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  1. The GAMA Panchromatic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driver, Simon P.

    2013-07-01

    The Galaxy And Mass Assembly Survey (GAMA) has now been operating for almost 5 years gathering spectroscopic redshifts for five regions of sky spanning 300 sq degrees in total to a depth of r < 19.8 mag. The survey has amassed over 225,000 redshifts making it the third largest redshift campaign after the SDSS and BOSS surveys. The survey has two novel features that set it apart: (1) complete and uniform sampling to a fixed flux limit (r < 19.8 mag) regardless of galaxy clustering due to multiple-visits to each sky region, enabling the construction of high-fidelity catalogues of groups and pairs, (2) co-ordination with diverse imaging campaigns which together sample an extremely broad range along the electro-magnetic spectrum from the UV (GALEX) through optical (VST KIDs), near-IR (VISTA VIKING), mid-IR (WISE), far-IR (Herschel-Atlas), 1m (GMRT), and eventually 20cm continuum and rest-frame 21cm line measurements (ASKAP DINGO). Apart from the ASKAP campaign all multi-wavelength programmes are either complete or in the final stages of observations and the UV-far-IR data are expected to be fully merged by the end of 2013. This article provides a brief flavour of the coming panchromatic database which will eventually include measurements or upper-limits across 27 wavebands for 380,000 galaxies. GAMA DR2 is scheduled for the end of January 2013.

  2. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driver, Simon P.; GAMA Team; Baldry, I. K.; Bamford, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bridges, T.; Cameron, E.; Conselice, C.; Couch, W. J.; Croom, S.; Cross, N. J. G.; Driver, S. P.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; Edmondson, E.; Ellis, S. C.; Frenk, C. S.; Graham, A. W.; Jones, H.; Hill, D.; Hopkins, A.; van Kampen, E.; Kuijken, K.; Lahav, O.; Liske, J.; Loveday, J.; Nichol, B.; Norberg, P.; Oliver, S.; Parkinson, H.; Peacock, J. A.; Phillipps, S.; Popescu, C. C.; Prescott, M.; Proctor, R.; Sharp, R.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Sutherland, W.; Tuffs, R. J.; Warren, S.

    2009-03-01

    The GAMA survey aims to deliver 250,000 optical spectra (3-7 Å resolution) over 250 sq. degrees to spectroscopic limits of rAB < 19.8 and KAB < 17.0 mag. Complementary imaging will be provided by GALEX, VST, UKIRT, VISTA, HERSCHEL and ASKAP to comparable flux levels leading to a definitive multi-wavelength galaxy database. The data will be used to study all aspects of cosmic structures on 1kpc to 1Mpc scales spanning all environments and out to a redshift limit of z ≈ 0.4. Key science drivers include the measurement of: the halo mass function via group velocity dispersions; the stellar, HI, and baryonic mass functions; galaxy component mass-size relations; the recent merger and star-formation rates by mass, types and environment. Detailed modeling of the spectra, broad SEDs, and spatial distributions should provide individual star formation histories, ages, bulge-disc decompositions and stellar bulge, stellar disc, dust disc, neutral HI gas and total dynamical masses for a significant subset of the sample (~ 100k) spanning both the giant and dwarf galaxy populations. The survey commenced March 2008 with 50k spectra obtained in 21 clear nights using the Anglo Australian Observatory's new multi-fibre-fed bench-mounted dual-beam spectroscopic system (AAΩ).

  3. GAMA: Stellar Mass Assembly in Galaxy Bulges and Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffett, Amanda J.; Driver, Simon P.; Lange, Rebecca; Robotham, Aaron; Kelvin, Lee; GAMA Team

    2016-01-01

    The Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey has to date obtained spectra, redshifts, and 21-band multi-facility photometry for over 200,000 galaxies in five survey regions that total nearly 300 square degrees on sky. We consider here a low-redshift (z<0.06), volume-limited subsample of ~8,000 GAMA galaxies that have been morphologically classified by the survey team. In order to quantify the separate bulge and disk properties of these galaxies, we apply a large-scale automated procedure for fitting images with 2D, multi-component structure models, including evaluation of fit convergence using a grid of input parameter values for each galaxy. From this analysis, we calculate the total bulge and disk contributions to the local galaxy stellar mass budget and derive mass-size relations for both pure spheroid/disk systems and the separate bulge/disk components of multi-component galaxies. We further examine the fraction of total stellar mass assembled in spheroid and disk structures as a function of galaxy environment, where environment is quantified on multiple scales from membership in large-scale filaments to groups/clusters and down to local pairings. We then discuss the effect of environmental conditions on the mechanisms of stellar mass assembly, including the implied balance between merger accumulation and in situ mass growth in different environment regimes.

  4. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): survey diagnostics and core data release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driver, S. P.; Hill, D. T.; Kelvin, L. S.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Liske, J.; Norberg, P.; Baldry, I. K.; Bamford, S. P.; Hopkins, A. M.; Loveday, J.; Peacock, J. A.; Andrae, E.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cameron, E.; Ching, J. H. Y.; Colless, M.; Conselice, C. J.; Croom, S. M.; Cross, N. J. G.; de Propris, R.; Dye, S.; Drinkwater, M. J.; Ellis, S.; Graham, Alister W.; Grootes, M. W.; Gunawardhana, M.; Jones, D. H.; van Kampen, E.; Maraston, C.; Nichol, R. C.; Parkinson, H. R.; Phillipps, S.; Pimbblet, K.; Popescu, C. C.; Prescott, M.; Roseboom, I. G.; Sadler, E. M.; Sansom, A. E.; Sharp, R. G.; Smith, D. J. B.; Taylor, E.; Thomas, D.; Tuffs, R. J.; Wijesinghe, D.; Dunne, L.; Frenk, C. S.; Jarvis, M. J.; Madore, B. F.; Meyer, M. J.; Seibert, M.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Sutherland, W. J.; Warren, S. J.

    2011-05-01

    The Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey has been operating since 2008 February on the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope using the AAOmega fibre-fed spectrograph facility to acquire spectra with a resolution of R≈ 1300 for 120 862 Sloan Digital Sky Survey selected galaxies. The target catalogue constitutes three contiguous equatorial regions centred at 9h (G09), 12h (G12) and 14.5h (G15) each of 12 × 4 deg2 to limiting fluxes of rpet < 19.4, rpet < 19.8 and rpet < 19.4 mag, respectively (and additional limits at other wavelengths). Spectra and reliable redshifts have been acquired for over 98 per cent of the galaxies within these limits. Here we present the survey footprint, progression, data reduction, redshifting, re-redshifting, an assessment of data quality after 3 yr, additional image analysis products (including ugrizYJHK photometry, Sérsic profiles and photometric redshifts), observing mask and construction of our core survey catalogue (GamaCore). From this we create three science-ready catalogues: GamaCoreDR1 for public release, which includes data acquired during year 1 of operations within specified magnitude limits (2008 February to April); GamaCoreMainSurvey containing all data above our survey limits for use by the GAMA Team and collaborators; and GamaCoreAtlasSV containing year 1, 2 and 3 data matched to Herschel-ATLAS science demonstration data. These catalogues along with the associated spectra, stamps and profiles can be accessed via the GAMA website:

  5. A Toxoplasma gondii Ortholog of Plasmodium GAMA Contributes to Parasite Attachment and Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, Vern B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii and its Plasmodium kin share a well-conserved invasion process, including sequential secretion of adhesive molecules for host cell attachment and invasion. However, only a few orthologs have been shown to be important for efficient invasion by both genera. Bioinformatic screening to uncover potential new players in invasion identified a previously unrecognized T. gondii ortholog of Plasmodium glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored micronemal antigen (TgGAMA). We show that TgGAMA localizes to the micronemes and is processed into several proteolytic products within the parasite prior to secretion onto the parasite surface during invasion. TgGAMA from parasite lysate bound to several different host cell types in vitro, suggesting a role in parasite attachment. Consistent with this function, tetracycline-regulatable TgGAMA and TgGAMA knockout strains showed significant reductions in host cell invasion at the attachment step, with no defects in any of the other stages of the parasite lytic cycle. Together, the results of this work reveal a new conserved component of the adhesive repertoire of apicomplexan parasites. IMPORTANCE Toxoplasma gondii is a successful human pathogen in the same phylum as malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites. Invasion of a host cell is an essential process that begins with secretion of adhesive proteins onto the parasite surface for attachment and subsequent penetration of the host cell. Conserved invasion proteins likely play roles that were maintained through the divergence of these parasites. Here, we identify a new conserved invasion protein called glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored micronemal antigen (GAMA). Tachyzoites lacking TgGAMA were partially impaired in parasite attachment and invasion of host cells, yielding the first genetic evidence of a specific role in parasite entry into host cells. These findings widen our appreciation of the repertoire of conserved proteins that apicomplexan parasites employ for

  6. California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project--shallow aquifer assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    The California State Water Resources Control Board’s (SWRCB) GAMA Program is a comprehensive assessment of statewide groundwater quality in California. From 2004 to 2012, the GAMA Program’s Priority Basin Project focused on assessing groundwater resources used for public drinking-water supplies. More than 2,000 public-supply wells were sampled by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for this effort. Starting in 2012, the GAMA Priority Basin Project began an assessment of water resources in shallow aquifers in California. These shallow aquifers provide water for domestic and small community-supply wells, which are often drilled to shallower depths in the groundwater system than public-supply wells. Shallow aquifers are of interest because shallow groundwater may respond more quickly and be more susceptible to contamination from human activities at the land surface, than the deeper aquifers. The SWRCB’s GAMA Program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 (Water Code sections 10780-10782.3): a public mandate to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supplies, and to increase the availability of information about groundwater quality to the public. The U.S. Geological Survey is the technical lead of the Priority Basin Project. Stewardship of California’s groundwater resources is a responsibility shared between well owners, communities, and the State. Participants and collaborators in the GAMA Program include Regional Water Quality Control Boards, Department of Water Resources, Department of Public Health, local and regional groundwater management entities, county and local water agencies, community groups, and private citizens. Well-owner participation in the GAMA Program is entirely voluntary.

  7. Galaxy and mass assembly (GAMA): Mid-infrared properties and empirical relations from WISE

    SciTech Connect

    Cluver, M. E.; Jarrett, T. H.; Hopkins, A. M.; Gunawardhana, M. L. P.; Bauer, A. E.; Lara-López, M. A.; Driver, S. P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Liske, J.; Taylor, E. N.; Alpaslan, M.; Baldry, I.; Brown, M. J. I.; Peacock, J. A.; Popescu, C. C.; Tuffs, R. J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Colless, M.; Holwerda, B. W.; Leschinski, K.; and others

    2014-02-20

    The Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey furnishes a deep redshift catalog that, when combined with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), allows us to explore for the first time the mid-infrared properties of >110, 000 galaxies over 120 deg{sup 2} to z ≅ 0.5. In this paper we detail the procedure for producing the matched GAMA-WISE catalog for the G12 and G15 fields, in particular characterizing and measuring resolved sources; the complete catalogs for all three GAMA equatorial fields will be made available through the GAMA public releases. The wealth of multiwavelength photometry and optical spectroscopy allows us to explore empirical relations between optically determined stellar mass (derived from synthetic stellar population models) and 3.4 μm and 4.6 μm WISE measurements. Similarly dust-corrected Hα-derived star formation rates can be compared to 12 μm and 22 μm luminosities to quantify correlations that can be applied to large samples to z < 0.5. To illustrate the applications of these relations, we use the 12 μm star formation prescription to investigate the behavior of specific star formation within the GAMA-WISE sample and underscore the ability of WISE to detect star-forming systems at z ∼ 0.5. Within galaxy groups (determined by a sophisticated friends-of-friends scheme), results suggest that galaxies with a neighbor within 100 h {sup –1} kpc have, on average, lower specific star formation rates than typical GAMA galaxies with the same stellar mass.

  8. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): merging galaxies and their properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Propris, Roberto; Baldry, Ivan K.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Driver, Simon P.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kelvin, Lee; Loveday, Jon; Phillipps, Steve; Robotham, Aaron S. G.

    2014-11-01

    We derive the close pair fractions and volume merger rates for galaxies in the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey with -23 < Mr < -17 (ΩM = 0.27, ΩΛ = 0.73, H0 = 100 km s-1 Mpc-1) at 0.01 < z < 0.22 (look-back time of <2 Gyr). The merger fraction is approximately 1.5 per cent Gyr-1 at all luminosities (assuming 50 per cent of pairs merge) and the volume merger rate is ≈3.5 × 10-4 Mpc-3 Gyr-1. We examine how the merger rate varies by luminosity and morphology. Dry mergers (between red/spheroidal galaxies) are found to be uncommon and to decrease with decreasing luminosity. Fainter mergers are wet, between blue/discy galaxies. Damp mergers (one of each type) follow the average of dry and wet mergers. In the brighter luminosity bin (-23 < Mr < -20), the merger rate evolution is flat, irrespective of colour or morphology, out to z ˜ 0.2. The makeup of the merging population does not appear to change over this redshift range. Galaxy growth by major mergers appears comparatively unimportant and dry mergers are unlikely to be significant in the buildup of the red sequence over the past 2 Gyr. We compare the colour, morphology, environmental density and degree of activity (BPT class, Baldwin, Phillips & Terlevich) of galaxies in pairs to those of more isolated objects in the same volume. Galaxies in close pairs tend to be both redder and slightly more spheroid dominated than the comparison sample. We suggest that this may be due to `harassment' in multiple previous passes prior to the current close interaction. Galaxy pairs do not appear to prefer significantly denser environments. There is no evidence of an enhancement in the AGN fraction in pairs, compared to other galaxies in the same volume.

  9. GAMA/H-ATLAS: common star formation rate indicators and their dependence on galaxy physical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Norberg, P.; Gunawardhana, M. L. P.; Heinis, S.; Baldry, I. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bourne, N.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cluver, M. E.; Cooray, A.; da Cunha, E.; Driver, S. P.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Grootes, M. W.; Holwerda, B. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R.; Lacey, C.; Lara-Lopez, M. A.; Loveday, J.; Maddox, S. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Oteo, I.; Owers, M. S.; Popescu, C. C.; Smith, D. J. B.; Taylor, E. N.; Tuffs, R. J.; van der Werf, P.

    2016-09-01

    We compare common star formation rate (SFR) indicators in the local Universe in the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) equatorial fields (˜160 deg2), using ultraviolet (UV) photometry from GALEX, far-infrared and sub-millimetre (sub-mm) photometry from Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey, and Hα spectroscopy from the GAMA survey. With a high-quality sample of 745 galaxies (median redshift = 0.08), we consider three SFR tracers: UV luminosity corrected for dust attenuation using the UV spectral slope β (SFRUV, corr), Hα line luminosity corrected for dust using the Balmer decrement (BD) (SFRH α, corr), and the combination of UV and infrared (IR) emission (SFRUV + IR). We demonstrate that SFRUV, corr can be reconciled with the other two tracers after applying attenuation corrections by calibrating Infrared excess (IRX; i.e. the IR to UV luminosity ratio) and attenuation in the Hα (derived from BD) against β. However, β, on its own, is very unlikely to be a reliable attenuation indicator. We find that attenuation correction factors depend on parameters such as stellar mass (M*), z and dust temperature (Tdust), but not on Hα equivalent width or Sérsic index. Due to the large scatter in the IRX versus β correlation, when compared to SFRUV + IR, the β-corrected SFRUV, corr exhibits systematic deviations as a function of IRX, BD and Tdust.

  10. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): detection of low-surface-brightness galaxies from SDSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Richard P.; Baldry, I. K.; Kelvin, L. S.; James, P. A.; Driver, S. P.; Prescott, M.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Davies, L. J. M.; Holwerda, B. W.; Liske, J.; Norberg, P.; Moffett, A. J.; Wright, A. H.

    2016-09-01

    We report on a search for new low-surface-brightness galaxies (LSBGs) using Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data within the GAMA equatorial fields. The search method consisted of masking objects detected with SDSS PHOTO, combining gri images weighted to maximise the expected signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and smoothing the images. The processed images were then run through a detection algorithm that finds all pixels above a set threshold and groups them based on their proximity to one another. The list of detections was cleaned of contaminants such as diffraction spikes and the faint wings of masked objects. From these, selecting potentially the brightest in terms of total flux, a list of 343 LSBGs was produced having been confirmed using VISTA Kilo-degree Infrared Galaxy Survey (VIKING) imaging. The photometry of this sample was refined using the deeper VIKING Z band as the aperture-defining band. Measuring their g - i and J - K colours shows that most are consistent with being at redshifts less than 0.2. The photometry is carried out using an AUTO aperture for each detection giving surface brightnesses of μr ≳ 25 mag arcsec-2 and magnitudes of r > 19.8 mag. None of these galaxies are bright enough to be within the GAMA main survey limit but could be part of future deeper surveys to measure the low-mass end of the galaxy stellar mass function.

  11. Galex-Gama Near-Ir Observations of ~100K Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuffs, Richard

    We propose a MIS survey (59 pointings) with GALEX of the 108 square degrees covered by the Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey (GAMA). GAMA is a multiwavelength (ugrizYJHK FIR/submm) imaging, spectroscopic (370-880nm and 21cm HI) survey of the nearby galaxy population (125k galaxies out to z~0.25), covering 144 sq. deg. of the equatorial sky using the 3.9m Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) Dedicated observations of the fields are underway or guaranteed with AAT (66 nights), UKIRT (30 nights), VST (60 nights) VISTA (45 nights) Herschel (200 hours) and the Australian Square Kiliometre Array Pathfinder ASKAP (equivalent one year observing time). Redshifts have already been obtained for 50,271 galaxies in the initial observing campaign during March 2008, The spectroscopic depth of GAMA is well matched to the imaging depth of GALEX in MIS mode for normal spiral galaxies, providing an optimum basis for the study of a deep volume-limited sample of the local population of spiral and dwarf galaxies in the UV to test the CDM paradigm. In particular, the very high redshift density (12 x that of the SDSS) is ideal to probe structure traced by UV-emitting galaxies on the sub Mpc scales on which on which dark matter halos virialize and merge, and baryons decouple, collapse and eventually start forming into the stars detectable in UV light by GALEX in, and around the periphery of, the complex visible structures that are galaxies. In particular, we will be in a position to compare and contrast the UV LF of field galaxies with the LF of galaxies in clusters and groups as a function of the depth of the gravitational potential in the parent dark matter halos, as probed by the dispersion of galaxian velocities in the groups and clusters. This will constrain the efficiency of conversion of baryons into stars as a function of halo mass.

  12. California GAMA Program: A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Bakersfield Area

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-11-01

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MTBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2003, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basin that underlies Bakersfield, in the southern San Joaquin Valley. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements help determine the recharge water

  13. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Accurate Panchromatic Photometry from Optical Priors using LAMBDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, A. H.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Bourne, N.; Driver, S. P.; Dunne, L.; Maddox, S. J.; Alpaslan, M.; Andrews, S. K.; Bauer, A. E.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cluver, M.; Davies, L. J. M.; Holwerda, B. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Jarrett, T. H.; Kafle, P. R.; Lange, R.; Liske, J.; Loveday, J.; Moffett, A. J.; Norberg, P.; Popescu, C. C.; Smith, M.; Taylor, E. N.; Tuffs, R. J.; Wang, L.; Wilkins, S. M.

    2016-04-01

    We present the Lambda Adaptive Multi-band Deblending Algorithm in R (LAMBDAR), a novel code for calculating matched aperture photometry across images that are neither pixel- nor PSF-matched, using prior aperture definitions derived from high resolution optical imaging. The development of this program is motivated by the desire for consistent photometry and uncertainties across large ranges of photometric imaging, for use in calculating spectral energy distributions. We describe the program, specifically key features required for robust determination of panchromatic photometry: propagation of apertures to images with arbitrary resolution, local background estimation, aperture normalisation, uncertainty determination and propagation, and object deblending. Using simulated images, we demonstrate that the program is able to recover accurate photometric measurements in both high-resolution, low-confusion, and low-resolution, high-confusion, regimes. We apply the program to the 21-band photometric dataset from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) Panchromatic Data Release (PDR; Driver et al. 2016), which contains imaging spanning the far-UV to the far-IR. We compare photometry derived from LAMBDAR with that presented in Driver et al. (2016), finding broad agreement between the datasets. Nonetheless, we demonstrate that the photometry from LAMBDAR is superior to that from the GAMA PDR, as determined by a reduction in the outlier rate and intrinsic scatter of colours in the LAMBDAR dataset. We similarly find a decrease in the outlier rate of stellar masses and star formation rates using LAMBDAR photometry. Finally, we note an exceptional increase in the number of UV and mid-IR sources able to be constrained, which is accompanied by a significant increase in the mid-IR colour-colour parameter-space able to be explored.

  14. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) blended spectra catalogue: strong galaxy-galaxy lens and occulting galaxy pair candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holwerda, B. W.; Baldry, I. K.; Alpaslan, M.; Bauer, A.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cluver, M. E.; Conselice, C.; Driver, S. P.; Hopkins, A. M.; Jones, D. H.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Loveday, J.; Meyer, M. J.; Moffett, A.

    2015-06-01

    We present the catalogue of blended galaxy spectra from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. These are cases where light from two galaxies are significantly detected in a single GAMA fibre. Galaxy pairs identified from their blended spectrum fall into two principal classes: they are either strong lenses, a passive galaxy lensing an emission-line galaxy; or occulting galaxies, serendipitous overlaps of two galaxies, of any type. Blended spectra can thus be used to reliably identify strong lenses for follow-up observations (high-resolution imaging) and occulting pairs, especially those that are a late-type partly obscuring an early-type galaxy which are of interest for the study of dust content of spiral and irregular galaxies. The GAMA survey setup and its AUTOZ automated redshift determination were used to identify candidate blended galaxy spectra from the cross-correlation peaks. We identify 280 blended spectra with a minimum velocity separation of 600 km s-1, of which 104 are lens pair candidates, 71 emission-line-passive pairs, 78 are pairs of emission-line galaxies and 27 are pairs of galaxies with passive spectra. We have visually inspected the candidates in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS) images. Many blended objects are ellipticals with blue fuzz (Ef in our classification). These latter `Ef' classifications are candidates for possible strong lenses, massive ellipticals with an emission-line galaxy in one or more lensed images. The GAMA lens and occulting galaxy candidate samples are similar in size to those identified in the entire SDSS. This blended spectrum sample stands as a testament of the power of this highly complete, second-largest spectroscopic survey in existence and offers the possibility to expand e.g. strong gravitational lens surveys.

  15. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): curation and reanalysis of 16.6k redshifts in the G10/COSMOS region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, L. J. M.; Driver, S. P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Baldry, I. K.; Lange, R.; Liske, J.; Meyer, M.; Popping, A.; Wilkins, S. M.; Wright, A. H.

    2015-02-01

    We discuss the construction of the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) 10h region (G10) using publicly available data in the Cosmic Evolution Survey region (COSMOS) in order to extend the GAMA survey to z ˜ 1 in a single deg2 field. In order to obtain the maximum number of high precision spectroscopic redshifts we re-reduce all archival zCOSMOS-bright data and use the GAMA automatic cross-correlation redshift fitting code AUTOZ. We use all available redshift information (AUTOZ, zCOSMOS-bright 10k, PRIMUS, VVDS, SDSS and photometric redshifts) to calculate robust best-fitting redshifts for all galaxies and visually inspect all 1D and 2D spectra to obtain 16 583 robust redshifts in the full COSMOS region. We then define the G10 region to be the central ˜1 deg2 of COSMOS, which has relatively high spectroscopic completeness, and encompasses the CHILES VLA region. We define a combined r < 23.0 mag and i < 22.0 mag G10 sample (selected to have the highest bijective overlap) with which to perform future analysis, containing 9861 sources with reliable high-precision VLT-VIMOS spectra. All tables, spectra and imaging are available at http://ict.icrar.org/cutout/G10.

  16. Groundwater Quality Data in the Mojave Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,500 square-mile Mojave (MOJO) study unit was investigated from February to April 2008, as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). MOJO was the 23rd of 37 study units to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basin Project. The MOJO study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated ground water used for public water supplies within MOJO, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 59 wells in San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties. Fifty-two of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and seven were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds], constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]) naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids [TDS], and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity, radium isotopes, and radon-222). Naturally occurring isotopes (stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, and activities of tritium and carbon-14), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled

  17. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Panchromatic Data Release (far-UV-far-IR) and the low-z energy budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driver, Simon P.; Wright, Angus H.; Andrews, Stephen K.; Davies, Luke J.; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Lange, Rebecca; Moffett, Amanda J.; Mannering, Elizabeth; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Vinsen, Kevin; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Andrae, Ellen; Baldry, Ivan K.; Bauer, Amanda E.; Bamford, Steven P.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bourne, Nathan; Brough, Sarah; Brown, Michael J. I.; Cluver, Michelle E.; Croom, Scott; Colless, Matthew; Conselice, Christopher J.; da Cunha, Elisabete; De Propris, Roberto; Drinkwater, Michael; Dunne, Loretta; Eales, Steve; Edge, Alastair; Frenk, Carlos; Graham, Alister W.; Grootes, Meiert; Holwerda, Benne W.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Ibar, Edo; van Kampen, Eelco; Kelvin, Lee S.; Jarrett, Tom; Jones, D. Heath; Lara-Lopez, Maritza A.; Liske, Jochen; Lopez-Sanchez, Angel R.; Loveday, Jon; Maddox, Steve J.; Madore, Barry; Mahajan, Smriti; Meyer, Martin; Norberg, Peder; Penny, Samantha J.; Phillipps, Steven; Popescu, Cristina; Tuffs, Richard J.; Peacock, John A.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Prescott, Matthew; Rowlands, Kate; Sansom, Anne E.; Seibert, Mark; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Sutherland, Will J.; Taylor, Edward N.; Valiante, Elisabetta; Vazquez-Mata, J. Antonio; Wang, Lingyu; Wilkins, Stephen M.; Williams, Richard

    2016-02-01

    We present the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) Panchromatic Data Release (PDR) constituting over 230 deg2 of imaging with photometry in 21 bands extending from the far-UV to the far-IR. These data complement our spectroscopic campaign of over 300k galaxies, and are compiled from observations with a variety of facilities including: GALaxy Evolution eXplorer, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Visible and Infrared Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA), Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, and Herschel, with the GAMA regions currently being surveyed by VLT Survey Telescope (VST) and scheduled for observations by Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder (ASKAP). These data are processed to a common astrometric solution, from which photometry is derived for ˜221 373 galaxies with r < 19.8 mag. Online tools are provided to access and download data cutouts, or the full mosaics of the GAMA regions in each band. We focus, in particular, on the reduction and analysis of the VISTA VIsta Kilo-degree INfrared Galaxy data, and compare to earlier data sets (i.e. 2MASS and UKIDSS) before combining the data and examining its integrity. Having derived the 21-band photometric catalogue, we proceed to fit the data using the energy balance code MAGPHYS. These measurements are then used to obtain the first fully empirical measurement of the 0.1-500 μm energy output of the Universe. Exploring the cosmic spectral energy distribution across three time-intervals (0.3-1.1, 1.1-1.8, and 1.8-2.4 Gyr), we find that the Universe is currently generating (1.5 ± 0.3) × 1035 h70 W Mpc-3, down from (2.5 ± 0.2) × 1035 h70 W Mpc-3 2.3 Gyr ago. More importantly, we identify significant and smooth evolution in the integrated photon escape fraction at all wavelengths, with the UV escape fraction increasing from 27(18) per cent at z = 0.18 in NUV(FUV) to 34(23) per cent at z = 0.06. The GAMA PDR can be found at: http://gama-psi.icrar.org/.

  18. GAMA/H-ATLAS: THE DUST OPACITY-STELLAR MASS SURFACE DENSITY RELATION FOR SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Grootes, M. W.; Tuffs, R. J.; Andrae, E.; Popescu, C. C.; Pastrav, B.; Gunawardhana, M.; Taylor, E. N.; Kelvin, L. S.; Driver, S. P.; Liske, J.; Seibert, M.; Graham, Alister W.; Baes, M.; Baldry, I. K.; Bourne, N.; Brough, S.; Cooray, A.; Dariush, A.; De Zotti, G.; Dunne, L.; and others

    2013-03-20

    We report the discovery of a well-defined correlation between B-band face-on central optical depth due to dust, {tau}{sup f}{sub B}, and the stellar mass surface density, {mu}{sub *}, of nearby (z {<=} 0.13) spiral galaxies. This relation was derived from a sample of spiral galaxies taken from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, which were detected in the FIR/submillimeter (submm) in the Herschel-ATLAS science demonstration phase field. Using a quantitative analysis of the NUV attenuation-inclination relation for complete samples of GAMA spirals categorized according to stellar mass surface density, we demonstrate that this correlation can be used to statistically correct for dust attenuation purely on the basis of optical photometry and Sersic-profile morphological fits. Considered together with previously established empirical relationships of stellar mass to metallicity and gas mass, the near linearity and high constant of proportionality of the {tau}{sub B}{sup f} - {mu}{sub *} relation disfavors a stellar origin for the bulk of refractory grains in spiral galaxies, instead being consistent with the existence of a ubiquitous and very rapid mechanism for the growth of dust in the interstellar medium. We use the {tau}{sub B}{sup f} - {mu}{sub *} relation in conjunction with the radiation transfer model for spiral galaxies of Popescu and Tuffs to derive intrinsic scaling relations between specific star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, and stellar surface density, in which attenuation of the UV light used for the measurement of SFR is corrected on an object-to-object basis. A marked reduction in scatter in these relations is achieved which we demonstrate is due to correction of both the inclination-dependent and face-on components of attenuation. Our results are consistent with a general picture of spiral galaxies in which most of the submm emission originates from grains residing in translucent structures, exposed to UV in the diffuse interstellar

  19. California GAMA Program: Sources and Transport of Nitrate in Groundwater in the Livermore Valley Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, H; Eaton, G F; Ekwurzel, B E; Esser, B K; Hu, Q; Hudson, G B; Leif, R; McNab, W; Moody-Bartel, C; Moore, K; Moran, J E

    2005-11-18

    A critical component of the State Water Resource Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is to assess the major threats to groundwater resources that supply drinking water to Californians (Belitz et al., 2004). Nitrate concentrations approaching and greater than the maximum contaminant level (MCL) are impairing the viability of many groundwater basins as drinking water sources Source attribution and nitrate fate and transport are therefore the focus of special studies under the GAMA program. This report presents results of a study of nitrate contamination in the aquifer beneath the City of Livermore, where high nitrate levels affect both public supply and private domestic wells. Nitrate isotope data are effective in determining contaminant sources, especially when combined with other isotopic tracers such as stable isotopes of water and tritium-helium ages to give insight into the routes and timing of nitrate inputs to the flow system. This combination of techniques is demonstrated in Livermore, where it is determined that low nitrate reclaimed wastewater predominates in the northwest, while two flowpaths with distinct nitrate sources originate in the southeast. Along the eastern flowpath, {delta}{sup 15}N values greater than 10{per_thousand} indicate that animal waste is the primary source. Diminishing concentrations over time suggest that contamination results from historical land use practices. The other flowpath begins in an area where rapid recharge, primarily of low nitrate imported water (identified by stable isotopes of water and a tritium-helium residence time of less than 1 year), mobilizes a significant local nitrate source, bringing groundwater concentrations above the MCL of 45 mg NO{sub 3} L{sup -1}. In this area, artificial recharge of imported water via local arroyos induces flux of the contaminant to the regional aquifer. The low {delta}{sup 15}N value (3.1{per_thousand}) in this location implicates synthetic

  20. H-ATLAS/GAMA: quantifying the morphological evolution of the galaxy population using cosmic calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eales, Stephen; Fullard, Andrew; Allen, Matthew; Smith, M. W. L.; Baldry, Ivan; Bourne, Nathan; Clark, C. J. R.; Driver, Simon; Dunne, Loretta; Dye, Simon; Graham, Alister W.; Ibar, Edo; Hopkins, Andrew; Ivison, Rob; Kelvin, Lee S.; Maddox, Steve; Maraston, Claudia; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Smith, Dan; Taylor, Edward N.; Valiante, Elisabetta; Werf, Paul van der; Baes, Maarten; Brough, Sarah; Clements, David; Cooray, Asantha; Gomez, Haley; Loveday, Jon; Phillipps, Steven; Scott, Douglas; Serjeant, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Using results from the Herschel Astrophysical Terrahertz Large-Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) project, we show that, for galaxy masses above ≃ 108 M⊙, 51 per cent of the stellar mass-density in the local Universe is in early-type galaxies (ETGs; Sérsic n > 2.5) while 89 per cent of the rate of production of stellar mass-density is occurring in late-type galaxies (LTGs; Sérsic n < 2.5). From this zero-redshift benchmark, we have used a calorimetric technique to quantify the importance of the morphological transformation of galaxies over the history of the Universe. The extragalactic background radiation contains all the energy generated by nuclear fusion in stars since the big bang. By resolving this background radiation into individual galaxies using the deepest far-infrared survey with the Herschel Space Observatory and a deep near-infrared/optical survey with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and using measurements of the Sérsic index of these galaxies derived from the HST images, we estimate that ≃83 per cent of the stellar mass-density formed over the history of the Universe occurred in LTGs. The difference between this value and the fraction of the stellar mass-density that is in LTGs today implies there must have been a major transformation of LTGs into ETGs after the formation of most of the stars.

  1. Actinomadura gamaensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from soil in Gama, Chad.

    PubMed

    Abagana, Adam Yacoub; Sun, Pengyu; Liu, Chongxi; Cao, Tingting; Zheng, Weiwei; Zhao, Shanshan; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2016-06-01

    A novel single spore-producing actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-Gz5(T), was isolated from a soil sample from Gama, Chad. A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out to establish the status of this strain. The diamino acid present in the cell wall is meso-diaminopimelic acid. Glucose, mannose and madurose occur in whole cell hydrolysates. The polar lipids were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and an unidentified glycolipid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6). The predominant cellular fatty acids were found to be C16:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0 and C18:0 10-methyl. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that strain NEAU-Gz5(T) belongs to the genus Actinomadura and is closely related to Actinomadura oligospora JCM 10648(T) (ATCC 43269(T); 98.3 % similarity). However, the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness and some different phenotypic characteristics allowed the strain to be distinguished from its close relatives. Therefore, it is concluded that strain NEAU-Gz5(T) represents a novel species of the genus of Actinomadura, for which the name Actinomadura gamaensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-Gz5(T) (= CGMCC 4.7301(T) = DSM 100815(T)). PMID:27010208

  2. Status of groundwater quality in the San Fernando--San Gabriel study unit, 2005--California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Michael; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile San Fernando--San Gabriel (FG) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study area is in Los Angeles County and includes Tertiary-Quaternary sedimentary basins situated within the Transverse Ranges of southern California. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA FG study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) throughout California. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 by the USGS from 35 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifers were defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the FG study unit. The quality of groundwater in primary aquifers may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the FG study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors.

  3. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): deconstructing bimodality - I. Red ones and blue ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Edward N.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Baldry, Ivan K.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brown, Michael J. I.; Colless, Matthew; Driver, Simon; Norberg, Peder; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Brough, Sarah; Cluver, Michelle E.; Gunawardhana, Madusha; Kelvin, Lee S.; Liske, Jochen; Conselice, Christopher J.; Croom, Scott; Foster, Caroline; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lara-Lopez, Maritza; Loveday, Jon

    2015-01-01

    We measure the mass functions for generically red and blue galaxies, using a z < 0.12 sample of log M* > 8.7 field galaxies from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. Our motivation is that, as we show, the dominant uncertainty in existing measurements stems from how `red' and `blue' galaxies have been selected/defined. Accordingly, we model our data as two naturally overlapping populations, each with their own mass function and colour-mass relation, which enables us characterize the two populations without having to specify a priori which galaxies are `red' and `blue'. Our results then provide the means to derive objective operational definitions for the terms `red' and `blue', which are based on the phenomenology of the colour-mass diagrams. Informed by this descriptive modelling, we show that (1) after accounting for dust, the stellar colours of `blue' galaxies do not depend strongly on mass; (2) the tight, flat `dead sequence' does not extend much below log M* ˜ 10.5; instead, (3) the stellar colours of `red' galaxies vary rather strongly with mass, such that lower mass `red' galaxies have bluer stellar populations; (4) below log M* ˜ 9.3, the `red' population dissolves into obscurity, and it becomes problematic to talk about two distinct populations; as a consequence, (5) it is hard to meaningfully constrain the shape, including the existence of an upturn, of the `red' galaxy mass function below log M* ˜ 9.3. Points 1-4 provide meaningful targets for models of galaxy formation and evolution to aim for.

  4. 3DGIS-Based Multi-Agent Geosimulation and Visualization of Building Evacuation Using GAMA Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macatulad, E. G.; Blanco, A. C.

    2014-11-01

    Recent GIS applications have already extended analyses from the traditional 2-2.5D environment (x,y,attributes) to 3D space (x,y,z,attributes). Coupled with agent-based modeling (ABM), available 3DGIS data can be used to develop simulation models for improved analysis of spatial data and spatial processes. One such application is on building evacuation for which ABM is integrated with 3D indoor spatial data to model human behavior during evacuation events and simulate evacuation scenarios visualized in 3D. The research presented in this paper develops a multi-agent geosimulation model for building evacuation, integrating 3DGIS dataset of the case study building as input in ABM using the GAMA simulation platform. This model is intended to complement and improve traditional approaches in building evacuation planning and management such as earthquake and fire drills. The initial model developed includes PEOPLE agents to model the building occupants, and FLOORS, ROOMS, INDOOR_PATHS and EXIT_POINTS agents, which are modeled from the 3DGIS layers. The INDOOR_PATHS and EXIT_POINTS agents influence the movement of PEOPLE agents. Test simulations were performed involving PEOPLE agents placed in rooms of the building based on potential number of occupants computed based from the floor area of each room. The PEOPLE agents are programmed to find the shortest path along the INDOOR_PATHS towards the EXIT_POINTS instance designated for each room of the building. The simulation computes for the total time it takes for all PEOPLE agents to exit the building.

  5. Status of groundwater quality in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin, 2006-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldrath, Dara; Fram, Miranda S.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile (2,227-square-kilometer) Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study area is located in southern California in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA CLAB study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2006 by the USGS from 69 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the CLAB study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the CLAB study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or) California regulatory or non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. A relative

  6. 75 FR 78336 - Review of the Designation of Gama'a al-Islamiyya, (IG and Other Aliases); as a Foreign Terrorist...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Review of the Designation of Gama'a al-Islamiyya, (IG and Other Aliases); as a Foreign Terrorist Organization Pursuant to Section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended Based upon a review...

  7. California GAMA program: ground-water quality data in the San Diego drainages hydrogeologic province, California, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Burton, Carmen A.

    2005-01-01

    Because of concerns over ground-water quality, the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, has implemented the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. A primary objective of the program is to provide a current assessment of ground-water quality in areas where public supply wells are an important source of drinking water. The San Diego GAMA study unit was the first region of the state where an assessment of ground-water quality was implemented under the GAMA program. The San Diego GAMA study unit covers the entire San Diego Drainages hydrogeologic province, and is broken down into four distinct hydrogeologic study areas: the Temecula Valley study area, the Warner Valley study area, the Alluvial Basins study area, and the Hard Rock study area. A total of 58 ground-water samples were collected from public supply wells in the San Diego GAMA study unit: 19 wells were sampled in the Temecula Valley study area, 9 in the Warner Valley study area, 17 in the Alluvial Basins study area, and 13 in the Hard Rock study area. Over 350 chemical and microbial constituents and water-quality indicators were analyzed for in this study. However, only select wells were measured for all constituents and water-quality indicators. Results of analyses were calculated as detection frequencies by constituent classification and by individual constituents for the entire San Diego GAMA study unit and for the individual study areas. Additionally, concentrations of constituents that are routinely monitored were compared to maximum contaminant levels (MCL) and secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL). Concentrations of constituents classified as 'unregulated chemicals for which monitoring is required' (UCMR) were compared to the 'detection level for the purposes of reporting' (DLR). Eighteen of the 88 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and gasoline oxygenates

  8. California GAMA Program: Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Results for the Sacramento Valley and Volcanic Provinces of Northern California

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2005-01-20

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE) from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the California Aquifer Susceptibility (CAS) project (under the GAMA Program) is to assess water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2003, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the Sacramento Valley and Volcanic Provinces. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements

  9. California GAMA Program: Ground-Water Quality Data in the Northern San Joaquin Basin Study Unit, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.

    2006-01-01

    Growing concern over the closure of public-supply wells because of ground-water contamination has led the State Water Board to establish the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. With the aid of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the program goals are to enhance understanding and provide a current assessment of ground-water quality in areas where ground water is an important source of drinking water. The Northern San Joaquin Basin GAMA study unit covers an area of approximately 2,079 square miles (mi2) across four hydrologic study areas in the San Joaquin Valley. The four study areas are the California Department of Water Resources (CADWR) defined Tracy subbasin, the CADWR-defined Eastern San Joaquin subbasin, the CADWR-defined Cosumnes subbasin, and the sedimentologically distinct USGS-defined Uplands study area, which includes portions of both the Cosumnes and Eastern San Joaquin subbasins. Seventy ground-water samples were collected from 64 public-supply, irrigation, domestic, and monitoring wells within the Northern San Joaquin Basin GAMA study unit. Thirty-two of these samples were collected in the Eastern San Joaquin Basin study area, 17 in the Tracy Basin study area, 10 in the Cosumnes Basin study area, and 11 in the Uplands Basin study area. Of the 32 samples collected in the Eastern San Joaquin Basin, 6 were collected using a depth-dependent sampling pump. This pump allows for the collection of samples from discrete depths within the pumping well. Two wells were chosen for depth-dependent sampling and three samples were collected at varying depths within each well. Over 350 water-quality field parameters, chemical constituents, and microbial constituents were analyzed and are reported as concentrations and as detection frequencies, by compound classification as well as for individual constituents, for the Northern San Joaquin Basin study unit as a whole and for each individual study area

  10. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the bright void galaxy population in the optical and mid-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, S. J.; Brown, M. J. I.; Pimbblet, K. A.; Cluver, M. E.; Croton, D. J.; Owers, M. S.; Lange, R.; Alpaslan, M.; Baldry, I.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Driver, S. P.; Holwerda, B. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Jarrett, T. H.; Jones, D. Heath; Kelvin, L. S.; Lara-López, M. A.; Liske, J.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Loveday, J.; Meyer, M.; Norberg, P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Rodrigues, M.

    2015-11-01

    We examine the properties of galaxies in the Galaxies and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey located in voids with radii >10 h-1 Mpc. Utilizing the GAMA equatorial survey, 592 void galaxies are identified out to z ≈ 0.1 brighter than Mr = -18.4, our magnitude completeness limit. Using the WHα versus [N II]/Hα (WHAN) line strength diagnostic diagram, we classify their spectra as star forming, AGN, or dominated by old stellar populations. For objects more massive than 5 × 109 M⊙, we identify a sample of 26 void galaxies with old stellar populations classed as passive and retired galaxies in the WHAN diagnostic diagram, else they lack any emission lines in their spectra. When matched to Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-IR photometry, these passive and retired galaxies exhibit a range of mid-IR colour, with a number of void galaxies exhibiting [4.6] - [12] colours inconsistent with completely quenched stellar populations, with a similar spread in colour seen for a randomly drawn non-void comparison sample. We hypothesize that a number of these galaxies host obscured star formation, else they are star forming outside of their central regions targeted for single-fibre spectroscopy. When matched to a randomly drawn sample of non-void galaxies, the void and non-void galaxies exhibit similar properties in terms of optical and mid-IR colour, morphology, and star formation activity, suggesting comparable mass assembly and quenching histories. A trend in mid-IR [4.6] - [12] colour is seen, such that both void and non-void galaxies with quenched/passive colours <1.5 typically have masses higher than 1010 M⊙, where internally driven processes play an increasingly important role in galaxy evolution.

  11. Groundwater-Quality Data in the South Coast Range-Coastal Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Burton, Carmen A.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 766-square-mile South Coast Range-Coastal (SCRC) study unit was investigated from May to December 2008, as part of the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project was developed in response to legislative mandates (Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act 1999-00 Fiscal Year; and, the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 [Sections 10780-10782.3 of the California Water Code, Assembly Bill 599]) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater in California, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The SCRC study unit was the 25th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basins Project. The SCRC study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated groundwater quality in the primary aquifer systems and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) were defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the SCRC study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from the quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the SCRC study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 70 wells in two study areas (Basins and Uplands) in Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 15 wells were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). In addition to

  12. Groundwater-Quality Data in the South Coast Interior Basins Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Ray, Mary C.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 653-square-mile South Coast Interior Basins (SCI) study unit was investigated from August to December 2008, as part of the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project was developed in response to Legislative mandates (Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act 1999-00 Fiscal Year; and, the Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 [Sections 10780-10782.3 of the California Water Code, Assembly Bill 599]) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater used as public supply for municipalities in California, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). SCI was the 27th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basins Project. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies within SCI, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 54 wells within the three study areas [Livermore, Gilroy, and Cuyama] of SCI in Alameda, Santa Clara, San Benito, Santa Barbara, Ventura, and Kern Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 19 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, polar pesticides and metabolites, and pharmaceutical compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [trace elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids (TDS), and alkalinity

  13. Status and Understanding of Groundwater Quality in the Central-Eastside San Joaquin Basin, 2006: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Justin T. Kulongoski, Justin T.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,695-square-mile Central Eastside San Joaquin Basin (Central Eastside) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Central Eastside study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. During March through June 2006, samples were collected from 78 wells in Stanislaus and Merced Counties, 58 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 20 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along groundwater-flow paths (understanding wells). Water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database also were used for the assessment. An assessment of the current status of the groundwater quality included collecting samples from wells for analysis of anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring constituents such as major ions and trace elements. The assessment of status is intended to characterize the quality of untreated-groundwater resources within the primary aquifer system, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. The primary aquifer system (hereinafter, primary aquifer) is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the CDPH database for the Central Eastside study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or

  14. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province, 2004: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 3,900-square-mile (mi2) San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province (hereinafter San Diego) study unit was investigated from May through July 2004 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in southwestern California in the counties of San Diego, Riverside, and Orange. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA San Diego study was designed to provide a statistically robust assessment of untreated-groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 58 wells in 2004 and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as the primary aquifers) were defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the San Diego study unit. The San Diego study unit consisted of four study areas: Temecula Valley (140 mi2), Warner Valley (34 mi2), Alluvial Basins (166 mi2), and Hard Rock (850 mi2). The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers. For example, shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination than groundwater in deep water-bearing zones. This study had two components: the status assessment and the understanding assessment. The first component of this study-the status assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource-was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to

  15. California GAMA Program: Sources and transport of nitrate in shallow groundwater in the Llagas Basin of Santa Clara County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, J E; McNab, W; Esser, B; Hudson, G; Carle, S; Beller, H; Kane, S; Tompson, A B; Letain, T; Moore, K; Eaton, G; Leif, R; Moody-Bartel, C; Singleton, M

    2005-06-29

    A critical component of the State Water Resource Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is to assess the major threats to groundwater resources that supply drinking water to Californians (Belitz et al., 2004). Nitrate is the most pervasive and intractable contaminant in California groundwater and is the focus of special studies under the GAMA program. This report presents results of a study of nitrate contamination in the aquifer beneath the cities of Morgan Hill and Gilroy, CA, in the Llagas Subbasin of Santa Clara County, where high nitrate levels affect several hundred private domestic wells. The main objectives of the study are: (1) to identify the main source(s) of nitrate that issue a flux to the shallow regional aquifer (2) to determine whether denitrification plays a role in the fate of nitrate in the subbasin and (3) to assess the impact that a nitrate management plan implemented by the local water agency has had on the flux of nitrate to the regional aquifer. Analyses of 56 well water samples for major anions and cations, nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate, dissolved excess nitrogen, tritium and groundwater age, and trace organic compounds, show that synthetic fertilizer is the most likely source of nitrate in highly contaminated wells, and that denitrification is not a significant process in the fate of nitrate in the subbasin except in the area of recycled water application. In addition to identifying contaminant sources, these methods offer a deeper understanding of how the severity and extent of contamination are affected by hydrogeology and groundwater management practices. In the Llagas subbasin, the nitrate problem is amplified in the shallow aquifer because it is highly vulnerable with high vertical recharge rates and rapid lateral transport, but the deeper aquifers are relatively more protected by laterally extensive aquitards. Artificial recharge delivers low-nitrate water and provides a means of long

  16. Groundwater-quality data in the Klamath Mountains study unit, 2010: results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 8,806-square-mile Klamath Mountains (KLAM) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from October to December 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The KLAM study unit was the thirty-third study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Klamath Mountains study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined by the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the KLAM study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the KLAM study unit, groundwater samples were collected from sites in Del Norte, Siskiyou, Humboldt, Trinity, Tehama, and Shasta Counties, California. Of the 39 sites sampled, 38 were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the primary aquifer system in the study unit (grid sites), and the remaining site was non-randomized (understanding site). The groundwater samples were analyzed for basic field parameters, organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs] and pesticides and pesticide degradates), inorganic constituents (trace elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, total dissolved solids [TDS]), radon-222, gross alpha and gross beta

  17. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Understanding the wavelength dependence of galaxy structure with bulge-disc decompositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Rebecca; Bamford, Steven P.; Häußler, Boris; Baldry, Ivan; Bremer, Malcolm; Brough, Sarah; Brown, Michael J. I.; Driver, Simon; Duncan, Kenneth; Graham, Alister W.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kelvin, Lee S.; Lange, Rebecca; Phillipps, Steven; Vika, Marina; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2016-05-01

    With a large sample of bright, low-redshift galaxies with optical-near-IR imaging from the GAMA survey we use bulge-disc decompositions to understand the wavelength-dependent behavior of single-Sérsic structural measurements. We denote the variation in single-Sérsic index with wavelength as N, likewise for effective radius we use R. We find that most galaxies with a substantial disc, even those with no discernable bulge, display a high value of N. The increase in Sérsic index to longer wavelengths is therefore intrinsic to discs, apparently resulting from radial variations in stellar population and/or dust reddening. Similarly, low values of R (< 1) are found to be ubiquitous, implying an element of universality in galaxy colour gradients. We also study how bulge and disc colour distributions vary with galaxy type. We find that, rather than all bulges being red and all discs being blue in absolute terms, both components become redder for galaxies with redder total colours. We even observe that bulges in bluer galaxies are typically bluer than discs in red galaxies, and that bulges and discs are closer in colour for fainter galaxies. Trends in total colour are therefore not solely due to the colour or flux dominance of the bulge or disc.

  18. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): understanding the wavelength dependence of galaxy structure with bulge-disc decompositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Rebecca; Bamford, Steven P.; Häußler, Boris; Baldry, Ivan; Bremer, Malcolm; Brough, Sarah; Brown, Michael J. I.; Driver, Simon; Duncan, Kenneth; Graham, Alister W.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kelvin, Lee S.; Lange, Rebecca; Phillipps, Steven; Vika, Marina; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2016-08-01

    With a large sample of bright, low-redshift galaxies with optical-near-IR imaging from the GAMA survey we use bulge-disc decompositions to understand the wavelength-dependent behaviour of single-Sérsic structural measurements. We denote the variation in single-Sérsic index with wavelength as {N}, likewise for effective radius we use {R}. We find that most galaxies with a substantial disc, even those with no discernable bulge, display a high value of {N}. The increase in Sérsic index to longer wavelengths is therefore intrinsic to discs, apparently resulting from radial variations in stellar population and/or dust reddening. Similarly, low values of {R} (< 1) are found to be ubiquitous, implying an element of universality in galaxy colour gradients. We also study how bulge and disc colour distributions vary with galaxy type. We find that, rather than all bulges being red and all discs being blue in absolute terms, both components become redder for galaxies with redder total colours. We even observe that bulges in bluer galaxies are typically bluer than discs in red galaxies, and that bulges and discs are closer in colour for fainter galaxies. Trends in total colour are therefore not solely due to the colour or flux dominance of the bulge or disc.

  19. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Improved emission lines measurements in four representative samples at 0.07

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Foster, C.; Taylor, E. N.; Wright, A. H.; Hopkins, A. M.; Baldry, I.; Brough, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Cluver, M. E.; Lara-López, M. A.; Liske, J.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Pimbblet, K. A.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a new catalog of emission lines based on the GAMA II data for galaxies between 0.07 GAMA II survey and spanning four redshift windows. The four samples are representative of intermediate-mass galaxies down to log M∗> 9.4 at z ~ 0.1 and log M∗> 10.6 at z ~ 0.30. We have developed a dedicated code called MARVIN that automates the main steps of the data analysis, but imposes visual individual quality control of each measurement. We use this catalog to investigate how the sample selection influences the shape of the stellar mass - metallicity relation. We find that commonly used selection criteria on line detections and by AGN rejection could affect the shape and dispersion of the high-mass end of the M - Z relation. For log M∗> 10.6, common selection criteria reject about 65% of the emission-line galaxies. We also find that the relation does not evolve significantly from z = 0.07 to z = 0.34 in the range of stellar mass for which the samples are representative (log M∗> 10.6). For lower stellar masses (log M∗< 10.2) we are able to show that the observed 0.15 dex metallicity decrease in the same redshift range is a consequence of a color bias arising from selecting targets in the r-band. We highlight that this color selection bias affects all samples selected in r-band (e.g., GAMA and SDSS), even those drawn from volume-limited samples. Previously reported evolution of the M - Z relation at various redshifts may need to be revised to evaluate the effect of this selection bias.

  20. Groundwater-quality data in seven GAMA study units: results from initial sampling, 2004-2005, and resampling, 2007-2008, of wells: California GAMA Program Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The GAMA-PBP began sampling, primarily public supply wells in May 2004. By the end of February 2006, seven (of what would eventually be 35) study units had been sampled over a wide area of the State. Selected wells in these first seven study units were resampled for water quality from August 2007 to November 2008 as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within the seven study units. In the 7 study units, 462 wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Wells selected this way are referred to as grid wells or status wells. Approximately 3 years after the initial sampling, 55 of these previously sampled status wells (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for resampling. The seven resampled study units, the total number of status wells sampled for each study unit, and the number of these wells resampled for trends are as follows, in chronological order of sampling: San Diego Drainages (53 status wells, 7 trend wells), North San Francisco Bay (84, 10), Northern San Joaquin Basin (51, 5), Southern Sacramento Valley (67, 7), San Fernando–San Gabriel (35, 6), Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins (91, 11), and Southeast San Joaquin Valley (83, 9). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N

  1. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  2. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coachella Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 820 square-mile Coachella Valley Study Unit (COA) was investigated during February and March 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground water used for public-water supplies within the Coachella Valley, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 35 wells in Riverside County. Nineteen of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Sixteen additional wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected ground-water flow paths, examine land use effects on ground-water quality, and to collect water-quality data in areas where little exists. These wells were referred to as 'understanding wells'. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (uranium, tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and boron), and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled

  3. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Colorado River Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 188-square-mile Colorado River Study unit (COLOR) was investigated October through December 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is the technical project lead. The Colorado River study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within COLOR, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 28 wells in three study areas in San Bernardino, Riverside, and Imperial Counties. Twenty wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the Study unit; these wells are termed 'grid wells'. Eight additional wells were selected to evaluate specific water-quality issues in the study area; these wells are termed `understanding wells.' The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichlorpropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents. Concentrations of naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, approximately 220 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix spikes) were collected at

  4. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southeast San Joaquin Valley, 2005-2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,800 square-mile Southeast San Joaquin Valley study unit (SESJ) was investigated from October 2005 through February 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The SESJ study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SESJ, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Fresno, Tulare, and Kings Counties, 83 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 16 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths or across alluvial fans (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells, and the results

  5. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Santa Clara River Valley, 2007-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Montrella, Joseph; Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Santa Clara River Valley study unit contains eight groundwater basins located in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties and is within the Transverse and Selected Peninsular Ranges hydrogeologic province. The Santa Clara River Valley study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2007 by the USGS from 42 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined as that part of the aquifer system corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the CDPH database for the Santa Clara River Valley study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may differ from that in shallow or deep water-bearing zones; for example, shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. Eleven additional wells were sampled by the USGS to improve understanding of factors affecting water quality.The status assessment of the quality of the groundwater used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of untreated groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the Santa Clara River Valley study unit

  6. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrari, Matthew J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 950 square kilometer (370 square mile) Central Sierra study unit (CENSIE) was investigated in May 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for drinking-water supplies within CENSIE, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from thirty wells in Madera County. Twenty-seven of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and three were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). Ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine, perchlorate, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. In total, over 250 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-sixth of the wells, and

  7. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Antelope Valley Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,600 square-mile Antelope Valley study unit (ANT) was investigated from January to April 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within ANT, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 57 wells in Kern, Los Angeles, and San Bernardino Counties. Fifty-six of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized, grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and one additional well was selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding well). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline additives and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, fumigants, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity, radium isotopes, and radon-222). Naturally occurring isotopes (strontium, tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, 239 constituents and water-quality indicators (field parameters) were investigated. Quality

  8. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Kern County Subbasin Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Pimentel, Isabel; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,000 square-mile Kern County Subbasin study unit (KERN) was investigated from January to March, 2006, as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Kern County Subbasin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw (untreated) ground-water quality within KERN, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 50 wells within the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County. Forty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide a statistical representation of the ground-water resources within the study unit. Three additional wells were sampled to aid in the evaluation of changes in water chemistry along regional ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and laboratory matrix spikes) were collected and analyzed at approximately 10 percent of

  9. Groundwater-quality data for the Sierra Nevada study unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Munday, Cathy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 25,500-square-mile Sierra Nevada study unit was investigated in June through October 2008, as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Sierra Nevada study was designed to provide statistically robust assessments of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems in the study unit, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) are defined by the depth of the screened or open intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of wells used for public and community drinking-water supplies. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. In the Sierra Nevada study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 84 wells (and springs) in Lassen, Plumas, Butte, Sierra, Yuba, Nevada, Placer, El Dorado, Amador, Alpine, Calaveras, Tuolumne, Madera, Mariposa, Fresno, Inyo, Tulare, and Kern Counties. The wells were selected on two overlapping networks by using a spatially-distributed, randomized, grid-based approach. The primary grid-well network consisted of 30 wells, one well per grid cell in the study unit, and was designed to provide statistical representation of groundwater quality throughout the entire study unit. The lithologic grid-well network is a secondary grid that consisted of the wells in the primary grid-well network plus 53 additional wells and was designed to provide statistical representation of groundwater quality in each of the four major lithologic units in the Sierra

  10. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Madera-Chowchilla Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile Madera-Chowchilla study unit (MADCHOW) was investigated in April and May 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within MADCHOW, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 35 wells in Madera, Merced, and Fresno Counties. Thirty of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and five more were selected to provide additional sampling density to aid in understanding processes affecting groundwater quality (flow-path wells). Detection summaries in the text and tables are given for grid wells only, to avoid over-representation of the water quality in areas adjacent to flow-path wells. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], low-level 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane [DBCP] and 1,2-dibromoethane [EDB], pesticides and pesticide degradates, polar pesticides and metabolites, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], perchlorate, and low-level 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (uranium isotopes, and gross alpha and gross beta particle activities). Naturally occurring isotopes and geochemical tracers (stable isotopes of hydrogen

  11. Groundwater-quality data in the Western San Joaquin Valley study unit, 2010 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Landon, Matthew K.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 2,170-square-mile Western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March to July 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program's Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The WSJV study unit was the twenty-ninth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Western San Joaquin Valley study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as parts of aquifers corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the WSJV study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the WSJV study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 58 wells in 2 study areas (Delta-Mendota subbasin and Westside subbasin) in Stanislaus, Merced, Madera, Fresno, and Kings Counties. Thirty-nine of the wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 19 wells were selected to aid in the understanding of aquifer-system flow and related groundwater-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], low-level fumigants, and pesticides and pesticide degradates

  12. Groundwater-quality data in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit, 2010-Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 39,000-square-kilometer Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau (CAMP) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from July through October 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CAMP study unit is the thirty-second study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA PBP. The GAMA CAMP study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the open or screened intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the CAMP study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from the quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the CAMP study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 90 wells and springs in 6 study areas (Sacramento Valley Eastside, Honey Lake Valley, Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau Low Use Basins, Shasta Valley and Mount Shasta Volcanic Area, Quaternary Volcanic Areas, and Tertiary Volcanic Areas) in Butte, Lassen, Modoc, Plumas, Shasta, Siskiyou, and Tehama Counties. Wells and springs were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Groundwater samples were analyzed for field water-quality indicators, organic constituents, perchlorate, inorganic constituents

  13. California GAMA Special Study. Development of a Capability for the Analysis of Krypton-85 in Groundwater Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, Ate; Bibby, Richard K.; Moran, Jean E.; Singleton, Michael J.; Esser, Bradley K.

    2015-06-01

    A capability for the analysis of krypton-85 (85Kr) in groundwater samples was developed at LLNL. Samples are collected by extracting gas from 2000-4000 L of groundwater at the well, yielding approximately 0.2 cm3 STP krypton. Sample collection takes 1 to 4 hours. Krypton is purified in the laboratory using a combination of molecular sieve and activated charcoal traps, and transferred to a liquid scintillation vial. The 85Kr activity is measured by liquid scintillation on a Quantulus 1220 liquid scintillation counter from PerkinElmer. The detection limit for a typical 0.2 cm3Kr sample size is 11% of the present day activity in air, corresponding to the decay corrected activity in air in 1987. The typical measurement uncertainty is below 10% for recently recharged samples. Six groundwater samples were collected, purified and counted. 85Kr was not detected in any of the samples counted at LLNL. 85Kr was detected by the low level counting laboratory of Bern University in all samples between 1.5 and 6.6 decays per minute per cm3 krypton, corresponding to decay corrected activities in air between 1971 and 1985. The new capability is an excellent complement to tritium-helium, expanding the existing suite of age dating tools available to the GAMA program (35S, 3H/3He, 14C and radiogenic helium). 85Kr can replace 3H/3He in settings where 3H/3He ages are impossible to determine (for example where terrigenic helium overwhelms tritiogenic helium) and provides additional insight into travel time distributions in complex mixed groundwater systems.

  14. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the South Coast Interior groundwater basins, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 653-square-mile (1,691-square-kilometer) South Coast Interior Basins (SCI) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The South Coast Interior Basins study unit contains eight priority groundwater basins grouped into three study areas, Livermore, Gilroy, and Cuyama, in the Southern Coast Ranges hydrogeologic province. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA South Coast Interior Basins study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated (raw) groundwater quality within the primary aquifer system, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality between basins. The assessment was based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 50 wells in 2008 and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the SCI study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as trace elements and minor ions. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifer system of the SCI study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration

  15. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, George Luther, V; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains (KLAM) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in Del Norte, Humboldt, Shasta, Siskiyou, Tehama, and Trinity Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a spatially unbiased, statistically robust assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality data and explanatory factors for groundwater samples collected in 2010 by the USGS from 39 sites and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) water-quality database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH water-quality database for the KLAM study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study included two types of assessments: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements, and (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting the groundwater quality. The assessments were intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the KLAM study unit, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations

  16. Status of groundwater quality in the Upper Santa Ana Watershed, November 2006--March 2007--California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile (2,590-square-kilometer) Upper Santa Ana Watershed (USAW) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in southern California in Riverside and San Bernardino Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA USAW study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems in the study unit. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) are defined as the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the USAW study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from 90 wells during November 2006 through March 2007, and water-quality data from the CDPH database. The status of the current quality of the groundwater resource was assessed based on data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifers of the USAW study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal or California regulatory or

  17. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins, 2005-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,000 square mile (2,590 km2) Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins (MS) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in central California in Monterey, Santa Cruz, and San Luis Obispo Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA MS study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers). The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 by the USGS from 97 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifers were defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the MS study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the MS study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or) California regulatory or

  18. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  19. Status of groundwater quality in the California Desert Region, 2006-2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in six areas in the California Desert Region (Owens, Antelope, Mojave, Coachella, Colorado River, and Indian Wells) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The six Desert studies were designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater in parts of the Desert and the Basin and Range hydrogeologic provinces, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing groundwater quality to other areas in California and across the Nation. Samples were collected by the USGS from September 2006 through April 2008 from 253 wells in Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Los Angeles, Mono, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties. Two-hundred wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide a spatially unbiased representation of the study areas (grid wells), and fifty-three wells were sampled to provide additional insight into groundwater conditions (additional wells). The status of the current quality of the groundwater resource was assessed based on data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and inorganic constituents such as major ions and trace elements. Water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database also were incorporated in the assessment. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of untreated groundwater resources within the primary aquifer systems of the Desert Region, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) in the six Desert areas are defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation intervals of

  20. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Madera, Chowchilla Study Unit, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile Madera and Chowchilla Subbasins (Madera-Chowchilla study unit) of the San Joaquin Valley Basin was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in California's Central Valley region in parts of Madera, Merced, and Fresno Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Project was designed to provide statistically robust assessments of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems in California. The primary aquifer system within each study unit is defined by the depth of the perforated or open intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of wells used for municipal and community drinking-water supply. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifer system; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The assessments for the Madera-Chowchilla study unit were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 35 wells during April-May 2008 and water-quality data reported in the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of natural factors and human activities affecting groundwater quality. The primary aquifer system is represented by the grid wells, of which 90 percent (%) had depths that ranged from about 200 to 800 feet (ft) below land surface and had depths to the top of perforations that ranged from about 140 to 400 ft below land surface. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations divided by benchmark concentrations) were used for

  1. The stellar-to-halo mass relation of GAMA galaxies from 100 square degrees of KiDS weak lensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Uitert, Edo; Cacciato, Marcello; Hoekstra, Henk; Brouwer, Margot; Sifón, Cristóbal; Viola, Massimo; Baldry, Ivan; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Brown, M. J. I.; Choi, Ami; Driver, Simon P.; Erben, Thomas; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Joachimi, Benjamin; Kuijken, Konrad; Liske, Jochen; Loveday, Jon; McFarland, John; Miller, Lance; Nakajima, Reiko; Peacock, John; Radovich, Mario; Robotham, A. S. G.; Schneider, Peter; Sikkema, Gert; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs

    2016-04-01

    We study the stellar-to-halo mass relation of central galaxies in the range 9.7 < log10(M★/h-2M⊙) < 11.7 and z < 0.4, obtained from a combined analysis of the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS) and the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. We use ˜100 deg2 of KiDS data to study the lensing signal around galaxies for which spectroscopic redshifts and stellar masses were determined by GAMA. We show that lensing alone results in poor constraints on the stellar-to-halo mass relation due to a degeneracy between the satellite fraction and the halo mass, which is lifted when we simultaneously fit the stellar mass function. At M★ > 5 × 1010h-2M⊙, the stellar mass increases with halo mass as ˜ {}M_h^{0.25}. The ratio of dark matter to stellar mass has a minimum at a halo mass of 8 × 1011h-1M⊙ with a value of M_h/M_*=56_{-10}^{+16} [h]. We also use the GAMA group catalogue to select centrals and satellites in groups with five or more members, which trace regions in space where the local matter density is higher than average, and determine for the first time the stellar-to-halo mass relation in these denser environments. We find no significant differences compared to the relation from the full sample, which suggests that the stellar-to-halo mass relation does not vary strongly with local density. Furthermore, we find that the stellar-to-halo mass relation of central galaxies can also be obtained by modelling the lensing signal and stellar mass function of satellite galaxies only, which shows that the assumptions to model the satellite contribution in the halo model do not significantly bias the stellar-to-halo mass relation. Finally, we show that the combination of weak lensing with the stellar mass function can be used to test the purity of group catalogues.

  2. The stellar-to-halo mass relation of GAMA galaxies from 100 deg2 of KiDS weak lensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Uitert, Edo; Cacciato, Marcello; Hoekstra, Henk; Brouwer, Margot; Sifón, Cristóbal; Viola, Massimo; Baldry, Ivan; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Brown, M. J. I.; Choi, Ami; Driver, Simon P.; Erben, Thomas; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Joachimi, Benjamin; Kuijken, Konrad; Liske, Jochen; Loveday, Jon; McFarland, John; Miller, Lance; Nakajima, Reiko; Peacock, John; Radovich, Mario; Robotham, A. S. G.; Schneider, Peter; Sikkema, Gert; Taylor, Edward N.; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs

    2016-07-01

    We study the stellar-to-halo mass relation of central galaxies in the range 9.7 < log 10(M*/h- 2 M⊙) < 11.7 and z < 0.4, obtained from a combined analysis of the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS) and the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. We use ˜100 deg2 of KiDS data to study the lensing signal around galaxies for which spectroscopic redshifts and stellar masses were determined by GAMA. We show that lensing alone results in poor constraints on the stellar-to-halo mass relation due to a degeneracy between the satellite fraction and the halo mass, which is lifted when we simultaneously fit the stellar mass function. At M* > 5 × 1010 h- 2 M⊙, the stellar mass increases with halo mass as {˜ }M_h^{0.25}. The ratio of dark matter to stellar mass has a minimum at a halo mass of 8 × 1011 h-1 M⊙ with a value of M_h/M_{*}=56_{-10}^{+16} [h]. We also use the GAMA group catalogue to select centrals and satellites in groups with five or more members, which trace regions in space where the local matter density is higher than average, and determine for the first time the stellar-to-halo mass relation in these denser environments. We find no significant differences compared to the relation from the full sample, which suggests that the stellar-to-halo mass relation does not vary strongly with local density. Furthermore, we find that the stellar-to-halo mass relation of central galaxies can also be obtained by modelling the lensing signal and stellar mass function of satellite galaxies only, which shows that the assumptions to model the satellite contribution in the halo model do not significantly bias the stellar-to-halo mass relation. Finally, we show that the combination of weak lensing with the stellar mass function can be used to test the purity of group catalogues.

  3. Observações das explosões cósmicas de raios gama GRB021004 e GRB021211 com o satélite HETE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, J.; Ricker, G.; Hurley, K.; Lamb, D.; Grew, G.; et al.

    2003-08-01

    O High Energy Transient Explorer (HETE) é o primeiro satélite inteiramente dedicado ao estudo das explosões cósmicas de raios gama (ECRGs). Lançado em 9 de outubro de 2000, o HETE possui instrumentação capaz de observar as ECRGs desde o UV até raios gama e localizá-las com precisão de ~ 1-10 minutos de arco. As localizações das ECRGs detectadas são disseminadas rapidamente (em alguns segundos) pela Internet através de uma rede de estações de recepção ao longo do equador. A participação brasileira nesse projeto se dá através da montagem e operação de uma estação de recepção em Natal, RN, e da participação na equipe científica da missão. Neste trabalho são apresentados resultados da observação pelo HETE de duas ECRGs: GRB 021004 e GRB 021211. A GRB021004 foi detectada em raios gama pelo HETE em 4 de outubro de 2002 e localizada em raios-X em apenas 48 s, quando a emissão de raios gama ainda estava se processando. A explosão, relativamente brilhante e longa, durou aproximadamente 100 s. Um transiente óptico de magnitude 15 foi detectado no local da explosão nove minutos após o evento, e observações realizadas após 7 horas determinaram um desvio para o vermelho de absorção de 1,6. O GRB021004 foi o burst mais bem observado até o momento e suas observações em vários comprimentos de onda têm sido fundamentais para o aprimoramento dos modelos de ECRGs. O GRB21211, um burst brilhante e rico em raios-X, foi detectado em 11 de dezembro de 2002 e localizado em raios-X em 22 s após o início do evento. A duração do burst foi de 2,3 s em altas energias (85 a 400 keV) e de 8,5 s em baixas energias (2 a 10 keV). Caso essa explosão não tivesse sido rapidamente localizada pelo HETE, ela teria sido classificada como "opticamente escura", já que o transiente óptico decaiu rapidamente de R < 14 a R»19 dentro dos primeiros 20 minutos e já estava mais fraco do que R»23 depois de 24 horas da ocorrência do burst. Ser

  4. Updated study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element data collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project, October 2009-March 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Tracy A.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater samples have been collected in California as part of statewide investigations of groundwater quality conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP is being conducted in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and to improve public knowledge of groundwater quality in California. Quality-control samples (source-solution blanks, equipment blanks, and field blanks) were collected in order to ensure the quality of the groundwater sample results. Olsen and others (2010) previously determined study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element results based primarily on field blanks collected in California from May 2004 through January 2008. SRLs are raised reporting levels used to reduce the likelihood of reporting false detections attributable to contamination bias. The purpose of this report is to identify any changes in the frequency and concentrations of detections in field blanks since the last evaluation and update the SRLs for more recent data accordingly. Constituents analyzed were aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), strontium (Sr), thallium (Tl), tungsten (W), uranium (U), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). Data from 179 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from March 2006 through March 2013 by the GAMA-PBP indicated that for trace elements that had a change in detection frequency and concentration since the previous review, the shift occurred near October 2009, in conjunction with a change in the capsule filters used by the study. Results for 89 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from October 2009 through March 2013 were

  5. Status of groundwater quality in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley study units, 2005-08: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley study units was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study units are located in California's Central Valley and include parts of Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Placer, Sacramento, Shasta, Solano, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The three study units were designated to provide spatially-unbiased assessments of the quality of untreated groundwater in three parts of the Central Valley hydrogeologic province, as well as to provide a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality regionally and statewide. Samples were collected in 2005 (Southern Sacramento Valley), 2006 (Middle Sacramento Valley), and 2007-08 (Northern Sacramento Valley). The GAMA studies in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley were designed to provide statistically robust assessments of the quality of untreated groundwater in the primary aquifer systems that are used for drinking-water supply. The assessments are based on water-quality data collected by the USGS from 235 wells in the three study units in 2005-08, and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, referred to as primary aquifers) assessed in this study are defined by the depth intervals of the wells in the CDPH database for each study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The status of the current quality of the groundwater resource was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic

  6. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, 2007—California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 620-square-mile (1,600-square-kilometer) San Francisco Bay study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in the Southern Coast Ranges of California, in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA San Francisco Bay study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater within the primary aquifer system, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout the State. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 79 wells in 2007 and is supplemented with water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system is defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the San Francisco Bay study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifer system; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. Water- quality data from the CDPH database also were incorporated for this assessment. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifer system of the San Francisco Bay study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water

  7. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the South Coast Range-Coastal study unit, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the South Coast Range–Coastal (SCRC) study unit was investigated from May through November 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in the Southern Coast Range hydrologic province and includes parts of Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer system. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the SCRC study unit. The assessments for the SCRC study unit were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2008 by the USGS from 55 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and water-quality data from the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors affecting groundwater quality. Water-quality and ancillary data were collected from an additional 15 wells for the understanding assessment. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. The first component of this study, the status assessment of groundwater quality, used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents such as major ions and trace elements. Although the status assessment applies to untreated

  8. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the two southern San Joaquin Valley study units, 2005-2006 - California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the southern San Joaquin Valley was investigated from October 2005 through March 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. There are two study units located in the southern San Joaquin Valley: the Southeast San Joaquin Valley (SESJ) study unit and the Kern County Subbasin (KERN) study unit. The GAMA Priority Basin Project in the SESJ and KERN study units was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifers. The status assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 and 2006 by the USGS from 130 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. Data was collected from an additional 19 wells for the understanding assessment. The aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) were defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the CDPH database for the SESJ and KERN study units. The status assessment of groundwater quality used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of untreated groundwater resources within the primary aquifers in the SESJ and KERN study units, not the quality of drinking water delivered to consumers. Although the status assessment applies to untreated groundwater, Federal and California regulatory and non-regulatory water-quality benchmarks that apply to drinking water are used

  9. Groundwater-quality data in the Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study unit, 2010: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 112-square-mile Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas (BEAR) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from April to August 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The BEAR study unit was the thirty-first study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as the zones corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the BEAR study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallow or deep water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the BEAR study unit, groundwater samples were collected from two study areas (Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas) in San Bernardino County. Of the 38 sampling sites, 27 were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the primary aquifer system in the study unit (grid sites), and the remaining 11 sites were selected to aid in the understanding of the potential groundwater-quality issues associated with septic tank use and with ski areas in the study unit (understanding sites). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and

  10. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): The connection between metals, specific SFR and H I gas in galaxies: the Z-SSFR relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara-López, M. A.; Hopkins, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    We study the interplay between gas phase metallicity (Z), specific star formation rate (SSFR) and neutral hydrogen gas (HI) for galaxies of different stellar masses. Our study uses spectroscopic data from Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) star-forming galaxies, as well as HI detection from the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFALFA) and Galex Arecibo SDSS Survey (GASS) public catalogues. We present a model based on the Z-SSFR relation that shows that at a given stellar mass, depending on the amount of gas, galaxies will follow opposite behaviours. Low-mass galaxies with a large amount of gas will show high SSFR and low metallicities, while low-mass galaxies with small amounts of gas will show lower SSFR and high metallicities. In contrast, massive galaxies with a large amount of gas will show moderate SSFR and high metallicities, while massive galaxies with small amounts of gas will show low SSFR and low metallicities. Using ALFALFA and GASS counterparts, we find that the amount of gas is related to those drastic differences in Z and SSFR for galaxies of a similar stellar mass. The results of this study were publish recently in a ``letter to the editor" (Lara-Lopez, M. A. et al. 2013, MNRAS, 433, L35).

  11. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units, 2006-2007--California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The three study units are located in the Sierra Nevada region of California in parts of Nevada, Placer, El Dorado, Madera, Tulare, and Kern Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The project was designed to provide statistically robust assessments of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems used for drinking water. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) for each study unit are defined by the depth of the screened or open intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of wells used for municipal and community drinking-water supply. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The assessments for the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 132 wells in the three study units during 2006 and 2007 and water-quality data reported in the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors affecting groundwater quality. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations divided by benchmark concentrations) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those

  12. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): mass-size relations of z < 0.1 galaxies subdivided by Sérsic index, colour and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Rebecca; Driver, Simon P.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Kelvin, Lee S.; Graham, Alister W.; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Andrews, Stephen K.; Baldry, Ivan K.; Bamford, Steven; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Cluver, Michelle E.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Davies, Luke J. M.; Haeussler, Boris; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S.; Loveday, Jon; Moffett, Amanda J.; Norberg, Peder; Phillipps, Steven; Taylor, Edward N.; López-Sánchez, Ángel R.; Wilkins, Stephen M.

    2015-03-01

    We use data from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey in the redshift range 0.01 < z < 0.1 (8399 galaxies in g to Ks bands) to derive the stellar mass-half-light radius relations for various divisions of `early'- and `late'-type samples. We find that the choice of division between early and late (i.e. colour, shape, morphology) is not particularly critical; however, the adopted mass limits and sample selections (i.e. the careful rejection of outliers and use of robust fitting methods) are important. In particular, we note that for samples extending to low stellar mass limits (<10^{10} M_{⊙}) the Sérsic index bimodality, evident for high-mass systems, becomes less distinct and no-longer acts as a reliable separator of early- and late-type systems. The final set of stellar mass-half-light radius relations are reported for a variety of galaxy population subsets in 10 bands (ugrizZY JHKs) and are intended to provide a comprehensive low-z benchmark for the many ongoing high-z studies. Exploring the variation of the stellar mass-half-light radius relations with wavelength, we confirm earlier findings that galaxies appear more compact at longer wavelengths albeit at a smaller level than previously noted: at 10^{10} M_{⊙}} both spiral systems and ellipticals show a decrease in size of 13 per cent from g to Ks (which is near linear in log wavelength). Finally, we note that the sizes used in this work are derived from 2D Sérsic light profile fitting (using GALFIT3), i.e. elliptical semimajor half-light radii, improving on earlier low-z benchmarks based on circular apertures.

  13. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Fernando-San Gabriel Study Unit, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460 square mile San Fernando-San Gabriel study unit (SFSG) was investigated between May and July 2005 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The San Fernando-San Gabriel study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SFSG, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 52 wells in Los Angeles County. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and seventeen wells were selected to aid in the evaluation of specific water-quality issues or changes in water chemistry along a historic ground-water flow path (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP), and 1,4-dioxane], naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-fifth (11 of 52) of the wells, and the results for these

  14. Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Apiales - POR 1 is missing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Laursen, Tomas; Weitzel, Corinna; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-05-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor to eukaryotic microsomal cytochromes P450 enzymes. The number of PORs within plant species is limited to one to four isoforms, with the most common being two PORs per plant. These enzymes provide electrons to a huge number of different cytochromes P450s (from 50 to several hundred within one plant). Within the eudicotyledons, PORs can be divided into two major clades, POR 1 and POR 2. Based on our own sequencing analysis and publicly available data, we have identified 45 PORs from the angiosperm order Apiales. These were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis along with 237 other publicly available (NCBI and oneKP) POR sequences found within the clade Asterids. Here, we show that the order Apiales only harbor members of the POR 2 clade, which are further divided into two distinct subclades. This is in contrast to most other eudicotyledon orders that have both POR 1 and POR 2. This suggests that through gene duplications and one gene deletion, Apiales only contain members of the POR 2 clade. Three POR 2 isoforms from Thapsia garganica L., Apiaceae, were all full-length in an Illumina root transcriptome dataset (available from the SRA at NCBI). All three genes were shown to be functional upon reconstitution into nanodiscs, confirming that none of the isoforms are pseudogenes. PMID:26854662

  15. GAMA/H-ATLAS: A meta-analysis of SFR indicators - comprehensive measures of the SFR-M relation and Cosmic Star Formation History at z < 0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, L. J. M.; Driver, S. P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Grootes, M. W.; Popescu, C. C.; Tuffs, R. J.; Hopkins, A.; Alpaslan, M.; Andrews, S. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bremer, M. N.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cluver, M. E.; Croom, S.; da Cunha, E.; Dunne, L.; Lara-López, M. A.; Liske, J.; Loveday, J.; Moffett, A. J.; Owers, M.; Phillipps, S.; Sansom, A. E.; Taylor, E. N.; Michalowski, M. J.; Ibar, E.; Smith, M.; Bourne, N.

    2016-06-01

    We present a meta-analysis of star-formation rate (SFR) indicators in the GAMA survey, producing 12 different SFR metrics and determining the SFR-M★ relation for each. We compare and contrast published methods to extract the SFR from each indicator, using a well-defined local sample of morphologically-selected spiral galaxies, which excludes sources which potentially have large recent changes to their SFR. The different methods are found to yield SFR-M★ relations with inconsistent slopes and normalisations, suggesting differences between calibration methods. The recovered SFR-M★ relations also have a large range in scatter which, as SFRs of the targets may be considered constant over the different timescales, suggests differences in the accuracy by which methods correct for attenuation in individual targets. We then recalibrate all SFR indicators to provide new, robust and consistent luminosity-to-SFR calibrations, finding that the most consistent slopes and normalisations of the SFR-M★ relations are obtained when recalibrated using the radiation transfer method of Popescu et al. These new calibrations can be used to directly compare SFRs across different observations, epochs and galaxy populations. We then apply our calibrations to the GAMA II equatorial dataset and explore the evolution of star-formation in the local Universe. We determine the evolution of the normalisation to the SFR-M★ relation from 0 < z < 0.35 - finding consistent trends with previous estimates at 0.3 < z < 1.2. We then provide the definitive z < 0.35 Cosmic Star Formation History, SFR-M★ relation and its evolution over the last 3 billion years.

  16. GAMA/H-ATLAS: a meta-analysis of SFR indicators - comprehensive measures of the SFR-M* relation and cosmic star formation history at z < 0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, L. J. M.; Driver, S. P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Grootes, M. W.; Popescu, C. C.; Tuffs, R. J.; Hopkins, A.; Alpaslan, M.; Andrews, S. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bremer, M. N.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cluver, M. E.; Croom, S.; da Cunha, E.; Dunne, L.; Lara-López, M. A.; Liske, J.; Loveday, J.; Moffett, A. J.; Owers, M.; Phillipps, S.; Sansom, A. E.; Taylor, E. N.; Michalowski, M. J.; Ibar, E.; Smith, M.; Bourne, N.

    2016-09-01

    We present a meta-analysis of star formation rate (SFR) indicators in the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, producing 12 different SFR metrics and determining the SFR-M* relation for each. We compare and contrast published methods to extract the SFR from each indicator, using a well-defined local sample of morphologically selected spiral galaxies, which excludes sources which potentially have large recent changes to their SFR. The different methods are found to yield SFR-M* relations with inconsistent slopes and normalizations, suggesting differences between calibration methods. The recovered SFR-M* relations also have a large range in scatter which, as SFRs of the targets may be considered constant over the different time-scales, suggests differences in the accuracy by which methods correct for attenuation in individual targets. We then recalibrate all SFR indicators to provide new, robust and consistent luminosity-to-SFR calibrations, finding that the most consistent slopes and normalizations of the SFR-M* relations are obtained when recalibrated using the radiation transfer method of Popescu et al. These new calibrations can be used to directly compare SFRs across different observations, epochs and galaxy populations. We then apply our calibrations to the GAMA II equatorial data set and explore the evolution of star formation in the local Universe. We determine the evolution of the normalization to the SFR-M* relation from 0 < z < 0.35 - finding consistent trends with previous estimates at 0.3 < z < 1.2. We then provide the definitive z < 0.35 cosmic star formation history, SFR-M* relation and its evolution over the last 3 billion years.

  17. Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

  18. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2011-04-10

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ∼40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ∼60%, is found on ∼28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (∼8% of Asians and ∼13% of Caucasians) at -152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ∼30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  19. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ~40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ~60%, is found on ~28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (~8% of Asians and ~13% of Caucasians) at −152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ~30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically-relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  20. Desigualdades por cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Información básica de las desigualdades en salud por cáncer en EE. UU., factores que contribuyen a la carga desproporcionada del cáncer en algunos grupos y ejemplos de desigualdades en incidencia y mortalidad entre ciertos grupos de la población.

  1. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  2. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  3. Groundwater-quality data in the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit, 2008-2010--Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Wright, Michael T.; Beuttel, Brandon S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 12,103-square-mile Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts (CLUB) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from December 2008 to March 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program's Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CLUB study unit was the twenty-eighth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA CLUB study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer systems, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) are defined as parts of aquifers corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the CLUB study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from the quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the CLUB study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 52 wells in 3 study areas (Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts) in San Bernardino, Riverside, Kern, San Diego, and Imperial Counties. Forty-nine of the wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and three wells were selected to aid in evaluation of water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile

  4. Status of groundwater quality in the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit, 2008-2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Mary C.; Hancock, Tracy Connell; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 963-square-mile Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in southern California in San Bernardino, Riverside, San Diego, and Imperial Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 52 wells (49 grid wells and 3 understanding wells) and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database for the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit, not the

  5. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  6. Evaluation of volatile organic compound (VOC) blank data and application of study reporting levels to groundwater data collected for the California GAMA Priority Basin Project, May 2004 through September 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed in quality-control samples collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. From May 2004 through September 2010, a total of 2,026 groundwater samples, 211 field blanks, and 109 source-solution blanks were collected and analyzed for concentrations of 85 VOCs. Results from analyses of these field and source-solution blanks and of 2,411 laboratory instrument blanks during the same time period were used to assess the quality of data for the 2,026 groundwater samples. Eighteen VOCs were detected in field blanks or source-solution blanks: acetone, benzene, bromodichloromethane, 2-butanone, carbon disulfide, chloroform, 1,1-dichloroethene, dichloromethane, ethylbenzene, tetrachloroethene, styrene, tetrahydrofuran, toluene, trichloroethene, trichlorofluoromethane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m- and p-xylenes, and o-xylene. The objective of the evaluation of the VOC-blank data was to determine if study reporting levels (SRLs) were needed for any of the VOCs detected in blanks to ensure the quality of the data from groundwater samples. An SRL is equivalent to a raised reporting level that is used in place of the reporting level used by the analyzing laboratory [long‑term method detection level (LT-MDL) or laboratory reporting level (LRL)] to reduce the probability of reporting false-positive detections. Evaluation of VOC-blank data was done in three stages: (1) identification of a set of representative quality‑control field blanks (QCFBs) to be used for calculation of SRLs and identification of VOCs amenable to the SRL approach, (2) evaluation of potential sources of contamination to blanks and groundwater samples by VOCs detected in field blanks, and (3) selection of appropriate SRLs from among four potential SRLs for VOCs detected in field blanks and application of those SRLs to the groundwater data. An important conclusion from this study is that to ensure the

  7. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. PMID:23075153

  8. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  9. Disminuyen en los Estados Unidos las infecciones por VPH.

    Cancer.gov

    La infección por los tipos del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) en el blanco de la vacuna cuadrivalente se redujo en casi dos tercios en las adolescentes desde que se recomendó la vacunación en los Estados Unidos.

  10. Centros oncológicos designados por el NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El programa de centros oncológicos designados por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) reconoce a los centros de todo el país que cumplen con rigurosos criterios para participar en proyectos avanzados de primer nivel para la investigación multidisciplinaria del cáncer.

  11. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): galaxy radial alignments in GAMA groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Michael D.; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.; Kelvin, Lee; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Norberg, Peder; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Driver, Simon; Hopkins, Andrew; Liske, Jochen; Loveday, Jon; Robotham, Aaron

    2013-08-01

    We constrain the distributions of projected radial alignment angles of satellite galaxy shapes within the Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey group catalogue. We identify the galaxy groups using spectroscopic redshifts and measure galaxy projected ellipticities from Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging. With a sample of 3850 groups with 13 655 satellite galaxies with high quality shape measurements, we find a less than 2σ signal of radial alignments in the mean projected ellipticity components and the projected position angle when using galaxy shape estimates optimized for weak lensing measurements. Our radial alignment measurement increases to greater than 3σ significance relative to the expectation for no alignments if we use 2D Sérsic model fits to define galaxy orientations. Our weak measurement of radial alignments is in conflict with predictions from dark-matter N-body simulations, which we interpret as evidence for large misalignments of baryons and dark matter in group and cluster satellites. Within our uncertainties, that are dominated by our small sample size, we find only weak and marginally significant trends of the radial alignment angle distributions on projected distance from the group centre, host halo mass, and redshift that could be consistent with a tidal torquing mechanism for radial alignments. Using our lensing optimized shape estimators, we estimate that intrinsic alignments of galaxy group members may contribute a systematic error to the mean differential projected surface mass density of groups inferred from weak lensing observations by -1 ± 20 per cent at scales around 300 h-1 kpc from the group centre assuming a photometric redshift rms error of 10 per cent, and given our group sample with median redshift of 0.17 and median virial masses ˜1013 h-1 M⊙.

  12. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Cancer.gov

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevención de más de 795 000 muertes por cáncer de pulmón en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este país hubiera cesado después de la publicación d

  13. Neisseria meningitidis Lacking the Major Porins PorA and PorB Is Viable and Modulates Apoptosis and the Oxidative Burst of Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Peak, Ian R; Chen, Adrienne; Jen, Freda E-C; Jennings, Courtney; Schulz, Benjamin L; Saunders, Nigel J; Khan, Arshad; Seifert, H Steven; Jennings, Michael P

    2016-08-01

    The bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis expresses two major outer-membrane porins. PorA expression is subject to phase-variation (high frequency, random, on-off switching), and both PorA and PorB are antigenically variable between strains. PorA expression is variable and not correlated with meningococcal colonisation or invasive disease, whereas all naturally-occurring strains express PorB suggesting strong selection for expression. We have generated N. meningitidis strains lacking expression of both major porins, demonstrating that they are dispensable for bacterial growth in vitro. The porAB mutant strain has an exponential growth rate similar to the parental strain, as do the single porA or porB mutants, but the porAB mutant strain does not reach the same cell density in stationary phase. Proteomic analysis suggests that the double mutant strain exhibits compensatory expression changes in proteins associated with cellular redox state, energy/nutrient metabolism, and membrane stability. On solid media, there is obvious growth impairment that is rescued by addition of blood or serum from mammalian species, particularly heme. These porin mutants are not impaired in their capacity to inhibit both staurosporine-induced apoptosis and a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced oxidative burst in human neutrophils suggesting that the porins are not the only bacterial factors that can modulate these processes in host cells. PMID:26562068

  14. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  15. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    This document describes Acceptance Testing performed on Portable Exhauster POR-007/Skid E. It includes measurements of bearing vibration levels, pressure decay testing, programmable logic controller interlocks, high vacuum, flow and pressure control functional testing. The purpose of Acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-0490, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  16. Typing and surface charges of the variable loop regions of PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Paola; Neri, Arianna; Tanabe, Mikio; Fazio, Cecilia; Massari, Paola

    2016-06-01

    PorB is a pan-Neisserial major outer membrane protein with a trimeric β-barrel structure. Each monomer presents eight periplasmic turns and eight surface exposed loop regions with sequence variability. PorB induces activation of host cell responses via a TLR2-dependent mechanism likely mediated by electrostatic interactions between TLR2 and PorB surface exposed loops. Variability in the loop amino acid sequence is known to influence cell responses to PorB in vitro, particularly for the residues in L5 and L7. In this work, the sequence of the porB gene and the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from 35 invasive meningococcal isolates belonging to the main clonal complexes identified in Italy and from five carriage genomes available on the website http://pubmlst.org/neisseria/ were examined. Analysis of the porB encoding regions from the invasive meningococci has identified four new alleles and a potential association between porB alleles, serogroup, and clonal complexes. Through computer-based modeling and analysis of the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from these strains, loop charge segregation between PorB from invasive serogroups B and C was observed. Specifically, loops 1, 4, and 7 were negatively charged and L2 and L8 were mostly neutral in serogroup B isolates, while an overall homogeneous positive surface charge was present in PorB from invasive serogroup C strains. A higher PorB sequence variability was observed among carriage genomes, and a general prevalence of negative loop surface charges. The surface charge differences in PorB from serogroups B and C invasive and carriage strains may, in part, influence the outcomes of Neisseriae interactions with host cells. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(6):488-495, 2016. PMID:27156582

  17. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    Portable Exhauster POR-008 was procured via HNF-0490, Specification for a Portable Exhausted System for Waste Tank Ventilation. Prior to taking ownership, acceptance testing was performed at the vendors. However at the conclusion of testing a number of issues remained that required resolution before the exhausters could be used by Project W-320. The purpose of acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-O49O, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  18. VDAC and the bacterial porin PorB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae share mitochondrial import pathways.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anne; Rassow, Joachim; Grimm, Jan; Machuy, Nikolaus; Meyer, Thomas F; Rudel, Thomas

    2002-04-15

    The human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae induces host cell apoptosis during infection by delivering the outer membrane protein PorB to the host cell's mitochondria. PorB is a pore-forming beta-barrel protein sharing several features with the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which is involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Here we show that PorB of pathogenic Neisseria species produced by host cells is efficiently targeted to mitochondria. Imported PorB resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane and forms multimers with similar sizes as in the outer bacterial membrane. The mitochondria completely lose their membrane potential, a characteristic previously observed in cells infected with gonococci or treated with purified PorB. Closely related bacterial porins of non-pathogenic Neisseria mucosa or Escherichia coli remain in the cytosol. Import of PorB into mitochondria in vivo is independent of a linear signal sequence. Insertion of PorB into the mitochondrial outer membrane in vitro depends on the activity of Tom5, Tom20 and Tom40, but is independent of Tom70. Our data show that human VDAC and bacterial PorB are imported into mitochondria by a similar mechanism. PMID:11953311

  19. GAMA-LLNL Alpine Basin Special Study: Scope of Work

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, M J; Visser, A; Esser, B K; Moran, J E

    2011-12-12

    For this task LLNL will examine the vulnerability of drinking water supplies in foothills and higher elevation areas to climate change impacts on recharge. Recharge locations and vulnerability will be determined through examination of groundwater ages and noble gas recharge temperatures in high elevation basins. LLNL will determine whether short residence times are common in one or more subalpine basin. LLNL will measure groundwater ages, recharge temperatures, hydrogen and oxygen isotopes, major anions and carbon isotope compositions on up to 60 samples from monitoring wells and production wells in these basins. In addition, a small number of carbon isotope analyses will be performed on surface water samples. The deliverable for this task will be a technical report that provides the measured data and an interpretation of the data from one or more subalpine basins. Data interpretation will: (1) Consider climate change impacts to recharge and its impact on water quality; (2) Determine primary recharge locations and their vulnerability to climate change; and (3) Delineate the most vulnerable areas and describe the likely impacts to recharge.

  20. Successful Mnemonics for "por"/"para" and Affirmative Commands with Pronouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Two mnemonic devices, "4A Rule" and "PERFECT," are described to simplify the learning of two grammar points: the placement of object pronouns with respect to commands and the distinction between "por" and "para." (five references) (LB)

  1. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Zoe A; Seviour, Robert J; Tucci, Joseph; Petrovski, Steve

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  2. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Zoe A.; Seviour, Robert J.; Tucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  3. Crystallographic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis PorB extracellular loops potentially implicated in TLR2 recognition.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Christof; Toussi, Deana N; Zaucha, Jan; Wetzler, Lee M; Rüppel, Nadine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2014-03-01

    Among all Neisseriae species, Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the only human pathogens, causative agents of bacterial meningitis and gonorrhoea, respectively. PorB, a pan-Neisseriae trimeric porin that mediates diffusive transport of essential molecules across the bacterial outer membrane, is also known to activate host innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling. The molecular mechanism of PorB binding to TLR2 is not known, but it has been hypothesized that electrostatic interactions contribute to ligand/receptor binding. Strain-specific sequence variability in the surface-exposed loops of PorB which are potentially implicated in TLR2 binding, may explain the difference in TLR2-mediated cell activation in vitro by PorB homologs from the commensal Neisseriae lactamica and the pathogen N. meningitidis. Here, we report a comparative structural analysis of PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup B strain 8765 (63% sequence homology with PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup W135) and a mutant in which amino acid substitutions in the extracellular loop 7 lead to significantly reduced TLR2-dependent activity in vitro. We observe that this mutation both alters the loop conformation and causes dramatic changes of electrostatic surface charge, both of which may affect TLR2 recognition and signaling. PMID:24361688

  4. Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T.M.

    2010-06-25

    PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP-PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction.

  5. Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 Å resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP–PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction. PMID:20351243

  6. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kaelynn

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  7. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Benítez, J F; Blomström, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge. PMID:26728078

  8. Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

  9. Gliding Motility and Por Secretion System Genes Are Widespread among Members of the Phylum Bacteroidetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yongtao

    2013-01-01

    The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, “Gramella forsetii,” Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility. PMID:23123910

  10. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  11. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  12. An Analysis of Interlanguage Development Over Time: Part 1, "por" and "para".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntermann, Gail

    1992-01-01

    The first part of a larger planned investigation, this study examines the use of "por" and "para" by nine Peace Corps volunteers in oral interviews at the end of training and roughly one year later, to trace their acquisition over time, in two learning contexts. (24 references) (LB)

  13. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were as substitutions for other prepositions…

  14. The porA gene in serogroup A meningococci: evolutionary stability and mechanism of genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Suker, J; Feavers, I M; Achtman, M; Morelli, G; Wang, J F; Maiden, M C

    1994-04-01

    Molecular analyses were applied to the genes encoding variants of the serosubtyping antigen, the class 1 outer membrane protein (PorA), from 55 serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis strains. These genes were evolutionarily stable and exhibited a limited range of genetic variation, primarily generated by recombination. Translation of the gene sequences revealed a total of 19 distinct amino acid sequences in the variable regions of the protein, 6 of which were not recognized by currently available serosubtyping monoclonal antibodies. Knowledge of these amino acid sequences permitted a rational re-assignment of serosubtype names. Comparison of the complete genes with porA gene sequences from serogroup B and C meningococci showed that serogroup A possessed a limited number of the possible porA genes from a globally distributed gene pool. Each serogroup A subgroup was characterized by one of four porA gene types, probably acquired upon subgroup divergence, which was stable over periods of decades and during epidemiological spread. Comparison with other variable genes (pil and iga) indicated that the three alleles were independently assorted within the subgroup, suggesting that their gene types were older than the subgroups in which they occurred. PMID:8057850

  15. Informe a la Nación de mortalidad por cáncer sigue bajando

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, de 1975 a 2009, indica que los índices generales de mortalidad por cáncer siguen bajando en los Estados Unidos en hombres y mujeres, entre todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales y para todo

  16. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  17. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-06-27

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-005 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  18. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-006 skid D

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-07-29

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  19. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-004 skid B

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-05-06

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-004 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  20. Correlation between Serological and Sequencing Analyses of the PorB Outer Membrane Protein in the Neisseria meningitidis Serotyping System

    PubMed Central

    Sacchi, Claudio T.; Lemos, Ana P. S.; Whitney, Anne M.; Solari, Claude A.; Brandt, Mary E.; Melles, Carmo E. A.; Frasch, Carl E.; Mayer, Leonard W.

    1998-01-01

    The current serological typing scheme for Neisseria meningitidis is not comprehensive; a proportion of isolates are not serotypeable. DNA sequence analysis and predicted amino acid sequences were used to characterize the structures of variable-region (VR) epitopes on N. meningitidis PorB proteins (PorB VR typing). Twenty-six porB gene sequences were obtained from GenBank and aligned with 41 new sequences. Primary amino acid structures predicted from those genes were grouped into 30 VR families of related variants that displayed at least 60% similarity. We correlated VR families with monoclonal antibody (MAb) reactivities, establishing a relationship between VR families and epitope locations for 15 serotype-defining MAbs. The current panel of serotype-defining MAbs underestimates by at least 50% the PorB VR variability because reagents for several major VR families are lacking or because a number of VR variants within some families are not recognized by serotype-defining MAbs. These difficulties, also reported for serosubtyping based on the PorA protein, are shown as inconsistent results between serological and sequence analyses, leading to inaccurate strain identification and incomplete epidemiological data. The information from this study enabled the expansion of the panel of MAbs currently available for serotyping, by including MAbs of previously undetermined specificities. Use of the expanded serotype panel enabled us to improve the sensitivity of serotyping by resolving a number of formerly nonserotypeable strains. In most cases, this information can be used to predict the VR family placement of unknown PorB proteins without sequencing the entire porB gene. PorB VR typing complements serotyping, and a combination of both techniques may be used for full characterization of meningococcal strains. The present work represents the most complete and integrated data set of PorB VR sequences and MAb reactivities of serogroup B and C meningococci produced to date. PMID

  1. Zinc Finger Nuclease Knock-out of NADPH:Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) in Human Tumor Cell Lines Demonstrates That Hypoxia-activated Prodrugs Differ in POR Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jiechuang; Gu, Yongchuan; Pruijn, Frederik B.; Smaill, Jeff B.; Patterson, Adam V.; Guise, Christopher P.; Wilson, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of POR in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, POR knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and POR-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by POR overexpression. Knocking out POR had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the POR knock-outs. Thus, although POR expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development. PMID:24196959

  2. Characterization of Plasmid pOR1 from Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale and Construction of a Shuttle Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Ruud; Chansiripornchai, Niwat; Gaastra, Wim; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2004-01-01

    The bacterium Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale has been recognized as an emerging pathogen in poultry since about 10 years ago. Knowledge of this bacterium and its mechanisms of virulence is still very limited. Here we report the development of a transformation system that enables genetic modification of O. rhinotracheale. The system is based on a cryptic plasmid, pOR1, that was derived from an O. rhinotracheale strain of serotype K. Sequencing indicated that the plasmid consisted of 14,787 nucleotides. Sequence analysis revealed one replication origin and several rep genes that control plasmid replication and copy number, respectively. In addition, pOR1 contains genes with similarity to a heavy-metal-transporting ATPase, a TonB-linked siderophore receptor, and a laccase. Reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that these genes were transcribed. Other putative open reading frames exhibited similarities with a virulence-associated protein in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and a number of genes coding for proteins with unknown function. An Escherichia coli-O. rhinotracheale shuttle plasmid (pOREC1) was constructed by cloning the replication origin and rep genes from pOR1 and the cfxA gene from Bacteroides vulgatus, which codes for resistance to the antibiotic cefoxitin, into plasmid pGEM7 by using E. coli as a host. pOREC1 was electroporated into O. rhinotracheale and yielded cefoxitin-resistant transformants. The pOREC1 isolated from these transformants was reintroduced into E. coli, demonstrating that pOREC1 acts as an independent replicon in both E. coli and O. rhinotracheale, fulfilling the criteria for a shuttle plasmid that can be used for transformation, targeted mutagenesis, and the construction of defined attenuated vaccine strains. PMID:15466524

  3. Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Mikio; Iverson, Tina M.

    2010-01-28

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from inclusion bodies by denaturation in urea followed by refolding in buffered LDAO on a size-exclusion column. PorB has been crystallized in three different crystal forms: C222, R32 and P6{sub 3}. The C222 crystal form may contain either one or two PorB monomers in the asymmetric unit, while both the R32 and P6{sub 3} crystal forms contained one PorB monomer in the asymmetric unit. Of the three, the P6{sub 3} crystal form had the best diffraction quality, yielding data extending to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution.

  4. Application of POR-Tveks to the radiochemical recovery of yttrium-90

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimova, A.M.; Kvasnitskii, I.B.

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe a method for the radiochemical analysis of fish bones for the accumulation of strontium 90 and yttrium 90 from power plant contamination of surface waters which involves labelling the sample with isotopes and subsequent adsorption of the yttrium component with the use of POR-Tveks, an adsorbent based on a copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene with heteroradical phosphine oxide. The yield of yttrium is determined from the mass of the oxide and from the half-life of the yttrium isotope.

  5. Antigenic topology of chlamydial PorB protein and identification of targets for immune neutralization of infectivity.

    PubMed

    Kawa, Diane E; Stephens, Richard S

    2002-05-15

    The outer membrane protein PorB is a conserved chlamydial protein that functions as a porin and is capable of eliciting neutralizing Abs. A topological antigenic map was developed using overlapping synthetic peptides representing the Chlamydia trachomatis PorB sequence and polyclonal immune sera. To identify which antigenic determinants were surface accessible, monospecific antisera were raised to the PorB peptides and were used in dot-blot and ELISA-based absorption studies with viable chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs). The ability of the surface-accessible antigenic determinants to direct neutralizing Ab responses was investigated using standardized in vitro neutralization assays. Four major antigenic clusters corresponding to Phe(34)-Leu(59) (B1-2 and B1-3), Asp(112) -Glu(145) (B2-3 and B2-4), Gly(179)-Ala(225) (B3-2 to B3-4), and Val(261)-Asn(305) (B4-4 to B5-2) were identified. Collectively, the EB absorption and dot-blot assays established that the immunoreactive PorB Ags were exposed on the surface of chlamydial EBs. Peptide-specific antisera raised to the surface-accessible Ags neutralized chlamydial infectivity and demonstrated cross-reactivity to synthetic peptides representing analogous C. pneumoniae PorB sequences. Furthermore, neutralization of chlamydial infectivity by C. trachomatis PorB antisera was inhibited by synthetic peptides representing the surface-exposed PorB antigenic determinants. These findings demonstrate that PorB Ags may be useful for development of chlamydial vaccines. PMID:11994474

  6. Multiple active site residues are important for photochemical efficiency in the light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR).

    PubMed

    Menon, Binuraj R K; Hardman, Samantha J O; Scrutton, Nigel S; Heyes, Derren J

    2016-08-01

    Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the light-driven reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), an essential, regulatory step in chlorophyll biosynthesis. The unique requirement of the enzyme for light has provided the opportunity to investigate how light energy can be harnessed to power biological catalysis and enzyme dynamics. Excited state interactions between the Pchlide molecule and the protein are known to drive the subsequent reaction chemistry. However, the structural features of POR and active site residues that are important for photochemistry and catalysis are currently unknown, because there is no crystal structure for POR. Here, we have used static and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements of a number of active site variants to study the role of a number of residues, which are located in the proposed NADPH/Pchlide binding site based on previous homology models, in the reaction mechanism of POR. Our findings, which are interpreted in the context of a new improved structural model, have identified several residues that are predicted to interact with the coenzyme or substrate. Several of the POR variants have a profound effect on the photochemistry, suggesting that multiple residues are important in stabilizing the excited state required for catalysis. Our work offers insight into how the POR active site geometry is finely tuned by multiple active site residues to support enzyme-mediated photochemistry and reduction of Pchlide, both of which are crucial to the existence of life on Earth. PMID:27285815

  7. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  8. Effect of SPM-based cleaning POR on EUV mask performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.

    2011-11-01

    EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning POR and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning POR.

  9. Methodology for obtaining stakeholder assessments of obesity policy options in the PorGrow project.

    PubMed

    Stirling, A; Lobstein, T; Millstone, E

    2007-05-01

    The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project (PorGrow) study provided a unique opportunity to develop a large-scale application of a semi-quantitative technique for exploring interviewees' views on options to tackle obesity, using multi-criteria mapping. This 'heuristic' approach utilizes the advantages of a structured interviews framework by predefining a set of options for appraisal, while leaving interviewees free to select their own criteria for making their judgements. Additional information can be gleaned from the interview transcripts and related materials to set the appraisals in their policy context, and allowing interviewees to express their views on the options presented and their own appraisals. The PorGrow study team agreed a predefined set of 20 options for appraisal, and interviewed sets of stakeholders representing more than 20 aspects of policy development in each of the nine participating countries. The details of the methodology adopted are set out in this paper. PMID:17371304

  10. Effects of heme precursors on CYP1A2 and POR expression in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda system☆

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huiyuan; Ma, Jun; Liu, Nian; Wang, Shoulin

    2010-01-01

    Objective CYP1A2 and NADPH-CYP450 oxidoreductase (POR) were expressed in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda (sf9) system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of heme precursors on the expression of CYP1A2 and POR. Methods The heme precursors [δ-Aminolaevulinic Acid (5-ALA), Fe3+ and hemin] were introduced into the system to evaluate their effects on the expression of CYP1A2, POR and their co-expression. All the proteins were identified using immunoblotting, CO-difference spectroscopy, or cytochrome c assay. Results In the present study, functional CYP1A2 and POR were successfully expressed in the baculovirus/sf9 system, and both of them showed high activities. Co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe3+ significantly improved expression of CYP1A2 by about 50% compared with the addition of 5-ALA, Fe3+ or hemin alone. Either co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe3+ or addition of 5-ALA or Fe3+ alone improved the POR expression level 2 fold and its activity 7-10 fold compared with control (no addition). However, unlike CYP1A2, there was no difference between the co-addition and addition of these heme precursors alone. Different ratios of BvCYP1A2 to BvPOR also affected the co-expression of CYP1A2 and POR, with a 3:1 ratio of BvCYP1A2 / BvPOR significantly increasing their co-expression. Surprisingly, the addition of 0.1 mM 5-ALA or Fe3+ alone, but not their co-addition, could significantly improve the CYP1A2 and POR co-expression (P < 0.05). Conclusion 5-ALA and Fe3+ increased the expression of CYP1A2 and POR in a baculovirus/sf9 system, but the pattern of their expression was different between their expression alone and co-expression. PMID:23554636

  11. Geometry sensing through POR1 regulates Rac1 activity controlling early osteoblast differentiation in response to nanofiber diameter.

    PubMed

    Higgins, A M; Banik, B L; Brown, J L

    2015-02-01

    Bone grafting procedures in the United States rely heavily upon autografts and allografts, which are donor-dependent, cause donor site pain, and can transmit disease. Synthetic bone grafts can reduce these risks; however, synthetics lack the bone differentiating (osteoinductive) abilities of auto- and allografts. Achieving innate osteoinductive properties of synthetics through surface modifications is currently under investigation. This study focuses on nanofibers, with emphasis on how fiber diameter and the potential curvature sensor POR1 affect the activation of the signaling molecules Rac1 and Arf1, and leading to expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteoinductive marker. Diameters of 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μm were compared against a flat control. The highest level of Rac1 activation was achieved on the smallest fibers (0.1 μm), a trend that was lost in POR1 knockdowns. This supports the hypothesis that on small nanofibers, POR1 favorably binds to highly curved cell membranes, which allows Rac1 to subsequently dissociate and activate. When the curvature is insufficient to bind POR1, POR1 binds to inactive Rac1 and competitively inhibits its activation. Arf1 activation followed an opposite trend, with the largest nanofibers exhibiting the highest activity. This trend reinforces the known interaction between Rac1 and Arf1 through the GIT-PIX complex, an Arf1 GAP and Rac1 GEF, respectively. Large, (1.0 μm), nanofibers demonstrated the highest ALP activity, indicating that ALP expression is inversely dependent on Rac1 activation. Knockdown of POR1 resulted in increased ALP activity across the substrates but without regard to the curvature sensing trend seen previously. Thus, POR1 senses curvature and increases Rac1 activity, which negatively regulates bone differentiation. PMID:25539497

  12. Substrate-specific modulation of CYP3A4 activity by genetic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR)

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vishal; Choi, Ji Ha; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Miller, Walter L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives CYP3A4 receives electrons from P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to metabolize about 50% of clinically used drugs. There is substantial inter-individual variation in CYP3A4 catalytic activity that is not explained by CYP3A4 genetic variants. CYP3A4 is flexible and distensible, permitting it to accommodate substrates varying in shape and size. To elucidate mechanisms of variability in CYP3A4 catalysis, we examined the effects of genetic variants of POR, and explored the possibility that substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4 differentially affect the ability of POR variants to support catalysis. Methods We expressed human CYP3A4 and four POR variants (Q153R, A287P, R457H, A503V) in bacteria, reconstituted them in vitro and measured the Michaelis constant and maximum velocity with testosterone, midazolam, quinidine and erythromycin as substrates. Results POR A287P and R457H had low activity with all substrates; Q153R had 76–94% of wild type (WT) activity with midazolam and erythromycin, but 129–150% activity with testosterone and quinidine. The A503V polymorphism reduced CYP3A4 activity to 61–77% of wild type with testosterone and midazolam, but had nearly wild type activity with quinidine and erythromycin. Conclusion POR variants affect CYP3A4 activities. The impact of a POR variant on catalysis by CYP3A4 is substrate-specific, probably due to substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4. PMID:20697309

  13. Intermitência alfvênica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.

    2003-08-01

    Dados medidos no vento solar rápido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetário são dominados por flutuações Alfvênicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correlação entre as variações do campo magnético e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuações exibem muitas características esperadas em turbulência magneto-hidrodinâmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitência e espectros contínuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsáveis pela evolução de turbulência Alfvênica intermitente não são completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos é usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvênicos, modelados pela equação Schrödinger não-linear derivativa e pela equação Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caóticos à medida em que parâmetros do plasma são variados. Pequenas perturbações no parâmetro de dissipação podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime periódico, ou fracamente caótico, para um regime fortemente caótico. As séries temporais das flutuações do campo magnético nos regimes fortemente caóticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caóticas são interrompidas por fortes estouros caóticos. É mostrado que o regime fortemente caótico é atingido quando as soluções periódicas ou fracamente caóticas globalmente estáveis interagem com soluções do sistema que são fortemente caóticas, mas globalmente instáveis. Estas soluções globalmente instáveis são conjuntos caóticos não-atrativos conhecidos como selas caóticas, e são responsáveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caóticas têm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provável que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulência intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

  14. Fabrication of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers for gas microsensors and nanosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V. Korusenko, P. M.; Nesov, S. N.; Povoroznyuk, S. N.; Roslikov, V. E.; Kurdyukova, E. A.; Sten'kin, Yu. A.; Shelyagin, R. V.; Knyazev, E. V.; Kan, V. E.; Ponomareva, I. V.

    2011-05-15

    Two-phase nanocomposite layers based on porous silicon and nonstoichiometric tin oxide were fabricated by various methods. The structure, as well as elemental and phase composition, of the obtained nanocomposites were studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results obtained confirm the formation of nanocomposite layers with a thickness as large as 2 {mu}m thick and SnO{sub x} stoichiometry coefficients x = 1.0-2.0. Significant tin diffusion into the porous silicon matrix with D{sub eff} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} was observed upon annealing at 770 K. Test sensor structures based on por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers grown by magnetron deposition showed fairly high stability of properties and sensitivity to NO{sub 2}.

  15. Recovery of naphthalene during evaporative concentration. [Tenax; XAD-2; POR-Q, XE-340

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.E.; Guerin, M.R.

    1980-10-01

    The analysis of trace organics usually requires concentrating organic extracts to small volumes prior to instrumental analysis. The use of a concentration apparatus employing a nitrogen blanket and reduced pressure is desirable because the inert atmosphere and low temperature help to ensure stable composition. Unfortunately, diaromatic compounds such as the naphthalenes and biphenyls are frequently almost completely lost during the concentration step. Even under carefully controlled conditions only 26 +- 11% of the naphthalene is recovered. By placing a sorbent either in or downstream of the evaporation concentration flask, recovery of diaromatic compounds can be improved significantly. In this investigation, the following sorbents, Tenax, XAD-2, POR-Q, and XE-340 were tested. Recoveries with and without the use of sorbents, effects of solute concentration, purge time after solvent removal, and type of solvent used are reported here.

  16. Using the PORS Problems to Examine Evolutionary Optimization of Multiscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, Zachary; Molian, Vaelan; Bryden, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all systems of practical interest are composed of parts assembled across multiple scales. For example, an agrodynamic system is composed of flora and fauna on one scale; soil types, slope, and water runoff on another scale; and management practice and yield on another scale. Or consider an advanced coal-fired power plant: combustion and pollutant formation occurs on one scale, the plant components on another scale, and the overall performance of the power system is measured on another. In spite of this, there are few practical tools for the optimization of multiscale systems. This paper examines multiscale optimization of systems composed of discrete elements using the plus-one-recall-store (PORS) problem as a test case or study problem for multiscale systems. From this study, it is found that by recognizing the constraints and patterns present in discrete multiscale systems, the solution time can be significantly reduced and much more complex problems can be optimized.

  17. Display of a PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis on the bacteriophage T4 capsid surface.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, J; Abu-Shilbayeh, L; Rao, V B

    1997-01-01

    The exterior of bacteriophage T4 capsid is coated with two outer capsid proteins, Hoc (highly antigenic outer capsid protein; molecular mass, 40 kDa) and Soc (small outer capsid protein; molecular mass, 9 kDa), at symmetrical positions on the icosahedron (160 copies of Hoc and 960 copies of Soc per capsid particle). Both these proteins are nonessential for phage infectivity and viability and assemble onto the capsid surface after completion of capsid assembly. We developed a phage display system which allowed in-frame fusions of foreign DNA at a unique cloning site in the 5' end of hoc or soc. A DNA fragment corresponding to the 36-amino-acid PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis was cloned into the display vectors to generate fusions at the N terminus of Hoc or Soc. The PorA-Hoc and PorA-Soc fusion proteins retained the ability to bind to the capsid surface, and the bound peptide was displayed in an accessible form as shown by its reactivity with specific monoclonal antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. By employing T4 genetic strategies, we show that more than one subtype-specific PorA peptide can be displayed on the capsid surface and that the peptide can also be displayed on a DNA-free empty capsid. Both the PorA-Hoc and PorA-Soc recombinant phages are highly immunogenic in mice and elicit strong antipeptide antibody titers even with a weak adjuvant such as Alhydrogel or no adjuvant at all. The data suggest that the phage T4 hoc-soc system is an attractive system for display of peptides on an icosahedral capsid surface and may emerge as a powerful system for construction of the next generation multicomponent vaccines. PMID:9353063

  18. Rescue of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por) mouse mutants reveals functions in vasculogenesis, brain and limb patterning linked to retinoic acid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Vanessa; Otto, Diana M E; Dickmann, Leslie; Schmidt, Katy; Schuhbaur, Brigitte; Henderson, Colin; Blomhoff, Rune; Wolf, C Roland; Tickle, Cheryll; Dollé, Pascal

    2007-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) acts as an electron donor for all cytochrome P450 enzymes. Knockout mouse Por(-/-) mutants, which are early embryonic (E9.5) lethal, have been found to have overall elevated retinoic acid (RA) levels, leading to the idea that POR early developmental function is mainly linked to the activity of the CYP26 RA-metabolizing enzymes (Otto et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 23, 6103-6116). By crossing Por mutants with a RA-reporter lacZ transgene, we show that Por(-/-) embryos exhibit both elevated and ectopic RA signaling activity e.g. in cephalic and caudal tissues. Two strategies were used to functionally demonstrate that decreasing retinoid levels can reverse Por(-/-) phenotypic defects, (i) by culturing Por(-/-) embryos in defined serum-free medium, and (ii) by generating compound mutants defective in RA synthesis due to haploinsufficiency of the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Raldh2) gene. Both approaches clearly improved the Por(-/-) early phenotype, the latter allowing mutants to be recovered up until E13.5. Abnormal brain patterning, with posteriorization of hindbrain cell fates and defective mid- and forebrain development and vascular defects were rescued in E9.5 Por(-/-) embryos. E13.5 Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) embryos exhibited abdominal/caudal and limb defects that strikingly phenocopy those of Cyp26a1(-/-) and Cyp26b1(-/-) mutants, respectively. Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) limb buds were truncated and proximalized and the anterior-posterior patterning system was not established. Thus, POR function is indispensable for the proper regulation of RA levels and tissue distribution not only during early embryonic development but also in later morphogenesis and molecular patterning of the brain, abdominal/caudal region and limbs. PMID:17126317

  19. Hacer frente - Los sentimientos y el cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    El cáncer puede causar una amplia gama de sentimientos, ya sea que usted, un amigo o familiar esté en tratamiento ahora o que ya lo haya completado. Sugerencias para superar las muchas emociones causadas por el cáncer.

  20. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  1. [Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD, students at Budapest and Prague Faculties of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Mydlík, M; Derzsiová, K

    2010-11-01

    Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD were contemporaries, both born in 1899, one in Zvolen, the other in Dombovar, at the time of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Prof. Por attended the Faculty of Medicine in Budapest from 1918 to 1920, and Prof. Klopstock studied at the same place between 1917 and 1919. From 1920 until graduation on 6th February 1926, Prof. Por continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Prof. Klopstock had to interrupt his studies in Budapest due to pulmonary tuberculosis; he received treatment at Tatranske Matliare where he befriended Franz Kafka. Later, upon Kafka's encouragement, he changed institutions and continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, where he graduated the first great go. It is very likely that, during their studies in Budapest and Prague, both professors met repeatedly, even though their life paths later separated. Following his graduation, Prof. Por practiced as an internist in Prague, later in Slovakia, and from 1945 in Kosice. In 1961, he was awarded the title of university professor of internal medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, where he practiced until his death in 1980. Prof. Klopstock continued his studies in Kiel and Berlin. After his graduation in 1933, he practiced in Berlin as a surgeon and in 1938 left for USA. In 1962, he was awarded the title of university professor of pulmonary surgery in NewYork, where he died in 1972. PMID:21250499

  2. Functional POR A503V is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xue; Ma, Gaoxiang; Li, Shushu; Wang, Meilin; Liu, Nian; Ma, Lan; Zhang, Zhan; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) plays important roles in the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous sterol hormones. However, few studies have explored the association between POR variants and the risk of bladder cancer. In this study, we first sequenced all 16 POR exons among 50 randomly selected controls, and found three variants, rs1135612, rs1057868 (A503V) and rs2228104, which were then assessed the relation to risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study of 1,050 bladder cancer cases and 1,404 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. People with A503V TT genotype have a decreased risk of bladder cancer in a recessive model (TT vs. CC/CT, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57–0.93), which was more pronounced among elderly male, non-smoking, subjects. Especially, A503V TT genotype showed a protective effect in the invasive tumor stage. Functional analysis revealed that A503V activity decreased in cytochrome c reduction (50.5 units/mg vs. 135.4 units/mg), mitomycin C clearance (38.3% vs. 96.8%), and mitomycin C-induced colony formation (78.0 vs 34.3 colonies per dish). The results suggested that POR A503V might decrease the risk of bladder cancer by reducing its metabolic activity, and should be a potential biomarker for predicting the susceptibility to human bladder cancer. PMID:26123203

  3. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  4. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  5. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  6. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the unimodal nature of the dwarf galaxy population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Smriti; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Driver, S.; Kelvin, Lee S.; Hopkins, A. M.; Baldry, I.; Phillipps, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Loveday, J.; Penny, Samantha J.; Robotham, A. S. G.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we aim to (i) test the number of statistically distinct classes required to classify the local galaxy population and (ii) identify the differences in the physical and star formation properties of visually distinct galaxies. To accomplish this, we analyse the structural parameters - effective radius (Reff), effective surface brightness within Reff (<μ>e), central surface brightness (μ0) and Sérsic index (n) - obtained by fitting the light profile of 432 galaxies (0.002 < z ≤ 0.02; Viking Z band), and their spectral energy distribution using multiband photometry in 18 broad-bands to obtain the stellar mass (M*), the star formation rate (SFR), the specific SFR (sSFR) and the dust mass (Mdust), respectively. We show that visually distinct, star-forming dwarf galaxies (irregulars, blue spheroids and low-surface-brightness galaxies) form a unimodal population in a parameter space mapped by <μ>e, μ0, n, Reff, SFR, sSFR, M*, Mdust and (g - i). The SFR and sSFR distribution of passively evolving (dwarf) ellipticals on the other hand, statistically distinguish them from other galaxies with similar luminosity, while the giant galaxies clearly segregate into star-forming spirals and passive lenticulars. We therefore suggest that the morphology classification scheme(s) used in literature for dwarf galaxies only reflect the observational differences based on luminosity and surface brightness among the apparent distinct classes, rather than any physical differences between them.

  7. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the stellar mass budget by galaxy type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffett, Amanda J.; Ingarfield, Stephen A.; Driver, Simon P.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Kelvin, Lee S.; Lange, Rebecca; Meštrić, Uroš; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Baldry, Ivan K.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Cluver, Michelle E.; Davies, Luke J. M.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Kennedy, Rebecca; Norberg, Peder; Taylor, Edward N.

    2016-04-01

    We report an expanded sample of visual morphological classifications from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly survey phase two, which now includes 7556 objects (previously 3727 in phase one). We define a local (z < 0.06) sample and classify galaxies into E, S0-Sa, SB0-SBa, Sab-Scd, SBab-SBcd, Sd-Irr, and `little blue spheroid' types. Using these updated classifications, we derive stellar mass function fits to individual galaxy populations divided both by morphological class and more general spheroid- or disc-dominated categories with a lower mass limit of log(M*/M⊙) = 8 (one dex below earlier morphological mass function determinations). We find that all individual morphological classes and the combined spheroid-/bulge-dominated classes are well described by single Schechter stellar mass function forms. We find that the total stellar mass densities for individual galaxy populations and for the entire galaxy population are bounded within our stellar mass limits and derive an estimated total stellar mass density of ρ* = 2.5 × 108 M⊙ Mpc-3 h0.7, which corresponds to an approximately 4 per cent fraction of baryons found in stars. The mass contributions to this total stellar mass density by galaxies that are dominated by spheroidal components (E and S0-Sa classes) and by disc components (Sab-Scd and Sd-Irr classes) are approximately 70 and 30 per cent, respectively.

  8. Herschel-ATLAS/GAMA: dusty early-type galaxies and passive spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlands, K.; Dunne, L.; Maddox, S.; Bourne, N.; Gomez, H. L.; Kaviraj, S.; Bamford, S. P.; Brough, S.; Charlot, S.; da Cunha, E.; Driver, S. P.; Eales, S. A.; Hopkins, A. M.; Kelvin, L.; Nichol, R. C.; Sansom, A. E.; Sharp, R.; Smith, D. J. B.; Temi, P.; van der Werf, P.; Baes, M.; Cava, A.; Cooray, A.; Croom, S. M.; Dariush, A.; de Zotti, G.; Dye, S.; Fritz, J.; Hopwood, R.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Liske, J.; Loveday, J.; Madore, B.; Norberg, P.; Popescu, C. C.; Rigby, E. E.; Robotham, A.; Rodighiero, G.; Seibert, M.; Tuffs, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the dust properties and star formation histories of local submillimetre-selected galaxies, classified by optical morphology. Most of the galaxies are late types and very few are early types. The early-type galaxies (ETGs) that are detected contain as much dust as typical spirals, and form a unique sample that has been blindly selected at submillimetre wavelengths. Additionally, we investigate the properties of the most passive, dusty spirals. We morphologically classify 1087 galaxies detected in the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) Science Demonstration Phase data. Comparing to a control sample of optically selected galaxies, we find 5.5 per cent of luminous ETGs are detected in H-ATLAS. The H-ATLAS ETGs contain a significant mass of cold dust: the mean dust mass is 5.5 × 107 M⊙, with individual galaxies ranging from 9 × 105 to 4 × 108 M⊙. This is comparable to that of spiral galaxies in our sample, and is an order of magnitude more dust than that found for the control early-types, which have a median dust mass inferred from stacking of (0.8-4.0) × 106 M⊙ for a cold dust temperature of 25-15 K. The early-types detected in H-ATLAS tend to have bluer NUV - r colours, higher specific star formation rates and younger stellar populations than early-types which are optically selected, and may be transitioning from the blue cloud to the red sequence. We also find that H-ATLAS and control early-types inhabit similar low-density environments. We investigate whether the observed dust in H-ATLAS early-types is from evolved stars, or has been acquired from external sources through interactions and mergers. We conclude that the dust in H-ATLAS and control ETGs cannot be solely from stellar sources, and a large contribution from dust formed in the interstellar medium or external sources is required. Alternatively, dust destruction may not be as efficient as predicted. We also explore the properties of the most passive spiral galaxies in our sample with specific star formation rate (SSFR) < 10-11 yr-1. We find these passive spirals have lower dust-to-stellar mass ratios, higher stellar masses and older stellar population ages than normal spirals. The passive spirals inhabit low-density environments similar to those of the normal spiral galaxies in our sample. This shows that the processes which turn spirals passive do not occur solely in the intermediate-density environments of group and cluster outskirts.

  9. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): stellar mass growth of spiral galaxies in the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpaslan, Mehmet; Grootes, Meiert; Marcum, Pamela M.; Popescu, Cristina; Tuffs, Richard; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Brown, Michael J. I.; Davies, Luke J. M.; Driver, Simon P.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Kelvin, Lee S.; Lara-López, Maritza A.; López-Sánchez, Ángel R.; Loveday, Jon; Moffett, Amanda; Taylor, Edward N.; Owers, Matt; Robotham, Aaron S. G.

    2016-04-01

    We look for correlated changes in stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR) along filaments in the cosmic web by examining the stellar masses and UV-derived SFRs of 1799 ungrouped and unpaired spiral galaxies that reside in filaments. We devise multiple distance metrics to characterize the complex geometry of filaments, and find that galaxies closer to the cylindrical centre of a filament have higher stellar masses than their counterparts near the periphery of filaments, on the edges of voids. In addition, these peripheral spiral galaxies have higher SFRs at a given mass. Complementing our sample of filament spiral galaxies with spiral galaxies in tendrils and voids, we find that the average SFR of these objects in different large-scale environments are similar to each other with the primary discriminant in SFR being stellar mass, in line with previous works. However, the distributions of SFRs are found to vary with large-scale environment. Our results thus suggest a model in which in addition to stellar mass as the primary discriminant, the large-scale environment is imprinted in the SFR as a second-order effect. Furthermore, our detailed results for filament galaxies suggest a model in which gas accretion from voids on to filaments is primarily in an orthogonal direction. Overall, we find our results to be in line with theoretical expectations of the thermodynamic properties of the intergalactic medium in different large-scale environments.

  10. EuroFIR guidelines for assessment of methods of analysis: GAMA.

    PubMed

    Castanheira, Isabel; Saraiva, Marina; Rego, Andreia; Ollilainen, Velimatti

    2016-02-15

    Analytical methodology is a key factor in food composition databases and specific criteria, at the component level, is needed for comparison of analytical data from different sources. The aim of this work is to describe how EuroFIR guidelines for assessment of methods of analysis are created and made available to users. Comprehensive information for macronutrients, vitamins, minerals and trace elements addressing all aspects of analytical procedures was obtained from international standards, and scientific literature. Documentation was compiled in a confluence wiki format provided for each component: background information, description of reference methods of analysis and critical steps, available reference materials, proficiency testing schemes, other analytical methods and relevant references. The information for each nutrient was collated, edited and presented with hypertext links to additional pages where more detailed information can be accessed using full text searches. The wiki format is a useful tool for preparing information and disseminating to users. PMID:26433291

  11. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the life and times of L★ galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robotham, A. S. G.; Liske, J.; Driver, S. P.; Sansom, A. E.; Baldry, I. K.; Bauer, A. E.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Colless, M.; Christodoulou, L.; Drinkwater, M. J.; Grootes, M. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Kelvin, L. S.; Norberg, P.; Loveday, J.; Phillipps, S.; Sharp, R.; Taylor, E. N.; Tuffs, R. J.

    2013-05-01

    In this work, we investigate in detail the effects the local environment (groups and pairs) has on galaxies with stellar mass similar to the Milky Way (L* galaxies). A volume limited sample of 6150 galaxies are visually classified to determine the emission features, morphological type and presence of a disc. This large sample allows for the significant characteristics of galaxies to be isolated (e.g. stellar mass and group halo mass), and their codependencies determined. We observe that galaxy-galaxy interactions play the most important role in shaping the evolution within a group halo; the main role of halo mass is in gathering the galaxies together to encourage such interactions. Dominant pair galaxies find their overall star formation enhanced when the pair's mass ratio is close to 1; otherwise, we observe the same galaxies as we would in an unpaired system. The minor galaxy in a pair is greatly affected by its companion galaxy, and while the star-forming fraction is always suppressed relative to equivalent stellar mass unpaired galaxies, it becomes lower still when the mass ratio of a pair system increases. We find that, in general, the close galaxy-galaxy interaction rate drops as a function of halo mass for a given amount of stellar mass. We find evidence of a local peak of interactions for Milky Way stellar mass galaxies in Milky Way halo mass groups. Low-mass haloes, and in particular Local Group mass haloes, are an important environment for understanding the typical evolutionary path of a unit of stellar mass. We find compelling evidence for galaxy conformity in both groups and pairs, where morphological type conformity is dominant in groups, and emission class conformity is dominant in pairs. This suggests that group scale conformity is the result of many galaxy encounters over an extended period of time, while pair conformity is a fairly instantaneous response to a transitory interaction.

  12. H-ATLAS/GAMA: the nature and characteristics of optically red galaxies detected at submillimetre wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dariush, A.; Dib, S.; Hony, S.; Smith, D. J. B.; Zhukovska, S.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; Andrae, E.; Baes, M.; Baldry, I.; Bauer, A.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Bourne, N.; Cava, A.; Clements, D.; Cluver, M.; Cooray, A.; De Zotti, G.; Driver, S.; Grootes, M. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Hopwood, R.; Kaviraj, S.; Kelvin, L.; Lara-Lopez, M. A.; Liske, J.; Loveday, J.; Maddox, S.; Madore, B.; Michałowski, M. J.; Pearson, C.; Popescu, C.; Robotham, A.; Rowlands, K.; Seibert, M.; Shabani, F.; Smith, M. W. L.; Taylor, E. N.; Tuffs, R.; Valiante, E.; Virdee, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    We combine Herschel/SPIRE submillimetre (submm) observations with existing multiwavelength data to investigate the characteristics of low-redshift, optically red galaxies detected in submm bands. We select a sample of galaxies in the redshift range 0.01 ≤ z ≤ 0.2, having >5σ detections in the SPIRE 250 μm submm waveband. Sources are then divided into two sub-samples of red and blue galaxies, based on their UV-optical colours. Galaxies in the red sample account for ≈4.2 per cent of the total number of sources with stellar masses M* ≳ 1010 M⊙. Following visual classification of the red galaxies, we find that ≳30 per cent of them are early-type galaxies and ≳40 per cent are spirals. The colour of the red-spiral galaxies could be the result of their highly inclined orientation and/or a strong contribution of the old stellar population. It is found that irrespective of their morphological types, red and blue sources occupy environments with more or less similar densities (i.e. the Σ5 parameter). From the analysis of the spectral energy distributions of galaxies in our samples based on MAGPHYS, we find that galaxies in the red sample (of any morphological type) have dust masses similar to those in the blue sample (i.e. normal spiral/star-forming systems). However, in comparison to the red-spirals and in particular blue systems, red-ellipticals have lower mean dust-to-stellar mass ratios. Besides galaxies in the red-elliptical sample have much lower mean star formation/specific star formation rates in contrast to their counterparts in the blue sample. Our results support a scenario where dust in early-type systems is likely to be of an external origin.

  13. Targeting of Neisserial PorB to the mitochondrial outer membrane: an insight on the evolution of β-barrel protein assembly machines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jhih-Hang; Davies, John K; Lithgow, Trevor; Strugnell, Richard A; Gabriel, Kipros

    2011-11-01

    Mitochondria originated from Gram-negative bacteria through endosymbiosis. In modern day mitochondria, the Sorting and Assembly Machinery (SAM) is responsible for eukaryotic β-barrel protein assembly in the mitochondrial outer membrane. The SAM is the functional equivalent of the β-barrel assembly machinery found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. In this study we examined the import pathway of a pathogenic bacterial protein, PorB, which is targeted from pathogenic Neisseria to the host mitochondria. We have developed a new method for measurement of PorB assembly into mitochondria that relies on the mobility shift exhibited by bacterial β-barrel proteins once folded and separated under semi-native electrophoretic conditions. We show that PorB is targeted to the outer mitochondrial membrane with a dependence on the intermembrane space shuttling chaperones and the core component of the SAM, Sam50, which is a functional homologue of BamA that is required for PorB assembly in bacteria. The peripheral subunits of the SAM, Sam35 and Sam37, which are essential for eukaryotic β-barrel protein assembly but do not have distinguishable functional homologues in bacteria, are not required for PorB assembly in eukaryotes. This shows that PorB uses an evolutionary conserved 'bacterial like' mechanism to infiltrate the host mitochondrial outer membrane. PMID:22032638

  14. Epitope specificity of murine and human bactericidal antibodies against PorA P1.7,16 induced with experimental meningococcal group B vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rouppe van der Voort, E M; Kuipers, B; Brugghe, H F; van Unen, L M; Timmermans, H A; Hoogerhout, P; Poolman, J T

    1997-03-01

    Synthetic peptides derived from the predicted loops 1 and 4 of meningococcal PorA, sero-subtype P1.7,16, were used to study the epitope specificity of murine and human PorA P1.7,16 bactericidal antibodies. The predicted loops 1 and 4 are surface exposed and carry in their apices the sero-subtype epitopes P1.7 (loop 1) or P1.16 (loop 4), respectively. Peptides were synthesized as mono- and multimeric peptides. Murine monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were induced with meningococcal whole cell preparations. Polyclonal antibodies were evoked in volunteers after one immunization with 50 micrograms or 100 micrograms protein of a hexavalent meningococcal PorA vesicle vaccine. The induction of PorA antibodies was determined in ELISA using purified PorA P1.7,16. The epitope specificity of anti-PorA antibodies for both murine and human antibodies could be demonstrated by direct peptide ELISA using overlapping multimeric peptides almost spanning the entire loops 1 or 4 of the protein. The capacity of peptides to inhibit the bactericidal activity of murine and human antibodies was investigated using meningococcal strain H44/76 (B:15:P1.7,16) as a target strain. Bactericidal activities could be inhibited with both monomeric and multimeric peptides derived from epitopes P1.7 and P1.16. PMID:9093834

  15. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  16. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity in UK infants of a novel meningococcal vesicle vaccine containing multiple class 1 (PorA) outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, K; Morris, R; Rümke, H; Fox, A; Borrow, R; Begg, N; Richmond, P; Poolman, J

    1999-06-01

    The development of effective vaccines against serogroup B meningococci is of great public health importance. We assessed a novel genetically engineered vaccine containing six meningococcal class 1 (PorA) outer membrane proteins representing 80% of prevalent strains in the UK. 103 infants were given the meningococcal vaccine at ages 2, 3 and 4 months with routine infant immunisations, with a fourth dose at 12-18 months. The vaccine was well tolerated. Three doses evoked good immune responses to two of six meningococcal strains expressing PorA proteins contained in the vaccine. Following a fourth dose, larger bactericidal responses to all six strains were observed, suggesting that the initial course had primed memory lymphocytes and revaccination stimulated a booster response. This hexavalent PorA meningococcal vaccine was safe and evoked encouraging immune responses in infants. Vaccines of this type warrant further development and evaluation. PMID:10418910

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of PorM, a subunit of the Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system.

    PubMed

    Stathopulos, Julien; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Roussel, Alain; Leone, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PorM is a membrane protein involved in the assembly of the type IX secretion system (T9SS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major bacterial pathogen responsible for periodontal disease in humans. The periplasmic domain of PorM was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. A fragment of the purified protein was obtained by limited proteolysis. Crystals of this fragment belonged to the tetragonal space group P4(3)2(1)2. Native and MAD data sets were recorded to 2.85 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:25615973

  18. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    Mould materials for injection moulding of polymers and polymer-matrix composites represent a relevant industrial economic sector due to the large quantity of pieces and components processed. The material selection for mould manufacturing, its composition and heat treatment, the hardening procedures and machining and finishing processes determine the service performance and life of the mould. In the first part of the present study, the relationship between the hardness and microstructure and the wear resistance of mould steels from large blocks has been studied by pin-on-disc tests, studying the main wear mechanisms. In order to determine the surface damage on mould steels under real injection conditions, different commercial steels have been studied by measuring the variation of surface roughness with the number of injected pieces with different reinforcement percentages and different mould geometries, by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was important to determine the variation of surface roughness of the moulded pieces with the number of injection operations. The materials used were polybutyleneterephthalate pure and reinforced with either 20% or 50% glass fibre. For the different mould designs, the evolution of the glass fibre orientation with injection flow has been determined by image analysis and related to roughness changes and surface damage, both of the composite parts and of the mould steel surface. Finally, the abrasion resistance of the composite parts has been studied by scratch tests as a function of the number of injected parts and of the scratch direction with respect to injection flow and glass fibre orientation. Los materiales para moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos representan un sector economicamente muy relevante debido al gran aumento del numero de componentes fabricados a partir de materiales polimericos obtenidos mediante moldeo por inyeccion. La seleccion del material para la

  19. P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C–H functionalization of biaryl derivatives to synthesize chiral phosphorous ligands

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rong-Bin; Wang, Hong-Li; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Heng; Ma, Yan-Na

    2014-01-01

    Summary Chiral phosphorus ligands have been widely used in transition metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions. Herein, we report a new synthesis approach of chiral biaryls containing a phosphorus moiety using P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C–H activation; the functionalized products are produced with good enantioselectivity. PMID:25246966

  20. Adult Student Retention and Achievement with Language-Based Modular Materials. POR FIN: Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bexar County School Board, San Antonio, TX.

    The goal of the POR FIN research design was to develop a language-based curriculum emphasizing the audiolingual approach and integrating academic and social-functioning subject matter. The modular curriculum is designed so that each lesson is independent and complete in itself, and provides a high degree of motivation, retention, and achievement…

  1. Informe a la nación indica que los índices de muertes por cáncer siguen bajando

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices de mortalidad por todos los cánceres combinados para hombres, mujeres y niños siguieron bajando en Estados Unidos entre 2004 y 2008, según el Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer de 1975 a 2008. El índice general de diagnóstico

  2. El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

    "El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the attitudes…

  3. Community-based education in nutrition and cancer: the Por La Vida Cuidándome curriculum.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Rock, C L; McNicholas, L J; Senn, K L; Moreno, C

    2000-01-01

    The Por La Vida (PLV) intervention model relies on community lay health advisors trained to conduct education sessions among members of their existing social networks. PLV Cuidándome was funded by the NCI to develop, implement, and evaluate the PLV model with respect to nutrition and cancer prevention, as well as early detection of breast and cervical cancers. The target population is the Latino community, for which substantial barriers to health care access exist. This article presents the curriculum that guides the sessions and describes its development, which was based on semi-structured interviews with Latina lay-health community workers to explore relevant attitudes and behaviors. Also key to the process was the work of the educational materials committee, whose members offered community representation as well as expertise in nutritional sciences, educational technologies, and community-based health promotion interventions and research. The 12-session curriculum's goal was to increase both the variety and the quality of fruits and/or vegetables consumed. It included information about consumption of fiber and fat in the importance of balance between energy intake and physical activity. The program has been well received. An ongoing study examines how it enhances nutrition and cancer prevention. PMID:11019766

  4. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  5. Study of the interaction mechanisms between absorbed NO{sub 2} and por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V.; Kan, V. E. Makushenko, R. K.; Biryukov, M. Yu.; Ivlev, K. E.; Roslikov, V. E.

    2013-10-15

    The interaction mechanisms between NO{sub 2} molecules and the surface of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposites obtained by magnetron deposition and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance methods. The observed increase in the free carrier concentration in the por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers is explained by a change in the charge state of P{sub b} centers due to the formation of neutral 'surface defect-adsorbed NO{sub 2} molecule' complexes with free carrier generation in the crystallite bulk. In the nanocomposite layers grown by the CVD method, the increase in the free hole concentration during NO{sub 2} adsorption is much less pronounced in comparison with the composite grown by magnetron deposition, which is caused by the competing interaction channel of NO{sub 2} molecules with electrically neutral P{sub b} centers.

  6. Los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón siguen en descenso y contribuyen a la continua reducc

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  7. La doctora Amelie Ramírez y la investigación de desigualdades de salud por cáncer en la comunidad la

    Cancer.gov

    La doctora Ramírez es la investigadora principal de Redes en Acción, un centro del programa de redes comunitarias subvencionado por el NCI que se propone reducir la incidencia del cáncer en la comunidad latina a través de una red nacional de grupos comunitarios, investigadores, agencias de salud gubernamentales y la población en general.

  8. Binding of Complement Factor H to PorB3 and NspA Enhances Resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to Anti-Factor H Binding Protein Bactericidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Giuntini, Serena; Pajon, Rolando; Ram, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Among 25 serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis clinical isolates, we identified four (16%) with high factor H binding protein (FHbp) expression that were resistant to complement-mediated bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with recombinant FHbp vaccines. Two of the four isolates had evidence of human FH-dependent complement downregulation independent of FHbp. Since alternative complement pathway recruitment is critical for anti-FHbp bactericidal activity, we hypothesized that in these two isolates binding of FH to ligands other than FHbp contributes to anti-FHbp bactericidal resistance. Knocking out NspA, a known meningococcal FH ligand, converted both resistant isolates to anti-FHbp susceptible isolates. The addition of a nonbactericidal anti-NspA monoclonal antibody to the bactericidal reaction also increased anti-FHbp bactericidal activity. To identify a role for FH ligands other than NspA or FHbp in resistance, we created double NspA/FHbp knockout mutants. Mutants from both resistant isolates bound 10-fold more recombinant human FH domains 6 and 7 fused to Fc than double knockout mutants prepared from two sensitive meningococcal isolates. In light of recent studies showing functional FH-PorB2 interactions, we hypothesized that PorB3 from the resistant isolates recruited FH. Allelic exchange of porB3 from a resistant isolate to a sensitive isolate increased resistance of the sensitive isolate to anti-FHbp bactericidal activity (and vice versa). Thus, some PorB3 variants functionally bind human FH, which in the presence of NspA enhances anti-FHbp resistance. Combining anti-NspA antibodies with anti-FHbp antibodies can overcome resistance. Meningococcal vaccines that target both NspA and FHbp are likely to confer greater protection than either antigen alone. PMID:25644002

  9. Corynebacterium jeikeium jk0268 Constitutes for the 40 Amino Acid Long PorACj, Which Forms a Homooligomeric and Anion-Selective Cell Wall Channel

    PubMed Central

    Norouzy, Amir; Schulz, Robert; Nau, Werner M.; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Tauch, Andreas; Benz, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium jeikeium, a resident of human skin, is often associated with multidrug resistant nosocomial infections in immunodepressed patients. C. jeikeium K411 belongs to mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes, the mycolata and contains a channel-forming protein as judged from reconstitution experiments with artificial lipid bilayer experiments. The channel-forming protein was present in detergent treated cell walls and in extracts of whole cells using organic solvents. A gene coding for a 40 amino acid long polypeptide possibly responsible for the pore-forming activity was identified in the known genome of C. jeikeium by its similar chromosomal localization to known porH and porA genes of other Corynebacterium strains. The gene jk0268 was expressed in a porin deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strain. For purification temporarily histidine-tailed or with a GST-tag at the N-terminus, the homogeneous protein caused channel-forming activity with an average conductance of 1.25 nS in 1M KCl identical to the channels formed by the detergent extracts. Zero-current membrane potential measurements of the voltage dependent channel implied selectivity for anions. This preference is according to single-channel analysis caused by some excess of cationic charges located in the channel lumen formed by oligomeric alpha-helical wheels. The channel has a suggested diameter of 1.4 nm as judged from the permeability of different sized hydrated anions using the Renkin correction factor. Surprisingly, the genome of C. jeikeium contained only one gene coding for a cell wall channel of the PorA/PorH type found in other Corynebacterium species. The possible evolutionary relationship between the heterooligomeric channels formed by certain Corynebacterium strains and the homooligomeric pore of C. jeikeium is discussed. PMID:24116064

  10. Adjuvant Effects Elicited by Novel Oligosaccharide Variants of Detoxified Meningococcal Lipopolysaccharides on Neisseria meningitidis Recombinant PorA Protein: A Comparison in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Ojas H.; Norheim, Gunnstein; Hoe, J . Claire; Rollier, Christine S.; Nagaputra, Jerry C.; Makepeace, Katherine; Saleem, Muhammad; Chan, Hannah; Ferguson, David J. P.; Jones, Claire; Sadarangani, Manish; Hood, Derek W.; Feavers, Ian; Derrick, Jeremy P.; Pollard, Andrew J.; Moxon, E . Richard

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has adjuvant properties that can be exploited to assist vaccine immunogenicity. The modified penta-acylated LPS retains the adjuvant properties of hexa-acylated LPS but has a reduced toxicity profile. In this study we investigated whether two modified glycoform structures (LgtE and IcsB) of detoxified penta-acylated LPS exhibited differential adjuvant properties when formulated as native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs) as compared to the previously described LgtB variant. Detoxified penta-acylated LPS was obtained by disruption of the lpxL1 gene (LpxL1 LPS), and three different glycoforms were obtained by disruption of the lgtB, lgtE or icsB genes respectively. Mice (mus musculus) were immunized with a recombinant PorA P1.7-2,4 (rPorA) protein co-administered with different nOMVs (containing a different PorA serosubtype P1.7,16), each of which expressed one of the three penta-acylated LPS glycoforms. All nOMVs induced IgG responses against the rPorA, but the nOMVs containing the penta-acylated LgtB-LpxL1 LPS glycoform induced significantly greater bactericidal activity compared to the other nOMVs or when the adjuvant was Alhydrogel. Compared to LgtE or IcsB LPS glycoforms, these data support the use of nOMVs containing detoxified, modified LgtB-LpxL1 LPS as a potential adjuvant for future meningococcal protein vaccines. PMID:25545241

  11. Binding of complement factor H to PorB3 and NspA enhances resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to anti-factor H binding protein bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Serena; Pajon, Rolando; Ram, Sanjay; Granoff, Dan M

    2015-04-01

    Among 25 serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis clinical isolates, we identified four (16%) with high factor H binding protein (FHbp) expression that were resistant to complement-mediated bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with recombinant FHbp vaccines. Two of the four isolates had evidence of human FH-dependent complement downregulation independent of FHbp. Since alternative complement pathway recruitment is critical for anti-FHbp bactericidal activity, we hypothesized that in these two isolates binding of FH to ligands other than FHbp contributes to anti-FHbp bactericidal resistance. Knocking out NspA, a known meningococcal FH ligand, converted both resistant isolates to anti-FHbp susceptible isolates. The addition of a nonbactericidal anti-NspA monoclonal antibody to the bactericidal reaction also increased anti-FHbp bactericidal activity. To identify a role for FH ligands other than NspA or FHbp in resistance, we created double NspA/FHbp knockout mutants. Mutants from both resistant isolates bound 10-fold more recombinant human FH domains 6 and 7 fused to Fc than double knockout mutants prepared from two sensitive meningococcal isolates. In light of recent studies showing functional FH-PorB2 interactions, we hypothesized that PorB3 from the resistant isolates recruited FH. Allelic exchange of porB3 from a resistant isolate to a sensitive isolate increased resistance of the sensitive isolate to anti-FHbp bactericidal activity (and vice versa). Thus, some PorB3 variants functionally bind human FH, which in the presence of NspA enhances anti-FHbp resistance. Combining anti-NspA antibodies with anti-FHbp antibodies can overcome resistance. Meningococcal vaccines that target both NspA and FHbp are likely to confer greater protection than either antigen alone. PMID:25644002

  12. Immunogenicity studies with a genetically engineered hexavalent PorA and a wild-type meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine in infant cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rouppe van der Voort, E; Schuller, M; Holst, J; de Vries, P; van der Ley, P; van den Dobbelsteen, G; Poolman, J

    2000-01-31

    The immunogenicity of two meningococcal outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines, namely the Norwegian wild-type OMV vaccine and the Dutch hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine, were examined in infant cynomolgus monkeys. For the first time, a wild-type- and a recombinant OMV vaccine were compared. Furthermore, the induction of memory and the persistence of circulating antibodies were measured. The Norwegian vaccine contained all four classes of major outer membrane proteins (OMP) and wild-type L3/L8 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The Dutch vaccine consisted for 90% of class 1 OMPs, had low expression of class 4 and 5 OMP, and GalE LPS. Three infant monkeys were immunised with a human dose at the age of 1.5, 2.5 and 4.5 months. Two monkeys of each group received a fourth dose at the age of 11 months. In ELISA, both OMV vaccines were immunogenic and induced booster responses, particularly after the fourth immunisation. The Norwegian vaccine mostly induced sero-subtype P1.7,16 specific serum bactericidal antibodies (SBA), although some other SBA were induced as well. The antibody responses against P1.7,16, induced by the Norwegian vaccine, were generally higher than for the Dutch vaccine. However, the Dutch vaccine induced PorA specific SBA against all six sero-subtypes included in the vaccine showing differences in the magnitude of SBA responses to the various PorAs. PMID:10618530

  13. Obtención de la curva de luz en la ocultación de 35 Sgr por Júpiter el 6 de marzo de 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.

    La ocultación de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr por Júpiter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso por el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar parámetros físicos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atmósfera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presión) Para lograr ésto se programó la cámara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 imágenes por segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 imágenes de la inmersión y otras tantas de la emersión. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturación del CCD ya que la observación se realizó de día. En este momento las imágenes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reducción.

  14. Astronomy in the Classroom: Why? (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Clase: ¿Por Qué?) Astronomia na Sala de Aula: Por Quê?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daros Gama, Leandro; Bagdonas Henrique, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    There are many discussions about the relevance of the topics covered in classes. One subject in particular is the focus of this essay: astronomy. In what sense and to what extent it would be worth to teach it in science or other kind of classes? In this paper we discuss some aspects of the advantages of dealing with this area of knowledge in schools, taking into account the epistemological and axiological dimensions of astronomy, in light of the vision of science as an intelligent dialogue with the world (Bachelard), in addition to the "problematization" knowledge of Paulo Freire. We propose that in fact the Astronomy does not need to be seen as just a new set of contents to be taught, but appears as a set of motivational contents for historical-philosophical discussions, and permit the discussion of concepts of other disciplines. Numerosas discusiones se están llevando a cabo acerca de la pertinencia de los temas tradicionalmente tratados en las clases. Uno de los temas, en particular, es el foco de este ensayo: la astronomía. ¿En qué sentido y en qué medida sería conveniente tratarla en clase, ya sea en clases de ciencias naturales, específicamente en las de astronomía o asignaturas afines? Elaboramos en este artículo algunos aspectos de las ventajas de tratar esta área del conocimiento en las escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones epistemológica y axiológica de la astronomía, a la luz de la visión de la ciencia como un diálogo inteligente con el mundo (Bachelard), además de la propuesta del conocimiento "problematizador" de Paulo Freire. Proponemos que en realidad la astronomía no tiene por qué ser vista sólo como un nuevo conjunto de contenidos que se enseñan, sino que aparece como un conjunto de temas de motivación para el debate histórico-filosófico y para permitir la discusión de los conceptos típicos de otras disciplinas. Muitas discussões vêm acontecendo sobre a relevância dos temas abordados em sala de aula. Um tema, em

  15. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

  16. Groundwater quality data in 15 GAMA study units: results from the 2006–10 Initial sampling and the 2009–13 resampling of wells, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Most constituents that were detected in groundwater samples from the trend wells were found at concentrations less than drinking-water benchmarks. Two volatile organic compounds (VOCs)—tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene—were detected in samples from one or more wells at concentrations greater than their health-based benchmarks, and three VOCs—chloroform, tetrachloroethene, and trichloroethene—were detected in at least 10 percent of the trend-well samples from the initial sampling period and the later trend sampling period. No pesticides were detected at concentrations near or greater than their health-based benchmarks. Three pesticide constituents—atrazine, deethylatrazine, and simazine—were detected in more than 10 percent of the trend-well samples in both sampling periods. Perchlorate, a constituent of special interest, was detected at a concentration greater than its health-based benchmark in samples from one trend well in the initial sampling and trend sampling periods, and in an additional trend well sample only in the trend sampling period. Most detections of nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements in samples from trend wells were less than health-based benchmarks in both sampling periods. Exceptions included nitrate, fluoride, arsenic, boron, molybdenum, strontium, and uranium; these were all detected at concentrations greater than their health-based benchmarks in at least one well sample in both sampling periods. Lead and vanadium were detected above their health-based benchmarks in one sample each collected in the initial sampling period only. The isotopic ratios of oxygen and hydrogen in water and the activities of tritium and carbon-14 generally changed little between sampling periods.

  17. [Ag20 {S2 P(OR)2 }12 ]: A Superatom Complex with a Chiral Metallic Core and High Potential for Isomerism.

    PubMed

    Dhayal, Rajendra S; Lin, Yan-Ru; Liao, Jian-Hong; Chen, Yuan-Jang; Liu, Yu-Chiao; Chiang, Ming-Hsi; Kahlal, Samia; Saillard, Jean-Yves; Liu, C W

    2016-07-11

    The synthesis and structural determination of a silver nanocluster [Ag20 {S2 P(OiPr)2 }12 ] (2), which contains an intrinsic chiral metallic core, is produced by reduction of one silver ion from the eight-electron superatom complex [Ag21 {S2 P(OiPr)2 }12 ](PF6 ) (1) by borohydrides. Single-crystal X-ray analysis displays an Ag20 core of pseudo C3 symmetry comprising a silver-centered Ag13 icosahedron capped by seven silver atoms. Its n-propyl derivative, [Ag20 {S2 P(OnPr)2 }12 ] (3), can also be prepared by the treatment of silver(I) salts and dithiophosphates in a stoichiometric ratio in the presence of excess amount of [BH4 ](-) . Crystal structure analyses reveal that the capping silver-atom positions relative to their icosahedral core are distinctly different in 2 and 3 and generate isomeric, chiral Ag20 cores. Both Ag20 clusters display an emission maximum in the near IR region. DFT calculations are consistent with a description within the superatom model of an 8-electron [Ag13 ](5+) core protected by a [Ag7 {S2 P(OR)2 }12 ](5-) external shell. Two additional structural variations are predicted by DFT, showing the potential for isomerism in such [Ag20 {S2 P(OR)2 }12 ] species. PMID:27189869

  18. A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorrhyncha) from coffee shrubs and poró and laurel trees in shaded coffee plantations, in Turrialba, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rojas, L; Godoy, C; Hanson, P; Hilje, L

    2001-01-01

    A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorryncha) was conducted in coffee plantations with no shade (C), and in those with shade of either poró (Erythrina poeppigiana) (CP) or poró plus laurel (Cordia alliodora) (CPL), in Turrialba, Costa Rica. A total of 130 species in ten families were collected, dominated by Cicadellidae (82 species). Species richness was highest in the CP system (88), followed by CPL (74) and C systems (60). Five most common species for all systems were Fusigonalia lativittata, Hebralebra nicaraguensis, Neocoelidia sp., Oliarus sp. and Clastoptera sp. Diversification of the coffee agroecosystem favors some species while limiting others, and have no effect on the majority of species. Thus, only F. lativittata, Neocoelidia sp. and Scaphytopius ca. latidens were well represented in all systems, but were more abundant in coffee shrubs. Additionally, the following were the dominant species in each system: Graphocephala sp. 1 (C), F. lativittata (CP) and H. nicaraguensis (CPL). Four species abundant on laurel trees, including H. nicaraguensis, appeared almost exclusively on these tree species. Species similarity was highest on the CP and CPL systems (51% of the species in common), followed by the C and CP (39%) and the C and CPL systems (38%). These findings show that even disturbed systems can harbor many insect species, so that they deserve attention from conservation advocates and biologists. PMID:12189787

  19. Groundwater-quality data in the northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Dawson, Barbara J.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, untreated groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory benchmarks apply to water that is served to the consumer, not to untreated groundwater. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the untreated groundwa

  20. Pyridoxine Supplementation Improves the Activity of Recombinant Glutamate Decarboxylase and the Enzymatic Production of Gama-Aminobutyric Acid.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Su, Lingqia; Wu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) catalyzes the irreversible decarboxylation of L-glutamate to the valuable food supplement γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In this study, GAD from Escherichia coli K12, a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme, was overexpressed in E. coli. The GAD produced in media supplemented with 0.05 mM soluble vitamin B6 analog pyridoxine hydrochloride (GAD-V) activity was 154.8 U mL-1, 1.8-fold higher than that of GAD obtained without supplementation (GAD-C). Purified GAD-V exhibited increased activity (193.4 U mg-1, 1.5-fold higher than that of GAD-C), superior thermostability (2.8-fold greater than that of GAD-C), and higher kcat/Km (1.6-fold higher than that of GAD-C). Under optimal conditions in reactions mixtures lacking added PLP, crude GAD-V converted 500 g L-1 monosodium glutamate (MSG) to GABA with a yield of 100%, and 750 g L-1 MSG with a yield of 88.7%. These results establish the utility of pyridoxine supplementation and lay the foundation for large-scale enzymatic production of GABA. PMID:27438707

  1. The masses of satellites in GAMA galaxy groups from 100 square degrees of KiDS weak lensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sifón, Cristóbal; Cacciato, Marcello; Hoekstra, Henk; Brouwer, Margot; van Uitert, Edo; Viola, Massimo; Baldry, Ivan; Brough, Sarah; Brown, Michael J. I.; Choi, Ami; Driver, Simon P.; Erben, Thomas; Grado, Aniello; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Joachimi, Benjamin; de Jong, Jelte T. A.; Kuijken, Konrad; McFarland, John; Miller, Lance; Nakajima, Reiko; Napolitano, Nicola; Norberg, Peder; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Schneider, Peter; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes

    2015-12-01

    We use the first 100 deg2 of overlap between the Kilo-Degree Survey and the Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey to determine the average galaxy halo mass of ˜10 000 spectroscopically confirmed satellite galaxies in massive (M > 1013 h-1 M⊙) galaxy groups. Separating the sample as a function of projected distance to the group centre, we jointly model the satellites and their host groups with Navarro-Frenk-White density profiles, fully accounting for the data covariance. The probed satellite galaxies in these groups have total masses log ≈ 11.7-12.2 consistent across group-centric distance within the errorbars. Given their typical stellar masses, log ˜ 10.5, such total masses imply stellar mass fractions of / ≈ 0.04 h-1. The average subhalo hosting these satellite galaxies has a mass Msub ˜ 0.015Mhost independent of host halo mass, in broad agreement with the expectations of structure formation in a Λ cold dark matter universe.

  2. Dark matter halo properties of GAMA galaxy groups from 100 square degrees of KiDS weak lensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, M.; Cacciato, M.; Brouwer, M.; Kuijken, K.; Hoekstra, H.; Norberg, P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; van Uitert, E.; Alpaslan, M.; Baldry, I. K.; Choi, A.; de Jong, J. T. A.; Driver, S. P.; Erben, T.; Grado, A.; Graham, Alister W.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hopkins, A. M.; Irisarri, N.; Joachimi, B.; Loveday, J.; Miller, L.; Nakajima, R.; Schneider, P.; Sifón, C.; Verdoes Kleijn, G.

    2015-10-01

    The Kilo-Degree Survey is an optical wide-field survey designed to map the matter distribution in the Universe using weak gravitational lensing. In this paper, we use these data to measure the density profiles and masses of a sample of ˜1400 spectroscopically identified galaxy groups and clusters from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey. We detect a highly significant signal (signal-to-noise-ratio ˜120), allowing us to study the properties of dark matter haloes over one and a half order of magnitude in mass, from M ˜ 1013-1014.5 h-1 M⊙. We interpret the results for various subsamples of groups using a halo model framework which accounts for the mis-centring of the brightest cluster galaxy (used as the tracer of the group centre) with respect to the centre of the group's dark matter halo. We find that the density profiles of the haloes are well described by an NFW profile with concentrations that agree with predictions from numerical simulations. In addition, we constrain scaling relations between the mass and a number of observable group properties. We find that the mass scales with the total r-band luminosity as a power law with slope 1.16 ± 0.13 (1σ) and with the group velocity dispersion as a power law with slope 1.89 ± 0.27 (1σ). Finally, we demonstrate the potential of weak lensing studies of groups to discriminate between models of baryonic feedback at group scales by comparing our results with the predictions from the Cosmo-OverWhelmingly Large Simulations project, ruling out models without AGN feedback.

  3. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic constituents (one or more) with health-based benchmarks were detected at high relative-concentrations in 10.3 percent and at moderate relative-concentrations in 13.8 percent of the primary aquifer system. The high aquifer-scale proportion of ino

  4. Pyridoxine Supplementation Improves the Activity of Recombinant Glutamate Decarboxylase and the Enzymatic Production of Gama-Aminobutyric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Su, Lingqia; Wu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) catalyzes the irreversible decarboxylation of L-glutamate to the valuable food supplement γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In this study, GAD from Escherichia coli K12, a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme, was overexpressed in E. coli. The GAD produced in media supplemented with 0.05 mM soluble vitamin B6 analog pyridoxine hydrochloride (GAD-V) activity was 154.8 U mL-1, 1.8-fold higher than that of GAD obtained without supplementation (GAD-C). Purified GAD-V exhibited increased activity (193.4 U mg-1, 1.5-fold higher than that of GAD-C), superior thermostability (2.8-fold greater than that of GAD-C), and higher kcat/Km (1.6-fold higher than that of GAD-C). Under optimal conditions in reactions mixtures lacking added PLP, crude GAD-V converted 500 g L-1 monosodium glutamate (MSG) to GABA with a yield of 100%, and 750 g L-1 MSG with a yield of 88.7%. These results establish the utility of pyridoxine supplementation and lay the foundation for large-scale enzymatic production of GABA. PMID:27438707

  5. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  6. A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(por)(O)(OAc) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam

    2012-06-01

    Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(por) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu4NHSO5), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu4NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols = CH3OH, C2H5OH, i-C3H7OH, t-C4H9OH) in CH2Cl2, were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C4H9OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO5- to O2 and HSO4-, through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.

  7. Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

    Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

  8. La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  9. Aquisição fonológica do português brasileiro por crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e surdas usuárias de implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisição fonológica do Português Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crianças surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito à Libras. Para a avaliação do sistema fonológico das crianças em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomeação, do ABFW – Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e a criança surda usuária de IC com acesso irrestrito à Libras apresentaram processo de aquisição fonológica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa etária. Considera-se que a aquisição precoce e o acesso irrestrito à Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crianças no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

  10. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el

  11. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el

  12. A multiwavelength exploration of the [C II]/IR ratio in H-ATLAS/GAMA galaxies out to z = 0.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibar, E.; Lara-López, M. A.; Herrera-Camus, R.; Hopwood, R.; Bauer, A.; Ivison, R. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Dannerbauer, H.; van der Werf, P.; Riechers, D.; Bourne, N.; Baes, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Dunne, L.; Verma, A.; Brough, S.; Cooray, A.; De Zotti, G.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Furlanetto, C.; Maddox, S.; Smith, M.; Steele, O.; Thomas, D.; Valiante, E.

    2015-05-01

    We explore the behaviour of [C II] λ157.74 μm forbidden fine-structure line observed in a sample of 28 galaxies selected from ˜ 50 deg2 of the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey survey. The sample is restricted to galaxies with flux densities higher than S160 μm > 150 mJy and optical spectra from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly survey at 0.02 < z < 0.2. Far-IR spectra centred on this redshifted line were taken with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer instrument on-board the Herschel Space Observatory. The galaxies span 10 < log(LIR/L⊙) < 12 (where LIR ≡ LIR[8-1000 μm]) and 7.32.5 × 10-3 with respect to those showing lower ratios. In particular, those with high ratios tend to have: (1) LIR <1011 L⊙; (2) cold dust temperatures, Td < 30 K; (3) disc-like morphologies in r-band images; (4) a Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer colour 0.5 ≲ S12 μm/S22 μm ≲ 1.0; (5) low surface brightness ΣIR ≈ 108-9 L⊙ kpc-2, (6) and specific star formation rates of sSFR ≈0.05-3 Gyr-1. We suggest that the strength of the far-UV radiation fields () is main parameter responsible for controlling the [C II]/IR ratio. It is possible that relatively high creates a positively charged dust grain distribution, impeding an efficient photoelectric extraction of electrons from these grains to then collisionally excite carbon atoms. Within the brighter IR population, 11 < log(L IR/L⊙) < 12, the low [C II]/IR ratio is unlikely to be modified by [C II] self-absorption or controlled by the presence of a moderately luminous AGN (identified via the BPT diagram).

  13. Production of arachidonic acid and dihomo-gama-linolenic acid from glycerol by oil-producing filamentous fungi, Mortierella in ARS Culture Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve Mortirella strains: M. alpina NRRL 6302, M. claussenii NRRL 2760, M. elongata NRRL 5246, M. epigama NRRL 5512, M. humilis NRRL 6369, M. hygrophila NRRL 2591, M. minutissima NRRL 6462, M. multidivaricata NRRL 6456, M. nantahalensis NRRL 5216, M. parvispora NRRL 2941, M. sepedonioides NRRL 6425...

  14. California GAMA Special Study: An isotopic and dissolved gas investigation of nitrate source and transport to a public supply well in California's Central Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, M J; Moran, J E; Esser, B K; Roberts, S K; Hillegonds, D J

    2010-04-14

    This study investigates nitrate contamination of a deep municipal drinking water production well in Ripon, CA to demonstrate the utility of natural groundwater tracers in constraining the sources and transport of nitrate to deep aquifers in the Central Valley. The goal of the study was to investigate the origin (source) of elevated nitrate and the potential for the deep aquifer to attenuate anthropogenic nitrate. The site is ideal for such an investigation. The production well is screened from 165-325 feet below ground surface and a number of nearby shallow and deep monitoring wells were available for sampling. Furthermore, potential sources of nitrate contamination to the well had been identified, including a fertilizer supply plant located approximately 1000 feet to the east and local almond groves. A variety of natural isotopic and dissolved gas tracers including {sup 3}H-{sup 3}He groundwater age and the isotopic composition of nitrate are applied to identify nitrate sources and to characterize nitrate transport. An advanced method for sampling production wells is employed to help identify contaminant contributions from specific screen intervals. Nitrate transport: Groundwater nitrate at this field site is not being actively denitrified. Groundwater parameters indicate oxic conditions, the dissolved gas data shows no evidence for excess nitrogen as the result of denitrification, and nitrate-N and -O isotope compositions do not display patterns typical of denitrification. Contaminant nitrate source: The ambient nitrate concentration in shallow groundwater at the Ripon site ({approx}12 mg/L as nitrate) is typical of shallow groundwaters affected by recharge from agricultural and urban areas. Nitrate concentrations in Ripon City Well 12 (50-58 mg/L as nitrate) are significantly higher than these ambient concentrations, indicating an additional source of anthropogenic nitrate is affecting groundwater in the capture zone of this municipal drinking water well. This study provides two new pieces of evidence that the Ripon Farm Services Plant is the source of elevated nitrate in Ripon City Well 12. (1) Chemical mass balance calculations using nitrate concentration, nitrate isotopic composition, and initial tritium activity all indicate that that the source water for elevated nitrate to Ripon City Well 12 is a very small component of the water produced by City Well 12 and thus must have extremely high nitrate concentration. The high source water nitrate concentration ({approx}1500 mg/L as nitrate) required by these mass balance calculations precludes common sources of nitrate such as irrigated agriculture, dairy wastewater, and septic discharge. Shallow groundwater under the Ripon Farm Services RFS plant does contain extremely high concentrations of nitrate (>1700 mg/L as nitrate). (2) Nitrogen and oxygen isotope compositions of nitrate indicate that the additional anthropogenic nitrate source to Ripon City Well 12 is significantly enriched in {delta}{sup 18}O-NO{sub 3}, an isotopic signature consistent with synthetic nitrate fertilizer, and not with human or animal wastewater discharge (i.e. dairy operations, septic system discharge, or municipal wastewater discharge), or with organic fertilizer. Monitoring wells on and near the RFS plant also have high {delta}{sup 18}O-NO{sub 3}, and the plant has handled and stored synthetic nitrate fertilizer that will have this isotopic signature. The results described here highlight the complexity of attributing nitrate found in long screened, high capacity wells to specific sources. In this case, the presence of a very high concentration source near the well site combined with sampling using multiple isotopic tracer techniques and specialized depth-specific techniques allowed fingerprinting of the source in the mixed-age samples drawn from the production well.

  15. A new cryptic species of Diatraea (Lepidoptera: Crambidae: Crambinae) feeding on eastern gama grass and a novel host association with a braconid (Hymenoptera) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Diatraea currently consists of seven species in the United States, including Diatraea crambidoides (Grote), an economic pest of corn. Larvae of D. crambidoides are also reported to feed on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.), sugar cane (Sacc...

  16. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    The status assessment showed that inorganic constituents were present at high and moderate RCs in greater proportions of the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit than were organic constituents. One or more inorganic constituents with health-based benchmarks were present at high RCs in 9.4 percent, and at moderate RCs in 14.7 percent of the primary aquifer system. Arsenic was present at high RCs in approximately 3 percent of the primary aquifer system; boron, molybdenum, uranium, and vanadium each were present at high RCs in approximately 2 percent of the primary aquifer system. One

  17. Groundwater-quality data in the Santa Cruz, San Gabriel, and Peninsular Ranges Hard Rock Aquifers study unit, 2011-2012: results from the California GAMA program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Tracy; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Results for constituents with nonregulatory benchmarks set for aesthetic concerns showed that iron concentrations greater than the CDPH secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL-CA) of 300 μg/L were detected in samples from 19 grid wells. Manganese concentrations greater than the SMCL-CA of 50 μg/L were detected in 27 grid wells. Chloride was detected at a concentration greater than the SMCL-CA upper benchmark of 500 mg/L in one grid well. TDS concentrations in three grid wells were greater than the SMCL-CA upper benchmark of 1,000 mg/L.

  18. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the connection between metals, specific SFR and H I gas in galaxies: the Z-SSFR relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara-López, M. A.; Hopkins, A. M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Brough, S.; Colless, M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Driver, S.; Foster, C.; Liske, J.; Loveday, J.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Sharp, R. G.; Steele, O.; Taylor, E. N.

    2013-06-01

    We study the interplay between gas phase metallicity (Z), specific star formation rate (SSFR) and neutral hydrogen gas (H I) for galaxies of different stellar masses. Our study uses spectroscopic data from Galaxy and Mass Assembly and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) star-forming galaxies, as well as H I detection from the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFALFA) and Galex Arecibo SDSS Survey (GASS) public catalogues. We present a model based on the Z-SSFR relation that shows that at a given stellar mass, depending on the amount of gas, galaxies will follow opposite behaviours. Low-mass galaxies with a large amount of gas will show high SSFR and low metallicities, while low-mass galaxies with small amounts of gas will show lower SSFR and high metallicities. In contrast, massive galaxies with a large amount of gas will show moderate SSFR and high metallicities, while massive galaxies with small amounts of gas will show low SSFR and low metallicities. Using ALFALFA and GASS counterparts, we find that the amount of gas is related to those drastic differences in Z and SSFR for galaxies of a similar stellar mass.

  19. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, Sequence Type (ST), and Genomic Presence of IS1301 in Group B Meningococcal ST269 Clonal Complex Isolates from England and Wales▿

    PubMed Central

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J.; Kaczmarski, Edward B.; Guiver, Malcolm; Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Vallely, Pamela J.; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Tang, Christoph M.; Borrow, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Highly effective glycoconjugate vaccines exist against four of the five major pathogenic groups of meningococci: A, C, W-135, and Y. An equivalent vaccine against group B meningococci (menB) has remained elusive due to the poorly immunogenic capsular polysaccharide. A promising alternative, the investigational recombinant menB (rMenB)- outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine, contains fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), NadA, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for 90% of meningococcal disease in England and Wales, where the multilocus sequence type (ST) 269 (ST269) clonal complex (cc269) has recently expanded to account for a third of menB cases. To assess the potential cc269 coverage of the rMenB-OMV vaccine, English and Welsh cc269 isolates from the past decade were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, and NadA. All of the isolates harbored fHbp and nhba alleles, while 98% of the cc269 isolates were devoid of nadA. Subvariant profiling of fHbp, nhba, and porA against STs revealed the presence of two broadly distinct and well-defined clusters of isolates, centered around ST269 and ST275, respectively. An additional molecular marker, insertion sequence IS1301, was found to be present in 100% and <2% of isolates of the respective clusters. On the basis of the genetic data, the potential rMenB-OMV coverage of cc269 in England and Wales is high (up to 100%) within both clusters. Expression studies and serum bactericidal antibody assays will serve to enhance predictions of coverage and will augment ongoing studies regarding the significance of IS1301 within the ST269 cluster. PMID:19759227

  20. Characterization of invasive Neisseria meningitidis from Atlantic Canada, 2009 to 2013: With special reference to the nonpolysaccharide vaccine targets (PorA, factor H binding protein, Neisseria heparin-binding antigen and Neisseria adhesin A)

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond SW; Law, Dennis KS; Gad, Rita R; Mailman, Tim; German, Gregory; Needle, Robert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) has always been a major cause of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Canada. With the successful implementation of a meningitis C conjugate vaccine, the majority of IMD in Canada is now caused by MenB. OBJECTIVE: To investigate IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada from 2009 to 2013. Data were analyzed to determine the potential coverage of the newly licensed MenB vaccine. METHODS: Serogroup, serotype and serosubtype antigens were determined from IMD case isolates. Clonal analysis was performed using multilocus sequence typing. The protein-based vaccine antigen genes were sequenced and the predicted peptides were investigated. RESULTS: The majority of the IMD isolates were MenB (82.5%, 33 of 40) and, in particular, sequence type (ST)-154 B:4:P1.4 was responsible for 47.5% (19 of 40) of all IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada. Isolates of this clone expressed the PorA antigen P1.4 and possessed the nhba genes encoding for Neisseria heparin-binding antigen peptide 2, which together matched exactly with two of the four components of the new four-component meningococcal B vaccine. Nineteen MenB isolates had two antigenic matches, another five MenB and one meningitis Y isolate had one antigenic match. This provided 75.8% (25 of 33) potential coverage for MenB, or a 62.5% (25 of 40) overall potential coverage for IMD. CONCLUSION: From 2009 to 2013, IMD in Atlantic Canada was mainly caused by MenB and, in particular, the B:4:P1.4 ST-154 clone, which accounted for 47.5% of all IMD case isolates. The new four-component meningococcal B vaccine appeared to offer adequate coverage against MenB in Atlantic Canada. PMID:26744586

  1. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, and Sequence Type in Group B Meningococcal Case Isolates Collected in England and Wales during January 2008 and Potential Coverage of an Investigational Group B Meningococcal Vaccine▿

    PubMed Central

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J.; Kaczmarski, Edward B.; Guiver, Malcolm; Vallely, Pamela J.; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Borrow, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Invasive disease caused by meningococcal capsular groups A, C, W-135, and Y is now preventable by means of glycoconjugate vaccines that target their respective polysaccharide capsules. The capsule of group B meningococci (MenB) is poorly immunogenic and may induce autoimmunity. Vaccines based on the major immunodominant surface porin, PorA, are effective against clonal epidemics but, thus far, have a limited scope of coverage against the wider MenB population at large. In an alternative approach, the first-generation, investigational, recombinant MenB (rMenB) plus outer membrane vesicle (OMV) (rMenB-OMV) vaccine contains a number of relatively conserved surface proteins, fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), and NadA, alongside PorA P1.4-containing OMVs from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for approximately 90% of cases of meningococcal disease in England and Wales. To assess potential rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage of pathogenic MenB isolates within this region, all English and Welsh MenB case isolates from January 2008 (n = 87) were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, NadA, and PorA. Alleles for fHbp, nhba, and porA were identified in all of the isolates, of which 22% were also found to harbor nadA alleles. On the basis of genotypic data and predicted immunological cross-reactivity, the potential level of rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage in England and Wales ranges from 66% to 100%. PMID:20375242

  2. Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility in Barcelona: penA, ponA, mtrR, and porB mutations and NG-MAST sequence types associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Serra-Pladevall, J; Barberá, M J; Rodriguez, S; Bartolomé-Comas, R; Roig, G; Juvé, R; Andreu, A

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in our area, to analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in cephalosporins resistance, and to undertake molecular typing of our NG strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the Etest. The genes penA, mtrR, penB, and ponA were studied. Molecular typing was performed by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing. Of 329 strains analyzed in 2013, none showed high-level cephalosporin resistance, but 8.2 % had resistance to cefixime [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 0.125 μg/mL] and 0.6 % to ceftriaxone (MIC > 0.125 μg/mL). Azithromycin resistance was documented in 4.3 % and ciprofloxacin resistance in 49.2 %. Among 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 58.3 % showed the penA mosaic pattern XXXIV, 98 % a Leu → Pro substitution at position 421 of the ponA gene, 100 % amino acid changes at positions 101 and 102 of the PorB1b porin, and 87.5 % of strains an adenine deletion in the promoter region of the MtrC-D-E efflux pump. A significant difference between strains with and without decreased cephalosporin susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) was observed for these four genes. Of the 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 43.8 % belonged to the genogroup G1407 and 27.1 % belonged to the genogroup G2400. A significant association of G1407 with decreased susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) and G2992 with susceptibility was found, and also between G1407 and mosaic pattern XXXIV and between G2400 and A501T substitution in penA. The NG resistance rate in our area is higher than the median of Europe. We have detected the emergence of G2400, which may be a source of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27255221

  3. Eficacia de la detección sistemática de la gripe en las fronteras en los viajeros que llegan por vía aérea*

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Patricia C.; Jennings, Lance C.; Duncan, Alasdair R.; Brunton, Cheryl R.; Baker, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Se midieron los síntomas y la prevalencia de la gripe (también llamada influenza), así como la eficacia del mecanismo de detección sistemática basado en los síntomas y la temperatura para diagnosticar la gripe en viajeros internacionales que llegaban por vía aérea. Métodos. El presente estudio transversal recopiló datos de viajeros que llegaron al aeropuerto internacional de Christchurch (Nueva Zelandia) en el invierno del 2008 mediante un cuestionario de salud, medición de la temperatura y toma de muestras de las vías respiratorias. Resultados. De los viajeros, 15 976 (68%) entregaron los formularios completos. De ellos, 17% notificaron al menos un síntoma de gripe; los síntomas más comunes fueron rinorrea o congestión nasal (10%) y tos (8%). Se tomaron muestras de las vías respiratorias de 3 769 viajeros. La prevalencia estimada de la gripe fue de 1,1% (4% en las personas sintomáticas, 0,2% en las asintomáticas). La sensibilidad de los criterios de detección varió de 84% para “cualquier síntoma” a 3% para la fiebre de 37,8 °C o mayor. El valor predictivo positivo fue bajo para todos los criterios. Conclusiones. El método de detección sistemática en las fronteras mediante la autonotificación de síntomas y la toma de la temperatura presenta limitaciones para impedir que una gripe pandémica entre en un país. Basarse en criterios como “cualquier síntoma” o la tos haría que se investigara a varias personas no infectadas, mientras que algunas personas infectadas pasarían inadvertidas. Si se usaran criterios más específicos como la fiebre, la mayoría de las personas infectadas entrarían en el país a pesar del mecanismo de detección.

  4. New halide-centered discrete Ag(I)(8) cubic clusters containing diselenophosphate ligands, [Ag(8)(X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)](PF(6)) (X = Cl, Br; R = Et, Pr, (i)Pr): syntheses, structures, and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Liu, C W; Haia, Hsien-Chung; Hung, Chiu-Mine; Santra, Bidyut Kumar; Liaw, Ben-Jie; Lin, Zhenyang; Wang, Ju-Chun

    2004-07-12

    Six clusters Ag(8)(micro(8)-X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)(PF(6)) (R = Et, X = Cl, 1a, X = Br, 1b; R = Pr, X = Cl, 2a, X = Br, 2b; R = (i)Pr, X = Cl, 3a, X = Br, 3b) were isolated from the reaction of [Ag(CH(3)CN)(4)](PF(6)), NH(4)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)], and Bu(4)NX in a molar ratio of 4:3:1 in CH(2)X(2). Positive FAB mass spectra show m/z peaks at 2573.2 for 1a, 2617.3 for 1b, 2740.9 for 2a, 2786.9 for 2b, 2742.3 for 3a, and 2787.0 for 3b due to respective molecular cation, (M - PF(6))(+). (31)P NMR spectra of 1a-3b display a singlet at delta 82.3, 81.5, 82.9, 81.7, 76.3, and 75.8 ppm with a set of satellites (J(PSe) = 661, 664, 652, 652, 656, and 656 Hz, respectively). The X-ray structure (1a-2b) consists of a discrete cationic cluster in which eight silver ions are linked by six diselenophosphate ligands and a central micro(8)-Cl or micro(8)-Br ion with a noncoordinating PF(6)(-) anion. The shape of the molecule is a halide-centered distorted Ag(8) cubic cluster. The dsep ligand exhibits a tetrametallic tetraconnective (micro(2), micro(2)) coordination pattern, and each caps on a square face of the cube. Each silver atom of the cube is coordinated by three selenium atoms and the central chloride or bromide ion. Additionally, molecular orbital calculations at the B3LYP level of the density functional theory have been carried out to study the Ag-micro(8)-X (X = Cl, Br) interactions for cluster cations [Ag(8)(micro(8)-X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)](+). Calculations show very weak bonding interactions exist between micro(8)-X and Ag atoms of the cube. PMID:15236560

  5. A Proposal to the Department of Energy for The Fabrication of a Very High Energy Polarized Gama Ray Beam Facility and A Program of Medium Energy Physics Research at The National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Sandorfi, A.M.; LeVine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Giordano, G.; Matone, G.

    1982-09-01

    This proposal requests support for the fabrication and operation of a modest facility that would provide relatively intense beams of monochromatic and polarized photons with energies in the range of several hundreds of MeV. These {gamma} rays would be produced by Compton backscattering laser light from the electrons circulating in the 2.5-3.0 GeV 'X-RAY' storage ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The excellent emittance, phase space, and high current of this state-of-the-art storage ring will allow the production of 2 x 10{sup 7} {gamma} rays per second. These photons would be tagged by detecting the scattered electrons, thereby determining the energy to 2.7 MeV for all {gamma}-ray energies. The efficiency of this tagging procedure is 100% and the {gamma}-ray beam would be essentially background free. Tagging will also allow the flexibility of operating with a dynamic range as large as 200 MeV in photon energy while still preserving high resolution and polarization. These beams will permit a fruitful study of important questions in medium-energy nuclear physics. The initial goals of this program are to reach reliable operation with photon energies up to 300 MeV and to develop {gamma}-ray beams with energies up to about 500 MeV. To demonstrate reliable operation, a modest physics program is planned that, for the most part, utilizes existing magnets and detector systems but nonetheless addresses several important outstanding problems. Gamma ray beams of the versatility, intensity, energy, and resolution that can be achieved at this facility are not currently available at any other world facility either existing or under construction. Furthermore, the proposed program would produce the first intense source of medium-energy {gamma} rays that are polarized. Because of the difficulties in producing such polarized beams, it is very unlikely that viable alternate sources can be developed in the near future; at present, no others are planned.

  6. Geochemical conditions and the occurrence of selected trace elements in groundwater basins used for public drinking-water supply, Desert and Basin and Range hydrogeologic provinces, 2006-11: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Michael T.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of strontium, which exists primarily in a cationic form (Sr2+), were not significantly correlated with either groundwater age or pH. Strontium concentrations showed a strong positive correlation with total dissolved solids (TDS). Dissolved constituents, such as Sr, that interact with mineral surfaces through outer-sphere complexation become increasingly soluble with increasing TDS concentrations of groundwater. Boron concentrations also showed a significant positive correlation with TDS, indicating the B may interact to a large degree with mineral surfaces through outer-sphere complexation.

  7. GAMA/WiggleZ: the 1.4 GHz radio luminosity functions of high- and low-excitation radio galaxies and their redshift evolution to z = 0.75

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracy, Michael B.; Ching, John H. Y.; Sadler, Elaine M.; Croom, Scott M.; Baldry, I. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Couch, Warrick J.; Davis, Tamara M.; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Hopkins, A. M.; Jarvis, M. J.; Jelliffe, Ben; Jurek, Russell J.; Loveday, J.; Pimbblet, K. A.; Prescott, M.; Wisnioski, Emily; Woods, David

    2016-07-01

    We present radio active galactic nuclei (AGN) luminosity functions over the redshift range 0.005 < z < 0.75. The sample from which the luminosity functions are constructed is an optical spectroscopic survey of radio galaxies, identified from matched Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm survey (FIRST) sources and Sloan Digital Sky Survey images. The radio AGN are separated into low-excitation radio galaxies (LERGs) and high-excitation radio galaxies (HERGs) using the optical spectra. We derive radio luminosity functions for LERGs and HERGs separately in the three redshift bins (0.005 < z < 0.3, 0.3 < z < 0.5 and 0.5 < z < 0.75). The radio luminosity functions can be well described by a double power law. Assuming this double power-law shape the LERG population displays little or no evolution over this redshift range evolving as {˜ } (1+z)^{0.06^{+0.17}_{-0.18}} assuming pure density evolution or {˜ } (1+z)^{0.46^{+0.22}_{-0.24}} assuming pure luminosity evolution. In contrast, the HERG population evolves more rapidly, best fitted by {˜ } (1+z)^{2.93^{+0.46}_{-0.47}} assuming a double power-law shape and pure density evolution. If a pure luminosity model is assumed, the best-fitting HERG evolution is parametrized by {˜ } (1+z)^{7.41^{+0.79}_{-1.33}}. The characteristic break in the radio luminosity function occurs at a significantly higher power (≳1 dex) for the HERG population in comparison to the LERGs. This is consistent with the two populations representing fundamentally different accretion modes.

  8. Novel chloride-centered discrete CuI8 cubic clusters containing diselenophosphate ligands. Syntheses and structures of [Cu8(mu8-Cl)[Se2P(OR)2](6)](PF6) (R = Et, Pr, iPr)1.

    PubMed

    Liu, C W; Hung, Chiu-Mine; Santra, Bidyut Kumar; Chen, Hsiu-Chih; Hsueh, Hsin-Hsueh; Wang, Ju-Chung

    2003-05-19

    Three clusters 1-3, Cu(8)(mu8-Cl)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)(PF(6)) (R= Et, Pr, (i)Pr), were synthesized in high yield from the reaction of [Cu(CH(3)CN)(4)](PF(6)), NH(4)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)], and Bu(4)NCl in a molar ratio of 4:3:1 in diethyl ether. FAB mass spectra show m/z peaks at 2218.10 for 1, 2386.10 for 2, and 2387.34 for 3 which are due to molecular cations, [1-PF(6)]+, [2-PF(6)]+, and [3-PF(6)]+, respectively. (31)P NMR spectra of 1-3 display a singlet at delta 76.48, 76.73, and 69.32 ppm with satellites (J(PSe) = 652, 653, and 648 Hz), respectively. The (77)Se NMR spectra of 1-3 exhibit a doublet peak at -21.7, -16.42, and 2.3 ppm, respectively (J(SeP) = 652 Hz for 1, 653 Hz for 2, and 648 Hz for 3). The X-ray structure (1-3) consists of a discrete cationic cluster in which eight copper ions are linked by six diselenophosphate ligands and a central mu8-Cl ion with a noncoordinating PF(6)(-) anion. The shape of the molecule is a chloride-centered distorted Cu(8) cube in clusters 1 and 2 and a near perfect Cu(8) cube for cluster 3. The dsep ligand exhibits a tetrametallic tetraconnective (mu2, mu2)) coordination pattern, and each occupies a square face of the cube. Each copper atom of the cube is coordinated by three selenium atoms with a strong interaction with the central chloride ion. The observed Cu-Cl distances lie in the range 2.649-2.878 A. PMID:12739962

  9. La busqueda textual por computadora (Textual Search by Computer)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ned J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of the computer program EDIT for textual searches to locate a certain programmed word or word root. In the examples explained here, the vocabulary search is performed on poetry and allows examination of the metaphorical and conceptual poetic atmosphere achieved through word use. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  10. On the Use of "Por" Plus Agent with "Se" Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Mello, George

    1978-01-01

    Two explanations for the role of "se" in such constructions as "Se construyen casas" are given by grammarians; one states that it is a passive interpretation ("Houses are built"), the other advocates an impersonal interpretation ("One builds houses"). Different views are presented and analyzed. (Author/NCR)

  11. Por los Ninos (For the Children): Education of Undocumented Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Elena R.; Team, Linda B.

    Published as a special project of Texas IMPACT and the Texas Conference of Churches, this booklet outlines legal aspects of the education of undocumented children, lists moral and practical reasons for educating them, provides reasons for changing the Texas law which prohibits use of state funds for education of children who are not legally…

  12. POR FIN (Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    A project was undertaken in San Antonio, Texas, to develop a recruitment approach which would be more effective than the traditional mass media approach in recruiting hard-core undereducated individuals into adult education classes. An experiment was designed to test a recruiting method which would employ a personal, face-to-face interview…

  13. [The right to avoid pregnancy] [POR, ENG translation included].

    PubMed

    1981-01-21

    Signs are finally appearing in Brazil that despite the government's hesitations and the hostility of the Catholic Church the decade of the 1980s shall bring effective changes intended to restrain population growth. Now, 4 years after its inclusion in the social program of the Geisel administration in 1977, family planning will become a reality. It is certainly about time, for at the present rate of growth the Brazilian population increases by about 6 persons per minute--about 3 million a year. At this pace, only a large scale State intervention that provides the population with information, assistance and free access to contraception may decisively reverse the trend. Figueiredo's government has decided that family planning should be introduced slowly, gradually and subtly, thus avoiding specific programs and publicity campaigns through the mass communication vehicles. In an effort to get around sharper criticism from the Church and the opposition, the government intends to mobilize catholic laypersons, priests, and nuns and, if possible, bishops in a national attempt to disseminate information on natural methods of birth control. As a 1st step, the Ministry of Health will widely distribute information on human reproduction and fecundity along with explanations of artificial contraceptive methods. Subject to the couple's decision and under medical indications, the free supply of contraceptive means to low income families shall be ensured by the government. The government will also allow sterilization. Despite its cautious approach, in actuality the government's program will in many places and circumstances be a massive inducement to contraceptive use. PMID:12337558

  14. Síndrome del Outlet Torácico: ¿Una Patología Siempre Quirúrgica? Análisis de una Serie de 31 Cirugías Realizadas por Vía Supraclavicular Serie clínica

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, Álvaro; Páez, Miguel Domínguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de outlet torácico es una compresión del plexo braquial que suscita polémica. Se clasifica en Outlet Torácico Verdadero o neurogénico (OTV) y Outlet Torácico Disputado o no neurogénico (OTD). El primero presenta síntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo sólo síntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirugías. Métodos: Se analizaron las cirugías de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagnósticos de outlet torácico cuyo período de seguimiento post-operatorio mínimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de síntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificación, resultado de los estudios neurofisiológicos y de imágenes, resultado de la cirugía, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirugías realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 años, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 años de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiológicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenológicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV presentó una alteración anatómica relacionada con la sintomatología, hecho observado sólo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeoró. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron más frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusión: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirugía, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporción mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patología. PMID:25165614

  15. A Comparison Between PSRK and GERG-2004 Equation of State for Simulation of Non-Isothermal Compressible Natural Gases Mixed with Hydrogen in Pipelines / Porównanie równań stanu opracowanych według metody PSRK oraz GERG-2004 wykorzystanych do symulacji zachowania ściśliwych mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach, w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uilhoorn, Frits E.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the GERG-2004 equation of state based on a multi-fluid approximation explicit in the reduced Helmholtz energy is compared with the predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong group contribution method. In the analysis, both equations of state are compared by simulating a non-isothermal transient flow of natural gas and mixed hydrogen-natural gas in pipelines. Besides the flow conditions also linepack-energy and energy consumption of the compressor station are computed. The gas flow is described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A pipeline section of the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline on Polish territory has been selected for the case study. W artykule dokonano porównania wyników uzyskanych przy wykorzystaniu równania stanu GERG- 2004 opartego na jawnym przybliżeniu wyników dla wielu cieczy w oparciu o zredukowaną energię Helmhotza oraz wyników uzyskanych w oparciu o metodę Soave-Redlich Kwonga. Obydwa równania stanu porównano poprzez przeprowadzenie symulacji stanów przejściowych przepływów gazu ziemnego oraz mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych. Oprócz warunków przepływu, określono energię w napełnionym układzie oraz zużycie energii przez stację kompresora. Przepływ gazu opisano zbiorem równań różniczkowych cząstkowych, wyprowadzonych w oparciu o prawa zachowania masy, pędu i energii. Jako studium przypadku wybrano fragment rurociągu jamalskiego (Yamal- Europa) przebiegającego przez terytorium Polski.

  16. Propriedades de estruturas temporais rápidas submilimétricas durante uma grande explosão solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, J.-P.; Kaufmann, P.; Gimenez de Castro, C. G.; Pacini, A. A.; Makhmutov, V.; Levato, H.; Rovira, M.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos novas propriedades de variações rápidas da emissão submilimétrica durante uma das maiores explosões solares do ciclo solar 23. Os dados analisados neste estudo foram obtidos com o Telescópio Solar Submilimétrico (SST), que observa o Sol em 212 GHz e 405 GHz, e comparados com emissões em Raios-X duros e Raios-gama (fótons de energia > 10 MeV), que foram obtidas pelo experimento GRS do Yohkoh. Aplicamos diferentes metodologias para detectar e caracterizar, ao longo do evento, os pulsos submilimétricos (duração de 50-300 ms) detectados acima de uma componente mais lenta (alguns minutos). Os resultados mostram que durante a fase impulsiva, num instante próximo ao tempo do máximo do evento, houve um aumento da ocorrência de maiores e de mais rápidas estruturas temporais. Também identificamos uma boa correlação com as emissões em raios-X e raios-gama (até a faixa de energia 10-100 MeV), indicando que os pulsos rápidos submilimétricos refletiram injeções primárias de energia durante o evento.O espectro do fluxo desses pulsos é crescente com a freqüência entre 212 and 405 GHz, na maioria dos casos, ao contrário do observado para a componente gradual. As posições calculadas para as estruturas rápidas são discretas, compactas e localizadas em toda a área da região ativa, o que é previsto nos modelos de explosões solares decorrentes de instabilidades múltiplas em diferentes pequenas regiões. Por outro lado, a posição calculada para a componente lenta é estável durante a fase impulsiva. Assim, a comparação entre as características do espectro de fluxo e da localização da emissão, para os pulsos rápidos e para a componente gradual, sugere que as respectivas emissões são de natureza diferente.

  17. Groundwater quality in the San Fernando--San Gabriel groundwater basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The San Fernando and San Gabriel groundwater basins constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  18. Groundwater quality in the San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Selected groundwater basins of the San Francisco Bay area constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  19. Groundwater quality in the South Coast Interior Basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Mary C.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s untreated groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The South Coast Interior Basins constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  20. Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The basins north of San Francisco constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  1. See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo por Internet: Ideas por padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeanette

    Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many…

  2. Verification and validation interim report for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This Verification and Validation (V/V) interim report summarizes to date the results of the V/V tasks performed in each of the following life cycle phases: concept, requirements, design, implementation, test, installation and checkout, and operation and maintenance. At the end of the installation and checkout phase, the V/V final report will be issued. This interim report contains or references the following for each phase: Description of V/V tasks performed; Summary of task results; Summary of anomalies and resolution; Assessment of system quality; Recommendations.

  3. Ensenando El Espanol por Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual…

  4. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.…

  5. Producao d Dijatos por Dupla Troca de Pomeron Exclusiva no Experimento D0

    SciTech Connect

    Murilo Santana Rangel

    2008-01-01

    The first search for exclusive diffractive dijet production with invariant mass ≳ 100 GeV in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is performed. The set of data used is the Run IIa, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 pb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV taken with the D0 detector. At 95% CL, an upper limit for the ratio between the number of diffractive exclusive events and the number of non diffractive events is set to be 7.5 x 10-6, excluding two of the three models proposed to explain this production.

  6. The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Geoffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)

  7. Phantom of RAMSES (POR): A new Milgromian dynamicsN-body code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüghausen, Fabian; Famaey, Benoit; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    Since its first formulation in 1983, Milgromian dynamics (MOND) has been very successful in predicting the gravitational potential of galaxies from the distribution of baryons alone, including general scaling relations and detailed rotation curves of large statistical samples of individual galaxies covering a large range of masses and sizes. Most predictions however rely on static models, and only a handful of N-body codes have been developed over the years to investigate the consequences of the Milgromian framework for the dynamics of complex evolving dynamical systems. In this work, we present a new Milgromian N-body code, which is a customized version of the RAMSES code (Teyssier 2002) and thus comes with all its features: it includes particles and gas dynamics, and importantly allows for high spatial resolution of complex systems due to the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique. It further allows the direct comparison between Milgromian simulations and standard Newtonian simulations with dark matter particles. We provide basic tests of this customized code and demonstrate its performance by presenting N-body computations of dark-matter-free spherical equilibrium models as well as dark-matter-free disk galaxies in Milgromian dynamics.

  8. Abuso sexual por parte de los empleados del colegio (Sexual Misconduct by School Employees). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goorian, Brad

    This digest in Spanish defines sexual misconduct and offers guidelines that school boards and administrators can initiate to protect students from unwanted sexual behavior. The law recognizes two types of sexual misconduct: quid pro quo, when a school employee grants a student a favor in exchange for sexual gratification, and hostile environment,…

  9. Looking for a Job: Step by Step = Buscando Trabajo: Paso por Paso.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patricia

    This bilingual document provides guidelines and learning activities to assist migrant workers in looking for a job. The document covers the following areas: (1) a checklist providing an overview of job search skills; (2) developing a fact sheet of personal information; (3) listing good work qualities; (4) identifying references and securing…

  10. Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Teaching the Spanish Prepositions "Por" and "Para"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    L2 prepositions are traditionally taught in a non-explanatory manner by having students learn each use individually. This study examines the effectiveness of an alternative explanatory approach based on cognitive linguistics, which considers the multiple uses of a preposition as related. Consequently, learners can be shown a general schema that…

  11. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  12. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all…

  13. Neuropatía periférica inducida por quimioterapia

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre un efecto secundario de la quimioterapia que causa dolor y malestar en las manos y los pies. También incluye información sobre los esfuerzos para mejorar las opciones de detección, tratamiento y prevención.

  14. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli patógenas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli patógenas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en niños menores de 5 años en América Latina, África y Asia y están asociadas a alta mortalidad en niños en las comunidades más pobres de África y el Sudeste Asiático. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli patógenas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros países de América Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detección de estos patógenos en los laboratorios clínicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detección de E. coli patógenas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxigénica la cepa más frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en niños menores de 5 años. Otros patógenos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropatógena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisión de estos patógenos y a la infección del huésped susceptible. Más estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisión, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevención de estos patógenos que afectan la población pediátrica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  15. Renovando la Esperanza por una Educacion sin Exclusiones (Rekindling the Hope for an Education without Exclusion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this issue, written in Spanish, focus on the following: current status and outlook of youth and adult education; opening statement of the 50th anniversary commemoration; regional framework for the education of youth and adults in Latin America and the Caribbean; interculturalism and the education of youth and adults; participation of…

  16. El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  17. Master equipment list 500 CFM portable exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    KRISKOVICH, J.R.

    1999-07-08

    The Master Equipment List (MEL) lists all the major components of the 500 cfm exhauster PORO5. The purpose of this Master Equipment List is to provide basic information and references to other documents for the listed components.

  18. PREJUICIO Y DISTANCIA SOCIAL HACIA PERSONAS HOMOSEXUALES POR PARTE DE JÓVENES UNIVERSITARIOS

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Rodríguez, María del C.; Squiabro, José Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con el propósito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utilizó una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente más prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron más prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a través del currículo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

  19. The PorGrow project: overall cross-national results, comparisons and implications.

    PubMed

    Millstone, E; Lobstein, T

    2007-05-01

    European policymakers need more information on policy responses to obesity that stakeholders judge effective and acceptable. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project gathered such intelligence by interviewing key stakeholder groups in nine countries. Interviews used an innovative multi-criteria mapping (MCM) methodology that gathers quantitative and qualitative information on the stakeholders' perceptions and judgements. Aggregating across all participants, a comprehensive portfolio of policy measures, integrated into a coherent programme, would be well-supported by broad coalitions of stakeholders. Those portfolios should include measures (i) to provide improved educations in schools and to the general adult population; (ii) measures to improve access to and incentives for physical activity; (iii) measures to improve information about both foods and physical activity and (iv) changes to the supply of and demand for foodstuffs. There was little support for fiscal measures and technological 'fixes'; they were judged ineffective and unacceptable. Significant differences were found across European regions, and across different stakeholder perspectives, but not across genders. There is a strong case for improved monitoring of body mass index levels, dietary habits and physical activity. An MCM study can effectively cover several countries, rather than being confined to just one, and generate both national and cross-national policy analyses and proposals. PMID:17371305

  20. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate…

  1. "Por Los Ojos De Madres": Latina Mothers' Understandings of College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Laura Jean; Martinez, Melissa Ann; Sáenz, Victor B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, data from six focus groups with 30 Latina mothers in South Texas were analyzed utilizing a "funds of knowledge" approach to uncover their understandings of college readiness and their role in ensuring their children are college ready. Findings indicate that Latina mothers perceived college readiness in a holistic fashion,…

  2. Groundwater quality in the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Mary C.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s untreated groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Selected groundwater basins in the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  3. Camões e a cosmogonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, J. M.

    2003-08-01

    Os Lusíadas, escrito por Luis de Camões em 1572, é um poema épico renascentista e a visão Cosmogônica do autor é apresentada, principalmente, no último canto do poema, quando Tétis mostra ao Gama a Máquina do Mundo. A Cosmogonia de Camões neste poema reflete uma visão de uma época de transição, que ainda não incorporou os elementos da revolução Copernicana. É uma visão Grego- Ptolomaica e também medieval. O poeta guia-se pela tradução e notas feita por Pedro Nunes, inventor do Nonio, do Tratado da Esfera "De Sphaera" do Astrônomo Inglês John Holywood, mais conhecido pelo nome latinizado de Johannes Sacrobosco. Outra provável fonte de Camões, de acordo com Luciano Antonio Pereira da Silva em Astronomia de os Lusíadas, é o "Theoricae novae Planetarum" (1460) do astrólogo Alemão Jorge Purbáquio (1423 - 1461). A Astronomia de Os Lusíadas representa a ciência do tempo de Camões. Camões nunca emprega a palavra constelação e seu catálogo é bastante completo. A Máquina do Mundo tem a Terra no centro. Em redor, em círculos concêntricos, a lua (Diana), Mercúrio, Vênus, o Sol (Febo), Marte, Júpiter e Saturno. Envolvendo estes astros tem o firmamento seguido pelo "Céu Áqueo" ou cristalino, depois o 1o Móbil, esfera que arrasta todas as outras consigo. Este trabalho, multidisciplinar, serve tanto para ensinar aos alunos da Física como das Ciências Humanas, a concepção de mundo do renascimento de uma forma belamente poética em versos decassílabos Este trabalho também ajuda na apreciação do maior clássico da língua portuguesa e mostra como as Ciências e as artes, em geral, estão correlacionadas e refletem a visão de mundo da época em que foi produzida.

  4. Que hay de nuevo acerca de la inmersion? Un Breve Recorrido por sus Fundamentos y por las Investigaciones Actuales (What's New in Immersion? A Brief Overview of Its Bases and Present-Day Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Josu

    This discussion briefly surveys the development of the immersion method of second language teaching, outlining the central program strategies and characteristics using Curtain's and Pesola's descriptions. An overview of recent research focuses on error correction and feedback studies as an example of pedagogical-methodological evolution in this…

  5. Three Afro-Brazilian Writers: A Supplemental Guide for Black and Latin American Studies Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, James H.

    This biographical/bibliographic guide provides profiles of three Afro-Brazilian writers: Jorge de Lima (1893-1953); Luiz Gonzaga Pinto da Gama (1830-1882); and Abdias do Nascimento (1914- ). The life of each author is briefly described and sources of English language translations together with critical studies of their works are listed. Four…

  6. History of Science and Science Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faria, Cláudia; Guilherme, Elsa; Gaspar, Raquel; Boaventura, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The activities presented in this paper, which are addressed to elementary school, are focused on the pioneering work of the Portuguese King Carlos I in oceanography and involve the exploration of the exhibits belonging to two different science museums, the Aquarium Vasco da Gama and the Maritime Museum. Students were asked to study fish…

  7. Evidence for factors modulating radiation-induced G2-delay: potential application as radioprotectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheong, N.; Zeng, Z. C.; Wang, Y.; Iliakis, G.

    2001-01-01

    Manipulation of checkpoint response to DNA damage can be developed as a means for protecting astronauts from the adverse effects of unexpected, or background exposures to ionizing radiation. To achieve this goal reagents need to be developed that protect cells from radiation injury by prolonging checkpoint response, thus promoting repair. We present evidence for a low molecular weight substance excreted by cells that dramatically increases the duration of the G2-delay. This compound is termed G2-Arrest Modulating Activity (GAMA). A rat cell line (A1-5) generated by transforming rat embryo fibroblasts with a temperature sensitive form of p53 plus H-ras demonstrates a dramatic increase in radiation resistance after exposure to low LET radiation that is not associated with an increase in the efficiency of rejoining of DNA double strand breaks. Radioresistance in this cell line correlates with a dramatic increase in the duration of the G2 arrest that is modulated by a GAMA produced by actively growing cells. The properties of GAMA suggest that it is a low molecular weight heat-stable peptide. Further characterization of this substance and elucidation of its mechanism of action may allow the development of a biological response modifier with potential applications as a radioprotector. GAMA may be useful for protecting astronauts from radiation injury as preliminary evidence suggests that it is able to modulate the response of cells exposed to heavy ion radiation, similar to that encountered in outer space.

  8. 10 CFR 431.85 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (GAMA) merged in 2008 with the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute to become the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI). The Hydronics Institute BTS-2000 Testing Standard... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to a standard by the...

  9. 10 CFR 431.85 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to a standard by the standard...-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI). The Hydronics Institute BTS-2000 Testing Standard...://www.ahrinet.org/Content/OrderaStandard_573.aspx. (1) The Hydronics Institute Division of GAMA...

  10. 10 CFR 431.85 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to a standard by the standard...-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI). The Hydronics Institute BTS-2000 Testing Standard...://www.ahrinet.org/Content/OrderaStandard_573.aspx. (1) The Hydronics Institute Division of GAMA...