Science.gov

Sample records for por sensores laboratorial

  1. Energy Systems Sensor Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Energy Systems Sensor Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The mission of the Energy Systems Sensor Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is to research, develop, test, and evaluate the performance of commercial and developing hydrogen sensor technologies to support the needs of the emerging hydrogen infrastructure. Sensor performance metrics analogous to national and international standards are quantified. Information gained from the sensor testing is provided to the sensor manufacturers to aid in sensor development, to end users to guide sensor selection and deployment, and to committees to support the development of codes and standards. The laboratory also provides support to end-users, including assessment of technologies for applications, information on deployment. Some application scenarios are: (1) Testing and analyzing sensors are over a range of controlled and monitored environmental conditions; (2) Testing the impact of interferants and poisons; (3) Evaluating the life span of sensors with separate dedicated life test fixtures; and (4) Testing of hydrogen sensors for process applications, including responses under high hydrogen concentrations.

  2. Design and laboratory testing of a prototype linear temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dube, C. M.; Nielsen, C. M.

    1982-07-01

    This report discusses the basic theory, design, and laboratory testing of a prototype linear temperature sensor (or "line sensor'), which is an instrument for measuring internal waves in the ocean. The operating principle of the line sensor consists of measuring the average resistance change of a vertically suspended wire (or coil of wire) induced by the passage of an internal wave in a thermocline. The advantage of the line sensor over conventional internal wave measurement techniques is that it is insensitive to thermal finestructure which contaminates point sensor measurements, and its output is approximately linearly proportional to the internal wave displacement. An approximately one-half scale prototype line sensor module was teste in the laboratory. The line sensor signal was linearly related to the actual fluid displacement to within 10%. Furthermore, the absolute output was well predicted (within 25%) from the theoretical model and the sensor material properties alone. Comparisons of the line sensor and a point sensor in a wavefield with superimposed turbulence (finestructure) revealed negligible distortion in the line sensor signal, while the point sensor signal was swamped by "turbulent noise'. The effects of internal wave strain were also found to be negligible.

  3. Micromachined sensor and actuator research at the Microelectronics Development Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.; Barron, C.C.; Fleming, J.G.; Montague, S.; Rodriguez, J.L.; Smith, B.K.; Sniegowski, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    An overview of the major sensor and actuator projects using the micromachining capabilities of the Microelectronics Development Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories is presented. Development efforts are underway for a variety of micromechanical devices and control electronics for those devices. Surface micromachining is the predominant technology under development. Pressure sensors based on silicon nitride diaphragms have been developed. Hot polysilicon filaments for calorimetric gas sensing have been developed. Accelerometers based upon high-aspect ratio surface micromachining are under development. Actuation mechanisms employing either electrostatic or steam power are being combined with a three-level active (plus an additional passive level) polysilicon surface micromachining process to couple these actuators to external devices. Results of efforts toward integration of micromechanics with the driving electronics for actuators or the amplification/signal processing electronics for sensors is also described. This effort includes a tungsten metallization process to allow the CMOS electronics to withstand high-temperature micromechanical processing.

  4. Real-Time, Sensor-Based Computing in the Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badmus, O. O.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Demonstrates the importance of Real-Time, Sensor-Based (RTSB) computing and how it can be easily and effectively integrated into university student laboratories. Describes the experimental processes, the process instrumentation and process-computer interface, the computer and communications systems, and typical software. Provides much technical…

  5. Multi-Sensor Testing for Automated Rendezvous and Docking Sensor Testing at the Flight Robotics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewster, L.; Johnston, A.; Howard, R.; Mitchell, J.; Cryan, S.

    2007-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Architecture defines missions that require rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) of two spacecraft both in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and in Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). Uncrewed spacecraft must perform automated and/or autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations and docking operations (commonly known as AR&D). The crewed missions may also perform rendezvous and docking operations and may require different levels of automation and/or autonomy, and must provide the crew with relative navigation information for manual piloting. The capabilities of the RPOD sensors are critical to the success of the Exploration Program. NASA has the responsibility to determine whether the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) contractor proposed relative navigation sensor suite will meet the requirements. The relatively low technology readiness level of AR&D relative navigation sensors has been carried as one of the CEV Project's top risks. The AR&D Sensor Technology Project seeks to reduce the risk by the testing and analysis of selected relative navigation sensor technologies through hardware-in-the-loop testing and simulation. These activities will provide the CEV Project information to assess the relative navigation sensors maturity as well as demonstrate test methods and capabilities. The first year of this project focused on a series of"pathfinder" testing tasks to develop the test plans, test facility requirements, trajectories, math model architecture, simulation platform, and processes that will be used to evaluate the Contractor-proposed sensors. Four candidate sensors were used in the first phase of the testing. The second phase of testing used four sensors simultaneously: two Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Video Guidance Sensors (AVGS), a laser-based video sensor that uses retroreflectors attached to the target vehicle, and two commercial laser range finders. The multi-sensor testing was conducted at MSFC's Flight Robotics Laboratory (FRL

  6. Laboratory measurements of grain-bedrock interactions using inertial sensors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniatis, Georgios; Hoey, Trevor; Hodge, Rebecca; Valyrakis, Manousos; Drysdale, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Sediment transport in steep mountain streams is characterized by the movement of coarse particles (diameter c.100 mm) over beds that are not fully sediment-covered. Under such conditions, individual grain dynamics become important for the prediction of sediment movement and subsequently for understanding grain-bedrock interaction. Technological advances in micro-mechanical-electrical systems now provide opportunities to measure individual grain dynamics and impact forces from inside the sediments (grain inertial frame of reference) instead of trying to infer them indirectly from water flow dynamics. We previously presented a new prototype sensor specifically developed for monitoring sediment transport [Maniatis et al. EGU 2014], and have shown how the definition of the physics of the grain using the inertial frame and subsequent derived measurements which have the potential to enhance the prediction of sediment entrainment [Maniatis et al. 2015]. Here we present the latest version of this sensor and we focus on beginning of the cessation of grain motion: the initial interaction with the bed after the translation phase. The sensor is housed in a spherical case, diameter 80mm, and is constructed using solid aluminum (density = 2.7 kg.m-3) after detailed 3D-CAD modelling. A complete Inertial Measurement Unit (a combination of micro- accelerometer, gyroscope and compass) was placed at the center of the mass of the assembly, with measurement ranges of 400g for acceleration, and 1200 rads/sec for angular velocity. In a 0.9m wide laboratory flume, bed slope = 0.02, the entrainment threshold of the sensor was measured, and the water flow was then set to this value. The sensor was then rolled freely from a static cylindrical bar positioned exactly on the surface of the flowing water. As the sensor enters the flow we record a very short period of transport (1-1.5 sec) followed by the impact on the channel bed. The measured Total Kinetic Energy (Joules) includes the

  7. Laboratory Connections: Gas Monitoring Transducers: Relative Humidity Sensors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael H.; Hull, Stacey E.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the operation of five relative humidity sensors: psychrometer, hair hygrometer, resistance hygrometer, capacitance hygrometer, and resistance-capacitance hygrometer. Outlines the theory behind the electronic sensors and gives computer interfacing information. Lists sensor responses for calibration. (MVL)

  8. Laboratory and Field Tests of Ultrasonic Sensors for Precision Sprayers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reliable function of sensors under rough field conditions is required for the development of variable-rate sprayers to deliver pest control agents to tree liners in ornamental nurseries. Two ultrasonic sensors were examined to identify how their durability and detection stability would be influenced...

  9. Spectral properties of agricultural crops and soils measured from space, aerial, field, and laboratory sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Vanderbilt, V. C.; Robinson, B. F.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1981-01-01

    Investigations of the multispectral reflectance characteristics of crops and soils as measured from laboratory, field, aerial, and satellite sensor systems are reviewed. The relationships of important biological and physical characteristics to the spectral properties of crops and soils are addressed.

  10. Laboratory Characterization of a Commercial Capacitance Sensor for Estimating Permittivity and Inferring Soil Water Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volumetric soil water content ''can be estimated from the bulk soil dielectric constant ' measured using ring-capacitor sensors inserted into a plastic access tube augured into soil. The present laboratory experiments were designed to characterize the sensor response over a full range of environment...

  11. Sensor Technology Performance Characteristics- Field and Laboratory Observations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Observed Intangible Performance Characteristics RH and temperature impacts may be significant for some devices Internal battery lifetimes range from 4 to 24 hoursSensor packaging can interfere with accurate measurements (reactivity)Wireless communication protocols are not foolpr...

  12. Isotherm Sensor Calibration Program for Mars Science Laboratory Heat Shield Flight Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santos, Jose A.; Oishi, Tomo; Martinez, Ed R.

    2011-01-01

    Seven instrumented sensor plugs were installed on the Mars Science Laboratory heat shield in December 2008 as part of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI) project. These sensor plugs contain four in-depth thermocouples and one Hollow aErothermal Ablation and Temperature (HEAT) sensor. The HEAT sensor follows the time progression of a 700 C isotherm through the thickness of a thermal protection system (TPS) material. The data can be used to infer char depth and, when analyzed in conjunction with the thermocouple data, the thermal gradient through the TPS material can also be determined. However, the uncertainty on the isotherm value is not well defined. To address this uncertainty, a team at NASA Ames Research Center is carrying out a HEAT sensor calibration test program. The scope of this test program is described, and initial results from experiments conducted in the laboratory to study the isotherm temperature of the HEAT sensor are presented. Data from the laboratory tests indicate an isotherm temperature of 720 C 60 C. An overview of near term arc jet testing is also given, including preliminary data from 30.48cm 30.48cm PICA panels instrumented with two MEDLI sensor plugs and tested in the NASA Ames Panel Test Facility. Forward work includes analysis of the arc jet test data, including an evaluation of the isotherm value based on the instant in time when it reaches a thermocouple depth.

  13. Laboratory and Theoretical Investigations of a Ring-Capacitor Sensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ring-capacitor sensors are used widely for real-time estimation of volumetric soil water content ' from measured resonant frequency fr which is affected by the complex bulk soil permittivity ' = '’ + i'’’. However, the relationship fr(') requires improved investigation in terms of the dependence of ...

  14. Laboratory and field tests of the Sutron RLR-0003-1 water level sensor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, Janice M.; Bryars, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Three Sutron RLR-0003-1 water level sensors were tested in laboratory conditions to evaluate the accuracy of the sensor over the manufacturer’s specified operating temperature and distance-to-water ranges. The sensor was also tested for compliance to SDI-12 communication protocol and in field conditions at a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgaging site. Laboratory results were compared to the manufacturer’s accuracy specification for water level and to the USGS Office of Surface Water (OSW) policy requirement that water level sensors have a measurement uncertainty of no more than 0.01 foot or 0.20 percent of the indicated reading. Except for one sensor, the differences for the temperature testing were within 0.05 foot and the average measurements for the sensors were within the manufacturer’s accuracy specification. Two of the three sensors were within the manufacturer’s specified accuracy and met the USGS accuracy requirements for the laboratory distance to water testing. Three units passed a basic SDI-12 communication compliance test. Water level measurements made by the Sutron RLR-0003-1 during field testing agreed well with those made by the bubbler system and a Design Analysis Associates (DAA) H3613 radar, and they met the USGS accuracy requirements when compared to the wire-weight gage readings.

  15. Standard Hydrogen Test Protocols for the NREL Sensor Testing Laboratory (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-12-01

    This brochure summarizes the test protocols used in the NREL Hydrogen Sensor Test Laboratory for the quantitative assessment of critical analytical performance specifications for hydrogen sensors. Researchers at the NREL Hydrogen Safety Sensor Test Laboratory developed a variety of test protocols to quantitatively assess critical analytical performance specifications for hydrogen sensors. Many are similar to, but typically more rigorous than, the test procedures mandated by ISO Standard 26142 (Hydrogen Detector for Stationary Applications). Specific protocols were developed for linear range, short-term stability, and the impact of fluctuations in temperature (T), pressure (P), relative humidity (RH), and chemical environment. Specialized tests (e.g., oxygen requirement) may also be performed. Hydrogen safety sensors selected for evaluation are subjected to a thorough regimen of test protocols, as described. Sensor testing is performed at NREL on custom-built sensor test fixtures. Environmental parameters such as T, P, RH, and gas composition are rigorously controlled and monitored. The NREL evaluations are performed on commercial hydrogen detectors, on emerging sensing technologies, and for end users to validate sensor performance for specific application needs. Test results and data are shared with the manufacturer or client via summary reports, teleconference phone calls, and, when appropriate, site visits to manufacturer facilities. Client representatives may also monitor NREL's operation while their technologies are being tested. Manufacturers may use test data to illustrate the analytical capability of their technologies and, more importantly, to guide future developments. NREL uses the data to assess technology gaps and deployment considerations. Per NREL Sensor Testing Laboratory policy, test results are treated as proprietary and are not shared with other manufacturers or other entities without permission. The data may be used by NREL in open publications

  16. Micromachined sensor and actuator research at Sandia`s Microelectronics Development Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.

    1996-11-01

    An overview of the surface micromachining program at the Microelectronics Development Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories is presented. Development efforts are underway for a variety of surface micromachined sensors and actuators for both defense and commercial applications. A technology that embeds micromechanical devices below the surface of the wafer prior to microelectronics fabrication has been developed for integrating microelectronics with surface-micromachined micromechanical devices. The application of chemical-mechanical polishing to increase the manufacturability of micromechanical devices is also presented.

  17. Modular miniature imaging sensor: field data compared with measured laboratory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruitt, Gerald R.; Shaffer, Stephen; Moore, Chris; Hintz, Todd M.

    2001-09-01

    Raytheon Electronic Systems is under contract from the DARPA Advanced Technology Office to design, fabricate and deliver the Modular Miniature Imaging Sensor (M2IS) incorporating a Er:glass eyesafe laser rangefinder. The M2IS is a rifle-mounted system that integrates a high- performance multispectral sensor with an eyesafe laser rangefinder and a digital compass. Dual FOV reflective optics provide capability to acquire and identify targets at ranges of several kilometers. The LRF and compass facilitate hand-off to remote fire power. M2IS provides the soldier an integrated surveillance, targeting, and fire control system that consumes less than 6.5 W and weighs less than 7.5 lbs. This paper reviews field data acquired with the first deliverable sensor and compares measured performance with previously acquired laboratory test data. Projections for improvements with a higher power laser, planned for incorporation in the second deliverable sensor, are summarized.

  18. Physical and chemical sensor technologies developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Balch, J.W.; Ciarlo, D.; Folta, J.; Glass, R.; Hagans, K.; Milanovich, F.; Sheem, S.

    1993-08-10

    The increasing emphasis on envirorunental issues, waste reduction, and improved efficiency for industrial processes has mandated the development of new chemical and physical sensors for field or in-plant use. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a number of technologies for sensing physical and chemical properties. Table 1 gives some examples of several sensors. that have been developed recently for environmental, industrial, commercial or government applications. Physical sensors of pressure, temperature, acceleration, acoustic vibration spectra, and ionizing radiation have been developed. Sensors developed at LLNL for chemical species include inorganic solvents, heavy metal ions`, and gaseous atoms and compounds. Primary sensing technologies we have employed have been based on optical fibers, semiconductor optical or radiation detectors, electrochemical activity, micromachined electromechanical (MEMs) structures, or chemical separation technologies. The complexities of these sensor systems range from single detectors to more advanced micro-instruments on-a-chip. For many of the sensors we have developed the necessary intelligent electronic support systems for both local and remote sensing applications. Each of these sensor technologies are briefly described in the remaining sections of this paper.

  19. Spectral properties of agricultural crops and soils measured from space, aerial, field and laboratory sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E.; Vanderbilt, V. C.; Robinson, B. F.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that in order to develop the full potential of multispectral measurements acquired from satellite or aircraft sensors to monitor, map, and inventory agricultural resources, increased knowledge and understanding of the spectral properties of crops and soils are needed. The present state of knowledge is reviewed, emphasizing current investigations of the multispectral reflectance characteristics of crops and soils as measured from laboratory, field, aerial, and satellite sensor systems. The relationships of important biological and physical characteristics to their spectral properties of crops and soils are discussed. Future research needs are also indicated.

  20. Laboratory validation of MEMS-based sensors for post-earthquake damage assessment image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, Matteo; Zonta, Daniele; Santana, Juan; Colin, Mikael; Saillen, Nicolas; Torfs, Tom; Amditis, Angelos; Bimpas, Matthaios; Stratakos, Yorgos; Ulieru, Dumitru; Bairaktaris, Dimitirs; Frondistou-Yannas, Stamatia; Kalidromitis, Vasilis

    2011-04-01

    The evaluation of seismic damage is today almost exclusively based on visual inspection, as building owners are generally reluctant to install permanent sensing systems, due to their high installation, management and maintenance costs. To overcome this limitation, the EU-funded MEMSCON project aims to produce small size sensing nodes for measurement of strain and acceleration, integrating Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) based sensors and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags in a single package that will be attached to reinforced concrete buildings. To reduce the impact of installation and management, data will be transmitted to a remote base station using a wireless interface. During the project, sensor prototypes were produced by assembling pre-existing components and by developing ex-novo miniature devices with ultra-low power consumption and sensing performance beyond that offered by sensors available on the market. The paper outlines the device operating principles, production scheme and working at both unit and network levels. It also reports on validation campaigns conducted in the laboratory to assess system performance. Accelerometer sensors were tested on a reduced scale metal frame mounted on a shaking table, back to back with reference devices, while strain sensors were embedded in both reduced and full-scale reinforced concrete specimens undergoing increasing deformation cycles up to extensive damage and collapse. The paper assesses the economical sustainability and performance of the sensors developed for the project and discusses their applicability to long-term seismic monitoring.

  1. The world’s microbiology laboratories can be a global microbial sensor network

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Thomas F.; Stelling, John

    2015-01-01

    The microbes that infect us spread in global and local epidemics, and the resistance genes that block their treatment spread within and between them. All we can know about where they are to track and contain them comes from the only places that can see them, the world’s microbiology laboratories, but most report each patient’s microbe only to that patient’s caregiver. Sensors, ranging from instruments to birdwatchers, are now being linked in electronic networks to monitor and interpret algorithmically in real-time ocean currents, atmospheric carbon, supply-chain inventory, bird migration, etc. To so link the world’s microbiology laboratories as exquisite sensors in a truly lifesaving real-time network their data must be accessed and fully subtyped. Microbiology laboratories put individual reports into inaccessible paper or mutually incompatible electronic reporting systems, but those from more than 2,200 laboratories in more than 108 countries worldwide are now accessed and translated into compatible WHONET files. These increasingly web-based files could initiate a global microbial sensor network. Unused microbiology laboratory byproduct data, now from drug susceptibility and biochemical testing but increasingly from new technologies (genotyping, MALDI-TOF, etc.), can be reused to subtype microbes of each genus/species into sub-groupings that are discriminated and traced with greater sensitivity. Ongoing statistical delineation of subtypes from global sensor network data will improve detection of movement into any patient of a microbe or resistance gene from another patient, medical center or country. Growing data on clinical manifestations and global distributions of subtypes can automate comments for patient’s reports, select microbes to genotype and alert responders. PMID:24968031

  2. Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Pendse, H.P.

    1992-10-01

    In this paper we present a novel measurement technique for monitoring particle size distributions of industrial colloidal slurries based on ultrasonic spectroscopy and mathematical deconvolution. An on-line sensor prototype has been developed and tested extensively in laboratory and production settings using mineral pigment slurries. Evaluation to date shows that the sensor is capable of providing particle size distributions, without any assumptions regarding their functional form, over diameters ranging from 0.1 to 100 micrometers in slurries with particle concentrations of 10 to 50 volume percents. The newly developed on-line sensor allows one to obtain particle size distributions of commonly encountered inorganic pigment slurries under industrial processing conditions without dilution.

  3. Synthesis and Application of Ratiometric and "Turn-On" Fluorescent pH Sensors: An Advanced Organic Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutt, Johnathon T.; Aron, Zachary D.

    2014-01-01

    An upper-division organic chemistry laboratory experiment exploring fluorescent sensing over two laboratory periods and part of a third is described. Two functionally distinct pH-responsive sensors are prepared through a dehydrative three-component coupling reaction. During the abbreviated (<1 h) first laboratory period, students set up…

  4. Laboratory Evaluation of the Shinyei PPD42NS Low-Cost Particulate Matter Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Elena; Novosselov, Igor; Seto, Edmund; Yost, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Finely resolved PM2.5 exposure measurements at the level of individual participants or over a targeted geographic area can be challenging due to the cost, size and weight of the monitoring equipment. We propose re-purposing the low-cost, portable and lightweight Shinyei PPD42NS particle counter as a particle counting device. Previous field deployment of this sensor suggests that it captures trends in ambient PM2.5 concentrations, but important characteristics of the sensor response have yet to be determined. Laboratory testing was undertaken in order to characterize performance. Methods The Shinyei sensors, in-line with a TSI Aerosol Particle Sizer (APS) model 3321, tracked particle decay within an aerosol exposure chamber. Test atmospheres were composed of monodisperse polystyrene spheres with diameters of 0.75, 1, 2 3 and 6 um as well as a polydisperse atmosphere of ASHRAE test dust #1. Results Two-minute block averages of the sensor response provide a measurement with low random error, within sensor, for particles in the 0.75–6μm range with a limit of detection of 1 μg/m3. The response slope of the sensors is idiomatic, and each sensor requires a unique response curve. A linear model captures the sensor response for concentrations below 50 μg/m3 and for concentrations above 50 μg/m3 a non-linear function captures the response and saturates at 800 μg/m3. The Limit of Detection (LOD) is 1 μg/m3. The response time is on the order of minutes, making it appropriate for tracking short-term changes in concentration. Conclusions When paired with prior evaluation, these sensors are appropriate for use as ambient particle counters for low and medium concentrations of respirable particles (< 100 ug/m3). Multiple sensors deployed over a spatial grid would provide valuable spatio-temporal variability in PM2.5 and could be used to validate exposure models. When paired with GPS tracking, these devices have the potential to provide time and space resolved

  5. NASA Scientific Data Purchase Laboratory Characterization of Positive Systems ADAR 5500 Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James (Technical Monitor); Blonski, Slawomir

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the laboratory characterization of the Positive Systems ADAR 5500 SN4 multi-spectral imager measured dirijg the period of April 10-11, 2000 in the NASA CRSP Commercial Instrumentation Validation Laboratory (CIVL). This characterization is one component of the NASA Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) validation and verification process. A complete characterization will require analysis of airborne data. The spectral, radiometric, and spatial characteristics of this system were measured and compared with the product data specifications as defined in the SDP contract. These results are summarized in the specification compliance matrices in this summary. A complete description of the system, the SDP product specification and the sensor laboratory characterization is provided in the body of the main report.

  6. Micromachined sensor and actuator research at Sandia`s Microelectronics Development Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.

    1995-08-01

    An overview of the major sensor and actuator projects using the micromachining capabilities of the Microelectronics Development Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories are presented. Development efforts are underway for a variety of micromechanical devices and control electronics for those devices. Our efforts are concentrated in the area of surface micromachining. Pressure sensors based on silicon nitride diaphragms and hot polysilicon filaments for calorimetric gas sensing have been developed. Accelerometers based upon high-aspect ratio surface micromachining are being developed. Actuation mechanisms employing either electrostatic or steam power are being combined with a three-level active (plus an additional passive level) polysilicon surface micromachining process to couple these actuators to external devices. The results of efforts toward integration of micromechanics with the driving electronics for actuators or the amplification/signal processing electronics for sensors is also described. This effort includes a CMOS-first, tungsten metallization process to allow the CMOS electronics to withstand high-temperature micromechanical processing. Also, a unique micromechanics-first approach is being pursued in which the micromechanical devices are embedded below the surface of the starting material for the CMOS.

  7. Practical Application of Electrochemical Nitrate Sensor under Laboratory and Forest Nursery Conditions.

    PubMed

    Caron, William-Olivier; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S; Viens, Jeff; Messaddeq, Younès

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of nitrate leaching to ensure greater protection of groundwater quality has become a global issue. The development of new technologies for more accurate dosing of nitrates helps optimize fertilization programs. This paper presents the practical application of a newly developed electrochemical sensor designed for in situ quantification of nitrate. To our knowledge, this paper is the first to report the use of electrochemical impedance to determine nitrate concentrations in growing media under forest nursery conditions. Using impedance measurements, the sensor has been tested in laboratory and compared to colorimetric measurements of the nitrate. The developed sensor has been used in water-saturated growing medium and showed good correlation to certified methods, even in samples obtained over a multi-ion fertilisation season. A linear and significant relationship was observed between the resistance and the concentration of nitrates (R² = 0.972), for a range of concentrations of nitrates. We also observed stability of the sensor after exposure of one month to the real environmental conditions of the forest nursery. PMID:27483266

  8. Concepts, laboratory, and telescope test results of the plenoptic camera as a wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Ramos, L. F.; Montilla, I.; Fernández-Valdivia, J. J.; Trujillo-Sevilla, J. L.; Rodríguez-Ramos, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    The plenoptic camera has been proposed as an alternative wavefront sensor adequate for extended objects within the context of the design of the European Solar Telescope (EST), but it can also be used with point sources. Originated in the field of the Electronic Photography, the plenoptic camera directly samples the Light Field function, which is the four - dimensional representation of all the light entering a camera. Image formation can then be seen as the result of the photography operator applied to this function, and many other features of the light field can be exploited to extract information of the scene, like depths computation to extract 3D imaging or, as it will be specifically addressed in this paper, wavefront sensing. The underlying concept of the plenoptic camera can be adapted to the case of a telescope by using a lenslet array of the same f-number placed at the focal plane, thus obtaining at the detector a set of pupil images corresponding to every sampled point of view. This approach will generate a generalization of Shack-Hartmann, Curvature and Pyramid wavefront sensors in the sense that all those could be considered particular cases of the plenoptic wavefront sensor, because the information needed as the starting point for those sensors can be derived from the plenoptic image. Laboratory results obtained with extended objects, phase plates and commercial interferometers, and even telescope observations using stars and the Moon as an extended object are presented in the paper, clearly showing the capability of the plenoptic camera to behave as a wavefront sensor.

  9. Airborne sensor systems under development at the NASA/NSTL/Earth Resources Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James E.; Meeks, Gerald R.

    1988-01-01

    The operational characteristics of the Airborne Bathymetric System (ABS) MSS and the Airborne Multispectral Pushbroom Scanner (AMPS), which are currently being developed at NASA's Earth Resources Laboratory (ERL), are described. The ABS MSS system scans through a swath width of + or - 40 deg from nadir and the sensor incorporates onboard calibration references for the visible and short-wavelength IR channels. The AMPS uses five separate f/1.8 refractive telecentric lens systems, each incorporating nine optical elements, and a replaceable fixed bandwidth filter.

  10. Preliminary design of land displacement-optical fiber sensor and analysis of observation during laboratory and field test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayuwati, Dwi; Waluyo, Tomi B.; Widiyatmoko, Bambang

    2015-01-01

    An optical fiber optic sensor for detecting land displacement is discussed in this paper. The sensor system consists of a laser at wavelength 1.3 um, optical fiber coupler, optical fiber as sensor and light transmitting media, PIN photodiodedetector system, data logger and personal computer. Sensor was made from a curved optical fiber with diameter 35 mm, which will be changed into a heart-shape fiber if it is pulled. The heart-shape fiber sensor is the modification of the earlier displacement fiber sensor model which was in an ellipse form. Light to and from the optical fiber sensor was transmitted into a length of a multi core, single mode optical fiber cable. The scheme of the optical displacement sensor system has been described here. Characterization in the laboratory has been done by applying a series of pulling mechanism, on the heart-shape fiber sensor; which represents the land displacement process. Characterization in the field was carried out by mounting the sensor system on a scaled-down model of a land slope and artificially reproducing the landslide process using a steady-flow of artificial rainfall as the trigger. The voltage sensor output was recorded during the artificial landslide process. The displacement occurence can be indicated from the declining of the sensor signal received by the detector while the reference signal is steady. Characterization in the laboratory resulted in the performance of the optical fiber land displacement, namely, sensitivity 0.027(mV/mV)/mm, resolution 0.37 mm and measurement range 30 mm; compared with earlier optical fiber sensor performance with similar sensitivity and resolution which works only in 8 mm displacement range. Based on the experiment of landslides simulation in the field, we can define a critical condition in the real situation before landslides occurence to take any measures to prevent more casualties and losses.

  11. Laboratory in a box: wearable sensors and its advantages for gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Bijan; Khan, Tahir; Wrobel, James

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, many gait studies explored potential gait alteration due to various disorders in the gait lab and using camera based systems and force platforms. However, these strategies may not replicate normal outdoor walking. Using this equipment, it is more difficult to measure the variability of walking which is important for maintaining balance and responding to different walking challenges. Additionally, subjects may mask their problem or exaggerate it when they are walking in a short walking distance offered by laboratory based-technology. This study overviews some of the key advantages of wearable technology compared to laboratory-based instrument. Additionally, it explored gait patterns over ample distance of walking compared to walking distance restricted to a gait laboratory environment. Walking patterns of ten healthy young subjects were examined using a wearable sensor technology in a random order over a distance of 7 m, 14 m, and 20 m. Results suggest that participants walk significantly faster by increasing walking distance on average by 15% and 3% when walking distance was increased respectively from 7 m to 14 and from 14 m to 20 m (p<0.05). Interestingly despite a high test-retest reliability for averaged gait parameters (ICC>0.89), the test-retest reliability for gait variability was only acceptable during 20 m walking distance (ICC<0.3 for 7 m and 14 m v. ICC=0.65 for 20 m). Taken together, our findings indicate that for valid and reliable assessment of gait parameters, gait should be performed over ample walking distances. Body worn sensor technology facilitates assessing gait outside of a gait laboratory, over ample walking distance, different footwear condition, different walking surface, and in environment where mimics better true environment where the subject is active in. PMID:22255829

  12. Laboratory Validation of Inertial Body Sensors to Detect Cigarette Smoking Arm Movements

    PubMed Central

    Raiff, Bethany R.; Karataş, Çağdaş; McClure, Erin A.; Pompili, Dario; Walls, Theodore A.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Traditional in-clinic cessation interventions may fail to intervene and interrupt the rapid progression to relapse that typically occurs following a quit attempt. The ability to detect actual smoking behavior in real-time is a measurement challenge for health behavior research and intervention. The successful detection of real-time smoking through mobile health (mHealth) methodology has substantial implications for developing highly efficacious treatment interventions. The current study was aimed at further developing and testing the ability of inertial sensors to detect cigarette smoking arm movements among smokers. The current study involved four smokers who smoked six cigarettes each in a laboratory-based assessment. Participants were outfitted with four inertial body movement sensors on the arms, which were used to detect smoking events at two levels: the puff level and the cigarette level. Two different algorithms (Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Edge-Detection based learning) were trained to detect the features of arm movement sequences transmitted by the sensors that corresponded with each level. The results showed that performance of the SVM algorithm at the cigarette level exceeded detection at the individual puff level, with low rates of false positive puff detection. The current study is the second in a line of programmatic research demonstrating the proof-of-concept for sensor-based tracking of smoking, based on movements of the arm and wrist. This study demonstrates efficacy in a real-world clinical inpatient setting and is the first to provide a detection rate against direct observation, enabling calculation of true and false positive rates. The study results indicate that the approach performs very well with some participants, whereas some challenges remain with participants who generate more frequent non-smoking movements near the face. Future work may allow for

  13. The laboratory investigation of the innovative sensor for torsional effects in engineering structures' monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzych, A.; Kowalski, J. K.; Sakowicz, B.; Krajewski, Z.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to characterize the performance of an interferometric fibre sensor which has been designed in order to register rotational phenomena, both in seismological observatories and engineering constructions. It is based on a well-known Sagnac effect which enables to detect one-axis rotational motions in a direct way and without any reference system. The presented optical fibre sensor - FOSREM allows to measure a component of rotation in a wide range of signal amplitude form 10-8 rad/s to 10 rad/s, as well as frequency from 0 Hz to the upper frequency from 2.56 Hz to 328.12 Hz. The laboratory investigation of our system indicated that it keeps theoretical sensitivity equal to 2·10-8 rad/s/Hz1/2 and accuracy no less than 3·1-8 to 1.6·10-6 rad/s in the above mentioned frequency band. Moreover, system size that equals 0.36×0.36×0.16 m and opportunity to remotely control the system via Internet by special server make FOSREM a mobile and autonomous device.

  14. Laboratory design and test procedures for quantitative evaluation of infrared sensors to assess thermal anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.M.; Grot, R.A.; Wood, J.T.

    1985-06-01

    This report presents the description of the laboratory apparatus and preliminary results of the quantitative evaluation of three high-resolution and two low-resolution infrared imaging systems. These systems which are commonly used for building diagnostics are tested under various background temperatures (from -20/sup 0/C to 25/sup 0/C) for their minimum resolvable temperature differences (MRTD) at spatial frequencies from 0.03 to 0.25 cycles per milliradian. The calibration curves of absolute and differential temperature measurements are obtained for three systems. The signal transfer function and line spread function at ambient temperature of another three systems are also measured. Comparisons of the dependence of the MRTD on background temperatures from the measured data with the predicted values given in ASHRAE Standards 101-83 are also included. The dependence of background temperatures for absolute temperature measurements are presented, as well as comparison of measured data and data given by the manufacturer. Horizontal on-axis magnification factors of the geometric transfer function of two systems are also established to calibrate the horizontal axis for the measured line spread function to obtain the modulation transfer function. The variation of the uniformity for horizontal display of these two sensors are also observed. Included are detailed descriptions of laboratory design, equipment setup, and evaluation procedures of each test. 10 refs., 38 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. Laboratory and marine study of photoluminescent sensors of oxygen dissolved in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, V. L.; Konovalov, B. V.; Mosharov, V. E.; Radchenko, V. N.; Khanaev, S. A.; Khlebnikov, D. V.

    2010-02-01

    The laboratory and marine study of photoluminescent sensors developed at the TsAGI has been conducted to create a highly sensitivity gauge of the oxygen dissolved in seawater. The advantages of the photoluminescent gauge over the electrochemical ones are the following: zero sensitivity to electromagnetic fields, the pH of the water, and the hydrogen sulphide and ions of heavy metals in the water; zero oxygen consumption; and no need for the water to be pumped through the device. A breadboard model of the photoluminescent gauge with LED excitation of the luminescence has been built. The laboratory tests of the model demonstrated the accuracy of the gauge to be as high as 0.05 ml/1 in air at a response time of 0.3 s for 63% relaxation. Comparative field tests of the breadboard model and the SBE 43 electrochemical oxygen gauge (Sea-Bird Electronics Corp.) have shown good agreement of the estimates of the oxygen content in the water and clarified the prospects of model’s performance improvement.

  16. A laboratory study on a capacitive displacement sensor as an implant microphone in totally implant cochlear hearing aid systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Guo, Jun; Megerian, Cliff A; Young, Darrin J; Ko, Wen H

    2007-01-01

    A totally implant cochlear hearing aids system, integrating an implant microphone, interface electronics, a speech processor, a stimulator, and cochlear electrodes, can overcome the uncomfortable, inconvenient, and stigma problems associated with the conventional and semi-implantable hearing aids. This paper presents a laboratory feasibility study on the use of an electret condenser microphone (ECM) displacement sensor, serving as an implant microphone, and combined with a spring coupler to directly sense the umbo acoustic vibration. The umbo vibration characteristics were extracted from literature to determine the coupler and sensor requirements. A laboratory model was built to simulate the vibration source and experimentally study the transmission coefficient. Experimental data demonstrate that by using a 5 N/m stiffness spring, the umbo vibration amplitude as high as 67% can be transmitted to the sensor. Measurement of the sensor system on the temporal bone was also made. The minimum detectable sound pressure level (SPL) at 1 kHz is 41 and 67 dB for laboratory and 38 and 64 dB for temporal bone measurement for 1 and 388 Hz bandwidth, respectively. Better performance was achieved in a higher frequency. Results and analysis of this study can be used as a guideline for the future design of displacement sensors as implant microphones. PMID:18003304

  17. Gas sensor technology at Sandia National Laboratories: Catalytic gate, Surface Acoustic Wave and Fiber Optic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.C.; Moreno, D.J.; Jenkins, M.W.; Rodriguez, J.L.

    1993-10-01

    Sandia`s gas sensor program encompasses three separate electronic platforms: Acoustic Wave Devices, Fiber Optic Sensors and sensors based on silicon microelectronic devices. A review of most of these activities was presented recently in a article in Science under the title ``Chemical Microsensors.`` The focus of the program has been on understanding and developing the chemical sensor coatings that are necessary for using these electronic platforms as effective chemical sensors.

  18. Laboratory Gas Dynamic Measurements of the Comet Pressure Sensor COPS on the Rosetta Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzou, Chia-Yu; Altwegg, Kathrin; Gasc, Sébastien; Rubin, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Rosetta is part of the cornerstone missions executed by the European Space Agency (ESA). It is the first space mission to orbit and also land on a comet. By the end of July 2014 Rosetta will be able to carry out a close study of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) is one of the core payloads on board of the Rosetta spacecraft [Balsiger et al, 2007]. ROSINA's main objective is to determine the major atmospheric and ionospheric composition in the coma and to investigate the gas dynamics around the comet. ROSINA consists of two mass spectrometers and a pressure sensor. The Comet Pressure Sensor (COPS) is not only a pressure sensor but also plays the role of a safety instrument for Rosetta by providing high-density alerts to the other payload instruments. It includes two gauges: the "nude gauge" measures total neutral density in the coma and the "ram gauge" measures the dynamic pressure of the cometary gas flux to obtain the bulk velocity of the neutral gas. The combination of these two gauges makes COPS capable to derive the gas dynamics in the coma. We recently performed laboratory gas dynamic measurements with the identical flight-spare instrument of COPS. Using the Calibration System for The Mass Spectrometer Instrument ROSINA (CASYMIR) we produce neutral gas beams to model cometary gas jets with velocities from thermal to 2 km/s. For COPS calibration we measure gas beams with different incident angles to derive the velocity and the temperature of the gas using different mixtures expected at the comet. We demonstrate that COPS will be ready for the prime mission and it will be fascinating to compare COPS measurements with numerous observation results and computer models starting in summer 2014 to gain new insights into the gas dynamics around a comet. Reference: Balsiger, H. et al.: ROSINA-Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis, Space Science Reviews, Vol. 128, 745-801, 2007.

  19. An Architecture for Real-Time Interpretation and Visualization of Structural Sensor Data in a Laboratory Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, William; Vazquez, Sixto

    2000-01-01

    A visualization system is being developed out of the need to monitor, interpret, and make decisions based on the information from several thousand sensors during experimental testing to facilitate development and validation of structural health monitoring algorithms. As an added benefit the system will enable complete real-time sensor assessment of complex test specimens. Complex structural specimens are routinely tested that have hundreds or thousands of sensors. During a test, it is impossible for a single researcher to effectively monitor all the sensors and subsequently interesting phenomena occur that are not recognized until post-test analysis. The ability to detect and alert the researcher to these unexpected phenomena as the test progresses will significantly enhance the understanding and utilization of complex test articles. Utilization is increased by the ability to halt a test when the health monitoring algorithm response is not satisfactory or when an unexpected phenomenon occurs, enabling focused investigation potentially through the installation of additional sensors. Often if the test continues, structural changes make it impossible to reproduce the conditions that exhibited the phenomena. The prohibitive time and costs associated with fabrication, sensoring, and subsequent testing of additional test articles generally makes it impossible to further investigate the phenomena. A scalable architecture is described to address the complex computational demands of structural health monitoring algorithm development and laboratory experimental test monitoring. The researcher monitors the test using a photographic quality 3D graphical model with actual sensor locations identified. In addition, researchers can quickly activate plots displaying time or load versus selected sensor response along with the expected values and predefined limits. The architecture has several key features. First, distributed dissimilar computers may be seamlessly integrated into the

  20. Construction and laboratory test of a fibre optic sensor for rotational events recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzych, Anna; Krajewski, Zbigniew; Kowalski, Jerzy K.; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.

    2016-05-01

    We present a novel and technically advanced system - Fibre-Optic System for Rotational Events & Phenomena Monitoring (FOSREM). It has been designed in order to register and monitor rotational events in seismological observatories, engineering constructions, mines and even on glaciers and in their vicinity. Its wide application field is a result of unique parameters and electronic solutions which give an opportunity to measure a component of rotation in the wide range of a signal amplitude from 10-8 rad/s to 10 rad/s, as well as a frequency from 0 Hz to the upper frequency between 2.56 Hz to 328.12 Hz. Moreover, the numerical analysis and simulations indicate that it keeps the theoretical sensitivity equal to 2·10-8 rad/s/Hz1/2. FOSREM is equipped with an advanced communication module which gives the possibility for a remote detection parameter control, as well as the recorded data receiving. It enables the sensor to assemble in any chosen place. In the paper we present laboratory investigations and tests which confirm the wide application field and practical aspects of FOSREM.

  1. Alternative catalyst and exhaust gas sensor work at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Iton, L.E.; Maroni, V.A.; Dieckman, S.L.; Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.

    1994-12-31

    Research programs at Argonne National Laboratory in the areas of automobile emissions monitoring and control are described. The mandate to improve automobile efficiency while reducing Pollution requires the development of new catalysts for exhaust emissions control that are capable of functioning efficiently under lean-burn engine operating conditions. It is also desirable that the use of expensive noble metal catalysts be avoided. NO{sub x} emissions will not be efficiently controlled by the current three-way, supported noble metal catalysts under lean-burn conditions. New catalysts are being sought that could effect the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} by exhaust hydrocarbons in the presence of oxygen. Molecular sieve zeolites of the ZSM-5 and ferrierite types, ion-exchanged with copper ions, are the best of the catalysts known to effect this chemistry, but the mechanism of the SCR is still not understood. In this project the authors will first undertake the investigation of the SCR of NO using model reactions to test postulated mechanistic pathways. Initial experiments have been devised to investigate the possible participation of metal alkyl complexes, metal oxime complexes, N-alkyl-N-nitroso-alkylaminato-metal complexes, and metal nitrile complexes in the zeolites. ANL will also develop microsensors, based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) chemical sensing techniques, and a micro mass-spectrometer (MS) for tailpipe or engine-out emission monitoring. The sensor configurations and sensing techniques of the proposed SAW and micro-MS are described.

  2. The design of a broadband ocean acoustic laboratory: detailed examination of vector sensor performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Robert; Silvia, Manuel; Cray, Benjamin A.

    2006-05-01

    Acoustic vector sensors measure the acoustic pressure and three orthogonal components of the acoustic particle acceleration at a single point in space. These sensors, and arrays composed of them, have a number of advantages over traditional hydrophone arrays. This includes full azimuth/elevation angle estimation, even with a single sensor. It is of interest to see how in-water vector sensor performance matches theoretical bounds. A series of experiments designed to characterize the performance of vector sensors operating in shallow water was conducted to assess sensor mounting techniques, and evaluate the sensor's ability to measure bearing and elevation angles to a source as a function of waveform characteristics and signal-to-noise ratio.

  3. SALT segmented primary mirror: laboratory test results for FOGALE inductive edge sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzies, John; Gajjar, Hitesh; Buous, Sébastien; Buckley, David; Gillingham, Peter

    2010-07-01

    At the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), in collaboration with FOGALE Nanotech, we have been testing the recently-developed new generation inductive edge sensors. The Fogale inductive sensor is one technology being evaluated as a possible replacement for the now defunct capacitance-based edge sensing system. We present the results of exhaustive environmental testing of two variants of the inductive sensor. In addition to the environmental testing including RH and temperature cycles, the sensor was tested for sensitivity to dust and metals. We also consider long-term sensor stability, as well as that of the electronics and of the glue used to bond the sensor to its supporting structure. A prototype design for an adjustable mount is presented which will allow for in-plane gap and shear variations present in the primary mirror configuration without adversely disturbing the figure of the individual mirror segments or the measurement accuracy.

  4. The Effect of Surface Emissivity on Mars Science Laboratory Ground Temperature Sensor Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, V. E.; Martín-Torres, F. J.; Zorzano-Mier, M.; Martinez Frías, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS) is part of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) contributed by Spain to the Mars Science Laboratory rover mission. The purpose of REMS is to characterize the thermal environment, ultraviolet irradiation, and water cycling at the near-surface of Mars. Here we evaluate the effect of surface emissivity on the temperatures that will be measured by the GTS. The GTS is comprised of three thermopiles mounted on a boom located on the MSL Remote Sensing Mast; the thermopiles observe an area ~100 m2 to the side of the rover (60° horizontal, 40° vertical). Ground temperature will be measured over the full range (~150 - 300 K) expected over the nominal one (Martian) year mission with a resolution of 2 K and an absolute accuracy of better than 10 K. Each thermopile has a filter with average ~75% transmittance and sensitive to specific broadband thermal infrared regions on either side of the atmospheric CO2 absorption (~8 - 14 μm and ~15 - 19 μm) and centered on it (~14.5 - 15.5 μm). The surface's radiant energy, as measured by the thermopiles, is reduced by the emissivity of the surface observed (i.e., it is not a blackbody), and will underestimate of surface kinetic temperature if emissivity is not known or estimated. Prior work with laboratory samples has shown variations in the emissivities of synthetic mixtures of Mars-analogue materials [1]. [2] used general assumptions about the emissivity of targets observed by the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer to suggest that emissivity-related errors of ~12 K are possible for a 300 K surface. We are augmenting these studies by establishing the retrieved temperature errors over the full range of temperatures REMS should see (~150 - 300 K) using a range of Mini-TES spectra that include: strongly absorbing rocks, rocks having compositions that have not been evaluated previously (e.g., carbonate-bearing), more weakly absorbing soils and dust, atmospheric CO2 in absorption and

  5. Implementing the Mars Science Laboratory Terminal Descent Sensor Field Test Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, James F.; Bodie, James H.; Brown, Joseph D.; Chen, Allen; Chen, Curtis W.; Essmiller, John C.; Fisher, Charles D.; Goldberg, Hannah R.; Lee, Steven W.; Shaffer, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will deliver a 900 kg rover to the surface of Mars in August 2012. MSL will utilize a new pulse-Doppler landing radar, the Terminal Descent Sensor (TDS). The TDS employs six narrow-beam antennas to provide unprecedented slant range and velocity performance at Mars to enable soft touchdown of the MSL rover using a unique sky crane Entry, De-scent, and Landing (EDL) technique. Prior to use on MSL, the TDS was put through a rigorous verification and validation (V&V) process. A key element of this V&V was operating the TDS over a series of field tests, using flight-like profiles expected during the descent and landing of MSL over Mars-like terrain on Earth. Limits of TDS performance were characterized with additional testing meant to stress operational modes outside of the expected EDL flight profiles. The flight envelope over which the TDS must operate on Mars encompasses such a large range of altitudes and velocities that a variety of venues were neces-sary to cover the test space. These venues included an F/A-18 high performance aircraft, a Eurocopter AS350 AStar helicopter and 100-meter tall Echo Towers at the China Lake Naval Air Warfare Center. Testing was carried out over a five year period from July 2006 to June 2011. TDS performance was shown, in gen-eral, to be excellent over all venues. This paper describes the planning, design, and implementation of the field test campaign plus results and lessons learned.

  6. Multielement microelectrode array sensors and compact instrumentation development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.S.; Balazs, G.B.; Ciarlo, D.R.; Hargrove, D.L.

    1994-08-01

    The increasing emphasis on environmental issues, waste reduction, and improved efficiency for industrial processes has spurred the development of new chemical sensors for field, or in-plant use. Specifically, sensors are needed to gauge the effectiveness of remediation efforts for sites which have become contaminated, to effect waste minimization, and to detect the presence of toxic, hazardous, or otherwise regulated chemicals in waste effluents, drinking water, and other environmental systems. In this regard, electrochemical sensors are particularly useful for the measurement of inorganics in aqueous systems. Electrochemical sensors have the attractive features of high sensitivity, low cost, small size, versatility of use, and are capable of stand-alone operation. This paper reviews our work on the development of microelectrode array sensors and user-friendly, compact instrumentation which we have developed for environmental and process control applications.

  7. Non-Invasive Optical Sensor Based Approaches for Monitoring Virus Culture to Minimize BSL3 Laboratory Entry.

    PubMed

    Ragupathy, Viswanath; Setty, Mohan Kumar Hayuri Giri; Kostov, Yordan; Ge, Xudong; Uplekar, Shaunak; Hewlett, Indira; Rao, Govind

    2015-01-01

    High titers of infectious viruses for vaccine and diagnostic reference panel development are made by infecting susceptible mammalian cells. Laboratory procedures are strictly performed in a Bio-Safety Level-3 (BSL3) laboratory and each entry and exit involves the use of  disposable Personnel Protective Equipment (PPE) to observe cell culture conditions. Routine PPE use involves significant recurring costs. Alternative non-invasive optical sensor based approaches to remotely monitor cell culture may provide a promising and cost effective approach to monitor infectious virus cultures resulting in lower disruption and costs. We report here the monitoring of high titer cultures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) and Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) remotely with the use of optical oxygen sensors aseptically placed inside the cell culture vessel. The replacement of culture media for cell and virus propagation and virus load monitoring was effectively performed using this fluorescent sensor and resulted in half the number of visits to the BSL3 lab (five versus ten). PMID:26115456

  8. Automated Rendezvous and Docking Sensor Testing at the Flight Robotics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Williamson, Marlin L.; Johnston, Albert S.; Brewster, Linda L.; Mitchell, Jennifer D.; Cryan, Scott P.; Strack, David; Key, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Architecture defines missions that require rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) of two spacecraft both in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and in Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). Uncrewed spacecraft must perform automated and/or autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations and docking operations (commonly known as Automated Rendezvous and Docking, (AR&D).) The crewed versions of the spacecraft may also perform AR&D, possibly with a different level of automation and/or autonomy, and must also provide the crew with relative navigation information for manual piloting. The capabilities of the RPOD sensors are critical to the success of the Exploration Program. NASA has the responsibility to determine whether the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) contractor-proposed relative navigation sensor suite will meet the CEV requirements. The relatively low technology readiness of relative navigation sensors for AR&D has been carried as one of the CEV Projects top risks. The AR&D Sensor Technology Project seeks to reduce this risk by increasing technology maturation of selected relative navigation sensor technologies through testing and simulation, and to allow the CEV Project to assess the relative navigation sensors.

  9. Automated Rendezvous and Docking Sensor Testing at the Flight Robotics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J.; Johnston, A.; Howard, R.; Williamson, M.; Brewster, L.; Strack, D.; Cryan, S.

    2007-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Architecture defines missions that require rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) of two spacecraft both in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and in Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). Uncrewed spacecraft must perform automated and/or autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations and docking operations (commonly known as Automated Rendezvous and Docking, AR&D). The crewed versions may also perform AR&D, possibly with a different level of automation and/or autonomy, and must also provide the crew with relative navigation information for manual piloting. The capabilities of the RPOD sensors are critical to the success of the Exploration Program. NASA has the responsibility to determine whether the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) contractor-proposed relative navigation sensor suite will meet the CEV requirements. The relatively low technology readiness of relative navigation sensors for AR&D has been carried as one of the CEV Projects top risks. The AR&D Sensor Technology Project seeks to reduce this risk by increasing technology maturation of selected relative navigation sensor technologies through testing and simulation, and to allow the CEV Project to assess the relative navigation sensors.

  10. Laboratory Validation of Two Wearable Sensor Systems for Measuring Head Impact Severity in Football Players.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Gunter P; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Marshall, Stephen W; DeMarco, Alyssa L; Bonin, Stephanie J

    2016-04-01

    Wearable sensors can measure head impact frequency and magnitude in football players. Our goal was to quantify the impact detection rate and validity of the direction and peak kinematics of two wearable sensors: a helmet system (HITS) and a mouthguard system (X2). Using a linear impactor, modified Hybrid-III headform and one helmet model, we conducted 16 impacts for each system at 12 helmet sites and 5 speeds (3.6-11.2 m/s) (N = 896 tests). Peak linear and angular accelerations (PLA, PAA), head injury criteria (HIC) and impact directions from each device were compared to reference sensors in the headform. Both sensors detected ~96% of impacts. Median angular errors for impact directions were 34° for HITS and 16° for X2. PLA, PAA and HIC were simultaneously valid at 2 sites for HITS (side, oblique) and one site for X2 (side). At least one kinematic parameter was valid at 2 and 7 other sites for HITS and X2 respectively. Median relative errors for PLA were 7% for HITS and -7% for X2. Although sensor validity may differ for other helmets and headforms, our analyses show that data generated by these two sensors need careful interpretation. PMID:26268586

  11. Soil Water Content Sensor Response to Organic Matter Content under Laboratory Conditions.

    PubMed

    Fares, Ali; Awal, Ripendra; Bayabil, Haimanote K

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that the performance of soil water content monitoring (SWCM) sensors is affected by soil physical and chemical properties. However, the effect of organic matter on SWCM sensor responses remains less understood. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to (i) assess the effect of organic matter on the accuracy and precision of SWCM sensors using a commercially available soil water content monitoring sensor; and (ii) account for the organic matter effect on the sensor's accuracy. Sand columns with seven rates of oven-dried sawdust (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, 12% and 18% v/v, used as an organic matter amendment), thoroughly mixed with quartz sand, and a control without sawdust were prepared by packing quartz sand in two-liter glass containers. Sand was purposely chosen because of the absence of any organic matter or salinity, and also because sand has a relatively low cation exchange capacity that will not interfere with the treatment effect of the current work. Sensor readings (raw counts) were monitored at seven water content levels (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, and 0.30 cm³ cm(-3)) by uniformly adding the corresponding volumes of deionized water in addition to the oven-dry one. Sensor readings were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the organic matter level and water content. Sensor readings were strongly correlated with the organic matter level (R² = 0.92). In addition, the default calibration equation underestimated the water content readings at the lower water content range (<0.05 cm³ cm(-3)), while it overestimated the water content at the higher water content range (>0.05 cm³ cm(-3)). A new polynomial calibration equation that uses raw count and organic matter content as covariates improved the accuracy of the sensor (RMSE = 0.01 cm³ cm(-3)). Overall, findings of this study highlight the need to account for the effect of soil organic matter content to improve the accuracy and precision of the tested sensor under different soils and

  12. Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries (including shape characterization). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Pendse, H.P.; Goetz, P.J.; Sharma, A.; Han, W; Bliss, T.C.

    1996-10-01

    The overall goal of the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) sensor projects was to develop and commercialize a sensor system capable of particle analysis, in terms of size distributions, using concentrated suspensions at high solids concentrations. The early research was focused on application of ultrasonic spectroscopy of inorganic pigment slurries (e.g. titanium dioxide) commonly encountered on paper industry. During the project prototypes were tested in both academic and industrial laboratories. Work also involved successful field tests of the on-line prototype at a pigment manufacturing facility. Pen Kem continued the work at its cost beyond the initial funded period from March `92 to September `94. The first project (DE- FC05-88CE40684), which began in September 1988, culminated in a commercial laboratory instrument, Pen Kem AcoustoPhor {trademark} 8000, put on the market in June 1993. The follow-on project was aimed at investigation of shape and orientation effects on ultrasonic spectroscopy. A new cooperative agreement was awarded in September 1994 (DE-FC05-94CE40005) to develop shape characterization capabilities deemed critical by the clay industry. This follow-on project achieved following successes: A theoretical model was developed to account for the effects of size-dependent aspect ratios of spheroid particles under different orientations on ultrasound attenuation spectra of concentrated slurries. The theoretical model was confirmed by laboratory tests on kaolin slurries. An algorithm was developed to simulate evolution of particle orientation fields in simple squeezing flows.

  13. The AOLI low-order non-linear curvature wavefront sensor: laboratory and on-sky results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crass, Jonathan; King, David; MacKay, Craig

    2014-08-01

    Many adaptive optics (AO) systems in use today require the use of bright reference objects to determine the effects of atmospheric distortions. Typically these systems use Shack-Hartmann Wavefront sensors (SHWFS) to distribute incoming light from a reference object between a large number of sub-apertures. Guyon et al. evaluated the sensitivity of several different wavefront sensing techniques and proposed the non-linear Curvature Wavefront Sensor (nlCWFS) offering improved sensitivity across a range of orders of distortion. On large ground-based telescopes this can provide nearly 100% sky coverage using natural guide stars. We present work being undertaken on the nlCWFS development for the Adaptive Optics Lucky Imager (AOLI) project. The wavefront sensor is being developed as part of a low-order adaptive optics system for use in a dedicated instrument providing an AO corrected beam to a Lucky Imaging based science detector. The nlCWFS provides a total of four reference images on two photon-counting EMCCDs for use in the wavefront reconstruction process. We present results from both laboratory work using a calibration system and the first on-sky data obtained with the nlCWFS at the 4.2 metre William Herschel Telescope, La Palma. In addition, we describe the updated optical design of the wavefront sensor, strategies for minimising intrinsic effects and methods to maximise sensitivity using photon-counting detectors. We discuss on-going work to develop the high speed reconstruction algorithm required for the nlCWFS technique. This includes strategies to implement the technique on graphics processing units (GPUs) and to minimise computing overheads to obtain a prior for a rapid convergence of the wavefront reconstruction. Finally we evaluate the sensitivity of the wavefront sensor based upon both data and low-photon count strategies.

  14. Metrology with Atom Interferometry: Inertial Sensors from Laboratory to Field Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, B.; Dutta, I.; Gillot, P.; Savoie, D.; Lautier, J.; Cheng, B.; Garrido Alzar, C. L.; Geiger, R.; Merlet, S.; Pereira Dos Santos, F.; Landragin, A.

    2016-06-01

    Developments in atom interferometry have led to atomic inertial sensors with extremely high sensitivity. Their performances are for the moment limited by the ground vibrations, the impact of which is exacerbated by the sequential operation, resulting in aliasing and dead time. We discuss several experiments performed at LNE-SYRTE in order to reduce these problems and achieve the intrinsic limit of atomic inertial sensors. These techniques have resulted in transportable and high-performance instruments that participate in gravity measurements, and pave the way to applications in inertial navigation.

  15. Laboratory wind tunnel testing of three commonly used saltation impact sensors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electronic sensors that record individual impacts from saltating particles are used with increasing frequency in wind erosion field studies. Little is known about the limitations of these instruments or comparability of data collected with them. We tested the three most commonly used Saltation Imp...

  16. Laboratory and testbeam results for thin and epitaxial planar sensors for HL-LHC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bubna, M.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Shipsey, I.; Manfra, M.; Khan, K.; Arndt, K.; Hinton, N.; Godshalk, A.; Kumar, A.; et al

    2015-08-03

    The High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade of the CMS pixel detector will require the development of novel pixel sensors which can withstand the increase in instantaneous luminosity to L = 5 × 1034 cm–2s–1 and collect ~ 3000fb–1 of data. The innermost layer of the pixel detector will be exposed to doses of about 1016 neq/ cm2. Hence, new pixel sensors with improved radiation hardness need to be investigated. A variety of silicon materials (Float-zone, Magnetic Czochralski and Epitaxially grown silicon), with thicknesses from 50 μm to 320 μm in p-type and n-type substrates have been fabricated using single-sided processing. The effect ofmore » reducing the sensor active thickness to improve radiation hardness by using various techniques (deep diffusion, wafer thinning, or growing epitaxial silicon on a handle wafer) has been studied. Furthermore, the results for electrical characterization, charge collection efficiency, and position resolution of various n-on-p pixel sensors with different substrates and different pixel geometries (different bias dot gaps and pixel implant sizes) will be presented.« less

  17. Laboratory and testbeam results for thin and epitaxial planar sensors for HL-LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Bubna, M.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Shipsey, I.; Manfra, M.; Khan, K.; Arndt, K.; Hinton, N.; Godshalk, A.; Kumar, A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Chramowicz, J.; Lei, C. M.; Prosser, A.; Rivera, R.; Uplegger, L.; Vetere, Maurizio Lo; Robutti, Enrico; Ferro, Fabrizio; Ravera, Fabio; Costa, Marco

    2015-08-03

    The High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade of the CMS pixel detector will require the development of novel pixel sensors which can withstand the increase in instantaneous luminosity to L = 5 × 1034 cm–2s–1 and collect ~ 3000fb–1 of data. The innermost layer of the pixel detector will be exposed to doses of about 1016 neq/ cm2. Hence, new pixel sensors with improved radiation hardness need to be investigated. A variety of silicon materials (Float-zone, Magnetic Czochralski and Epitaxially grown silicon), with thicknesses from 50 μm to 320 μm in p-type and n-type substrates have been fabricated using single-sided processing. The effect of reducing the sensor active thickness to improve radiation hardness by using various techniques (deep diffusion, wafer thinning, or growing epitaxial silicon on a handle wafer) has been studied. Furthermore, the results for electrical characterization, charge collection efficiency, and position resolution of various n-on-p pixel sensors with different substrates and different pixel geometries (different bias dot gaps and pixel implant sizes) will be presented.

  18. Laboratory and testbeam results for thin and epitaxial planar sensors for HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubna, M.; Bortoletto, D.; Bolla, G.; Shipsey, I.; Manfra, M. J.; Khan, K.; Arndt, K.; Hinton, N.; Godshalk, A.; Kumar, A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Chramowicz, J.; Lei, C. M.; Prosser, A.; Rivera, R.; Uplegger, L.; Lo Vetere, M.; Robutti, E.; Ferro, F.; Ravera, F.; Costa, Marco

    2015-08-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade of the CMS pixel detector will require the development of novel pixel sensors which can withstand the increase in instantaneous luminosity to L=5×1034 cm-2s-1 and collect ~ 3000 fb-1 of data. The innermost layer of the pixel detector will be exposed to doses of about 1016 neq/ cm2. Hence, new pixel sensors with improved radiation hardness need to be investigated. A variety of silicon materials (Float-zone, Magnetic Czochralski and Epitaxially grown silicon), with thicknesses from 50 μm to 320 μm in p-type and n-type substrates have been fabricated using single-sided processing. The effect of reducing the sensor active thickness to improve radiation hardness by using various techniques (deep diffusion, wafer thinning, or growing epitaxial silicon on a handle wafer) has been studied. The results for electrical characterization, charge collection efficiency, and position resolution of various n-on-p pixel sensors with different substrates and different pixel geometries (different bias dot gaps and pixel implant sizes) will be presented.

  19. Sensor Based Process Control (SBPC) Laboratories Directed Research and Development (LDRD)

    SciTech Connect

    Wronosky, J.B.

    1993-03-01

    This report describes the activities and results of an LDRD entitled Sensor Based Process Control. This research examined the needs of the plating industry for monitor and control capabilities with particular emphasis on water effluent from rinse baths. A personal computer-based monitor and control development system was used as a test bed.

  20. A Gas-Sensor-Based Urea Enzyme Electrode: Its Construction and Use in the Undergraduate Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riechel, Thomas L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate experiment for the potentiometric determination of urea based on the physical entrapment of urease on the tip of an ammonia gas sensor. An advantage of this technique is the ease with which the ammonia electrode can be converted to a urea electrode. (JN)

  1. Laboratory and field performance of FOS sensors in static and dynamic strain monitoring in concrete bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmokrane, B.; Debaiky, A.; El-Ragaby, A.; Roy, R.; El-Gamal, S.; El-Salakawy, E.

    2006-03-01

    There is a growing need for designing and constructing innovative concrete bridges using FRP reinforcing bars as internal reinforcement to avoid the corrosion problems and high costs of maintenance and repair. For efficient use and to increase the lifetime of these bridges, it is important to develop efficient monitoring systems for such innovative structures. Fabry-Perot and Bragg fibre optic sensors (FOS) that can measure the strains and temperature are promising candidates for life-long health monitoring of these structures. This article reports laboratory and field performance of Fabry-Perot and Bragg FOS sensors as well as electrical strain gauges in static and dynamic strain monitoring in concrete bridge decks. The laboratory tests include tensile testing of glass FRP bars and testing of full-scale concrete bridge deck slabs reinforced with glass and carbon FRP bars under static and cyclic concentrated loads. The field tests include static and dynamic testing of two bridges reinforced with steel and glass FRP bars. The obtained strain results showed satisfactory agreement between the different gauges.

  2. First evidence of phase-contrast imaging with laboratory sources and active pixel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivo, A.; Arvanitis, C. D.; Bohndiek, S. E.; Clark, A. T.; Prydderch, M.; Turchetta, R.; Speller, R. D.

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the present work is to achieve a first step towards combining the advantages of an innovative X-ray imaging technique—phase-contrast imaging (XPCi)—with those of a new class of sensors, i.e. CMOS-based active pixel sensors (APSs). The advantages of XPCi are well known and include increased image quality and detection of details invisible to conventional techniques, with potential application fields encompassing the medical, biological, industrial and security areas. Vanilla, one of the APSs developed by the MI-3 collaboration (see http://mi3.shef.ac.uk), was thoroughly characterised and an appropriate scintillator was selected to provide X-ray sensitivity. During this process, a set of phase-contrast images of different biological samples was acquired by means of the well-established free-space propagation XPCi technique. The obtained results are very encouraging and are in optimum agreement with the predictions of a simulation recently developed by some of the authors thus further supporting its reliability. This paper presents these preliminary results in detail and discusses in brief both the background to this work and its future developments.

  3. Sensor and numerical simulator evaluation for porous medium desiccation and rewetting at the intermediate laboratory scale

    SciTech Connect

    Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Truex, Michael J.

    2012-02-01

    Soil desiccation, in conjunction with surface infiltration control, is considered at the Hanford Site as a potential technology to limit the flux of technetium and other contaminants in the vadose zone to the groundwater. An intermediate-scale experiment was conducted to test the response of a series of instruments to desiccation and subsequent rewetting of porous media. The instruments include thermistors, thermocouple psychrometers, dual-probe heat pulse sensors, heat dissipation units, and humidity probes. The experiment was simulated with the multifluid flow simulator STOMP, using independently obtained hydraulic and thermal porous medium properties. All instrument types used for this experiment were able to indicate when the desiccation front passed a certain location. In most cases the changes were sharp, indicating rapid changes in moisture content, water potential, or humidity. However, a response to the changing conditions was recorded only when the drying front was very close to a sensor. Of the tested instruments, only the heat dissipation unit and humidity probes were able to detect rewetting. The numerical simulation results reasonably match the experimental data, indicating that the simulator captures the pertinent gas flow and transport processes related to desiccation and rewetting and may be useful in the design and analysis of field tests.

  4. Integration and laboratory characterization of the ARGOS laser guide star wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busoni, Lorenzo; Bonaglia, Marco; Carbonaro, Luca; Mazzoni, Tommaso; Antichi, Jacopo; Esposito, Simone; Orban De Xivry, Gilles; Rabien, Sebastian

    2013-12-01

    The integration status of the ARGOS wavefront sensors is presented. ARGOS is the laser guide star AO program for the LBT. It will implement a Ground Layer AO correction for the instruments LUCI, an infrared imaging and spectrograph camera, using 3 pulsed low-altitudes Rayleigh beacons for each LBT's eye. It profits of the LBT's adaptive secondary mirrors and of FLAO's pyramid unit for NGS sensing. Each LGS is independently stabilized for on-sky jitter and range-gated using custom Pockels cells and then sensed by a 15x15 SH sensor. The 3 pupil images are reimaged on a single lenslet array and a single detector. In the WFS are also installed 3 patrol cameras for the acquisition of the laser beacons, a system for the stabilization of the pupil images on the lenslet array and an internal source for calibration purposes. The two units are now completing the integration phase in Arcetri premises. We describe the characterization of the units and the closed-loop test realized using a deformable MEMS mirror.

  5. Cardiorespiratory fitness estimation using wearable sensors: Laboratory and free-living analysis of context-specific submaximal heart rates.

    PubMed

    Altini, Marco; Casale, Pierluigi; Penders, Julien; Ten Velde, Gabrielle; Plasqui, Guy; Amft, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we propose to use pattern recognition methods to determine submaximal heart rate (HR) during specific contexts, such as walking at a certain speed, using wearable sensors in free living, and using context-specific HR to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). CRF of 51 participants was assessed by a maximal exertion test (V̇o2 max). Participants wore a combined accelerometer and HR monitor during a laboratory-based simulation of activities of daily living and for 2 wk in free living. Anthropometrics, HR while lying down, and walking at predefined speeds in laboratory settings were used to estimate CRF. Explained variance (R(2)) was 0.64 for anthropometrics, and increased up to 0.74 for context-specific HR (0.73-0.78 when including fat-free mass). Next, we developed activity recognition and walking speed estimation algorithms to determine the same contexts (i.e., lying down and walking) in free living. Context-specific HR in free living was highly correlated with laboratory measurements (Pearson's r = 0.71-0.75). R(2) for CRF estimation was 0.65 when anthropometrics were used as predictors, and increased up to 0.77 when including free-living context-specific HR (i.e., HR while walking at 5.5 km/h). R(2) varied between 0.73 and 0.80 when including fat-free mass among the predictors. Root mean-square error was reduced from 354.7 to 281.0 ml/min by the inclusion of context-specific HR parameters (21% error reduction). We conclude that pattern recognition techniques can be used to contextualize HR in free living and estimated CRF with accuracy comparable to what can be obtained with laboratory measurements of HR response to walking. PMID:26940653

  6. New DAG and cAMP Sensors Optimized for Live-Cell Assays in Automated Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Tewson, Paul H.; Martinka, Scott; Shaner, Nathan C.; Hughes, Thomas E.; Quinn, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Protein-based, fluorescent biosensors power basic research on cell signaling in health and disease, but their use in automated laboratories is limited. We have now created two live-cell assays, one for diacyl glycerol and another for cAMP, that are robust (Z′ > 0.7) and easily deployed on standard fluorescence plate readers. We describe the development of these assays, focusing on the parameters that were critical for optimization, in the hopes that the lessons learned can be generalized to the development of new biosensor-based assays. PMID:26657040

  7. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF A MICROFLUIDIC ELECTROCHEMICAL SENSOR FOR AEROSOL OXIDATIVE LOAD

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Kirsten; Shapiro, Jeffrey; Sameenoi, Yupaporn; Henry, Charles; Volckens, John

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution is associated with human morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms by which PM impacts human health are unresolved, but evidence suggests that PM intake leads to cellular oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, reliable tools are needed for estimating the oxidant generating capacity, or oxidative load, of PM at high temporal resolution (minutes to hours). One of the most widely reported methods for assessing PM oxidative load is the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. The traditional DTT assay utilizes filter-based PM collection in conjunction with chemical analysis to determine the oxidation rate of reduced DTT in solution with PM. However, the traditional DTT assay suffers from poor time resolution, loss of reactive species during sampling, and high limit of detection. Recently, a new DTT assay was developed that couples a Particle-Into-Liquid-Sampler with microfluidic-electrochemical detection. This ‘on-line’ system allows high temporal resolution monitoring of PM reactivity with improved detection limits. This study reports on a laboratory comparison of the traditional and on-line DTT approaches. An urban dust sample was aerosolized in a laboratory test chamber at three atmospherically-relevant concentrations. The on-line system gave a stronger correlation between DTT consumption rate and PM mass (R2 = 0.69) than the traditional method (R2 = 0.40) and increased precision at high temporal resolution, compared to the traditional method. PMID:24711675

  8. Integration of a sensor based multiple robot environment for space applications: The Johnson Space Center Teleoperator Branch Robotics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, James; Campbell, Perry; Ross, Mike; Price, Charles R.; Barron, Don

    1989-01-01

    An integrated operating environment was designed to incorporate three general purpose robots, sensors, and end effectors, including Force/Torque Sensors, Tactile Array sensors, Tactile force sensors, and Force-sensing grippers. The design and implementation of: (1) the teleoperation of a general purpose PUMA robot; (2) an integrated sensor hardware/software system; (3) the force-sensing gripper control; (4) the host computer system for dual Robotic Research arms; and (5) the Ethernet integration are described.

  9. Testing of the OBO Bettermann Peak Current Sensor System for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schoene, J; Uman, M A; Aurele, M; Rambo, K J; Jerauld, J E; Schnetzer, G

    2005-01-10

    During summer 2004 we studied the reliability of the OBO Bettermann peak current sensor (PCS) monitoring system - (1) credit card-type cards with magnetic strips and (2) a card reader. Three methods were used to generate current for testing the PCS system: (1) a Keytek current generator (2) a capacitor discharge, and (3) rocket triggered lightning. The data obtained from the cards were compared with oscilloscope measurements of the generated currents. Additionally, we tested for nearby natural and nearby rocket triggered lightning by placing cards on an airport runway lighting system lightning-protection counterpoise, on power line grounds, and on the lightning-protection system of an explosive storage igloo at Camp Blanding Army National Guard Base. In all experiments exposed cards were read multiple times to test the consistency of the measurement. Each card read zero before each experiment. The Keytek current generator produced a maximum peak current of 5 kA which was unrecorded by the PCS system despite the OBO Bettermann claim that currents larger than 3 kA could be recorded. Three cards were exposed to triggered lightning current and gave proper results (the PCS card measurement deviated less than +- 2 kA from the peak current value measured by research equipment). Cards exposed to the current of the capacitor discharge, which was initiated by triggering a spark gap, generally yielded current readings about four times higher than the actual value, but proper readings were observed with some card orientations and locations. Two of the 7 cards tested with the Keytek and 4 of the 17 cards placed on the explosive storage igloo and on the runway counterpoise yielded non-zero current on some readings and zero current on other readings, while all other cards in those locations produced zero current for all readings of the card. The cause of the apparently erroneously high current readings on the cards used in the capacitor discharge experiments is not understood

  10. Lyot-based low order wavefront sensor: implementation on the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics System and its laboratory performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Garima; Guyon, Olivier; Baudoz, Pierre; Jovanovich, Nemanja; Martinache, Frantz; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Serabyn, Eugene; Kuhn, Jonas G.

    2014-08-01

    High throughput, low inner working angle (IWA) phase masks coronagraphs are essential to directly image and characterize (via spectroscopy) earth-like planets. However, the performance of low-IWA coronagraphs is limited by residual pointing errors and other low-order modes. The extent to which wavefront aberrations upstream of the coronagraph are corrected and calibrated drives coronagraphic performance. Addressing this issue is essential for preventing coronagraphic leaks, thus we have developed a Lyot-based low order wave front sensor (LLOWFS) to control the wavefront aberrations in a coronagraph. The LLOWFS monitors the starlight rejected by the coronagraphic mask using a reflective Lyot stop in the downstream pupil plane. The early implementation of LLOWFS at LESIA, Observatoire de Paris demonstrated an open loop measurement accuracy of 0.01 λ/D for tip-tilt at 638 nm when used in conjunction with a four quadrant phase mask (FQPM) in the laboratory. To further demonstrate our concept, we have installed the reflective Lyot stops on the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO (SCExAO) system at the Subaru Telescope and modified the system to support small IWA phase mask coronagraphs (< 1λ/D) on-sky such as FQPM, eight octant phase mask, vector vortex coronagraph and the phase induced amplitude apodization complex phase mask coronagraph with a goal of obtaining milli arc-second pointing accuracy. Laboratory results have shown the measurement of tip, tilt, focus, oblique and right astigmatism at 1.55 μm for the vector vortex coronagraph. Our initial on-sky result demonstrate the closed loop accuracy of < 7 x 10-3 λ/D at 1.6 μm for tip, tilt and focus aberrations with the vector vortex coronagraph.

  11. A CMOS active pixel sensor system for laboratory- based x-ray diffraction studies of biological tissue.

    PubMed

    Bohndiek, Sarah E; Cook, Emily J; Arvanitis, Costas D; Olivo, Alessandro; Royle, Gary J; Clark, Andy T; Prydderch, Mark L; Turchetta, Renato; Speller, Robert D

    2008-02-01

    X-ray diffraction studies give material-specific information about biological tissue. Ideally, a large area, low noise, wide dynamic range digital x-ray detector is required for laboratory-based x-ray diffraction studies. The goal of this work is to introduce a novel imaging technology, the CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) that has the potential to fulfil all these requirements, and demonstrate its feasibility for coherent scatter imaging. A prototype CMOS APS has been included in an x-ray diffraction demonstration system. An industrial x-ray source with appropriate beam filtration is used to perform angle dispersive x-ray diffraction (ADXRD). Optimization of the experimental set-up is detailed including collimator options and detector operating parameters. Scatter signatures are measured for 11 different materials, covering three medical applications: breast cancer diagnosis, kidney stone identification and bone mineral density calculations. Scatter signatures are also recorded for three mixed samples of known composition. Results are verified using two independent models for predicting the APS scatter signature: (1) a linear systems model of the APS and (2) a linear superposition integral combining known monochromatic scatter signatures with the input polychromatic spectrum used in this case. Cross validation of experimental, modelled and literature results proves that APS are able to record biologically relevant scatter signatures. Coherent scatter signatures are sensitive to multiple materials present in a sample and provide a means to quantify composition. In the future, production of a bespoke APS imager for x-ray diffraction studies could enable simultaneous collection of the transmitted beam and scattered radiation in a laboratory-based coherent scatter system, making clinical transfer of the technique attainable. PMID:18199908

  12. A simple extension of Rüchardt's method for measuring the ratio of specific heats of air using microcomputer-based laboratory sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severn, G. D.; Steffensen, T.

    2001-03-01

    A lower division laboratory experiment is described which measures the ratio of specific heats for air, γ≡Cp/Cv, using Rüchardt's method augmented by microcomputer-based laboratory sensors. A low pressure gauge transducer records the damped pressure oscillations, leading to a value of γ=1.41±0.04. Adding a laser switch, one can extend the method to determine γ from the ratio of pressure and volume variations, γ=-(dp/dV)(V/p), which yields 1.33±0.05. Nonadiabatic processes are considered.

  13. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). A description of the sensor, ground data processing facility, laboratory calibration, and first results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The papers in this document were presented at the Imaging Spectroscopy 2 Conference of the 31st International Symposium on Optical and Optoelectronic Applied Science and Engineering, in San Diego, California, on 20 and 21 August 1987. They describe the design and performance of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor and its subsystems, the ground data processing facility, laboratory calibration, and first results.

  14. Design and Laboratory Validation of a Capacitive Sensor for Measuring the Recession of Thin-Layered Ablator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noffz, Gregory K.; Bowman, Michael P.

    1996-01-01

    Flight vehicles are typically instrumented with subsurface thermocouples to estimate heat transfer at the surface using inverse analysis procedures. If the vehicle has an ablating heat shield, however, temperature time histories from subsurface thermocouples no longer provide enough information to estimate heat flux at the surface. In this situation, the geometry changes and thermal energy leaves the surface in the form of ablation products. The ablation rate is required to estimate heat transfer to the surface. A new concept for a capacitive sensor has been developed to measure ablator depth using the ablator's dielectric effect on a capacitor's fringe region. Relying on the capacitor's fringe region enables the gage to be flush mounted in the vehicle's permanent structure and not intrude into the ablative heat shield applied over the gage. This sensor's design allows nonintrusive measurement of the thickness of dielectric materials, in particular, the recession rates of low-temperature ablators applied in thin (0.020 to 0.060 in. (0.05 to 0.15 mm)) layers. Twenty capacitive gages with 13 different sensing element geometries were designed, fabricated, and tested. A two-dimensional finite-element analysis was performed on several candidate geometries. Calibration procedures using ablator-simulating shims are described. A one-to-one correspondence between system output and dielectric material thickness was observed out to a thickness of 0.055 in. (1.4 mm) for a material with a permittivity about three times that of air or vacuum. A novel method of monitoring the change in sensor capacitance was developed. This technical memorandum suggests further improvements in gage design and fabrication techniques.

  15. Chemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Janata, J.; Josowicz, M.; DeVaney, D.M. )

    1994-06-15

    This review of chemical sensors contains the following topics of interest: books and reviews; reviews of sensors by their type; fabrication and selectivity; data processing; thermal sensors; mass sensors (fabrication, gas sensors, and liquid sensors); electrochemical sensors (potentiometric sensors, amperometric sensors, and conductometric sensors); and optical sensors (fabrication, liquid sensors, biosensors, and gas sensors). 795 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Qualification Testing of Engineering Camera and Platinum Resistance Thermometer (PRT) Sensors for Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project under Extreme Temperatures to Assess Reliability and to Enhance Mission Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Maki, Justin N.; Cucullu, Gordon C.

    2008-01-01

    Package Qualification and Verification (PQV) of advanced electronic packaging and interconnect technologies and various other types of qualification hardware for the Mars Exploration Rover/Mars Science Laboratory flight projects has been performed to enhance the mission assurance. The qualification of hardware (Engineering Camera and Platinum Resistance Thermometer, PRT) under extreme cold temperatures has been performed with reference to various project requirements. The flight-like packages, sensors, and subassemblies have been selected for the study to survive three times (3x) the total number of expected temperature cycles resulting from all environmental and operational exposures occurring over the life of the flight hardware including all relevant manufacturing, ground operations and mission phases. Qualification has been performed by subjecting above flight-like qual hardware to the environmental temperature extremes and assessing any structural failures or degradation in electrical performance due to either overstress or thermal cycle fatigue. Experiments of flight like hardware qualification test results have been described in this paper.

  17. Chemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section.

  18. Ocean Virtual Laboratory: A New Way to Explore Multi-Sensor Synergy Demonstrated over the Agulhas Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collard, F.; Quartly, G. D.; Konik, M.; Johannessen, J. A.; Korosov, A.; Chapron, B.; Piolle, J.-F.; Herledan, S.; Darecki, M.; Isar, A.; Nafornita, C.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Virtual Laboratory is an ESA-funded project to prototype the concept of a single point of access for all satellite remote-sensing data with ancillary model output and in situ measurements for a given region. The idea is to provide easy access for the non-specialist to both data and state-of-the-art processing techniques and enable their easy analysis and display. The project, led by OceanDataLab, is being trialled in the region of the Agulhas Current, as it contains signals of strong contrast (due to very energetic upper ocean dynamics) and special SAR data acquisitions have been recorded there. The project also encourages the take up of Earth Observation data by developing training material to help those not in large scientific or governmental organizations make the best use of what data are available. The website for access is: http://ovlproject.oceandatalab.com/

  19. A laboratory assessment of the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor (WIBS-4) using individual samples of pollen and fungal spore material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, David A.; O'Connor, David J.; Burke, Aoife M.; Sodeau, John R.

    2012-12-01

    A Bioaerosol sensing instrument referred to as WIBS-4, designed to continuously monitor ambient bioaerosols on-line, has been used to record a multiparameter “signature” from each of a number of Primary Biological Aerosol Particulate (PBAP) samples found in air. These signatures were obtained in a controlled laboratory environment and are based on the size, asymmetry (“shape”) and auto-fluorescence of the particles. Fifteen samples from two separate taxonomic ranks (kingdoms), Plantae (×8) and Fungi (×7) were individually introduced to the WIBS-4 for measurement along with two non-fluorescing chemical solids, common salt and chalk. Over 2000 individual-particle measurements were recorded for each sample type and the ability of the WIBS spectroscopic technique to distinguish between chemicals, pollen and fungal spore material was examined by identifying individual PBAP signatures. The results obtained show that WIBS-4 could potentially be a very useful analytical tool for distinguishing between natural airborne PBAP samples, such as the fungal spores and may potentially play an important role in detecting and discriminating the toxic fungal spore, Aspergillus fumigatus, from others in real-time. If the sizing range of the commercial instrument was customarily increased and permitted to operate simultaneously in its two sizing ranges, pollen and spores could potentially be discriminated between. The data also suggest that the gain setting sensitivity on the detector would also have to be reduced by a factor >5, to routinely detect, in-range fluorescence measurements for pollen samples.

  20. Fluorescent biological aerosol particles measured with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor WIBS-4: laboratory tests combined with a one year field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toprak, E.; Schnaiter, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper bioaerosol measurements conducted with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor mark 4 (WIBS-4) are presented. The measurements comprise aerosol chamber characterization experiments and a one-year ambient measurement period at a semi-rural site in South Western Germany. This study aims to investigate the sensitivity of WIBS-4 to biological and non-biological aerosols and detection of biological particles in the ambient aerosol. Several types of biological and non-biological aerosol samples, including fungal spores, bacteria, mineral dust, ammonium sulphate, combustion soot, and fluorescent polystyrene spheres, were analyzed by WIBS-4 in the laboratory. The results confirm the sensitivity of the ultraviolet light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) method to biological fluorophores and show the good discrimination capabilities of the two excitation wavelengths/detection wavebands method applied in WIBS-4. However, a weak cross-sensitivity to non-biological fluorescent interferers remains and is discussed in this paper. All the laboratory studies have been undertaken in order to prepare WIBS-4 for ambient aerosol measurements. According to the one-year ambient aerosol study, number concentration of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) show strong seasonal and diurnal variability. The highest number concentration of FBAP was measured during the summer term and decreased towards the winter period when colder and drier conditions prevail. Diurnal FBAP concentrations start to increase after sunset and reach maximum values during the late night and early morning hours. On the other hand, the total aerosol number concentration was almost always higher during daytime than during nighttime and a sharp decrease after sunset was observed. There was no correlation observed between the FBAP concentration and the meteorological parameters temperature, precipitation, wind direction and wind speed. However, a clear correlation was identified between the FBAP

  1. Fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs) measured with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor WIBS-4: laboratory tests combined with a one year field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toprak, E.; Schnaiter, M.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper bioaerosol measurements conducted with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor mark 4 (WIBS-4) are presented. The measurements comprise aerosol chamber characterization experiments and a one-year ambient measurement period at a semi-rural site in South Western Germany. This study aims to investigate the sensitivity of WIBS-4 to biological and non-biological aerosols, performance of WIBS-4 for discrimination of several types of aerosols, and the detection and identification of biological particles in the ambient aerosol. Several types of biological and non-biological aerosol samples including spores, bacteria, pollen, mineral dust, ammonium sulphate, combustion soot, and fluorescent polystyrene spheres were analysed by WIBS-4 in the laboratory. The results confirm the sensitivity of the Ultra Violet Light Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) method to biological fluorophores and show the good discrimination capabilities of the two wavelengths excitation/two wavebands detection method applied in WIBS-4. However, a weak cross-sensitivity to non-biological fluorescent interferers remains and is discussed in this paper. All the laboratory studies have been undertaken in order to prepare WIBS-4 for ambient aerosol measurements. According to the one year ambient aerosol study, number concentration of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) show strong seasonal and diurnal variability. The highest number concentration of FBAP was measured during the summer term and it decreases towards the winter period when colder and drier conditions are prevailing. Diurnal FBAP concentrations start to increase after sunset and reach maximum values during the late night and early morning hours. On the other hand the total aerosol number concentration was always higher during day time than during night time and a sharp decrease after sunset was observed. There was no correlation observed between the FBAP concentration and the meteorological parameters temperature

  2. Laboratory evaluation of the GreenSeeker (TM) hand-held optical sensor to variations in orientation and height above canopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Handheld optical sensors recently have been introduced to the agricultural market to simplify acquisition of spectral reflectance data. These handheld sensors are able to provide operators with Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) data when cloud cover prevents acquisition of satellite or ...

  3. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  4. Advancing Sensor Web Interoperability

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar, Mallikarjun; Gorman, Bryan L.; Smith, Cyrus M.

    2005-01-01

    SensorNet is a framework being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to tie together sensor data from all over the country to create a real-time detection and alert system for various threats, whether they are chemical, radiological, biological, nuclear, or explosive.

  5. Temperature diffusion and thermal strain from embedded fiber optic sensors installed at the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) site Lead, South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gage, J.; Noni, N.; Maclaughlin, M.; Turner, A. L.; Wang, H. F.; Geox^Tm

    2010-12-01

    We are monitoring temperature and rock deformation at the 4100’-level of DUSEL using six Micron Optics Inc. OS3600 temperature-compensated Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) strain gages. This study is part of a larger project to measure mechanical and thermal strain on the meter-scale within an intact rock mass. Each sensor measures one-dimensional strain and changes in environmental temperature at the sensor. Two of the six sensors are embedded ~1 meter into the rock mass. The other four sensors are mounted on the rock surface on two perpendicular walls of an alcove (2 x 6 m and 2 m tall). Temperature and strain measurements have been recorded continuously at 1 minute intervals since October 1, 2009. Temperature data from the surface mounted sensors show both long-term (> 1 week) and short-term (instantaneous to > 5 days) temperature changes in the alcove. The long-term temperature changes in the alcove propagate into the rock mass creating a thermal gradient between the rock surface and the embedded sensors. Temperature changes measured by the embedded sensors do not record the short-term temperature effects seen at the surface, and temperature changes in the embedded sensors lag behind changes in temperature in the drift; this lag is attributed to thermal diffusion into the rock mass. In order to model thermal diffusion, we use a model for the heating of a semi-infinite half-space due to a time-dependent surface temperature as a boundary condition. The predicted temperature trend is then compared to the measured temperature from the embedded FBG temperature gages. The model gives a good approximation of temperature at both embedded sensors at depths of 0.8 and 0.9 meters. The shape of the temperature trend at the embedded sensors is accurately modeled, and the 0.1 m difference in depth between the two embedded sensors is resolvable using this model. The model fit to the data is based on a coefficient of thermal diffusivity of κ = ~2.0 x 10-6 m2/s for both sensors

  6. Networked Sensor Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    R. J. Tighe

    2002-10-01

    A set of independent radiation sensors, coupled with real-time data telemetry, offers the opportunity to run correlation algorithms for the sensor array as well as to incorporate non-radiological data into the system. This may enhance the overall sensitivity of the sensors and provide an opportunity to project the location of a source within the array. In collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), we have conducted field experiments to test a prototype system. Combining the outputs of a set of distributed sensors permits the correlation that the independent sensor outputs. Combined with additional information such as traffic patterns and velocities, this can reduce random/false detections and enhance detection capability. The principle components of such a system include: (1) A set of radiation sensors. These may be of varying type and complexity, including gamma and/or neutron detectors, gross count and spectral-capable sensors, and low to high energy-resolution sensors. (2) A set of non-radiation sensors. These may include sensors such as vehicle presence and imaging sensors. (3) A communications architecture for near real-time telemetry. Depending upon existing infrastructure and bandwidth requirements, this may be a radio or hard-wire based system. (4) A central command console to pole the sensors, correlate their output, and display the data in a meaningful form to the system operator. Both sensitivity and selectivity are important considerations when evaluating the performance of a detection system. Depending on the application, the optimization of sensitivity as well as the rejection of ''nuisance'' radioactive sources may or may not be critical.

  7. New Sensors For Flow Velocity And Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. C.

    1991-01-01

    Paper describes two sensor-development programs at Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center. One program for digital image velocimetry (DIV) sensors, and other program, for advanced acoustic sensors for wind tunnels. DIV measures, in real time, instantaneous velocity fields of time-varying flow or of collection of objects moving with varying velocities. Advanced acoustic sensors for wind tunnels being developed to reduce effects of interference from wind noise, noise from interactions between flows and sensors, flow-induced vibrations of sensors, deflections of accoustic waves by boundary layers induced by sensors, and reflections from walls and sensor supports.

  8. End-to-End Information System design at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. [data transmission between user and space-based sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    In recognition of a pressing need of the 1980s to optimize the two-way flow of information between a ground-based user and a remote-space-based sensor, an end-to-end approach to the design of information systems has been adopted at the JPL. This paper reviews End-to-End Information System (EEIS) activity at the JPL, with attention given to the scope of the EEIS transfer function, and functional and physical elements of the EEIS. The relationship between the EEIS and the NASA End-to-End Data System program is discussed.

  9. Stellar figure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, W. N.

    1973-01-01

    A compilation of analytical and experimental data is presented concerning the stellar figure sensor. The sensor is an interferometric device which is located in the focal plane of an orbiting large space telescope (LST). The device was designed to perform interferometry on the optical wavefront of a single star after it has propagated through the LST. An analytical model of the device was developed and its accuracy was verified by an operating laboratory breadboard. A series of linear independent control equations were derived which define the operations required for utilizing a focal plane figure sensor in the control loop for the secondary mirror position and for active control of the primary mirror.

  10. Wearable Optical Chemical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobnik, Aleksandra

    Wearable sensors can be used to provide valuable information about the wearer's health and/or monitor the wearer's surroundings, identify safety concerns and detect threats, during the wearer's daily routine within his or her natural environment. The "sensor on a textile", an integrated sensor capable of analyzing data, would enable early many forms of detection. Moreover, a sensor connected with a smart delivery system could simultaneously provide comfort and monitoring (for safety and/or health), non-invasive measurements, no laboratory sampling, continuous monitoring during the daily activity of the person, and possible multi-parameter analysis and monitoring. However, in order for the technology to be accessible, it must remain innocuous and impose a minimal intrusion on the daily activities of the wearer. Therefore, such wearable technologies should be soft, flexible, and washable in order to meet the expectations of normal clothing. Optical chemical sensors (OCSs) could be used as wearable technology since they can be embedded into textile structures by using conventional dyeing, printing processes and coatings, while fiber-optic chemical sensors (FOCSs) as well as nanofiber sensors (NFSs) can be incorporated by weaving, knitting or laminating. The interest in small, robust and sensitive sensors that can be embedded into textile structures is increasing and the research activity on this topic is an important issue.

  11. Current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane

    2007-01-16

    A current sensor is described that uses a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. The sensor can be hinged to allow clamping to a conductor. The current sensor provides high measurement accuracy for both DC and AC currents, and is substantially immune to the effects of temperature, conductor position, nearby current carrying conductors and aging.

  12. Sensor Technology and Performance Characteristics

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA is currently involved in detailed laboratory and/or field studies involving a wide variety of low cost air quality sensors currently being made available to potential citizen scientists. These devices include sensors associated with the monitoring of nitrogen dioxide (...

  13. Sensor Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is the result of low cost air quality sensor performance trials conducted in the NERL’s on-site laboratories located in the Research Triangle Park, NC during 2012-2013. Such trials were viewed as highly valuable for all parties following the conclusion of the U.S. E...

  14. Electronic Nose System Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has designed and built an electronic nose system -- ENose -- to take on the duty of staying alert for smells that could indicate hazardous conditions in a closed spacecraft environment. Its sensors (shown here) are tailored so they conduct electricity differently when an air stream carries a particular chemical across them. JPL has designed and built a 3-pound flight version. The active parts are 32 sensors, each with a different mix of polymers saturated with carbon. When certain chemicals latch onto a sensor, they change how the sensor conducts electricity. This signal tells how much of a compound is in the air. The electronic nose flown aboard STS-95 in 1998 was capable of successfully detecting 10 toxic compounds.

  15. Computer-Assisted Laboratory Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, William J., Hanyak, Michael E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the advantages and features of computer-assisted laboratory stations for use in a chemical engineering program. Also describes a typical experiment at such a station: determining the response times of a solid state humidity sensor at various humidity conditions and developing an empirical model for the sensor. (JN)

  16. Fiber optic interferometric sensors for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper addresses two fiber optic sensor development programs in the Photonics Laboratory, NASA Ames Research Center, one in progress and the other being initiated. The ongoing program involves development of advanced acoustic sensors for wind tunnel applications. The new undertaking involves development of a novel sensor technique for studies of aerodynamic transition from laminar to turbulent flow.

  17. Image Sensors Enhance Camera Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    In the 1990s, a Jet Propulsion Laboratory team led by Eric Fossum researched ways of improving complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors in order to miniaturize cameras on spacecraft while maintaining scientific image quality. Fossum s team founded a company to commercialize the resulting CMOS active pixel sensor. Now called the Aptina Imaging Corporation, based in San Jose, California, the company has shipped over 1 billion sensors for use in applications such as digital cameras, camera phones, Web cameras, and automotive cameras. Today, one of every three cell phone cameras on the planet feature Aptina s sensor technology.

  18. Advances In Optical Fiber Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, J. H.; Giallorenzi, T. G.; Bucaro, J. A.

    1981-07-01

    Over the past several years, a new non-communication optical fiber application has emerged. This application utilizes optical fibers for sensing. Initial interest centered around rate rotation sensing. Since that time, however, acoustic, magnetic, and temperature sensing utilizing optical fibers has evolved into a viable research effort with significant potential payoff. As an example, laboratory fiber optic acoustic sensors now rival the best sensitivity obtained with piezoelectric ceramics. These sensors possess a unique geometric versatility previously unavailable. In conjunction with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Navy has begun a Fiber Optic Sensor System (FOSS) program to develop associated technology necessary to realize these sensors. Substantial effort is ongoing at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and other Navy laboratories with considerable contractual effort from universities and industry. This paper reviews the status of the FOSS program.

  19. Characterization of mutations in the PAS domain of the EvgS sensor kinase selected by laboratory evolution for acid resistance in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matthew D; Bell, James; Clarke, Kim; Chandler, Rachel; Pathak, Prachi; Xia, Yandong; Marshall, Robert L; Weinstock, George M; Loman, Nicholas J; Winn, Peter J; Lund, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory-based evolution and whole-genome sequencing can link genotype and phenotype. We used evolution of acid resistance in exponential phase Escherichia coli to study resistance to a lethal stress. Iterative selection at pH 2.5 generated five populations that were resistant to low pH in early exponential phase. Genome sequencing revealed multiple mutations, but the only gene mutated in all strains was evgS, part of a two-component system that has already been implicated in acid resistance. All these mutations were in the cytoplasmic PAS domain of EvgS, and were shown to be solely responsible for the resistant phenotype, causing strong upregulation at neutral pH of genes normally induced by low pH. Resistance to pH 2.5 in these strains did not require the transporter GadC, or the sigma factor RpoS. We found that EvgS-dependent constitutive acid resistance to pH 2.5 was retained in the absence of the regulators GadE or YdeO, but was lost if the oxidoreductase YdeP was also absent. A deletion in the periplasmic domain of EvgS abolished the response to low pH, but not the activity of the constitutive mutants. On the basis of these results we propose a model for how EvgS may become activated by low pH. PMID:24995530

  20. Hyperion 5113/GP Infrasound Sensor Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Bion J.

    2015-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated an infrasound sensor, the 5113/GP manufactured by Hyperion. These infrasound sensors measure pressure output by a methodology developed by the University of Mississippi. The purpose of the infrasound sensor evaluation was to determine a measured sensitivity, transfer function, power, self-noise, dynamic range, and seismic sensitivity. These sensors are being evaluated prior to deployment by the U.S. Air Force.

  1. Photoelastic sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kulakov, G.I.

    1985-07-01

    This paper presents the result of a study of photoelastic sensors which makes it possible to explain many mechanical and physical features of the operation of annular photoelastic borehole sensors and to plan ways of utilizing these features for interpreting the sensor readings.

  2. Time-domain fiber loop ringdown sensor and sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Malik

    Optical fibers have been mostly used in fiber optic communications, imaging optics, sensing technology, etc. Fiber optic sensors have gained increasing attention for scientific and structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. In this study, fiber loop ringdown (FLRD) sensors were fabricated for scientific, SHM, and sensor networking applications. FLRD biosensors were fabricated for both bulk refractive index (RI)- and surface RI-based DNA sensing and one type of bacteria sensing. Furthermore, the effect of glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilization at the sensor head on sensor performance was evaluated for both glucose and synthetic urine solutions with glucose concentration between 0.1% and 10%. Detection sensitivities of the glucose sensors were achieved as low as 0.05%. For chemical sensing, heavy water, ranging from 97% to 10%, and several elemental solutions were monitored by using the FLRD chemical sensors. Bulk index-based FLRD sensing showed that trace elements can be detected in deionized water. For physical sensing, water and cracking sensors were fabricated and embedded into concrete. A partially-etched single-mode fiber (SMF) was embedded into a concrete bar for water monitoring while a bare SMF without any treatment was directly embedded into another concrete bar for monitoring cracks. Furthermore, detection sensitivities of water and crack sensors were investigated as 10 ml water and 0.5 mm surface crack width, respectively. Additionally fiber loop ringdown-fiber Bragg grating temperature sensors were developed in the laboratory; two sensor units for water, crack, and temperature sensing were deployed into a concrete cube in a US Department of Energy test bed (Miami, FL). Multi-sensor applications in a real concrete structure were accomplished by testing the six FLRD sensors. As a final stage, a sensor network was assembled by multiplexing two or three FLRD sensors in series and parallel. Additionally, two FLRD sensors were combined in series and

  3. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  4. A Comparative Study of Sound Speed in Air at Room Temperature between a Pressure Sensor and a Sound Sensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrani, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the comparison of sound speed measurements in air using two types of sensor that are widely employed in physics and engineering education, namely a pressure sensor and a sound sensor. A computer-based laboratory with pressure and sound sensors was used to carry out measurements of air through a 60 ml syringe. The fast Fourier…

  5. Sensor web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delin, Kevin A. (Inventor); Jackson, Shannon P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A Sensor Web formed of a number of different sensor pods. Each of the sensor pods include a clock which is synchronized with a master clock so that all of the sensor pods in the Web have a synchronized clock. The synchronization is carried out by first using a coarse synchronization which takes less power, and subsequently carrying out a fine synchronization to make a fine sync of all the pods on the Web. After the synchronization, the pods ping their neighbors to determine which pods are listening and responded, and then only listen during time slots corresponding to those pods which respond.

  6. Non-intrusive speed sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyett, L.

    1986-01-01

    In Phase I of the Non-Intrusive Speed Sensor program, a computerized literature search was performed to identify candidate technologies for remote, non-intrusive speed sensing applications in Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps. The three most promising technologies were subjected to experimental evaluation to quantify their performance characteristics under the harsh environmental requirements within the turbopumps. Although the infrared and microwave approaches demonstrated excellent cavitation immunity in laboratory tests, the variable-source magnetic speed sensor emerged as the most viable approach. Preliminary design of this speed sensor encountered no technical obstacles and resulted in viable and feasible speed nut, sensor housing, and sensor coil designs. Phase II of this program developed the variable-source magnetic speed sensor through the detailed design task and guided the design into breadboard fabrication. The speed sensor and its integral speed nut were evaluated at both unit and system level testing. The final room-temperature and cryogenic spin testing of the hardware demonstrated that the sensor was capable of generating sufficient output signal to enable remote speed sensing from 1500 to 40000 rpm over a speed nut/sensor separation of 3.5 inches.

  7. Unpowered wireless analog resistance sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andringa, Matthew M.; Neikirk, Dean P.; Wood, Sharon L.

    2004-07-01

    Our society depends heavily on a network of buildings, bridges and roadways. In order to properly maintain this civil infrastructure and avoid damage and costly repairs due to structural failure, it is necessary to monitor the health of these structures. Sensors must frequently be placed in inaccessible locations under harsh conditions and should ideally last the lifetime of the structure the sensors are monitoring. This paper presents the development of a low cost, passive, un-powered wireless analog resistance sensor. The sensor was originally designed for monitoring corrosion in concrete, but there are many other potential applications including remote temperature monitoring, embedded accelerometers, and embedded strain gauges. The passive wireless nature makes the sensor ideally suited for embedding in inaccessible locations under harsh conditions. The sensor consists of a resonant inductor-capacitor circuit containing a resistive transducer. The sensor is interrogated by measuring the impedance through a remote, magnetically coupled reader loop. The width of the resonance is directly related to the resistance of the transducer. The sensor has been simulated under a variety of conditions using a circuit model and compared to actual test sensors built and evaluated in the laboratory.

  8. Bioinspired vision sensors with hyperacuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Steven F.; Wright, Cameron H. G.

    2011-04-01

    Musca domestica, the common house fly, possesses a powerful vision system that exhibits features such as fast, analog, parallel operation and motion hyperacuity -- the ability to detect the movement of objects at far better resolution than predicted by their photoreceptor spacing. Researchers at the Wyoming Information, Signal Processing, and Robotics (WISPR) Laboratory have investigated these features for over a decade to develop an analog sensor inspired by the fly. Research efforts have been divided into electrophysiology; mathematical, optical and MATLAB based sensor modeling; physical sensor development; and applications. This paper will provide an in depth review of recent key results in some of these areas including development of a multiple, light adapting cartridge based sensor constructed on both a planar and co-planar surface using off-the-shelf components. Both a photodiode-based approach and a fiber based sensor will be discussed. Applications in UAV obstacle avoidance, long term building monitoring and autonomous robot navigation are also discussed.

  9. Coordinated in situ and orbital observations of ground temperature by the Mars Science Laboratory Ground Temperature Sensor and Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System: Implications for thermal modeling of the Martian surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, V. E.; Vasavada, A. R.; Christensen, P. R.; Mischna, M. A.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    Diurnal variations in Martian ground surface temperature probe the physical nature (mean particle size, lateral/vertical heterogeneity, cementation, etc.) of the upper few centimeters of the subsurface. Thermal modeling of measured temperatures enables us to make inferences about these physical properties, which in turn offer valuable insight into processes that have occurred over geologic timescales. Add the ability to monitor these temperature/physical variations over large distances and it becomes possible to infer a great deal about local- to regional scale geologic processes and characteristics that are valuable to scientific and engineering studies. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) instrument measures surface temperatures from orbit at a restricted range of local times (~3:00 - 6:00 am/pm). The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor (REMS GTS) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) acquires hourly temperature measurements in the vicinity of the rover. With the additional information that MSL's full diurnal coverage offers, we are interested in correlating the thermophysical properties inferred from these local-scale measurements with those obtained from MSL's visible images and orbital THEMIS measurements at only a few times of day. To optimize the comparisons, we have been acquiring additional REMS observations simultaneously with Mars Odyssey overflights during which THEMIS is able to observe MSL's location. We also characterize surface particle size distributions within the field of view of the GTS. We will present comparisons of the temperatures derived from GTS and THEMIS, focusing on eight simultaneous observations of ground temperature acquired between sols 100 and 360. These coordinated observations allow us to cross-check temperatures derived in situ and from orbit, and compare rover-scale observations of thermophysical and particle size properties to those made at remote sensing scales.

  10. Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Weed Instrument Inc. produces a line of thermocouples - temperature sensors - for a variety of industrial and research uses. One of the company's newer products is a thermocouple specially designed for high accuracy at extreme temperatures above 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Development of sensor brought substantial increases in Weed Instrument sales and employment.

  11. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1991-07-02

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  12. Rain Drop Charge Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S, Sreekanth T.

    begin{center} Large Large Rain Drop Charge Sensor Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , S. Murali Das (2) *Atmospheric Sciences Division, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011 (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) Kavyam, Manacaud, Thiruvananthapuram 695009 begin{center} ABSTRACT To study the inter-relations with precipitation electricity and precipitation microphysical parameters a rain drop charge sensor was designed and developed at CESS Electronics & Instrumentation Laboratory. Simultaneous measurement of electric charge and fall speed of rain drops could be done using this charge sensor. A cylindrical metal tube (sensor tube) of 30 cm length is placed inside another thick metal cover opened at top and bottom for electromagnetic shielding. Mouth of the sensor tube is exposed and bottom part is covered with metal net in the shielding cover. The instrument is designed in such a way that rain drops can pass only through unhindered inside the sensor tube. When electrically charged rain drops pass through the sensor tube, it is charged to the same magnitude of drop charge but with opposite polarity. The sensor tube is electrically connected the inverted input of a current to voltage converter operational amplifier using op-amp AD549. Since the sensor is electrically connected to the virtual ground of the op-amp, the charge flows to the ground and the generated current is converted to amplified voltage. This output voltage is recorded using a high frequency (1kHz) voltage recorder. From the recorded pulse, charge magnitude, polarity and fall speed of rain drop are calculated. From the fall speed drop diameter also can be calculated. The prototype is now under test running at CESS campus. As the magnitude of charge in rain drops is an indication of accumulated charge in clouds in lightning, this instrument has potential application in the field of risk and disaster management. By knowing the charge

  13. Space debris measurement program at Phillips Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dao, Phan D.; Mcnutt, Ross T.

    1992-01-01

    Ground-based optical sensing was identified as a technique for measuring space debris complementary to radar in the critical debris size range of 1 to 10 cm. The Phillips Laboratory is building a staring optical sensor for space debris measurement and considering search and track optical measurement at additional sites. The staring sensor is implemented in collaboration with Wright Laboratory using the 2.5 m telescope at Wright Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio. The search and track sensor is designed to detect and track orbital debris in tasked orbits. A progress report and a discussion of sensor performance and search and track strategies will be given.

  14. Smart Sensors: Advantages and Pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Paddy James

    For almost 50 years, silicon sensors have been on the market. There have been many examples of success stories for simple silicon sensors, such as the Hall plate and photo-diode. These have found mass-market applications. The development of micromachining techniques brought pressure sensors and accelerometers into the market and later the gyroscope. These have also achieved mass-market. The remaining issue is how far to integrate. Many of the devices on the market use a simple sensor with external electronics or read-out electronics in the same package (system-in-a-package). However, there are also many examples of fully integrated sensors (smart sensors) where the whole system is integrated into a single chip. If the application and the device technology permit this, there can be many advantages. A broader look at sensors shows a wealth of integrated devices. The critical issues are reliability and packaging if these devices are to find the applications. A number of silicon sensors and actuators have shown great commercial success, but still many more have to find their way out of the laboratory. This paper will examine the development of the technologies, some of the success stories and the opportunities for integrated Microsystems as well as the pitfalls.

  15. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  16. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  17. Sensor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokoloski, Martin M.

    1988-01-01

    The objective is to provide necessary expertise and technology to advance space remote sensing of terrestrial, planetary, and galactic phenomena through the use of electromagnetic and electro-optic properties of gas, liquid, and solid state materials technology. The Sensor Technology Program is divided into two subprograms: a base research and development part and a Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) part. The base research and development consists of research on artificially grown materials such as quantum well and superlattice structure with the potential for new and efficient means for detecting electromagnetic phenomena. Research is also being done on materials and concepts for detector components and devices for measuring high energy phenomena such as UV, X-, and gamma rays that are required observables in astrophysis and solar physics missions. The CSTI program is more mission driven and is balanced among four major disciplines: detector sensors; submillimeter wave sensors; LIDAR/DIAL sensors; and cooler technology.

  18. Wireless sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lamberti, Vincent E.; Howell, JR, Layton N.; Mee, David K.; Sepaniak, Michael J.

    2016-02-09

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting a target material. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a molecular recognition reagent coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The molecular recognition reagent is operable to expand upon exposure to vapor or liquid from the target material such that the molecular recognition reagent changes a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal. The target material is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the changes in the tensile stress.

  19. Micro sun sensor for spacecraft attitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobasser, Sohrab; Liebe, Carl Christian

    2004-01-01

    A micro sun sensor is being developed for use on a Mars rover for the Mars Science Laboratory Mission. The micro sun sensor, which is basically a small pinhole camera, consists of a small mask with pinholes, placed on top of an image detector.

  20. Vibration sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Amita; Singh, Ranvir; Ahmad, Amir; Kumar, Mahesh

    2003-10-01

    Today, vibration sensors with low and medium sensitivities are in great demand. Their applications include robotics, navigation, machine vibration monitoring, isolation of precision equipment & activation of safety systems e.g. airbags in automobiles. Vibration sensors have been developed at SSPL, using silicon micromachining to sense vibrations in a system in the 30 - 200 Hz frequency band. The sensing element in the silicon vibration sensor is a seismic mass suspended by thin silicon hinges mounted on a metallized glass plate forming a parallel plate capacitor. The movement of the seismic mass along the vertical axis is monitored to sense vibrations. This is obtained by measuring the change in capacitance. The movable plate of the parallel plate capacitor is formed by a block connected to a surrounding frame by four cantilever beams located on sides or corners of the seismic mass. This element is fabricated by silicon micromachining. Several sensors in the chip sizes 1.6 cm x 1.6 cm, 1 cm x 1 cm and 0.7 cm x 0.7 cm have been fabricated. Work done on these sensors, techniques used in processing and silicon to glass bonding are presented in the paper. Performance evaluation of these sensors is also discussed.

  1. Near infrared testbed sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, R. B.; McCalmont, J. F.; Montgomery, J. B.; Johnson, R. S.; McDermott, D. J.

    2007-04-01

    A new tactical airborne multicolor missile warning testbed was developed and fielded as part of an Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) initiative focusing on clutter and missile signature measurements for algorithm development. Multicolor discrimination is one of the most effective ways of improving the performance of infrared missile warning sensors, particularly for heavy clutter situations. Its utility has been demonstrated in multiple fielded sensors. Traditionally, multicolor discrimination has been performed in the mid-infrared, 3-5 μm band, where the molecular emission of CO and CO2 characteristic of a combustion process is readily distinguished from the continuum of a black body radiator. Current infrared warning sensor development is focused on near infrared (NIR) staring mosaic detector arrays that provide similar spectral discrimination in different bands to provide a cost effective and mechanically simpler system. This, in turn, has required that multicolor clutter data be collected for both analysis and algorithm development. The developed sensor test bed is a multi-camera system 1004x1004 FPA coupled with optimized filters integrated with the optics. The collection portion includes a ruggedized field-programmable gate array processor coupled with with an integrated controller/tracker and fast disk array capable of real-time processing and collection of up to 60 full frames per second. This configuration allowed the collection and real-time processing of temporally correlated, radiometrically calibrated data in multiple spectral bands that was then compared to background and target imagery taken previously

  2. Electrochemical Sensors Based on Organic Conjugated Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Aminur; Kumar, Pankaj; Park, Deog-Su; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2008-01-01

    Organic conjugated polymers (conducting polymers) have emerged as potential candidates for electrochemical sensors. Due to their straightforward preparation methods, unique properties, and stability in air, conducting polymers have been applied to energy storage, electrochemical devices, memory devices, chemical sensors, and electrocatalysts. Conducting polymers are also known to be compatible with biological molecules in a neutral aqueous solution. Thus, these are extensively used in the fabrication of accurate, fast, and inexpensive devices, such as biosensors and chemical sensors in the medical diagnostic laboratories. Conducting polymer-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors play an important role in the improvement of public health and environment because rapid detection, high sensitivity, small size, and specificity are achievable for environmental monitoring and clinical diagnostics. In this review, we summarized the recent advances in conducting polymer-based electrochemical sensors, which covers chemical sensors (potentiometric, voltammetric, amperometric) and biosensors (enzyme based biosensors, immunosensors, DNA sensors).

  3. New technologies to improve laboratory testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtis, C. A.

    Several core technologies that are having, or will have, an impact on the clinical laboratory are discussed. These include instrument-related technologies such as computer technology, chemometrics, robotics, sensors, and biological technologies such as cell fusion and recombinant DNA.

  4. Earth Resources Laboratory research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The accomplishments of the Earth Resources Laboratory's research and technology program are reported. Sensors and data systems, the AGRISTARS project, applied research and data analysis, joint research projects, test and evaluation studies, and space station support activities are addressed.

  5. INSENS sensor system

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.W.; Baker, J.; Benzel, D.M.; Fuess, D.A.

    1993-09-29

    This paper describes an unattended ground sensor system that has been developed for the immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). The system, known as INSENS, was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for use by the United States Border Patrol. This system assists in the detection of illegal entry of aliens and contraband (illegal drugs, etc.) into the United States along its land borders. Key to the system is its flexible modular design which allows future software and hardware enhancements to the system without altering the fundamental architecture of the system. Elements of the system include a sensor system capable of processing signals from multiple directional probes, a repeater system, and a handheld monitor system. Seismic, passive infrared (PIR), and magnetic probes are currently supported. The design of the INSENS system elements and their performance are described.

  6. Research sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englund, David R.

    1988-05-01

    The work described is part of a program (Englund and Seasholtz, 1988) to develop sensors and sensing techniques for research applications on aircraft turbine engines. In general, the sensors are used to measure the environment at a given location within a turbine engine or to measure the response of an engine component to the imposed environment. Locations of concern are generally in the gas path and, for the most part, are within the hot section. Specific parameters of concern are dynamic gas temperature, heat flux, airfoil surface temperature, and strain on airfoils and combustor liners. To minimize the intrusiveness of surface-mounted sensors, a considerable effort was expended to develop thin-film sensors for surface temperature, strain, and heat flux measurements. In addition, an optical system for viewing the interior of an operating combustor was developed. Most of the work described is sufficiently advanced that the sensors were used and useful data were obtained. The notable exception is the work to develop a high-temperature static strain measuring capability; the work is still in progress.

  7. Infrasound Sensor Models and Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    KROMER,RICHARD P.; MCDONALD,TIMOTHY S.

    2000-07-31

    Sandia National Laboratories has continued to evaluate the performance of infrasound sensors that are candidates for use by the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization. The performance criteria against which these sensors are assessed are specified in ``Operational Manual for Infra-sound Monitoring and the International Exchange of Infrasound Data''. This presentation includes the results of efforts concerning two of these sensors: (1) Chaparral Physics Model 5; and (2) CEA MB2000. Sandia is working with Chaparral Physics in order to improve the capability of the Model 5 (a prototype sensor) to be calibrated and evaluated. With the assistance of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Sandia is also conducting tests to evaluate the performance of the CEA MB2000. Sensor models based on theoretical transfer functions and manufacturer specifications for these two devices have been developed. This presentation will feature the results of coherence-based data analysis of signals from a huddle test, utilizing several sensors of both types, in order to verify the sensor performance.

  8. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  9. Water Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mike Morris, former Associate Director of STAC, formed pHish Doctor, Inc. to develop and sell a pH monitor for home aquariums. The monitor, or pHish Doctor, consists of a sensor strip and color chart that continually measures pH levels in an aquarium. This is important because when the level gets too high, ammonia excreted by fish is highly toxic; at low pH, bacteria that normally break down waste products stop functioning. Sales have run into the tens of thousands of dollars. A NASA Tech Brief Technical Support Package later led to a salt water version of the system and a DoE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant for development of a sensor for sea buoys. The company, now known as Ocean Optics, Inc., is currently studying the effects of carbon dioxide buildup as well as exploring other commercial applications for the fiber optic sensor.

  10. Microcantilever sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Thundat, T.; Warmack, R.J.; Oden, P.I. |; Dasktos, P.G.; Chen, G.Y. |

    1996-04-01

    Novel sensors based on bending and resonance frequency changes of (coated silicon) microcantilevers are discussed. Adsorption-induced resonance frequency changes of microcantilevers can be due to a combination of mass loading and change of spring constant resulting from adsorption of chemicals on the surface. Cantilevers also undergo static bending due to adsorption-induced differential surface stress if the adsorption is confined to one surface. Hence cantilever deflection as well as resonance frequency change can be used as the basis for development of novel chemcal sensors.

  11. Hyperion 5113/A Infrasound Sensor Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Bion John

    2015-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated an infrasound sensor, the 5113/A manufactured by Hyperion. These infrasound sensors measure pressure output by a methodology developed by the University of Mississippi. The purpose of the infrasound sensor evaluation was to determine a measured sensitivity, transfer function, power, self-noise, and dynamic range. The 5113/A infrasound sensor is a new revision of the 5000 series intended to meet the infrasound application requirements for use in the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO).

  12. Electronic Tongue Containing Redox and Conductivity Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The Electronic Tongue (E-tongue 2) is an assembly of sensors for measuring concentrations of metal ions and possibly other contaminants in water. Potential uses for electronic tongues include monitoring the chemical quality of water in a variety of natural, industrial, and laboratory settings, and detecting micro-organisms indirectly by measuring microbially influenced corrosion. The device includes a heater, a temperature sensor, an oxidation/reduction (redox) sensor pair, an electrical sensor, an array of eight galvanic cells, and eight ion-specific electrodes.

  13. Electromagnetic sensors for general lightning application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, C. E.; Breen, E. L.; Onell, J. P.; Moore, C. B.; Sower, G. D.

    1980-01-01

    Electromagnetic sensors for general lightning applications in measuring environment are discussed as well as system response to the environment. This includes electric and magnetic fields, surface current and charge densities, and currents on conductors. Many EMP sensors are directly applicable to lightning measurements, but there are some special cases of lightning measurements involving direct strikes which require special design considerations for the sensors. The sensors and instrumentation used by NMIMT in collecting data on lightning at South Baldy peak in central New Mexico during the 1978 and 1979 lightning seasons are also discussed. The Langmuir Laboratory facilities and details of the underground shielded instrumentation room and recording equipment are presented.

  14. MB3a Infrasound Sensor Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Bion J.; McDowell, Kyle D.

    2014-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated a new infrasound sensor, the MB3a, manufactured by Seismo Wave. These infrasound sensors measure pressure output by a methodology developed by researchers at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and the technology was recently licensed to Seismo Wave for production and sales. The purpose of the infrasound sensor evaluation was to determine a measured sensitivity, transfer function, power, self-noise, dynamic range, seismic sensitivity, and self- calibration ability. The MB3a infrasound sensors are being evaluated for potential use in the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO).

  15. Laboratory Connections. Gas Monitoring Transducers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses three types of sensors; pressure, gas detection, and relative humidity. Explains their use for laboratory measurements of gas pressure and detection of specific gaseous species. Shows diagrams of devices and circuits along with examples and applications including microcomputer interfacing. (RT)

  16. Satellite Advanced Attitude Sensors at UNINA Lab GNC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardo, D.

    This paper presents the most recent activities at the Laboratory of Guidance, Navigation, and Control of the Department of Industrial Engineering dealing with design, development, and test of attitude sensors for space applications, in particular a micro sun sensor and a star tracker, along with laboratory facilities to test them indoors. The paper presents a detailed description of sensors as well as test facilities, and the results of two test campaigns that assessed the performance of the two devices.

  17. Computer integrated laboratory testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Charles C.

    1992-01-01

    The objective is the integration of computers into the Engineering Materials Science Laboratory course, where existing test equipment is not computerized. The first lab procedure is to demonstrate and produce a material phase change curve. The second procedure is a demonstration of the modulus of elasticity and related stress-strain curve, plastic performance, maximum and failure strength. The process of recording data by sensors that are connected to a data logger which adds a time base, and the data logger in turn connected to a computer, places the materials labs into a computer integrated mode with minimum expense and maximum flexibility. The sensor signals are input into a spread sheet for tabular records, curve generation, and graph printing.

  18. Analysis of geologic terrain models for determination of optimum SAR sensor configuration and optimum information extraction for exploration of global non-renewable resources. Pilot study: Arkansas Remote Sensing Laboratory, part 1, part 2, and part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.; Stiles, J. A.; Frost, F. S.; Shanmugam, K. S.; Smith, S. A.; Narayanan, V.; Holtzman, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Computer-generated radar simulations and mathematical geologic terrain models were used to establish the optimum radar sensor operating parameters for geologic research. An initial set of mathematical geologic terrain models was created for three basic landforms and families of simulated radar images were prepared from these models for numerous interacting sensor, platform, and terrain variables. The tradeoffs between the various sensor parameters and the quantity and quality of the extractable geologic data were investigated as well as the development of automated techniques of digital SAR image analysis. Initial work on a texture analysis of SEASAT SAR imagery is reported. Computer-generated radar simulations are shown for combinations of two geologic models and three SAR angles of incidence.

  19. Thermal system field performance predictions from laboratory and field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burks, Stephen D.; Haefner, David P.; Teaney, Brian P.; Doe, Joshua M.

    2016-05-01

    Laboratory measurements on thermal imaging systems are critical to understanding their performance in a field environment. However, it is rarely a straightforward process to directly inject thermal measurements into thermal performance modeling software to acquire meaningful results. Some of the sources of discrepancies between laboratory and field measurements are sensor gain and level, dynamic range, sensor display and display brightness, and the environment where the sensor is operating. If measurements for the aforementioned parameters could be performed, a more accurate description of sensor performance in a particular environment is possible. This research will also include the procedure for turning both laboratory and field measurements into a system model.

  20. Sensor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A [Idaho Falls, ID; Telschow, Kenneth L [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-12-22

    A sensor apparatus and method for detecting an environmental factor is shown that includes an acoustic device that has a characteristic resonant vibrational frequency and mode pattern when exposed to a source of acoustic energy and, futher, when exposed to an environmental factor, produces a different resonant vibrational frequency and/or mode pattern when exposed to the same source of acoustic energy.

  1. Gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  2. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, Jr., James R.; Edlund, David J.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Rayfield, George W.

    1991-01-01

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising (a) a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, operatively coupled to (b) a transducer capable of directly converting said expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response.

  3. Chemical sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  4. Assessment of fiber optic pressure sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemian, H.M.; Black, C.L.; Farmer, J.P.

    1995-04-01

    This report presents the results of a six-month Phase 1 study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing and describes the design and principle of operation of various fiber optic pressure sensors. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. In addition, current requirements for environmental and seismic qualification of sensors for nuclear power plants were reviewed to determine the extent of the qualification tests that fiber optic pressure sensors may have to meet before they can be used in nuclear power plants. This project has concluded that fiber optic pressure sensors are still in the research and development stage and only a few manufacturers exist in the US and abroad which supply suitable fiber optic pressure sensors for industrial applications. Presently, fiber optic pressure sensors are mostly used in special applications for which conventional sensors are not able to meet the requirements.

  5. Position sensors for segmented mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozière, Didier; Buous, Sébastien; Courteville, Alain

    2004-09-01

    There are currently several projects for giant telescopes with segmented mirrors under way. These future telescopes will have their primary mirror made of several thousand segments. The main advantage of segmentation is that it enables the active control of the whole mirror, so as to suppress the deformations of the support structure due to the wind, gravity, thermal inhomogeneities etc. ..., thus getting the best possible stigmatism. However, providing active control of segmented mirrors requires numerous accurate edges sensors. It is acknowledged that capacitance-based technology nowadays offers the best metrological performances-to-cost ratio. As the leader in capacitive technology, FOGALE nanotech offers an original concept which reduces the cost of instrumentation, sensors and electronics, while keeping a very high level of performances with a manufacturing process completely industrialised. We present here the sensors developed for the Segment Alignment Measurement System (SAMS) of the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). This patented solution represents an important improvement in terms of cost, to market the Position Sensors for Segmented Mirrors of ELTs, whilst maintaining a very high performance level. We present here the concept, the laboratory qualification, and the first trials on the 7 central segments of SALT. The laboratory results are good, and we are now working on the on-site implementation to improve the immunity of the sensors to environment.

  6. Foveating infrared image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarley, Paul L.; Massie, Mark A.; Curzan, Jon P.

    2007-09-01

    Nova Sensors, under sponsorship of the Munitions Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory, has developed a readout integrated circuit (ROIC) technology for focal plane arrays (FPAs) that permits an intelligent use of the available image data; this is especially effective for dealing with the large volume of data produced by today's large format FPAs. The "Variable Acuity Superpixel Imaging" (VASI TM) ROIC architecture allows for coverage of the entire field of view at high frame rates by permitting larger "superpixels" to be dynamically formed on the FPA in regions of relative unimportance, thus reducing the total number of pixel values required to be multiplexed off the FPA. In addition, multiple high-resolution "foveal" regions may be "flown" around the imager's field of view at a frame rate such that high-value targets may be sampled at the highest possible spatial resolution that the imager can produce. Nova Sensors has built numerous camera systems using 320 x 256 and 1K x 1K pixel versions of visible and infrared VASI TM FPAs. This paper reviews the technology and discusses numerous applications for this new class of imaging sensors.

  7. Gait Analysis Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Complete motion analysis laboratory has evolved out of analyzing walking patterns of crippled children at Stanford Children's Hospital. Data is collected by placing tiny electrical sensors over muscle groups of child's legs and inserting step-sensing switches in soles of shoes. Miniature radio transmitters send signals to receiver for continuous recording of abnormal walking pattern. Engineers are working to apply space electronics miniaturization techniques to reduce size and weight of telemetry system further as well as striving to increase signal bandwidth so analysis can be performed faster and more accurately using a mini-computer.

  8. Small Sensors for Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory is actively pursuing enhancing the nation's space weather sensing capability. One aspect of this plan is the concept of flying Space Weather sensor suites on host spacecraft as secondary payloads. The emergence and advancement of the CubeSat spacecraft architecture has produced a viable platform for scientifically and operationally relevant Space Weather sensing. This talk will provide an overview of NRL's low size weight and power sensor technologies targeting Space Weather measurements. A summary of on-orbit results of past and current missions will be presented, as well as an overview of future flights that are manifested and potential constellation missions.

  9. Laboratory Building.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  10. Laboratory Microcomputing

    PubMed Central

    York, William B.

    1984-01-01

    Microcomputers will play a major role in the laboratory, not only in the calculation and interpretation of clinical test data, but also will have an increasing place of importance in the management of laboratory resources in the face of the transition from revenue generating to the cost center era. We will give you a glimpse of what can be accomplished with the management data already collected by many laboratories today when the data are processed into meaningful reports.

  11. A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-01-01

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  12. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-01-01

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  13. Pressure sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Mee, David K.; Ripley, Edward B.; Nienstedt, Zachary C.; Nienstedt, Alex W.; Howell, Jr., Layton N.

    2015-09-29

    Disclosed is a passive, in-situ pressure sensor. The sensor includes a sensing element having a ferromagnetic metal and a tension inducing mechanism coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The tension inducing mechanism is operable to change a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal based on a change in pressure in the sensing element. Changes in pressure are detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal when subjected to an alternating magnetic field caused by the change in the tensile stress. The sensing element is embeddable in a closed system for detecting pressure changes without the need for any penetrations of the system for power or data acquisition by detecting changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  14. Corrosion sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S.; Clarke, Jr., Willis L.; Ciarlo, Dino R.

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion sensor array incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis.

  15. Corrosion sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, R.S.; Clarke, W.L. Jr.; Ciarlo, D.R.

    1994-04-26

    A corrosion sensor array is described incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis. 7 figures.

  16. Position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, Siegfried (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A radiant energy angle sensor is provided wherein the sensitive portion thereof comprises a pair of linear array detectors with each detector mounted normal to the other to provide X and Y channels and a pair of slits spaced from the pair of linear arrays with each of the slits positioned normal to its associated linear array. There is also provided electrical circuit means connected to the pair of linear array detectors and to separate X and Y axes outputs.

  17. Sensor assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Thomas E.; Nelson, Drew V.

    2004-04-13

    A ribbon-like sensor assembly is described wherein a length of an optical fiber embedded within a similar lengths of a prepreg tow. The fiber is ""sandwiched"" by two layers of the prepreg tow which are merged to form a single consolidated ribbon. The consolidated ribbon achieving a generally uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin does not ""pool"" around the periphery of the embedded fiber.

  18. Gas Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    High Technology Sensors, Inc.'s Model SS-250 carbon dioxide detector uses a patented semiconductor optical source that efficiently creates infrared radiation, which is focused through an airway on a detector. Carbon dioxide passing through the airway absorbs the radiation causing the detector to generate a signal. The small size and low power requirements of the SS-250 make it attractive for incorporation in a variety of medical instruments.

  19. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, Jr., James R.; Edlund, David J.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Rayfield, George W.

    1992-01-01

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material.

  20. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1992-06-09

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material. 12 figs.

  1. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, D.C.; Pigoski, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  2. High accuracy optical rate sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhde-Lacovara, J.

    1990-01-01

    Optical rate sensors, in particular CCD arrays, will be used on Space Station Freedom to track stars in order to provide inertial attitude reference. An algorithm to provide attitude rate information by directly manipulating the sensor pixel intensity output is presented. The star image produced by a sensor in the laboratory is modeled. Simulated, moving star images are generated, and the algorithm is applied to this data for a star moving at a constant rate. The algorithm produces accurate derived rate of the above data. A step rate change requires two frames for the output of the algorithm to accurately reflect the new rate. When zero mean Gaussian noise with a standard deviation of 5 is added to the simulated data of a star image moving at a constant rate, the algorithm derives the rate with an error of 1.9 percent at a rate of 1.28 pixels per frame.

  3. Effect of sensor-target-background distance on target tracking using a fly eye sensor.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif; Streeter, Robert W; Wright, Cameron H G; Barrett, Steven F; Frost, Susan A

    2014-01-01

    A multi-aperture optical sensor, known as a fly eye sensor, has been developed at the Wyoming Image and Signal Processing Research (WISPR) Laboratory based on the visual system of the common housefly Musca domestical. This biomimetic sensor shows promising edge detection capability, in varying contrast scenarios, with minimal processing overhead. Use of this sensor for fast motion detection, and object tracking is appealing, but optimizing the use of such a sensor requires detailed study. This paper analyzes the effect of placing the background at various distances greater than the target, and provides visualization of these example scenarios. A computer simulationof the sensor using MATLAB demonstrates that the placdementof a target closer to the sensor, and further from the background, affects the sensor response. If not properly considered, this may introduce ambiguities and degrade the performance of a tracking system based ont he flye eye sensor that requires precise location of the target in front of the sensor. This paper shows how a peroperly designed low-pass filter can greatly mitigate this effect with only a small degradation of the relative response magnitude at different distances from the sensor. PMID:25405451

  4. Influenza sensor

    DOEpatents

    Swanson, Basil I.; Song, Xuedong; Unkefer, Clifford; Silks, III, Louis A.; Schmidt, Jurgen G.

    2003-09-30

    A sensor for the detection of tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase within a sample is disclosed, where a positive detection indicates the presence of a target virus within the sample. Also disclosed is a trifunctional composition of matter including a trifunctional linker moiety with groups bonded thereto including (a) an alkyl chain adapted for attachment to a substrate, (b) a fluorescent moiety capable of generating a fluorescent signal, and (c) a recognition moiety having a spacer group of a defined length thereon, the recognition moiety capable of binding with tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase.

  5. Influenza Sensor

    DOEpatents

    Swanson, Basil I.; Song, Xuedong; Unkefer, Clifford; Silks, III, Louis A.; Schmidt, Jurgen G.

    2006-03-28

    A sensor for the detection of tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase within a sample is disclosed, where a positive detection indicates the presence of a target virus within the sample. Also disclosed is a trifunctional composition of matter including a trifunctional linker moiety with groups bonded thereto including (a) an alkyl chain adapted for attachment to a substrate, (b) a fluorescent moiety capable of generating a fluorescent signal, and (c) a recognition moiety having a spacer group of a defined length thereon, the recognition moiety capable of binding with tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase.

  6. Influenza Sensor

    DOEpatents

    Swanson, Basil I.; Song, Xuedong; Unkefer, Clifford; Silks, III, Louis A.; Schmidt, Jurgen G.

    2005-05-17

    A sensor for the detection of tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase within a sample is disclosed, where a positive detection indicates the presence of a target virus within the sample. Also disclosed is a trifunctional composition of matter including a trifunctional linker moiety with groups bonded thereto including (a) an alkyl chain adapted for attachment to a substrate, (b) a fluorescent moiety capable of generating a fluorescent signal, and (c) a recognition moiety having a spacer group of a defined length thereon, the recognition moiety capable of binding with tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase.

  7. Hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  8. Autonomous Robot System for Sensor Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    David Bruemmer; Douglas Few; Frank Carney; Miles Walton; Heather Hunting; Ron Lujan

    2004-03-01

    This paper discusses an innovative application of new Markov localization techniques that combat the problem of odometry drift, allowing a novel control architecture developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to be utilized within a sensor characterization facility developed at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) in Nevada. The new robotic capability provided by the INEEL will allow RSL to test and evaluate a wide variety of sensors including radiation detection systems, machine vision systems, and sensors that can detect and track heat sources (e.g. human bodies, machines, chemical plumes). By accurately moving a target at varying speeds along designated paths, the robotic solution allows the detection abilities of a wide variety of sensors to be recorded and analyzed.

  9. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Medical Devices Products and Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Lab Tests Laboratory Tests Share Tweet Linkedin ... Approved Home and Lab Tests Find All In Vitro Diagnostic Products and Decision Summaries Since November 2003 ...

  10. Microcantilever sensor

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Wachter, Eric A.

    1998-01-01

    An improved microcantilever sensor is fabricated with at least one microcantilever attached to a piezoelectric transducer. The microcantilever is partially surface treated with a compound selective substance having substantially exclusive affinity for a targeted compound in a monitored atmosphere. The microcantilever sensor is also provided with a frequency detection means and a bending detection means. The frequency detection means is capable of detecting changes in the resonance frequency of the vibrated microcantilever in the monitored atmosphere. The bending detection means is capable of detecting changes in the bending of the vibrated microcantilever in the monitored atmosphere coactively with the frequency detection means. The piezoelectric transducer is excited by an oscillator means which provides a signal driving the transducer at a resonance frequency inducing a predetermined order of resonance on the partially treated microcantilever. Upon insertion into a monitored atmosphere, molecules of the targeted chemical attach to the treated regions of the microcantilever resulting in a change in oscillating mass as well as a change in microcantilever spring constant thereby influencing the resonant frequency of the microcantilever oscillation. Furthermore, the molecular attachment of the target chemical to the treated regions induce areas of mechanical strain in the microcantilever consistent with the treated regions thereby influencing microcantilever bending. The rate at which the treated microcantilever accumulates the target chemical is a function of the target chemical concentration. Consequently, the extent of microcantilever oscillation frequency change and bending is related to the concentration of target chemical within the monitored atmosphere.

  11. Semiconductor sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, Harry C. (Inventor); Lagowski, Jacek (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A semiconductor sensor adapted to detect with a high degree of sensitivity small magnitudes of a mechanical force, presence of traces of a gas or light. The sensor includes a high energy gap (i.e., .about. 1.0 electron volts) semiconductor wafer. Mechanical force is measured by employing a non-centrosymmetric material for the semiconductor. Distortion of the semiconductor by the force creates a contact potential difference (cpd) at the semiconductor surface, and this cpd is determined to give a measure of the force. When such a semiconductor is subjected to illumination with an energy less than the energy gap of the semiconductors, such illumination also creates a cpd at the surface. Detection of this cpd is employed to sense the illumination itself or, in a variation of the system, to detect a gas. When either a gas or light is to be detected and a crystal of a non-centrosymmetric material is employed, the presence of gas or light, in appropriate circumstances, results in a strain within the crystal which distorts the same and the distortion provides a mechanism for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the gas or the light, as the case may be.

  12. Microcantilever sensor

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, T.G.; Wachter, E.A.

    1998-02-17

    An improved microcantilever sensor is fabricated with at least one microcantilever attached to a piezoelectric transducer. The microcantilever is partially surface treated with a compound selective substance having substantially exclusive affinity for a targeted compound in a monitored atmosphere. The microcantilever sensor is also provided with a frequency detection means and a bending detection means. The frequency detection means is capable of detecting changes in the resonance frequency of the vibrated microcantilever in the monitored atmosphere. The bending detection means is capable of detecting changes in the bending of the vibrated microcantilever in the monitored atmosphere coactively with the frequency detection means. The piezoelectric transducer is excited by an oscillator means which provides a signal driving the transducer at a resonance frequency inducing a predetermined order of resonance on the partially treated microcantilever. Upon insertion into a monitored atmosphere, molecules of the targeted chemical attach to the treated regions of the microcantilever resulting in a change in oscillating mass as well as a change in microcantilever spring constant thereby influencing the resonant frequency of the microcantilever oscillation. Furthermore, the molecular attachment of the target chemical to the treated regions induce areas of mechanical strain in the microcantilever consistent with the treated regions thereby influencing microcantilever bending. The rate at which the treated microcantilever accumulates the target chemical is a function of the target chemical concentration. Consequently, the extent of microcantilever oscillation frequency change and bending is related to the concentration of target chemical within the monitored atmosphere. 16 figs.

  13. Force sensor

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, Allen R.

    1993-01-01

    A force sensor and related method for determining force components. The force sensor includes a deformable medium having a contact surface against which a force can be applied, a signal generator for generating signals that travel through the deformable medium to the contact surface, a signal receptor for receiving the signal reflected from the contact surface, a generation controller, a reception controller, and a force determination apparatus. The signal generator has one or more signal generation regions for generating the signals. The generation controller selects and activates the signal generation regions. The signal receptor has one or more signal reception regions for receiving signals and for generating detections signals in response thereto. The reception controller selects signal reception regions and detects the detection signals. The force determination apparatus measures signal transit time by timing activation and detection and, optionally, determines force components for selected cross-field intersections. The timer which times by activation and detection can be any means for measuring signal transit time. A cross-field intersection is defined by the overlap of a signal generation region and a signal reception region.

  14. Force sensor

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, A.R.

    1993-05-11

    A force sensor and related method for determining force components is described. The force sensor includes a deformable medium having a contact surface against which a force can be applied, a signal generator for generating signals that travel through the deformable medium to the contact surface, a signal receptor for receiving the signal reflected from the contact surface, a generation controller, a reception controller, and a force determination apparatus. The signal generator has one or more signal generation regions for generating the signals. The generation controller selects and activates the signal generation regions. The signal receptor has one or more signal reception regions for receiving signals and for generating detections signals in response thereto. The reception controller selects signal reception regions and detects the detection signals. The force determination apparatus measures signal transit time by timing activation and detection and, optionally, determines force components for selected cross-field intersections. The timer which times by activation and detection can be any means for measuring signal transit time. A cross-field intersection is defined by the overlap of a signal generation region and a signal reception region.

  15. ISDSN Sensor System Phase One Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gail Heath

    2011-09-01

    This Phase 1 Test Report documents the test activities and results completed for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) sensor systems that will be deployed in the meso-scale test bed (MSTB) at Florida International University (FIU), as outlined in the ISDSN-MSTB Test Plan. This report captures the sensor system configuration tested; test parameters, testing procedure, any noted changes from the implementation plan, acquired test data sets, and processed results.

  16. Handheld interface for miniature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedia, Sunny; Samson, Scott A.; Farmer, Andrew; Smith, Matthew C.; Fries, David; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2005-02-01

    Miniaturization of laboratory sensors has been enabled by continued evolution of technology. Field portable systems are often desired, because they reduce sample handling, provide rapid feedback capability, and enhance convenience. Fieldable sensor systems should include a method for initiating the analysis, storing and displaying the results, while consuming minimal power and being compact and portable. Low cost will allow widespread usage of these systems. In this paper, we discuss a reconfigurable Personal Data Assistant (PDA) based control and data collection system for use with miniature sensors. The system is based on the Handspring visor PDA and a custom designed motherboard, which connects directly to the PDA microprocessor. The PDA provides a convenient and low cost graphical user interface, moderate processing capability, and integrated battery power. The low power motherboard provides the voltage levels, data collection, and input/output (I/O) capabilities required by many MEMS and miniature sensors. These capabilities are relayed to connectors, where an application specific daughterboard is attached. In this paper, two applications are demonstrated. First, a handheld nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) detection sensor consisting of a heated and optical fluorescence detection system is discussed. Second, an electrostatically actuated MEMS micro mirror controller is realized.

  17. INL Subsurface Wireless Sensor Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis C. Kunerth; John M. Svoboda; James T. Johnson

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory is developing a versatile micro-power sensor interface platform for periodic subsurface sensing of environmental variables important to waste disposal sites such as volumetric moisture, water potential, and temperature. The key characteristics of the platform architecture are that the platform is passive until externally energized --no internal power source is required -- and that it communicates with a "reader" via short-range telemetry - no wires penetrate the subsurface. Other significant attributes include the potential for a long service life and a compact size that makes it well suited for retrofitting existing landfill structures. Functionally, the sensor package is "read" by a short-range induction coil that activates and powers the sensor platform as well as detects the sensor output via a radio frequency signal generated by the onboard programmable interface controller microchip. As a result, the platform has a functional subsurface communication range of approximately 10 to 12 ft. and can only accept sensors that require low power to operate.

  18. Robot Position Sensor Fault Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Hal A.

    1997-01-01

    Robot systems in critical applications, such as those in space and nuclear environments, must be able to operate during component failure to complete important tasks. One failure mode that has received little attention is the failure of joint position sensors. Current fault tolerant designs require the addition of directly redundant position sensors which can affect joint design. A new method is proposed that utilizes analytical redundancy to allow for continued operation during joint position sensor failure. Joint torque sensors are used with a virtual passive torque controller to make the robot joint stable without position feedback and improve position tracking performance in the presence of unknown link dynamics and end-effector loading. Two Cartesian accelerometer based methods are proposed to determine the position of the joint. The joint specific position determination method utilizes two triaxial accelerometers attached to the link driven by the joint with the failed position sensor. The joint specific method is not computationally complex and the position error is bounded. The system wide position determination method utilizes accelerometers distributed on different robot links and the end-effector to determine the position of sets of multiple joints. The system wide method requires fewer accelerometers than the joint specific method to make all joint position sensors fault tolerant but is more computationally complex and has lower convergence properties. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory manipulator. Both position determination methods were shown to track the actual position satisfactorily. A controller using the position determination methods and the virtual passive torque controller was able to servo the joints to a desired position during position sensor failure.

  19. Glutamine Flux Imaging Using Genetically Encoded Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Besnard, Julien; Okumoto, Sakiko

    2014-01-01

    Genetically encoded sensors allow real-time monitoring of biological molecules at a subcellular resolution. A tremendous variety of such sensors for biological molecules became available in the past 15 years, some of which became indispensable tools that are used routinely in many laboratories. One of the exciting applications of genetically encoded sensors is the use of these sensors in investigating cellular transport processes. Properties of transporters such as kinetics and substrate specificities can be investigated at a cellular level, providing possibilities for cell-type specific analyses of transport activities. In this article, we will demonstrate how transporter dynamics can be observed using genetically encoded glutamine sensor as an example. Experimental design, technical details of the experimental settings, and considerations for post-experimental analyses will be discussed. PMID:25146898

  20. Studying insect motion with piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mika, Bartosz; Lee, Hyungoo; González, Jorge M.; Vinson, S. Bradleigh; Liang, Hong

    2007-04-01

    Piezoelectric materials have been widely used in applications such as transducers, acoustic components, as well as motion, pressure and airborne sensors. Because of the material's biocompatibility and flexibility, we have been able to apply small piezoelectric sensors, made of PVDF, to cockroaches. We built a laboratory test system to study the piezoelectric properties of a bending sensor. The tested motion was compared with that of the sensor attached to a cockroach. Surface characterization and finite element analysis revealed the effects of microstructure on piezoelectric response. The sensor attachment enables us to monitor the insects' locomotion and study their behaviors. The applications of engineering materials to insects opens the door to innovating approaches to integrating biological, mechanical and electrical systems.

  1. Sensors, Update 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    1996-12-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Treatments include current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Furthermore, the sensor market as well as peripheral aspects such as standards are covered. Each volume is divided into four sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides an overview of suppliers and market trends for a particular section, and Sensor Standards, reviews recent legislation and requirements for sensors. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  2. A design of driving circuit for star sensor imaging camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Da-wei; Yang, Xiao-xu; Han, Jun-feng; Liu, Zhao-hui

    2016-01-01

    The star sensor is a high-precision attitude sensitive measuring instruments, which determine spacecraft attitude by detecting different positions on the celestial sphere. Imaging camera is an important portion of star sensor. The purpose of this study is to design a driving circuit based on Kodak CCD sensor. The design of driving circuit based on Kodak KAI-04022 is discussed, and the timing of this CCD sensor is analyzed. By the driving circuit testing laboratory and imaging experiments, it is found that the driving circuits can meet the requirements of Kodak CCD sensor.

  3. High-temperature fiber optic pressure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthold, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Attention is given to a program to develop fiber optic methods to measure diaphragm deflection. The end application is intended for pressure transducers capable of operating to 540 C. In this paper are reported the results of a laboratory study to characterize the performance of the fiber-optic microbend sensor. The data presented include sensitivity and spring constant. The advantages and limitations of the microbend sensor for static pressure measurement applications are described. A proposed design is presented for a 540 C pressure transducer using the fiber optic microbend sensor.

  4. Optimization Strategies for Sensor and Actuator Placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Kincaid, Rex K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of actuator and sensor placement problems from a wide range of engineering disciplines and a variety of applications. Combinatorial optimization methods are recommended as a means for identifying sets of actuators and sensors that maximize performance. Several sample applications from NASA Langley Research Center, such as active structural acoustic control, are covered in detail. Laboratory and flight tests of these applications indicate that actuator and sensor placement methods are effective and important. Lessons learned in solving these optimization problems can guide future research.

  5. Mass Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    2001-01-18

    The purpose of this CRADA was to use Honeywell's experience in low temperature cofire ceramics and traditional ceramics to assemble a relatively low-cost, mass-producible miniature mass analyzer. The specific design, given to us by Mass Sensors, LLC, was used to test for helium. The direct benefit for the participant was to have a prototype unit assembled for the purpose of proof of concept and the ability to secure venture capital investors. From that, the company would begin producing their own product for sale. The consumer/taxpayer benefits come from the wide variety of industries that can utilize this technology to improve quality of life. Medical industry can use this technology to improve diagnostic ability; manufacturing industry can use it for improved air, water, and soil monitoring to minimize pollution; and the law enforcement community can use this technology for identification of substances. These are just a few examples of the benefit of this technology. The benefits to DOE were in the area of process improvement for cofire and ceramic materials. From this project we demonstrated nonlinear thickfilm fine lines and spaces that were 5-mil wide with 5-mil spaces; determined height-to diameter-ratios for punched and filled via holes; demonstrated the ability to punch and fill 5-mil microvias; developed and demonstrated the capability to laser cut difficult geometries in 40-mil ceramic; developed and demonstrated coupling LTCC with standard alumina and achieving hermetic seals; developed and demonstrated three-dimensional electronic packaging concepts; and demonstrated printing variable resistors within 1% of the nominal value and within a tightly defined ratio. The capability of this device makes it invaluable for many industries. The device could be used to monitor air samples around manufacturing plants. It also could be used for monitoring automobile exhaust, for doing blood gas analysis, for sampling gases being emitted by volcanoes, for studying

  6. Handheld Universal Diagnostic Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The rHEALTH technology is designed to shrink an entire hospital testing laboratory onto a handheld device. A physician or healthcare provider performs the test by collecting a fingerstick of blood from a patient. The tiny volume of blood is inserted into the rHEALTH device. Inside the device is a microfluidic chip that contains small channels about the width of a human hair. These channels help move the blood and analyze the blood sample. The rHEALTH sensor uses proprietary reagents called nanostrips, which are nanoscale test strips that enable the clinical assays. The readout is performed by laser-induced fluorescence. Overall, the time from blood collection through analysis is less than a minute.

  7. Fiber optic light sensor.

    PubMed

    Chudyk, Wayne; Flynn, Kyle F

    2015-06-01

    We describe a low-cost fiber optic sensor for measuring photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in turbulent flow. Existing technology was combined in a novel way for probe development addressing the need for a small but durable instrument for use in flowing water. Optical components including fiber optics and a wide-spectrum light detector were used to separate light collection from electronic detection so that measurements could be completed in either the field or laboratory, in air or underwater. Connection of the detector to Arduino open-source electronics and a portable personal computer (PC) enabled signal processing and allowed data to be stored in a spreadsheet for ease of analysis. Calibration to a commercial cosine-corrected instrument showed suitable agreement with the added benefit that the small sensor face allowed measurements in tight spaces such as close to the streambed or within leafy or filamentous plant growth. Subsequently, we applied the probe in a separate study where over 35 experiments were successfully completed to characterize downward light attenuation in filamentous algae in turbulent flow. PMID:26009160

  8. Terminal Descent Sensor Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Curtis W.

    2009-01-01

    Sulcata software simulates the operation of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) radar terminal descent sensor (TDS). The program models TDS radar antennas, RF hardware, and digital processing, as well as the physics of scattering from a coherent ground surface. This application is specific to this sensor and is flexible enough to handle end-to-end design validation. Sulcata is a high-fidelity simulation and is used for performance evaluation, anomaly resolution, and design validation. Within the trajectory frame, almost all internal vectors are represented in whatever coordinate system is used to represent platform position. The trajectory frame must be planet-fixed. The platform body frame is specified relative to arbitrary reference points relative to the platform (spacecraft or test vehicle). Its rotation is a function of time from the trajectory coordinate system specified via dynamics input (file for open loop, callback for closed loop). Orientation of the frame relative to the body is arbitrary, but constant over time. The TDS frame must have a constant rotation and translation from the platform body frame specified at run time. The DEM frame has an arbitrary, but time-constant, rotation and translation with respect to the simulation frame specified at run time. It has the same orientation as sigma0 frame, but is possibly translated. Surface sigma0 has the same arbitrary rotation and translation as DEM frame.

  9. Echosonography with proximity sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaisiam, W.; Laithong, T.; Meekhun, S.; Chaiwathyothin, N.; Thanlarp, P.; Danworaphong, S.

    2013-03-01

    We propose the use of a commercial ultrasonic proximity sensor kit for profiling an altitude-varying surface by employing echosonography. The proximity sensor kit, two identical transducers together with its dedicated operating circuit, is used as a profiler for the construction of an image. Ultrasonic pulses are emitted from one of the transducers and received by the other. The time duration between the pulses allows us to determine the traveling distance of each pulse. In the experiment, the circuit is used with the addition of two copper wires for directing the outgoing and incoming signals to an oscilloscope. The time of flight of ultrasonic pulses can thus be determined. Square grids of 5 × 5 cm2 are made from fishing lines, forming pixels in the image. The grids are designed to hold the detection unit in place, about 30 cm above a flat surface. The surface to be imaged is constructed to be height varying and placed on the flat surface underneath the grids. Our result shows that an image of the profiled surface can be created by varying the location of the detection unit along the grid. We also investigate the deviation in relation to the time of flight of the ultrasonic pulse. Such an experiment should be valuable for conveying the concept of ultrasonic imaging to physical and medical science undergraduate students. Due to its simplicity, the setup could be made in any undergraduate laboratory relatively inexpensively and it requires no complex parts. The results illustrate the concept of echosonography.

  10. Methods for Testing the Mars Science Laboratory's Landing Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapin, Elaine; Grando, Maurio B.; Hamilton, Gary A.; Pak, Kyung S.; Pollard, Brian D.; Shaffer, Scott J.; Wu, Chialin

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory's rover named Curiosity successfully landed on Mars on August 6, 2012. One component of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) system was the Terminal Descent Sensor (TDS) landing radar. In this paper we describe laboratory testing of this radar performed before launch.

  11. Distributed sensor coordination for advanced energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tumer, Kagan

    2015-03-12

    Motivation: The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reliable operation of advanced power systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have enabled some level of decision making directly at the sensor level. However, coordinating large numbers of sensors, particularly heterogeneous sensors, to achieve system level objectives such as predicting plant efficiency, reducing downtime or predicting outages requires sophisticated coordination algorithms. Indeed, a critical issue in such systems is how to ensure the interaction of a large number of heterogenous system components do not interfere with one another and lead to undesirable behavior. Objectives and Contributions: The long-term objective of this work is to provide sensor deployment, coordination and networking algorithms for large numbers of sensors to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. Our two specific objectives are to: 1. Derive sensor performance metrics for heterogeneous sensor networks. 2. Demonstrate effectiveness, scalability and reconfigurability of heterogeneous sensor network in advanced power systems. The key technical contribution of this work is to push the coordination step to the design of the objective functions of the sensors, allowing networks of heterogeneous sensors to be controlled. By ensuring that the control and coordination is not specific to particular sensor hardware, this approach enables the design and operation of large heterogeneous sensor networks. In addition to the coordination coordination mechanism, this approach allows the system to be reconfigured in response to changing needs (e.g., sudden external events requiring new responses) or changing sensor network characteristics (e.g., sudden changes to plant condition). Impact: The impact of this work extends to a large class of problems relevant to the National Energy Technology Laboratory including sensor placement, heterogeneous sensor

  12. Next-generation PIR security sensors: concept testing and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddiard, Kevin C.

    2009-05-01

    In previous presentations to this SPIE forum a new technology was outlined aimed at replacing pyroelectric sensors with resistance microbolometer MOEMS-based sensors capable of vastly superior performance. The technology can be implemented as either a PCB replacement to current sensors, giving extended detection range and ability to sense slow temperature change, or a 'smart' sensor with further performance enhancements and imaging capability. This paper reports the results of new laboratory and field tests of a laboratory prototype sensor and extrapolates these results to performance of production sensors. In particular, results are presented for NETD, detection range for human targets and detection of simulated electrical faults and developing fires. Previous results were reported for FPA operated without evacuation and using a low cost plastic Fresnel lens. However with wafer level packaging now becoming widely available in MEMS and CMOS foundries, much high performance can be achieved, opening up many additional applications. Performance of new FPAs designed for vacuum packaging is highlighted.

  13. Gait analysis using a shoe-integrated wireless sensor system.

    PubMed

    Bamberg, Stacy J Morris; Benbasat, Ari Y; Scarborough, Donna Moxley; Krebs, David E; Paradiso, Joseph A

    2008-07-01

    We describe a wireless wearable system that was developed to provide quantitative gait analysis outside the confines of the traditional motion laboratory. The sensor suite includes three orthogonal accelerometers, three orthogonal gyroscopes, four force sensors, two bidirectional bend sensors, two dynamic pressure sensors, as well as electric field height sensors. The "GaitShoe" was built to be worn in any shoe, without interfering with gait and was designed to collect data unobtrusively, in any environment, and over long periods. The calibrated sensor outputs were analyzed and validated with results obtained simultaneously from the Massachusetts General Hospital, Biomotion Laboratory. The GaitShoe proved highly capable of detecting heel-strike and toe-off, as well as estimating foot orientation and position, inter alia. PMID:18632321

  14. Laboratory Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Jonathan

    The need for flexibility in science research facilities is discussed, with emphasis on the effect of that need on the design of laboratories. The relationship of office space, bench space, and special equipment areas, and the location and distribution of piping and air conditioning, are considered particularly important. This building type study…

  15. Laboratory diagnosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the first major goals of the microbiology laboratory is to isolate or detect clinically significant microorganisms from an affected site and, if more than one type of microorganism is present, to isolate them in approximately the same ratio as occurs in vivo. Whether an isolate is “clinically...

  16. Ambient and laboratory measurements of ice nuclei and their biological faction with the Fast Ice Nuclei CHamber FINCH-HALO using the new 405nm Version of the BIO-IN Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundke, U.; Nillius, B.; Bingemer, H.; Curtius, J.

    2012-04-01

    We have designed the BIO-IN detector as part of the ice nucleus counter FINCH (Fast Ice Nuclei CHamber counter) to distinguish activated Ice Nuclei (IN) ice crystals from water droplets (CCN) (Bundke et al. 2008) and their fraction of biological origin (Bundke 2010). The modified BIO-IN sensor illuminates an aerosol stream with a 405 nm laser, replacing a 365nm LED of the original BIO IN design. Particles will scatter the light and those of biological origin will show intrinsic fluorescence emissions by excitation of mainly Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2. The incident laser light is circularly polarized by introducing a quarter-wave-plate. The circular depolarization ratio (p44/p11) of the scattering matrix is measured in the backward direction by two photomultipliers at 110° scattering angle using a combination of quarter-wave-plate and a beam splitting cube to analyze the two circular polarization components. The detection limit was lowered towards particle size of about 400nm diameter (non activated particles). It is now possible to calculate the activated fraction of IN of biological origin with respect to all biological particles measured with one detector. The performance of the sensor will be demonstrated showing the circular- depolarization properties of different test aerosol, dust samples, volcanic ashes as well as different biological particles. Measurements on the mountain Puy de Dôme of IN number concentration of ambient air, as well as measurements at the AIDA facility in Karlsruhe of the IN activation curves from different bacteria are shown. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the German Research Foundation, Grant: BU 1432/3-2 BU 1432/4-1

  17. Performance Evaluation Modeling of Network Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clare, Loren P.; Jennings, Esther H.; Gao, Jay L.

    2003-01-01

    Substantial benefits are promised by operating many spatially separated sensors collectively. Such systems are envisioned to consist of sensor nodes that are connected by a communications network. A simulation tool is being developed to evaluate the performance of networked sensor systems, incorporating such metrics as target detection probabilities, false alarms rates, and classification confusion probabilities. The tool will be used to determine configuration impacts associated with such aspects as spatial laydown, and mixture of different types of sensors (acoustic, seismic, imaging, magnetic, RF, etc.), and fusion architecture. The QualNet discrete-event simulation environment serves as the underlying basis for model development and execution. This platform is recognized for its capabilities in efficiently simulating networking among mobile entities that communicate via wireless media. We are extending QualNet's communications modeling constructs to capture the sensing aspects of multi-target sensing (analogous to multiple access communications), unimodal multi-sensing (broadcast), and multi-modal sensing (multiple channels and correlated transmissions). Methods are also being developed for modeling the sensor signal sources (transmitters), signal propagation through the media, and sensors (receivers) that are consistent with the discrete event paradigm needed for performance determination of sensor network systems. This work is supported under the Microsensors Technical Area of the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Advanced Sensors Collaborative Technology Alliance.

  18. Networked sensor communications for the objective force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemeroff, Jay L.; Garcia, Luis; Hampel, Daniel; DiPierro, Stefano

    2002-08-01

    The US Army's Future Combat Systems (FCS) and Objective Force will rely heavily on the use of unattended sensor networks to detect, locate and identify enemy targets in order to survive with less armor protection on the future battlefield. Successful implementation of these critical communication networks will require the collection of the sensor data, processing and collating it with available intelligence, then transporting it in a format conducive to make quick and accurate command decisions based on the latest tactical situational awareness. The networked communications must support both static deployed and mobile ground and air robotic sensors with secure, stealthy, and jam resistant links for sensor fusion and command and control. It is envisioned for broadest application that sensor networks can be deployed in a two-tiered architecture. The architecture includes a lower sensor sub- layer consisting of mixes of acoustic, magnetic and seismic detectors and an upper sub-layer consisting of infrared or visual imagers. The upper sub-layer can be cued by the lower sub-layer and provides a gateway link to the higher echelon tactical maneuver layer networks such as the Tactical Internet. The sensor deployments, networking constraints and reach back distances to Command and Control (C2) nodes will be mission scenario specific, however, the architecture will also apply to tactical unattended sensor, munition and robotic application. Technologies from the Army Research Laboratory, Defense Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and commercial will be leveraged for this effort.

  19. Networked sensor communications for the objective force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemeroff, Jay L.; Garcia, Luis; Hampel, Daniel; Di Pierro, Stefano

    2002-08-01

    The US Army's Future Combat Systems (FCS) and Objective Force will rely heavily on the use of unattended sensor networks to detect, locate and identify enemy targets in order to survive with less armor protection on the future battlefield. Successful implementation of these critical communication networks will require the collection of the sensor data, processing and collating it with available intelligence, then transporting it in a format conducive to make quick and accurate command decisions based on the latest tactical situational awareness. The networked communications must support both static deployed and mobile ground and air robotic sensors with secure, stealthy, and jam resistant links for sensor fusion and command and control. It is envisioned for broadest application that sensor networks can be deployed in a two-tiered architecture. The architecture includes a lower sensor sub-layer consisting of mixes of acoustic, magnetic and seismic detectors and an upper sub-layer consisting of infrared or visual imagers. The upper sub-layer can be cued by the lower sub-layer and provides a gateway link to the higher echelon tactical maneuver layer networks such as the Tactical Internet. The sensor deployments, networking constraints and reach back distances to Command and Control (C2) nodes will be mission scenario specific, however, the architecture will also apply to tactical unattended sensor, munition and robotic applications. Technologies from the Army Research Laboratory, Defense Advance Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and commercial will be leveraged for this effort.

  20. Transducer Signal Noise Analysis for Sensor Authentication

    SciTech Connect

    John M. Svoboda; Mark J. Schanfein

    2012-07-01

    The abstract is being passed through STIMS for submision to the conference. International safeguards organizations charged with promoting the peaceful use of nuclear energy employ unattended and remote monitoring systems supplemented with onsite inspections to ensure nuclear materials are not diverted for weaponization purposes. These systems are left unattended for periods of several months between inspections. During these periods physical security means are the main deterrent used to detect intentional monitoring system tampering. The information gathering components are locked in secure and sealed rooms. The sensor components (i.e. neutron and gamma detectors) are located throughout the plant in unsecure areas where sensor tampering could take place during the periods between inspections. Sensor tampering could allow the diversion of nuclear materials from the accepted and intended use to uses not consistent with the peaceful use of nuclear energy. A method and an apparatus is presented that address the detection of sensor tampering during the periods between inspections. It was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) in support of the IAEA. The method is based on the detailed analysis of the sensor noise floor after the sensor signal is removed. The apparatus consists of a 2.1” x 2.6” electronic circuit board containing all signal conditioning and processing components and a laptop computer running an application that acquires and stores the analysis results between inspection periods. The sensors do not require any modification and are remotely located in their normal high radiation zones. The apparatus interfaces with the sensor signal conductors using a simple pass through connector at the normal sensor electronics interface package located in the already secure and sealed rooms. The apparatus does not require hardening against the effects of radiation due to its location. Presented is the apparatus design

  1. Leak Detection and H2 Sensor Development

    SciTech Connect

    Brosha, Eric L.

    2012-07-10

    Low-cost, durable, and reliable Hydrogen safety sensor for vehicle, stationary, and infrastructure applications. A new zirconia, electrochemical-based sensor technology is being transitioned out of the laboratory and into an advanced testing phase for vehicular and stationary H{sub 2} safety applications. Mixed potential sensors are a class of electrochemical devices that develop an open-circuit electromotive force due to the difference in the kinetics of the redox reactions of various gaseous species at each electrode/electrolyte/gas interface, referred to as the triple phase boundary (TPB). Therefore, these sensors have been considered for the sensing of various reducible or oxidizable gas species in the presence of oxygen. Based on this principle, a unique sensor design was developed by LANL and LLNL. The uniqueness of this sensor derives from minimizing heterogeneous catalysis (detrimental to sensor response) by avoiding gas diffusion through a catalytically active material and minimizing diffusion path to the TPB. Unlike the conventional design of these devices that use a dense solid electrolyte and porous thin film electrodes (similar to the current state-of-the-art zirconia-based sensors and fuel cells), the design of this sensor uses dense electrodes and porous electrolytes. Such a sensor design facilitates a stable and reproducible device response, since dense electrode morphologies are easy to reproduce and are significantly more stable than the conventional porous morphologies. Moreover, these sensors develop higher mixed potentials since the gas diffusion is through the less catalytically active electrolyte than the electrode. Lastly, the choice of electrodes is primarily based on their O2 reduction kinetics and catalytic properties vis-a-vis the target gas of interest.

  2. Improved, Easier-To-Use Tunneling Infrared Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard E.; Maker, Paul D.; Vote, Erika C.; Kaiser, William J.; Kenny, Thomas W.; Podosek, Judith A.

    1995-01-01

    Designs of electron-tunneling infrared sensors and micromachining processes used to fabricate them modified to increase sensitivity and to simplify operation, adjustment, and associated circuitry. Corrugations, pinholes, and standard packaging incorporated into design. Deflection voltages reduced, and thermal drifts eliminated. Performances exceed those of other commercially available, uncooled infrared sensors. Operation of sensors simplified to such extent, now feasible to ship them to nonexpert users for routine testing and evaluation in their laboratories.

  3. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2003-06-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particles in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements.

  4. Mars Science Laboratory Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi B.

    2010-01-01

    The Drill for the Mars Science Laboratory mission is a rotary-percussive sample acquisition device with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. The unique challenges associated with autonomous drilling from a mobile robot are addressed. A highly compressed development schedule dictated a modular design architecture that satisfies the functional and load requirements while allowing independent development and testing of the Drill subassemblies. The Drill consists of four actuated mechanisms: a spindle that rotates the bit, a chuck that releases and engages bits, a novel voice-coil-based percussion mechanism that hammers the bit, and a linear translation mechanism. The Drill has three passive mechanisms: a replaceable bit assembly that acquires and collects sample, a contact sensor / stabilizer mechanism, and, lastly a flex harness service loop. This paper describes the various mechanisms that makeup the Drill and discusses the solutions to their unique design and development challenges.

  5. Sensor response rate accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Vogt, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for sensor signal prediction and for improving sensor signal response time, is disclosed. An adaptive filter or an artificial neural network is utilized to provide predictive sensor signal output and is further used to reduce sensor response time delay.

  6. Multi-Sensor Testing for Automated Rendezvous and Docking Sensor Testing at the Flight Robotics Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewster, Linda L.; Howard, Richard T.; Johnston, A. S.; Carrington, Connie; Mitchell, Jennifer D.; Cryan, Scott P.

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Architecture defines missions that require rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) of two spacecraft both in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and in Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). Uncrewed spacecraft must perform automated and/or autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations and docking operations (commonly known as AR&D). The crewed missions may also perform rendezvous and docking operations and may require different levels of automation and/or autonomy, and must provide the crew with relative navigation information for manual piloting. The capabilities of the RPOD sensors are critical to the success ofthe Exploration Program. NASA has the responsibility to determine whether the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) contractor-proposed relative navigation sensor suite will meet the requirements. The relatively low technology readiness level of AR&D relative navigation sensors has been carried as one of the CEV Project's top risks. The AR&D Sensor Technology Project seeks to reduce the risk by the testing and analysis of selected relative navigation sensor technologies through hardware-in-the-Ioop testing and simulation. These activities will provide the CEV Project information to assess the relative navigation sensors maturity as well as demonstrate test methods and capabilities. The first year of this project focused on a series of "pathfinder" testing tasks to develop the test plans, test facility requirements, trajectories, math model architecture, simulation platform, and processes that will be used to evaluate the Contractor-proposed sensors. Four candidate sensors were used in the first phase of the testing. The second phase of testing used four sensors simultaneously: two Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Video Guidance Sensors (AVGS), a laser-based video sensor that uses retroreflectors attached to the target vehicle, and two commercial laser range finders. The multi-sensor testing was conducted at MSFC's Flight Robotics Laboratory (FRL

  7. Building battlefield sensor environments with the VIEWS Workbench

    SciTech Connect

    Hield, C.W.; Christiansen, J.H.; Simunich, K.L.; Woyna, M.A.

    1993-08-01

    The visual Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Simulation (VIEWS) Workbench software system has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory to enable Army intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW) analysts at (UNIX) workstations to conveniently build detailed IEW battlefield scenarios, or ``sensor environments,`` to drive the Army`s high-resolution IEW sensor performance models. Views is fully object-oriented, including the underlying database.

  8. Modeling battlefield sensor environments with the views workbench

    SciTech Connect

    Woyna, M.A.; Christiansen, J.H.; Hield, C.W.; Simunich, K.L.

    1994-08-01

    The Visual Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Simulation (VIEWS) Workbench software system has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to enable Army intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW) analysts at Unix workstations to conveniently build detailed IEW battlefield scenarios, or ``sensor environments,`` to drive he Army`s high-resolution IEW sensor performance models. VIEWS is fully object-oriented, including the underlying database.

  9. EDITORIAL: Humidity sensors Humidity sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regtien, Paul P. L.

    2012-01-01

    produced at relatively low cost. Therefore, they find wide use in lots of applications. However, the method requires a material that possesses some conflicting properties: stable and reproducible relations between air humidity, moisture uptake and a specific property (for instance the length of a hair, the electrical impedance of the material), fast absorption and desorption of the water vapour (to obtain a short response time), small hysteresis, wide range of relative humidity (RH) and temperature-independent output (only responsive to RH). For these reasons, much research is done and is still going on to find suitable materials that combine high performance and low price. In this special feature, three of the four papers report on absorption sensors, all with different focus. Aziz et al describe experiments with newly developed materials. The surface structure is extensively studied, in view of its ability to rapidly absorb water vapour and exhibit a reproducible change in the resistance and capacitance of the device. Sanchez et al employ optical fibres coated with a thin moisture-absorbing layer as a sensitive humidity sensor. They have studied various coating materials and investigated the possibility of using changes in optical properties of the fibre (here the lossy mode resonance) due to a change in humidity of the surrounding air. The third paper, by Weremczuk et al, focuses on a cheap fabrication method for absorption-based humidity sensors. The inkjet technology appears to be suitable for mass fabrication of such sensors, which is demonstrated by extensive measurements of the electrical properties (resistance and capacitance) of the absorbing layers. Moreover, they have developed a model that describes the relation between humidity and the electrical parameters of the moisture-sensitive layer. Despite intensive research, absorption sensors still do not meet the requirements for high accuracy applications. The dew-point temperature method is more appropriate

  10. Fiber optic sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, J.; Sohler, W.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of the developments in the field of fiber optics sensor technology is presented along with a discussion of the advantages of optical measuring instruments as compared with electronic sensors. The two primary types of fiber optics sensors, specifically those with multiwave fibers and those with monowave fibers, are described. Examples of each major sensor type are presented and discussed. Multiwave detectors include external and internal fiber optics sensors. Among the monowave detectors are Mach-Zender interferometers, Michelson interferometers, Sagnac interferometers (optical gyroscopes), waveguide resonators, and polarimeter sensors. Integrated optical sensors and their application in spectroscopy are briefly discussed.

  11. Crossflow vorticity sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J. (Inventor); Carraway, Debra L. (Inventor); Holmes, Harlan K. (Inventor); Moore, Thomas C. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A crossflow vorticity sensor for the detection of crossflow vorticity characteristics is described. The sensor is comprised of crossflow sensors which are noninvasively adhered to a swept wing laminar surface either singularly, in multi-element strips, in polar patterns, or in orthogonal patterns. These crossflow sensors are comprised of hot-film sensor elements which operate as a constant temperature anemometer circuit to detect heat transfer rate changes. Accordingly, crossflow vorticity characteristics are determined via cross-correlation. In addition, the crossflow sensors have a thickness which does not exceed a maximum value h in order to avoid contamination of downstream crossflow sensors.

  12. Sensors, Update 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    1996-10-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Furthermore, the sensor market as well as peripheral aspects such as standards are covered. Each volume is divided into four sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  13. Advanced Sensor Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, D. C.; Howard, D. E.; Smith, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Sensor Concepts project was conducted under the Center Director's Discretionary Fund at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Its objective was to advance the technology originally developed for the Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology project. The objective of this effort was to develop and test several new motion sensors. To date, the investigators have invented seven new technologies during this endeavor and have conceived several others. The innovative basic sensor technology is an absolute position sensor. It employs only two active components, and it is simple, inexpensive, reliable, repeatable, lightweight, and relatively unobtrusive. Two sensors can be utilized in the same physical space to achieve redundancy. The sensor has micrometer positional accuracy and can be configured as a two- or three-dimensional sensor. The sensor technology has the potential to pioneer a new class of linear and rotary sensors. This sensor is the enabling technology for autonomous assembly of modular structures in space and on extraterrestrial locations.

  14. Lunar laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  15. Sensor sentinel computing device

    DOEpatents

    Damico, Joseph P.

    2016-08-02

    Technologies pertaining to authenticating data output by sensors in an industrial environment are described herein. A sensor sentinel computing device receives time-series data from a sensor by way of a wireline connection. The sensor sentinel computing device generates a validation signal that is a function of the time-series signal. The sensor sentinel computing device then transmits the validation signal to a programmable logic controller in the industrial environment.

  16. Combustion Sensors: Gas Turbine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Human, Mel

    2002-01-01

    This report documents efforts to survey the current research directions in sensor technology for gas turbine systems. The work is driven by the current and future requirements on system performance and optimization. Accurate real time measurements of velocities, pressure, temperatures, and species concentrations will be required for objectives such as combustion instability attenuation, pollutant reduction, engine health management, exhaust profile control via active control, etc. Changing combustor conditions - engine aging, flow path slagging, or rapid maneuvering - will require adaptive responses; the effectiveness of such will be only as good as the dynamic information available for processing. All of these issues point toward the importance of continued sensor development. For adequate control of the combustion process, sensor data must include information about the above mentioned quantities along with equivalence ratios and radical concentrations, and also include both temporal and spatial velocity resolution. Ultimately these devices must transfer from the laboratory to field installations, and thus must become low weight and cost, reliable and maintainable. A primary conclusion from this study is that the optics-based sensor science will be the primary diagnostic in future gas turbine technologies.

  17. Active Self-Testing Noise Measurement Sensors for Large-Scale Environmental Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Federico; Cuong, Nguyen The; Reinoso, Felipe; Touhafi, Abdellah; Steenhaut, Kris

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale noise pollution sensor networks consist of hundreds of spatially distributed microphones that measure environmental noise. These networks provide historical and real-time environmental data to citizens and decision makers and are therefore a key technology to steer environmental policy. However, the high cost of certified environmental microphone sensors render large-scale environmental networks prohibitively expensive. Several environmental network projects have started using off-the-shelf low-cost microphone sensors to reduce their costs, but these sensors have higher failure rates and produce lower quality data. To offset this disadvantage, we developed a low-cost noise sensor that actively checks its condition and indirectly the integrity of the data it produces. The main design concept is to embed a 13 mm speaker in the noise sensor casing and, by regularly scheduling a frequency sweep, estimate the evolution of the microphone's frequency response over time. This paper presents our noise sensor's hardware and software design together with the results of a test deployment in a large-scale environmental network in Belgium. Our middle-range-value sensor (around €50) effectively detected all experienced malfunctions, in laboratory tests and outdoor deployments, with a few false positives. Future improvements could further lower the cost of our sensor below €10. PMID:24351634

  18. Sensor Authentication in Collaborating Sensor Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bielefeldt, Jake Uriah

    2014-11-01

    In this thesis, we address a new security problem in the realm of collaborating sensor networks. By collaborating sensor networks, we refer to the networks of sensor networks collaborating on a mission, with each sensor network is independently owned and operated by separate entities. Such networks are practical where a number of independent entities can deploy their own sensor networks in multi-national, commercial, and environmental scenarios, and some of these networks will integrate complementary functionalities for a mission. In the scenario, we address an authentication problem wherein the goal is for the Operator Oi of Sensor Network Si to correctly determine the number of active sensors in Network Si. Such a problem is challenging in collaborating sensor networks where other sensor networks, despite showing an intent to collaborate, may not be completely trustworthy and could compromise the authentication process. We propose two authentication protocols to address this problem. Our protocols rely on Physically Unclonable Functions, which are a hardware based authentication primitive exploiting inherent randomness in circuit fabrication. Our protocols are light-weight, energy efficient, and highly secure against a number of attacks. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first to addresses a practical security problem in collaborating sensor networks.

  19. Sensor Data Management, Validation, Correction, and Provenance for Building Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Castello, Charles C; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Rossiter, Jeffrey S; Hensley, Zachary; New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducts research on technologies that use a wide range of sensors to develop and characterize building energy performance. The management of high-resolution sensor data, analysis, and tracing lineage of such activities is challenging. Missing or corrupt data due to sensor failure, fouling, drifting, calibration error, or data logger failure is another issue. This paper focuses on sensor data management, validation, correction, and provenance to combat these issues, ensuring complete and accurate sensor datasets for building technologies applications and research. The design and development of two integrated software products are discussed: Sensor Data Validation and Correction (SensorDVC) and the Provenance Data Management System (ProvDMS) platform.

  20. Generalised optical differentiation wavefront sensor: a sensitive high dynamic range wavefront sensor.

    PubMed

    Haffert, S Y

    2016-08-22

    Current wavefront sensors for high resolution imaging have either a large dynamic range or a high sensitivity. A new kind of wavefront sensor is developed which can have both: the Generalised Optical Differentiation wavefront sensor. This new wavefront sensor is based on the principles of optical differentiation by amplitude filters. We have extended the theory behind linear optical differentiation and generalised it to nonlinear filters. We used numerical simulations and laboratory experiments to investigate the properties of the generalised wavefront sensor. With this we created a new filter that can decouple the dynamic range from the sensitivity. These properties make it suitable for adaptive optic systems where a large range of phase aberrations have to be measured with high precision. PMID:27557179

  1. Experimental Robot Position Sensor Fault Tolerance Using Accelerometers and Joint Torque Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Hal A.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1997-01-01

    Robot systems in critical applications, such as those in space and nuclear environments, must be able to operate during component failure to complete important tasks. One failure mode that has received little attention is the failure of joint position sensors. Current fault tolerant designs require the addition of directly redundant position sensors which can affect joint design. The proposed method uses joint torque sensors found in most existing advanced robot designs along with easily locatable, lightweight accelerometers to provide a joint position sensor fault recovery mode. This mode uses the torque sensors along with a virtual passive control law for stability and accelerometers for joint position information. Two methods for conversion from Cartesian acceleration to joint position based on robot kinematics, not integration, are presented. The fault tolerant control method was tested on several joints of a laboratory robot. The controllers performed well with noisy, biased data and a model with uncertain parameters.

  2. Multi-sensor Testing for Automated Rendezvous and Docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Carrington, Connie K.

    2008-01-01

    During the past two years, many sensors have been tested in an open-loop fashion in the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Flight Robotics Laboratory (FRL) to both determine their suitability for use in Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) systems and to ensure the test facility is prepared for future multi-sensor testing. The primary focus of this work was in support of the CEV AR&D system, because the AR&D sensor technology area was identified as one of the top risks in the program. In 2006, four different sensors were tested individually or in a pair in the MSFC FRL. In 2007, four sensors, two each of two different types, were tested simultaneously. In each set of tests, the target was moved through a series of pre-planned trajectories while the sensor tracked it. In addition, a laser tracker "truth" sensor also measured the target motion. The tests demonstrated the functionality of testing four sensors simultaneously as well as the capabilities (both good and bad) of all of the different sensors tested. This paper outlines the test setup and conditions, briefly describes the facility, summarizes the earlier results of the individual sensor tests, and describes in some detail the results of the four-sensor testing. Post-test analysis includes data fusion by minimum variance estimation and sequential Kalman filtering. This Sensor Technology Project work was funded by NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program.

  3. Six component robotic force-torque sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grahn, Allen R.; Hutchings, Brad L.; Johnston, David R.; Parsons, David C.; Wyatt, Roland F.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a two-phase contract studying the feasibility of a miniaturized six component force-torque sensor and development of a working laboratory system were described. The principle of operation is based upon using ultrasonic pulse-echo ranging to determine the position of ultrasonic reflectors attached to a metal or ceramic cover plate. Because of the small size of the sensor, this technology may have application in robotics, to sense forces and torques at the finger tip of a robotic end effector. Descriptions are included of laboratory experiments evaluating materials and techniques for sensor fabrication and of the development of support electronics for data acquisition, computer interface, and operator display.

  4. Orlando 737 Windshear Sensor Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center's 737 'flying laboratory' flight tested three advance warning windshear sensors. The laser beams seen in the photograph were used to align the optical hardware of the infrared (located in front of the windows) and LIDAR (Light Detecting And Ranging) systems. In addition, a microwave doppler radar system is installed in the aircraft nose.

  5. EMBEDDED FIBER OPTIC SENSORS FOR INTEGRAL ARMOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the work performed with Production Products Manufacturing & Sales (PPMS), Inc., under the "Liquid Molded Composite Armor Smart Structures Using Embedded Sensors" Small Business Innovative Research (SBlR) Program sponsored by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory...

  6. Autonomous collection of dynamically-cued multi-sensor imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Brian; Wilson, Michael L.; Edelberg, Jason; Jensen, Mark; Johnson, Troy; Anderson, Scott

    2011-05-01

    The availability of imagery simultaneously collected from sensors of disparate modalities enhances an image analyst's situational awareness and expands the overall detection capability to a larger array of target classes. Dynamic cooperation between sensors is increasingly important for the collection of coincident data from multiple sensors either on the same or on different platforms suitable for UAV deployment. Of particular interest is autonomous collaboration between wide area survey detection, high-resolution inspection, and RF sensors that span large segments of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in conjunction with the Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL) is building sensors with such networked communications capability and is conducting field tests to demonstrate the feasibility of collaborative sensor data collection and exploitation. Example survey / detection sensors include: NuSAR (NRL Unmanned SAR), a UAV compatible synthetic aperture radar system; microHSI, an NRL developed lightweight hyper-spectral imager; RASAR (Real-time Autonomous SAR), a lightweight podded synthetic aperture radar; and N-WAPSS-16 (Nighttime Wide-Area Persistent Surveillance Sensor-16Mpix), a MWIR large array gimbaled system. From these sensors, detected target cues are automatically sent to the NRL/SDL developed EyePod, a high-resolution, narrow FOV EO/IR sensor, for target inspection. In addition to this cooperative data collection, EyePod's real-time, autonomous target tracking capabilities will be demonstrated. Preliminary results and target analysis will be presented.

  7. Liquid Bismuth Propellant Flow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Stanojev, B. J.; Korman, V.

    2007-01-01

    Quantifying the propellant mass flow rate in liquid bismuth-fed electric propulsion systems has two challenging facets. First, the flow sensors must be capable of providing a resolvable measurement at propellant mass flow rates on the order of 10 mg/see with and uncertainty of less that 5%. The second challenge has to do with the fact that the materials from which the flow sensors are fabricated must be capable of resisting any of the corrosive effects associated with the high-temperature propellant. The measurement itself is necessary in order to properly assess the performance (thrust efficiency, Isp) of thruster systems in the laboratory environment. The hotspot sensor[I] has been designed to provide the bismuth propellant mass flow rate measurement. In the hotspot sensor, a pulse of thermal energy (derived from a current pulse and associated joule heating) is applied near the inlet of the sensor. The flow is "tagged" with a thermal feature that is convected downstream by the flowing liquid metal. Downstream, a temperature measurement is performed to detect a "ripple" in the local temperature associated with the passing "hotspot" in the propellant. By measuring the time between the upstream generation and downstream detection of the thermal feature, the flow speed can be calculated using a "time of flight" analysis. In addition, the system can be calibrated by measuring the accumulated mass exiting the system as a-function of time and correlating this with the time it takes the hotspot to convect through the sensor. The primary advantage of this technique is that it doesn't depend on an absolute measurement of temperature but, instead, relies on the observation of thermal features. This makes the technique insensitive to other externally generated thermal fluctuations. In this paper, we describe experiments performed using the hotspot flow sensor aimed at quantifying the resolution of the sensor technology. Propellant is expelled onto an electronic scale to

  8. Novel Corrosion Sensor for Vision 21 Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heng Ban; Bharat Soni

    2007-03-31

    Advanced sensor technology is identified as a key component for advanced power systems for future energy plants that would have virtually no environmental impact. This project intends to develop a novel high temperature corrosion sensor and subsequent measurement system for advanced power systems. Fireside corrosion is the leading mechanism for boiler tube failures and has emerged to be a significant concern for current and future energy plants due to the introduction of technologies targeting emissions reduction, efficiency improvement, or fuel/oxidant flexibility. Corrosion damage can lead to catastrophic equipment failure, explosions, and forced outages. Proper management of corrosion requires real-time indication of corrosion rate. However, short-term, on-line corrosion monitoring systems for fireside corrosion remain a technical challenge to date due to the extremely harsh combustion environment. The overall goal of this project is to develop a technology for on-line fireside corrosion monitoring. This objective is achieved by the laboratory development of sensors and instrumentation, testing them in a laboratory muffle furnace, and eventually testing the system in a coal-fired furnace. This project successfully developed two types of sensors and measurement systems, and successful tested them in a muffle furnace in the laboratory. The capacitance sensor had a high fabrication cost and might be more appropriate in other applications. The low-cost resistance sensor was tested in a power plant burning eastern bituminous coals. The results show that the fireside corrosion measurement system can be used to determine the corrosion rate at waterwall and superheater locations. Electron microscope analysis of the corroded sensor surface provided detailed picture of the corrosion process.

  9. Sensors, Update 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2003-04-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  10. Sensors, Update 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    2001-02-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections: Sensor Technology reviews highlights in applied and basic research, while Sensor Applications covers new or improved applications of sensors, and Sensor Markets provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be invaluable to scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  11. Sensors, Update 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2003-03-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field, presenting the current highlights of sensor and related microelectromechanical systems technology. Coverage includes most recent developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles based on micro- and nanotechnology. Each volume is divided into three sections: Sensor Technology reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications covers new or improved applications of sensors and Sensor Markets provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update is of must-have value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  12. Sensors, Update 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2002-04-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  13. Sensors, Update 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    2001-10-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  14. Surface micromachined sensors and actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Sniegowski, J.J.

    1995-08-01

    A description of a three-level mechanical polysilicon surface-micromachining technology including a discussion of the advantages of this level of process complexity is presented. This technology is capable of forming mechanical elements ranging from simple cantilevered beams to complex, interconnected, interactive, microactuated micromechanisms. The inclusion of a third deposited layer of mechanical polysilicon greatly extends the degree of complexity available for micromechanism design. Additional features of the Sandia three-level process include the use of Chemical-Mechanical Polishing (CMP) for planarization, and the integration of micromechanics with the Sandia CMOS circuit process. The latter effort includes a CMOS-first, tungsten metallization process to allow the CMOS electronics to withstand high-temperature micromechanical processing. Alternatively, a novel micromechanics-first approach wherein the micromechanical devices are processed first in a well below the surface of the CMOS starting material followed by the standard, aluminum metallization CMOS process is also being pursued. Following the description of the polysilicon surface micromachining are examples of the major sensor and actuator projects based on this technology at the Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL) at Sandia National Laboratories. Efforts at the MDL are concentrated in the technology of surface micromachining due to the availability of and compatibility with standard CMOS processes. The primary sensors discussed are a silicon nitride membrane pressure sensor, hot polysilicon filaments for calorimetric gas sensing, and a smart hydrogen sensor. Examples of actuation mechanisms coupled to external devices are also presented. These actuators utilize the three-level process (plus an additional passive level) and employ either surface tension or electrostatic forces.

  15. Silicon sensor integration to form smart sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdeas, Leon; James, Daniel A.; Thiel, David V.; See, Le Lian

    2002-11-01

    The use of silicon-based sensors requires the addition of external support electronics to allow for compatibility with external logging and display instruments. The development of a smart sensor technology, where the support electronics are incorporated into the sensor allows for a simpler interface. To achieve this integration techniques are required for the connection of substrate sensors with drive and support circuitry (operational amplifiers and CMOS circuitry), for effective encapsulation into a single packaged device. In this paper a literature review of basic peripheral and internal interconnect techniques is presented. Three techniques for interconnects were experimentally investigated (wraparound, thermomigration and etched micro via"s) using in-house fabrication equipment and the results presented and discussed. An integrated "smart" light sensor was constructed by forming a schotkey diode on n-type silicon. The sensor was integrated with a commercially available LM324 quad operational amplifier die and etched micro via`s were used to connect between the electronics on one side and the silicon sensor on the other side so forming a smart sensor. The light level sensor was calibrated and tested for suitability as a solar intensity monitor.

  16. Design considerations for infrared fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Anheier, Norman C., Jr.; Osantowski, Robert E.; Matlock, Charlene A.; Olsen, Khris B.

    1994-03-01

    This presentation focuses on mechanical and electro-optical design considerations embodied in VOtectTM -- an infrared fiber optic sensor for volatile organic compounds. Presently, the VOtectTM system is configured for remote detection of hydrocarbon vapors associated with gasoline and other internal-combustion fuels. Using commercially available zirconate glass optical fibers, the sensor exploits the overlap of absorption spectra due to carbon-hydrogen stretching vibrations between 3.3 and 3.6 microns, with the optical output of an infrared HeNe laser operating at 3.39 microns. Compensation for position-dependent fiber bending losses is achieved using 1.15-micron radiation simultaneously emitted by the laser source. Initial laboratory evaluations of the VOtectTM system indicates detection sensitivities well below the lower explosion limits for petroleum distillates, indicating the usefulness of the sensor for petrochemical safety applications. The sensor is intrinsically safe (e.g., explosion-proof), since no electrical power is required at the probe tip. Preliminary sensor optical power budget calculations indicate that the zirconate fiber optic umbilical, which connects the sensor probe to the electro-optical detection system, can be as long as several hundred meters. Calibration data for a variety of hydrocarbons indicate linear relationships between ln(V/Vo) and vapor concentration, suggesting that the sensor should prove useful for on-line, real-time process control applications.

  17. OmniSense unattended ground sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuiddy, John

    2008-04-01

    McQ's OmniSense® Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) System has been deployed in large numbers to support current DOD warfighting efforts. This networked UGS system connects the user to the remotely deployed sensors to receive target information and to allow a user to remotely reconfigure the sensors. These intelligent sensors detect and classify the targets, in addition to, capturing a picture of the target. The ability to geographically distribute both the users and the sensors is based on using a network oriented common data structure. McQ developed and has implemented for tactical DOD use the Common Data Interchange Format (CDIF) sensor language. This has enabled UGS to be networked over NIPRnet and SIPRnet links so that operators in the field, at Forward Operating Bases, at Tactical Operations Centers, and at Command Centers can simultaneously share the data. The Army Research Laboratory has further enhanced and extended this network architecture by integrating a common radio (Blue Radio) and demonstrating in Army C4ISR exercises that UGS systems from multiple vendors can be integrated into the Future Combat System FBCB2 situation awareness capability. McQ has extended its OmniSense® UGS capability with direct network connectivity to the soldier, long range standoff imagers controlled over the network, terrestrial network relays, and with a new low cost OmniSenseCOR TM sensor. McQ will present an overview of the technology provided by the OmniSense® UGS system.

  18. Battery-free Wireless Sensor Network For Advanced Fossil-Fuel Based Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Jia

    2011-02-28

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the project supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG26-07NT4306. The aim of the project was to conduct basic research into battery-free wireless sensing mechanism in order to develop novel wireless sensors and sensor network for physical and chemical parameter monitoring in a harsh environment. Passive wireless sensing platform and five wireless sensors including temperature sensor, pressure sensor, humidity sensor, crack sensor and networked sensors developed and demonstrated in our laboratory setup have achieved the objective for the monitoring of various physical and chemical parameters in a harsh environment through remote power and wireless sensor communication, which is critical to intelligent control of advanced power generation system. This report is organized by the sensors developed as detailed in each progress report.

  19. NDE Activity at Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1993-01-01

    None, This is a viewgraph outline from an oral presentation. From Intro.: Our speaker will review the NDE technology under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Emphasis will be given to Ultrasonics and application of sensors to space technology. Further, the efforts of JPL in technology transfer to the industry in the area of NDE will be covered.

  20. New atmospheric sensor analysis study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, K. G.

    1985-01-01

    A progress report of the activities pertaining to the Atmospheric Sensor Analysis Study is given. The current revision of the Perkin-Elmer Operating System OS/32 MT 7.2.1 was installed on the Atmospheric Modeling and Simulation System (AMASS). This software appears to offer a means of distributing disc storage among the user community in a more optimal manner than previously available using the file manager. Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) software has been received from the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) and has been loaded onto the Perkin-Elmer. Extensive modifications will be required to permit the software to be compatible with the operating system.

  1. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2005-09-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest.

  2. Renewable-reagent electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Joseph; Olsen, Khris B.

    1999-01-01

    A new electrochemical probe(s) design allowing for continuous (renewable) reagent delivery. The probe comprises an integrated membrane-sampling/electrochemical sensor that prevents interferences from surface-active materials and greatly extends the linear range. The probe(s) is useful for remote or laboratory-based monitoring in connection with microdialysis sampling and electrochemical measurements of metals and organic compounds that are not readily detected in the absence of reacting with the compound. Also disclosed is a method of using the probe(s).

  3. [Biomimetic sensors in biomedical research].

    PubMed

    Gayet, Landry; Lenormand, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The recent research on both the synthesis of membrane proteins by cell-free systems and the reconstruction of planar lipid membranes, has led to the development of a cross-technology to produce biosensors or filters. Numerous biomimetic membranes are currently being standardized and used by the industry, such as filters containing aquaporin for water desalination, or used in routine at the laboratory scale, for example the bacteriorhodopsin as a light sensor. In the medical area, several fields of application of these biomimetic membranes are under consideration today, particularly for the screening of therapeutic molecules and for the developing of new tools in diagnosis, patient monitoring and personalized medicine. PMID:26152170

  4. Renewable-reagent electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, J.; Olsen, K.B.

    1999-08-24

    A new electrochemical probe(s) design allowing for continuous (renewable) reagent delivery is described. The probe comprises an integrated membrane sampling/electrochemical sensor that prevents interferences from surface-active materials and greatly extends the linear range. The probe(s) is useful for remote or laboratory-based monitoring in connection with microdialysis sampling and electrochemical measurements of metals and organic compounds that are not readily detected in the absence of reacting with the compound. Also disclosed is a method of using the probe(s). 19 figs.

  5. Non-intrusive speed sensor. [space shuttle main engine turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maram, J.; Wyett, L.

    1984-01-01

    A computerized literature search was performed to identify candidate technologies for remote, non-intrusive speed sensing applications in Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps. The three most promising technologies were subjected to experimental evaluation to quantify their performance characteristics under the harsh environmental requirements within the turbopumps. Although the infrared and microwave approaches demonstrated excellent cavitation immunity in laboratory tests, the variable-source magnetic speed sensor emerged as the most viable approach. Preliminary design of this speed sensor encountered no technical obstacles and resulted in viable and feasible speed nut, sensor housing, and sensor coil designs.

  6. Acoustic particle acceleration sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, J.B.; Barry, P.J.

    1996-04-01

    A crossed dipole array provides a directional receiving capability in a relatively small sensor package and is therefore very attractive for many applications in acoustics. Particle velocity measurements on two axes perpendicular to each other are required to provide the dipole signals. These can be obtained directly using particle velocity sensors or via simple transfer functions using acceleration and displacement sensors. Also, the derivative of the acoustic pressure with respect to space provides a signal proportional to the particle acceleration and gives rise to the pressure gradient sensor. Each of these sensors has strengths and drawbacks depending on the frequency regime of interest, the noise background, and whether a point or a line configuration of dipole sensors is desired. In this paper, the performance of acceleration sensors is addressed using a sensor concept developed at DREA. These sensors exploit bending stresses in a cantilever beam of piezoelectric material to obtain wide bandwidth and high sensitivity. Models which predict the acceleration sensitivity, pressure sensitivity, and natural frequency for this type of sensor are described. Experimental results obtained using several different versions of these sensors are presented and compared with theory. The predicted performance of acceleration sensors are compared with that of pressure gradient arrays and particle velocity sensors. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Laboratory Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the laboratory activities performed by PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project in support of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Program, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The results of these studies are contained in numerous reports (Lindenmeier et al. 2002; Serne et al. 2002a, 2002b, 2002c, 2002d, 2002e; Lindenmeier et al. 2003; Serne et al. 2004a, 2004b; Brown et al. 2005, 2006a, 2007; Serne et al. 2007) and have generated much of the data reported in Chapter 22 (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), Appendix G (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), and Cantrell et al. (2007, SST WMA Geochemistry Data Package – in preparation). Sediment samples and characterization results from PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project are also shared with other science and technology (S&T) research projects, such as those summarized in Chapter 12 (Associated Science Activities).

  8. Laboratory investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Ray W.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory studies related to cometary grains and the nuclei of comets can be broken down into three areas which relate to understanding the spectral properties, the formation mechanisms, and the evolution of grains and nuclei: (1) Spectral studies to be used in the interpretation of cometary spectra; (2) Sample preparation experiments which may shed light on the physical nature and history of cometary grains and nuclei by exploring the effects on grain emissivities resulting from the ways in which the samples are created; and (3) Grain processing experiments which should provide insight on the interaction of cometary grains with the environment in the immediate vicinity of the cometary nucleus as the comet travels from the Oort cloud through perihelion, and perhaps even suggestions regarding the relationship between interstellar grains and cometary matter. A summary is presented with a different view of lab experiments than is found in the literature, concentrating on measurement techniques and sample preparations especially relevant to cometary dust.

  9. Fiber optic chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Chuck C.; McCrae, David A.; Saaski, Elric W.

    1998-09-01

    This paper provides a broad overview of the field of fiber optic chemical sensors. Several different types of fiber optic sensors and probes are described, and references are cited for each category discussed.

  10. The evolution of Interior Intrusion Detection Technology at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.H.; Workhoven, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    Interior Intrusion Detection Technology began at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in 1975 as part of the Fixed Facilities Physical Protection Research and Development program sponsored by the US Department of Energy in connection with their nuclear safeguards effort. This paper describes the evolution of Interior Intrusion Detection Technology at Sandia National Laboratories from the beginning of the Interior Sensor Laboratory to the present. This Laboratory was established in 1976 to evaluate commercial interior intrusion sensors and to assist in site-specific intrusion detection system designs. Examples of special test techniques and new test equipment that were developed at the Lab are presented, including the Sandia Intruder Motion Simulator (SIMS), the Sensor and Environment Monitor (SEM), and the Sandia Interior Robot (SIR). We also discuss new sensors and unique sensor combinations developed when commercial sensors were unavailable and the future application of expert systems.