieron en seis años (uno cada año) dieron como resultado más diagnósticos de la enfermedad, pero no menos muertes por cáncer de próstata.

302

IgE Reactivity of Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus pelagicus) Tropomyosin, Por p 1, and Other Allergens; Cross-Reactivity with Black Tiger Prawn and Effects of Heating  

PubMed Central

Shellfish allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, but the allergens are not well characterized. This study examined the effects of heating on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) allergens in comparison with those of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) by testing reactivity with shellfish-allergic subjects' serum IgE. Cooked extracts of both species showed markedly increased IgE reactivity by ELISA and immunoblotting, and clinical relevance of IgE reactivity was confirmed by basophil activation tests. Inhibition IgE ELISA and immunoblotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the crab and prawn extracts, predominantly due to tropomyosin, but crab-specific IgE-reactivity was also observed. The major blue swimmer crab allergen tropomyosin, Por p 1, was cloned and sequenced, showing strong homology with tropomyosin of other crustacean species but also sequence variation within known and predicted linear IgE epitopes. These findings will advance more reliable diagnosis and management of potentially severe food allergy due to crustaceans. PMID:23840718

Varese, Nirupama; Zubrinich, Celia; Lopata, Andreas L.; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Rolland, Jennifer M.

2013-01-01

303

Una cinta transportadora de longitud l se mueve con velocidad v respecto al suelo. Por su extremo derecho se introduce un bloque de masa m que se mover en contra de la cinta  

E-print Network

Problema 2 Una cinta transportadora de longitud l se mueve con velocidad v respecto al suelo. Por). Determine la velocidad vo (respecto al suelo) con la cual es necesario impulsar el bloque contra el, y que ahí se detenga respecto al suelo. En tal punto, con el bloque en reposo respecto al suelo

Chang, Mark J. L.

304

Estudios de la Zona No Saturada del Suelo Vol. VI. J. lvarez-Bened y P. Marinero, 2003 ELIMINACIN DE NITRATOS POR DESNITRIFICACIN EN LA ZONA NO SATURADA DEL SUELO EN  

E-print Network

Estudios de la Zona No Saturada del Suelo Vol. VI. J. Álvarez-Benedí y P. Marinero, 2003 385 ELIMINACI�N DE NITRATOS POR DESNITRIFICACI�N EN LA ZONA NO SATURADA DEL SUELO EN UN HUMEDAL DEL CINTUR�N PERI-Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia), gopanaui@lg.ehu.es. RESUMEN. Los cambios de usos del suelo

Chave, Jérôme

305

XXIII CONGRESO LATINOAMERICANO DE HIDRÁULICA CARTAGENA DE INDIAS COLOMBIA, SEPTIEMBRE 2008 EVALUACION DE LA RESUSPENSIÓN POR EFECTO DE UNA CORRIENTE DE DENSISDAD EN UN EMBALSE. APLICACIÓN AL CASO DEL EMABALSE DE FLIX-ESPAÑA  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN: En este artículo se estudia la capacidad de las corrientes de densidad, formadas por diferencia de temperatura, para resuspender el sedimento en el fondo de un embalse. El estudio se enmarca dentro de un suceso de contaminación que se produjo en el embalse de Flix en 2001, en el que murieron varios miles de peces y se vio afectada

Albert Herrero Casas; Vicente Medina Iglesias; Allen Bateman Pinzón

306

Informe a la Nación indica que el índice de mortalidad por cáncer sigue bajando; la sección especial destaca las tendencias de los cánceres asociados con el VPH y los grados de cobertura de vacunación contra el VPH.  

Cancer.gov

El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, de 1975 a 2009, indica que los índices generales de mortalidad por cáncer siguen bajando en los Estados Unidos en hombres y mujeres, entre todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales y para todos los sitios más comunes de cáncer, como pulmón, colon y recto, seno femenino y próstata.

307

Informe Anual a la Nación indica una reducción en los índices de incidencia y mortalidad por cáncer; una sección especial revela amplias variaciones en las tendencias del cáncer de pulmón en los estados  

Cancer.gov

Un nuevo informe de las principales organizaciones oncológicas del país muestra que, por primera vez desde la primera publicación del informe en 1998, tanto el índice de incidencia como el de mortalidad para todos los cánceres combinados están disminuyendo en hombres y mujeres.

308

PERFIL DOS ACIDENTES POR LIQUIDOS AQUECIDOS EM CRIANÇAS ATENDIDAS EM CENTRO DE REFERÊNCIA DE FORTALEZA The Profile of Accidents by Hot Liquids in Children Attended at a Reference Center in Fortaleza  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO As queimaduras são acidentes frequentes e representam a segunda causa de morte na infância. Este trabalho objetivou identificar o perfil dos acidentes em crianças queimadas por líquidos aquecidos. Estudo descritivo, realizado com 62 pais de crianças internadas em um Centro de Tratamento para Queimados, em Fortaleza, Ceará, no período de janeiro a junho de 2002. As variáveis estudadas foram:

Rita Neuma; Dantas Cavalcante; Érika Porto Xavier; Luiza Jane; Eyre de Souza

309

Psicología de las mujeres y de género. Pasado, presente y futuro. Notas de un seminario impartido por Rhoda Unger Women and Gender Psychology. Past, present and future. Notes on a seminar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo está compuesto por una serie de notas que recopiló quien esto escribe en el seminario que recientemente impartió Rhoda Unger en el doctorado de Psicología Social de la UAB. Se trata de cinco conferencias que abordaban la historia de la psicología feminista, y de la psicología en general, en Estados Unidos. Al tiempo que ofrecían un panorama de

Rhoda Unger

2007-01-01

310

Impact of the CYP3A5, CYP3A4, COMT, IL-10 and POR genetic polymorphisms on tacrolimus metabolism in Chinese renal transplant recipients.  

PubMed

Tacrolimus is a widely used immunosuppressive drug for preventing the rejection of solid organ transplants. The efficacy of tacrolimus shows considerable variability, which might be related to genetic variation among recipients. We conducted a retrospective study of 240 Chinese renal transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus as immunosuppressive drug. The retrospective data of all patients were collected for 40 days after transplantation. Seventeen SNPs of CYP3A5, CYP3A4, COMT, IL-10 and POR were identified by the SNaPshot assay. Tacrolimus blood concentrations were obtained on days 1-3, days 6-8 and days 12-14 after transplantation, as well as during the period of the predefined therapeutic concentration range. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to examine the effect of genetic variation on the tacrolimus concentration/dose ratio (C 0/D) at different time points. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportions of patients who achieved the target C 0 range in the different genotypic groups at weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 after transplantation. After correction for multiple testing, there was a significant association of C 0/D with CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1G and CYP3A4 rs4646437 T>C at different time points after transplantation. The proportion of patients in the IL-10 rs1800871-TT group who achieved the target C 0 range was greater (p?=?0.004) compared to the IL-10 rs1800871-CT and IL-10 rs1800871-CC groups at week 3 after transplantation. CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4 *1G, CYP3A4 rs4646437 T>C and IL-10 rs1800871 C>T might be potential polymorphisms affecting the interindividual variability in tacrolimus metabolism among Chinese renal transplant recipients. PMID:24465960

Li, Chuan-Jiang; Li, Liang; Lin, Li; Jiang, Hai-Xia; Zhong, Ze-Yan; Li, Wei-Mo; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Zheng, Ping; Tan, Xu-Hui; Zhou, Lin

2014-01-01

311

Incidencia de infecciones del torrente sanguíneo por Staphylococcus aureus en pacientes críticamente enfermos en unidades de cuidado intensivo en Colombia 2004-2008 / Incidence bloodstream infection by Staphylococcus aureus in critically ill patients intensive care unit in Colombia 2004-2008.  

E-print Network

??Contreras Villamizar, Kateir Mariel (2010) Incidencia de infecciones del torrente sanguíneo por Staphylococcus aureus en pacientes críticamente enfermos en unidades de cuidado intensivo en Colombia… (more)

Contreras Villamizar, Kateir Mariel

2010-01-01

312

Long-term RNA persistence of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) after an outbreak of a natural infection: the detection of viral mRNA in sentinel pigs suggests viral transmission.  

PubMed

The persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) in five pigs that had survived an outbreak of a natural infection was determined. After the resolution of the outbreak, each animal was housed in an isolation pen together with one sentinel pig. Approximately every 2 months thereafter one group of animals was euthanized and tissue samples taken for virological and serological analysis. Infectious virus was not isolated from any samples; antibodies to PorPV-LPMV were detected in convalescent pigs by virus neutralisation test and blocking ELISA but not in sentinel pigs. PorPV-LPMV mRNA of the nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) genes was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) in samples of trigeminal and optic nerves, cervical spinal cord, tonsils, salivary gland, lung and pancreas from convalescent pigs. mRNA was also detected in the midbrain, corpus callosum, or olfactory bulb in four out of five pigs by nRT-PCR, this result was confirmed by the sequencing of a 260bp PCR product of P gene region. The highest average viral copies/?g of total RNA occurred in the olfactory bulb and pancreas tissues of convalescent pigs and midbrain, tonsil and pancreas of sentinel pigs housed with the convalescent pigs. Satellitosis and gliosis of the midbrain, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata or choroid plexus were microscopically observed in four convalescent pigs. The control pig remained negative in all tests. The results indicate that PorPV-LPMV mRNA persists and induces a durable humoral immune response in pigs that have recovered from a natural infection. After a possible reactivation of the virus, it was transmitted to sentinel pigs in contact with the convalescent pigs. PMID:24768705

Cuevas-Romero, S; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Kennedy, S; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Berg, M; Moreno-López, J

2014-08-01

313

De conformidad con la Ley de Derechos Humanos de 1977 del Distrito de Columbia, segn enmendada, Cdigo Oficial del Distrito de Columbia, Seccin 2-1401.01 et seq., (Ley), el Distrito de Columbia no discrimina, de forma visible ni percibida, por  

E-print Network

De conformidad con la Ley de Derechos Humanos de 1977 del Distrito de Columbia, según enmendada la ausencia, el empleado no perderá ninguno de sus beneficios de empleo, ni tampoco los derechos por las estipuladas por la Ley. LAS QUEJAS CON RESPECTO A ALGUNA DENEGACI�N DE LOS DERECHOS EN VIRTUD DE

Weaver, Harold A. "Hal"

314

Protection by Meningococcal Outer Membrane Protein PorA-Specific Antibodies and a Serogroup B Capsular Polysaccharide-Specific Antibody in Complement-Sufficient and C6-Deficient Infant Rats  

PubMed Central

The relative contributions of antibody-induced complement-mediated bacterial lysis and antibody/complement-mediated phagocytosis to host immunity against meningococcal infections are currently unclear. Further, the in vivo effector functions of antibodies may vary depending on their specificity and Fc heavy-chain isotype. In this study, a mouse immunoglobulin G2a (mIgG2a) monoclonal antibody (MN12H2) to meningococcal outer membrane protein PorA (P1.16), its human IgG subclass derivatives (hIgG1 to hIgG4), and an mIgG2a monoclonal antibody (Nmb735) to serogroup B capsular polysaccharide (B-PS) were evaluated for passive protection against meningococcal serogroup B strain 44/76-SL (B:15:P1.7,16) in an infant rat infection model. Complement component C6-deficient (PVG/c?) rats were used to assess the importance of complement-mediated bacterial lysis for protection. The PorA-specific parental mIgG2a and the hIgG1 to hIgG3 derivatives all induced efficient bactericidal activity in vitro in the presence of human or infant rat complement and augmented bacterial clearance in complement-sufficient HsdBrlHan:WIST rats, while the hIgG4 was unable to do so. In C6-deficient PVG/c? rats, lacking complement-mediated bacterial lysis, the augmentation of bacterial clearance by PorA-specific mIgG2a and hIgG1 antibodies was impaired compared to that in the syngeneic complement-sufficient PVG/c+ rat strain. This was in contrast to the case for B-PS-specific mIgG2a, which conferred similar protective activity in both rat strains. These data suggest that while anti-B-PS antibody can provide protection in the infant rats without membrane attack complex formation, the protection afforded by anti-PorA antibody is more dependent on the activation of the whole complement pathway and subsequent bacterial lysis. PMID:16622217

Toropainen, Maija; Saarinen, Leena; Vidarsson, Gestur; Kayhty, Helena

2006-01-01

315

Informe a la nación indica que continúa la disminución de las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer que empezó a principios de los noventa; Una sección especial destaca los cánceres asociados al exceso de peso y a la falta de actividad física adecuada  

Cancer.gov

Los índices de mortalidad por todos los cánceres combinados para hombres, mujeres y niños siguieron bajando en Estados Unidos entre 2004 y 2008, según el Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer de 1975 a 2008. El índice general de diagnósticos nuevos de cáncer, que se conoce también como incidencia, bajaron entre los hombres un promedio de 0,6% por año entre 2004 y 2008. Los índices generales de incidencia de cáncer entre las mujeres bajaron 0,5% por año de 1998 hasta 2006; estos índices se nivelaron de 2006 a 2008.

316

Miopía y estrías retinianas por topiramato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical caseA 23-year-old woman who was seen due to decreasing far visual acuity 24hours after starting treatment with topiramate. In the cycloplegic refraction, RE showed -4.25 and LE -4.50. Retinal striae could be seen in the macula of both eyes. The alterations ceased 48hours after the drug treatment was interrupted.

E. Dorronzoro; E. Santos-Bueso; E. Vico-Ruiz; F. Sáenz-Frances; J. Argaya; J. A. Gegúndez-Fernández

2011-01-01

317

NORMAS GERAIS PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFERNCIA EXTERNA  

E-print Network

, do qual conste: A forma de ingresso (vestibular, ENEM, transferência externa, concurso de títulos ou do exame de seleção. Se for ENEM basta esta informação e o ano da realização do exame. Relação das

318

DOCUMENTAO PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFERNCIA EXTERNA  

E-print Network

conste: A forma de ingresso / processo seletivo (vestibular, ENEM, transferência externa, concurso de realização do exame de seleção. Se for ENEM basta entregar o documento do INEP com a data da realização do

319

DOCUMENTAO PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFERNCIA EXTERNA  

E-print Network

ingresso / processo seletivo (vestibular, ENEM, transferência externa, concurso de títulos ou outro). Mês seleção. Se for ENEM basta esta informação e o ano da realização do ENEM. Relação das disciplinas

320

NORMAS GERAIS PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFERNCIA EXTERNA  

E-print Network

, do qual conste: A forma de ingresso / processo seletivo (vestibular, ENEM, transferência externa da realização do exame de seleção. Se for ENEM basta esta informação e o ano da realização do ENEM

321

Reacciones cutáneas adversas por tatuajes y piercings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piercings and tattoos have become very popular in western society in recent decades, particularly among younger generations. Reports of medical complications associated with these decorative techniques have increased in parallel with the rise in their popularity. Due to their high frequency, adverse cutaneous reactions are particularly important among these potential complications.Tattoo-related complications include a number of cutaneous and systemic infections

J. Mataix; J. F. Silvestre

2009-01-01

322

La violencia latinoamericana vista por los economistas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo sintetiza los estudios económicos publicados recientemente sobre la violencia en América Latina y analiza las causas susceptibles de acrecentarla: pobreza, desigualdad de los ingresos en nivel y variación, impunidad, diferencia entre la probabilidad de ser arrestado y la severidad de la pena impuesta, y narcotráfico. Sin embargo, la explicación de la violencia no se limitará a factores económicos,

Pierre Salama

2003-01-01

323

S?ndrome del Outlet Tor?cico: ?Una Patolog?a Siempre Quir?rgica? An?lisis de una Serie de 31 Cirug?as Realizadas por V?a Supraclavicular Serie cl?nica  

PubMed Central

Introducción: El síndrome de outlet torácico es una compresión del plexo braquial que suscita polémica. Se clasifica en Outlet Torácico Verdadero o neurogénico (OTV) y Outlet Torácico Disputado o no neurogénico (OTD). El primero presenta síntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo sólo síntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirugías. Métodos: Se analizaron las cirugías de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagnósticos de outlet torácico cuyo período de seguimiento post-operatorio mínimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de síntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificación, resultado de los estudios neurofisiológicos y de imágenes, resultado de la cirugía, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirugías realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 años, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 años de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiológicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenológicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV presentó una alteración anatómica relacionada con la sintomatología, hecho observado sólo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeoró. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron más frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusión: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirugía, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporción mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patología. PMID:25165614

Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, Alvaro; Paez, Miguel Dominguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto

2014-01-01

324

Photodynamic therapy of otitis media in-vitro and in-vivo using gerbil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate antibacterial effects of PDT on common bacteria causing otitis media with effusion (OME). In vitro study was carried out using a hematoporphyrin derivative sensitizer (photogem) and 632 nm diode laser on H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, and S. pneumoniae. One ml of each bacterial suspension was incubated for 3 hours and various concentrations

Chung-Ku Rhee; Pil Seung Kwon; Jin Chul Ahn; Phil Sang Chung; Ruifeng Ge

2008-01-01

325

Comparação entre modelos digitais de elevação gerados por sensores ópticos e por radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to compare the quality and accuracy of Digital Elevation Models (DEM) generated from different sources. Three different DEMs, covering the same geographic area (region of Uberaba, MG), are tentatively evaluated in this work. The first is a DEM derived from radar interferometry, through the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM). The other two are DEMs

Lucas de Melo Melgaço; Roberto de Souza; Michael Steinmayer; Caixa Postal; R. Felipe Neri

2005-01-01

326

Induction of degranulation and lysis of haemocytes in the freshwater crayfish, Astacus astacus by components of the prophenoloxidase activating system in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the role of the prophenoloxidase activating system, an enzyme cascade located in the haemocytes of crustaceans, in the cellular defences of the freshwater crayfish, Astacus astacus in vitro, monolayer cultures of mixed or separated haemocyte populations, isolated by density gradient centrifugation, were challenged with the bacterium, Moraxella sp. pre-coated with phenoloxidase and the other attaching proteins in crayfish

Valerie J. Smith; Kenneth Söderhäll

1983-01-01

327

Article original Flores nasale et pulmonaire de la chvre  

E-print Network

ponction du parenchyme, la flore aérobie, aéro- anaérobie et les mycoplasmes sont étudiés. Mycoplasma. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae- chèvre -flore nasale - Moraxella bovis - flore pulmonaire Summary ― Nasal and mycoplasma were studied. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was isolated both from nasal flora (37%) and from the lungs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

328

Analytica Chimica Acta 568 (2006) 217221 Microbial biosensor for direct determination of nitrophenyl-substituted  

E-print Network

of nitrophenyl-substituted organophosphate nerve agents using genetically engineered Moraxella sp. Priti in lake water was demonstrated. © 2005 Published by Elsevier B.V. Keywords: Nerve agents; Pesticides analytical device for their determination in the field. Analytical methods such as gas, liquid and thin

Chen, Wilfred

329

Bacteriology of the scallop Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819) cultured in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation bacteriological analyses of the early developmental stages of Argopecten purpuratus were performed on scallops spawned in situ (hatchery), and in the laboratory under sterile conditions. The results confirmed the occurrence of vertical bacterial transmission. In spawning in the laboratory Pseudomonas, Moraxella and Vibrio were found as the predominant Genera. Subsequently, the effect of these strains on larval

C Riquelme; G Hayashida; N Vergara; A Vasquez; Y. Morales; P. Chavez

1995-01-01

330

Módulo de entrenamiento de equipos médicos utilizando simuladores por software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen —En las últimas décadas se han suscitado marcados avances en la tecnología hospitalaria, es to llevo al desarrollo de equipamientos médicos cada vez más exactos, seguros e indiscutiblemente más complejos. El marcado aumento en las capacidades de los nuevos equipamientos no fue acompañado en la misma medida en la capacitación de los profesionales usuarios de los mismos. Todo esto

Santiago Romero Ayala; Priscila Avelar; Renato Garcia Ojeda

331

Crioterapia en pacientes intervenidos quirúrgicamente por artroscopia de rodilla  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain and swelling are common complications of knee arthros- copy, which may lead to inhibition of the extensor mechanism and ultimately a delay in rehabilitation. Cryotherapy has been used for many years, following knee surgery, as a treatment for decreasing knee swelling and pain. However, there is little evi- dence in the medical literature of the beneficial effects that sup-

Sergio Abush T; Sandra Ciklik P

332

[The right to avoid pregnancy] [POR, ENG translation included].  

PubMed

Signs are finally appearing in Brazil that despite the government's hesitations and the hostility of the Catholic Church the decade of the 1980s shall bring effective changes intended to restrain population growth. Now, 4 years after its inclusion in the social program of the Geisel administration in 1977, family planning will become a reality. It is certainly about time, for at the present rate of growth the Brazilian population increases by about 6 persons per minute--about 3 million a year. At this pace, only a large scale State intervention that provides the population with information, assistance and free access to contraception may decisively reverse the trend. Figueiredo's government has decided that family planning should be introduced slowly, gradually and subtly, thus avoiding specific programs and publicity campaigns through the mass communication vehicles. In an effort to get around sharper criticism from the Church and the opposition, the government intends to mobilize catholic laypersons, priests, and nuns and, if possible, bishops in a national attempt to disseminate information on natural methods of birth control. As a 1st step, the Ministry of Health will widely distribute information on human reproduction and fecundity along with explanations of artificial contraceptive methods. Subject to the couple's decision and under medical indications, the free supply of contraceptive means to low income families shall be ensured by the government. The government will also allow sterilization. Despite its cautious approach, in actuality the government's program will in many places and circumstances be a massive inducement to contraceptive use. PMID:12337558

1981-01-21

333

Hipertensión arterial pulmonar: un recorrido por el año 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been spectacular developments in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), both in its treatment and knowledge of its pathogenesis. Several studies have been published throughout 2008 that have contributed to improve these two aspects a little. As regards the pathogenesis, mutations in BMPR2 continue gaining points as fundamental factors in the development of the disease. It has been shown that

Adolfo Baloira

2009-01-01

334

VMASCINNOVATION reseArch rePOrT 2012 . 2013  

E-print Network

time Evacuation Planning Model 's VMASC has successfully focused on developing a very progressive pathway into the future of modeling constructive solutions to critical challenges facing academic, government, and industry partners, and fosters

335

INFECCIÓN POR VIH Y SUS IMPLICACIONES EN ENFERMEDADES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: In 1980 AIDS appeared in the USA in the homosexual community. Characteristics of the virus: a particle of HIV is formed by two identical RNA chains that are packed within a center of viral proteins, and surrounded by double layer of fosfolipids derived from the cellular membrane of the host. Clinical symptoms: It starts with a severe infection, evolving

PATRICIA MONTERO MORA; OLGA ADRIANA TINAJERO; CASTAÑEDA MARÍA DEL CARMEN GONZÁLEZ; PÉREZ GUILLERMO; ARTURO GUIDOS; FRANCISCO SUÁREZ NÚÑEZ

336

Elementos de um laboratório virtual de Física controlados por Wiimote  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of a Physics learning environment in which the Nintendo Wii Remote controller is used not only to select an object via pointing and to track an object’s motion, but also to move experiment objects and measuring instruments. Its rumble feature is explored in our project to provide appropriate haptic feedback.

Roberto Scalco

2012-01-01

337

Involución de la condición física por el envejecimiento  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elderly population is increasing in Spain. The aging process is associated with gradual declines in physical fitness and functional ability. These facts can lead to serious public health problems with the appearance of degenerative diseases and the resulting economic cost for their treatment. There is a lost of strength, a not constant decrease of VO2max and a progressive but

Ana Carbonell Baeza; Virginia Aparicio García-Molina; Manuel Delgado Fernández

2009-01-01

338

Organizado por el Departamento de Ciencias de la Comunicacin II  

E-print Network

y política. El desarrollo de estos campos abre nuevas posibilidades profesionales, creando necesida Calvo Roy. MI�RCOLES 17 DE ABRIL: Taller V. Elaboración reportaje sobre el Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

339

Daño renal agudo por sulfadiacina en paciente con toxoplasmosis oftálmica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient on treatment with sulfadiazine plus pyrimethamine for ophthalmic toxoplasmosis developed renal failure. Using a microscope it is possible to see the characteristic wheat sheaf images of the sulfadiazine crystals.

Susana García de Cruz; Olaia Cores Calvo; Ángel Campos Bueno; Cristina Peña Busto

2011-01-01

340

Organizado por el Departamento de Ciencias de la Comunicacin II  

E-print Network

, como económica y política. El desarrollo de estos campos abre nuevas posibilidades profesionales Comunicación II. Clara Navío, presidenta de APIA. Anotino Calvo Roy, presidente de la AECC. Pablo Francescutti

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

341

Consulta por Classificao / rea Avaliao STATUSESTRATOTTULOISSN REA DE AVALIAO  

E-print Network

-2863 Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry A1 NUTRIÃ?Ã?O Atualizado 0002-8223 Journal of the American Dietetic and Science in Sports and Exercise A1 NUTRIÃ?Ã?O Atualizado 1756-5901 Metallomics (Print) A1 NUTRIÃ?Ã?O Atualizado Atualizado 0091-3057 Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior A1 NUTRIÃ?Ã?O Atualizad

Floeter, Sergio Ricardo

342

Estudio vascular renal por tomografía computada multidetector de 64 canales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To show the wide range of anatomical vascular variants, arterial and venous, that can be seen in the angiographic renal study using 64-multidetector-row CT (64-MDCT), due to its importance in an eventual surgical planning. Material and methods: We have evaluated retrospectively 26 studies that have been performed using a 64 channels Philips Brilliance CT scanner. We have obtained non

Daniela Stoisa; Fabrizio Galiano; Andrés J. Quaranta; Roberto. L. Villavicencio; J. R. Villavicencio

2007-01-01

343

Camina por Salud: Walking in Mexican-American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-six percent of older Mexican-American women report that they do not engage in leisure time physical activity (PA); 38.1% of them are obese. This study (1) evaluated a PA intervention for coronary heart disease risk reduction and (2) determined which variables affect adherence to PA. For 36 weeks, Group I members walked for 3 days a week and Group II

Colleen S. Keller; Adelita Cantue

2008-01-01

344

The microbiologic and immunologic basis for recurrent otitis media in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Otitis media is very common in children. A subpopulation of children, representing 5–10% of the general population, are otitis\\u000a prone and they experience 4 or more episodes of acute otitis media (AOM) in the first year of life. Nasopharyngeal colonization\\u000a with the three major middle ear pathogens, S. pneumoniae, nontypeable H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis is frequent in otitis prone

Howard Faden

2001-01-01

345

Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud de pacientes infectados por VIH medida por el Cuestionario de Salud SF36  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The aim of the study was to known the influence of HIV- infection in healthrelated quality of life (HRQL). We have used clinico- immune variables and progressionmortality presented by the disease. Patients and methods: From March 1997 through March 1998 a total of 300 HIV-infected patients were carried out the Health Survey SF-36. We included a control group (also

M. A. García Ordóñez; J. J. Mansilla Francisco; E. Nieto Aragón; M. R. Cereto; F. Salas Samper; M. Vallejo Díaz; J. Martínez González

2001-01-01

346

CONTAMINACIÓN POR METALES PESADOS EN SUELO PROVOCADA POR LA INDUSTRIA MINERA HEAVY METALS POLLUTION IN SOILS DAMAGED BY MINING INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining in the study area has been carried out for several centuries, causing environmental alterations, generating poor soils for plant establishment and health hazards for humans. The objective was to evaluate presence of Lead, Cadmium, Zinc and Arsenic in soil with variables: distance to the pollution source and soil depth, hence determining relations with soil physical- chemical characteristics. The study

Soraya Puga; Manuel Sos; Toutcha Lebgue; Cesar Quintana; Alfredo Campos

347

Predação de Opisthocomus hoazin por Spizaetus ornatus e de Bubulcus ibis por Bubo virginianus em Tocantins, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predation of Cattle Egret by the Great Horned Owl and Hoazin by the Ornate Hawk-Eagle in western Tocantins State, Brazil. We report the predation of Hoazin Opisthocomus hoazin by an immature Ornate Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus ornatus, a new prey for this species in Brazil. The Ornate Hawk-Eagle roosted together with Hoazin assembly in branches of Sapium haematospermum, typical river borderline vegetation.

Túlio Dornas; Renato Torres Pinheiro

348

Factors affecting inactivation of Moraxell-Acinetobacter cells in an irradiation process. [/sup 137/Cs  

SciTech Connect

The effect of various stages of the irradiation processing of beef on the injury and inactivation of radiation-resistant Moraxella-Acinetobactor cells was studied. Moraxella-Acinetobacter cells were more resistant to heat inactivation and injury when heated in meat with salts (0.75% NaCl and 0.375% sodium tripolyphosphate) than in meat without salts. These salts had no effect on radiation resistance. Heated cells were more sensitive to radiation inactivation and injury than unheated cells. After repair, the cells regained their resistance to both NaCl and irradiation. Freezing and storage at -40/sup 0/C for 14 days had only a slight effect on either unstressed or heat-stressed cells.

Firstenberg-Eden, R.; Rowley, D.B.; Shattuck, G.E.

1980-09-01

349

Influence of slaughter, fabrication and storage conditions on the microbial flora and shelf-life of vacuum-packaged steaks  

E-print Network

fabrication procedures was dominated by Pseudomonas spp. However, they were less dominant on steaks that were fabricated under strict hygienic conditions. Pseudomonas and Micrococcus made up a major part of the microbial flora of these steaks...) recovered several types of gram-negat1ve psychrotrophi c bacteria such as Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter-Moraxella and Enterobacteriaceae and gram-pos1tive bacteria such as the carcass meat. Several reports indi cate that the microflora on the hide, hoofs...

Chandran, Sasi Kantha

2012-06-07

350

Microbial flora of fresh and stored shrimp  

E-print Network

or 5 C . The use of artificial seawater is not recommended in media preparation. The microbial flora of fresh Gulf shrimp was dominated by coryneforms and species of Pseudomonas, Moraxella Micrococcus, and Flavobacterium. Refrigerated storage... of shrimp usually caused an increase in the percentage of Pseudomonas species and a decrease in coryneforms. Bacterial counts of pond shrimp were much lower than those of Gulf shrimp. The microflora of pond shrimp differed from that of Gulf shrimp...

Mroz, Eva

2012-06-07

351

Microbial flora and distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in molluscan shellfish, water, and sediment  

E-print Network

(-) Oxidase (+) (5, 13, 16, 32, 53, 56) Yellow i ment Hugh- Leifson (27, 28, 51, 52) No reaction (+) NH -arginine (-) Oxid. (61) Ferm. Pseudomonas +) Moti lit (-) Flagella Moraxella (11, 23, 25) Pseudomonas NH3 from arginine (+) Gas from... glucose (Resistance to pteri dine ? 0/129) (6, 17) (+) peri tri chous olar (&3) olar (3 or &) Aeromonas Vibrio ~A1 1 Pseudomonas (atypical) Gomamonas (22) Fig. 2. Scheme for identification of gram-negative, oxidase-positive bacteria. Gram stain...

Thompson, Charles Albert

2012-06-07

352

Granulocyte CEACAM3 Is a Phagocytic Receptor of the Innate Immune System that Mediates Recognition and Elimination of Human-specific Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) are used by several human pathogens to anchor themselves to or invade host cells. Interestingly, human granulocytes express a specific isoform, CEACAM3, that participates together with CEACAM1 and CEACAM6 in the recognition of CEACAM-binding microorganisms. Here we show that CEACAM3 can direct efficient, opsonin-independent phagocytosis of CEACAM-binding Neisseria , Moraxella , and Haemophilus species.

Tim Schmitter; Franziska Agerer; Lisa Peterson; Petra Münzner; Christof R. Hauck

2004-01-01

353

Microbiological basis of phosphate removal in the activated sludge process for the treatment of wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several strains resembling members of theAcinetobacter-Moraxella-Mima group of bacteria were isolated from activated sludge-type sewage treatment plants designed for phosphate removal. The bacteria are obligate aerobes but utilize as carbon and energy sources low-molecular intermediates generated anaerobically, particularly acetate and ethanol. These bacteria can be shown to be responsible for the phosphate luxury uptake occurring in these treatment plants. The

G. W. Fuhs; Min Chen

1975-01-01

354

Predictive Equations to Assess the Effect of Lactic Acid and Temperature on Bacterial Growth in a Model Meat System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meat microflora is mainly composed of Acinetobacter, Moraxella, Brochothrix termosphacta, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae family genera, such as Klebsiella sp. and E. coli. In natural conditions meat pH can range from about 6.0 (being close to the optimum level for most pathogenic and alteration-causing\\u000a bacteria) to values close to 5.5, at which microbial growth rate decreases significantly. Combining low pH

F. Coll Cárdenas; L. Giannuzzi; N. E. Zaritzky

355

Failure of denitrifying bacteria to utilize benzoic acid under anaerobic conditions with nitrate as the only terminal electron acceptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Ring-U)-14C-benzoate was not utilized by various denitrifying bacteria (pure cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter sp. and Moraxella sp. or a mixed population) in the presence of nitrate as the only electron acceptor (completely anaerobic conditions). In the presence of only traces of molecular oxygen (introduced by porous tubing), denitrification did occur under inappropriate experimental conditions. This indicates that an apparent

W. Fabig; J. C. G. Ottow; F. Müller

1980-01-01

356

La salida de la crisis pasa por el no keynesianismo y por la apuesta por las energías renovables, ¿que es mas eficiente, la energía solar o la energía eólica?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este testo trata de resolver la duda mas importante en tema de alternativa económica que existe hoy día, así que le daré toda la importancia y rigor que necesita, y básicamente, demostrare en economía, casi todo es posible, y desde luego, cualquier cambio tecnológico, es posible, y a coste real 0.

David Sánchez Palacios

2009-01-01

357

[Correlations between the level of bacterial resistance and the rate of clinical efficiency in the therapy of community-acquired respiratory tract infections].  

PubMed

The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficiency of the first-line antibiotic treatment of the community-acquired respiratory tract infections in a population of young adults from an urban setting and to establish the pattern of antibiotic resistance of the germs involved. The bacteria most frequently identified have been: S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, atypical agents also being suspected. Antibiotic treatment has been chosen accordingly to the recent guidelines, total clinical remission rate being of 91.08%, despite the increasing resistance for the commonly used antibiotics; a close monitoring of the phenomenon is mandatory. PMID:21495346

Sl?nin?, Ana-Maria; Filip, Olgu?a; Felea, Doina; Cosmescu, Adriana; Petroaie, Antoneta; Barbacariu, Liliana; Novac, Otilia; Manole, Mihaela; Silvia, M?t?saru

2009-01-01

358

Coeficiente de fricción por curvatura no intencional en Coeficiente de fricción por curvatura no intencional en concreto postensado concreto postensado Wobble friction coefficient in post-stressed concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was aimed at establishing a wobble friction coefficient (K) from records regarding some post-stressed bridges built in Colombia. Such records were arranged and analysed together with stress diagrams resulting from the corres- ponding plans, calculations and reports. Suitable records were produced from this review to make the analysis. Once the records had been selected, the probable wobble friction

Diego Ernesto; Dueñas Puentes; Maritzabel Molina Herrera

359

La Convencin sobre el Comercio Internacional de Especies Amenazadas de Fauna y Flora Silvestres (CITES, por sus siglas en ingls) es un acuerdo internacional firmado por  

E-print Network

garantizar que el comercio internacional de animales y plantas no amenace su supervivencia en la naturaleza. Los animales o plantas enu- merados en CITES que son tomados de alta mar --definido como "el entorno

360

Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

2014-01-01

361

Headspace profiles of modified atmosphere packaged fresh red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) by gas liquid chromatography  

E-print Network

of Pseudomonas spp. , Vibrio spp. , Achromobacter Moraxella spp. , and Coryneforms (Table 2), while warm-water fish carry mostly Micrococcus spp. , coryneforms, and Bacillus spp. Fish stored on ice Table 1. Total viable microbial numbers(20 C) from marine... '0 0 4 0 C Ul U 0 0 '0 0 0 QI C Ul U U! develop a microflora that is dominated by Pseudomonas spp. This was demonstrated by Adams et al. (1964). The microbial population of freshly caught sole (off the Northern California coast) consisted...

Scorah, Craig Darrell Allen

2012-06-07

362

Aerobic bacterial flora of oral and nasal fluids of canines with reference to bacteria associated with bites.  

PubMed Central

Oral and nasal fluids of 50 dogs were examined to determine the prevalence of aerobic bacteria frequently associated with animal bite wounds. The most frequently isolated microorganisms included: IIj, EF-4, Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, group D streptococci, Corynebacterium sp., Enterobacteria, Neisseria sp., Moraxella sp., and Bacillus sp. Other species and genera were infrequently recovered and may represent transient flora. The high incidence of IIj, EF-4, P. multocida, and S. aureus, all known human pathogens, suggests that they should be considered as probably contaminants in bite wounds. Images PMID:632349

Bailie, W E; Stowe, E C; Schmitt, A M

1978-01-01

363

Cultura de aula de matemática presente nas narrativas de formação por professores do ensino fundamental  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text is about th e research is inserted in the scope of the Project of Improvement of Public Teaching Representations of infancy and youth in school culture , supported by Fapesp, developed next to a municipal public school (Itatiba-SP). From a work shared with the teachers of this school, narratives of formation were produced by the teachers, allowing to

Valéria Galvão; França Cezari; Regina Célia Grando

364

Pneumopatia causada por Mycobacterium kansasii * Lung disease caused by Mycobacterium kansasii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introdução: O Mycobacterium kansasii é uma micobacté- ria não tuberculosa que pode causar colonização ou infecção pulmonar. Objetivo: Relatar experiência com doença pulmonar cau- sada pelo M. kansasii em uma série de seis pacientes diag- nosticados ao longo de cinco anos. Método: Entre junho de 1995 e junho de 2000 foram ad- mitidos 1.349 pacientes no Dispensário do Ipiranga Ari

NELSON MORRONE; NELSON MORRONE JUNIOR; CARLA GONÇALVES

2003-01-01

365

O EFEITO DA ESPLENECTOMIA SOBRE A OBESIDADE INDUZIDA POR GLUTAMATO MONOSSÓDICO(MSG).  

E-print Network

??Introdução: O excesso de tecido adiposo está associado a instalação da síndrome metabólica (SM), reunindo diversas alterações fisiológicas, tais como, intolerância a glicose, dislipidemia, hipertensão… (more)

ELISANGELA GUEIBER MONTES

2013-01-01

366

1/4 XXII CBEB 2010 MEDIO DA VARIABILIDADE DO VOLUME SISTLICO POR MEIO DE  

E-print Network

, ressonância magnética de fluxo, RMN, VFC, HRV. Introdução O débito cardíaco é o volume médio de sangue atividade do sistema nervoso autônomo, conectando a variabili- dade da freqüência cardíaca (VFC) às sinais de respiração, VFC e VVS. Materiais e Métodos A técnica proposta consiste em: (1) obter imagens de

Carvalho, João Luiz

367

XXIII Congresso Brasileiro em Engenharia Biomdica XXIII CBEB ANLISE MULTIDIMENSIONAL DA FADIGA MUSCULAR POR MEIO DE  

E-print Network

and spectral fatigue estimators in high-density surface electromyography, using topological maps (in with topological maps to represent the spatial information provided by the use of a 2D matrix of electrodes, allows

Carvalho, João Luiz

368

Integrantes Originales de la Comisin Central de RRHH La comisin estuvo conformada originalmente por  

E-print Network

Medicina. Sr. José Luís Figueroa Ayala, Subdirector de Administración y Finanzas de la Escuela Salud Rodríguez, Presidenta Asociación de Funcionarios Medicina Norte. Sr. Carlos Lazcano Morales, Director Humanos. Dra. Isabel Segovia Dreyer, Directora del Departamento de Atención Primaria y Salud Familiar. Sr

Rapaport, Iván

369

Expectativas profesionales de internos de medicina y su inclinación por la atención primaria de salud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Current availability of human resources in health is within international standards, but in our country distribution is not equitable and in inverse relation with central health problems. Objective: To determine professional expectations of medical interns and their inclination for primary health care. Design: Descriptive and transversal study, with randomized systematic sampling. Setting: Five Lima and Callao's national hospitals, during

Marco Ramírez

370

Infraestructura y Servicios a la Comunidad: Servicios por campus Cantoblanco Medicina  

E-print Network

Medicina Cafeterías y Comedores 15 1 16 Oficinas de correos 1 0 1 Sucursales bancarias ( * ) 3 0 3 Cajeros Centro Médico de Salud Laboral y un Centro Médico del Estudiante Fuente: Oficina de Servicios a la

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

371

Perfiles de densidad de galaxias 3-D y segregación por tipo espectral en grupos de galaxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have analysed the distribution of galaxies in groups identified in the largest redshift surveys available: the final release of the 2dF Galaxy Our work comprises the study of the galaxy density profiles and the fraction of galaxies per spectral type as a function of the group-centric distance. We have calculated the projected galaxy density profiles of groups using composite samples in order to increase the statistical significance of the results and we infer the 3-D galaxy density profiles using a deprojection method similar to the developed by Allen & Fabian. Special cares have been taken in order to avoid possible biases in the group identification and the construction of the projected galaxy density profile estimator due to the irregular sky coverage of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. We have adopted a generalized King profile to fit the obtained projected density profiles and use them to construct mock clusters and obtain the 3-D density profiles per spectral type. From the 3-D galaxy density profile we have estimated the 3-D fraction of galaxies per spectral type. Comparing with the fraction of galaxies computed using the projected profiles we observe a similar behavior of the galaxy spectral type segregation as the obtained by Domínguez et al. for groups in the early data release of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. As expected, the trends obtained for the 3-D galaxy fractions show steeper slopes.

Díaz, E.; Zandivarez, A.; Merchán, M. E.; Muriel, H.

372

"¿Por qué leemos esto en la clase de español?": The Politics of Teaching Literature in Spanglish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses what is at stake in teaching works written in "Spanglish" in Spanish departments and what teaching such works might mean for students and the scholarly community at large. This article primarily comes out of the author's experiences teaching "Spanglish" works in Spanish courses at a major research…

Postma, Regan L.

2013-01-01

373

Diferenças na seleção de hospedeiros de Fluvicolinae (Tyrannidae) por Molothrus ater e Molothrus bonariensis (Icteridae).  

E-print Network

??Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia, 2013. O parasitismo interespecífico de ninhada é uma estratégia reprodutiva em que… (more)

Souza, Nelma Martelli Toledo de

2013-01-01

374

EFEITOS DO ACOMPANHAMENTO DE HIPERTENSOS EM UM GRUPO DE CAMINHADA POR ACADÊMICOS DE ENFERMAGEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH) is one of the most common problems in adults, the main risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. The objective was to investigate the effects of monitoring of hypertensive patients in a walking group. In order to control the SAH of the coverage area. Used the methodology an experience report, attended by 27 women and one man, aged

Maria Alves Barbosa; Márcio Felipe; Bastos Coelho; Maisa de Sousa Santos; Mara Rubia; Sousa Barbosa; Marina Araújo Pessôa

2010-01-01

375

Fases lquido-cristalinas anisotrpicas Fases lamelares preparao de lipossomas por  

E-print Network

,25 0,50 0,75 1,00 Univestigated area VIII VII VI V IV III II I C16 TAPA6000 P-xylene Water CTAPA + água,00 0,00 0,25 0,50 0,75 1,00 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 hexagonal + p-xylene hexagonal inverted hexagonal + p-xylene 15 14 13 12 11 6 10 9 8 7 543 2 1 hexagonal inverted hexagonal+ lamellar or hexagonal + p-xylene

Loh, Watson

376

Tóxicos detectados en muertes relacionadas con fuegos e intoxicaciones por monóxido de carbono  

Microsoft Academic Search

Other toxics that also appeared were, among others, benzodi- azepines, butane, antidepressants and ethyl alcohol in variable concentrations but with the trend being higher in those cases where fire was involved, indicating some responsability of this toxic in the course of the event. Resumen: Se presentan en este trabajo las conclusiones del estudio realizado sobre los resultados de los análisis

J. Gómez; F. Valcarce

2003-01-01

377

Introduccin a la demostraccin asistida por ordenador con Isabelle/HOL  

E-print Network

Matemáticas), en concreto en los temas de deducción natural proposicional5 y de de primer orden6 En este nivel del Grado en Mate- máticas) y Programación declarativa8 (de 3o del Grado en Informática), en concreto

Alonso, José A.

378

ABSORCION DE NITROGENO POR CEBADA CERVECERA EN DOS SUELOS DEL SUR BONAERENSE, ARGENTINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

-1 (60N) were studied in a pot experiment in a glasshouse using urea labelled with 15 N applied at sowing to two soils: Bordenave (B, Typic Haplustoll), and Tres Arroyos (TA, Petrocalcic Argiudoll). Pots were destructively sampled at the fifth leaf, ear emergence, milky kernel and physiological maturity stages. Distribution of 15 N and 14 N in shoots and roots,

MA LAZZARI; MA CANTAMUTTO; RA ROSELL; FE MÖCKEL; ME ECHAGÜE

379

¿POR QUÉ LOS SUELOS VOLCÁNICOS NO SIGUEN LA ECUACIÓN DE TOPP?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transmission of an electromagnetic wave through the soil using Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) permits the determination of its water content, q, given the composite dielectric constant of the soil, ?c, via Topp's equation. This is possible since the dielectric constant of water is much larger than that of the soil's solid phase (80 vs. 5), and therefore changes in

C. M. Regalado; R. Muñoz Carpena; A. R. Socorro

380

BIODEGRADACIÓN DE DIESEL MEXICANO POR UN CONSORCIO DE BACTERIAS DE UN SUELO AGRÍCOLA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biodegradation of diesel in water was done by means of the microorganisms present in an agriculture soil. The kinetics of biodegradation and adsortion of diesel were determined in order to aplying the procedure in soil and water resources contamined with diesel. The mehodology and results of biodegradation and adsortion of diesel in sintetic water is presented with a soil

SANTIAGO CARDONA; ROSARIO ITURBE

2003-01-01

381

COMPACTACIÓN INDUCIDA POR EL TRÁNSITO VEHICULAR SOBRE UN SUELO EN PRODUCCIÓN HORTÍCOLA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field tests were carried out with the objective of characterizing the state of compaction in horticultural soil induced by traffic, after the development of a cabbage crop ( Brassica oleracea L. group capitata) cycle, and its incidence on yield. Measurements of penetration resistance, bulk density, and moisture content in soil were made and aeread biomass at the end of the

Antonino Marcelo Terminiello; Roberto Hernan; Jorge Alejandro Claverie; Juan Pablo Casado

382

PERDIDA DE NUTRIENTES POR EROSION HIDRICA EN DOS SUELOS DEL CALDENAL PAMPEANO  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 ). Losses of N and P were significantly higher in March than in September. In the bare soil, nutrient losses were higher in the Haplustoll than in the Ustipsamment, while with vegetation cover, erosion was of lesser importance, and similar for both soil types. Organic carbon was the soil constituent that suffered the highest losses due to water erosion.

EO ADEMA; FJ BABINEC; N PEINEMANN

383

22 BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. LIST O F WATER PLANTS POR CARP PONDS.  

E-print Network

minor, L. Lemna gibba, L. Widely diffused. America and Europe. Chiefly in Europe, but has been found.-sweet Flag. Calamus. LEMNACELE. Duckweed family. Common. Lemna triszclca, L.-Duckweed. Duck's-meat. Lenana

384

Recuperação de proteínas do soro de leite por meio de coacervação com polissacarídeo  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aimed to recover and fractionate milk whey proteins through the coacervation technique, using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) polysaccharide. Milk whey was obtained from the manufactured cheese type \\

Caroline Dário Capitani; Maria Teresa Bertoldo Pacheco; Homero Ferracini Gumerato; Alfredo Vitali; Flávio Luis Schmidt

2005-01-01

385

Estresse hídrico induzido por manitol em sementes de soja de diferentes tamanhos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first event in the germination sequence is imbibition. Water uptake limitation has an effect on germination velocity, decreasing or stopping this process. In water stress conditions seeds with different sizes may present different behaviour. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of hydric stress induced by mannitol on the physiological seed quality of soybean cultivar 'IAC-18'

Paulo Roberto Costa; Ceci Castilho Custódio; Nelson Barbosa Machado Neto; Oswaldo Massuo Marubayashi

2004-01-01

386

Manejo sustentable de los recursos naturales guiado por proyectos científicos en la mixteca poblana mexicana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable management of natural resources guided by scientific projects at the Mexican Mixteca Poblana. We raised the necessity of an effectively and fast transfer of the results obtained by researchers to inhabitants of the natural areas. This necessity is more peremptory in the case of the developing countries, and when researches work in the management of natural resources. It is

E. Baraza Ruiz; J. P. Estrella-Ruiz

2008-01-01

387

Couer: This image of a por tion of the sky was produced  

E-print Network

mission to Jupiter. At the same time, Voyager flight operations continued with an emphasis on planning involve Cal- tech faculty, and Campus research has led to projects undertaken at JPL. These ties are very projects in alter- native energy sources reached a stage where it was appropriate to transfer them

Waliser, Duane E.

388

16 FEBRUARY 2005 hree in the morning, too much coffee, and hours of por-  

E-print Network

was born in the late 1170s. MH: What was it like growing up in Pisa? LP: Pisa, Genoa, Amalfi, and Venice good, the merchants pret- ty much ruled the roost. They put kids to work early in those days; labor, even before that I learned to read. Hanging around merchants, peddlers, money-lenders, etc. I learned

Brown, Ezra

389

Violencia y prosocialidad en los contenidos televisivos infantiles visionados por menores  

E-print Network

the contents, beating antisocial behaviours treated with humour. Young children keep watching more adult TV-edukietan Violence and Prosociality in Children Television Contents Viewed by Children from Alicante Victoria Tur children programmes. We see gender differences on violence apprecial. Keywords: Television Contents

Escolano, Francisco

390

El Pacto por la Educación en Cataluña. La realidad y el deseo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Se examina en este artículo en qué medida el cambio de gobierno en la Generalitat de Cataluña a finales de 2003 supuso un giro en la política educativa de esta comunidad autóno- ma. Los tres partidos que entonces formaron gobierno concedieron en su programa una importancia destacada a la cuestión educativa. En los meses siguientes, se desarrolló un amplio

David Medina

391

Investigación y política educativa en el Perú: lecciones de los estudios promovidos por el CIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se ha intentado identificar y discutir, a partir de las investigaciones realizadas en el marco del Consorcio de Investigación Económica y Social (CIES) desde 1999, las lecciones o mensajes para la política educativa nacional. Siendo importante la cantidad de investigación realizada en este marco, ésta no es, sin embargo, toda la investigación que se ha producido. Se ha tratado de

Martín Benavides; José Rodríguez

2006-01-01

392

RESPONSABILIDADE CIVIL OBJETIVA DO ESTADO POR DANOS DECORRENTES DA MÁ CONSERVAÇÃO DAS VIAS PÚBLICAS 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O presente artigo visa demonstrar que é Responsabil idade do Estado a conservação das vias públicas e, se a Administração Pública não cumprir com a prestação dos serviços públicos, responderá pelos danos que decor rerem de sua omissão objetivamente, como prevê o § 6º do Art. 37 da Constituição Federa l. Ter as vias públicas conservadas garante a segurança

Patrícia Bispo Zanusso

393

S U M A R I O CARGAS DE HUNDIMIENTO POR PUNTA PARA PILOTES EN ROCA  

E-print Network

DE PROYECTOS DE INGENIERÍA CIVIL. Sarah Ruiz Arriaga y Manuel Ramón García Sánchez-Colomer 92) no se hace responsable de las opiniones, teorías o datos publicados en los artículos de Ingeniería Civil, siendo ello responsabilidad exclusiva de sus autores. COORDINACI�N DE PUBLICIDAD Manuel Pombo Martínez

Espigares, Tíscar

394

Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

395

La gestión del ruido ambiental provocado por infraestructuras de transporte: una aplicación para Euskadi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the damaging effects of noise on human health had been recognized since the seventies, the European Environmental Policy had been focused in specific transport emissions, such as the gases of the greenhouse effect or the suspension particles. It was the approval of the law by the European Board regarding ambient noise that marked the start of a new stage

David Hoyos Ramos

2010-01-01

396

Segregación educativa y la brecha salarial por género entre los recién graduados universitarios en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we show the importance of subject of degree in explaining the gender wage gap in Colombia. In order to minimize the influence of gender differences in experience, promotions, and job changes on the wage gap, we focus on college graduates who have a formal job and who have been in the labor market at most one year.

Laura Cepeda Emiliani; Juan D. Barón

2012-01-01

397

Avaliação da resistência à corrosão de aços inoxidáveis com Nb endurecíveis por precipitação  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precipitation hardening stainless steel was developed from 1945 in consequence of the aerospace industry needs. These steels possess substitutional martensitic microstructures that can be hardened by precipitation lately. On this work it was produced two steels with alternative compositions using Nb as a precipitate former, as well a steel PH13-8Mo for comparison purposes in terms of mechanical and corrosion resistance.

Luiz Carlos Casteletti; Frederico Augusto Pires Fernandes; Amadeu Lombardi-Neto; Carlos Alberto Picon; Germano Tremiliosi-Filho

2010-01-01

398

Evaluación del extracto lipofílico de Cucurbita pepo L. sobre la hiperplasia prostática inducida por andrógenos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Es conocido que el aceite extraído de semillas de C. pepo L. es rico en ácidos grasos insaturados, destacándose el linoleico (43-56 %) y el oleico (24-38 %). Además contiene tocoferoles beta y gamma (vitamina E) y carotenoides: luteolina y beta- caroteno. Otros componentes lipídicos son escualeno y esteroides (1%), entre los que destacan delta7-esteroles como alfa-espinasterol, delta7, (27)-estigmastatrien-3beta-ol, delta7-estigmastenol,

Juana Tillán Capó

399

Hiperplasia nodular regenerativa: hepatotoxicidad por azatioprina en un paciente con enfermedad de Crohn  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a 53-year-old man with Crohn's disease who developed azathioprine-induced nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver. The diagnosis was suspected when abnormalities in liver function tests were observed and transabdominal ultrasonography and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed signs of portal hypertension. The final diagnosis was established by liver biopsy, showing the characteristic alterations in liver architecture. Outcome

Cristina López-Martín; Enrique de la Fuente-Fernández; Paloma Corbatón; María Chaparro Sánchez; J. P. Gisbert

2011-01-01

400

Marchitez Bacteriana en Chile Bell Causada por Erwinia carotovora subsp carotovora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1998-1999 a new disease was detected in bell pepper plants in the horticultural region of La Cruz de Elota, Sinaloa, Mexico, causing an estimated damage of 10 to 60% in different areas. Plants become diseased at about 40 day after planting. The characteristic symptoms appear as a soft lesion at the crown which induces general wilting and death of

Raymundo Saúl García-Estrada; Claudia Juárez-Reyes; José Armando Carrillo; Raúl Allende-Molar; Isidro Márquez-Zequera; María Dolores Muy

2000-01-01

401

CORPO NOSSO DE CADA DIA: POR ONDE ELE ANDA, PARA ONDE ELE VAI?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through this text I intend to broach our everyday body, and its future perspectives, as a cultural production with distinct historical itineraries; a provisional result of diverse discourses and product of a sofisticated corporal technology. Also, I try to put in question how the phisical education, supported by a utilitarian and essentialist vision, has been helping to build our anatomies

Alex Branco Fraga

402

Análise de associações de major royal jelly protein 1 por cromatografia de exclusão molecular.  

E-print Network

??Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Pós-Graduação em Biologia Molecular, 2012. Polifenismo é a habilidade de um genoma expressar… (more)

Jorge, Humberto Gonczarowska

2012-01-01

403

Avaliação eletroquímica de juntas soldadas por fricção radial de aços inoxidáveis supermartensíticos.  

E-print Network

??Os aços inoxidáveis supermartensíticos são utilizados na indústria de petróleo e gás na construção de tubulações, cuja aplicação requer procedimentos de soldagem. Estes processos influenciam… (more)

Carlos Alberto Della Rovere

2007-01-01

404

CENS D'ALUMNES PER DEPARTAMENT CENSO DE ALUMNOS POR DEPARTAMENTO  

E-print Network

AMAT PAMIES, MARI CARMEN48685663E63 AMERIGO GILABERT, IRENE48670887N64 AMOR GARCIA, MARAVILLAS48697720G65 AMOROS DIEZ, INES15422246X66 AMOROS IBAÃ?EZ, LEONOR20473255N67 AMOROS PEREZ, ANA15423941A68 ANDRÃ?S

Escolano, Francisco

405

EFECTO DEL AMPERAJE EN LAS PROPIEDADES DE RECUBRIMIENTOS DUROS RESISTENTES A LA ABRASIÓN APLICADOS POR SOLDADURA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of amperage on microstructure, hardness and abrasive wear resistance of two Fe- based hardfacing alloys with high Cr and C was studied. Two and three layers of each hardfacing electrode were applied by SMAW process onto ASTM A36 steel plates. The abrasive wear resistance was calculated from the mass losses measured after abrasion tests, using a dry sand-rubber

HÉCTOR IVÁN; MONSALVE GIL

406

Estudos iniciais da poluicao por chumbo na Guanabara. (First studies of lead pollution in Guanabara).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main sources of direct lead intake are studied, and metal concentrations in several medium are examined. Lead was extracted by dithizone in C Cl(sub 4), being determined by optical spectrophotometry. (sub 2) (sub 1) (sub 2) Pb was used as a radioactiv...

C. L. Silveira Branquinho

1973-01-01

407

DESINFECCIÓN SOLAR DE AGUAS POR FOTÓLISIS Y FOTOCATÁLISIS: APLICACIÓN EN TUCUMÁN, ARGENTINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS) and Solar Heterogeneous Photocatalysis (FHS) are effective, inexpensive and easy to use methods in places that lack water mains and have scant resources. This work reports studies carried out to validate SODIS and FHS technologies for bacterial disinfection. In the latter case, TiO2 was used as a catalyst on different supports like PET bottles and porcelain

M. Litter; Energía Atómica

408

Determinação espectrofotométrica de dipirona em produtos farmacêuticos por injeção em fluxo pela geração de íons triiodeto  

Microsoft Academic Search

-1 (n = 10) with a detection limit (three-fold blank standard deviation\\/slope) of 6.0 x 10 -5 mol L -1 The feasibility of the system was demonstrated for the determination of metamizol in commercial samples with sixty results obtained per hour. The results obtained for metamizol in pharmaceutical formulations using the proposed flow procedure and those obtained using an iodimetric

Airton Vicente Pereira; Luciane Penckowski; Marcos Vosgerau; Michelli Fernanda Sassá; Orlando Fatibello Filho

2002-01-01

409

Home | Search | Employee Locator | Visitor Info | Library | Espaol | Site Overview Enfermedades provocadas por el  

E-print Network

detergentes también pueden causar urticarias y ampollas. El viento y el sol dejan la piel paspada y seca. Las, haga clic aquí. Dermatitis Dermatitis es el nombre médico para la piel inflamada e irritada. Muchos de

Bezrukov, Sergey M.

410

Utilización de la ventilación mecánica no invasiva en neumonía grave por virus H1N1  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe use of noninvasive mechanical ventilation was evaluated in our series of patients admitted to our ICU with pneumonia due to influenza A virus H1N1, assessing the need for intubation, arterial blood gases and clinical improvement, the development of complications and ICU and hospital stay.

A. Belenguer-Muncharaz; R. Reig-Valero; S. Altaba-Tena; P. Casero-Roig; A. Ferrándiz-Sellés

2011-01-01

411

Qualidade de vida e dimensão ocupacional na esquizofrenia: uma comparação por sexo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizophrenia has been associated with low quality of life in patients, and the impact can vary by gender. Knowing gender differences may help implement specific interventions. This study focuses on quality of life in male and fe- male outpatients with schizophrenia, particu- larly examining the occupational domain. A cross-sectional study using the Quality of Life Scale (QLS-BR) was carried out.

Clareci Silva Cardoso; Waleska Teixeira Caiaffa; Marina Bandeira; Arminda Lucia Siqueira; Mery Natali Silva Abreu; José Otávio Penido Fonseca

2006-01-01

412

El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

413

IMPLEMENTAÇÃO E ANÁLISE DE LOCALIZAÇÃO EM ROBÓTICA MÓVEL POR FILTRO DE KALMAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the verification of continuous positioning estimation for a mobile robot using four sensors (three sonars and one odometer). These estimations are performed by a computationally efficient algorithm, with recursive formulation called Kalman Filter. The robot has the capability of moving on static environments, knowing its initial position and all environment obstacles. According to this information, the Kalman

Claudiney Calixto da Silva; Juliano Augusto Pereira; Praça Marechal Eduardo Gomes

414

Por qué importan las instituciones. La banca y el crecimiento económico en México  

Microsoft Academic Search

If finance is crucial to growth, as a large literature has demonstrated, then why is there wide variance in financial development across countries? Why have governments not put the appropriate policies into place to encourage the development of banks and securities markets? This paper addresses this question by exploring the development of the Mexican banking system from the 1880s to

Stephen Haber

2006-01-01

415

Listado de cursos de verano por lugar de realizacin CAMPUS DE LA UA  

E-print Network

Proyección de la voz y lectura dramatizada Reparación de estructuras de hormigón Trastornos mentales y Cálculo de estructuras de hormigón armado con Cypecad ¿Cuáles son los derechos de los turistas y cómo se

Escolano, Francisco

416

Función pulmonar pre y post operatoria en bypass gástrico laparotómico y laparoscópico por obesidad mórbida .  

E-print Network

??Introducción: La obesidad está asociada a múltiples comorbilidades, entre ellas la patología respiratoria, que puede verse incrementada después de realizar cirugía bariátrica. Objetivo: Evaluar en… (more)

Burgos L., Ana María

2008-01-01

417

SINTESIS Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE PEROVSKITAS DE LaCoO3 POR EL MÉTODO CITRATO  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work were synthesized LaCoO3 perovskites by the citrate method at temperatures lower than 650ºC and calcination temperatures lower than 5 hours. Perovskite precursors were characte- rized by FT- IR, crystalline structure were analyzed by X ray diffraction after calcinations process and morphology was evaluated by scanning electronic microscopy SEM. It was verified by FT - IR that complex

J. M. Rendón Ramírez; L. C. Moreno Aldana; J. S. Valencia Ríos

418

EVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO POR CONTAMINANTES CRITERIO Y FORMALDEHÍDO EN LA CIUDAD DE MÉXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

An environmental risk assessment study for Mexico City on criteria pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2 and PM10) and formaldehyde (HCHO) is presented. The methodology for non-carcinogenic effects is based on the Hazard Index and for carcinogenic effects is based on the life cancer probability and life loss expectancy (LLE). These quantitative estimates, which can be applied in other cities, have the

José Agustín GARCÍA-REYNOSO; Michel GRUTTER; Daniel CINTORA-JUÁREZ

419

Paciente intervenido de aneurisma de aorta abdominal por técnica quirúrgica endovascular. Caso clínico  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aneurysm is an abnormal dilation or irreversible convex of a portion of an artery. The most common site of aneurysms is the abdominal aorta and their appearance is often due to degeneration of the arterial wall, associated with atherosclerosis and favored by risk factors such as smoking and hypertension, among others. Left untreated, aneurysm of the abdominal aorta usually

Ana Rosa Alconero-Camarero; José Luis Cobo-Sánchez; María Casaus-Pérez; María Elena García-Campo; María José Garcia-Zarrabeitia; Marta Calvo-Diez; Luz Elena Mirones-Valdeolivas

2008-01-01

420

Brote familiar de infección por Mycoplasma pneumoniae A FAMILIAR OUTBREAK OF Mycoplasma pneumoniae INFECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the cases of 3 children and their mother, with a respiratory disease by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Diagnosis was made in 4 weeks. They all present respiratory symptoms, in different degrees of severity. Chest X rays show basal infiltrate in the children and no alteration in the mother. Serology for Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Ig M) was positive in two kids and

JUAN GARCÍA GUERRERO; TANIA SOLÍS MEZARINO; GIAN MENDIOLA BARRIOS

421

ARRITMIAS VENTRICULARES INDUCIDAS POR LA MALFUNCIÓN DE MARCAPASOS TEMPORALES EN PACIENTES CON INFARTO VENTRICULAR DERECHO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transvenous temporary pacemakers (TTP) can provoke ventricular arrhythmias, especially during their implant, while the electrode is being manipulated to be situated in the ventricular cavity. This complication is described in the biomedical and nursing bibliography. On rare occasions TTP can induce late ventricular arrhythmias secondary to generator dysfunction. We present three patients with acute myocardial infarc- tion (AMI) with right

García-Velasco Sánchez-Morago S; Puebla Martín A; Puebla Martín MA

422

Mapeamento da cobertura vegetal natural e antrópica do bioma Cerrado por meio de imagens Landsat ETM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cerrado biome occupies 204,7 million hectares in the central part of Brazil. Mapping its land cover from satellite remote sensing is challenging because of its geographic extension, marked seasonality, highly dynamic and intensive land occupation, and spectral confusion between some natural and anthropogenic classes (e.g., natural grasslands and cultivated pastures). The goal of this study was to produce 1:250,000

Edson Eyji Sano; Roberto Rosa; Jorge Luís; Silva Brito; Laerte Guimarães Ferreira; Heleno da Silva Bezerra

423

Narcotráfico y conflicto: ¿por qué bajó el precio de la cocaína?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combining the approaches of Ortiz and Mejía et al., this paper proposes a new model of drug trafficking and conflict. In a general equilibrium framework, an explanation of the downward trend in the price of cocaine over the last two decades is developed. The model shows that the main factor causing this trend is the increase in productivity in the

Leonardo Raffo López

2010-01-01

424

Estudio multicéntrico de factores pronósticos en adultos hospitalizados por neumonía adquirida en la comunidad .  

E-print Network

??Background: Severity assessment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients allows the clinician to decide the place of management and guide empirical antimicrobial treatment. Aim: To assess… (more)

Gil D., Rodrigo

2006-01-01

425

The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)

Fidler, Geoffrey C.

1985-01-01

426

Tomografía por impedancia eléctrica. Estandarización del procedimiento para su aplicación en neumología  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following conditions are optimal for obtaining an adequate number of informative images by electric impedance tomography: a) patient seated or standing with hands at the nape of the neck; b) breathing at rest; c) recording of at least 300 images (at a frequency of 10 Hz), and d) readings taken at the sixth intercostal space.

Bruno de Lema; Pere Casana; Pere Riu

2006-01-01

427

Limitaciones tecnológicas de la tomografía por emisión de positrones (PET) para pequeños animales de laboratorio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualization and quantification of organ function by PET in small laboratory animals is becoming an outstanding tool for characterization of phenotype of transgenic and knock-out animals, for the study of animal models of human diseases, and for the development of new therapeutic drugs and diagnostic biochemical probes. To be able to make use of the PET with small laboratory animals

J. J. Vaquero; M. Desco

2005-01-01

428

Medición del patrón ventilatorio mediante tomografía por impedancia eléctrica en pacientes con EPOC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and ObjectiveThe measurement of breathing pattern in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by electrical impedance tomography (EIT) requires the use of a mathematical calibration model incorporating not only anthropometric characteristics (previously evaluated in healthy individuals) but probably functional alterations associated with COPD as well. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between EIT measurements

Marco Balleza; Núria Calaf; Teresa Feixas; Mercedes González; Daniel Antón; Pere J. Riu; Pere Casan

2009-01-01

429

Carcinoma de células de Merkel, leucemia linfática crónica y tomografía por emisión de positrones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an infrequent neuroendocrine tumor of the skin with a high potential for local recurrence, lymphatic dissemination and distant dissemination. We present a case of MCC in a male patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The immunosuppression induced by the leukemia or by the chemotherapy could play a pathogenic role in the association of these diseases.

Iván Cervigón; Ana B. Gargallo; Constanza Bahillo; José L. Martínez-Amo; Juan L. Orradre; Vicente Muñoz-Madero; Domingo García-Almagro

2006-01-01

430

Aplicaciones clínicas de la coronariografía por tomografía computarizada multicorte: ¿qué sabemos y qué más podemos saber?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical applications of computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) are constantly evolving. Initially employed to quantify coronary artery calcification, multidetector CT also makes it possible to evaluate the anatomy and anatomical variations of coronary circulation, rule out coronary disease, and follow up surgical and percutaneous revascularization procedures. Moreover, CTCA may potentially be useful to quantify ventricular function, characterize non-calcified atherosclerotic

G. Bastarrika; U. J. Schoepf

2009-01-01

431

Plantas visitadas por abelhas africanizadas em duas localidades do estado de São Paulo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge of plants from a given region, as well as the blooming period and the pollen characteristics, help for the determination of the plant species which contribute for the honey composition. Plants visited by honey bees were listed during the period 1994 to 1997. The survey was carried out weekly, at different times and within a 300 m radius

Luís Carlos Marchini; Augusta Carolina de Camargo Carmell Moreti; Erica Weinstein Teixeira; Etelvina Conceição Almeida da Silva; Ricardo Ribeiro Rodrigues; Vinicius Castro Souza

2001-01-01

432

Abuso sexual por parte de los empleados del colegio (Sexual Misconduct by School Employees). ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest in Spanish defines sexual misconduct and offers guidelines that school boards and administrators can initiate to protect students from unwanted sexual behavior. The law recognizes two types of sexual misconduct: quid pro quo, when a school employee grants a student a favor in exchange for sexual gratification, and hostile environment,…

Goorian, Brad

433

arco de canto multiansas (multiloop edgewise archwire: meaw) ¿por qué multiloop? a spectos clínicos y biomecánica  

Microsoft Academic Search

resumen La utilización del loop en los tratamientos con aparatolo- gía fija, usando alambres rectangulares, en el contexto de una filosofía de diagnóstico y tratamiento basada en el crecimiento dinámico del complejo maxilofacial, ha pro- vocado un creciente interés entre los clínicos y los investi- gadores. Se destacan en este campo, el profesor Youg Kim, presidente de Mea w Foundation

Ricardo Voss

2008-01-01

434

Producao d Dijatos por Dupla Troca de Pomeron Exclusiva no Experimento D0  

SciTech Connect

The first search for exclusive diffractive dijet production with invariant mass {approx}> 100 GeV in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is performed. The set of data used is the Run IIa, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV taken with the D0 detector. At 95% CL, an upper limit for the ratio between the number of diffractive exclusive events and the number of non diffractive events is set to be 7.5 x 10{sup -6}, excluding two of the three models proposed to explain this production.

Rangel, Murilo, Santana; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF

2008-10-01

435

"Por Los Ojos De Madres": Latina Mothers' Understandings of College Readiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, data from six focus groups with 30 Latina mothers in South Texas were analyzed utilizing a "funds of knowledge" approach to uncover their understandings of college readiness and their role in ensuring their children are college ready. Findings indicate that Latina mothers perceived college readiness in a holistic fashion,…

Cortez, Laura Jean; Martinez, Melissa Ann; Sáenz, Victor B.

2014-01-01

436

USO DA TERRA NA BACIA DO RIO DOURADOS, MS, POR MEIO DE IMAGENS LANDSAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Com o objetivo de mapear o uso da terra na Bacia do Rio Dourados, foram utilizadas imagens Landsat 7-TM, fusionadas nas bandas Red (R), Green (G) e Blue (B) de 30m, juntamente com a banda Pancromática (PAN) com resolução de 15m, classificadas pelo método supervisionado do software Spring \\/INPE. Concluiu-se que: A vegetação nativa remanescente (mata, cerrado, capoeira e

Omar Daniel; Cristiane de Oliveira Veronesi; Leidiane Silva; Evandro Gelain

437

DETERMINACIÓN DEL CALOR DE RESPIRACIÓN DE FRUTAS POR EL MÉTODO DE TITULACIÓN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The respiration heating of fruits, specially in apples, was the principal objective of the present work by starting with a titration method. An alkaline solution of titration is used by this method where air exempt of CO2 is circulating through a drier to hold the fruit to be studied at a determined temperature. Then, it is bubbled by an alkaline

Juana Montes; Segundo Arévalo

438

DESENVOLVIMENTO DE LIGAS FERROSAS PARA SOLDA DE REVESTIMENTO DURO AUXILIADO POR SIMULAÇÕES TERMODINÂMICAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermodynamic model is used to investigate the solidification of a hardfacing material in Fe-Cr-C-Nb system and, developed for cladding components subjected to severe abrasive wear by welding. Microstructural characterization of the alloy showed that the theoretical simulations carried out to predict the amount and volume fraction of the phases using the module Scheil of MT-DATA Software presented very realistic

Edmilson Otoni Correa; Nelson Guedes de Alcântara; Dorival Gonçalves Tecco; Ramachandran Vasant Kumar

439

El efecto invernadero producido por el CO2 atmosférico: una nueva interpretación termodinámica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glasshouse effect caused by atmospheric CO2: a new thermodynamic interpretation: At present times the use of models to simulate and predict the climate change and its consequences on global ecological processes has contributed to a better understanding of the phenomena in several disciplines. However, there is evidence that current models fail to simulate a number of well known climatic

EDUARDO R ABRIL

440

Bacterial contamination of water in dental unit reservoirs.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was bacteriological assessment of water in dental unit reservoirs--concentration and composition of the aerobe and facultative anaerobe bacterial microflora. Reservoir water samples were taken from 25 units. Bacterial flora were determined with the plate culture method. Bacteria were identified with biochemical microtests: API 20E, API 20NE (bioMérieux, France) and GP2 MicroPlateTM (BIOLOG, USA). The concentration of total bacteria isolated from one site was 201,039 cfu/ml, on average; the minimum was 22,300 cfu/ml, and the maximum - 583,000 cfu/ml. The following bacteria were identified: Gram-negative bacteria--Brevundimonas vesicularis, Moraxella lacunata, Moraxella spp., Ralstonia pickettii, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia; Gram-positive cocci--Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus lylae, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus hominis ss novobiosepticus, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp.; actinomycetes--Streptomyces albus. The prevailing bacteria were: Ralstonia pickettii (96.46%), found in all the units. Sphingomonas paucimobilis (1.32%) and Brevundimonas vesicularis (1.07%) were the next most frequently occurring bacteria. Bacteria concentration in dental unit reservoirs reached excessive values, and the bacterial flora were composed of the bacteria characteristic for water supply systems, opportunistic pathogens, and bacteria of the oral cavity flora. Continuous microbiological monitoring of the DUWL water, including application of a disinfecting procedure, is necessary. PMID:17655191

Szyma?ska, Jolanta

2007-01-01