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Sample records for por sonda spm

  1. Effect of SPM-based cleaning POR on EUV mask performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.

    2011-11-01

    EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning POR and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning POR.

  2. Coal resources of the Sonda coal field, Sindh Province, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, R.E.; Riaz, Khan M.; Ahmed, Khan S.

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 4.7 billion t of original coal resources, ranging from lignite A to subbituminous C in rank, are estimated to be present in the Sonda coal field. These resources occur in 10 coal zones in the Bara Formation of Paleocene age. The Bara Formation does not out crop in the area covered by this report. Thin discontinuous coal beds also occur in the Sonhari Member of the Laki Formation, of Paleocene and Eocene age, but they are unimportant as a resource of the Sonda coal field. The coal resource assessment was based on 56 exploratory drill holes that were completed in the Sonda field between April 1986 and February 1988. The Sonda coal field is split into two, roughly equal, areas by the southwestward flowing Indus River, a major barrier to the logistics of communications between the two halves. As a result the two halves, called the Sonda East and Sonda West areas, were evaluated at different times by slightlydifferent techniques; but, because the geology is consistent between the two areas, the results of both evaluations have been summarized in this report. The resource estimates for the Sonda East area, approximately 1,700 million t, were based on the thickest coal bed in each zone at each drill hole. This method gives a conservative estimate of the total amount of coal in the Sonda East area. The resource estimates for the Sonda West area, approximately 3,000 million t, were based on cumulative coal bed thicknesses within each coal zone, resulting in a more liberal estimate. In both cases, minimum parameters for qualifying coal were a thickness of 30 cm or greater and no more than 50% ash; partings thicker than 1 cm were excluded. The three most important coal zones in the Sonda field are the Inayatabad, the Middle Sonda and the Lower Sonda. Together, these three coal zones contain 50% of the total resources. Isopachs were constructed for the thickest coal beds in these three coal zones and indicate large variations in thickness over relatively small

  3. 40 CFR 58.20 - Special purpose monitors (SPM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Special Purpose Monitors § 58.20 Special purpose monitors (SPM... ozone NAAQS solely on data from the SPM. (e) If an SPM using an FRM, FEM, or ARM is discontinued...

  4. SPM for functional identification of individual biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Robert; Schwesinger, Falk; Padeste, Celestino; Plueckthun, Andreas; Anselmetti, Dario; Guentherodt, Hans-Joachim; Tiefenauer, Louis

    1999-06-01

    The identification of specific binding molecules is of increasing interest in the context of drug development based on combinatorial libraries. Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) is the method of choice to image and probe individual biomolecules on a surface. Functional identification of biomolecules is a first step towards screening on a single molecule level. As a model system we use recombinant single- chain Fv fragment (scFv) antibody molecules directed against the antigen fluorescein. The scFv's are covalently immobilized on a flat gold surface via the C-terminal cysteine, resulting in a high accessibility of the binding site. The antigen is immobilized covalently via a long hydrophilic spacer to the silicon nitride SPM-tip. This arrangement allows a direct measurement of binding forces. Thus, closely related antibody molecules differing in only one amino acid at their binding site could be distinguished. A novel SPM-software has been developed which combines imaging, force spectroscopic modes, and online analysis. This is a major prerequisite for future screening methods.

  5. High Speed SPM of Functional Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Huey, Bryan D.

    2015-08-14

    The development and optimization of applications comprising functional materials necessitates a thorough understanding of their static and dynamic properties and performance at the nanoscale. Leveraging High Speed SPM and concepts enabled by it, efficient measurements and maps with nanoscale and nanosecond temporal resolution are uniquely feasible. This includes recent enhancements for topographic, conductivity, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties as originally proposed, as well as newly developed methods or improvements to AFM-based mechanical, friction, thermal, and photoconductivity measurements. The results of this work reveal fundamental mechanisms of operation, and suggest new approaches for improving the ultimate speed and/or efficiency, of data storage systems, magnetic-electric sensors, and solar cells.

  6. SPM nanolithography of hydroxy-silicates.

    PubMed

    Valdrè, G; Moro, D; Hounsome, C M; Antognozzi, M

    2012-09-28

    Bio-nanopatterning of surfaces is becoming a crucial technique with applications ranging from molecular and cell biology to medicine. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is one of the most useful tools for nanopatterning of flat surfaces. However, these patterns are usually built on homogeneous surfaces and require chemical functionalization to ensure specific affinity. Layered magnesium-aluminum hydroxide-silicates have already shown unique self-assembly properties on DNA molecules, due to their peculiar crystal chemistry based on alternating positive and negative crystal layers. However, patterns on these surfaces tend to be randomly organized. Here we show etching and oxidation at the nanometer scale of magnesium-aluminum hydroxide-silicates using the same SPM probe for the creation of organized nanopatterns. In particular, it is possible to produce three-dimensional structures in a reproducible way, with a depth resolution of 0.4 nm, lateral resolution of tens of nm, and a speed of about 10 μm s(-1). We report, as an example, the construction of an atomically flat charged pattern, designed to guide DNA deposition along predetermined directions without the need of any chemical functionalization of the surface. PMID:22948182

  7. 40 CFR 58.20 - Special purpose monitors (SPM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Special Purpose Monitors § 58.20 Special purpose monitors (SPM... Administrator will not base a NAAQS violation determination for the PM2.5 or ozone NAAQS solely on data from...

  8. 40 CFR 58.20 - Special purpose monitors (SPM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Special Purpose Monitors § 58.20 Special purpose monitors (SPM... Administrator will not base a NAAQS violation determination for the PM2.5 or ozone NAAQS solely on data from...

  9. A micro-SPM head array with exchangeable cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, S.; Wolff, H.; Herrmann, K.; Brand, U.; Hiller, K.; Hahn, S.; Sorger, A.; Mehner, J.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper a MEMS based micro-SPM head array is proposed to enhance the performance of the currently available nano-measuring machines and effectively reduce the measurement time for large specimen. It consists of 1 × N ( N = 7 in our case) micro-SPM heads/units, realized in one chip by MEMS technique. And it can be easily extended to a micro- SPM head matrix. The main part of the micro-SPM head is the MEMS-positioning stage, which is realized on the basis of an electrostatic lateral comb-drive actuator. In order to take the advantage of the high lateral resolution of conventional cantilevers, a flexible cantilever gripper was designed to be integrated into the MEMS-positioning stage within the SPM head. Conventional cantilevers can be mechanically mounted onto the MEMS-positioning stage or dismantled from the MEMS-positioning stage after the tip is worn out. In this way, the well-designed and calibrated MEMS-positioning stage can be repeatedly and efficiently utilized. The structure design and simulation of mechanical and electrical performances of the mico-SPM head will be detailed in this paper. First experimental results proved the feasibility of the cantilever gripper design.

  10. Ultra low-dose CT attenuation correction in PET SPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shyh-Jen; Yang, Bang-Hung; Tsai, Chia-Jung; Yang, Ching-Ching; Lee, Jason J. S.; Wu, Tung-Hsin

    2010-07-01

    The use of CT images for attenuation correction (CTAC) allows significantly shorter scanning time and a high quality noise-free attenuation map compared with conventional germanium-68 transmission scan because at least 10 4 times greater of photon flux would be generated from a CT scan under standard operating condition. However, this CTAC technique would potentially introduce more radiation risk to the patients owing to the higher radiation exposure from CT scan. Statistic parameters mapping (SPM) is a prominent technique in nuclear medicine community for the analysis of brain imaging data. The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of low-dose CT (LDCT) and ultra low-dose CT (UDCT) in PET SPM applications. The study was divided into two parts. The first part was to evaluate of tracer uptake distribution pattern and quantity analysis by using the striatal phantom to initially assess the feasibility of AC for clinical purpose. The second part was to examine the group SPM analysis using the Hoffman brain phantom. The phantom study is to simulate the human brain and to reduce the experimental uncertainty of real subjects. The initial studies show that the results of PET SPM analysis have no significant differences between LDCT and UDCT comparing to the current used default CTAC. Moreover, the dose of the LDCT is lower than that of the default CT by a factor of 9, and UDCT can even yield a 42 times dose reduction. We have demonstrated the SPM results while using LDCT and UDCT for PET AC is comparable to those using default CT setting, suggesting their feasibility in PET SPM applications. In addition, the necessity of UDCT in PET SPM studies to avoid excess radiation dose is also evident since most of the subjects involved are non-cancer patients or children and some normal subjects are even served as a comparison group in the experiment. It is our belief that additional attempts to decrease the radiation dose would be valuable, especially for children and

  11. Optimal geometry for a quartz multipurpose SPM sensor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary We propose a geometry for a piezoelectric SPM sensor that can be used for combined AFM/LFM/STM. The sensor utilises symmetry to provide a lateral mode without the need to excite torsional modes. The symmetry allows normal and lateral motion to be completely isolated, even when introducing large tips to tune the dynamic properties to optimal values. PMID:23844342

  12. EEG and MEG Data Analysis in SPM8

    PubMed Central

    Litvak, Vladimir; Mattout, Jérémie; Kiebel, Stefan; Phillips, Christophe; Henson, Richard; Kilner, James; Barnes, Gareth; Oostenveld, Robert; Daunizeau, Jean; Flandin, Guillaume; Penny, Will; Friston, Karl

    2011-01-01

    SPM is a free and open source software written in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc.). In addition to standard M/EEG preprocessing, we presently offer three main analysis tools: (i) statistical analysis of scalp-maps, time-frequency images, and volumetric 3D source reconstruction images based on the general linear model, with correction for multiple comparisons using random field theory; (ii) Bayesian M/EEG source reconstruction, including support for group studies, simultaneous EEG and MEG, and fMRI priors; (iii) dynamic causal modelling (DCM), an approach combining neural modelling with data analysis for which there are several variants dealing with evoked responses, steady state responses (power spectra and cross-spectra), induced responses, and phase coupling. SPM8 is integrated with the FieldTrip toolbox , making it possible for users to combine a variety of standard analysis methods with new schemes implemented in SPM and build custom analysis tools using powerful graphical user interface (GUI) and batching tools. PMID:21437221

  13. Multifunctional universal SPM nanoprobe fabrication with laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiko, V. P.; Golubok, A. O.; Levichev, V. V.; Zuong, Z.; Yakovlev, E. B.

    2009-05-01

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a high spatial resolution method of surface topography visualization and measurement of its local properties. The detecting of interaction arising between the sharp solid-state probe and the sample surface is the foundation of SPM. In dependence from nature of this interaction the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), scanning force microscopy (SFM), scanning near field optical microscopy (SNOM), etc. are distinguished. The spatial resolution of all types of probe microscopy determines both sharpness of increasing of interaction between a probe and a sample at their approach, and shape and size of a top of a solid-state probe. So, the progress in SPM information capabilities is highly depends on probe properties and first of all on properly fabricated aperture size. Fabrication procedures are rather complicated because of nanometric scale size of aperture and hard requirements to reproducibility and need to be improved. The way how to do it by laser-assisted drawing-out is involving of feed-back in a processing procedure-results in two types of feedback for the process of drawing-out has been suggested, tested and installed into the technological set-up. Different probes have been fabricated by above mentioned laser-assisted stretching during this work: SNOM types from optical fibers, micropipettes from quartz glass capillaries, micropipettes with microwires inside and with metallic covers outside. Some examples of application of above mentioned combined probes for cell membrane technology are described. Most important from them are topographical studying of cells and bacteria in living condition (in liquid) and studying of the mechanical properties of cell (rigidity of cell membrane) using the nanopipette as a tip of a force sensor. Except for that using the model sample the measurement of ion current that runs through nanopipette which also carries out a role of a tip of a force sensor have been done. Thus it is shown, that using

  14. Air emissions assessment from offshore oil activities in Sonda de Campeche, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; González-Macías, C; Miranda, A; López-Salinas, E

    2005-10-01

    Air emission data from offshore oil platforms, gas and oil processing installations and contribution of marine activities at the Sonda de Campeche, located at the Gulf of Mexico, were compiled and integrated to facilitate the study of long range transport of pollutants into the region. From this important region, roughly 76% of the total Mexican oil and gas production is obtained. It was estimated that the total air emissions of all contaminants are approximately 821,000 tons per year. Hydrocarbons are the largest pollutant emissions with 277,590 tons per year, generated during flaring activities, and SOx in second place with 185,907 tons per year. Marine and aviation activities contribute with less than 2% of total emissions. Mass of pollutants emitted per barrel of petroleum produced calculated in this work, are in the range reported by similar oil companies. PMID:16240194

  15. Tectonic evolution, structural styles, and oil habitat in the Sonda de Campeche, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Angeles-Aquino, F.J.; Reyes-Nunez, J.; Quezada-Muneton, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The Sonda de Campeche is located in the southern part of the Gulf of Mexico and hosts one half of the oil reserves of Mexico. The stratigraphic section is 7500 m thick, ranging from Middle Jurassic to Holocene. The Mesozoic sequence includes Callovian salt deposits, Upper Jurassic sandstones, anhydrites, limestones, and shales; and Cretaceous limestones, dolomites, and carbonate breccias. In some places, this sequence displays condensed sections related to an early movement of salt. The Cenozoic sequence is formed mostly of benthonitic shales and minor sandstones, and shows two unconformities: the older one between the lower Miocene and the Oligocene, and the younger one between the middle Miocene and the upper Miocene. In the Sonda de Campeche, three main tectonic regimes are recorded: extensional, compressional, and extensional. The first one extended from Middle Jurassic to Late Jurassic and is related to the opening of the Gulf of Mexico. During this regime, tilted block faults trending northwest-southeast were dominant. The subsequent compressional regime took place at the end of the early Miocene and was related to northeast tangential stresses that added to the flow of Callovian salt, gave rise to huge anticlines, faulted, and often overturned. The last extensional regime extended throughout the middle and late Miocene and is related to salt tectonics and growth faults that have as a detachment surface a middle Miocene shaly horizon. The main source rocks are Tithonian shales and shaly limestones. Oolite bars, slope and shelfal carbonates, and regressive sandstones form the main reservoirs. Evaporites and shales are the regional seals. Recent information indicates that Oxfordian shaly limestones are also important source rocks.

  16. Sparse SPM: Group Sparse-dictionary learning in SPM framework for resting-state functional connectivity MRI analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Beom; Lee, Jeonghyeon; Tak, Sungho; Lee, Kangjoo; Na, Duk L; Seo, Sang Won; Jeong, Yong; Ye, Jong Chul

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies of functional connectivity MR imaging have revealed that the default-mode network activity is disrupted in diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is not yet a consensus on the preferred method for resting-state analysis. Because the brain is reported to have complex interconnected networks according to graph theoretical analysis, the independency assumption, as in the popular independent component analysis (ICA) approach, often does not hold. Here, rather than using the independency assumption, we present a new statistical parameter mapping (SPM)-type analysis method based on a sparse graph model where temporal dynamics at each voxel position are described as a sparse combination of global brain dynamics. In particular, a new concept of a spatially adaptive design matrix has been proposed to represent local connectivity that shares the same temporal dynamics. If we further assume that local network structures within a group are similar, the estimation problem of global and local dynamics can be solved using sparse dictionary learning for the concatenated temporal data across subjects. Moreover, under the homoscedasticity variance assumption across subjects and groups that is often used in SPM analysis, the aforementioned individual and group analyses using sparse dictionary learning can be accurately modeled by a mixed-effect model, which also facilitates a standard SPM-type group-level inference using summary statistics. Using an extensive resting fMRI data set obtained from normal, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease patient groups, we demonstrated that the changes in the default mode network extracted by the proposed method are more closely correlated with the progression of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26524138

  17. Spm1, a stress-activated MAP kinase that regulates morphogenesis in S.pombe.

    PubMed Central

    Zaitsevskaya-Carter, T; Cooper, J A

    1997-01-01

    A gene encoding a novel MAP kinase family member, Spm1, was isolated from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Overproduction of Spm1 inhibits proliferation. Disruption of the spm1+ gene interferes with cell separation and morphogenesis. Under conditions of nutrient limitation, hypertonic stress or elevated temperature, spm1 delta cells grow as short branched filaments in which the cell walls and septa are thickened, suggesting defects in polarized growth and cell wall remodeling. At high osmolarity, spm1 delta cells fail to form colonies. The Spm1 protein is tyrosine phosphorylated and activated in response to osmotic and heat stress, consistent with a role for Spm1 in adaptation to these conditions. Two other S.pombe MAP kinases are known, Spk1, required for sexual differentiation and sporulation, and Spc1/Sty1/Phh1, which is activated in hypertonic conditions. However, the distinctive features of the spm1 delta mutant phenotype and direct biochemical assays suggest that Spm1 does not lie on other known MAP kinase pathways. Our results demonstrate the existence of a new MAP kinase pathway that regulates cell wall remodeling and cytokinesis in response to environmental stresses. PMID:9135147

  18. A micro-SPM head array for large-scale topography measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, S.; Li, Z.; Herrmann, K.

    2010-05-01

    Rapid advances in nano-positioning/motion technology have offered metrologists in the field of precision engineering larger and larger potential measurement range. A concept of micro-SPM head array is proposed in this paper to enhance the performance of the currently available nano-measuring machines and effectively reduce the measurement time for large specimen. The proposed micro-SPM head array consists of 1 × N ( N = 7 in our case) micro-SPM heads/units, which are realized in one chip by MEMS technique. The kern of each SPM head is an electrostatic comb-drive actuator, whose main shaft protrudes out of the MEMS chip to sense the surface topography of a specimen under test. To further improve the lateral resolution of the micro-SPM head, an AFM tip can then be mounted onto the end of the actuator's main shaft. To ensure the traceability of the measurement results from micro-SPM head, a fiber-based interferometer array is considered to be integrated within the micro-SPM head array so as to in-situ calibrate the in-plane displacement sensing system of the micro-SPM head. Design and simulation of the mico-SPM head array together with the corresponding micro-interferometer will be detailed in this manuscript.

  19. Pressure coefficient evaluation on the surface of the SONDA III model tested in the TTP Pilot Transonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, M. L. C. C.; Falcao Filho, J. B. P.; Basso, E.; Caldas, V. R.

    2015-02-01

    A test campaign of the Brazilian sounding rocket Sonda III was carried out at the Pilot Transonic Wind Tunnel, TTP. The aim of the campaign was to investigate aerodynamic phenomena taking place at the connection region of the first and second stages. Shock and expansion waves are expected at this location causing high gradients in airflow properties around the vehicle. Pressure taps located on the surface of a Sonda III half model measure local static pressures. Other measured parameters were freestream static and total pressures of the airflow. Estimated parameters were pressure coefficients and Mach numbers. Uncertainties associated with the estimated parameters were calculated by employing the Law of Propagation of Uncertainty and the Monte Carlo method. It was found that both uncertainty evaluation methods resulted in similar values. A Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation code was elaborated to help understand the changes in the flow field properties caused by the disturbances.

  20. An SPM12 extension for multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roura, Eloy; Oliver, Arnau; Cabezas, Mariano; Valverde, Sergi; Pareto, Deborah; Vilanova, Joan C.; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluís.; Rovira, Àlex; Lladó, Xavier

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging is nowadays the hallmark to diagnose multiple sclerosis (MS), characterized by white matter lesions. Several approaches have been recently presented to tackle the lesion segmentation problem, but none of them have been accepted as a standard tool in the daily clinical practice. In this work we present yet another tool able to automatically segment white matter lesions outperforming the current-state-of-the-art approaches. Methods: This work is an extension of Roura et al. [1], where external and platform dependent pre-processing libraries (brain extraction, noise reduction and intensity normalization) were required to achieve an optimal performance. Here we have updated and included all these required pre-processing steps into a single framework (SPM software). Therefore, there is no need of external tools to achieve the desired segmentation results. Besides, we have changed the working space from T1w to FLAIR, reducing interpolation errors produced in the registration process from FLAIR to T1w space. Finally a post-processing constraint based on shape and location has been added to reduce false positive detections. Results: The evaluation of the tool has been done on 24 MS patients. Qualitative and quantitative results are shown with both approaches in terms of lesion detection and segmentation. Conclusion: We have simplified both installation and implementation of the approach, providing a multiplatform tool1 integrated into the SPM software, which relies only on using T1w and FLAIR images. We have reduced with this new version the computation time of the previous approach while maintaining the performance.

  1. Entropy analysis of SPM patterns: case study of Liverpool Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivtsov, V.; Mikkelsen, O. A.; Jones, S. E.

    2012-06-01

    In Liverpool Bay (UK), suspended particulate matter (SPM) monitoring data and tidal data collected in the period September 2004 to February 2006 were analyzed by means of entropy analysis and factor analysis in order to identify the meteorological and oceanographic variables of importance for the characterisation of the shape of SPM size spectra. Entropy analysis of in situ particle size spectra revealed five basic types, each attributable to different sets of environmental conditions. The results of correlation analysis showed that changes in the position of the main modal are significantly related to several environmental variables. One important class of these relationships is represented by wave-related variables (e.g. wave energy, maximum orbital velocity). Another important class of correlations (e.g. with salinity, density, water depth) can be associated with the inshore-offshore gradient in depth and physicochemical conditions existing in the bay. The strongest correlations, however, were with the air and water temperatures. Factor analysis (with Varimax rotation) of the overall dataset extracted four factors, together explaining over 70% of variance. Factor 1 explains >21% of the total variance, and appears to be related to wave activity. Factor 2, explaining 18.5% of the total variance, appears to be related to tidal currents. Factor 3 explains 16.4% of the total variance observed, and appears to be related to temperature-modulated seasonal differences in oceanographic conditions. Factor 4 explains 15.2% of the total variance observed, and represents the inshore-offshore gradient in depth and physicochemical conditions. These findings are a step towards a better characterisation of floc size and, therefore, more precise calculations of sedimentation and transport rates needed for an improved understanding of ecosystem functioning in Liverpool Bay and, for that matter, other similar settings.

  2. High-throughput parallel SPM for metrology, defect, and mask inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghian, H.; Herfst, R. W.; van den Dool, T. C.; Crowcombe, W. E.; Winters, J.; Kramer, G. F. I. J.

    2014-10-01

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a promising candidate for accurate assessment of metrology and defects on wafers and masks, however it has traditionally been too slow for high-throughput applications, although recent developments have significantly pushed the speed of SPM [1,2]. In this paper we present new results obtained with our previously presented high-throughput parallel SPM system [3,4] that showcase two key advances that are required for a successful deployment of SPM in high-throughput metrology, defect and mask inspection. The first is a very fast (up to 40 lines/s) image acquisition and a comparison of the image quality as function of speed. Secondly, a fast approach method: measurements of the scan-head approaching the sample from 0.2 and 1.0 mm distance in under 1.4 and 6 seconds respectively.

  3. Test plan/procedure for the SPM-1 shipping container system. Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, B.D.

    1995-07-01

    The 49 CFR 173.465 Type A packaging tests will verify that SPM-1 will provide adequate protection and pass as a Type A package. Test will determine that the handle of the Pig will not penetrate through the plywood spacer and rupture the shipping container. Test plan/procedure provides planning, pre-test, setup, testing, and post-testing guidelines and procedures for conducting the {open_quotes}Free Drop Test{close_quotes} procedure for the SPM-1 package.

  4. Characterisation of urban catchment suspended particulate matter (Auckland region, New Zealand); a comparison with non-urban SPM.

    PubMed

    Bibby, Rebecca L; Webster-Brown, Jenny G

    2005-05-01

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) is an important transport agent for metal contaminants in streams, particularly during high flow periods such as storm events. For highly contaminated urban catchments in the greater Auckland (New Zealand) area, trace metal partitioning between the dissolved phase and SPM was determined, and SPM characterised in terms of its Si, Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, TOC, TON and PO(4) concentrations, as well as particle size, abundance, type and surface area. This data was compared to similar data from representative non-urban catchments in the Auckland region, the Kaipara River and Waikato River catchments, to identify any significant differences in the SPM and its potential trace metal adsorption capacity. Trace metal partitioning was assessed by way of a distribution coefficient: K(D)=[Me(SPM)]/[Me(DISS)]. Auckland urban SPM comprises quartz, feldspars and clay minerals, with Fe-oxides and minor Mn-oxides. No particles of anthropogenic origin, other than glass shards, were observed. No change in urban SPM particle size or SSA was observed with seasonal change in temperature, but the nature of the SPM was observed to change with flow regime. The abundance of finer particles, SSA and Al content of the SPM increased under moderate flow conditions; however, Si/Al ratios remained constant, confirming the importance of aluminosilicate detrital minerals in surface run-off. The SPM Fe content was observed to decrease with increased flow and was attributed to dilution of SPM Fe-oxide of groundwater origin. The Kaipara River SPM was found to be mineralogically, chemically and biologically similar to the urban SPM. However, major differences between urban catchment SPM and SPM from the much larger (non-urban) Waikato River were observed, and attributed to a higher abundance of diatoms. The Fe content of the Waikato River SPM was consistently lower (<5%), and the Si/Al ratio and Mn content was higher. Such differences observed between urban and non

  5. Turbulence control of floc size in suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the river estuary transition zone (RETZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Suzanna; Jago, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying floc properties in relation to physical forcings are key in determining the transfer flux of SPM from the catchment to the coastal ocean. Observations of floc development require high resolution data; in situ optical and acoustic instruments were deployed in the RETZ to obtain SPM and hydrodynamic properties. Results suggest that turbulent kinetic energy dissipation (TKE) can be correlated to median particle size (D50) and concentration on tidal and lunar time scales. Analysis on a tidal scale indicates terrestrially derived SPM and SPM of a marine origin display different relationships with the local turbulence regime, suggesting the D50 of terrestrially derived SPM is not limited to the eddy length scales of the Kolmogorov microscale. It is essential to improve methods to quantify the role of hydrodynamic processes in controlling SPM properties and thus the fate of the transfer of terrestrially derived organic matter to the coastal ocean.

  6. Rapid inactivation of the maize transposable element En/Spm in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    d'Erfurth, I; Cosson, V; Eschstruth, A; Rippa, S; Messinese, E; Durand, P; Trinh, H; Kondorosi, A; Ratet, P

    2003-09-01

    Transposable elements have been widely used as mutagens in many organisms. Among them, the maize transposable element En/Spm has been shown to transpose efficiently in several plant species including the model plant Arabidopsis, where it has been used for large-scale mutagenesis. To determine whether we could use this transposon as a mutagen in the model legume plant Medicago truncatula, we tested the activity of the autonomous element, as well as two defective elements, in this plant, and in Arabidopsis as a positive control. In agreement with previous reports, we observed efficient excision of the autonomous En/Spm element in A. thaliana. This element was also active in M. truncatula, but the transposition activity was low and was apparently restricted to the tissue culture step necessary for the production of transgenic plants. The activity of one of the defective transposable elements, dSpm, was very low in A. thaliana and even lower in M. truncatula. The use of different sources of transposases suggested that this defect in transposition was associated with the dSpm element itself. Transposition of the other defective element, I6078, was also detected in M. truncatula, but, as observed with the autonomous element, transposition events were very rare and occurred during tissue culture. These results suggest that the En/Spm element is rapidly inactivated in the regenerated plants and their progeny, and therefore is not suitable for routine insertion mutagenesis in M. truncatula. PMID:12905070

  7. SPM4: The Yale/San-Juan Southern Proper Motion Survey: 100 million absolute proper motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Altena, W. F.

    2011-10-01

    The Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion SPM4 Catalog is the culmination of a highly successful 47-year collaboration between the National University of San Juan (UNSJ) and the Yale Southern Observatory (YSO). The SPM4 Catalog contains absolute proper motions, celestial coordinates, blue and visual passband photometry for 103 million stars and galaxies between the south celestial pole and δ=-20°. The Catalog is roughly complete to V = 17.5 and the precision of its positions and absolute proper motions is approximately 30 to 150 mas and 2 to 10 mas yr^{-1}, respectively.

  8. Direct B-integral measurement, and SPM compensation in fiber optic CPA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, S.; Mielke, M.

    2014-09-01

    A direct B-integral measurement, and SPM compensation method in fiber optic CPA systems is demonstrated. For a pair of input pulses, the chirped nature of the amplification transforms a nonlinear phase change into a temporal amplitude change resulted in a satellite side pulses generation. The SHG autocorrelation measurement of these satellite pulses is directly correlated to B-integral value. Then the accumulated SPM is removed by precompensation of the spectral phase. The degree of compensation again confirmed the described B-integral measurement result.

  9. SPM characterizaton of anomalies in phase-shift mask and their effect on wafer features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muckenhirn, Sylvain; Meyyappan, A.; Walch, Kelvin; Maslow, Mark J.; Vandenberghe, Geert; van Wingerden, Johannes

    2001-08-01

    As dimensions get smaller and circuits get more complex, the demand for comprehensive measurements of reticule geometries increases. 3D characterization of phase shift mask (PSM) is required to understand the quality of the transferred image. To avoid anomalies between the measurements, the structures on both mask/reticule and wafer should be measured using the same technique. The technique used should be insensitive to differences in the intrinsic characteristics of the materials (chromium on quartz, resist on conductive or non-conductive layers). Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is ideally suited to make these characterizations on both masks/reticule and wafers. It quantitatively profiles lines and trenches in three dimensions. SPM is a nondestructive technique, allowing for the preservation of the integrity of mask and wafers. The profiles of features on a phase shift mask (PSM) are measured with SPM. Some undesirable effects such as micro loading versus structure size during quartz etch, positive slope of the quartz sidewall, and CD differential between chromium and quartz are characterized. Some of the corresponding features on the wafer are measured with SPM and the correlation between the mask anomalies and their effect on wafer features are established.

  10. Observations of a narrow zone of high suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations along the Dutch coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hout, Carola M.; Gerkema, Theo; Nauw, Janine J.; Ridderinkhof, Herman

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study described in this paper is to localize the transport path of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Dutch coastal zone in the southern North Sea. It is known that a large mass of SPM is transported northward from the Strait of Dover, which is however mostly hidden from satellite and other surface measurements. The study area is located at 80 km north of the Rhine-Meuse estuary mouth in the far-field plume of the region of freshwater influence (ROFI). We investigate the occurrence and persistence of a turbidity maximum zone (TMZ) in an area closer to the coast than studied in previous observational programs. Shipboard measurements of vertical profiles of SPM concentrations, density and current velocities with a high cross-shore spatial resolution are presented. A turbidity maximum zone is found at a distance between 0.5 and 3 km from the coast along 30 km of the coastline. Observed concentrations are shown to vary strongly within a tidal cycle, and also between contrasting meteorological conditions in terms of the spring-neap tidal cycle, the significant wave height and the wind force. Temporary stratification is observed during spring tides, and occurs on the ebb phase of the tidal cycle. Cross-shore transports at a transect perpendicular to the coast show an accumulation of SPM in the TMZ within one tidal cycle. Possible mechanisms for this accumulation close to the coast are discussed.

  11. 33 CFR 150.445 - When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the pipeline end manifold must be closed whenever: (1) A storm warning forecasts weather conditions... vessel is about to depart the SPM because of storm conditions; or (3) The SPM is not scheduled for use...

  12. A New Version of the Shock Propagation Model (SPM2) for Predicting the Arrival Time of Interplanetary Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X.; Feng, X.

    2012-12-01

    Forecasting the arrival time at the near Earth space of interplanetary (IP) shocks following the solar disturbances is one of the important ingredients of space weather prediction. Shock Propagation Model (SPM), based on the analytic solution of the blast wave theory, is one of the models to predict the shock arrival time (SAT). The input parameters of SPM include the initial shock speed, the duration time of the X-ray flare, and the background solar wind speed. Considering the fact that the measurement errors exist in the input parameters as well as the shortage of the theoretical model in real applications, a new version of SPM, called SPM2 is presented with the aim of overcome these shortages. Firstly, SPM is used to train the input data, and an empirical relationship is established to correct for the error in the initial shock speed (computed from the type II burst drafting speed). And the corrected shock speed is used is the SPM2 model. Secondly, a large number of data set during solar cycle 23 are adopted to train the model, and an additional acceleration/deceleration relation is added in SPM2. Thirdly, the propagating direction is introduced as one of the contributing factors to the shock's arrival at Earth, which overcomes the shortage of the isotropy of the blast wave theory in the practice of real prediction. Finally, SPM2 adopts an equivalent Mach number of the shock at 1 AU in order to judge whether or not the shock could reach the Earth. 584 flare-type II related shock events during Solar Cycle 23 are used to test the prediction capability of the SPM2 model. Several standard meteorological forecast skill scores of SPM2 are also computed. The corresponding success rates of SPM2 for both shock and non-shock events at Earth are above 60%, and the application of a x2 test demonstrates that the predictions of the model are statistically significant. As for the predicting accuracy in shock arrival time, the root-mean-square err of △T of SPM2 is less than

  13. SPM4: The Yale/San-Juan Southern Proper Motion survey: 100 million absolute proper motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Altena, W. F.; Girard, T. M.; Casetti, D. I.; Vieira, K.; López, C. E.; Castillo, D.; Monet, D.; Zacharias, N.; Korchagin, V. I.; Platais, I.; Lee, Y. S.; Beers, T. C.; Herrera, D.

    The Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion SPM4 Catalog is the culmi- nation of a highly successful 47-year collaboration between the National University of San Juan (UNSJ) and the Yale Southern Observatory (YSO). The SPM4 Catalog contains absolute proper motions, celestial coordinates, blue and visual passband photometry for 103,319,647 stars and galaxies be- tween the south celestial pole and -20 degrees declination. The Catalog is roughly complete to V=17.5 and the precision of its positions and absolute proper motions is approximately 30 to 150 mas and 2 to 10 mas/yr, respec- tively. It is based on photographic and CCD observations taken with the Yale Southern Observatory's double-astrograph at the Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina.

  14. High sensitivity and high resolution element 3D analysis by a combined SIMS-SPM instrument.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Yves; Wirtz, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Using the recently developed SIMS-SPM prototype, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) data was combined with topographical data from the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) module for five test structures in order to obtain accurate chemical 3D maps: a polystyrene/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PS/PVP) polymer blend, a nickel-based super-alloy, a titanium carbonitride-based cermet, a reticle test structure and Mg(OH)2 nanoclusters incorporated inside a polymer matrix. The examples illustrate the potential of this combined approach to track and eliminate artefacts related to inhomogeneities of the sputter rates (caused by samples containing various materials, different phases or having a non-flat surface) and inhomogeneities of the secondary ion extraction efficiencies due to local field distortions (caused by topography with high aspect ratios). In this respect, this paper presents the measured relative sputter rates between PVP and PS as well as in between the different phases of the TiCN cermet. PMID:26171285

  15. User's manual for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM) with selected parametric examples

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The Seasonal Performance Model (SPM) was developed to provide an accurate source of seasonal energy consumption and cost predictions for the evaluation of heat pump design options. The program uses steady state heat pump performance data obtained from manufacturers' or Computer Simulation Model runs. The SPM was originally developed in two forms - a cooling model for central air conditioners and heat pumps and a heating model for heat pumps. The original models have undergone many modifications, which are described, to improve the accuracy of predictions and to increase flexibility for use in parametric evaluations. Insights are provided into the theory and construction of the major options, and into the use of the available options and output variables. Specific investigations provide examples of the possible applications of the model. (LEW)

  16. The systems prioritization method (SPM) CD-ROM demonstration for Waste Management `96

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.L.; Boak, D.M.; Prindle, N.H.; Beyeler, W.

    1996-03-01

    In March 1994, the Department of Energy Carlsbad Area Office (DOE/CAO) implemented a performance-based planning method to assist in prioritization within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Probabilistic performance calculations were required for the Systems Prioritization Method (SPM) and roughly 46,700 combinations of activities were analyzed, generating a large volume of information to be documented, analyzed, and communicated. A self-contained information management system consisting of a relational database on a 600-megabyte CD-ROM was built to meet this need. The CD-ROM was used to store performance assessment results, data analysis and visualization tools, information about the activities, electronic copies of 40 ILFR 191 and 40 CFR 268, technical reference papers, and the final SPM report. Copies of the CD-ROM were distributed to interested members of the public, WIPP participants, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  17. Characterization of microcracks by application of digital image correlation to SPM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Juergen; Gollhardt, Astrid; Vogel, Dietmar; Michel, Bernd

    2004-07-01

    With the development of micro- and nanotechnological products such as sensors, MEMS/NEMS and their broad application in a variety of market segments new reliability issues will arise. The increasing interface-to-volume ratio in highly integrated systems and nanoparticle filled materials and unsolved questions of size effect of nanomaterials are challenges for experimental reliability evaluation. To fulfill this needs the authors developed the nanoDAC method (nano Deformation Analysis by Correlation), which allows the determination and evaluation of 2D displacement fields based on scanning probe microscopy (SPM) data. In-situ SPM scans of the analyzed object are carried out at different thermo-mechanical load states. The obtained topography-, phase- or error-images are compared utilizing grayscale cross correlation algorithms. This allows the tracking of local image patterns of the analyzed surface structure. The measurement results of the nanoDAC method are full-field displacement and strain fields. Due to the application of SPM equipment deformations in the micro-, nanometer range can be easily detected. The method can be performed on bulk materials, thin films and on devices i.e microelectronic components, sensors or MEMS/NEMS. Furthermore, the characterization and evaluation of micro- and nanocracks or defects in bulk materials, thin layers and at material interfaces can be carried out.

  18. Innovative SPM Probes for Energy-Storage Science: MWCNT-Nanopipettes to Nanobattery Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Jonathan; Talin, Alec; Pearse, Alexander; Kozen, Alexander; Reutt-Robey, Janice

    As energy-storage materials and designs continue to advance, new tools are needed to direct and explore ion insertion/de-insertion at well-defined battery materials interfaces. Scanned probe tips, assembled from actual energy-storage materials, permit SPM measures of local cathode-anode (tip-sample) interactions, including ion transfer. We present examples of ``cathode'' MWCNT-terminated STM probe tips interacting with Li(s)/Si(111) anode substrates. The MWCNT tip functions as both SPM probe and Li-nanopipette,[1] for controlled transport and manipulation of Li. Local field conditions for lithium ionization and transfer are determined and compared to electrostatic models. Additional lithium metallic and oxide tips have been prepared by thin film deposition on conventional W tips, the latter of which effectively functions as a nanobattery. We demonstrate use of these novel probe materials in the local lithiation of low-index Si anode interfaces, probing local barriers for lithium insertion. Prospects and limitations of these novel SPM probes will be discussed. U.S. Department of Energy Award Number DESC0001160.

  19. Quantitative analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for brain disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Seung; Im, In-Chul; Kang, Su-Man; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Kwak, Byung-Joon

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to quantitatively analyze data from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) in patients with brain disorders and to assess its potential utility for analyzing brain function. DTI was obtained by performing 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD), and the data were analyzed using Matlab-based SPM software. The two-sample t-test was used for error analysis of the location of the activated pixels. We compared regions of white matter where the fractional anisotropy (FA) values were low and the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were increased. In the AD group, the FA values were low in the right superior temporal gyrus, right inferior temporal gyrus, right sub-lobar insula, and right occipital lingual gyrus whereas the ADCs were significantly increased in the right inferior frontal gyrus and right middle frontal gyrus. In the VD group, the FA values were low in the right superior temporal gyrus, right inferior temporal gyrus, right limbic cingulate gyrus, and right sub-lobar caudate tail whereas the ADCs were significantly increased in the left lateral globus pallidus and left medial globus pallidus. In conclusion by using DTI and SPM analysis, we were able to not only determine the structural state of the regions affected by brain disorders but also quantitatively analyze and assess brain function.

  20. Dynamic Allocation of SPM Based on Time-Slotted Cache Conflict Graph for System Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianping; Ling, Ming; Zhang, Yang; Mei, Chen; Wang, Huan

    This paper proposes a novel dynamic Scratch-pad Memory allocation strategy to optimize the energy consumption of the memory sub-system. Firstly, the whole program execution process is sliced into several time slots according to the temporal dimension; thereafter, a Time-Slotted Cache Conflict Graph (TSCCG) is introduced to model the behavior of Data Cache (D-Cache) conflicts within each time slot. Then, Integer Nonlinear Programming (INP) is implemented, which can avoid time-consuming linearization process, to select the most profitable data pages. Virtual Memory System (VMS) is adopted to remap those data pages, which will cause severe Cache conflicts within a time slot, to SPM. In order to minimize the swapping overhead of dynamic SPM allocation, a novel SPM controller with a tightly coupled DMA is introduced to issue the swapping operations without CPU's intervention. Last but not the least, this paper discusses the fluctuation of system energy profit based on different MMU page size as well as the Time Slot duration quantitatively. According to our design space exploration, the proposed method can optimize all of the data segments, including global data, heap and stack data in general, and reduce the total energy consumption by 27.28% on average, up to 55.22% with a marginal performance promotion. And comparing to the conventional static CCG (Cache Conflicts Graph), our approach can obtain 24.7% energy profit on average, up to 30.5% with a sight boost in performance.

  1. The En/Spm transposable element of Zea mays contains splice sites at the termini generating a novel intron from a dSpm element in the A2 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Menssen, A; Höhmann, S; Martin, W; Schnable, P S; Peterson, P A; Saedler, H; Gierl, A

    1990-01-01

    The A2 locus of Zea mays, identified as one of the genes affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis, was cloned using the transposable elements rcy and dSpm as gene tags. The A2 gene encodes a putative protein of 395 amino acids and is devoid of introns. Two a2-m1 alleles, containing dSpm insertions of different sizes, were characterized. The dSpm element from the original state allele has perfect termini and undergoes frequent transposition. The element from the class II state allele is no longer competent to transpose. It has retained the 13 bp terminal inverted repeat but has lost all subterminal sites at the 5' end, which are recognized by tnpA protein, the most abundant product of the En/Spm transposable element system. The relatively high A2 gene expression of one a2-m1 allele is due to removal of almost all dSpm sequences by splicing. The slightly altered A2 enzyme is still functional as shown by complementation of an a2 mutant with the corresponding cDNA. The 5' and 3' splice sites are constituted by the termini of the dSpm element; it therefore represents a novel intron of the A2 gene. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. PMID:2170105

  2. Distribution, partitioning and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the water-SPM-sediment system of Lake Chaohu, China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ning; He, Wei; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Liu, Wen-Xiu; He, Qi-Shuang; Yang, Bin; Wang, Qing-Mei; Yang, Chen; Jiang, Yu-Jiao; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Xu, Fu-Liu; Zhao, Xiao-Li

    2014-10-15

    The residual levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the water, suspended particular matter (SPM) and sediment from Lake Chaohu were measured with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The spatial-temporal distributions and the SPM-water partition of PAHs and their influencing factors were investigated. The potential sources and contributions of PAHs in the sediment were estimated by positive matrix factorization (PMF) and probabilistic stable isotopic analysis (PSIA). The results showed that the average residual levels of total PAHs (PAH16) in the water, SPM and sediment were 170.7 ± 70.8 ng/L, 210.7 ± 160.7 ng/L and 908.5 ± 1878.1 ng/g dry weight, respectively. The same spatial distribution trend of PAH16 in the water, SPM and sediment was found from high to low: river inflows>western lake>eastern lake>water source area. There was an obvious seasonal trend of PAH16 in the water, while no obvious seasonal trend was found in the SPM. The residues and distributions of PAHs in the water, SPM and sediment relied heavily on carbon content. Significant Pearson correlations were found between LogKoc and LogKow as well as some hydro-meteorological factors. Three major sources of PAHs including coal and biomass combustions, and vehicle emissions were identified. PMID:25103197

  3. SPM and fungal spores in the ambient air of west Korea during the Asian dust (Yellow sand) period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Hwan-Goo; Kim, Jong-Ho

    The relationship between suspended particulate matter (SPM) and fungal spore was investigated in Seosan, a rural county along the west coast of Korea, in the spring of 2000. SPM concentrations in the air were 199.8 μg m -3 in the first Asian dust period (23-24 March), 249.4 μg m -3 in the second Asian dust period (7-9 April) and 98.9 μg m -3 in the non-Asian dust period (12-16 May), respectively. The majority of the total SPM were composed of coarse particles sized about 5 μm during the two Asian dust periods. Four molds genera grown from airborne fungal spores were identified in colonies grown from SPM samples taken during the Asian dust periods. All the genera found, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Basipetospora, are hyphomycetes in the division Deuteromycota. Morphologically, more diversified mycelia of hyphomycetes were grown on the sample captured from 1.1 to 2.1 μm sized SPM than on the other sized samples gathered in the dust periods. On the other hand, no mold was observed on the sample of 1.1-2.1 μm sized SPM in the non-Asian dust period. From these results, it seems evident that several sorts of fine sized fungal spores were suspended in the atmospheric environment of this study area during Asian dust periods.

  4. Health risks of NO 2, SPM and SO 2 in Delhi (India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Jai Shanker; Kumar, Rakesh; Devotta, Sukumar

    There is increasingly growing evidence linking urban air pollution to acute and chronic illnesses amongst all age groups. Therefore, monitoring of ambient concentrations of various air pollutants as well as quantification of the dose inhaled becomes quite important, specially in view of the fact that in many countries, policy decisions for reducing pollutant concentrations are mainly taken on the basis of their health impacts. The dose when gets combined with the likely responses, indicates the ultimate health risk (HR). Thus, as an extension of our earlier studies, HR has been estimated for three pollutants, namely, suspended particulate matter (SPM), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2) for Delhi City in India. For estimation and analyses, three zones have been considered, namely, residential, industrial and commercial. The total population has been divided into three age classes (infants, children and adults) with different body weights and breathing rates. The exercise takes into account age-specific breathing rates, body weights for different age categories and occupancy factors for different zones. Results indicate that health risks due to air pollution in Delhi are highest for children. For all age categories, health risks due to SO 2 (HR_SO 2) are the lowest. Hence, HR_SO 2 has been taken as the reference with respect to which HR values due to SPM and NO 2 have been compared. Taking into account all the age categories and their occupancy in different zones, average HR values for NO 2 and SPM turn out to be respectively 22.11 and 16.13 times more than that for SO 2. The present study can be useful in generating public awareness as well as in averting and mitigating the health risks.

  5. Validation of an optimized SPM procedure for FDG-PET in dementia diagnosis in a clinical setting

    PubMed Central

    Perani, Daniela; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Cerami, Chiara; Gallivanone, Francesca; Fallanca, Federico; Vanoli, Emilia Giovanna; Panzacchi, Andrea; Nobili, Flavio; Pappatà, Sabina; Marcone, Alessandra; Garibotto, Valentina; Castiglioni, Isabella; Magnani, Giuseppe; Cappa, Stefano F.; Gianolli, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic accuracy in FDG-PET imaging highly depends on the operating procedures. In this clinical study on dementia, we compared the diagnostic accuracy at a single-subject level of a) Clinical Scenarios, b) Standard FDG Images and c) Statistical Parametrical (SPM) Maps generated via a new optimized SPM procedure. We evaluated the added value of FDG-PET, either Standard FDG Images or SPM Maps, to Clinical Scenarios. In 88 patients with neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's Disease—AD, Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration—FTLD, Dementia with Lewy bodies—DLB and Mild Cognitive Impairment—MCI), 9 neuroimaging experts made a forced diagnostic decision on the basis of the evaluation of the three types of information. There was also the possibility of a decision of normality on the FDG-PET images. The clinical diagnosis confirmed at a long-term follow-up was used as the gold standard. SPM Maps showed higher sensitivity and specificity (96% and 84%), and better diagnostic positive (6.8) and negative (0.05) likelihood ratios compared to Clinical Scenarios and Standard FDG Images. SPM Maps increased diagnostic accuracy for differential diagnosis (AD vs. FTD; beta 1.414, p = 0.019). The AUC of the ROC curve was 0.67 for SPM Maps, 0.57 for Clinical Scenarios and 0.50 for Standard FDG Images. In the MCI group, SPM Maps showed the highest predictive prognostic value (mean LOC = 2.46), by identifying either normal brain metabolism (exclusionary role) or hypometabolic patterns typical of different neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:25389519

  6. Enhancer/Suppressor mutator (En/Spm)-like transposable elements of cassava (Manihot esculenta) are transcriptionally inactive.

    PubMed

    Gbadegesin, M A; Beeching, J R

    2010-01-01

    Transposable elements contribute to the size, structure, variation, and diversity of the genome and have major effects on gene function. Sequencing projects have revealed the diversity of transposable elements in many organisms and have shown that they constitute a high percentage of the genome. PCR-based techniques using degenerate primers designed from conserved enzyme domains of transposable elements can provide quick and extensive surveys, making study of diversity and abundance and their applications possible in species where full genome sequence data are not yet available. We studied cassava (Manihot esculenta) En/Spm-like transposons (Meens) with regard to genomic distribution, sequence diversity and methylation status. Cassava transposase fragments characteristic of En/Spm-like transposons were isolated, cloned and characterized. Sequence analysis showed that cassava En/Spm-like elements are highly conserved, with overall identity in the range of 68-98%. Southern hybridization supports the presence of multiple copies of En/Spm-like transposons integrated in the genome of all cassava cultivars that we tested. Hybridization patterns of HpaII- and MspI-digested cassava genomic DNA revealed highly methylated sequences. There were no clear differences in hybridization pattern between the cultivars. We did not detect RNA transcripts of Meens by Northern procedures. We examined the possibility of recent transposition activities of the cassava En/Spm-like elements. PMID:20449796

  7. High sensitivity and high resolution element 3D analysis by a combined SIMS–SPM instrument

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Summary Using the recently developed SIMS–SPM prototype, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) data was combined with topographical data from the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) module for five test structures in order to obtain accurate chemical 3D maps: a polystyrene/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PS/PVP) polymer blend, a nickel-based super-alloy, a titanium carbonitride-based cermet, a reticle test structure and Mg(OH)2 nanoclusters incorporated inside a polymer matrix. The examples illustrate the potential of this combined approach to track and eliminate artefacts related to inhomogeneities of the sputter rates (caused by samples containing various materials, different phases or having a non-flat surface) and inhomogeneities of the secondary ion extraction efficiencies due to local field distortions (caused by topography with high aspect ratios). In this respect, this paper presents the measured relative sputter rates between PVP and PS as well as in between the different phases of the TiCN cermet. PMID:26171285

  8. Challenges and Advances in Instrumentation of UHV LT Multi-Probe SPM System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhouhang

    The progress of nanoscience and nanotechnology can be realized only through continued advances and utilization of instruments and techniques for characterizing material properties and manipulating material and device at nanoscale. The UHV LT Multi-Probe SPM system with high resolution SEM has been developed to meet such challenges. This integrated instrument bridges dimensions from the centimeter to atomic scale, and provides an unprecedented platform for local, non-destructive transport measurements and for building, manipulating and function-testing complex nanoelectronics and nanoscale machineries. It also enables combining many different techniques for characterizing sample conductance, topography, chemical, optical or magnetic properties with complementary information at the same position or on the same nanodevice. Design and development of such complex systems pose many issues and challenges. This chapter will discuss some of the issues faced, solutions reached and advances made. Examples include: (1) Disturbance by magnetic material and magnetic field of SEM imaging and coordination of SEM/SPM position, and their influence on and disturbance of SAM spectra and SAM mapping. The design and use of non-magnetic motors for multi-probe modules will be presented and discussed. (2) Tip holder and sample holder design for easy handling, better mechanical stability over the temperature range and better thermal contact and the versatility of the sample holder with multiple contacts. (3) Use of optical fiber as one of the probe modules, and positioning of the fiber probe. CL spectra and CL mapping results will be presented.

  9. Summary of the systems prioritization method (SPM) as a decision-aiding tool for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boak, D.M.; Prindle, N.H.; Lincoln, R.; Mendenhall, F.; Weiner, R.; Bills, R.A

    1996-03-01

    In March 1994, the Department of Energy Carlsbad Area Office (DOE/CAO) implemented a performance-based planning method to assist in programmatic prioritization within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project with respect to applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) long-term performance requirements stated in 40 CFR 191.13(a) and 40 CFR 268.6. This method, the Systems Prioritization Method (SPM), was designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to: (1) identify programmatic options (activities) and their costs and durations; (2) analyze potential combinations of activities in terms of predicted contribution to long-term performance; and (3) analyze cost, duration, and performance tradeoffs. SPM results were the basis for recommendations to DOE/CAO in May 1995 for prioritization within the WIPP project. This paper presents a summary of the SPM implementation, key results, and lessons learned.

  10. Reliability evaluation of I-123 ADAM SPECT imaging using SPM software and AAL ROI methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bang-Hung; Tsai, Sung-Yi; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Su, Tung-Ping; Chou, Yuan-Hwa; Chen, Chia-Chieh; Chen, Jyh-Cheng

    2011-08-01

    The level of serotonin was regulated by serotonin transporter (SERT), which is a decisive protein in regulation of serotonin neurotransmission system. Many psychiatric disorders and therapies were also related to concentration of cerebral serotonin. I-123 ADAM was the novel radiopharmaceutical to image SERT in brain. The aim of this study was to measure reliability of SERT densities of healthy volunteers by automated anatomical labeling (AAL) method. Furthermore, we also used statistic parametric mapping (SPM) on a voxel by voxel analysis to find difference of cortex between test and retest of I-123 ADAM single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images.Twenty-one healthy volunteers were scanned twice with SPECT at 4 h after intravenous administration of 185 MBq of 123I-ADAM. The image matrix size was 128×128 and pixel size was 3.9 mm. All images were obtained through filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. Region of interest (ROI) definition was performed based on the AAL brain template in PMOD version 2.95 software package. ROI demarcations were placed on midbrain, pons, striatum, and cerebellum. All images were spatially normalized to the SPECT MNI (Montreal Neurological Institute) templates supplied with SPM2. And each image was transformed into standard stereotactic space, which was matched to the Talairach and Tournoux atlas. Then differences across scans were statistically estimated on a voxel by voxel analysis using paired t-test (population main effect: 2 cond's, 1 scan/cond.), which was applied to compare concentration of SERT between the test and retest cerebral scans.The average of specific uptake ratio (SUR: target/cerebellum-1) of 123I-ADAM binding to SERT in midbrain was 1.78±0.27, pons was 1.21±0.53, and striatum was 0.79±0.13. The cronbach's α of intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.92. Besides, there was also no significant statistical finding in cerebral area using SPM2 analysis. This finding might help us

  11. The AE9/AP9/SPM Next Generation Radiation Specification Models - Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Paul; Johnston, William Robert; Huston, Stuart; Guild, Timothy

    2016-07-01

    The AE9/AP9/SPM model has now been released to the global satellite design community, with a recent update to version 1.2. We are working on incorporating new data sources, such as AZUR and NASA's Van Allen Probes, while also addressing critiques raised by the science and engineering communities. In particular, we are investigating discrepancies for protons at low altitude and electrons at geostationary altitudes. Finally, we are scoping out architectural improvements to enable features requested by industry: improved stitching between the plasma and radiation models, local time dependence in the plasma model, longitude dependence in the electron radiation model, and solar cycle variation in the low altitude protons. We provide a brief update on the status of the model, discrepancy investigations, and plans for the future.

  12. Parallel SPM cantilever arrays for large area surface metrology and lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotszalk, Teodor; Ivanov, Tzvetan; Rangelow, Ivo W.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper technology of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) surface metrology using arrays of piezoresistive thermally actuated cantilevers is discussed. The cantilever architecture presented here makes it possible to image surface topography using sensors operating in parallel. In this way the throughput of the sample imaging is increased, which is of crucial importance in measurements of large area samples. Application of piezoresistive detection scheme makes it possible to investigate quantitatively the interaction between the microprobe and the imaged surface. Integration of the thermal deflection actuator with the spring beam decreases the response time and enables fast and high resolution control of the tip sample distance. The results of topography parallel measurement using 1×4 cantilever array will be presented.

  13. Results of SPM sun photometer measurements at Mirny Antarctic station (58-60th RAE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabanov, Dmitry M.; Prakhov, Aleksander N.; Radionov, Vladimir F.; Sakerin, Sergey M.

    2015-11-01

    The SPM portable sun photometer observations in the wavelength range of 0.34-2.14 μm are performed at Mirny Antarctic station since fall 2013. The data obtained are used to calculate the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and water vapor content of the atmosphere. The sun photometer intercalibration results and statistical characteristics of interdiurnal and seasonal variations in spectral AOD of the atmosphere are discussed. Estimates of interannual variations in the atmospheric AOD in the region of Mirny station and in the coastal zone of Antarctica are presented. The global background level of AOD of the Antarctic atmosphere is noted to be still about 0.02 at the wavelength of 0.5 μm.

  14. High-precision calibration of a Scanning-Probe Microscope (SPM) for manufacturing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chernoff, D.A.; Lohr, J.D.; Hansen, D.; Lines, M.

    1996-12-31

    For ordinary SPM (Scanning Probe Microscope) work, accuracy of XYZ length measurements of about 5% is acceptable. This is accomplished by periodic calibration checks (and adjustments, if required). Measurement of critical dimensions such as feature width and spacing on integrated circuits of compact discs requires much higher accuracy. For example, the new DVD (digital video disc) standard calls for a mean track pitch of 740 nm with a maximum allowable jitter (range) of 30 nm. To achieve a range of 30 nm, the standard deviation should be 10 nm or less. According to the gage-maker`s rule, the measurement tool should be 4x more precise than the object being measured, so we need a standard deviation of 2.5 nm. This report describes the combined use of a new type of calibration standard and new software to meet these requirements.

  15. Application of SPM and Related Techniques to the Mechanical Properties of Biotool Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöberl, T.; Jäger, I. L.; Lichtenegger, H. C.

    Soon after the introduction of scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) originally developed for imaging purposes, their potential for mechanical analyses at the smallest scales was recognized and soon the method was applied to a variety of materials, including some of biological origin. Experimental techniques range from phase imaging to indentation and scratch testing. This chapter focuses on the use of instrumented indentation and related techniques such as scanning wear testing on biological tool tissues, materials often characterized by a high abrasion resistance. A brief overview of structure and composition of biological materials is given, since these factors are crucial in determining the mechanical properties and a basic understanding of such correlations is indispensable for the interpretation of the results. Furthermore, the influence of sample storage, preparation, and environmental conditions on mechanical tests is discussed, and relevant evaluation methods described. Finally, examples from the literature illustrating the successful application of SPM techniques on biotool tissues (mainly teeth) are presented.

  16. 33 CFR 150.445 - When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water? 150.445 Section 150.445 Navigation and...-OTS) displaced with water? (a) The oil in an SPM-OTS must be displaced with water, and the valve at... section is waived if port officials can demonstrate to the Officer in Charge of Marine Inspection that...

  17. Improvement of the Off-Resonance Saturation, an MRI sequence for positive contrast with SPM particles: Theoretical and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delangre, S.; Vuong, Q. L.; Po, C.; Gallez, B.; Gossuin, Y.

    2016-04-01

    The SuperParaMagnetic particles (SPM particles) are used as contrast agents in MRI and produce negative contrast with conventional T2 or T2∗-weighted sequences. Unfortunately, the SPM particle detection on images acquired with such sequences is sometimes difficult because negative contrast can be created by artifacts such as air bubbles or calcification. To overcome this problem, new sequences as Off-Resonance Saturation (ORS) were developed to produce positive contrast with SPM particles. This work explores a new way to optimize the contrast generated by the ORS sequence by increasing the number of saturation pulses applied before the imaging sequence. This modified sequence is studied with numerical simulations and experiments on agarose gel phantoms. A theoretical model able to predict the contrast for different values of the sequence parameters is also developed. The results show that the contrast increases with the saturation pulses number with an optimal value of three saturation pulses in order to avoid artifacts and limit the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) effect. The dependence of the contrast on the SPM particle concentration and sequence parameters is comparable to what was observed for the ORS sequence.

  18. The SpmA/B and DacF proteins of Clostridium perfringens play important roles in spore heat resistance.

    PubMed

    Orsburn, Benjamin; Sucre, Katie; Popham, David L; Melville, Stephen B

    2009-02-01

    Strains of Clostridium perfringens that cause acute food poisoning have been shown to produce spores that are significantly more heat resistant than those of other strains. Previous studies demonstrated that the spore core density and the ratio of spore cortex peptidoglycan relative to the germ cell wall were factors that correlated with the heat resistance of a C. perfringens spore. To further evaluate these relationships, mutant strains of C. perfringens SM101 were constructed with null mutations in dacF, encoding a D,D-carboxypeptidase, and in the spmA-spmB operon, which is involved in spore core dehydration. The dacF mutant was shown to produce less spore cortex peptidoglycan and had a corresponding decrease in spore heat resistance. The spmA-spmB strain produced highly unstable spores with significantly lower core densities and increased heat sensitivity, which were easily destroyed during treatments affecting the spore coat layers. These results support the previous assertion that a threshold core density as well as a high ratio of cortex peptidoglycan relative to the germ cell wall contribute to the formation of a more heat-resistant spore in this species. PMID:19189487

  19. Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes as Lithium Nanopipettes and SPM Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Jonathan; Bharath, Satyaveda; Cullen, William; Reutt-Robey, Janice

    2014-03-01

    A multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) - terminated SPM cantilever, was utilized to perform nanolithography and surface diffusion measurements on a thin film of vapor-deposited lithium atop a silicon (111) substrate under ultra-high vacuum conditions. In these investigations the MWCNT tip was shown to act as both a lithium nanopipette and a probe for non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) measurements. With the application of appropriate bias conditions, the MWCNT could site-selectively extract (expel) nano-scale amounts of lithium from (to) the sample surface. Depressions, mounds, and spikes were generated on the surface in this way and were azimuthally symmetric about the selected point of pipetting. Following lithium transfer to/from the substrate, the MWCNT pipette-induced features were sequentially imaged with NC-AFM using the MWCNT as the probe. Vacancy pits of ca. 300 nm diameter and 1.5 nm depth were observed to decay on a timescale of hours at room temperature, through diffusion-limited decay processes. A continuum model was utilized to simulate the island decay rates, and the lithium surface diffusion coefficient of D =7.5 (+/-1.3)*10-15 cm2/s was extracted. U.S. Department of Energy Award Number DESC0001160.

  20. Driving electronics for a z-positioner in a new SPM design.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Leujen; Kim, Seong Heon; de Lozanne, Alex

    2011-03-01

    We use a modified Pan-type walker as the z coarse approach mechanism in our new SPM design. We developed new electronics for driving and exercising the walker with the main circuit consisting of six 12V relays. Connecting the relays in series produces a timing cascade due to the mechanical delay in each relay. The traditional slow linear ramp has been replaced with the charge and discharge behavior of the RC circuits, where C is the capacitance of the piezolelectric plates. Initial tests with a 6Hz frequency input showed 10 nm step size and a 3 millimeter range. A single 555 timer serves as our frequency generating source. A highly stabilized square wave can be generated in its monostable mode, with the output frequency determined by two external resistors and a capacitor. We also replace the high voltage supply with a voltage quadrupler circuit that is compact and inexpensive, with 64V and 128V DC output in the final configuration. Supported by NSF DMR-0923231.

  1. Validation of the new trapped environment AE9/AP9/SPM at low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badavi, Francis F.

    2014-09-01

    The completion of the international space station (ISS) in 2011 has provided the space research community an ideal proving ground for future long duration human activities in space. Ionizing radiation measurements in ISS form the ideal tool for the validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear transport codes and nuclear reaction cross sections. Indeed, prior measurements on the space transportation system (STS; shuttle) provided vital information impacting both the environmental models and the nuclear transport code developments by indicating the need for an improved dynamic model of the low Earth orbit (LEO) trapped environment. Additional studies using thermo-luminescent detector (TLD), tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) area monitors, and computer aided design (CAD) model of earlier ISS configurations, confirmed STS observations that, as input, computational dosimetry requires an environmental model with dynamic and directional (anisotropic) behavior, as well as an accurate six degree of freedom (DOF) definition of the vehicle attitude and orientation along the orbit of ISS. At LEO, a vehicle encounters exposure from trapped particles and attenuated galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Within the trapped field, a challenge arises from properly estimating the amount of exposure acquired. There exist a number of models to define the intensities of the trapped particles during the solar quiet and active times. At active times, solar energetic particles (SEP) generated by solar flare or coronal mass ejection (CME) also contribute to the exposure at high northern and southern latitudes. Among the more established trapped models are the historic and popular AE8/AP8, dating back to the 1980s, the historic and less popular CRRES electron/proton, dating back to 1990s and the recently released AE9/AP9/SPM. The AE9/AP9/SPM model is a major improvement over the older AE8/AP8 and CRRES models. This model is derived from numerous measurements acquired over four

  2. Toxic potencies of lipophilic extracts from sediments and settling particulate matter (SPM) collected in a PCB-contaminated river system

    SciTech Connect

    Engwall, M.; Brunstroem, B.; Broman, D.; Ishaq, R.; Naef, C.; Zebuehr, Y.

    1996-02-01

    Sediments and settling particulate matter (SPM) were sampled in a PCB-contaminated lake, Lake Jaernsjoen, and in lakes located up- and downstream from Lake Jaernsjoen. The 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD)-inducing potencies of lipophilic extracts from sediment and SPM were investigated in organ cultures of chicken embryo livers (denoted in vitro chicken embryo liver bioassay). The extract from sediments collected in Lake Jaernsjoen had the greatest EROD-inducing potency of the extracts studied, and it also contained the highest concentrations of PCBs, PAHs, and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDDs/Fs). The non-ortho-chlorinated PCBs in the extracts were probably major contributors to the EROD induction noted. The EROD-inducing potency of sediment extract from the lake downstream Lake Jaernsjoen was higher than that of extract from the upstream lake. This indicates that EROD-inducing substances were transported from Lake Jaernsjoen sediment to the lake downstream. The extracts from Lake Jaernsjoen sediment and SPM were separated into three fractions containing aliphatic/monoaromatic, diaromatic, and polyaromatic compounds, respectively, which were tested in the in vitro chicken embryo liver bioassay. In all extracts, the aliphatic/monoaromatic fractions were low in EROD-inducing potency, while the polyaromatic fractions from SPM were more potent than their corresponding diaromatic fractions, indicating that they contained high concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor ligands. Only a small part of the EROD induction caused by the polyaromatic fractions could be attributed to the 15 analyzed PAHs in the samples. The EROD-inducing potencies of the diaromatic fractions correlated quite well with their concentrations of PCDDs/Fs and PCBs. The in vitro chicken embryo liver bioassay detected low concentrations of EROD inducers in the extracts and therefore proved useful for estimating the contents of Ah receptor ligands in environmental shapes.

  3. Uncertainties of astrometric catalogues SPM_{MC}, XPM and UCAC4 in the Magellanic Clouds using the Wielen method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dávila, E.; Vieira, K.

    2015-10-01

    The individual uncertainties of the proper motion catalogues SPM_{MC}, XPM and UCAC4 are determined using the method of Wielen, in an area of the sky containing the Magellanic Clouds. These uncertainties are a measure of the quality and the reliability of these catalogs for kinematical studies. The data preparation begins by cross identifying stars common to the catalogs, and on this sample, systematic differences are detected, modeled and corrected. After applying the Wielen method and evaluating the results, it follows that the catalog of best astrometric quality is UCAC4, with an uncertainty of (epsilon _{mu _{alpha } cos(delta )},epsilon _{mu _{delta }})=(2.92,1.90) mas/yr. The SPM_{MC} has a quality similar to the previous catalogue, expressed as (epsilon _{mu _{alpha } cos(delta )},epsilon _{mu _{delta }})_{frac {SPM_{MC}}{UCAC4}}=(1.11,1.53) times the UCAC4. Finally the quality for the XPM differs significantly from the other two catalogues, its errors are (epsilon _{mu _{alpha } cos(delta )},epsilon _{mu _{delta }})_{(XPM)/(UCAC4)}=(6.32,8.87) times the UCAC4.

  4. Prediction models of CO, SPM and SO(2) concentrations in the Campo de Gibraltar Region, Spain: a multiple comparison strategy.

    PubMed

    Turias, Ignacio J; González, Francisco J; Martin, Ma Luz; Galindo, Pedro L

    2008-08-01

    The 'Campo de Gibraltar' region is a very industrialized area where very few air pollution studies have been carried out. Up to date, no model has been developed in order to predict air pollutant levels in the different towns spread in the region. Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) series have been investigated (years 1999-2000-2001). Multilayer perceptron models (MLPs) with backpropagation learning rule have been used. A resampling strategy with two-fold crossvalidation allowed the statistical comparison of the different models considered in this study. Artificial neural networks (ANN) models were compared with Persistence and ARIMA models and also with models based on standard Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) over test sets with data that had not been used in the training stage. The models based on ANNs showed better capability of generalization than those based on MLR. The designed procedure of random resampling permits an adequate and robust multiple comparison of the tested models. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to reduce the dimensionality of data and to transform exogenous variables into significant and independent components. Short-term predictions were better than medium-term predictions in the case of CO and SO(2) series. Conversely, medium-term predictions were better in the case of SPM concentrations. The predictions are significantly promising (e.g., d (SPM 24-ahead) = 0.906, d (CO 1-ahead) = 0.891, d (SO2 1-ahead) = 0.851). PMID:17929183

  5. Evaluation of the new radiation belt AE9/AP9/SPM model for a cislunar mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Walker, Steven A.; Santos Koos, Lindsey M.

    2014-09-01

    this time. From a mission planning point of view, this date is ideal as the predictable GCR exposure will be at a maximum, while the sporadic SEP will be at a minimum. In addition, it is anticipated that by 2020 a vehicle capable of launching a crew of four will be operationally ready. During the LEO-GEO transit, the crew and cargo vehicles will encounter exposure from trapped particles and attenuated GCR, followed by free space exposure due to GCR and SEP during solar active times. Within the trapped field, a challenge arises from properly calculating the amount of exposure acquired. Within this field, in the absence of SEP (i.e. solar quiet times), the vehicles will have to transit through an inner proton belt, an inner and outer electron belts, and an attenuated GCR field. There exist a number of models to define the intensities of the trapped particles during the quiet and active SEP. Among the more established trapped models are the historic and popular electron/proton AE8/AP8 model dating back to the 1980s, the historic and less popular electron/proton CRRES model dating back to 1990s, and the recently released electron/proton/space plasma AE9/AP9/SPM model. The AE9/AP9/SPM model is a major improvement over the older AE8/AP8 and CRRES models. This model is derived from numerous measurements acquired over four solar cycles dating back to the 1970s, roughly representing 40 years of data collection. In contrast, the older AE8/AP8 and CRRES models were limited to only a few months of measurements taken during the prior solar minima and maxima. In this work, within the trapped field, along the design trajectory of the crew vehicle, the AE9/AP9/SPM model is evaluated against the older AE8/AP8 model during solar quiet times. The analysis is then extended to the GCR dominated en-route, cislunar L2 space and return trajectories in order to provide cumulative exposure estimates to the crew vehicle for the duration of the entire mission.

  6. Long-term effects of discharges of produced water the marine environment from petroleum-related activities at Sonda de Campeche, Gulf of México.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; González-Macías, C; Salazar-Coria, L; Sánchez-Reyna, G; González-Lozano, C

    2015-11-01

    Produced water from offshore oil platforms is a major source of oil and related chemicals into the sea. The large volume and high salinity of produced water could pose severe environmental impacts upon inadequate disposal. This study is based on direct field sampling of effluents released into the ocean in the years 2003 and 2013 at the Sonda de Campeche located in the southern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Metals and hydrocarbons were characterized in water, sediments, and fish tissues at the discharge site and compared with those obtained at two reference sites. Chemicals that exceeded risk-based concentrations in the discharge included the metals As, Pb, Cd, and Cr, and a variety of compounds polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), including naphthalene, fluorenes, and low molecular weight PAHs. The values of low to high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), and carbon preference index indicate that hydrocarbons in sediments of the discharge zone are originated from the produced water and combustion sources. Fish tissues at the discharge zone and reference site are contaminated with PAHs, dominated by 2- and 3-rings; 4-ring accounted for less than 1% of total PAHs (TPAHs) in 2003, but increased to 7% in 2013. Results suggest that, from 2003 to 2013, discharges of produced water have had a non-negligible impact on ecosystems at a regional level, so the possibility of subtle, cumulative effects from operational discharges should not be ignored. PMID:26519077

  7. fMRat: an extension of SPM for a fully automatic analysis of rodent brain functional magnetic resonance series.

    PubMed

    Chavarrías, Cristina; García-Vázquez, Verónica; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Montesinos, Paula; Pascau, Javier; Desco, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a multi-platform automatic software tool for full processing of fMRI rodent studies. Existing tools require the usage of several different plug-ins, a significant user interaction and/or programming skills. Based on a user-friendly interface, the tool provides statistical parametric brain maps (t and Z) and percentage of signal change for user-provided regions of interest. The tool is coded in MATLAB (MathWorks(®)) and implemented as a plug-in for SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping, the Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging). The automatic pipeline loads default parameters that are appropriate for preclinical studies and processes multiple subjects in batch mode (from images in either Nifti or raw Bruker format). In advanced mode, all processing steps can be selected or deselected and executed independently. Processing parameters and workflow were optimized for rat studies and assessed using 460 male-rat fMRI series on which we tested five smoothing kernel sizes and three different hemodynamic models. A smoothing kernel of FWHM = 1.2 mm (four times the voxel size) yielded the highest t values at the somatosensorial primary cortex, and a boxcar response function provided the lowest residual variance after fitting. fMRat offers the features of a thorough SPM-based analysis combined with the functionality of several SPM extensions in a single automatic pipeline with a user-friendly interface. The code and sample images can be downloaded from https://github.com/HGGM-LIM/fmrat . PMID:26285671

  8. SPM-based count normalization provides excellent discrimination of mild Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment from healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Yakushev, Igor; Hammers, Alexander; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Schmidtmann, Irene; Scheurich, Armin; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Peters, Jürgen; Bartenstein, Peter; Lieb, Klaus; Schreckenberger, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    Statistical comparisons of [(18)F]FDG PET scans between healthy subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) usually require normalization of regional tracer uptake via ROIs defined using additional software. Here, we validate a simple SPM-based method for count normalization. FDG PET scans of 21 mild, 15 very mild AD, 11 aMCI patients and 15 age-matched controls were analyzed. First, we obtained relative increases in the whole patient sample compared to controls (i.e. areas relatively preserved in patients) with proportional scaling to the cerebral global mean (CGM). Next, average absolute counts within the cluster with the highest t-value were extracted. Statistical comparisons of controls versus three patients groups were then performed using count normalization to CGM, sensorimotor cortex (SMC) as standard, and to the cluster-derived counts. Compared to controls, relative metabolism in aMCI patients was reduced by 15%, 20%, and 23% after normalization to CGM, SMC, and cluster-derived counts, respectively, and 11%, 21%, and 25% in mild AD patients. Logistic regression analyses based on normalized values extracted from AD-typical regions showed that the metabolic values obtained using CGM, SMC, and cluster normalization correctly classified 81%, 89% and 92% of aMCI and controls; classification accuracies for AD groups (very mild and mild) were 91%, 97%, and 100%. The proposed algorithm of fully SPM-based count normalization allows for a substantial increase of statistical power in detecting very early AD-associated hypometabolism, and very high accuracy in discriminating mild AD and aMCI from healthy aging. PMID:18691659

  9. Bovine serum amine oxidase and spm potentiate docetaxel and interferon-alpha effects in inducing apoptosis on human cancer cells through the generation of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Marra, M; Lombardi, A; Agostinelli, E; Giuberti, G; Zappavigna, S; Tempera, G; Vitale, G; Bifulco, M; Abbruzzese, A; Caraglia, M

    2008-12-01

    It was previously demonstrated that bovine serum amine-oxidase (BSAO) and SPM (SPM) addition to cancer cells induces cell growth inhibition and over-run the multi-drug resistance (MDR) phenotype through the oxidative stress caused by polyamine metabolites. In this study, it is reported that BSAO/SPM enzymatic system antagonizes the survival pathway induced by either docetaxel (DTX) or interferon alpha (IFNalpha) in human epidermoid cancer KB cells. The combination of BSAO/SPM with either DTX or IFNalpha had a synergistic effect on cell growth inhibition through apoptosis in both human epidermoid KB and breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines. The effects of the BSAO/SPM-DTX combination on apoptosis were caspase 3 and 9-dependent and were paralleled by the enhancement of intracellular O(2-), nitric oxide levels and of lipo-oxidation. The scavenger moiety N-acetyl-cysteine antagonized the effects on apoptosis and cell growth inhibition induced by the combination suggesting a role of the oxidative products of SPM. These effects occurred together with a decrease of the physiological scavenger MnSOD and an increase of both p38 kinase activity and DNA damage. The results suggest that DTX and IFNalpha could sensitize tumour cells to the oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by BSAO/SPM through the induction of a survival ras-dependent pathway and the consequent elevation of the intracellular polyamine pool. These data allow the design of new therapeutic strategy based on the use of this combination in human neoplasms. PMID:18848847

  10. Analisys, processing and validation data from eolic stations of SONDA project (National Organization System of Environmental Data) at Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (CPTEC/INPE) .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junior, A. B.; Nogueira, J. M.; Garcia, S. G.; Andrade, E. S.

    2007-05-01

    Asiel Bomfin Jr. LIM/CPTEC/INPE, Cachoeira Paulista, S.P., Brazil; Eliana Soares de Andrade; Jorge Luiz Martins Nogueira and Silvia Garcia de Castro. The Center for Weather Forecast and Climatic Analysis (CPTEC), a division of INPE, the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research. Several of the INPE´s departments and centers, like the CPTEC, have a variety of valuable datasets, many of them freely available and eolic data from SONDA project are also part of them at Meteorological Instrumental Laboratory (LIM). This paper presents the Analiys, processing and validation method applied to the eolic data in a temporal time of ten minutes, to be used in a PC IBM computer. This method is divided in tree separated programs. The first software called "separa.c" has the capability of divide the ingest data set in mensal files, identified by each station group. The second software called "minuto.c" does a syntactical analysis, verifying and correcting eventual lost data with NAN values. The third one called "validacode.c" generates two principal files, one containing the original data and the other with the codes of each variable for each minute analyzed. These codes is based on BSRN (Baseline Surface Radiation Network), but with some differences in their analyzed method. This method followed the Webmet.com, The Meteorological Resource Center. Table 1:Validation Codes Code Meaning 0 Quality check procedure is not avaiable for this level 2 The data is suspect 5 Quality check procedure is avaiable for this level, but not can be done 9 The data is correct Table 2: Validation levels for WIND SPEED: Validation Levels Quality check procedure for suspect data 0 Maximum and Minimum values of 25 m/s and 0 m/s 1 Can not vary more than 0,1 m/s for 03 consecutive hours 2 Can not vary more than 0,5 m/s for 12 consecutive hours 3 - Table 3: Validation levels for WIND DRECTION: Validation Levels Quality check procedure for suspect data 0 Maximum and Minimum values of 360 and 0

  11. Mineralogy and Sr-Nd isotopes of SPM and sediment from the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries: Influence of weathering and anthropogenic contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnachandra Rao, V.; Shynu, R.; Singh, Sunil K.; Naqvi, S. W. A.; Kessarkar, Pratima M.

    2015-04-01

    Clay minerals and Sr-Nd isotopes of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and bottom sediment were investigated along transect stations of the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries, western India to determine the provenance and role of estuarine processes on their distribution. Kaolinite and illite, followed by minor goethite, gibbsite and chlorite were present in SPM and bottom sediment at all stations, both during monsoon and pre-monsoon. Smectite occurred in traces at river end stations but its contents increased downstream in both estuaries. Smectite contents were much higher in Zuari than in Mandovi estuary. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios and ɛNd of SPM were higher than those in hinterland rocks and laterite soils. The Sr ratios were highest at river end stations of both estuaries and decreased sharply seaward. The Sm/Nd ratios of SPM and sediment were close to that of iron ore material flushed into the estuaries. The mean ɛNd of SPM and sediment were similar in both estuaries. It is suggested that the smectite is formed in coastal plains and its distribution downstream is controlled by lithology and drainage basin of rivers. Abundant kaolinite and high Sr ratios reflect chemical weathering and lateritization of source rocks. Sr isotopic ratios along transects are influenced by changes in salinity, organic matter and turbidity. High and near identical ɛNd values along transect stations of both estuaries suggest that the Nd isotopic compositions are influenced by the lateritization of source rocks and anthropogenic contribution of ore material.

  12. Effectiveness and Usability of the Sensory Processing Measure-Preschool Quick Tips: Data-Driven Intervention Following the Use of the SPM-Preschool in an Early Childhood, Multiple-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Carol H.; Henry, Diana A.; Kliner, Ashley Peck; Kyllo, Alissa; Richter, Chelsea Munson; Charley, Jane; Whitcher, Meagan Chapman; Reinke, Katherine Roth; Tysver, Chelsay Horner; Wagner, Lacey; Walworth, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    This pre- and posttest multiple-case study examined the effectiveness and usability of the Sensory Processing Measure-Preschool Quick Tips (SPM-P QT) by key stakeholders (parents and teachers) for implementing data-driven intervention to address sensory processing challenges. The Sensory Processing Measure-Preschool (SPM-P) was administered as an…

  13. 33 CFR 150.445 - When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water? 150.445 Section 150.445 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Cargo Transfer Operations §...

  14. 33 CFR 150.445 - When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water? 150.445 Section 150.445 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Cargo Transfer Operations §...

  15. 33 CFR 150.445 - When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water? 150.445 Section 150.445 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Cargo Transfer Operations §...

  16. Presence of high-risk clones of OXA-23-producing Acinetobacter baumannii (ST79) and SPM-1-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ST277) in environmental water samples in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Turano, Helena; Gomes, Fernando; Medeiros, Micheli; Oliveira, Silvane; Fontes, Lívia C; Sato, Maria I Z; Lincopan, Nilton

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the presence of hospital-associated high-risk lineages of OXA-23-producing ST79 Acinetobacter baumannii and SPM-1-producing ST277 Pseudomonas aeruginosa in urban rivers in Brazil. These findings indicate that urban rivers can act as reservoirs of clinically important multidrug-resistant bacteria, which constitute a potential risk to human and animal health. PMID:27342783

  17. Molecular characterization of Vulmar1, a complete mariner transposon of sugar beet and diversity of mariner- and En/Spm-like sequences in the genus Beta.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Gunnar; Dechyeva, Daryna; Menzel, Gerhard; Dombrowski, Cora; Schmidt, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    Transposons of the Tc1-mariner superfamily are widespread in eukaryotic genomes. We have isolated the mariner element Vulmar1 from Beta vulgaris L., which is 3909 bp long and bordered by perfect terminal inverted repeats of 32 bp with homology to terminal inverted repeats of transposons from soybean and rice. According to a characteristic amino acid signature, Vulmar1 can be assigned to the DD39D group of mariner transposons. Vulmar1 is flanked by a 5'-TA-3' target site duplication that is typical for mariner transposons. Southern hybridization revealed that mariner-like copies are highly abundant in Beta species, and sequence analysis of 10 transposase fragments from representative species of the four Beta sections revealed an identity between 34% and 100% after conceptual translation. By fluorescent in situ hybridization, Vulmar1 was detected in distal euchromatin as well as in some intercalary and pericentromeric regions of all B. vulgaris chromosomes. In addition, using PCR, we were able to amplify fragments of the transposase gene of En/Spm-like transposons in the genus Beta. En/Spm-like transposase sequences are highly amplified in four Beta sections and showed a considerable degree of conservation (88.5-100%) at the protein level, while the homology to corresponding regions of En/Spm transposons of other plant species ranges from 49.5% to 62.5%. By fluorescent in situ hybridization, En/Spm-like transposon signals of strong intensity were detected on all chromosomes of B. vulgaris. PMID:15644978

  18. Dynamic analysis for the global performance of an SPM-feeder-cage system under waves and currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifuentes, Cristian; Kim, M. H.

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, the dynamic response of a coupled SPM-feeder-cage system under irregular waves and shear currents is analyzed. A numerical model is developed by using the commercial software OrcaFlex. Hydrodynamics coefficients of the vessel are calculated by using a 3D diffraction/radiation panel program. First- and second-order wave forces are included in the calculations. Morison equation is used to compute the drag force on line elements representing the net. Drag coefficients are determined at every time step in the simulation considering the relative normal velocity between the structural elements and the fluid flow. The dynamic response of the coupled system is analyzed for various environments and net materials. The results of the study show the effects of solidity ratio of the net and vertical positions of the cage on the overall dynamic response of the system, confirming the viability of this type of configuration for future development of offshore aquaculture in deep waters.

  19. Method for On-line Estimation of Electrical Motor Parameter Variation and Current Sensor Offset for SPM Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uenaka, Yutaro; Sazawa, Masaki; Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Kenji, Takahashi

    The servo system of a permanent magnet (PM) motor should always maintain fine torque and fine speed responses. Accurate motor parameter identification is necessary for the PM motor servo system because the current control system is designed by considering the electric parameters of the PM motor. However, the motor parameters vary with the age of the motor and temperature. Moreover, current sensors have offset values. When the current sensor has offset values, the PM motor servo system produces torque ripple. In order to overcome these problems, this paper proposes a new real-time estimation method for both current sensor offsets and electrical parameters (resistance Ra, inductance La, and magnetic flux φfa) of the surface permanent magnet (SPM) motor. The proposed method involves the use of a real-time algorithm and a current simulator, which is operated using a DSP software system. In order to accurately estimate the motor parametera, the proposed method is using estimate currents, DC terms of sensor currents, and nominal motor parameter value. The experimental results of this study confirm that the proposed method satisfactorily estimates the current sensor offset of the U phase and V phase, as well as the electrical motor parametersRa, La, and φfa accurately.

  20. Inversion of Three Layers Multi-Scale SPM Model Based on Neural Network Technique for the Retrieval of Soil Multi-Scale Roughness and Moisture Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosni, I.; JaafriGhamki, M.; Bennaceur Farah, L.; Naceur, M. S.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a multi-layered multi-scale backscattering model for a lossy medium and a neural network inversion procedure has been presented. We have used a bi-dimensional multi-scale (2D MLS) roughness description where the surface is considered as a superposition of a finite number of one-dimensional Gaussian processes each one having a spatial scale using the wavelet transform and the Mallat algorithm to describe natural surface roughness. An adapted three layers 2D MLS small perturbations (SPM) model has been used to describe radar backscattering response of semiarid sub-surfaces. The total reflection coefficients of the natural soil are computed using the multilayer model, and volumetric scattering is approximated by the internal reflections between layers. The original multi-scale SPM model includes only the surface scattering of the natural bare soil, while the multilayer soil modified 2D MLS SPM model includes both the surface scattering and the volumetric scattering within the soil. This multi-layered model has been used to calculate the total surface reflection coefficients of a natural soil surface for both horizontal and vertical co-polarizations. A parametric analysis presents the dependence of the backscattering coefficient on multi scale roughness and soil. The overall objective of this work is to retrieve soil surfaces parameters namely roughness and soil moisture related to the dielectric constant by inverting the radar backscattered signal from natural soil surfaces. To perform the inversion of the modified three layers 2D MLS SPM model, we used a multilayer neural network (NN) architecture trained by a back-propagation learning rule.

  1. Silicon photomultiplier (SPM) detection of low-level bioluminescence for the development of deployable whole-cell biosensors: possibilities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaqing; Lopes, Nicholas; Moser, Scott; Sayler, Gary; Ripp, Steven

    2012-03-15

    Whole-cell bacterial bioreporters await miniaturized photon counting modules with high sensitivity and robust compatible hardware to fulfill their promise of versatile, on-site biosensor functionality. In this study, we explore the photon counting readout properties of the silicon photomultiplier (SPM) with a thermoelectric cooler and the possibilities of detecting low-level bioluminescent signals. Detection performance was evaluated through a simulated LED light source and the bioluminescence produced by the genetically engineered Pseudomonas fluorescens bacterial bioreporter 5RL. Compared with the conventional photomultiplier tube (PMT), the results revealed that the cooled SPM exhibits a wider linear response to inducible substrate concentrations (salicylate) ranging from 250 to 5000 ppb. Although cooling of the SPM lowered dark count rates and improved the minimum detectable signal, and the application of a digital filter enhanced the signal-to-noise ratio, the detection of very low light signals is still limited and remains a challenge in the design of compact photon counting systems. PMID:22305444

  2. Improved capabilities of the Chinese high-resolution remote sensing satellite GF-1 for monitoring suspended particulate matter (SPM) in inland waters: Radiometric and spatial considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Chen, Xiaoling; Tian, Liqiao; Huang, Jue; Feng, Lian

    2015-08-01

    Dominated by high dynamic and small-scale variability, remote sensing of inland or coastal waters is frequently impended by insufficient spatial resolutions from conventional ocean color sensors. With the urgent need and the rapid progress in high-resolution earth observation systems (HR), it is critical to assess the capabilities of HR in inland water monitoring. In this study, the radiometric and spatial performance of the Chinese high-resolution GF-1 Wide Field Imager (WFI) data for water quality monitoring were evaluated in term of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), sensitivity to suspended particulate matter (SPM) variations and spatial depiction ability. The SNR was statistically estimated from variable moving window method, and the radiometric sensitivity was simulated using the Moderate Resolution Atmospheric Transmission (MODTRAN) under varied surface and atmospheric conditions. Results indicated that both the SNR and the radiometric sensitivity of the GF-1 WFI were enhanced by 3-5 times than its predecessor (Chinese HJ-1 CCD) or Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and were comparable to Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) medium-resolution bands (250 and 500 m), which have been extensively applied in inland water environment monitoring. Cross comparisons demonstrated high consistency of the spatial distribution and concentration of SPM maps between GF-1 WFI and Landsat 8 OLI. Furthermore, more than 75% of the spatial variations in high turbid waters were resolved from GF-1 WFI data, whereas the ability dropped to 40% when the spatial resolution was degraded to 250 m (MODIS-like sensors). Overall, GF-1 WFI is extraordinarily promising with an enhanced SNR, an increased spectral sensitivity to SPM variations and an advanced spatial resolution. With the ongoing plans of the successive GF series (2-7), the findings would serve as a reference for forthcoming applications, and are critical

  3. Glucose metabolism in nine patients with probable sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: FDG-PET study using SPM and individual patient analysis.

    PubMed

    Renard, Dimitri; Vandenberghe, Rik; Collombier, Laurent; Kotzki, Pierre-Olivier; Pouget, Jean-Pierre; Boudousq, Vincent

    2013-12-01

    Only one large series using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) reports on FDG-PET in sporadic (Heidenhain and non-Heidenhain variant) Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), describing hypometabolism in bilateral parietal, frontal, and occipital cortices. Our aim was to study FDG-PET in non-Heidenhain probable sCJD patients in order to assess the most pertinent FDG-PET pattern, and to compare FDG-PET and MRI data. We used both SPM and NeuroGam(®) software analysis, compared with healthy controls, to describe the FDG-PET abnormalities. Individual FDG-PET and MRI-DWI data were compared. SPM group analysis showed lateralized hypometabolism in the medial parietal cortex, the lateral and medial frontal (sparing Brodmann's area 4 and 6 and the anterior cingulate cortex), and lateral parietal cortex, in the absence of basal ganglia or cerebellar hypometabolism. The most severe hypometabolism was seen in Brodmann's area 31, and to a lesser degree area 23 (both areas correspond to the posterior cingulate cortex) and the precuneus. On individual analysis using NeuroGam(®) software, additional variable temporal cortex and frequent basal ganglia (with caudate nucleus as the most frequently involved structure) hypometabolism was seen, in the absence of cerebellar hypometabolism. The cerebral lobe cortex was more frequently and more severely hypometabolic than basal ganglia structures. Concordance between FDG-PET and MRI abnormalities was most often present for both the cerebral lobe cortex and the basal ganglia. In the case of discordance, FDG-PET was more sensitive than MRI for the cortex, whereas MRI was more sensitive than FDG-PET for the basal ganglia. When pathological, both cortical lobe cortex and basal ganglia involvement were slightly more often lateralized on FDG-PET than on MRI. Despite the presence of overlapping features with other diseases presenting with rapidly progressive dementia, the FDG-PET pattern we found in our non-Heidenhain sCJD patients may help in the

  4. Analysis of the local structure around Cr3+ centers in perovskite KMgF3 using both ab initio (DFT) and semi-empirical (SPM) calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emül, Y.; Erbahar, D.; Açıkgöz, M.

    2014-11-01

    The local structure around Cr3+ centers in perovskite KMgF3 crystal have been investigated through the applications of both an ab-initio, density functional theory (DFT), and a semi empirical, superposition model (SPM), analyses. A supercell approach is used for DFT calculations. All the tetragonal (Cr3+-VMg and Cr3+-Li+), trigonal (Cr3+-VK), and CrF5O cluster centers have been considered with various structural models based on the previously suggested experimental inferences. The significant structural changes around the Cr3+ centers induced by Mg2+ or K+ vacancies and the Li substitution at those vacancy sites have been determined and discussed by means of charge distribution. This study provides insight on both the roles of Mg2+ and K+ vacancies and Li+ ion in the local structural properties around Cr3+ centers in KMgF3.

  5. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  6. Cross talk between MMP2-Spm-Cer-S1P and ERK1/2 in proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells under angiotensin II stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Animesh; Sarkar, Jaganmay; Pramanik, Pijush Kanti; Chakraborti, Tapati; Chakraborti, Sajal

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to establish the mechanism associated with the proliferation of PASMCs under ANG II stimulation. The results showed that treatment of PASMCs with ANG II induces an increase in cell proliferation and 100 nM was the optimum concentration for maximum increase in proliferation of the cells. Pretreatment of the cells with AT1, but not AT2, receptor antagonist inhibited ANG II induced cell proliferation. Pretreatment with pharmacological and genetic inhibitors of sphingomyelinase (SMase) and sphingosine kinase (SPHK) prevented ANG II-induced cell proliferation. ANG II has also been shown to induce SMase activity, SPHK phosphorylation and S1P production. In addition, ANG II caused an increase in proMMP-2 expression and activation, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and NADPH oxidase activation. Upon inhibition of MMP-2, SMase activity and S1P level were curbed leading to inhibition of cell proliferation. SPHK was phosphorylated by ERK1/2 during ET-1 stimulation of the cells. ANG II-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and proMMP-2 expression and activation in the cells were abrogated upon inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity. Overall, NADPH oxidase plays an important role in proMMP-2 expression and activation and that MMP-2 mediated SMC proliferation occurs through the involvement of Spm-Cer-S1P signaling axis under ANG II stimulation of PASMCs. PMID:27210740

  7. Anomalous scaling of Δ C versus T c in the Fe-based superconductors: the $${S}_{\\pm }$$-wave pairing state model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bang, Yunkyu; Stewart, G. R.

    2016-02-01

    The strong power law behavior of the specific heat jumpmore » $${\\rm{\\Delta }}C\\;$$ versus T c $$({\\rm{\\Delta }}C/{T}_{{\\rm{c}}}\\sim {T}_{{\\rm{c}}}^{\\alpha },\\alpha \\approx 2)$$, first observed by Bud'ko et al (2009 Phys. Rev. B 79 220516), has been confirmed with several families of the Fe-based superconducting compounds with various dopings. We tested a minimal two band BCS model to understand this anomalous behavior and showed that this non-BCS relation between $${\\rm{\\Delta }}C\\;$$ versus T c is a generic property of the multiband superconducting state paired by a dominant interband interaction ($${V}_{\\mathrm{inter}}\\gt {V}_{\\mathrm{intra}}$$) reflecting the relation $$\\frac{{{\\rm{\\Delta }}}_{{\\rm{h}}}}{{{\\rm{\\Delta }}}_{{\\rm{e}}}}\\sim \\sqrt{\\frac{{N}_{{\\rm{e}}}}{{N}_{{\\rm{h}}}}}$$ near T c, as in the $${S}_{\\pm }$$-wave pairing state. We also found that this $${\\rm{\\Delta }}C\\;$$ versus T c power law can continuously change from the ideal BNC scaling to a considerable deviation by a moderate variation of the impurity scattering rate $${{\\rm{\\Gamma }}}_{0}$$ (non-pair-breaking). Finally, as a result, our model provides a consistent explanation why the electron-doped Fe-based superconductors follow the ideal BNC scaling very well while the hole-doped systems often show varying degree of deviations.« less

  8. Detection of ℓ = 4 and ℓ = 5 modes in 12 years of solar VIRGO-SPM data—tests on Kepler observations of 16 Cyg A and B

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, Mikkel Nørup; Kjeldsen, Hans; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Handberg, Rasmus; Aguirre, Victor Silva

    2014-02-10

    We present the detection of ℓ = 4 and ℓ = 5 modes in power spectra of the Sun, constructed from 12 yr full-disk VIRGO-SPM data sets. A method for enhancing the detectability of these modes in asteroseismic targets is presented and applied to Kepler data of the two solar analogues 16 Cyg A and B. For these targets, we see indications of a signal from ℓ = 4 modes, while nothing is yet seen for ℓ = 5 modes. We further simulate the power spectra of these stars and from this we estimate that it should indeed be possible to see such indications of ℓ = 4 modes at the present length of the data sets. In the simulation process, we briefly look into the apparent misfit between observed and calculated mode visibilities. We predict that firm detections of at least ℓ = 4 should be possible in any case at the end of the Kepler mission. For ℓ = 5, we do not predict any firm detections from Kepler data.

  9. Metallo-beta-Lactamase VIM-1, SPM-1, and IMP-1 Genes Among Clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa Species Isolated in Zahedan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghamgosha, Mehdi; Shahrekizahedani, Shahram; Kafilzadeh, Farshid; Bameri, Zakaria; Taheri, Ramezan Ali; Farnoosh, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the major clinical problems regarding Pseudomonas aeruginosa is attributed to metallo-beta-lactamases (MBL). This group of enzymes is a subset of beta lactamases which belong to group B of Ambler classification and cause hydrolysis of carbapenems. Based on epidemiological studies conducted worldwide, it is proved that prevalence of genes coding MBLs in P. aeruginosa species are different in various geographic zones and even in various hospitals. Therefore, according to the clinical importance of organisms generating MBLs, it is necessary to identify and control these bacteria in hospitals for therapeutic purposes. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the Metallo-beta-Lactamase VIM-1, SPM-1, and IMP-1 genes among clinical P. aeruginosa species isolated in Zahedan, Iran. Materials and Methods: The current study investigated the presence of MBL through phenotypic and genotypic methods and also the pattern of antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa species isolated in hospitals. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) against imipeneme was measured for 191 P. aeruginosa species isolated from Zahedan hospitals after identification through biochemical methods and determination of the antibiotic resistance pattern. Strains with MIC > 4 µg/mL were studied by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Results: The rate of resistance against imipeneme was 5.7% and after carrying out the phenotypic experiments, nine species were identified as of MBL producer. Seven species were confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. Gene VIM-1 was the predominant gene among the positive (antibiotic resistant) species. Conclusions: The study results showed that MBL genes were present in some of the species isolated from Zahedan hospitals. Regarding the importance of MBL producer bacteria in hospitals, quick identification and evaluation of these clinical species can be considered as an important and basic step for treatment and control of pseudomonad

  10. Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Multidrug-Resistant P. aeruginosa Carrying aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrS1 and blaSPM Genes in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Bruna Fuga; Ferreira, Melina Lorraine; Campos, Paola Amaral de; Royer, Sabrina; Batistão, Deivid William da Fonseca; Dantas, Raquel Cristina Cavalcanti; Gonçalves, Iara Rossi; Faria, Ana Luiza Souza; Brito, Cristiane Silveira de; Yokosawa, Jonny; Gontijo-Filho, Paulo Pinto; Ribas, Rosineide Marques

    2016-01-01

    We described a comprehensive analysis of the molecular epidemiology of multidrug-resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa. Molecular analysis included typing by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis, identification of genes of interest through PCR-based assays and sequencing of target genes. Case-control study was conducted to better understand the prognostic of patients and the impact of inappropriate therapy in patients with bacteremia, as well as the risk factors of MDR infections. We observed a high rate of MDR isolates (40.7%), and 51.0% of them was independently associated with inappropriate antibiotic therapy. Bacteremia was detected in 66.9% of patients, and prolonged hospital stay was expressive in those resistant to fluoroquinolone. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes (PMQR), qnrS1 and aac(6')Ib-cr, were detected in two different nosocomial isolates (5.3%), and the aac(6')-Ib7 variant was detected at a high frequency (87.5%) in those negative to PMQR. The presence of mutations in gyrA and parC genes was observed in 100% and 85% of selected isolates, respectively. Isolates harboring PMQR genes or mutations in gyrA and parC were not closely related, except in those containing SPM (São Paulo metallo-β-lactamase) clone. In addition, there is no study published in Brazil to date reporting the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates harboring both qnrS1 and aac(6')Ib-cr genes, with alarming frequency of patients with inappropriate therapy. PMID:27219003

  11. Characterization of low alloy ferritic steel–Ni base alloy dissimilar metal weld interface by SPM techniques, SEM/EDS, TEM/EDS and SVET

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Siyan; Ding, Jie; Ming, Hongliang; Zhang, Zhiming; Wang, Jianqiu

    2015-02-15

    The interface region of welded A508–Alloy 52 M is characterized by scanning probe microscope (SPM) techniques, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning vibrate electrode technique (SVET). The regions along the welded A508–Alloy 52 M interface can be categorized into two types according to their different microstructures. In the type-I interface region, A508 and Alloy 52 M are separated by the fusion boundary, while in the type-II interface region, A508 and Alloy 52 M are separated by a martensite zone. A508, martensite zone and grain boundaries in Alloy 52 M are ferromagnetic while the Alloy 52 M matrix is paramagnetic. The Volta potentials measured by scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) of A508, martensite zone and Alloy 52 M follow the order: V{sub 52} {sub M} > V{sub A508} > V{sub martensite}. The corrosion behavior of A508–Alloy 52 M interface region is galvanic corrosion, in which Alloy 52 M is cathode while A508 is anode. The martensite dissolves faster than Alloy 52 M, but slower than A508 in the test solution. - Highlights: • The A508–Alloy 52 M interface regions can be categorized into two types. • The chromium depleted region is observed along the Alloy 52 M grain boundary. • The Alloy 52 M grain boundaries which are close to the interface are ferromagnetic. • Martensite zone has lower Volta potential but higher corrosion resistance than A508.

  12. Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Multidrug-Resistant P. aeruginosa Carrying aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrS1 and blaSPM Genes in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Bruna Fuga; Ferreira, Melina Lorraine; de Campos, Paola Amaral; Royer, Sabrina; Batistão, Deivid William da Fonseca; Dantas, Raquel Cristina Cavalcanti; Gonçalves, Iara Rossi; Faria, Ana Luiza Souza; de Brito, Cristiane Silveira; Yokosawa, Jonny; Gontijo-Filho, Paulo Pinto; Ribas, Rosineide Marques

    2016-01-01

    We described a comprehensive analysis of the molecular epidemiology of multidrug-resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa. Molecular analysis included typing by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis, identification of genes of interest through PCR-based assays and sequencing of target genes. Case-control study was conducted to better understand the prognostic of patients and the impact of inappropriate therapy in patients with bacteremia, as well as the risk factors of MDR infections. We observed a high rate of MDR isolates (40.7%), and 51.0% of them was independently associated with inappropriate antibiotic therapy. Bacteremia was detected in 66.9% of patients, and prolonged hospital stay was expressive in those resistant to fluoroquinolone. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes (PMQR), qnrS1 and aac(6’)Ib-cr, were detected in two different nosocomial isolates (5.3%), and the aac(6’)-Ib7 variant was detected at a high frequency (87.5%) in those negative to PMQR. The presence of mutations in gyrA and parC genes was observed in 100% and 85% of selected isolates, respectively. Isolates harboring PMQR genes or mutations in gyrA and parC were not closely related, except in those containing SPM (São Paulo metallo-β-lactamase) clone. In addition, there is no study published in Brazil to date reporting the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates harboring both qnrS1 and aac(6’)Ib-cr genes, with alarming frequency of patients with inappropriate therapy. PMID:27219003

  13. Detection of blaSPM-1, blaKPC, blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. from cancer patients with healthcare-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Jácome, Paula Regina Luna de Araújo; Alves, Lílian Rodrigues; Jácome-Júnior, Agenor Tavares; Silva, Maria Jesuíta Bezerra da; Lima, Jailton Lobo da Costa; Araújo, Paulo Sérgio Ramos; Lopes, Ana Catarina S; Maciel, Maria Amélia Vieira

    2016-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. are three of the pathogens most frequently involved in infections of cancer patients, and the production of β -lactamases is a major mechanism of resistance due to its wide diversity of existing enzymes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the microbiological profile and data related to patients and infections, and to search for β -lactamase genes in bacterial isolates from hospitalized cancer patients in a hospital in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. A total of 169 isolates were recovered between 2012 and 2014, of which 58 were P. aeruginosa, 36 were Acinetobacter spp. and 75 were Klebsiella spp. A high percentage of carbapenem resistance was observed in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. Among the carbapenem-resistant bacteria, the blaSPM-1 gene was detected in P. aeruginosa (35.5 %) and Acinetobacter spp. (3.8 %), while blaKPC was detected in P. aeruginosa (25.8 %) only. Among the third- and fourth-generation cephalosporin-resistant strains, in Klebsiella spp. we detected the genes blaTEM (30.6 %), blaCTX-M (58.3 %) and blaKPC (5.6 %), and in Acinetobacter spp. only blaTEM (25.9 %). This the first report of an Acinetobacter baumannii blaSPM-1 gene carrier that has been isolated in Brazil. The most frequent cancer types were bowel tumour [14.8 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI95 %) 9.8-21.1 %], breast cancer (13.6 %; CI95 % 8.8-19.7 %) and prostate cancer (11.2%; CI95 % 6.9-17.0 %). These results therefore provide knowledge of susceptibility profile and resistance mechanisms and thus can contribute to the strategic formulation of hospital infection control plans and the rational use of antimicrobials, reducing mortality from infection levels in cancer patients. PMID:27217349

  14. Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Apiales - POR 1 is missing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Laursen, Tomas; Weitzel, Corinna; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-05-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor to eukaryotic microsomal cytochromes P450 enzymes. The number of PORs within plant species is limited to one to four isoforms, with the most common being two PORs per plant. These enzymes provide electrons to a huge number of different cytochromes P450s (from 50 to several hundred within one plant). Within the eudicotyledons, PORs can be divided into two major clades, POR 1 and POR 2. Based on our own sequencing analysis and publicly available data, we have identified 45 PORs from the angiosperm order Apiales. These were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis along with 237 other publicly available (NCBI and oneKP) POR sequences found within the clade Asterids. Here, we show that the order Apiales only harbor members of the POR 2 clade, which are further divided into two distinct subclades. This is in contrast to most other eudicotyledon orders that have both POR 1 and POR 2. This suggests that through gene duplications and one gene deletion, Apiales only contain members of the POR 2 clade. Three POR 2 isoforms from Thapsia garganica L., Apiaceae, were all full-length in an Illumina root transcriptome dataset (available from the SRA at NCBI). All three genes were shown to be functional upon reconstitution into nanodiscs, confirming that none of the isoforms are pseudogenes. PMID:26854662

  15. Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

  16. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2011-04-10

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ∼40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ∼60%, is found on ∼28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (∼8% of Asians and ∼13% of Caucasians) at -152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ∼30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  17. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ~40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ~60%, is found on ~28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (~8% of Asians and ~13% of Caucasians) at −152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ~30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically-relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  18. Sensing Current and Forces with SPM

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jeong Y.; Maier, Sabine; Hendriksen, Bas; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-07-02

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) are well established techniques to image surfaces and to probe material properties at the atomic and molecular scale. In this review, we show hybrid combinations of AFM and STM that bring together the best of two worlds: the simultaneous detection of atomic scale forces and conduction properties. We illustrate with several examples how the detection of forces during STM and the detection of currents during AFM can give valuable additional information of the nanoscale material properties.

  19. Desigualdades por cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Información básica de las desigualdades en salud por cáncer en EE. UU., factores que contribuyen a la carga desproporcionada del cáncer en algunos grupos y ejemplos de desigualdades en incidencia y mortalidad entre ciertos grupos de la población.

  20. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  1. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  2. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  3. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. PMID:23075153

  4. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  5. Disminuyen en los Estados Unidos las infecciones por VPH.

    Cancer.gov

    La infección por los tipos del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) en el blanco de la vacuna cuadrivalente se redujo en casi dos tercios en las adolescentes desde que se recomendó la vacunación en los Estados Unidos.

  6. Centros oncológicos designados por el NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El programa de centros oncológicos designados por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) reconoce a los centros de todo el país que cumplen con rigurosos criterios para participar en proyectos avanzados de primer nivel para la investigación multidisciplinaria del cáncer.

  7. Proper Motion of the Magellanic Clouds using SPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, K.; Girard, T.; van Altena, W.; Zacharias, N.; Casetti, D.; Korchagin, V.; Platais, I.; Monet, D.; López, C.

    2014-06-01

    Absolute proper motions are determined for stars and galaxies to V = 17.5 over a 450 square-degree area that includes the Magellanic Clouds, using photographic and CCD observations of the Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion program. Multiple, local relative proper motion measures were combined in an overlap solution using photometrically selected galactic disk stars to define a global relative system that is then transformed to absolute using external galaxies and Hipparcos stars to tie into the ICRS. The resulting catalog is used to derive the mean absolute proper motions of the Magellanic Clouds: (μ_{α}^{} cos δ, μ_{δ}^{})_LMC=(+1.88, +0.37)±(0.27, 0.27) mas yr^-1 and (μ_{α}^{} cos δ, μ_{δ}^{})_SMC=(+1.05, -1.03)±(0.30, 0.29) mas yr^-1, based on best-measured samples of 3822 LMC stars and 964 SMC stars. A dominant portion of the formal errors is due to the estimated uncertainty in the inertial system of the Hipparcos Catalog. A more precise determination was made for the proper motion of the SMC relative to the LMC; (μ_{{α cos δ }}^{}, μ_{δ}^{})_{SMC-LMC}=(-0.91, -1.49)±(0.16, 0.15) mas yr^-1. This differential value is used to estimate of the total velocity difference of the two clouds to within ±54 km s^-1. The absolute proper motion results are consistent with the Clouds' orbits being marginally bound to the Milky Way, albeit on an elongated orbit.

  8. Companding transform based SPM compensation in coherent optical OFDM transmission.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hwan Seok; Chang, Sun Hyok; Kim, Kwangjoon

    2011-12-12

    We demonstrate a mitigation of fiber nonlinearity based on μ-law companding transform in coherent optical OFDM transmissions. High peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) increases fiber nonlinear impairments caused by the Kerr effect in optical fiber. The μ-law companding modifies amplitude profile of OFDM signal with time domain signal processing, which reduces high PAPR of OFDM signal. The effects of companding parameter on noise enhancement and PAPR variation are presented. The impacts of companding transform on system performances are evaluated in a single polarization system as well as polarization multiplexed system. The resolution of analog-to-digital converter (ADC), dispersion map of transmission link, and launch power tolerance are also considered. The results of bit-error-rate (BER) measurements show that the μ-law companding improves OSNR margin over 5.5 dB after transmission of 1,040 km over SMF. PMID:22274091

  9. A Biased View on the Nanoworld: Electromechanical Imaging By SPM

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Rodriguez, Brian J; Jesse, Stephen; Proksch, Roger

    2007-01-01

    Coupling between electrical and mechanical phenomena is one of the fundamental natural mechanisms manifested in materials and systems ranging from ferroelectrics and multiferroics to electroactive polymers and biological systems. Electromechanics refers to a broad class of phenomena in which mechanical deformation is induced by an external electric field, or, conversely, electric charge is generated by the application of an external force. This coupling has obvious practical uses in actuators, sensors, tunable optics, and energy harvesting, and is also of great interest since it is inherently tied to physical materials properties. In ferroelectrics, electromechanical behavior is directly linked to polarization, and hence, can be used to study polarization reversal mechanisms, domain wall growth and pinning, cross-coupled phenomena in multiferroics, and electron-lattice coupling.

  10. Large area high-speed metrology SPM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapetek, P.; Valtr, M.; Picco, L.; Payton, O. D.; Martinek, J.; Yacoot, A.; Miles, M.

    2015-02-01

    We present a large area high-speed measuring system capable of rapidly generating nanometre resolution scanning probe microscopy data over mm2 regions. The system combines a slow moving but accurate large area XYZ scanner with a very fast but less accurate small area XY scanner. This arrangement enables very large areas to be scanned by stitching together the small, rapidly acquired, images from the fast XY scanner while simultaneously moving the slow XYZ scanner across the region of interest. In order to successfully merge the image sequences together two software approaches for calibrating the data from the fast scanner are described. The first utilizes the low uncertainty interferometric sensors of the XYZ scanner while the second implements a genetic algorithm with multiple parameter fitting during the data merging step of the image stitching process. The basic uncertainty components related to these high-speed measurements are also discussed. Both techniques are shown to successfully enable high-resolution, large area images to be generated at least an order of magnitude faster than with a conventional atomic force microscope.

  11. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Cancer.gov

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevención de más de 795 000 muertes por cáncer de pulmón en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este país hubiera cesado después de la publicación d

  12. Neisseria meningitidis Lacking the Major Porins PorA and PorB Is Viable and Modulates Apoptosis and the Oxidative Burst of Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Peak, Ian R; Chen, Adrienne; Jen, Freda E-C; Jennings, Courtney; Schulz, Benjamin L; Saunders, Nigel J; Khan, Arshad; Seifert, H Steven; Jennings, Michael P

    2016-08-01

    The bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis expresses two major outer-membrane porins. PorA expression is subject to phase-variation (high frequency, random, on-off switching), and both PorA and PorB are antigenically variable between strains. PorA expression is variable and not correlated with meningococcal colonisation or invasive disease, whereas all naturally-occurring strains express PorB suggesting strong selection for expression. We have generated N. meningitidis strains lacking expression of both major porins, demonstrating that they are dispensable for bacterial growth in vitro. The porAB mutant strain has an exponential growth rate similar to the parental strain, as do the single porA or porB mutants, but the porAB mutant strain does not reach the same cell density in stationary phase. Proteomic analysis suggests that the double mutant strain exhibits compensatory expression changes in proteins associated with cellular redox state, energy/nutrient metabolism, and membrane stability. On solid media, there is obvious growth impairment that is rescued by addition of blood or serum from mammalian species, particularly heme. These porin mutants are not impaired in their capacity to inhibit both staurosporine-induced apoptosis and a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced oxidative burst in human neutrophils suggesting that the porins are not the only bacterial factors that can modulate these processes in host cells. PMID:26562068

  13. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  14. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    This document describes Acceptance Testing performed on Portable Exhauster POR-007/Skid E. It includes measurements of bearing vibration levels, pressure decay testing, programmable logic controller interlocks, high vacuum, flow and pressure control functional testing. The purpose of Acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-0490, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  15. Typing and surface charges of the variable loop regions of PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Paola; Neri, Arianna; Tanabe, Mikio; Fazio, Cecilia; Massari, Paola

    2016-06-01

    PorB is a pan-Neisserial major outer membrane protein with a trimeric β-barrel structure. Each monomer presents eight periplasmic turns and eight surface exposed loop regions with sequence variability. PorB induces activation of host cell responses via a TLR2-dependent mechanism likely mediated by electrostatic interactions between TLR2 and PorB surface exposed loops. Variability in the loop amino acid sequence is known to influence cell responses to PorB in vitro, particularly for the residues in L5 and L7. In this work, the sequence of the porB gene and the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from 35 invasive meningococcal isolates belonging to the main clonal complexes identified in Italy and from five carriage genomes available on the website http://pubmlst.org/neisseria/ were examined. Analysis of the porB encoding regions from the invasive meningococci has identified four new alleles and a potential association between porB alleles, serogroup, and clonal complexes. Through computer-based modeling and analysis of the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from these strains, loop charge segregation between PorB from invasive serogroups B and C was observed. Specifically, loops 1, 4, and 7 were negatively charged and L2 and L8 were mostly neutral in serogroup B isolates, while an overall homogeneous positive surface charge was present in PorB from invasive serogroup C strains. A higher PorB sequence variability was observed among carriage genomes, and a general prevalence of negative loop surface charges. The surface charge differences in PorB from serogroups B and C invasive and carriage strains may, in part, influence the outcomes of Neisseriae interactions with host cells. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(6):488-495, 2016. PMID:27156582

  16. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    Portable Exhauster POR-008 was procured via HNF-0490, Specification for a Portable Exhausted System for Waste Tank Ventilation. Prior to taking ownership, acceptance testing was performed at the vendors. However at the conclusion of testing a number of issues remained that required resolution before the exhausters could be used by Project W-320. The purpose of acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-O49O, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  17. VDAC and the bacterial porin PorB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae share mitochondrial import pathways.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anne; Rassow, Joachim; Grimm, Jan; Machuy, Nikolaus; Meyer, Thomas F; Rudel, Thomas

    2002-04-15

    The human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae induces host cell apoptosis during infection by delivering the outer membrane protein PorB to the host cell's mitochondria. PorB is a pore-forming beta-barrel protein sharing several features with the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which is involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Here we show that PorB of pathogenic Neisseria species produced by host cells is efficiently targeted to mitochondria. Imported PorB resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane and forms multimers with similar sizes as in the outer bacterial membrane. The mitochondria completely lose their membrane potential, a characteristic previously observed in cells infected with gonococci or treated with purified PorB. Closely related bacterial porins of non-pathogenic Neisseria mucosa or Escherichia coli remain in the cytosol. Import of PorB into mitochondria in vivo is independent of a linear signal sequence. Insertion of PorB into the mitochondrial outer membrane in vitro depends on the activity of Tom5, Tom20 and Tom40, but is independent of Tom70. Our data show that human VDAC and bacterial PorB are imported into mitochondria by a similar mechanism. PMID:11953311

  18. Successful Mnemonics for "por"/"para" and Affirmative Commands with Pronouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Two mnemonic devices, "4A Rule" and "PERFECT," are described to simplify the learning of two grammar points: the placement of object pronouns with respect to commands and the distinction between "por" and "para." (five references) (LB)

  19. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Zoe A; Seviour, Robert J; Tucci, Joseph; Petrovski, Steve

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  20. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Zoe A.; Seviour, Robert J.; Tucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  1. Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 Å resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP–PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction. PMID:20351243

  2. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kaelynn

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  3. Crystallographic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis PorB extracellular loops potentially implicated in TLR2 recognition.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Christof; Toussi, Deana N; Zaucha, Jan; Wetzler, Lee M; Rüppel, Nadine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2014-03-01

    Among all Neisseriae species, Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the only human pathogens, causative agents of bacterial meningitis and gonorrhoea, respectively. PorB, a pan-Neisseriae trimeric porin that mediates diffusive transport of essential molecules across the bacterial outer membrane, is also known to activate host innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling. The molecular mechanism of PorB binding to TLR2 is not known, but it has been hypothesized that electrostatic interactions contribute to ligand/receptor binding. Strain-specific sequence variability in the surface-exposed loops of PorB which are potentially implicated in TLR2 binding, may explain the difference in TLR2-mediated cell activation in vitro by PorB homologs from the commensal Neisseriae lactamica and the pathogen N. meningitidis. Here, we report a comparative structural analysis of PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup B strain 8765 (63% sequence homology with PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup W135) and a mutant in which amino acid substitutions in the extracellular loop 7 lead to significantly reduced TLR2-dependent activity in vitro. We observe that this mutation both alters the loop conformation and causes dramatic changes of electrostatic surface charge, both of which may affect TLR2 recognition and signaling. PMID:24361688

  4. Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T.M.

    2010-06-25

    PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP-PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction.

  5. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Benítez, J F; Blomström, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge. PMID:26728078

  6. Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

  7. Gliding Motility and Por Secretion System Genes Are Widespread among Members of the Phylum Bacteroidetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yongtao

    2013-01-01

    The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, “Gramella forsetii,” Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility. PMID:23123910

  8. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  9. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  10. An Analysis of Interlanguage Development Over Time: Part 1, "por" and "para".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntermann, Gail

    1992-01-01

    The first part of a larger planned investigation, this study examines the use of "por" and "para" by nine Peace Corps volunteers in oral interviews at the end of training and roughly one year later, to trace their acquisition over time, in two learning contexts. (24 references) (LB)

  11. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were as substitutions for other prepositions…

  12. The porA gene in serogroup A meningococci: evolutionary stability and mechanism of genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Suker, J; Feavers, I M; Achtman, M; Morelli, G; Wang, J F; Maiden, M C

    1994-04-01

    Molecular analyses were applied to the genes encoding variants of the serosubtyping antigen, the class 1 outer membrane protein (PorA), from 55 serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis strains. These genes were evolutionarily stable and exhibited a limited range of genetic variation, primarily generated by recombination. Translation of the gene sequences revealed a total of 19 distinct amino acid sequences in the variable regions of the protein, 6 of which were not recognized by currently available serosubtyping monoclonal antibodies. Knowledge of these amino acid sequences permitted a rational re-assignment of serosubtype names. Comparison of the complete genes with porA gene sequences from serogroup B and C meningococci showed that serogroup A possessed a limited number of the possible porA genes from a globally distributed gene pool. Each serogroup A subgroup was characterized by one of four porA gene types, probably acquired upon subgroup divergence, which was stable over periods of decades and during epidemiological spread. Comparison with other variable genes (pil and iga) indicated that the three alleles were independently assorted within the subgroup, suggesting that their gene types were older than the subgroups in which they occurred. PMID:8057850

  13. Informe a la Nación de mortalidad por cáncer sigue bajando

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, de 1975 a 2009, indica que los índices generales de mortalidad por cáncer siguen bajando en los Estados Unidos en hombres y mujeres, entre todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales y para todo

  14. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  15. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-06-27

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-005 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  16. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-006 skid D

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-07-29

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  17. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-004 skid B

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-05-06

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-004 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  18. Correlation between Serological and Sequencing Analyses of the PorB Outer Membrane Protein in the Neisseria meningitidis Serotyping System

    PubMed Central

    Sacchi, Claudio T.; Lemos, Ana P. S.; Whitney, Anne M.; Solari, Claude A.; Brandt, Mary E.; Melles, Carmo E. A.; Frasch, Carl E.; Mayer, Leonard W.

    1998-01-01

    The current serological typing scheme for Neisseria meningitidis is not comprehensive; a proportion of isolates are not serotypeable. DNA sequence analysis and predicted amino acid sequences were used to characterize the structures of variable-region (VR) epitopes on N. meningitidis PorB proteins (PorB VR typing). Twenty-six porB gene sequences were obtained from GenBank and aligned with 41 new sequences. Primary amino acid structures predicted from those genes were grouped into 30 VR families of related variants that displayed at least 60% similarity. We correlated VR families with monoclonal antibody (MAb) reactivities, establishing a relationship between VR families and epitope locations for 15 serotype-defining MAbs. The current panel of serotype-defining MAbs underestimates by at least 50% the PorB VR variability because reagents for several major VR families are lacking or because a number of VR variants within some families are not recognized by serotype-defining MAbs. These difficulties, also reported for serosubtyping based on the PorA protein, are shown as inconsistent results between serological and sequence analyses, leading to inaccurate strain identification and incomplete epidemiological data. The information from this study enabled the expansion of the panel of MAbs currently available for serotyping, by including MAbs of previously undetermined specificities. Use of the expanded serotype panel enabled us to improve the sensitivity of serotyping by resolving a number of formerly nonserotypeable strains. In most cases, this information can be used to predict the VR family placement of unknown PorB proteins without sequencing the entire porB gene. PorB VR typing complements serotyping, and a combination of both techniques may be used for full characterization of meningococcal strains. The present work represents the most complete and integrated data set of PorB VR sequences and MAb reactivities of serogroup B and C meningococci produced to date. PMID

  19. Zinc Finger Nuclease Knock-out of NADPH:Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) in Human Tumor Cell Lines Demonstrates That Hypoxia-activated Prodrugs Differ in POR Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jiechuang; Gu, Yongchuan; Pruijn, Frederik B.; Smaill, Jeff B.; Patterson, Adam V.; Guise, Christopher P.; Wilson, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of POR in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, POR knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and POR-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by POR overexpression. Knocking out POR had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the POR knock-outs. Thus, although POR expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development. PMID:24196959

  20. Characterization of Plasmid pOR1 from Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale and Construction of a Shuttle Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Ruud; Chansiripornchai, Niwat; Gaastra, Wim; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2004-01-01

    The bacterium Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale has been recognized as an emerging pathogen in poultry since about 10 years ago. Knowledge of this bacterium and its mechanisms of virulence is still very limited. Here we report the development of a transformation system that enables genetic modification of O. rhinotracheale. The system is based on a cryptic plasmid, pOR1, that was derived from an O. rhinotracheale strain of serotype K. Sequencing indicated that the plasmid consisted of 14,787 nucleotides. Sequence analysis revealed one replication origin and several rep genes that control plasmid replication and copy number, respectively. In addition, pOR1 contains genes with similarity to a heavy-metal-transporting ATPase, a TonB-linked siderophore receptor, and a laccase. Reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that these genes were transcribed. Other putative open reading frames exhibited similarities with a virulence-associated protein in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and a number of genes coding for proteins with unknown function. An Escherichia coli-O. rhinotracheale shuttle plasmid (pOREC1) was constructed by cloning the replication origin and rep genes from pOR1 and the cfxA gene from Bacteroides vulgatus, which codes for resistance to the antibiotic cefoxitin, into plasmid pGEM7 by using E. coli as a host. pOREC1 was electroporated into O. rhinotracheale and yielded cefoxitin-resistant transformants. The pOREC1 isolated from these transformants was reintroduced into E. coli, demonstrating that pOREC1 acts as an independent replicon in both E. coli and O. rhinotracheale, fulfilling the criteria for a shuttle plasmid that can be used for transformation, targeted mutagenesis, and the construction of defined attenuated vaccine strains. PMID:15466524

  1. Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Mikio; Iverson, Tina M.

    2010-01-28

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from inclusion bodies by denaturation in urea followed by refolding in buffered LDAO on a size-exclusion column. PorB has been crystallized in three different crystal forms: C222, R32 and P6{sub 3}. The C222 crystal form may contain either one or two PorB monomers in the asymmetric unit, while both the R32 and P6{sub 3} crystal forms contained one PorB monomer in the asymmetric unit. Of the three, the P6{sub 3} crystal form had the best diffraction quality, yielding data extending to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution.

  2. Application of POR-Tveks to the radiochemical recovery of yttrium-90

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimova, A.M.; Kvasnitskii, I.B.

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe a method for the radiochemical analysis of fish bones for the accumulation of strontium 90 and yttrium 90 from power plant contamination of surface waters which involves labelling the sample with isotopes and subsequent adsorption of the yttrium component with the use of POR-Tveks, an adsorbent based on a copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene with heteroradical phosphine oxide. The yield of yttrium is determined from the mass of the oxide and from the half-life of the yttrium isotope.

  3. Antigenic topology of chlamydial PorB protein and identification of targets for immune neutralization of infectivity.

    PubMed

    Kawa, Diane E; Stephens, Richard S

    2002-05-15

    The outer membrane protein PorB is a conserved chlamydial protein that functions as a porin and is capable of eliciting neutralizing Abs. A topological antigenic map was developed using overlapping synthetic peptides representing the Chlamydia trachomatis PorB sequence and polyclonal immune sera. To identify which antigenic determinants were surface accessible, monospecific antisera were raised to the PorB peptides and were used in dot-blot and ELISA-based absorption studies with viable chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs). The ability of the surface-accessible antigenic determinants to direct neutralizing Ab responses was investigated using standardized in vitro neutralization assays. Four major antigenic clusters corresponding to Phe(34)-Leu(59) (B1-2 and B1-3), Asp(112) -Glu(145) (B2-3 and B2-4), Gly(179)-Ala(225) (B3-2 to B3-4), and Val(261)-Asn(305) (B4-4 to B5-2) were identified. Collectively, the EB absorption and dot-blot assays established that the immunoreactive PorB Ags were exposed on the surface of chlamydial EBs. Peptide-specific antisera raised to the surface-accessible Ags neutralized chlamydial infectivity and demonstrated cross-reactivity to synthetic peptides representing analogous C. pneumoniae PorB sequences. Furthermore, neutralization of chlamydial infectivity by C. trachomatis PorB antisera was inhibited by synthetic peptides representing the surface-exposed PorB antigenic determinants. These findings demonstrate that PorB Ags may be useful for development of chlamydial vaccines. PMID:11994474

  4. Multiple active site residues are important for photochemical efficiency in the light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR).

    PubMed

    Menon, Binuraj R K; Hardman, Samantha J O; Scrutton, Nigel S; Heyes, Derren J

    2016-08-01

    Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the light-driven reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), an essential, regulatory step in chlorophyll biosynthesis. The unique requirement of the enzyme for light has provided the opportunity to investigate how light energy can be harnessed to power biological catalysis and enzyme dynamics. Excited state interactions between the Pchlide molecule and the protein are known to drive the subsequent reaction chemistry. However, the structural features of POR and active site residues that are important for photochemistry and catalysis are currently unknown, because there is no crystal structure for POR. Here, we have used static and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements of a number of active site variants to study the role of a number of residues, which are located in the proposed NADPH/Pchlide binding site based on previous homology models, in the reaction mechanism of POR. Our findings, which are interpreted in the context of a new improved structural model, have identified several residues that are predicted to interact with the coenzyme or substrate. Several of the POR variants have a profound effect on the photochemistry, suggesting that multiple residues are important in stabilizing the excited state required for catalysis. Our work offers insight into how the POR active site geometry is finely tuned by multiple active site residues to support enzyme-mediated photochemistry and reduction of Pchlide, both of which are crucial to the existence of life on Earth. PMID:27285815

  5. Constructing and assessing brain templates from Chinese pediatric MRI data using SPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Qingjie; Ye, Qing; Yao, Li; Chen, Kewei; Jin, Zhen; Liu, Gang; Wu, Xingchun; Wang, Tingting

    2005-04-01

    Spatial normalization is a very important step in the processing of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. So the quality of brain templates is crucial for the accuracy of MRI analysis. In this paper, using the classical protocol and the optimized protocol plus nonlinear deformation, we constructed the T1 whole brain templates and apriori brain tissue data from 69 Chinese pediatric MRI data (age 7-16 years). Then we proposed a new assessment method to evaluate our templates. 10 pediatric subjects were chosen to do the assessment as the following steps. First, the cerebellum region, the region of interest (ROI), was located on both the pediatric volume and the template volume by an experienced neuroanatomist. Second, the pediatric whole brain was mapped to the template with affine and nonlinear deformation. Third, the parameter, derived from the second step, was used to only normalize the ROI of the child to the ROI of the template. Last, the overlapping ratio, which described the overlapping rate between the ROI of the template and the normalized ROI of the child, was calculated. The mean of overlapping ratio normalized to the classical template was 0.9687, and the mean normalized to the optimized template was 0.9713. The results show that the two Chinese pediatric brain templates are comparable and their accuracy is adequate to our studies.

  6. SPM observation of slow highly charged ion induced nanodots on highly orientated pyrolytic graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuda, Y.; Nakamura, B. E. O'Rourke1 N.; Kanai, Y.; Ohtani, S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2007-03-01

    We have observed nanodots on a highly orientated pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface produced by highly charged ion impacts using a scanning tunneling microscope. Previous measurements have con.rmed the dominant role of the potential energy or the incident ion charge state on the size and height of the observed nanodots. The present results extend these previous measurements to much lower kinetic energy. It appears that there is no observable influence on the lateral size of the nanodots due to the incident ion kinetic energy down to approximately 200 eV. In contrast some slight reduction in the nanodot height was observed as the kinetic energy was reduced.

  7. Concepts for the Formation of Molecular Nanostructures: Self-Assembly and SPM Manipulation -- A Combined Approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Thomas A.

    1996-03-01

    We(Work performed in collaboration with J.K. Gimzewski and R. R. Schlittler, IBM Rüschlikon, and C. Joachim and Hao Tang, CNRS Toulouse,) (Supported by the BBW of Switzerland through the ESPRIT basic research program PRONANO (8523). ) demonstrate the controlled generation of molecular nanostructures based on specific chemical synthesis and well-controlled epitaxial growth. Such structures, assembled in parallel by growth kinetics, can be modified selectively by manipulating individual molecules using different modes of the scanning tunneling microscope. The influence of molecular structure on such properties as mobility, conformational adaptation to the substrate, and the current/voltage (I/V) characteristic are compared for porphyrin molecules with different substituents. Numerical simulations are related to experimentally accessible parameters. The resulting rules and concepts are to be generalized and applied to the design of nanostructures having more specific functional properties.

  8. Program listing for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM). [CNHSPM

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The computer program CNHSPM is listed which predicts heat pump seasonal energy consumption (including defrost, cyclic degradation, and supplementary heat) using steady state rating point performance and binned weather data. (LEW)

  9. SPM Investigation of superhard carbon prepared from C{sub 60} fullerene

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanien, A.; Tokumoto, M.; Kozlov, M. E.

    1999-09-30

    A very hard and conducting form of carbon was obtained from C{sub 60} fullerene at moderately high pressure (2.6-3GPa) and temperature (700C). The hardness of the material is more than 4000 kg/mm{sup 2}. Its electrical conductivity is about 100 S/cm and is weakly dependent on temperature. A comparative {sup 13}C NMR study shows no explicit evidence for the presence of diamond like sp{sup 3}-character. So far, it has been of great difficulties to correlate between the atomic structure and these remarkable physical properties, as X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements show lack of long-range crystalline order. In this report we shall present structure and property analysis measured by STM and STS techniques. High-resolution topographic images reveal the mesoscopic structure in which spherical metallic nano-clusters of size up to 6 nm, are covalently interlinked. The atomic structure of the nanoclusters contains pentagon rings, which in turn introduces a curvature in the graphene lattice. The presence of pentagon rings suggests that the bonding carry non-planer sp{sup 2}-character which might be correlated with the observed significant hardness.

  10. SPM Study and Growth Mechanism of Graphene Directly CVD-Grown on h-BN Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young Jae; Kim, Minwoo; Wu, Qinke; Lee, Joohyun; Lee, Sungjoo; Wang, Min

    2014-03-01

    We present our Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)/Spectroscopy (STS) and Kelvin Probe Force Microscope (KPFM) study for graphene directly CVD-grown on h-BN film. High resolution STM image shows perfect honeycomb lattice structure of graphene on top surface and Moiré pattern indicating the structural interference patter with the underlying h-BN crystal. Non-disturbed electronic structure of graphene on h-BN film is also confirmed by spatially-resolved STS measurements, which show very sharp and symmetric V shape with a Dirac point at Fermi level. To confirm the graphene growth mechanism on h-BN film/Cu foil, careful Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) measurements were performed on different thickness of h-BN film on a SiO2 substrate to unveil the catalytic origin of graphene growth on h-BN/Cu. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (Grant Numbers: 2009-0083540, 2011-0030046, 2012R1A1A2020089 and 2012R1A1A1041416).

  11. Towards solar activity maximum 24 as seen by GOLF and VIRGO/SPM instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, R. A.; Salabert, D.; Mathur, S.; Régulo, C.; Ballot, J.; Davies, G. R.; Jiménez, A.; Simoniello, R.

    2013-06-01

    All p-mode parameters vary with time as a response to the changes induced by the cyclic behavior of solar magnetic activity. After the unusual long solar-activity minimum between cycles 23 and 24 -where the p-mode parameters have shown a different behavior than the surface magnetic proxies- we analyze the temporal variation of low-degree p-mode parameters measured by GOLF (in velocity) and VIRGO (in intensity) Sun-as-a-star instruments on board SoHO. We compare our results with other activity proxies.

  12. Ferrite and austenite phase identification in duplex stainless steel using SPM techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, L. Q.; Lin, M. C.; Qiao, L. J.; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2013-12-01

    It can be challenging to properly identify the phases in electro-polished duplex stainless steel using optical microscopy or other characterization techniques. This letter describes magnetic force microscopy to properly identify the phases in electropolished duplex stainless steel. The results are also confirmed with the current sensing atomic force and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy. The difference in topography heights between the ferrite and austenite phases is attributed to the different etching rates during electropolishing, although these phases have different mechanical properties. The current in the austenite is much higher compared with the ferrite, thus current sensing atomic force microscopy can also be used to properly identify the phases.

  13. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  14. Methodology for obtaining stakeholder assessments of obesity policy options in the PorGrow project.

    PubMed

    Stirling, A; Lobstein, T; Millstone, E

    2007-05-01

    The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project (PorGrow) study provided a unique opportunity to develop a large-scale application of a semi-quantitative technique for exploring interviewees' views on options to tackle obesity, using multi-criteria mapping. This 'heuristic' approach utilizes the advantages of a structured interviews framework by predefining a set of options for appraisal, while leaving interviewees free to select their own criteria for making their judgements. Additional information can be gleaned from the interview transcripts and related materials to set the appraisals in their policy context, and allowing interviewees to express their views on the options presented and their own appraisals. The PorGrow study team agreed a predefined set of 20 options for appraisal, and interviewed sets of stakeholders representing more than 20 aspects of policy development in each of the nine participating countries. The details of the methodology adopted are set out in this paper. PMID:17371304

  15. Effects of heme precursors on CYP1A2 and POR expression in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda system☆

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huiyuan; Ma, Jun; Liu, Nian; Wang, Shoulin

    2010-01-01

    Objective CYP1A2 and NADPH-CYP450 oxidoreductase (POR) were expressed in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda (sf9) system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of heme precursors on the expression of CYP1A2 and POR. Methods The heme precursors [δ-Aminolaevulinic Acid (5-ALA), Fe3+ and hemin] were introduced into the system to evaluate their effects on the expression of CYP1A2, POR and their co-expression. All the proteins were identified using immunoblotting, CO-difference spectroscopy, or cytochrome c assay. Results In the present study, functional CYP1A2 and POR were successfully expressed in the baculovirus/sf9 system, and both of them showed high activities. Co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe3+ significantly improved expression of CYP1A2 by about 50% compared with the addition of 5-ALA, Fe3+ or hemin alone. Either co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe3+ or addition of 5-ALA or Fe3+ alone improved the POR expression level 2 fold and its activity 7-10 fold compared with control (no addition). However, unlike CYP1A2, there was no difference between the co-addition and addition of these heme precursors alone. Different ratios of BvCYP1A2 to BvPOR also affected the co-expression of CYP1A2 and POR, with a 3:1 ratio of BvCYP1A2 / BvPOR significantly increasing their co-expression. Surprisingly, the addition of 0.1 mM 5-ALA or Fe3+ alone, but not their co-addition, could significantly improve the CYP1A2 and POR co-expression (P < 0.05). Conclusion 5-ALA and Fe3+ increased the expression of CYP1A2 and POR in a baculovirus/sf9 system, but the pattern of their expression was different between their expression alone and co-expression. PMID:23554636

  16. Geometry sensing through POR1 regulates Rac1 activity controlling early osteoblast differentiation in response to nanofiber diameter.

    PubMed

    Higgins, A M; Banik, B L; Brown, J L

    2015-02-01

    Bone grafting procedures in the United States rely heavily upon autografts and allografts, which are donor-dependent, cause donor site pain, and can transmit disease. Synthetic bone grafts can reduce these risks; however, synthetics lack the bone differentiating (osteoinductive) abilities of auto- and allografts. Achieving innate osteoinductive properties of synthetics through surface modifications is currently under investigation. This study focuses on nanofibers, with emphasis on how fiber diameter and the potential curvature sensor POR1 affect the activation of the signaling molecules Rac1 and Arf1, and leading to expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteoinductive marker. Diameters of 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μm were compared against a flat control. The highest level of Rac1 activation was achieved on the smallest fibers (0.1 μm), a trend that was lost in POR1 knockdowns. This supports the hypothesis that on small nanofibers, POR1 favorably binds to highly curved cell membranes, which allows Rac1 to subsequently dissociate and activate. When the curvature is insufficient to bind POR1, POR1 binds to inactive Rac1 and competitively inhibits its activation. Arf1 activation followed an opposite trend, with the largest nanofibers exhibiting the highest activity. This trend reinforces the known interaction between Rac1 and Arf1 through the GIT-PIX complex, an Arf1 GAP and Rac1 GEF, respectively. Large, (1.0 μm), nanofibers demonstrated the highest ALP activity, indicating that ALP expression is inversely dependent on Rac1 activation. Knockdown of POR1 resulted in increased ALP activity across the substrates but without regard to the curvature sensing trend seen previously. Thus, POR1 senses curvature and increases Rac1 activity, which negatively regulates bone differentiation. PMID:25539497

  17. Substrate-specific modulation of CYP3A4 activity by genetic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR)

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vishal; Choi, Ji Ha; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Miller, Walter L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives CYP3A4 receives electrons from P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to metabolize about 50% of clinically used drugs. There is substantial inter-individual variation in CYP3A4 catalytic activity that is not explained by CYP3A4 genetic variants. CYP3A4 is flexible and distensible, permitting it to accommodate substrates varying in shape and size. To elucidate mechanisms of variability in CYP3A4 catalysis, we examined the effects of genetic variants of POR, and explored the possibility that substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4 differentially affect the ability of POR variants to support catalysis. Methods We expressed human CYP3A4 and four POR variants (Q153R, A287P, R457H, A503V) in bacteria, reconstituted them in vitro and measured the Michaelis constant and maximum velocity with testosterone, midazolam, quinidine and erythromycin as substrates. Results POR A287P and R457H had low activity with all substrates; Q153R had 76–94% of wild type (WT) activity with midazolam and erythromycin, but 129–150% activity with testosterone and quinidine. The A503V polymorphism reduced CYP3A4 activity to 61–77% of wild type with testosterone and midazolam, but had nearly wild type activity with quinidine and erythromycin. Conclusion POR variants affect CYP3A4 activities. The impact of a POR variant on catalysis by CYP3A4 is substrate-specific, probably due to substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4. PMID:20697309

  18. Intermitência alfvênica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.

    2003-08-01

    Dados medidos no vento solar rápido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetário são dominados por flutuações Alfvênicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correlação entre as variações do campo magnético e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuações exibem muitas características esperadas em turbulência magneto-hidrodinâmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitência e espectros contínuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsáveis pela evolução de turbulência Alfvênica intermitente não são completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos é usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvênicos, modelados pela equação Schrödinger não-linear derivativa e pela equação Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caóticos à medida em que parâmetros do plasma são variados. Pequenas perturbações no parâmetro de dissipação podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime periódico, ou fracamente caótico, para um regime fortemente caótico. As séries temporais das flutuações do campo magnético nos regimes fortemente caóticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caóticas são interrompidas por fortes estouros caóticos. É mostrado que o regime fortemente caótico é atingido quando as soluções periódicas ou fracamente caóticas globalmente estáveis interagem com soluções do sistema que são fortemente caóticas, mas globalmente instáveis. Estas soluções globalmente instáveis são conjuntos caóticos não-atrativos conhecidos como selas caóticas, e são responsáveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caóticas têm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provável que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulência intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

  19. Fabrication of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers for gas microsensors and nanosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V. Korusenko, P. M.; Nesov, S. N.; Povoroznyuk, S. N.; Roslikov, V. E.; Kurdyukova, E. A.; Sten'kin, Yu. A.; Shelyagin, R. V.; Knyazev, E. V.; Kan, V. E.; Ponomareva, I. V.

    2011-05-15

    Two-phase nanocomposite layers based on porous silicon and nonstoichiometric tin oxide were fabricated by various methods. The structure, as well as elemental and phase composition, of the obtained nanocomposites were studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results obtained confirm the formation of nanocomposite layers with a thickness as large as 2 {mu}m thick and SnO{sub x} stoichiometry coefficients x = 1.0-2.0. Significant tin diffusion into the porous silicon matrix with D{sub eff} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} was observed upon annealing at 770 K. Test sensor structures based on por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers grown by magnetron deposition showed fairly high stability of properties and sensitivity to NO{sub 2}.

  20. Recovery of naphthalene during evaporative concentration. [Tenax; XAD-2; POR-Q, XE-340

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.E.; Guerin, M.R.

    1980-10-01

    The analysis of trace organics usually requires concentrating organic extracts to small volumes prior to instrumental analysis. The use of a concentration apparatus employing a nitrogen blanket and reduced pressure is desirable because the inert atmosphere and low temperature help to ensure stable composition. Unfortunately, diaromatic compounds such as the naphthalenes and biphenyls are frequently almost completely lost during the concentration step. Even under carefully controlled conditions only 26 +- 11% of the naphthalene is recovered. By placing a sorbent either in or downstream of the evaporation concentration flask, recovery of diaromatic compounds can be improved significantly. In this investigation, the following sorbents, Tenax, XAD-2, POR-Q, and XE-340 were tested. Recoveries with and without the use of sorbents, effects of solute concentration, purge time after solvent removal, and type of solvent used are reported here.

  1. Using the PORS Problems to Examine Evolutionary Optimization of Multiscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, Zachary; Molian, Vaelan; Bryden, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all systems of practical interest are composed of parts assembled across multiple scales. For example, an agrodynamic system is composed of flora and fauna on one scale; soil types, slope, and water runoff on another scale; and management practice and yield on another scale. Or consider an advanced coal-fired power plant: combustion and pollutant formation occurs on one scale, the plant components on another scale, and the overall performance of the power system is measured on another. In spite of this, there are few practical tools for the optimization of multiscale systems. This paper examines multiscale optimization of systems composed of discrete elements using the plus-one-recall-store (PORS) problem as a test case or study problem for multiscale systems. From this study, it is found that by recognizing the constraints and patterns present in discrete multiscale systems, the solution time can be significantly reduced and much more complex problems can be optimized.

  2. Display of a PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis on the bacteriophage T4 capsid surface.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, J; Abu-Shilbayeh, L; Rao, V B

    1997-01-01

    The exterior of bacteriophage T4 capsid is coated with two outer capsid proteins, Hoc (highly antigenic outer capsid protein; molecular mass, 40 kDa) and Soc (small outer capsid protein; molecular mass, 9 kDa), at symmetrical positions on the icosahedron (160 copies of Hoc and 960 copies of Soc per capsid particle). Both these proteins are nonessential for phage infectivity and viability and assemble onto the capsid surface after completion of capsid assembly. We developed a phage display system which allowed in-frame fusions of foreign DNA at a unique cloning site in the 5' end of hoc or soc. A DNA fragment corresponding to the 36-amino-acid PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis was cloned into the display vectors to generate fusions at the N terminus of Hoc or Soc. The PorA-Hoc and PorA-Soc fusion proteins retained the ability to bind to the capsid surface, and the bound peptide was displayed in an accessible form as shown by its reactivity with specific monoclonal antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. By employing T4 genetic strategies, we show that more than one subtype-specific PorA peptide can be displayed on the capsid surface and that the peptide can also be displayed on a DNA-free empty capsid. Both the PorA-Hoc and PorA-Soc recombinant phages are highly immunogenic in mice and elicit strong antipeptide antibody titers even with a weak adjuvant such as Alhydrogel or no adjuvant at all. The data suggest that the phage T4 hoc-soc system is an attractive system for display of peptides on an icosahedral capsid surface and may emerge as a powerful system for construction of the next generation multicomponent vaccines. PMID:9353063

  3. Rescue of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por) mouse mutants reveals functions in vasculogenesis, brain and limb patterning linked to retinoic acid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Vanessa; Otto, Diana M E; Dickmann, Leslie; Schmidt, Katy; Schuhbaur, Brigitte; Henderson, Colin; Blomhoff, Rune; Wolf, C Roland; Tickle, Cheryll; Dollé, Pascal

    2007-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) acts as an electron donor for all cytochrome P450 enzymes. Knockout mouse Por(-/-) mutants, which are early embryonic (E9.5) lethal, have been found to have overall elevated retinoic acid (RA) levels, leading to the idea that POR early developmental function is mainly linked to the activity of the CYP26 RA-metabolizing enzymes (Otto et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 23, 6103-6116). By crossing Por mutants with a RA-reporter lacZ transgene, we show that Por(-/-) embryos exhibit both elevated and ectopic RA signaling activity e.g. in cephalic and caudal tissues. Two strategies were used to functionally demonstrate that decreasing retinoid levels can reverse Por(-/-) phenotypic defects, (i) by culturing Por(-/-) embryos in defined serum-free medium, and (ii) by generating compound mutants defective in RA synthesis due to haploinsufficiency of the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Raldh2) gene. Both approaches clearly improved the Por(-/-) early phenotype, the latter allowing mutants to be recovered up until E13.5. Abnormal brain patterning, with posteriorization of hindbrain cell fates and defective mid- and forebrain development and vascular defects were rescued in E9.5 Por(-/-) embryos. E13.5 Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) embryos exhibited abdominal/caudal and limb defects that strikingly phenocopy those of Cyp26a1(-/-) and Cyp26b1(-/-) mutants, respectively. Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) limb buds were truncated and proximalized and the anterior-posterior patterning system was not established. Thus, POR function is indispensable for the proper regulation of RA levels and tissue distribution not only during early embryonic development but also in later morphogenesis and molecular patterning of the brain, abdominal/caudal region and limbs. PMID:17126317

  4. Functional POR A503V is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xue; Ma, Gaoxiang; Li, Shushu; Wang, Meilin; Liu, Nian; Ma, Lan; Zhang, Zhan; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) plays important roles in the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous sterol hormones. However, few studies have explored the association between POR variants and the risk of bladder cancer. In this study, we first sequenced all 16 POR exons among 50 randomly selected controls, and found three variants, rs1135612, rs1057868 (A503V) and rs2228104, which were then assessed the relation to risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study of 1,050 bladder cancer cases and 1,404 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. People with A503V TT genotype have a decreased risk of bladder cancer in a recessive model (TT vs. CC/CT, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57–0.93), which was more pronounced among elderly male, non-smoking, subjects. Especially, A503V TT genotype showed a protective effect in the invasive tumor stage. Functional analysis revealed that A503V activity decreased in cytochrome c reduction (50.5 units/mg vs. 135.4 units/mg), mitomycin C clearance (38.3% vs. 96.8%), and mitomycin C-induced colony formation (78.0 vs 34.3 colonies per dish). The results suggested that POR A503V might decrease the risk of bladder cancer by reducing its metabolic activity, and should be a potential biomarker for predicting the susceptibility to human bladder cancer. PMID:26123203

  5. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  6. [Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD, students at Budapest and Prague Faculties of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Mydlík, M; Derzsiová, K

    2010-11-01

    Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD were contemporaries, both born in 1899, one in Zvolen, the other in Dombovar, at the time of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Prof. Por attended the Faculty of Medicine in Budapest from 1918 to 1920, and Prof. Klopstock studied at the same place between 1917 and 1919. From 1920 until graduation on 6th February 1926, Prof. Por continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Prof. Klopstock had to interrupt his studies in Budapest due to pulmonary tuberculosis; he received treatment at Tatranske Matliare where he befriended Franz Kafka. Later, upon Kafka's encouragement, he changed institutions and continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, where he graduated the first great go. It is very likely that, during their studies in Budapest and Prague, both professors met repeatedly, even though their life paths later separated. Following his graduation, Prof. Por practiced as an internist in Prague, later in Slovakia, and from 1945 in Kosice. In 1961, he was awarded the title of university professor of internal medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, where he practiced until his death in 1980. Prof. Klopstock continued his studies in Kiel and Berlin. After his graduation in 1933, he practiced in Berlin as a surgeon and in 1938 left for USA. In 1962, he was awarded the title of university professor of pulmonary surgery in NewYork, where he died in 1972. PMID:21250499

  7. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  8. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  9. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  10. Epitope specificity of murine and human bactericidal antibodies against PorA P1.7,16 induced with experimental meningococcal group B vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rouppe van der Voort, E M; Kuipers, B; Brugghe, H F; van Unen, L M; Timmermans, H A; Hoogerhout, P; Poolman, J T

    1997-03-01

    Synthetic peptides derived from the predicted loops 1 and 4 of meningococcal PorA, sero-subtype P1.7,16, were used to study the epitope specificity of murine and human PorA P1.7,16 bactericidal antibodies. The predicted loops 1 and 4 are surface exposed and carry in their apices the sero-subtype epitopes P1.7 (loop 1) or P1.16 (loop 4), respectively. Peptides were synthesized as mono- and multimeric peptides. Murine monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were induced with meningococcal whole cell preparations. Polyclonal antibodies were evoked in volunteers after one immunization with 50 micrograms or 100 micrograms protein of a hexavalent meningococcal PorA vesicle vaccine. The induction of PorA antibodies was determined in ELISA using purified PorA P1.7,16. The epitope specificity of anti-PorA antibodies for both murine and human antibodies could be demonstrated by direct peptide ELISA using overlapping multimeric peptides almost spanning the entire loops 1 or 4 of the protein. The capacity of peptides to inhibit the bactericidal activity of murine and human antibodies was investigated using meningococcal strain H44/76 (B:15:P1.7,16) as a target strain. Bactericidal activities could be inhibited with both monomeric and multimeric peptides derived from epitopes P1.7 and P1.16. PMID:9093834

  11. Targeting of Neisserial PorB to the mitochondrial outer membrane: an insight on the evolution of β-barrel protein assembly machines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jhih-Hang; Davies, John K; Lithgow, Trevor; Strugnell, Richard A; Gabriel, Kipros

    2011-11-01

    Mitochondria originated from Gram-negative bacteria through endosymbiosis. In modern day mitochondria, the Sorting and Assembly Machinery (SAM) is responsible for eukaryotic β-barrel protein assembly in the mitochondrial outer membrane. The SAM is the functional equivalent of the β-barrel assembly machinery found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. In this study we examined the import pathway of a pathogenic bacterial protein, PorB, which is targeted from pathogenic Neisseria to the host mitochondria. We have developed a new method for measurement of PorB assembly into mitochondria that relies on the mobility shift exhibited by bacterial β-barrel proteins once folded and separated under semi-native electrophoretic conditions. We show that PorB is targeted to the outer mitochondrial membrane with a dependence on the intermembrane space shuttling chaperones and the core component of the SAM, Sam50, which is a functional homologue of BamA that is required for PorB assembly in bacteria. The peripheral subunits of the SAM, Sam35 and Sam37, which are essential for eukaryotic β-barrel protein assembly but do not have distinguishable functional homologues in bacteria, are not required for PorB assembly in eukaryotes. This shows that PorB uses an evolutionary conserved 'bacterial like' mechanism to infiltrate the host mitochondrial outer membrane. PMID:22032638

  12. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  13. Low Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope(LT-SPM) operating in a Cryogen-Free Cryostat, 1.5-300K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karci, Ozgur; Dede, Munir; Bugoslavsky, Yury; Hall, Renny; Oral, Ahmet; Nanomagnetics Instruments Ltd. Team; Cryogenic Limited Team; Sabanci University Team

    2011-03-01

    We present the design of a Low Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope(LT-SFM) operating in a vibration-free cryogen-free cryostat. A 0.5W ultra now noise Pulse Tube cryocooler is integrated into the cryostat with a 9T magnet. Stick slip coarse approach mechanism is used to bring the sample in to close proximity of the sample. The sample can be moved in XY directions within 3 mm range, while the position is measured with capacitive encoder with 3 μ m accuracy. An improved fiber interferometer with ~ 12 fm/ √ Hz noise level is used to detect cantilever deflection. The resonance of the cantilever controlled by a digital Phase Locked Loop (PLL) integrated in our Control Electronics with 5mHz frequency resolution. We can achieve ~ 1 nm resolution in AFM mode & <10nm resolution in MFM mode. Results from different imaging modes; non-contact AFM, MFM, Piezoresponse, Conductive AFM etc. will be presented.

  14. Generation of sub-100 fs pulses from mode-locked Nd,Y:SrF2 laser with enhancing SPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiangfeng; Wei, Long; Tian, Wenlong; Liu, Jiaxing; Wang, Zhaohua; Su, Liangbi; Xu, Jun; Wei, Zhiyi

    2016-05-01

    A mode-locked laser using Nd,Y:SrF2 crystal as the gain medium is presented in this letter. By special design of the cavity for enhancing the self-phase modulation effect, femtosecond mode-locking with 97 fs pulse duration and 13.2 nm spectral width centered at 1061 nm is obtained at a repetition rate of 96 MHz. The average output power is 102 mW under 925 mW pump power, corresponding to the optical-to-optical efficiency of 11%. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first sub-100 fs pulses generated from a mode-locked Nd doped crystal laser.

  15. The accuracy of an optically supported fast approach solution for scanning probe microscopy (SPM)-measuring devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, Andrzej; Bednarz, Lukasz

    2011-09-01

    Atomic force microscopy is a diagnostic technique offering sub-micron resolution in both lateral and vertical scales due to observation of interactions between a sharp scanning tip and the surface. Before the sample is scanned, the tip must approach the surface and this process is one of the most critical procedures in terms of the risk of damaging the tip and the sample. Automatic approach methods based on only near-interaction detection cannot provide a fully safe procedure when the distance of hundreds of micrometers is reduced to about 10 nm within a reasonable time period. In this paper we present a method of determining the tip-sample distance using advanced processing of the optical picture. The obtained information can be used during the coarse approach procedure. Eventually, the final approach can be done using near-field interaction detection, more carefully than before, due to the small tip-sample distance. The results of the tests of this method proving its efficiency are presented as well.

  16. On the use of SPM to probe the interplay between polymer surface chemistry and polymer surface mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogly, Maurice; Noel, Olivier; Awada, Houssein; Castelein, Gilles

    2007-03-01

    Adhesive properties of a polymer surface results from the complex contribution of surface chemistry and activation of sliding and dissipating mechanisms within the polymer surface layer. The purpose of this study is to dissociate the different contributions (chemical and mechanical) included in an AFM force-distance curve in order to establish relationships between the surface viscoelastic properties of the polymer, the surface chemistry of functionalized polymer surfaces and the adhesive forces, as determined by C-AFM experiments. Indeed we are interested in the measurements of local attractive or adhesive forces in AFM contact mode, of controlled chemical and mechanical model substrates. In order to investigate the interplay between mechanical or viscoelastic mechanisms and surface chemistry during the tip - polymer contact, we achieved force measurements on model PDMS polymer networks, whose surfaces are chemically controlled with the same functional groups as before (silicon substrates). On the basis of AFM nano-indentation experiments, surface Young moduli have been determined. The results show that the viscoelastic contribution is dominating in the adhesion force measurement. We propose an original model, which express the local adhesion force to the energy dissipated within the contact and the surface properties of the material (thermodynamic work of adhesion). Moreover we show that the dissipation function is related to Mc, the mass between crosslinks of the network.

  17. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity in UK infants of a novel meningococcal vesicle vaccine containing multiple class 1 (PorA) outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, K; Morris, R; Rümke, H; Fox, A; Borrow, R; Begg, N; Richmond, P; Poolman, J

    1999-06-01

    The development of effective vaccines against serogroup B meningococci is of great public health importance. We assessed a novel genetically engineered vaccine containing six meningococcal class 1 (PorA) outer membrane proteins representing 80% of prevalent strains in the UK. 103 infants were given the meningococcal vaccine at ages 2, 3 and 4 months with routine infant immunisations, with a fourth dose at 12-18 months. The vaccine was well tolerated. Three doses evoked good immune responses to two of six meningococcal strains expressing PorA proteins contained in the vaccine. Following a fourth dose, larger bactericidal responses to all six strains were observed, suggesting that the initial course had primed memory lymphocytes and revaccination stimulated a booster response. This hexavalent PorA meningococcal vaccine was safe and evoked encouraging immune responses in infants. Vaccines of this type warrant further development and evaluation. PMID:10418910

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of PorM, a subunit of the Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system.

    PubMed

    Stathopulos, Julien; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Roussel, Alain; Leone, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PorM is a membrane protein involved in the assembly of the type IX secretion system (T9SS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major bacterial pathogen responsible for periodontal disease in humans. The periplasmic domain of PorM was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. A fragment of the purified protein was obtained by limited proteolysis. Crystals of this fragment belonged to the tetragonal space group P4(3)2(1)2. Native and MAD data sets were recorded to 2.85 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:25615973

  19. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    Mould materials for injection moulding of polymers and polymer-matrix composites represent a relevant industrial economic sector due to the large quantity of pieces and components processed. The material selection for mould manufacturing, its composition and heat treatment, the hardening procedures and machining and finishing processes determine the service performance and life of the mould. In the first part of the present study, the relationship between the hardness and microstructure and the wear resistance of mould steels from large blocks has been studied by pin-on-disc tests, studying the main wear mechanisms. In order to determine the surface damage on mould steels under real injection conditions, different commercial steels have been studied by measuring the variation of surface roughness with the number of injected pieces with different reinforcement percentages and different mould geometries, by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was important to determine the variation of surface roughness of the moulded pieces with the number of injection operations. The materials used were polybutyleneterephthalate pure and reinforced with either 20% or 50% glass fibre. For the different mould designs, the evolution of the glass fibre orientation with injection flow has been determined by image analysis and related to roughness changes and surface damage, both of the composite parts and of the mould steel surface. Finally, the abrasion resistance of the composite parts has been studied by scratch tests as a function of the number of injected parts and of the scratch direction with respect to injection flow and glass fibre orientation. Los materiales para moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos representan un sector economicamente muy relevante debido al gran aumento del numero de componentes fabricados a partir de materiales polimericos obtenidos mediante moldeo por inyeccion. La seleccion del material para la

  20. Adult Student Retention and Achievement with Language-Based Modular Materials. POR FIN: Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bexar County School Board, San Antonio, TX.

    The goal of the POR FIN research design was to develop a language-based curriculum emphasizing the audiolingual approach and integrating academic and social-functioning subject matter. The modular curriculum is designed so that each lesson is independent and complete in itself, and provides a high degree of motivation, retention, and achievement…

  1. P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C–H functionalization of biaryl derivatives to synthesize chiral phosphorous ligands

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rong-Bin; Wang, Hong-Li; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Heng; Ma, Yan-Na

    2014-01-01

    Summary Chiral phosphorus ligands have been widely used in transition metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions. Herein, we report a new synthesis approach of chiral biaryls containing a phosphorus moiety using P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C–H activation; the functionalized products are produced with good enantioselectivity. PMID:25246966

  2. El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

    "El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the attitudes…

  3. Informe a la nación indica que los índices de muertes por cáncer siguen bajando

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices de mortalidad por todos los cánceres combinados para hombres, mujeres y niños siguieron bajando en Estados Unidos entre 2004 y 2008, según el Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer de 1975 a 2008. El índice general de diagnóstico

  4. Community-based education in nutrition and cancer: the Por La Vida Cuidándome curriculum.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Rock, C L; McNicholas, L J; Senn, K L; Moreno, C

    2000-01-01

    The Por La Vida (PLV) intervention model relies on community lay health advisors trained to conduct education sessions among members of their existing social networks. PLV Cuidándome was funded by the NCI to develop, implement, and evaluate the PLV model with respect to nutrition and cancer prevention, as well as early detection of breast and cervical cancers. The target population is the Latino community, for which substantial barriers to health care access exist. This article presents the curriculum that guides the sessions and describes its development, which was based on semi-structured interviews with Latina lay-health community workers to explore relevant attitudes and behaviors. Also key to the process was the work of the educational materials committee, whose members offered community representation as well as expertise in nutritional sciences, educational technologies, and community-based health promotion interventions and research. The 12-session curriculum's goal was to increase both the variety and the quality of fruits and/or vegetables consumed. It included information about consumption of fiber and fat in the importance of balance between energy intake and physical activity. The program has been well received. An ongoing study examines how it enhances nutrition and cancer prevention. PMID:11019766

  5. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  6. Study of the interaction mechanisms between absorbed NO{sub 2} and por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V.; Kan, V. E. Makushenko, R. K.; Biryukov, M. Yu.; Ivlev, K. E.; Roslikov, V. E.

    2013-10-15

    The interaction mechanisms between NO{sub 2} molecules and the surface of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposites obtained by magnetron deposition and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance methods. The observed increase in the free carrier concentration in the por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers is explained by a change in the charge state of P{sub b} centers due to the formation of neutral 'surface defect-adsorbed NO{sub 2} molecule' complexes with free carrier generation in the crystallite bulk. In the nanocomposite layers grown by the CVD method, the increase in the free hole concentration during NO{sub 2} adsorption is much less pronounced in comparison with the composite grown by magnetron deposition, which is caused by the competing interaction channel of NO{sub 2} molecules with electrically neutral P{sub b} centers.

  7. Binding of Complement Factor H to PorB3 and NspA Enhances Resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to Anti-Factor H Binding Protein Bactericidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Giuntini, Serena; Pajon, Rolando; Ram, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Among 25 serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis clinical isolates, we identified four (16%) with high factor H binding protein (FHbp) expression that were resistant to complement-mediated bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with recombinant FHbp vaccines. Two of the four isolates had evidence of human FH-dependent complement downregulation independent of FHbp. Since alternative complement pathway recruitment is critical for anti-FHbp bactericidal activity, we hypothesized that in these two isolates binding of FH to ligands other than FHbp contributes to anti-FHbp bactericidal resistance. Knocking out NspA, a known meningococcal FH ligand, converted both resistant isolates to anti-FHbp susceptible isolates. The addition of a nonbactericidal anti-NspA monoclonal antibody to the bactericidal reaction also increased anti-FHbp bactericidal activity. To identify a role for FH ligands other than NspA or FHbp in resistance, we created double NspA/FHbp knockout mutants. Mutants from both resistant isolates bound 10-fold more recombinant human FH domains 6 and 7 fused to Fc than double knockout mutants prepared from two sensitive meningococcal isolates. In light of recent studies showing functional FH-PorB2 interactions, we hypothesized that PorB3 from the resistant isolates recruited FH. Allelic exchange of porB3 from a resistant isolate to a sensitive isolate increased resistance of the sensitive isolate to anti-FHbp bactericidal activity (and vice versa). Thus, some PorB3 variants functionally bind human FH, which in the presence of NspA enhances anti-FHbp resistance. Combining anti-NspA antibodies with anti-FHbp antibodies can overcome resistance. Meningococcal vaccines that target both NspA and FHbp are likely to confer greater protection than either antigen alone. PMID:25644002

  8. Los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón siguen en descenso y contribuyen a la continua reducc

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  9. La doctora Amelie Ramírez y la investigación de desigualdades de salud por cáncer en la comunidad la

    Cancer.gov

    La doctora Ramírez es la investigadora principal de Redes en Acción, un centro del programa de redes comunitarias subvencionado por el NCI que se propone reducir la incidencia del cáncer en la comunidad latina a través de una red nacional de grupos comunitarios, investigadores, agencias de salud gubernamentales y la población en general.

  10. Adjuvant Effects Elicited by Novel Oligosaccharide Variants of Detoxified Meningococcal Lipopolysaccharides on Neisseria meningitidis Recombinant PorA Protein: A Comparison in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Ojas H.; Norheim, Gunnstein; Hoe, J . Claire; Rollier, Christine S.; Nagaputra, Jerry C.; Makepeace, Katherine; Saleem, Muhammad; Chan, Hannah; Ferguson, David J. P.; Jones, Claire; Sadarangani, Manish; Hood, Derek W.; Feavers, Ian; Derrick, Jeremy P.; Pollard, Andrew J.; Moxon, E . Richard

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has adjuvant properties that can be exploited to assist vaccine immunogenicity. The modified penta-acylated LPS retains the adjuvant properties of hexa-acylated LPS but has a reduced toxicity profile. In this study we investigated whether two modified glycoform structures (LgtE and IcsB) of detoxified penta-acylated LPS exhibited differential adjuvant properties when formulated as native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs) as compared to the previously described LgtB variant. Detoxified penta-acylated LPS was obtained by disruption of the lpxL1 gene (LpxL1 LPS), and three different glycoforms were obtained by disruption of the lgtB, lgtE or icsB genes respectively. Mice (mus musculus) were immunized with a recombinant PorA P1.7-2,4 (rPorA) protein co-administered with different nOMVs (containing a different PorA serosubtype P1.7,16), each of which expressed one of the three penta-acylated LPS glycoforms. All nOMVs induced IgG responses against the rPorA, but the nOMVs containing the penta-acylated LgtB-LpxL1 LPS glycoform induced significantly greater bactericidal activity compared to the other nOMVs or when the adjuvant was Alhydrogel. Compared to LgtE or IcsB LPS glycoforms, these data support the use of nOMVs containing detoxified, modified LgtB-LpxL1 LPS as a potential adjuvant for future meningococcal protein vaccines. PMID:25545241

  11. Binding of complement factor H to PorB3 and NspA enhances resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to anti-factor H binding protein bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Serena; Pajon, Rolando; Ram, Sanjay; Granoff, Dan M

    2015-04-01

    Among 25 serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis clinical isolates, we identified four (16%) with high factor H binding protein (FHbp) expression that were resistant to complement-mediated bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with recombinant FHbp vaccines. Two of the four isolates had evidence of human FH-dependent complement downregulation independent of FHbp. Since alternative complement pathway recruitment is critical for anti-FHbp bactericidal activity, we hypothesized that in these two isolates binding of FH to ligands other than FHbp contributes to anti-FHbp bactericidal resistance. Knocking out NspA, a known meningococcal FH ligand, converted both resistant isolates to anti-FHbp susceptible isolates. The addition of a nonbactericidal anti-NspA monoclonal antibody to the bactericidal reaction also increased anti-FHbp bactericidal activity. To identify a role for FH ligands other than NspA or FHbp in resistance, we created double NspA/FHbp knockout mutants. Mutants from both resistant isolates bound 10-fold more recombinant human FH domains 6 and 7 fused to Fc than double knockout mutants prepared from two sensitive meningococcal isolates. In light of recent studies showing functional FH-PorB2 interactions, we hypothesized that PorB3 from the resistant isolates recruited FH. Allelic exchange of porB3 from a resistant isolate to a sensitive isolate increased resistance of the sensitive isolate to anti-FHbp bactericidal activity (and vice versa). Thus, some PorB3 variants functionally bind human FH, which in the presence of NspA enhances anti-FHbp resistance. Combining anti-NspA antibodies with anti-FHbp antibodies can overcome resistance. Meningococcal vaccines that target both NspA and FHbp are likely to confer greater protection than either antigen alone. PMID:25644002

  12. Corynebacterium jeikeium jk0268 Constitutes for the 40 Amino Acid Long PorACj, Which Forms a Homooligomeric and Anion-Selective Cell Wall Channel

    PubMed Central

    Norouzy, Amir; Schulz, Robert; Nau, Werner M.; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Tauch, Andreas; Benz, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium jeikeium, a resident of human skin, is often associated with multidrug resistant nosocomial infections in immunodepressed patients. C. jeikeium K411 belongs to mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes, the mycolata and contains a channel-forming protein as judged from reconstitution experiments with artificial lipid bilayer experiments. The channel-forming protein was present in detergent treated cell walls and in extracts of whole cells using organic solvents. A gene coding for a 40 amino acid long polypeptide possibly responsible for the pore-forming activity was identified in the known genome of C. jeikeium by its similar chromosomal localization to known porH and porA genes of other Corynebacterium strains. The gene jk0268 was expressed in a porin deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strain. For purification temporarily histidine-tailed or with a GST-tag at the N-terminus, the homogeneous protein caused channel-forming activity with an average conductance of 1.25 nS in 1M KCl identical to the channels formed by the detergent extracts. Zero-current membrane potential measurements of the voltage dependent channel implied selectivity for anions. This preference is according to single-channel analysis caused by some excess of cationic charges located in the channel lumen formed by oligomeric alpha-helical wheels. The channel has a suggested diameter of 1.4 nm as judged from the permeability of different sized hydrated anions using the Renkin correction factor. Surprisingly, the genome of C. jeikeium contained only one gene coding for a cell wall channel of the PorA/PorH type found in other Corynebacterium species. The possible evolutionary relationship between the heterooligomeric channels formed by certain Corynebacterium strains and the homooligomeric pore of C. jeikeium is discussed. PMID:24116064

  13. Obtención de la curva de luz en la ocultación de 35 Sgr por Júpiter el 6 de marzo de 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.

    La ocultación de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr por Júpiter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso por el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar parámetros físicos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atmósfera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presión) Para lograr ésto se programó la cámara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 imágenes por segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 imágenes de la inmersión y otras tantas de la emersión. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturación del CCD ya que la observación se realizó de día. En este momento las imágenes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reducción.

  14. Immunogenicity studies with a genetically engineered hexavalent PorA and a wild-type meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine in infant cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rouppe van der Voort, E; Schuller, M; Holst, J; de Vries, P; van der Ley, P; van den Dobbelsteen, G; Poolman, J

    2000-01-31

    The immunogenicity of two meningococcal outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines, namely the Norwegian wild-type OMV vaccine and the Dutch hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine, were examined in infant cynomolgus monkeys. For the first time, a wild-type- and a recombinant OMV vaccine were compared. Furthermore, the induction of memory and the persistence of circulating antibodies were measured. The Norwegian vaccine contained all four classes of major outer membrane proteins (OMP) and wild-type L3/L8 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The Dutch vaccine consisted for 90% of class 1 OMPs, had low expression of class 4 and 5 OMP, and GalE LPS. Three infant monkeys were immunised with a human dose at the age of 1.5, 2.5 and 4.5 months. Two monkeys of each group received a fourth dose at the age of 11 months. In ELISA, both OMV vaccines were immunogenic and induced booster responses, particularly after the fourth immunisation. The Norwegian vaccine mostly induced sero-subtype P1.7,16 specific serum bactericidal antibodies (SBA), although some other SBA were induced as well. The antibody responses against P1.7,16, induced by the Norwegian vaccine, were generally higher than for the Dutch vaccine. However, the Dutch vaccine induced PorA specific SBA against all six sero-subtypes included in the vaccine showing differences in the magnitude of SBA responses to the various PorAs. PMID:10618530

  15. Astronomy in the Classroom: Why? (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Clase: ¿Por Qué?) Astronomia na Sala de Aula: Por Quê?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daros Gama, Leandro; Bagdonas Henrique, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    There are many discussions about the relevance of the topics covered in classes. One subject in particular is the focus of this essay: astronomy. In what sense and to what extent it would be worth to teach it in science or other kind of classes? In this paper we discuss some aspects of the advantages of dealing with this area of knowledge in schools, taking into account the epistemological and axiological dimensions of astronomy, in light of the vision of science as an intelligent dialogue with the world (Bachelard), in addition to the "problematization" knowledge of Paulo Freire. We propose that in fact the Astronomy does not need to be seen as just a new set of contents to be taught, but appears as a set of motivational contents for historical-philosophical discussions, and permit the discussion of concepts of other disciplines. Numerosas discusiones se están llevando a cabo acerca de la pertinencia de los temas tradicionalmente tratados en las clases. Uno de los temas, en particular, es el foco de este ensayo: la astronomía. ¿En qué sentido y en qué medida sería conveniente tratarla en clase, ya sea en clases de ciencias naturales, específicamente en las de astronomía o asignaturas afines? Elaboramos en este artículo algunos aspectos de las ventajas de tratar esta área del conocimiento en las escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones epistemológica y axiológica de la astronomía, a la luz de la visión de la ciencia como un diálogo inteligente con el mundo (Bachelard), además de la propuesta del conocimiento "problematizador" de Paulo Freire. Proponemos que en realidad la astronomía no tiene por qué ser vista sólo como un nuevo conjunto de contenidos que se enseñan, sino que aparece como un conjunto de temas de motivación para el debate histórico-filosófico y para permitir la discusión de los conceptos típicos de otras disciplinas. Muitas discussões vêm acontecendo sobre a relevância dos temas abordados em sala de aula. Um tema, em

  16. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

  17. [Ag20 {S2 P(OR)2 }12 ]: A Superatom Complex with a Chiral Metallic Core and High Potential for Isomerism.

    PubMed

    Dhayal, Rajendra S; Lin, Yan-Ru; Liao, Jian-Hong; Chen, Yuan-Jang; Liu, Yu-Chiao; Chiang, Ming-Hsi; Kahlal, Samia; Saillard, Jean-Yves; Liu, C W

    2016-07-11

    The synthesis and structural determination of a silver nanocluster [Ag20 {S2 P(OiPr)2 }12 ] (2), which contains an intrinsic chiral metallic core, is produced by reduction of one silver ion from the eight-electron superatom complex [Ag21 {S2 P(OiPr)2 }12 ](PF6 ) (1) by borohydrides. Single-crystal X-ray analysis displays an Ag20 core of pseudo C3 symmetry comprising a silver-centered Ag13 icosahedron capped by seven silver atoms. Its n-propyl derivative, [Ag20 {S2 P(OnPr)2 }12 ] (3), can also be prepared by the treatment of silver(I) salts and dithiophosphates in a stoichiometric ratio in the presence of excess amount of [BH4 ](-) . Crystal structure analyses reveal that the capping silver-atom positions relative to their icosahedral core are distinctly different in 2 and 3 and generate isomeric, chiral Ag20 cores. Both Ag20 clusters display an emission maximum in the near IR region. DFT calculations are consistent with a description within the superatom model of an 8-electron [Ag13 ](5+) core protected by a [Ag7 {S2 P(OR)2 }12 ](5-) external shell. Two additional structural variations are predicted by DFT, showing the potential for isomerism in such [Ag20 {S2 P(OR)2 }12 ] species. PMID:27189869

  18. A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorrhyncha) from coffee shrubs and poró and laurel trees in shaded coffee plantations, in Turrialba, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rojas, L; Godoy, C; Hanson, P; Hilje, L

    2001-01-01

    A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorryncha) was conducted in coffee plantations with no shade (C), and in those with shade of either poró (Erythrina poeppigiana) (CP) or poró plus laurel (Cordia alliodora) (CPL), in Turrialba, Costa Rica. A total of 130 species in ten families were collected, dominated by Cicadellidae (82 species). Species richness was highest in the CP system (88), followed by CPL (74) and C systems (60). Five most common species for all systems were Fusigonalia lativittata, Hebralebra nicaraguensis, Neocoelidia sp., Oliarus sp. and Clastoptera sp. Diversification of the coffee agroecosystem favors some species while limiting others, and have no effect on the majority of species. Thus, only F. lativittata, Neocoelidia sp. and Scaphytopius ca. latidens were well represented in all systems, but were more abundant in coffee shrubs. Additionally, the following were the dominant species in each system: Graphocephala sp. 1 (C), F. lativittata (CP) and H. nicaraguensis (CPL). Four species abundant on laurel trees, including H. nicaraguensis, appeared almost exclusively on these tree species. Species similarity was highest on the CP and CPL systems (51% of the species in common), followed by the C and CP (39%) and the C and CPL systems (38%). These findings show that even disturbed systems can harbor many insect species, so that they deserve attention from conservation advocates and biologists. PMID:12189787

  19. A Correlation of Raman and Single and Multiple Layer Graphene Conductivity As Detected With A Cryogenic Multiprobe AFM With On-line Raman, NSOM and Other SPM Modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Aaron; Zinoviev, Oleg; Komissar, Anatoly; Maayan, Eran; Lewis, David

    2015-03-01

    It is a challenge to study 2D materials, such as Graphene, MoS2, WeSe2, etc. at temperatures down to 10°K when considering the wide variety of physical phenomena that must be applied for a full picture of the functionality of these materials. This involves questions of structure, nanometric photoconductivity, electrical properties, thermal properties, near-field optical in the apertured & scattering modes, Kelvin probe, and Raman. These phenomena are common not only to 2D materials but also to carbon nanotubes and related nanomaterials. This presentation will describe the instrumental development of such a multiprobe cryogenic system that allows for state of the art on-line optical measurements and will also include a review of the probe developments that permit such multifunctional multiprobe operation with on-line full optical access. This system has a completely free optical axis from above and below not obscured by electrical or other probes that have been developed for multiprobe operation. This permits on-line Raman and Tip Enhanced NanoRaman Scattering. With such a system we have investigated graphene and HfO2 using multiprobe electrical, Kelvin probe, NSOM and on-line Raman. The results have yielded new insights into chemical changes correlated to electrical conductivity.

  20. 10.7 Gb/s electronic predistortion transmitter using commercial FPGAs and D/A converters implementing real-time DSP for chromatic dispersion and SPM compensation.

    PubMed

    Waegemans, Robert; Herbst, Stefan; Holbein, Ludwig; Watts, Philip; Bayvel, Polina; Fürst, Cornelius; Killey, Robert I

    2009-05-11

    We present an experimental demonstration of simultaneous chromatic dispersion and self-phase modulation compensation at 10.7 Gb/s using real-time electronic digital signal processing. This was achieved using a pre-distorting transmitter based on commercially available field programmable gate arrays and 21.4 GS/s, 6-bit resolution digital-to-analog converters. The digital signal processing employed look-up tables stored in RAM. This resulted in the achievement of a BER of 10(-6) at an OSNR of 16 dB after transmission over a 450 km link of uncompensated standard single mode fiber with + 4 dBm launch power. PMID:19434196

  1. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  2. A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(por)(O)(OAc) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam

    2012-06-01

    Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(por) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu4NHSO5), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu4NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols = CH3OH, C2H5OH, i-C3H7OH, t-C4H9OH) in CH2Cl2, were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C4H9OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO5- to O2 and HSO4-, through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.

  3. Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

    Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

  4. La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  5. Aquisição fonológica do português brasileiro por crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e surdas usuárias de implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisição fonológica do Português Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crianças surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito à Libras. Para a avaliação do sistema fonológico das crianças em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomeação, do ABFW – Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e a criança surda usuária de IC com acesso irrestrito à Libras apresentaram processo de aquisição fonológica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa etária. Considera-se que a aquisição precoce e o acesso irrestrito à Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crianças no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

  6. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el

  7. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el

  8. The second iteration of the Systems Prioritization Method: A systems prioritization and decision-aiding tool for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Volume 2, Summary of technical input and model implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Prindle, N.H.; Mendenhall, F.T.; Trauth, K.; Boak, D.M.; Beyeler, W.; Hora, S.; Rudeen, D.

    1996-05-01

    The Systems Prioritization Method (SPM) is a decision-aiding tool developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SPM provides an analytical basis for supporting programmatic decisions for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to meet selected portions of the applicable US EPA long-term performance regulations. The first iteration of SPM (SPM-1), the prototype for SPM< was completed in 1994. It served as a benchmark and a test bed for developing the tools needed for the second iteration of SPM (SPM-2). SPM-2, completed in 1995, is intended for programmatic decision making. This is Volume II of the three-volume final report of the second iteration of the SPM. It describes the technical input and model implementation for SPM-2, and presents the SPM-2 technical baseline and the activities, activity outcomes, outcome probabilities, and the input parameters for SPM-2 analysis.

  9. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, Sequence Type (ST), and Genomic Presence of IS1301 in Group B Meningococcal ST269 Clonal Complex Isolates from England and Wales▿

    PubMed Central

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J.; Kaczmarski, Edward B.; Guiver, Malcolm; Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Vallely, Pamela J.; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Tang, Christoph M.; Borrow, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Highly effective glycoconjugate vaccines exist against four of the five major pathogenic groups of meningococci: A, C, W-135, and Y. An equivalent vaccine against group B meningococci (menB) has remained elusive due to the poorly immunogenic capsular polysaccharide. A promising alternative, the investigational recombinant menB (rMenB)- outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine, contains fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), NadA, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for 90% of meningococcal disease in England and Wales, where the multilocus sequence type (ST) 269 (ST269) clonal complex (cc269) has recently expanded to account for a third of menB cases. To assess the potential cc269 coverage of the rMenB-OMV vaccine, English and Welsh cc269 isolates from the past decade were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, and NadA. All of the isolates harbored fHbp and nhba alleles, while 98% of the cc269 isolates were devoid of nadA. Subvariant profiling of fHbp, nhba, and porA against STs revealed the presence of two broadly distinct and well-defined clusters of isolates, centered around ST269 and ST275, respectively. An additional molecular marker, insertion sequence IS1301, was found to be present in 100% and <2% of isolates of the respective clusters. On the basis of the genetic data, the potential rMenB-OMV coverage of cc269 in England and Wales is high (up to 100%) within both clusters. Expression studies and serum bactericidal antibody assays will serve to enhance predictions of coverage and will augment ongoing studies regarding the significance of IS1301 within the ST269 cluster. PMID:19759227

  10. Characterization of invasive Neisseria meningitidis from Atlantic Canada, 2009 to 2013: With special reference to the nonpolysaccharide vaccine targets (PorA, factor H binding protein, Neisseria heparin-binding antigen and Neisseria adhesin A)

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond SW; Law, Dennis KS; Gad, Rita R; Mailman, Tim; German, Gregory; Needle, Robert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) has always been a major cause of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Canada. With the successful implementation of a meningitis C conjugate vaccine, the majority of IMD in Canada is now caused by MenB. OBJECTIVE: To investigate IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada from 2009 to 2013. Data were analyzed to determine the potential coverage of the newly licensed MenB vaccine. METHODS: Serogroup, serotype and serosubtype antigens were determined from IMD case isolates. Clonal analysis was performed using multilocus sequence typing. The protein-based vaccine antigen genes were sequenced and the predicted peptides were investigated. RESULTS: The majority of the IMD isolates were MenB (82.5%, 33 of 40) and, in particular, sequence type (ST)-154 B:4:P1.4 was responsible for 47.5% (19 of 40) of all IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada. Isolates of this clone expressed the PorA antigen P1.4 and possessed the nhba genes encoding for Neisseria heparin-binding antigen peptide 2, which together matched exactly with two of the four components of the new four-component meningococcal B vaccine. Nineteen MenB isolates had two antigenic matches, another five MenB and one meningitis Y isolate had one antigenic match. This provided 75.8% (25 of 33) potential coverage for MenB, or a 62.5% (25 of 40) overall potential coverage for IMD. CONCLUSION: From 2009 to 2013, IMD in Atlantic Canada was mainly caused by MenB and, in particular, the B:4:P1.4 ST-154 clone, which accounted for 47.5% of all IMD case isolates. The new four-component meningococcal B vaccine appeared to offer adequate coverage against MenB in Atlantic Canada. PMID:26744586

  11. A Framework for Process Improvement in Software Product Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekkers, Willem; van de Weerd, Inge; Spruit, Marco; Brinkkemper, Sjaak

    This paper presents a comprehensive overview of all the important areas within Software Product Management (SPM). The overview has been created and validated in collaboration with many experts from practice and the scientific community. It provides a list of 68 capabilities a product software organization should implement to reach a full grown SPM maturity. The overview consists of the SPM Competence Model that shows the areas of importance to SPM, and the SPM Maturity Matrix that lists all important activities within those areas in a best practice implementation order. SPM organizations can use this matrix to map and improve their SPM practices incrementally.

  12. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, and Sequence Type in Group B Meningococcal Case Isolates Collected in England and Wales during January 2008 and Potential Coverage of an Investigational Group B Meningococcal Vaccine▿

    PubMed Central

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J.; Kaczmarski, Edward B.; Guiver, Malcolm; Vallely, Pamela J.; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Borrow, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Invasive disease caused by meningococcal capsular groups A, C, W-135, and Y is now preventable by means of glycoconjugate vaccines that target their respective polysaccharide capsules. The capsule of group B meningococci (MenB) is poorly immunogenic and may induce autoimmunity. Vaccines based on the major immunodominant surface porin, PorA, are effective against clonal epidemics but, thus far, have a limited scope of coverage against the wider MenB population at large. In an alternative approach, the first-generation, investigational, recombinant MenB (rMenB) plus outer membrane vesicle (OMV) (rMenB-OMV) vaccine contains a number of relatively conserved surface proteins, fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), and NadA, alongside PorA P1.4-containing OMVs from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for approximately 90% of cases of meningococcal disease in England and Wales. To assess potential rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage of pathogenic MenB isolates within this region, all English and Welsh MenB case isolates from January 2008 (n = 87) were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, NadA, and PorA. Alleles for fHbp, nhba, and porA were identified in all of the isolates, of which 22% were also found to harbor nadA alleles. On the basis of genotypic data and predicted immunological cross-reactivity, the potential level of rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage in England and Wales ranges from 66% to 100%. PMID:20375242

  13. Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility in Barcelona: penA, ponA, mtrR, and porB mutations and NG-MAST sequence types associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Serra-Pladevall, J; Barberá, M J; Rodriguez, S; Bartolomé-Comas, R; Roig, G; Juvé, R; Andreu, A

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in our area, to analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in cephalosporins resistance, and to undertake molecular typing of our NG strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the Etest. The genes penA, mtrR, penB, and ponA were studied. Molecular typing was performed by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing. Of 329 strains analyzed in 2013, none showed high-level cephalosporin resistance, but 8.2 % had resistance to cefixime [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 0.125 μg/mL] and 0.6 % to ceftriaxone (MIC > 0.125 μg/mL). Azithromycin resistance was documented in 4.3 % and ciprofloxacin resistance in 49.2 %. Among 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 58.3 % showed the penA mosaic pattern XXXIV, 98 % a Leu → Pro substitution at position 421 of the ponA gene, 100 % amino acid changes at positions 101 and 102 of the PorB1b porin, and 87.5 % of strains an adenine deletion in the promoter region of the MtrC-D-E efflux pump. A significant difference between strains with and without decreased cephalosporin susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) was observed for these four genes. Of the 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 43.8 % belonged to the genogroup G1407 and 27.1 % belonged to the genogroup G2400. A significant association of G1407 with decreased susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) and G2992 with susceptibility was found, and also between G1407 and mosaic pattern XXXIV and between G2400 and A501T substitution in penA. The NG resistance rate in our area is higher than the median of Europe. We have detected the emergence of G2400, which may be a source of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27255221

  14. Eficacia de la detección sistemática de la gripe en las fronteras en los viajeros que llegan por vía aérea*

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Patricia C.; Jennings, Lance C.; Duncan, Alasdair R.; Brunton, Cheryl R.; Baker, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Se midieron los síntomas y la prevalencia de la gripe (también llamada influenza), así como la eficacia del mecanismo de detección sistemática basado en los síntomas y la temperatura para diagnosticar la gripe en viajeros internacionales que llegaban por vía aérea. Métodos. El presente estudio transversal recopiló datos de viajeros que llegaron al aeropuerto internacional de Christchurch (Nueva Zelandia) en el invierno del 2008 mediante un cuestionario de salud, medición de la temperatura y toma de muestras de las vías respiratorias. Resultados. De los viajeros, 15 976 (68%) entregaron los formularios completos. De ellos, 17% notificaron al menos un síntoma de gripe; los síntomas más comunes fueron rinorrea o congestión nasal (10%) y tos (8%). Se tomaron muestras de las vías respiratorias de 3 769 viajeros. La prevalencia estimada de la gripe fue de 1,1% (4% en las personas sintomáticas, 0,2% en las asintomáticas). La sensibilidad de los criterios de detección varió de 84% para “cualquier síntoma” a 3% para la fiebre de 37,8 °C o mayor. El valor predictivo positivo fue bajo para todos los criterios. Conclusiones. El método de detección sistemática en las fronteras mediante la autonotificación de síntomas y la toma de la temperatura presenta limitaciones para impedir que una gripe pandémica entre en un país. Basarse en criterios como “cualquier síntoma” o la tos haría que se investigara a varias personas no infectadas, mientras que algunas personas infectadas pasarían inadvertidas. Si se usaran criterios más específicos como la fiebre, la mayoría de las personas infectadas entrarían en el país a pesar del mecanismo de detección.

  15. Sweet potatoes as a basic component in developing a medium for the cultivation of lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Saeed A; Shahbazi, Aboghasem; Awaisheh, Saddam S; Shah, Nagendra P; Ibrahim, Salam A

    2013-01-01

    A sweet potato medium (SPM) was formed with extract from baked sweet potatoes supplemented with 0, 4, or 8 g/L of each nitrogen source (beef extract, yeast extract, and proteose peptone #3) to form SPM1, SPM2, and SPM3 respectively. Lactobacilli MRS was used as control medium. Ten Lactobacillus strains containing an average of 2.34 ± 0.29 log CFU/mL were inoculated individually into batches of MRS, SPM1, SPM2, and SPM3. The growth patterns for the tested Lactobacillus strains growing in SPM2 and SPM3 were found to be similar to that in MRS. The average final population after 24 h of incubation in MRS, SPM2, and SPM3 reached 10.41 ± 0.35, 10.59 ± 0.27, and 10.72 ± 0.19 log CFU/mL respectively. SPM2 and SPM3 maintained higher pH values throughout the incubation period than MRS. These findings indicate that SPM2 can be a suitable medium for the growth of Lactobacillus and can provide an alternative at low-cost. PMID:24200801

  16. New halide-centered discrete Ag(I)(8) cubic clusters containing diselenophosphate ligands, [Ag(8)(X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)](PF(6)) (X = Cl, Br; R = Et, Pr, (i)Pr): syntheses, structures, and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Liu, C W; Haia, Hsien-Chung; Hung, Chiu-Mine; Santra, Bidyut Kumar; Liaw, Ben-Jie; Lin, Zhenyang; Wang, Ju-Chun

    2004-07-12

    Six clusters Ag(8)(micro(8)-X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)(PF(6)) (R = Et, X = Cl, 1a, X = Br, 1b; R = Pr, X = Cl, 2a, X = Br, 2b; R = (i)Pr, X = Cl, 3a, X = Br, 3b) were isolated from the reaction of [Ag(CH(3)CN)(4)](PF(6)), NH(4)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)], and Bu(4)NX in a molar ratio of 4:3:1 in CH(2)X(2). Positive FAB mass spectra show m/z peaks at 2573.2 for 1a, 2617.3 for 1b, 2740.9 for 2a, 2786.9 for 2b, 2742.3 for 3a, and 2787.0 for 3b due to respective molecular cation, (M - PF(6))(+). (31)P NMR spectra of 1a-3b display a singlet at delta 82.3, 81.5, 82.9, 81.7, 76.3, and 75.8 ppm with a set of satellites (J(PSe) = 661, 664, 652, 652, 656, and 656 Hz, respectively). The X-ray structure (1a-2b) consists of a discrete cationic cluster in which eight silver ions are linked by six diselenophosphate ligands and a central micro(8)-Cl or micro(8)-Br ion with a noncoordinating PF(6)(-) anion. The shape of the molecule is a halide-centered distorted Ag(8) cubic cluster. The dsep ligand exhibits a tetrametallic tetraconnective (micro(2), micro(2)) coordination pattern, and each caps on a square face of the cube. Each silver atom of the cube is coordinated by three selenium atoms and the central chloride or bromide ion. Additionally, molecular orbital calculations at the B3LYP level of the density functional theory have been carried out to study the Ag-micro(8)-X (X = Cl, Br) interactions for cluster cations [Ag(8)(micro(8)-X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)](+). Calculations show very weak bonding interactions exist between micro(8)-X and Ag atoms of the cube. PMID:15236560

  17. Novel chloride-centered discrete CuI8 cubic clusters containing diselenophosphate ligands. Syntheses and structures of [Cu8(mu8-Cl)[Se2P(OR)2](6)](PF6) (R = Et, Pr, iPr)1.

    PubMed

    Liu, C W; Hung, Chiu-Mine; Santra, Bidyut Kumar; Chen, Hsiu-Chih; Hsueh, Hsin-Hsueh; Wang, Ju-Chung

    2003-05-19

    Three clusters 1-3, Cu(8)(mu8-Cl)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)(PF(6)) (R= Et, Pr, (i)Pr), were synthesized in high yield from the reaction of [Cu(CH(3)CN)(4)](PF(6)), NH(4)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)], and Bu(4)NCl in a molar ratio of 4:3:1 in diethyl ether. FAB mass spectra show m/z peaks at 2218.10 for 1, 2386.10 for 2, and 2387.34 for 3 which are due to molecular cations, [1-PF(6)]+, [2-PF(6)]+, and [3-PF(6)]+, respectively. (31)P NMR spectra of 1-3 display a singlet at delta 76.48, 76.73, and 69.32 ppm with satellites (J(PSe) = 652, 653, and 648 Hz), respectively. The (77)Se NMR spectra of 1-3 exhibit a doublet peak at -21.7, -16.42, and 2.3 ppm, respectively (J(SeP) = 652 Hz for 1, 653 Hz for 2, and 648 Hz for 3). The X-ray structure (1-3) consists of a discrete cationic cluster in which eight copper ions are linked by six diselenophosphate ligands and a central mu8-Cl ion with a noncoordinating PF(6)(-) anion. The shape of the molecule is a chloride-centered distorted Cu(8) cube in clusters 1 and 2 and a near perfect Cu(8) cube for cluster 3. The dsep ligand exhibits a tetrametallic tetraconnective (mu2, mu2)) coordination pattern, and each occupies a square face of the cube. Each copper atom of the cube is coordinated by three selenium atoms with a strong interaction with the central chloride ion. The observed Cu-Cl distances lie in the range 2.649-2.878 A. PMID:12739962

  18. 33 CFR 149.575 - How must objects protruding from the water, other than platforms and single point moorings, be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... object protruding from the water that is within 100 yards of a platform or single point mooring (SPM... 100 yards from a platform or SPM must meet the obstruction lighting requirements in this subpart for...

  19. 33 CFR 150.405 - How must a cargo transfer system be tested and inspected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reinforcement. (d) Each submarine hose used in cargo transfer operations in an SPM-CTS must have been removed... transfer operations, each submarine hose in an SPM-CTS must be visually examined in place as described...

  20. 33 CFR 150.405 - How must a cargo transfer system be tested and inspected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reinforcement. (d) Each submarine hose used in cargo transfer operations in an SPM-CTS must have been removed... transfer operations, each submarine hose in an SPM-CTS must be visually examined in place as described...

  1. 33 CFR 150.405 - How must a cargo transfer system be tested and inspected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reinforcement. (d) Each submarine hose used in cargo transfer operations in an SPM-CTS must have been removed... transfer operations, each submarine hose in an SPM-CTS must be visually examined in place as described...

  2. 33 CFR 150.405 - How must a cargo transfer system be tested and inspected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reinforcement. (d) Each submarine hose used in cargo transfer operations in an SPM-CTS must have been removed... transfer operations, each submarine hose in an SPM-CTS must be visually examined in place as described...

  3. Suspended particulate matter in the Southern North Sea: Application of a numerical model to extend NERC North Sea project data interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puls, Walter; Pohlmann, Thomas; Sündermann, Jürgen

    1997-09-01

    A numerical SPM (suspended particulate matter) transport model for the North Sea is used for supporting the interpretation of SPM data collected during the British NERC North Sea Project (NSP) in the southern North Sea. This interpretation applies to (i) the assessment of the spatial and temporal representativity of the measured data, (ii) the presentation of the SPM's origin in the southern North Sea and (iii) the estimation of SPM fluxes.

  4. On the Use of "Por" Plus Agent with "Se" Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Mello, George

    1978-01-01

    Two explanations for the role of "se" in such constructions as "Se construyen casas" are given by grammarians; one states that it is a passive interpretation ("Houses are built"), the other advocates an impersonal interpretation ("One builds houses"). Different views are presented and analyzed. (Author/NCR)

  5. Por los Ninos (For the Children): Education of Undocumented Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Elena R.; Team, Linda B.

    Published as a special project of Texas IMPACT and the Texas Conference of Churches, this booklet outlines legal aspects of the education of undocumented children, lists moral and practical reasons for educating them, provides reasons for changing the Texas law which prohibits use of state funds for education of children who are not legally…

  6. POR FIN (Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    A project was undertaken in San Antonio, Texas, to develop a recruitment approach which would be more effective than the traditional mass media approach in recruiting hard-core undereducated individuals into adult education classes. An experiment was designed to test a recruiting method which would employ a personal, face-to-face interview…

  7. [The right to avoid pregnancy] [POR, ENG translation included].

    PubMed

    1981-01-21

    Signs are finally appearing in Brazil that despite the government's hesitations and the hostility of the Catholic Church the decade of the 1980s shall bring effective changes intended to restrain population growth. Now, 4 years after its inclusion in the social program of the Geisel administration in 1977, family planning will become a reality. It is certainly about time, for at the present rate of growth the Brazilian population increases by about 6 persons per minute--about 3 million a year. At this pace, only a large scale State intervention that provides the population with information, assistance and free access to contraception may decisively reverse the trend. Figueiredo's government has decided that family planning should be introduced slowly, gradually and subtly, thus avoiding specific programs and publicity campaigns through the mass communication vehicles. In an effort to get around sharper criticism from the Church and the opposition, the government intends to mobilize catholic laypersons, priests, and nuns and, if possible, bishops in a national attempt to disseminate information on natural methods of birth control. As a 1st step, the Ministry of Health will widely distribute information on human reproduction and fecundity along with explanations of artificial contraceptive methods. Subject to the couple's decision and under medical indications, the free supply of contraceptive means to low income families shall be ensured by the government. The government will also allow sterilization. Despite its cautious approach, in actuality the government's program will in many places and circumstances be a massive inducement to contraceptive use. PMID:12337558

  8. La busqueda textual por computadora (Textual Search by Computer)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ned J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of the computer program EDIT for textual searches to locate a certain programmed word or word root. In the examples explained here, the vocabulary search is performed on poetry and allows examination of the metaphorical and conceptual poetic atmosphere achieved through word use. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  9. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Angulo, Daniela; Bustos, Edson; Sánchez, Andrés; Barja, Salesa

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la rehabilitación de la alimentación por vía oral (RVO) es compleja en pacientes que han recibido nutrición enteral (NE) prolongada. Objetivo: describir este proceso en niños con enfermedades respiratorias crónicas y sonda nasoenteral (SNE) o gastrostomía (GT).Pacientes y métodos: estudio retrospectivo con revisión de registros clínicos de niños con NE mayor a dos meses, ingresados entre 2005 y 2014 al Hospital Josefina Martínez.Resultados: Se incluyeron 116 pacientes, con mediana de edad 10 meses (Rango: 3 a 101), 56% hombres. Diagnóstico: 34,5% Daño pulmonar crónico postinfeccioso (DPC), 29,3% Insuficiencia respiratoria por enfermedad neuromuscular, 19% Displasia broncopulmonar y 17,2% enfermedad de la vía aérea. Con traqueostomía: 82,8%. Eran usuarios de GT 89,7% y de SNG 10,3%, instaladas con mediana de edad 6 meses (0 a 74), por ingesta insuficiente (6,6%) o trastorno de deglución (92,4%). Del grupo total, 36,2% (42/116) tenía indicación de RVO, los cuales habían recibido NE durante 12,2 meses (2 a 41); de estos 50% (21/42) logró alimentarse exclusivamente por vía oral (91% SNG y 35,4% GT, Chi2 p = 0,023), 14% parcialmente y 36% no lo logró. El tiempo para lograr la vía oral exclusiva fue de 9,75 meses (0,5 a 47), sin diferencia por edad, sexo, vía de acceso, duración NE ni presencia de enfermedad neurológica.Conclusión: en pacientes con enfermedades respiratorias crónicas graves y NE prolongada, la RVO es un proceso lento pero posible: 64% lo logra de modo completo o parcial. PMID:27571646

  10. Recurrent spontaneous pneumomediastinum in a young female: Hamman's crunch revisited(†).

    PubMed

    Devaraj, Uma; Ramachandran, Priya; D'souza, George A

    2014-05-01

    Presence of free air in the mediastinum without any identifiable cause is defined as spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM). SPM is more common in young males. The common inciting event leading to SPM are retching, vomiting, acute asthma attack, intense sport activity, inhalation of drugs and weight loss as seen in anorexia nervosa. Analgesics and rest is the mainstay of treatment. Recurrence of SPM is rare. We present a case of recurrent SPM occurring in a young female within few months interval. We also present a brief literature review. PMID:25988012

  11. Novel Pro-Resolving Lipid Mediators in Inflammation Are Leads for Resolution Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Serhan, Charles N.

    2014-01-01

    Preface Advances on mechanisms in resolution of acute inflammation uncovered a new genus of pro-resolving lipid mediators that include separate families of molecules: lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins, collectively coined specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM). Synthetic SPM possess potent bioactions when administered in vivo. In animal experiments, SPM evoke anti-inflammatory and novel pro-resolving mechanisms as well as enhance microbial clearance. While identified in inflammation-resolution, SPM are conserved structures with functions also in host defense, pain, organ protection and tissue remodeling. This review covers SPM mechanisms and new omega-3 essential fatty acid pathways that open a path for physiologic functions. PMID:24899309

  12. Polyamine Oxidase5 Regulates Arabidopsis Growth through Thermospermine Oxidase Activity1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Wook; Watanabe, Kanako; Murayama, Chihiro; Izawa, Sho; Niitsu, Masaru; Michael, Anthony J.; Berberich, Thomas; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2014-01-01

    The major plant polyamines (PAs) are the tetraamines spermine (Spm) and thermospermine (T-Spm), the triamine spermidine, and the diamine putrescine. PA homeostasis is governed by the balance between biosynthesis and catabolism; the latter is catalyzed by polyamine oxidase (PAO). Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has five PAO genes, AtPAO1 to AtPAO5, and all encoded proteins have been biochemically characterized. All AtPAO enzymes function in the back-conversion of tetraamine to triamine and/or triamine to diamine, albeit with different PA specificities. Here, we demonstrate that AtPAO5 loss-of-function mutants (pao5) contain 2-fold higher T-Spm levels and exhibit delayed transition from vegetative to reproductive growth compared with that of wild-type plants. Although the wild type and pao5 are indistinguishable at the early seedling stage, externally supplied low-dose T-Spm, but not other PAs, inhibits aerial growth of pao5 mutants in a dose-dependent manner. Introduction of wild-type AtPAO5 into pao5 mutants rescues growth and reduces the T-Spm content, demonstrating that AtPAO5 is a T-Spm oxidase. Recombinant AtPAO5 catalyzes the conversion of T-Spm and Spm to triamine spermidine in vitro. AtPAO5 specificity for T-Spm in planta may be explained by coexpression with T-Spm synthase but not with Spm synthase. The pao5 mutant lacking T-Spm oxidation and the acl5 mutant lacking T-Spm synthesis both exhibit growth defects. This study indicates a crucial role for T-Spm in plant growth and development. PMID:24906355

  13. Síndrome del Outlet Torácico: ¿Una Patología Siempre Quirúrgica? Análisis de una Serie de 31 Cirugías Realizadas por Vía Supraclavicular Serie clínica

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, Álvaro; Páez, Miguel Domínguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de outlet torácico es una compresión del plexo braquial que suscita polémica. Se clasifica en Outlet Torácico Verdadero o neurogénico (OTV) y Outlet Torácico Disputado o no neurogénico (OTD). El primero presenta síntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo sólo síntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirugías. Métodos: Se analizaron las cirugías de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagnósticos de outlet torácico cuyo período de seguimiento post-operatorio mínimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de síntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificación, resultado de los estudios neurofisiológicos y de imágenes, resultado de la cirugía, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirugías realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 años, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 años de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiológicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenológicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV presentó una alteración anatómica relacionada con la sintomatología, hecho observado sólo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeoró. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron más frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusión: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirugía, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporción mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patología. PMID:25165614

  14. A Comparison Between PSRK and GERG-2004 Equation of State for Simulation of Non-Isothermal Compressible Natural Gases Mixed with Hydrogen in Pipelines / Porównanie równań stanu opracowanych według metody PSRK oraz GERG-2004 wykorzystanych do symulacji zachowania ściśliwych mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach, w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uilhoorn, Frits E.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the GERG-2004 equation of state based on a multi-fluid approximation explicit in the reduced Helmholtz energy is compared with the predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong group contribution method. In the analysis, both equations of state are compared by simulating a non-isothermal transient flow of natural gas and mixed hydrogen-natural gas in pipelines. Besides the flow conditions also linepack-energy and energy consumption of the compressor station are computed. The gas flow is described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A pipeline section of the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline on Polish territory has been selected for the case study. W artykule dokonano porównania wyników uzyskanych przy wykorzystaniu równania stanu GERG- 2004 opartego na jawnym przybliżeniu wyników dla wielu cieczy w oparciu o zredukowaną energię Helmhotza oraz wyników uzyskanych w oparciu o metodę Soave-Redlich Kwonga. Obydwa równania stanu porównano poprzez przeprowadzenie symulacji stanów przejściowych przepływów gazu ziemnego oraz mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych. Oprócz warunków przepływu, określono energię w napełnionym układzie oraz zużycie energii przez stację kompresora. Przepływ gazu opisano zbiorem równań różniczkowych cząstkowych, wyprowadzonych w oparciu o prawa zachowania masy, pędu i energii. Jako studium przypadku wybrano fragment rurociągu jamalskiego (Yamal- Europa) przebiegającego przez terytorium Polski.

  15. Radio-Observaciones del OH EN la Coma del Cometa Halley Desde EL Hemisferio Sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Cersosimo, J. C.; Martin, M. C.; Arnal, E. M.; Poppel, W. G. L.; Colomb, F. R.; Mazzaro, J.; Olalde, J. C.; Boriakoff, V.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1987-05-01

    Se utilizó una antena de 30 metros del Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía para observaciones diarias Cf ebrero a abril de 1986) de la transición en 1667 MHz ( λ = 18 cm) del OH en la coma del cometa Halley. De las observaciones realizadas se concluye: 1) El número promedio de moléculas de OH en la coma durante 37 días de observación fue de (8.9±3.5)x1034 moléculas, lo que implica una tasa de producción promedio de OH de 1.8x1029 moléculas seg-1 y consecuentemente una pérdida de masa promedio de 17±6 toneladas seg-1 . Este valor está de acuerdo con las mediciones realizadas por las sondas Vega y Giotto. 2) El monitoreo desde el lAR revela la existencia de variaciones bruscas en los flujos de absorción del OH. Estas variaciones son consistentes con los modelos que representan la producción gaseosa a partir de ejecciones y/o desprendimientos discretos de materia congelada del núcleo. 3) Las variaciones en la densidad de flujo son consistentes con las estimaciones de los tiem- pos de vida medios del H2O y del OH en presencia del campo de radiación solar. 4) Se encuentra una correlación entre la intensidad del flujo absorbido y anisotropías en Ia dinamica de la coma.

  16. Association between remote organ injury and tissue polyamine homeostasis in acute experimental pancreatitis - treatment with a polyamine analogue bismethylspermine.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hai-Tao; Lämsä, Teemu; Nordback, Panu H; Hyvönen, Mervi T; Grigorenko, Nikolay; Khomutov, Alex R; Nordback, Isto; Räty, Sari; Pörsti, Ilkka; Alhonen, Leena; Sand, Juhani

    2011-01-01

    Experimental pancreatitis is associated with activation of polyamine catabolism. The polyamine analog bismethylspermine (Me(2)Spm) can ameliorate pancreatic injury. We investigated the roles of polyamine catabolism in remote organs during pancreatitis and explored the mechanism of polyamine catabolism by administering Me(2)Spm. Acute pancreatitis was induced by an infusion of 2 or 6% taurodeoxycholate before Me(2)Spm administration. Blood, urine and tissues were sampled at 24 and 72 h to assess multi-organ injury and polyamine catabolism. The effect of Me(2)Spm on mortality in experimental pancreatitis was tested separately. Liver putrescine levels were elevated following liver injury. Me(2)Spm increased the activity of spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT) and depleted the spermidine, spermine or putrescine levels. Lung putrescine levels increased, and SSAT and spermine decreased following lung injury. Me(2)Spm enhanced the activity of SSAT and decreased the spermidine and spermine levels. Renal injury was manifested as an increase in creatinine or a decrease in urine output. Decreases in kidney SSAT, spermidine or spermine and an increase in putrescine were found during pancreatitis. In the 2% taurodeoxycholate model, Me(2)Spm decreased urine output and raised plasma creatinine levels. Me(2)Spm increased SSAT and decreased polyamines. Excessive Me(2)Spm accumulated in the kidney, and greater amounts were found in the 6% taurodeoxycholate model in which this mortality was not reduced by Me(2)Spm. In the 2% taurodeoxycholate model, Me(2)Spm dose-dependently induced mortality at 72 h. Like pancreatic injury, remote organ injury in pancreatitis is associated with increased putrescine levels. However, Me(2)Spm could not ameliorate multi-organ injury. Me(2)Spm administration was associated with significant renal toxicity and induced mortality, suggesting that the current dose is too high and needs to be modified. PMID:22001988

  17. Seasonal suspended particles distribution patterns in Western South Yellow Sea based on Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianchao; Li, Guangxue; Xu, Jishang; Qiao, Lulu; Dong, Ping; Ding, Dong; Liu, Shidong; Sun, Pingkuo

    2015-06-01

    An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) observation site was set up in the Western South Yellow Sea from 2012 to 2013 to study the local suspended particle matters (SPM) distribution pattern. The SPM concentration could be semi-quantitatively represented by backscatter intensity (Sv), converted by the echo intensity (EI) of ADCP. Results show two types of SPM in the water column: the quasi-biological SPM and quasi-mineral SPM. The quasi-biological SPM mainly exists in summer half year and is concentrated above the thermocline. It has periodically diurnal variations with high concentration at night and low concentration in the daytime. The quasi-mineral SPM is located in lower part of the water column, with similar relation to monthly tidal current variation all year round. However, the daily quasi-mineral SPM distribution patterns vary between summer and winter half year. The sunlight is thought to be the origin factor leading to the diurnally vertical motion of the biological features, which might cause the diurnal Sv variation. Unlike in winter half year when tidal current is relatively single driving force of the monthly SPM pattern, the high speed current near the thermocline is also responsible for the concentration of quasi-mineral SPM in summer half year. The sediment input difference between summer and winter half year contribute to the varied daily variation of quasi-mineral SPM with re-suspended SPM in winter and sediments from Yellow Sea Mud Area (YSMA) in summer. The seasonal variations in hydrodynamics, water structure and heavy-wind incidents are the primary factors influencing the differential seasonal SPM distribution patterns.

  18. Flexible Image Similarity Computation Using Hyper-Spatial Matching.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Wu, Jianxin; Cai, Jianfei; Lin, Weiyao

    2014-07-30

    Spatial pyramid matching (SPM) has been widely used to compute the similarity of two images in computer vision and image processing. While comparing images, SPM implicitly assumes that: in two images from the same category, similar objects will appear in similar locations. However, this is not always the case. In this paper, we propose hyper-spatial matching (HSM), a more flexible image similarity computing method, to alleviate the mis-matching problem in SPM. Besides the match between corresponding regions, HSM considers the relationship of all spatial pairs in two images, which includes more meaningful match than SPM. We propose two learning strategies to learn SVM models with the proposed HSM kernel in image classification, which are hundreds of times faster than a general purpose SVM solver applied to the HSM kernel (in both training and testing). We compare HSM and SPM on several challenging benchmarks, and show that HSM is better than SPM in describing image similarity. PMID:25095254

  19. Radioprotection of Human Cell Nuclear DNA by Polyamines: Radiosensitivity of Chromatin is Influenced by Tightly Bound Spermine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warters, Raymond L.; Newton, Gerald L.; Olive, Peggy L.; Fahey, Robert C.

    1999-01-01

    The polyamines putrescine (PUT) and spermine (SPM) were examined for their ability to protect human cell Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) against the formation of radiation-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs). As observed previously, under conditions where polyamines were shown to be almost completely absent, association with nuclear matrix protein into a nucleoid, and organization into chromatin structure, protected DNA from induction of DSBs by factors of 4.5 and 95, respectively. At concentrations below 1 mM, PUT or SPM provided equivalent levels of protection to deproteinized nuclear DNA, consistent with their capacity to scavenge radiation-induced radicals. At constant ionic strength, 5 mM SPM protected deproteinized DNA and nucleoid DNA and DNA in nuclear chromatin by factors of 100 and 26, respectively. At 5 mM, SPM provided 15 times greater protection of deproteinized DNA than did PUT. Under physiologically relevant conditions, 5 mM SPM protected DNA in the intact nucleus from the induction of DSBs by a factor of 2 relative to DNA in the absence of SPM. Studies of SPM binding during cellular fractionation revealed that a significant fraction of the cellular SPM is tightly bound in the nucleus but can be removed by extended washing. Thus the association of SPM with nuclear chromatin appears to be a significant contributor to the resistance of the cell's DNA to the induction of DSBs.

  20. Control theory for scanning probe microscopy revisited.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Julian

    2014-01-01

    We derive a theoretical model for studying SPM feedback in the context of control theory. Previous models presented in the literature that apply standard models for proportional-integral-derivative controllers predict a highly unstable feedback environment. This model uses features specific to the SPM implementation of the proportional-integral controller to give realistic feedback behaviour. As such the stability of SPM feedback for a wide range of feedback gains can be understood. Further consideration of mechanical responses of the SPM system gives insight into the causes of exciting mechanical resonances of the scanner during feedback operation. PMID:24778957

  1. Control theory for scanning probe microscopy revisited

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary We derive a theoretical model for studying SPM feedback in the context of control theory. Previous models presented in the literature that apply standard models for proportional-integral-derivative controllers predict a highly unstable feedback environment. This model uses features specific to the SPM implementation of the proportional-integral controller to give realistic feedback behaviour. As such the stability of SPM feedback for a wide range of feedback gains can be understood. Further consideration of mechanical responses of the SPM system gives insight into the causes of exciting mechanical resonances of the scanner during feedback operation. PMID:24778957

  2. Results from an intensive measurement programme for suspended particulate matter in a region of the Irish Sea between Anglesey and the Isle of Man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Christopher N.; Stewart, T. Henry; McDonald, Paul

    2003-06-01

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) plays an important role in the transport of metals and other contaminants in the marine environment. To varying degrees dissolved metals are scavenged by suspended particles and this can have a significant impact on the transport and dispersion of the metal. In contaminated areas, such as the Irish Sea, the SPM becomes increasingly important in understanding the transport and fate of contaminants. Despite its importance, measurements of SPM in the Irish Sea are sparse. This paper presents measured SPM concentrations from a long-term sampling campaign from 25 sites in an area of the Irish Sea between Anglesey and the Isle of Man which were sampled over 14 months (July 1998-August 1999) at 5 and 30 m depth. In total 585 measurements were made. A transmissometer was also deployed on some occasions to look at the depth dependence of SPM. Results showed an average SPM concentration of 2.14 mg l -1 with a maximum value of 6.28 mg l -1 and a minimum of 0.30 mg l -1. The strongest relationship found was between the SPM and the spring-neap tidal cycle, which outweighed any seasonal variation. Spatially, the SPM was highest in the south and east of the region sampled and is probably due to higher tidal velocities and greater availability of fine sediment in these areas. There was no evidence of SPM varying with depth in the water column.

  3. A new family of retroviral long terminal repeat elements in the human genome identified by their homologies to an element 5{prime} to the spider monkey haptoglobin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, L.M.; Maeda, N.

    1995-06-10

    A new family of retroviral long terminal repeats that we name Spm-LTR has been identified as a result of DNA sequence comparisons between the entire Gen-Bank databank and an element, SPHP, located 5{prime} to the haptoglobin gene of spider monkeys. The 18 human Spm-LTR sequences so identified fall into three subtypes. There is no sequence similarity between Spm-LTR elements and any endogenous retroviral LTR sequences previously reported except for general features that define LTRs. However, a previously described repeated sequence (MER-4) forms a portion of the Spm-LTR sequence. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Alternative Models of Entrance Exams and Access to Higher Education: The Case of the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konecny, Tomas; Basl, Josef; Myslivecek, Jan; Simonova, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The study compares the potential effects of a university admission exam model based on program-specific knowledge and an alternative model relying on general study aptitude (GSA) in the context of a strongly stratified educational system with considerable excess of demand over supply of university education. Using results of the "Sonda Maturant…

  5. Analysis of riverine suspended particulate matter fluxes (Gulf of Lion, Mediterranean Sea) using a synergy of ocean color observations with a 3-D hydrodynamic sediment transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Fouest, Vincent; Chami, Malik; Verney, Romaric

    2015-02-01

    The export of riverine suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the coastal ocean has major implications for the biogeochemical cycles. In the Mediterranean Sea (France), the Rhone River inputs of SPM into the Gulf of Lion (GoL) are highly variable in time, which severely impedes the assessment of SPM fluxes. The objectives of this study are (i) to investigate the prediction of the land-to-ocean flux of SPM using the complementarity (i.e., synergy) between a hydrodynamic sediment transport model and satellite observations, and (ii) to analyze the spatial distribution of the SPM export. An original approach that combines the MARS-3D model with satellite ocean color data is proposed. Satellite-derived SPM and light penetration depth are used to initialize MARS-3D and to validate its predictions. A sensitivity analysis is performed to quantify the impact of riverine SPM size composition and settling rate on the horizontal export of SPM. The best agreement between the model and the satellite in terms of SPM spatial distribution and export is obtained for two conditions: (i) when the relative proportion of "heavy and fast" settling particles significantly increases relative to the "light and slow" ones, and (ii) when the settling rate of heavy and light SPM increases by fivefold. The synergy between MARS-3D and the satellite data improved the SPM flux predictions by 48% near the Rhone River mouth. Our results corroborate the importance of implementing satellite observations within initialization procedures of ocean models since data assimilation techniques may fail for river floods showing strong seasonal variability.

  6. See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo por Internet: Ideas por padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeanette

    Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many…

  7. Verification and validation interim report for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This Verification and Validation (V/V) interim report summarizes to date the results of the V/V tasks performed in each of the following life cycle phases: concept, requirements, design, implementation, test, installation and checkout, and operation and maintenance. At the end of the installation and checkout phase, the V/V final report will be issued. This interim report contains or references the following for each phase: Description of V/V tasks performed; Summary of task results; Summary of anomalies and resolution; Assessment of system quality; Recommendations.

  8. Polyamines and cellular metabolism in plants: Transgenic approaches reveal different responses to diamine putrescine versus higher polyamines spermidine and spermine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distribution of biogenic amines – the diamine putrescine (Put), triamine spermidine (Spd), and tetraamine spermine (Spm) - differs between species with Put and Spd being particularly abundant and Spm the least abundant in plant cells. These amines are important for cell viability and their intracel...

  9. Inorganic PM in poultry house using rice hull bedding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The persistence and long life expectancy of ammonia, odors and toxic pollutants from poultry houses may be due to the ability of suspended particulate matters (SPM) to serve as carriers for odorous compounds such as ammonium ions and volatile organic compounds. SPM is generated from the feed, anima...

  10. Sensory Processing Measure-HK Chinese Version: Psychometric Properties and Pattern of Response across Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cynthia Y. Y.; Chung, Jenny C. C.; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.; Li-Tsang, Cecilia W. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the Sensory Processing Measure-Hong Kong Chinese version (SPM-HKC), and to study the pattern of behavioral response of children towards sensory events across home and school settings. The two major forms of the SPM, Home Form and Main Classroom Form, were translated into Chinese in this…

  11. Therapeutic Outcome of Second Primary Malignancies in Patients with Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Miaw-Jene; Tsang, Ngan-Ming; Hsueh, Chuen; Chao, Tzu-Chieh; Lin, Jen-Der

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aims of this study were to analyze the clinical characteristics of SPM in patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer and to determine the long-term prognosis in patients with double malignancies. Materials and Methods. We retrospectively analyzed 2,864 patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer and a mean age of 44.0 ± 14.4 years. Of these, 200 (7.0%) were diagnosed with SPM, 115 of which were diagnosed with metachronous SPM. Results. Of 2,864 patients, 163 (5.7%) patients died of thyroid cancer and 301 (10.5%) died of any cause by the end of the follow-up period. Multivariate analysis identified age, SPM, external radiotherapy, TNM stage, and postoperative serum Tg level to be factors independently associated with decreased survival. Of 200 patients with SPM, 74 (37.0%) died. In comparison to the anachronous and synchronous groups, the metachronous SPM group had a higher mean age; more advanced tumor, node, and metastasis stage; lower remission rate; higher postoperative radioactive iodide (131I) accumulated dose; a higher proportion of patients who underwent external radiotherapy; and higher thyroid cancer and total mortality rates. Conclusions. Patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma and metachronous SPM had worse prognoses compared to patients without SPM. PMID:27118971

  12. Measuring Giftedness in Young Children: A Comparative Study in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Joyce I.

    1997-01-01

    Evaluated five intelligence test instruments for use with Malaysian children: Raven's Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM), WISC-R, School Failure Tolerance (SFT), Scale for Rating Behavior Characteristics of Superior Students (SRBCSS), and Parent Checklists. Found that Raven's SPM was an effective screening test, and the WISC-R the best measure to…

  13. Multi-component trace analysis of organic xenobiotics in surface water containing suspended particular matter by solid phase extraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Erger, Christine; Balsaa, Peter; Werres, Friedrich; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2012-08-01

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) often disturbs the analysis of surface water by conventional methods, such as liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) or solid phase extraction (SPE), caused by insufficient extraction or by plugging. Water and SPM are therefore often separately analysed, which is associated with high expenditure of time, work and costs. Hence, SPM is partly ignored, if the fraction of sorptively bound analytes is small compared to the total analyte concentration. However, the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, Directive 2000/60/EC) requires explicitly an investigation of the whole water sample including SPM, because many priority and priority hazardous substances can sorb substantially to SPM. Therefore, an SPE disk based method was developed for the determination of 54 priority and priority hazardous pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), organic chlorinated pesticides (OCP) and other pesticides in surface water containing SPM. The developed SPE disk method allows analysis of 1L surface water containing up to 1000 mg SPM without prior separation of SPM in about 2h including gas chromatography-mass (GC-MS) spectrometry analysis. The limits of quantification vary in a range of 0.8 to 38 ng/L. PMID:22749454

  14. Seasonality of floc strength in the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fettweis, Michael; Baeye, Matthias; Zande, Dimitry; Eynde, Dries; Joon Lee, Byung

    2014-03-01

    The suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration in the high turbidity zones of the southern North Sea is inversely correlated with chlorophyll (Chl) concentration. During winter, SPM concentration is high and Chl concentration is low and vice versa during summer. This seasonality has often been associated with the seasonal pattern in wind forcing. However, the decrease in SPM concentration corresponds well with the spring algal bloom. Does the decrease of SPM concentration caused by changing wind conditions cause the start of algae bloom, or does the algae bloom decrease SPM concentrations through enhanced flocculation and deposition? To answer the question, measurements from 2011 of particle size distribution (PSD), SPM, and Chl concentrations from the southern North Sea have been analyzed. The results indicate that the frequency of occurrence of macroflocs has a seasonal signal, while seasonality has little impact upon floc size. The data from a highly turbid coastal zone suggest that the maximum size of the macroflocs is controlled by turbulence and the available flocculation time during a tidal cycle, but the strength of the macroflocs is controlled by the availability of sticky organic substances associated with enhanced primary production during spring and summer. The results highlight the shift from mainly microflocs and flocculi in winter toward more muddy marine snow with larger amounts of macroflocs in spring and summer. The macroflocs will reduce the SPM concentrations in the turbidity maximum area as they settle faster. Consequently, the SPM concentration decreases and the light condition increases in the surface layer enhancing algae growth further.

  15. Trends and the effect of management on macronutrients in fractionated particulate matter in rooster house

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The persistence and long life expectancy of ammonia, odors and toxic pollutants from poultry houses may be due to the ability of suspended particulate matters (SPM) to serve as carriers for odorous compounds such as ammonium ions and volatile organic compounds. SPM is generated from the feed, anima...

  16. Scanning probe image wizard: A toolbox for automated scanning probe microscopy data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirling, Julian; Woolley, Richard A. J.; Moriarty, Philip

    2013-11-01

    We describe SPIW (scanning probe image wizard), a new image processing toolbox for SPM (scanning probe microscope) images. SPIW can be used to automate many aspects of SPM data analysis, even for images with surface contamination and step edges present. Specialised routines are available for images with atomic or molecular resolution to improve image visualisation and generate statistical data on surface structure.

  17. Solid Propellant Microthruster Design, Fabrication, and Testing for Nanosatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiyanathan, Kartheephan

    This thesis describes the design, fabrication, and testing of a solid propellant microthruster (SPM), which is a two-dimensional matrix of millimeter-sized rockets each capable of delivering millinewtons of thrust and millinewton-seconds of impulse to perform fine orbit and attitude corrections. The SPM is a potential payload for nanosatellites to increase spacecraft maneuverability and is constrained by strict mass, volume, and power requirements. The dimensions of the SPM in the millimeter-scale result in a number of scaling issues that need consideration such as a low Reynolds number, high heat loss, thermal and radical quenching, and incomplete combustion. The design of the SPM, engineered to address these issues, is outlined. The SPM fabrication using low-cost commercial off-the-shelf materials and standard micromachining is presented. The selection of a suitable propellant and its customization are described. Experimental results of SPM firing to demonstrate successful ignition and sustained combustion are presented for three configurations: nozzleless, sonic nozzle, and supersonic nozzle. The SPM is tested using a ballistic pendulum thrust stand. Impulse and thrust values are calculated and presented. The performance values of the SPM are found to be consistent with existing designs.

  18. A mesocosm experiment of suspended particulate matter dynamics in nutrient- and biomass-affected waters.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fiona H M; Maggi, Federico

    2016-02-01

    An experimental study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the biomass growing after an increase in available nutrient in an aquatic ecosystem affects the flocculation dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM). The experiment was carried out in a settling column equipped with a turbulence generating system, a water quality monitoring system, and an automated μPIV system to acquire micro photographs of SPM. Three SPM types were tested combinatorially at five turbulence shear rates, three nutrient concentrations, and three mineral concentrations. Analyses of experimental data showed that nutrient availability together with the presence of biomass increased the SPM size by about 60% at low shear as compared to nutrient- and biomass-free conditions; a lower increase was observed at higher shears. In contrast, only 2% lower fractal (capacity) dimension and nearly invariant settling velocity were observed than in nutrient- and biomass-free conditions. Likewise, SPM size and capacity dimension were found to be insensitive to the SPM concentration. Although limited to nearly homogeneous mineral mixes (kaolinite), these experimental findings not only reject the hypothesis that SPM in natural waters can be dealt with as purely mineral systems in all instances, but also anticipate that SPM dynamics in natural waters increasingly exposed to the threat of anthropogenic nutrient discharge would lead to an increased advective flow of adsorbed chemicals and organic carbon. PMID:26641013

  19. The distribution of veterinary antibiotics in the river system in a livestock-producing region and interactions between different phases.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanxia; Liu, Bei; Zhang, Xuelian; Wang, Jing; Gao, Shiying

    2016-08-01

    The occurrence of six common antibiotics in the surface water, sediment, and suspended particulate matter (SPM) of the Jiyun River, a typical river in the livestock-producing region in Beijing, northern China, was investigated. The results revealed that the antibiotics were widely distributed in the studied area. The aqueous samples were contaminated by the antibiotics, and the target antibiotics presented in highest levels were sulfonamides, with maximum concentrations of 230 and 385 ng/L for sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole, respectively. Oxytetracyline, one of the tetracylines, was the most frequently detected compound in the particulate phase with maximum concentration of 121 and 130 ng/g in the sediment and SPM, respectively. The total antibiotic concentration in the water was higher in the tributary than that in the main river, demonstrating that the tributaries were discharging antibiotics into the main river. In addition, the partition coefficients of sediment-water (Kp(S)) and the SPM-water (Kp(SPM)) were calculated. Overall, the Kp(S) decreases with an increase in the contents of SPM. In terms of the interaction between SPM and water, linear relationship between logarithm of Kp(SPM) (log Kp(SPM)) and the logarithm of molecular weight (log MW) was obtained, suggesting that large and heavy molecules are more likely to be attracted to suspended particulates, eventually leading to their enrichments in bed sediments. PMID:27172983

  20. Dysgenic Fertility, Intelligence and Family Size in Libya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shahomee, Alsedig Abdalgadr; Lynn, Richard; Abdalla, Saleh El-ghmary

    2013-01-01

    The Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) was administered to a sample of 592 16 year old school students in Libya. There was a small negative correlation of -0.14 between SPM scores and the number of siblings, indicating only marginal dysgenic fertility. Supplementary material giving the data is given online. (Contains 1 table.)

  1. Creative Reasoning across Developmental Levels: Convergence and Divergence in Problem Creation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaarsveld, Saskia; Lachmann, Thomas; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2012-01-01

    We recently proposed the Creative Reasoning Test (CRT), a test for reasoning in ill-defined problem spaces. The test asks children who first performed the Standard Progressive Matrices test (SPM) to next generate an SPM-style test item themselves. The item is scored based on different aspects of its complexity. Here we introduce a method to…

  2. Revealing the Effects of Missense Mutations Causing Snyder-Robinson Syndrome on the Stability and Dimerization of Spermine Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yunhui; Norris, Joy; Schwartz, Charles; Alexov, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Missense mutations in spermine synthase (SpmSyn) protein have been shown to cause the Snyder-Robinson syndrome (SRS). Depending on the location within the structure of SpmSyn and type of amino acid substitution, different mechanisms resulting in SRS were proposed. Here we focus on naturally occurring amino acid substitutions causing SRS, which are situated away from the active center of SpmSyn and thus are not directly involved in the catalysis. Two of the mutations, M35R and P112L, are reported for the first time in this study. It is demonstrated, both experimentally and computationally, that for such mutations the major effect resulting in dysfunctional SpmSyn is the destabilization of the protein. In vitro experiments indicated either no presence or very little amount of the mutant SpmSyn in patient cells. In silico modeling predicted that all studied mutations in this work destabilize SpmSyn and some of them abolish homo-dimer formation. Since dimerization and structural stability are equally important for the wild type function of SpmSyn, it is proposed that the SRS caused by mutations occurring in the N-domain of SpmSyn is a result of dysfunctional mutant proteins being partially unfolded and degraded by the proteomic machinery of the cell or being unable to form a homo-dimer. PMID:26761001

  3. How Well Can Young People with Asperger's Disorder Recognize Threat and Learn about Affect in Faces?: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyahara, Motohide; Ruffman, Ted; Fujita, Chikako; Tsujii, Masatsugu

    2010-01-01

    The abilities to identify threat and learn about affect in facial photographs were compared between a non-autistic university student group (NUS), a matched Asperger's group (MAS) on the Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), and an unmatched Asperger's group (UAS) who scored lower on the SPM. Participants were given pairs of faces and asked which…

  4. Suspended particulate matter in the White Sea: the results of long-term interdisciplinary research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchishina, M.; Klyuvitkin, A.; Filippov, A.; Novigatsky, A.; Politova, N.; Shevchenko, V.; Lisitzin, A.

    2015-03-01

    The spatial and temporal variations in SPM concentration in the White Sea, Russia, are directly (mineral particles from the water basin) or indirectly ("blossom" of diatoms due to supply of nutrients) caused by river runoff. Interannual variations in SPM concentration for the White Sea are low and do not exceed 18% (2003-2010); hence, they are statistically insignificant.

  5. Visualizing Confidence Bands for Semiparametrically Estimated Nonlinear Relations among Latent Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pek, Jolynn; Chalmers, R. Philip; Kok, Bethany E.; Losardo, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Structural equation mixture models (SEMMs), when applied as a semiparametric model (SPM), can adequately recover potentially nonlinear latent relationships without their specification. This SPM is useful for exploratory analysis when the form of the latent regression is unknown. The purpose of this article is to help users familiar with structural…

  6. The Shortened Raven Standard Progressive Matrices: Item Response Theory-Based Psychometric Analyses and Normative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Elst, Wim; Ouwehand, Carolijn; van Rijn, Peter; Lee, Nikki; Van Boxtel, Martin; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a shortened version of the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) under an item response theory framework (the one- and two-parameter logistic models). The shortened Raven SPM was administered to N = 453 cognitively healthy adults aged between 24 and 83 years. The…

  7. Apparatus automatically measures soluble residue content of volatile solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswalt, F. W.

    1969-01-01

    Solvent Purity Meter /SPM/ automatically measures the soluble residue in volatile solvents used in cleaning or extraction of oils, greases, and other nonvolatile materials. The SPM gives instantaneous and continuous readout of soluble contaminant residues in concentrations as low as one part per million of solution.

  8. HIGHER POLYAMINES RESTORE AND INVIGORATE METABOLIC MEMORY IN RIPENING FRUIT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyamines (PAs) are ubiquitous, biogenic amines that have been implicated in diverse cellular functions in most living organisms. Ever since spermine (Spm) phosphate crystals were isolated over three centuries ago, scientists have kept busy in unraveling the mystery behind biological roles of Spm a...

  9. Effect of Feeding Schedule on Fractionated Particulate Matter Distribution in Rooster House

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The persistence and long life expectancy of ammonia, odors and toxic pollutants from poultry houses may be due to the ability of suspended particulate matters (SPM) to serve as carriers for odorous compounds such as ammonium ions and volatile organic compounds. SPM is generated from the feed, anima...

  10. Distribution of suspended particulate matter in the northern Bohai Bay in summer and its relation with thermocline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, L. L.; Wang, Y. Z.; Li, G. X.; Deng, S. G.; Liu, Y.; Mu, L.

    2011-07-01

    Field observations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Bohai Bay, China have not been widely reported. The aim of this paper is to describe the horizontal and vertical distribution of mass and volume concentrations of SPM, respectively, based on observed data at 312 stations in the northern Bohai Bay during summer of 2006. A numerical model ECOMSED coupled with a sediment transport module was also established to further discuss the mechanism of the thermocline effect on the vertical distribution of SPM. The mass concentrations of SPM exhibited high inshore values and low offshore values in the horizontal distribution; while in the vertical direction, characteristics of the volume concentration of SPM can be divided into two types: one with a sharp peak at depth of 10-15 m and another without. The peak value at the depth of the thermocline was resulted from concentrated phytoplankton. A numerical experiment further displayed that the thermocline can also prevent particles from being resuspended upward.

  11. The Silicon Photomultiplier for High Speed Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Haagen, Gary A.

    2011-05-01

    The Silicon Photomultiplier (SPM) offers sensitivity comparable to conventional photomultipliers with the added advantage of small size, low operating voltages, and robust tolerance to excess/ambient light. A Peltier cooled SPM running at -30°C was used in conjunction with wideband electronics and a 17-inch Astrograph to collect photometric data without a reference star. High speed photometric trials were conducted on eclipsing binary AW UMa demonstrating fast data rate capability. Data shows the SPM exhibits excellent sensitivity, acceptable signal to noise, and bandwidth with sampling times as short as 1 millisecond for brighter targets. Automated digital data acquisition is discussed along with digital signal processing techniques for noise reduction, spectral analysis, and data mining. The SPM demonstrated acceptable signal to noise for fast photometric studies for 8-10th magnitude targets depending on scintillation and background conditions. Future SPM study topics are also discussed.

  12. Metal-contaminated resuspended sediment particles are a minor metal-uptake route for the Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) - A mesocosm study, Sydney Harbour estuary, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-H; Birch, G F; Simpson, S L

    2016-03-15

    Resuspension of surficial sediments is considered a key process influencing bioaccumulation of metals in filter-feeders in the contaminated Sydney Harbour estuary (Australia). However, previous investigations were unable to establish a significant relationship between metals in sediments or suspended particulate matter (SPM) and oyster tissue concentrations. This study used a 60-d laboratory mesocosm experiment to expose Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata, to a natural range of SPM concentrations with different SPM-metal concentrations. Dissolved metal concentrations were low and the availability of algae provided as food was constant for all treatments. Tissue metal concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn increased significantly, however, no relationship was determined between tissue metal concentrations in the oyster and either SPM or SPM-metal concentrations. The results indicated that exposure to resuspended contaminated sediment particles contributed little to the observed metal uptake. Dissolved or algae food sources appear to be more important for metal accumulation in these oysters. PMID:26849915

  13. Aging delays resolution of acute inflammation in mice: reprogramming the host response with novel nanoproresolving medicines1

    PubMed Central

    Arnardottir, Hildur H.; Dalli, Jesmond; Colas, Romain A.; Shinohara, Masakazu; Serhan, Charles N.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with an overt inflammatory phenotype and physiological decline. Specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPM3) are endogenous autacoids that actively promote resolution of inflammation. Here, we investigated resolution of acute inflammation in aging and the roles of SPM. Using a self-resolving peritonitis and resolution indices coupled with lipid mediator (LM) metabololipidomics, we found that aged mice had both delayed resolution and reduced SPM. The SPM precursor docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accelerated resolution via increased SPM and promoted human monocyte reprogramming. In aged mice, novel nanoproresolving medicines (NPRM) carrying aspirin-triggered (AT)-resolvin (Rv)D1 and AT-RvD3 (Resolvin-NPRM) reduced inflammation by promoting efferocytosis. These findings provide evidence for age-dependent resolution pathways in acute inflammation and novel means to activate resolution. PMID:25217168

  14. In vivo MRI of single-wall carbon nanohorns through magnetite nanoparticle attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyawaki, Jin; Yudasaka, Masako; Imai, Hideto; Yorimitsu, Hideki; Isobe, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Eiichi; Iijima, Sumio

    2006-03-01

    Superparamagnetic magnetite (SPM) is used as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thus, the SPM-attachment to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) will enable to visualize motional behaviors of CNTs in the living body through MRI. We found that the strong attachment of the SPM nanoparticles (ca. 6 nm size) to one type of CNTs, single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWNHs), could be achieved through a deposition of iron acetate clusters on SWNHs in ethanol at room temperature, followed by heat-treatment in Ar. In vivo MRI visualized that the SWNHs attached with the SPM nanoparticles accumulated in several organs of mice when injected into mice via tail veins. This simple method for the SPM-attaching on CNTs would facilitate the toxicity assessment of CNTs and the applications of CNTs in bioscience and biotechnology.

  15. How does sampling frequency control accuracy of fluvial suspended particulate matter flux estimates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coynel, A.; Hurtrez, J. E.; Schäfer, J.; Etcheber, H.; Blanc, G.

    2003-04-01

    Climatic change and anthropogenic actions greatly affect the environment: impacts of these factors on erosion and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) transport have been studied in different watersheds of southwest France with heterogeneous flood characteristics, vegetal cover and land use. The influence of sampling frequency on annual SPM flux estimates was analysed in two contrasted watersheds: the Garonne basin, a large plain river system (55 000 km^2), and the Nivelle basin, a small Pyrenean mountainous river system (238 km^2). Data banks derived from long-term high resolution sampling in both basins allowed to determine seasonal variations of the relation between water discharge and SPM concentrations during individual floods. High resolution diagrams of SPM concentrations versus discharge show clockwise and anti-clockwise hysteresis loops that were attributed to different sediment sources. Annual SPM fluxes were calculated for the Garonne River (La Réole) in 1994-1998, and for the Nivelle River (Saint Pée-sur-Nivelle) in 1996 by addition of daily fluxes and 30-minute fluxes, respectively. The annual SPM fluxes derived from the most complete dataset derived are considered as reference fluxes. Then, different fixed period strategies (e.g. monthly, semi-monthly, weekly, daily) corresponding to lower sampling frequencies were simulated by randomly extracting individual SPM. and water discharge data from the data base. For each simulation, the reduced dataset was used to estimate maximum and minimum annual SPM fluxes in order to determine the confidence level generated for a given sampling strategy. To obtain a reliable estimate of the SPM flux with less than 20 % error, the minimum sampling frequency is every three days for the Garonne River, whereas for the Nivelle River the minimum sampling frequency for reliable SPM flux estimation is every six hours. This difference in minimum sampling frequency between the two watersheds appears to depend rather on flow

  16. Exogenous spermine pretreatment confers tolerance to combined high-temperature and drought stress in vitro in trifoliate orange seedlings via modulation of antioxidative capacity and expression of stress-related genes

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xing-Zheng; Xing, Fei; Wang, Nan-Qi; Peng, Liang-Zhi; Chun, Chang-Pin; Cao, Li; Ling, Li-Li; Jiang, Cai-Lun

    2014-01-01

    Spermine (Spm) is thought to play an important role in drought or high-temperature (HT) tolerance. However, it is not clear whether Spm confers similar resistance in the presence of both drought and HT, which often occur simultaneously. In the present study, the trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.) seedlings were pretreated with 1 mmol L−1 Spm to evaluate their tolerance to combined drought and HT (45 ºC) stress. Spm-pretreated seedlings showed less leaf wilting, less water loss and less electrolyte leakage than control leaves not treated with Spm within 180 min of treatment. Histochemical staining with diaminobenzidine and nitro blue tetrazolium showed that Spm-pretreated seedlings accumulated less hydrogen peroxide and superoxide than those of control plants 60, 120 and 180 min after treatment when exposed to both drought and HT (45 ºC). However, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase were significantly more active in Spm-pretreated seedlings than in control seedlings. In addition, Spm-pretreated seedlings showed significantly higher expression of heat shock proteins, abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive element binding factor and 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 3 than controls either before (0 min) or after (60, 120 and 180 min) combined drought and HT treatment. All of these data suggest that exogenous Spm pretreatment confers tolerance to simultaneously occurring drought and HT stresses. Spm may influence this by activating antioxidant enzymes, increasing the effectiveness of scavenging of reactive oxygen species. It may also increase the expression levels of stress-related genes that protect trifoliate orange seedlings from stress damage. PMID:26019505

  17. The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Geoffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)

  18. Phantom of RAMSES (POR): A new Milgromian dynamicsN-body code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüghausen, Fabian; Famaey, Benoit; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    Since its first formulation in 1983, Milgromian dynamics (MOND) has been very successful in predicting the gravitational potential of galaxies from the distribution of baryons alone, including general scaling relations and detailed rotation curves of large statistical samples of individual galaxies covering a large range of masses and sizes. Most predictions however rely on static models, and only a handful of N-body codes have been developed over the years to investigate the consequences of the Milgromian framework for the dynamics of complex evolving dynamical systems. In this work, we present a new Milgromian N-body code, which is a customized version of the RAMSES code (Teyssier 2002) and thus comes with all its features: it includes particles and gas dynamics, and importantly allows for high spatial resolution of complex systems due to the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique. It further allows the direct comparison between Milgromian simulations and standard Newtonian simulations with dark matter particles. We provide basic tests of this customized code and demonstrate its performance by presenting N-body computations of dark-matter-free spherical equilibrium models as well as dark-matter-free disk galaxies in Milgromian dynamics.

  19. Abuso sexual por parte de los empleados del colegio (Sexual Misconduct by School Employees). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goorian, Brad

    This digest in Spanish defines sexual misconduct and offers guidelines that school boards and administrators can initiate to protect students from unwanted sexual behavior. The law recognizes two types of sexual misconduct: quid pro quo, when a school employee grants a student a favor in exchange for sexual gratification, and hostile environment,…

  20. Looking for a Job: Step by Step = Buscando Trabajo: Paso por Paso.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patricia

    This bilingual document provides guidelines and learning activities to assist migrant workers in looking for a job. The document covers the following areas: (1) a checklist providing an overview of job search skills; (2) developing a fact sheet of personal information; (3) listing good work qualities; (4) identifying references and securing…

  1. Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Teaching the Spanish Prepositions "Por" and "Para"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    L2 prepositions are traditionally taught in a non-explanatory manner by having students learn each use individually. This study examines the effectiveness of an alternative explanatory approach based on cognitive linguistics, which considers the multiple uses of a preposition as related. Consequently, learners can be shown a general schema that…

  2. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  3. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all…

  4. Neuropatía periférica inducida por quimioterapia

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre un efecto secundario de la quimioterapia que causa dolor y malestar en las manos y los pies. También incluye información sobre los esfuerzos para mejorar las opciones de detección, tratamiento y prevención.

  5. Ensenando El Espanol por Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual…

  6. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.…

  7. Producao d Dijatos por Dupla Troca de Pomeron Exclusiva no Experimento D0

    SciTech Connect

    Murilo Santana Rangel

    2008-01-01

    The first search for exclusive diffractive dijet production with invariant mass ≳ 100 GeV in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is performed. The set of data used is the Run IIa, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 pb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV taken with the D0 detector. At 95% CL, an upper limit for the ratio between the number of diffractive exclusive events and the number of non diffractive events is set to be 7.5 x 10-6, excluding two of the three models proposed to explain this production.

  8. The PorGrow project: overall cross-national results, comparisons and implications.

    PubMed

    Millstone, E; Lobstein, T

    2007-05-01

    European policymakers need more information on policy responses to obesity that stakeholders judge effective and acceptable. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project gathered such intelligence by interviewing key stakeholder groups in nine countries. Interviews used an innovative multi-criteria mapping (MCM) methodology that gathers quantitative and qualitative information on the stakeholders' perceptions and judgements. Aggregating across all participants, a comprehensive portfolio of policy measures, integrated into a coherent programme, would be well-supported by broad coalitions of stakeholders. Those portfolios should include measures (i) to provide improved educations in schools and to the general adult population; (ii) measures to improve access to and incentives for physical activity; (iii) measures to improve information about both foods and physical activity and (iv) changes to the supply of and demand for foodstuffs. There was little support for fiscal measures and technological 'fixes'; they were judged ineffective and unacceptable. Significant differences were found across European regions, and across different stakeholder perspectives, but not across genders. There is a strong case for improved monitoring of body mass index levels, dietary habits and physical activity. An MCM study can effectively cover several countries, rather than being confined to just one, and generate both national and cross-national policy analyses and proposals. PMID:17371305

  9. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate…

  10. "Por Los Ojos De Madres": Latina Mothers' Understandings of College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Laura Jean; Martinez, Melissa Ann; Sáenz, Victor B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, data from six focus groups with 30 Latina mothers in South Texas were analyzed utilizing a "funds of knowledge" approach to uncover their understandings of college readiness and their role in ensuring their children are college ready. Findings indicate that Latina mothers perceived college readiness in a holistic fashion,…

  11. Master equipment list 500 CFM portable exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    KRISKOVICH, J.R.

    1999-07-08

    The Master Equipment List (MEL) lists all the major components of the 500 cfm exhauster PORO5. The purpose of this Master Equipment List is to provide basic information and references to other documents for the listed components.

  12. PREJUICIO Y DISTANCIA SOCIAL HACIA PERSONAS HOMOSEXUALES POR PARTE DE JÓVENES UNIVERSITARIOS

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Rodríguez, María del C.; Squiabro, José Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con el propósito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utilizó una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente más prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron más prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a través del currículo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

  13. Renovando la Esperanza por una Educacion sin Exclusiones (Rekindling the Hope for an Education without Exclusion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this issue, written in Spanish, focus on the following: current status and outlook of youth and adult education; opening statement of the 50th anniversary commemoration; regional framework for the education of youth and adults in Latin America and the Caribbean; interculturalism and the education of youth and adults; participation of…

  14. El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  15. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli patógenas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli patógenas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en niños menores de 5 años en América Latina, África y Asia y están asociadas a alta mortalidad en niños en las comunidades más pobres de África y el Sudeste Asiático. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli patógenas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros países de América Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detección de estos patógenos en los laboratorios clínicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detección de E. coli patógenas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxigénica la cepa más frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en niños menores de 5 años. Otros patógenos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropatógena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisión de estos patógenos y a la infección del huésped susceptible. Más estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisión, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevención de estos patógenos que afectan la población pediátrica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  16. Metachronous Second Primary Malignancies after Head and Neck Cancer in a Korean Cohort (1993-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yuh-S; Lim, Jiwon; Jung, Kyu-Won; Ryu, Junsun; Won, Young-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Second primary malignancy (SPM) is the major long-term cause of patient mortality with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). As the incidence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-related HNSCC is increasing globally, we analyzed the patterns of SPM occurrence, the effect of the index tumor site along with attributes to HPV, and the effect of SPM on survival in South Korean patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Data were retrieved from the Korea Central Cancer Registry, a nationwide population-based cancer registry, from 1993 to 2010. Standardized incidence ratios were analyzed and compared between index tumor sites, particularly oropharyngeal vs. non-oropharyngeal sites. After adjustment for competing risks, 3- and 5-year SPM rates were calculated using the cumulative incidence function. The effects of SPM occurrence on overall survival (OS) were then analyzed. SPM rates were significantly lower for HPV-attributable oropharyngeal sites than for non-oropharyngeal sites, such as the larynx and hypopharynx (p<0.001). SPM rates were also lower for oral cavity first primary sites than for non-oropharyngeal first primary sites (p<0.001). SPMs typically occurred in the esophagus, lungs and the head and neck. Uterine cervical cancers occurred significantly more frequently after index oropharyngeal cancer in women. The 5-year and 10-year OS rates were 57.8 and 45.7% in all HNC patients, respectively. The OS after SPM occurrence was poor (5-year, 31.8%; 10-year, 20.8%) compared to after index HNC occurrence (5-year, 68.4%; 10-year, 41.2%). SPM occurrence in the esophagus and lung/bronchus showed a worse OS than SPM localized to the head and neck. South Korean HNC patient, the first primary cancer site affected SPM risk and distribution. The 5- and 10-year OS rates deteriorated after SPM occurrence, particularly in the esophagus and lungs. Further optimization of follow-up strategies for effective surveillance of SPM, particularly in the esophagus and lungs

  17. Modelling the superparamagnetic response of AEM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattel, Daniel; Mutton, Oaul

    2015-09-01

    Several lines of VTEM data flown at different system elevations across a known sulphide body and surface cover with elevated superparamagnetic (SPM) properties were analysed with MAXWELL, layered-earth inversions (LEI), LEROIAIR and LEROI. The SPM material was modelled with frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibilities at shallow depth. Due to their slow late-time decay, SPM responses can be confused with responses of deep conductors and vice versa. Depending on the parameter weighting used, 1D inversions model all late-time responses as deep conductive material or as surficial SPM material. However, the joint 1D inversion of data acquired at different system elevations manages to recover a deep conductor from the sulphide anomaly and elevated SPM values at the location of the SPM response. For the modelled parameters, the VTEM datasets from two elevations (at 70 and 80 m) require a vertical separation of ~10 m to allow for the discrimination between the SPM and sulphide responses. For lower system elevations, less sensor separation is necessary due to the strong gradient of the SPM response. Following the determination of SPM parameters from VTEM survey data, these values were used to hypothesise the SPM response for a range of system geometries, showing that larger transmitter loops and larger offsets between transmitter and receiver loops reduce SPM effects. We suggest that two vertically separated receivers could be used to measure the airborne electromagnetic (AEM) gradient and depending on the flying height of the transmitter, the vertical offset of the receivers should be between 2 and 40 m. If gradient data are not collected, then EM responses measured during the transmitter on-time and x-component data, if available, might offer some model discrimination. Whereas synthetic data of the examined helicopter TEM systems VTEM, AEROTEM and HELITEM indicate a fairly high sensitivity to SPM effects, fixed-wing MEGATEM data are much less affected, due to the higher

  18. Effects of riverine suspended particulate matter on the post-dredging increase in internal phosphorus loading across the sediment-water interface.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng; Shao, Shiguang; Shen, Qiushi; Fan, Chengxin; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Qilin

    2016-04-01

    Dredging is frequently used in the river mouths of eutrophic lakes to reduce internal phosphorus (P) loading from the sediment. However, the accumulation of P-adsorbed suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the inflowing rivers negatively affects the post-dredging sediment-water interface and ultimately increases internal P loading. Here, a 360-d experiment was carried out to investigate the influence of riverine SPM on the efficacy of dredging in reducing internal P loading. SPM was added to dredged and undredged sediments collected from the confluence area of Lake Chaohu. Several parameters related to internal P loading, including oxygen profile, soluble reactive P, and ferrous iron across the sediment-water interface, organic matter, alkaline phosphatase activity, and P fractions, were measured throughout the experimental period. The results showed that the P content (especially mobile P) in the sediment increased to the pre-dredging level with the accumulation of SPM in the dredged sediment. In addition, the P flux across the sediment-water interface increased with the accumulation of SPM. Several characteristics of SPM, including high organic matter content, mobile P, high activity of alkaline phosphatase, and high biological activity, were considered correlated with the post-dredging increase in internal P loading. Overall, this study showed that the heavily contaminated riverine SPM regulates the long-term efficacy of dredging as a nutrient management option in the confluence area. Management is needed to avoid or reduce this phenomenon during dredging projects of this nature. PMID:26766534

  19. Shelf sediment dispersal during the dry season, Princess Charlotte Bay, Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahl, Lauren E.; Marsden, M. A. H.

    1987-10-01

    Princess Charlotte Bay, located on the northern Great Barrier Reef, is an environment of terrigenous and carbonate deposition. The dynamics on this shelf are controlled by the Great Barrier Reef at the edge of the shelf, and the mid-shelf, shore-normal reefs. This study examines the dynamics during the dry season, with six time-series records from instrumented tripod deployments and numerous hydrographic stations. The shallow nearshore waters and the estuaries prove to be the sites where most active sediment resuspension and transport takes place. Sediment resuspension is effected primarily by waves in the nearshore, and channeling of tidal currents in the estuaries. Bedload transport did not occur during this study, mainly because current velocities were too low. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) transport in the bay is governed by tides and winds. Strong tidal flow imparts a strong offshore component to the transport, and strong southeast winds impart an alongshore component that transports SPM out of the bay to the northwest. Rattlesnake Channel, east of Princess Charlotte Bay, is another route by which SPM leaves the bay. Flow through this channel is predominantly tidal, with ebb waters (leaving Princess Charlotte Bay) carrying higher SPM concentrations than flood waters. SPM flux in the nearshore was an order of magnitude higher than at offshore stations, with highest fluxes generally occurring at times of sustained southeast winds. Transect data show that SPM drops to average bay values in water 11 m deep, indicating most SPM is transported in nearshore waters.

  20. Seasonal variation in concentration, size, and settling velocity of muddy marine flocs in the benthic boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fettweis, Michael; Baeye, Matthias

    2015-08-01

    Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) concentration profiles of the lowest 2 m of the water column and particle size distribution at 2 m above the bed were measured in a coastal turbidity maximum area (southern North Sea) during more than 700 days between 2006 and 2013. The long-term data series of SPM concentration, floc size, and settling velocity have been ensemble averaged according to tidal range, alongshore residual flow direction, and season, in order to investigate the seasonal SPM dynamics and its relation with physical and biological processes. The data show that the SPM is more concentrated in the near-bed layer in summer, whereas in winter, the SPM is better mixed throughout the water column. The decrease of the SPM concentration in the water column during summer is compensated by a higher near-bed concentration indicating that a significant part of the SPM remains in the area during summer rather than being advected out of it. The opposite seasonality between near-bed layer and water column has to our knowledge not yet been presented in literature. Physical effects such as wave heights, wind climate, or storms have a weak correlation with the observed seasonality. The argument to favor microbial activity as main driver of the seasonality lies in the observed variations in floc size and settling velocity. On average, the flocs are larger and thus settling velocities higher in summer than winter.

  1. Design and performance of a combined secondary ion mass spectrometry-scanning probe microscopy instrument for high sensitivity and high-resolution elemental three-dimensional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wirtz, Tom; Fleming, Yves; Gerard, Mathieu; Gysin, Urs; Glatzel, Thilo; Meyer, Ernst; Wegmann, Urs; Maier, Urs; Odriozola, Aitziber Herrero; Uehli, Daniel

    2012-06-15

    State-of-the-art secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) instruments allow producing 3D chemical mappings with excellent sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several important artifacts however arise from the fact that SIMS 3D mapping does not take into account the surface topography of the sample. In order to correct these artifacts, we have integrated a specially developed scanning probe microscopy (SPM) system into a commercial Cameca NanoSIMS 50 instrument. This new SPM module, which was designed as a DN200CF flange-mounted bolt-on accessory, includes a new high-precision sample stage, a scanner with a range of 100 {mu}m in x and y direction, and a dedicated SPM head which can be operated in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy modes. Topographical information gained from AFM measurements taken before, during, and after SIMS analysis as well as the SIMS data are automatically compiled into an accurate 3D reconstruction using the software program 'SARINA,' which was developed for this first combined SIMS-SPM instrument. The achievable lateral resolutions are 6 nm in the SPM mode and 45 nm in the SIMS mode. Elemental 3D images obtained with our integrated SIMS-SPM instrument on Al/Cu and polystyrene/poly(methyl methacrylate) samples demonstrate the advantages of the combined SIMS-SPM approach.

  2. Joint sparse coding based spatial pyramid matching for classification of color medical image.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun; Li, Yi; Zhu, Jie; Sun, Haojie; Cai, Yin

    2015-04-01

    Although color medical images are important in clinical practice, they are usually converted to grayscale for further processing in pattern recognition, resulting in loss of rich color information. The sparse coding based linear spatial pyramid matching (ScSPM) and its variants are popular for grayscale image classification, but cannot extract color information. In this paper, we propose a joint sparse coding based SPM (JScSPM) method for the classification of color medical images. A joint dictionary can represent both the color information in each color channel and the correlation between channels. Consequently, the joint sparse codes calculated from a joint dictionary can carry color information, and therefore this method can easily transform a feature descriptor originally designed for grayscale images to a color descriptor. A color hepatocellular carcinoma histological image dataset was used to evaluate the performance of the proposed JScSPM algorithm. Experimental results show that JScSPM provides significant improvements as compared with the majority voting based ScSPM and the original ScSPM for color medical image classification. PMID:24976104

  3. Clinical Manifestations of Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Jin; Park, Ji Ye; Jung, Joonho; Park, Seong Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) is an uncommon disorder with only a few reported clinical studies. The goals of this study were to investigate the clinical manifestations and the natural course of SPM, as well as examine the current available treatment options for SPM. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 91 patients diagnosed with SPM between January 2008 and June 2015. Results The mean age of the patients was 22.7±13.2 years, and 67 (73.6%) were male. Chest pain (58, 37.2%) was the predominant symptom. The most frequent precipitating factor before developing SPM was a cough (15.4%), but the majority of patients (51, 56.0%) had no precipitating factors. Chest X-ray was diagnostic in 44 patients (48.4%), and chest computed tomography (CT) showed mediastinal air in all cases. Esophagography (10, 11.0%), esophagoduodenoscopy (1, 1.1%), and bronchoscopy (5, 5.5%) were performed selectively due to clinical suspicion, but no abnormal findings that implicated organ injury were documented. Twelve patients (13.2%) were discharged after a visit to the emergency room, and the others were admitted and received conservative treatment. The mean length of hospital stay was 3.0±1.6 days. There were no complications related to SPM except for recurrence in 2 patients (2.2%). Conclusion SPM responds well to conservative treatment and follows a benign natural course. Hospitalization and aggressive treatment can be performed in selective cases. PMID:27525238

  4. Specialized proresolving mediators enhance human B cell differentiation to antibody secreting cells1

    PubMed Central

    Ramon, Sesquile; Gao, Fei; Serhan, Charles N.; Phipps, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    The resolution of inflammation is an active and dynamic process critical in maintaining homeostasis. Newly identified lipid mediators have been recognized as key players during the resolution phase. These specialized proresolving mediators (SPM) constitute separate families that include lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins each derived from essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. New results demonstrate that SPM regulate aspects of the immune response, including reduction of neutrophil infiltration, decreased T cell cytokine production and stimulation of macrophage phagocytic activity. The actions of SPM on B lymphocytes remain unknown. Our study shows for the first time that the novel SPM 17-hydroxydosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA), resolvin D1 (RvD1) and protectin D1 (PD1) are present in the spleen. Interestingly, 17-HDHA, RvD1 but not PD1, strongly increase activated human B cell IgM and IgG production. Furthermore, increased antibody production by 17-HDHA is due to augmented B cell differentiation towards a CD27+CD38+ antibody-secreting cell phenotype. 17-HDHA did not affect proliferation and was non-toxic to cells. Increase of plasma cell differentiation and antibody production supports the involvement of SPM during the late stages of inflammation and pathogen clearance. The present study provides new evidence for SPM activity in the humoral response. These new findings highlight the potential applications of SPM as endogenous and non-toxic adjuvants, and as anti-inflammatory therapeutic molecules. PMID:22711890

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in suspended particulate matter and sediments from the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal areas, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao-Jun; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian; Yang, Qing-Shu; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distribution, composition, and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal areas were examined. Total PAH concentrations varied from 189 to 637 ng/g in sediments and 422 to 1,850 ng/g in SPM. PAHs were dominated by 5,6-ring compounds in sediments and by 2,3-ring compounds in SPM samples. Assessment of PAH sources suggested that biomass and coal combustion is the major PAH source to the outer part of the estuary sediments and that petroleum combustion is the major PAH source to the inner part of estuary sediments. As for SPM samples, PAH isomer pair ratios indicated multiple (petroleum, petroleum combustion, and biomass and coal combustion) PAH sources, and significant temporal variations could exist for the sources of water column PAHs in the study area. The distribution of perylene in SPM samples indicated that the river was the dominant source of perylene in SPM and that perylene could be taken as an index to assess the contribution of river inflow to the total PAHs in SPM samples. The high concentration of perylene in the sediment was indicative of an in situ biogenic origin. PMID:15996803

  6. Singular perturbation margin and generalised gain margin for nonlinear time-invariant systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaojing; Zhu, J. Jim

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, singular perturbation margin (SPM) and generalised gain margin (GGM) are proposed as the classical phase margin and gain margin like stability metrics for nonlinear systems established from the view of the singular perturbation and the regular perturbation, respectively. The problem of SPM and GGM assessment of a nonlinear nominal system is formulated. The SPM and GGM formulations are provided as the functions of radius of attraction (ROA), which is introduced as a conservative measure of the domain of attraction (DOA). Furthermore, the ROA constrained SPM and GGM analysis are processed through two stages: (1) the SPM and GGM assessment for nonlinear systems at the equilibrium point, based on the SPM and GGM equilibrium theorems, including time-invariant and time-varying cases (Theorem 5.3, Theorem 5.2, Theorem 5.4 and Theorem 5.5); (2) the establishment of the relationship between the SPM or GGM and the ROA for nonlinear time-invariant systems through the construction of the Lyapunov function for the singularly perturbed model (Theorem 6.1 and Section 6.2.3).

  7. Statistical process management: An essential element of quality improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, M.R.

    1992-09-01

    Successful quality improvement requires a balanced program involving the three elements that control quality: organization, people and technology. The focus of the SPC/SPM User`s Group is to advance the technology component of Total Quality by networking within the Group and by providing an outreach within Westinghouse to foster the appropriate use of statistic techniques to achieve Total Quality. SPM encompasses the disciplines by which a process is measured against its intrinsic design capability, in the face of measurement noise and other obscuring variability. SPM tools facilitate decisions about the process that generated the data. SPM deals typically with manufacturing processes, but with some flexibility of definition and technique it accommodates many administrative processes as well. The techniques of SPM are those of Statistical Process Control, Statistical Quality Control, Measurement Control, and Experimental Design. In addition, techniques such as job and task analysis, and concurrent engineering are important elements of systematic planning and analysis that are needed early in the design process to ensure success. The SPC/SPM User`s Group is endeavoring to achieve its objectives by sharing successes that have occurred within the member`s own Westinghouse department as well as within other US and foreign industry. In addition, failures are reviewed to establish lessons learned in order to improve future applications. In broader terms, the Group is interested in making SPM the accepted way of doing business within Westinghouse.

  8. Statistical process management: An essential element of quality improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, M. R.

    Successful quality improvement requires a balanced program involving the three elements that control quality: organization, people and technology. The focus of the SPC/SPM User's Group is to advance the technology component of Total Quality by networking within the Group and by providing an outreach within Westinghouse to foster the appropriate use of statistic techniques to achieve Total Quality. SPM encompasses the disciplines by which a process is measured against its intrinsic design capability, in the face of measurement noise and other obscuring variability. SPM tools facilitate decisions about the process that generated the data. SPM deals typically with manufacturing processes, but with some flexibility of definition and technique it accommodates many administrative processes as well. The techniques of SPM are those of Statistical Process Control, Statistical Quality Control, Measurement Control, and Experimental Design. In addition, techniques such as job and task analysis, and concurrent engineering are important elements of systematic planning and analysis that are needed early in the design process to ensure success. The SPC/SPM User's Group is endeavoring to achieve its objectives by sharing successes that have occurred within the member's own Westinghouse department as well as within other US and foreign industry. In addition, failures are reviewed to establish lessons learned in order to improve future applications. In broader terms, the Group is interested in making SPM the accepted way of doing business within Westinghouse.

  9. Statistical process management: An essential element of quality improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    Successful quality improvement requires a balanced program involving the three elements that control quality: organization, people and technology. The focus of the SPC/SPM User's Group is to advance the technology component of Total Quality by networking within the Group and by providing an outreach within Westinghouse to foster the appropriate use of statistic techniques to achieve Total Quality. SPM encompasses the disciplines by which a process is measured against its intrinsic design capability, in the face of measurement noise and other obscuring variability. SPM tools facilitate decisions about the process that generated the data. SPM deals typically with manufacturing processes, but with some flexibility of definition and technique it accommodates many administrative processes as well. The techniques of SPM are those of Statistical Process Control, Statistical Quality Control, Measurement Control, and Experimental Design. In addition, techniques such as job and task analysis, and concurrent engineering are important elements of systematic planning and analysis that are needed early in the design process to ensure success. The SPC/SPM User's Group is endeavoring to achieve its objectives by sharing successes that have occurred within the member's own Westinghouse department as well as within other US and foreign industry. In addition, failures are reviewed to establish lessons learned in order to improve future applications. In broader terms, the Group is interested in making SPM the accepted way of doing business within Westinghouse.

  10. Heterotrophic bacterial production and extracellular enzymatic activity in sinking particulate matter in the western North Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Namiha; Fukuda, Hideki; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Saito, Hiroaki; Suzumura, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Heterotrophic activities on sinking particulate matter (SPM) play an important role in SPM fluxes in the ocean. To demonstrate regional differences in heterotrophic activities on SPM, we measured heterotrophic bacterial production (HBP) in seawater (HBPSW) and SPM (HBPSPM) as well as potential extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) in SPM on a transect along 155°E in the western North Pacific Ocean in the subarctic (44°N), the Kuroshio Extension area (35°N), and the subtropical gyre (20°N). Depth-integrated HBPSW from the surface to 500 m was comparable between the locations, whereas HBPSPM at 44°N was substantially lower than at the other sites. We found the highest particulate organic carbon (POC) export flux and export efficiency to bathypelagic depths, and the lowest water temperatures, at 44°N. We found significant correlations between leucine aminopeptidase (LAPase) activity, β-glucosidase (BGase) activity, POC flux and particulate organic nitrogen flux. LAPase activity was two orders of magnitude higher than BGase activity, with a BGase:LAPase activity ratio of 0.027. There were no significant correlations between HBP and EEA in SPM except for lipase, and lipase activity was significantly correlated with temperature. We propose that hydrographic conditions are an important factor controlling heterotrophic bacterial activity and export efficiency of organic carbon to the deep ocean, as are the sources and abundance of SPM produced in the euphotic zone via primary production. PMID:23109933

  11. Distribution of arsenic between the particulate and aqueous phases in surface water from three freshwater lakes in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fen; Geng, Di; Wei, Chaoyang; Ji, Hongbing; Xu, Hai

    2016-04-01

    Total arsenic (As) in suspended particulate matter (SPM) of lacustrine ecosystems has been extensively documented, but knowledge on the distribution of As between the particle and aqueous phases in freshwater lakes remains largely unknown. The present study employed a rapid method to determine the total and dissolved As and As in SPM at sites covering the entire areas of three large shallow lakes in China, e.g., Taihu, Chaohu, and Dianchi, to obtain a "representative" mean value of the As concentration in various phases. The average concentrations of total and dissolved As were below 6.0 and 3.3 μg/L, respectively. Arsenic in SPM was much higher than that in waters, as ranging from 24.7 to 516 μg/g. Lake Taihu exhibited extensive seasonal variation both in total and dissolved As, while little difference was observed in SPM concentration, with an average value of 54.2 and 49.3 mg/L in winter and summer, respectively. Among the algae in the three lakes, Cyanophyta dominated in both cell abundance and biomass. Algae mass occupied significant parts of SPM, especially in Dianchi; the proportions of algae in the SPM fractions were measured as 10.4 and 7.1 % in Taihu in winter and summer, 4.5 % in Chaohu, and 53.3 % in Dianchi, both in summer season. The total As in SPM had a significant positive relationship with total As in water and a high distribution coefficient (Kd) between SPM and dissolved fraction of As at all three lakes. The high proportions of Algae, especially Cyanophyta in the composition of SPM in the three large shallow lakes, might play an important role in affecting the As distribution between the aqueous and particulate phases in aquatic ecosystem. PMID:26705755

  12. Spermine Alleviates Drought Stress in White Clover with Different Resistance by Influencing Carbohydrate Metabolism and Dehydrins Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhou; Jing, Wen; Peng, Yan; Zhang, Xin Quan; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Lin Kai; Yan, Yan-hong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to analyse whether ameliorating drought stress through exogenously applied spermine (Spm) was related to carbohydrate metabolism, dehydrins accumulation and the transcription of genes encoding dehydrins in two white clovers (drought-susceptible cv. ‘Ladino’ and drought-resistant cv. ‘Haifa’) under controlled drying conditions for 10 days. The results show that the application of Spm effectively alleviates negative effects caused by drought stress in both cultivars. Exogenous Spm led to accumulation of more water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), sucrose, fructose and sorbitol in both cultivars under drought stress, and also significantly elevated glucose content in leaves of drought-resistant cv. ‘Haifa’, but had no effect on drought-susceptible cv. ‘Ladino’. Accordingly, the key enzyme activities of sucrose and sorbitol metabolism changed along with the application of Spm under drought stress. Spm induced a significant increase in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) or sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, but decrease in sucrose synthetase (SS) activity when two cultivars were subjected to drought. In addition, the improved accumulation of dehydrins induced by exogenous Spm coincided with three genes expression which was responsible for dehydrins synthesis. But Spm-induced transcript level of dehydrin genes increased earlier in cv. ‘Ladino’ than that in cv. ‘Haifa’. Thus, these results suggest that ameliorating drought stress through exogenously applied Spm may be associated with increased carbohydrate accumulation and dehydrins synthesis. There are differences between drought-susceptible and -resistant white clover cultivars related to Spm regulation of WSC metabolism and dehydrins expression. PMID:25835290

  13. Genesis and spatial distribution of suspended particulate matter concentrations in the Kara Sea during maximum reduction of the Arctic ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchishina, M. D.; Lein, A. Yu.; Sukhanova, I. N.; Artem'ev, V. A.; Novigatsky, A. N.

    2015-07-01

    The suspended particulate matter (SPM) distribution in the water column of the Kara Sea including the Ob and Yenisei river estuaries was investigated in September 2007 and 2011, i.e., during periods of the maximum reduction of drift ice in the Arctic Ocean. The increased SPM concentrations in the surface layer of the Ob Estuary (26 and 16 mg/L on average in the fresh and saline (3-10 psu) water, respectively) were revealed in 2007 as compared with its values available from previous publications. The SPM concentrations and share of the terrigenous component in the latter in the Ob Estuary (2007) was =10 times higher than in the estuary of the Yenisei River (2011). The SPM concentration decreased exponentially in response to fresh and saline water mixing in the marginal filter (MF) areas of these rivers. The main transformation of the SPM composition at the transition from estuary to shelf waters took place within the salinity frontal zone (coagulation and sorption stage of the MF). The impact of terrigenous material on marine SPM composition in 2011 decreased in the northerly direction. The anomalous desalination of the sea surface layer in 2007 resulted in significant lightening of the organic carbon isotopic composition in the western part of the Kara Sea. This means that the impact of terrigenous material on SPM composition insignificantly decreased in the northerly direction. It was shown that mineral matter was distributed from the northeastern extremity of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago in the northeasterly direction. At the same time, mineral particles transported by rivers from West and East Siberia prevail in the terrigenous SPM constituent in the Kara Sea up to 76°30' N. Our data indicated that the processes of cross-shelf SPM transport in the Kara Sea were controlled by bottom topography.

  14. Diagnóstico y cinética de plasmas de NxOy y aire a baja presión. Aplicaciones atmosféricas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanarro Onrubia, Isabel

    disociación e ionización por impacto electrónico a bajas energías (<10 eV). Por consiguiente, en el presente trabajo, se proponen las constantes de reacción para varios de estos procesos. Los mecanismos considerados, así como las especies encontradas en estos plasmas, son muy similares a los que tienen lugar en las regiones D y E de la ionosfera terrestre (˜ 80-150 km de altitud), y su estudio en el laboratorio puede contribuir a la interpretación de los datos obtenidos in situ con satélites y sondas.

  15. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum Associated with Sex

    PubMed Central

    Flatman, Sam; Morrison, Edwin; Elahi, Maqsood

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) associated with sex. A 22-year-old lesbian with a history of asthma, cigarette and illicit drug smoking was diagnosed with a SPM after developing chest pain and dyspnoea in the context of performing oral sex. The main finding was subcutaneous emphysema involving the neck. SPM is an important differential diagnosis for chest pain in young people. It is a benign condition and diagnosis mainly limited to chest X-ray with increased incidence in asthmatics, smokers and drug addicts. PMID:22470723

  16. Bioelectromechanical Imaging by Scanning Probe Microscopy: Galvani's Experiment at the Nanoscale

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Rodriguez, Brian J; Shin, Junsoo; Jesse, Stephen; Grichko, V.; Thundat, Thomas George; Baddorf, Arthur P; Gruverman, A.

    2006-01-01

    Since the discovery in the late 18th century of electrically induced mechanical response in muscle tissue, coupling between electrical and mechanical phenomena has been shown to be a near-universal feature of biological systems. Here, we employ scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to measure the sub-Angstrom mechanical response of a biological system induced by an electric bias applied to a conductive SPM tip. Visualization of the spiral shape and orientation of protein fibrils with 5 nm spatial resolution in a human tooth and chitin molecular bundle orientation in a butterfly wing is demonstrated. In particular, the applicability of SPM-based techniques for the determination of molecular orientation is discussed.

  17. Transition of oxide film configuration and the critical stress inferred by scanning probe microscopy at nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xufei; Li, Yan; Zhang, Changxing; Dong, Xuelin; Feng, Xue

    2016-09-01

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) equipped in high temperature nanoindentation instrument is adopted to in situ characterize the oxide film growth on Ni-base single crystal at nanoscale. SPM images reveal a transition of oxide film configuration that the originally flat surface roughens during oxidation. Based on the stress-diffusion coupling effect during oxidation, the stress evolution in the oxide film and the evolution of surface configuration are analyzed. A new method to infer the critical stress in the oxide film at the transition point is proposed by measuring the undulated surface wavelength based on the surface morphology obtained by SPM.

  18. Green's function modeling of response of two-dimensional materials to point probes for scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewary, V. K.; Quardokus, Rebecca C.; DelRio, Frank W.

    2016-04-01

    A Green's function (GF) method is developed for interpreting scanning probe microscopy (SPM) measurements on new two-dimensional (2D) materials. GFs for the Laplace/Poisson equations are calculated by using a virtual source method for two separate cases of a finite material containing a rectangular defect and a hexagonal defect. The prescribed boundary values are reproduced almost exactly by the calculated GFs. It is suggested that the GF is not just a mathematical artefact but a basic physical characteristic of material systems, which can be measured directly by SPM for 2D solids. This should make SPM an even more powerful technique for characterization of 2D materials.

  19. Biogeochemistry of suspended and sedimentary material in the Ob and Yenisei rivers and Kara Sea: amino acids and amino sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Daniela; Gaye-Haake, Birgit; Neumann, Kirsten; Catalina Gebhardt, A.; Ittekkot, Venugopalan

    2005-03-01

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments were sampled in the Ob and the Yenisei rivers and the adjacent Kara Sea up to 77°N during the ice-free period in August and September 1997 (only sediments), 1999 and 2000. The material was analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and nitrogen (N) as well as for the content and monomeric composition of the labile organic constituents amino acids (AA) and amino sugars (AS). Despite interannual variation, surface SPM concentration generally revealed decreasing values from 8 to 4 mg/L for the Ob and Yenisei to values <0.5 mg/L in the offshore region reflecting the importance of fluvial input for SPM distribution. The quality of surface SPM was mainly determined by planktonic productivity as revealed by C/N, the content of AA+AS and their contribution to OC and N. Sedimentation caused a qualitative change of surface SPM at ˜ 73.5°N with POC-% averaging 6.7% south and 21% north of this latitude. This was accompanied by a change from 12-90 to 105-202 mg AA+AS/g SPM, respectively. Together with the monomeric composition of AA this indicates a higher reactivity of OM and a reduced dilution by detrital material in the offshore region. Whereas SPM was homogenously distributed in the rivers, the estuaries were characterized by a salt-wedge at depth. Deep water revealed highest SPM concentrations due to sediment resuspension and/or the presence of a nepheloid layer, which is mirrored in distinctively reduced OM content and reactivity relative to upper water column SPM. Compared to SPM, sediments are characterized by elevated contents of terrestrial OM in the southern study area especially off the Yenisei. OM content and reactivity decrease in offshore direction due to lower sedimentation rates and terrestrial OM input towards the north. The AA-derived reactivity index (RI) and degradation index (DI) together sensitively reflect the degradational stage of OM in SPM and sediments allowing a precise classification from fresh plankton

  20. Monolithically Integrated, Mechanically Resilient Carbon-Based Probes for Scanning Probe Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Megerian, Krikor G.; Jennings, Andrew T.; Greer, Julia R.

    2010-01-01

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is an important tool for performing measurements at the nanoscale in imaging bacteria or proteins in biology, as well as in the electronics industry. An essential element of SPM is a sharp, stable tip that possesses a small radius of curvature to enhance spatial resolution. Existing techniques for forming such tips are not ideal. High-aspect-ratio, monolithically integrated, as-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have been formed that show promise for SPM applications by overcoming the limitations present in wet chemical and separate substrate etching processes.

  1. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: a rare presentation of diabetic ketoacidosis in a pregnant woman

    PubMed Central

    Speksnijder, Leonie; Duvekot, Johannes J; Duschek, Erik J J; Jebbink, Max C W; Bremer, Henk A

    2010-01-01

    Pneumomediastinum (PM) or mediastinal emphysema is defined as the presence of free air around mediastinal structures. Spontaneous (or atraumatic) pneumomediastinum (SPM) is a rare complication during pregnancy. Primary or spontaneous PM can arise due to increased intra-alveolar pressure. Secondary PM is due to direct trauma, intrathoracic infections or violation of the aerodigestive track. This case report describes a pregnant woman newly diagnosed with diabetes presenting with an SPM due to vigorously vomiting and Kussmaul's breathing caused by diabetic ketoacidosis. Appropriate management of SPM and its underlying cause is required to reduce the risks for both mother and child.

  2. The importance of parent material information derived from globally available small scale legacy data for soil mapping at medium scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuler, U.; Bock, M.; Günther, A.; Willer, J.; Pickert, E.; Asch, K.; Baritz, R.

    2012-04-01

    Up to now, harmonized global soil information is solely available from the FAO-Unesco Soil map of the world at 1:5M scale (FAO-Unesco 1974-1981). However, for monitoring global environmental changes and sustainable land resource management, higher resolution soil maps are urgently needed. At the global scale, the soil forming factors climate, soil parent material (SPM) and topography can be considered the most important parameters for spatial prediction of soil associations and their properties. While topographic and climatic information is available at high spatial resolutions, SPM information can only be derived from small-scale geological maps or soil maps. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of commonly available SPM data derived from small scale soil and geological maps for soil mapping at the 1:250k scale. The study was conducted for a test site in Southern Saxony, Germany, 140*85 km wide, representing diverse soil landscapes. Additionally, SPM maps were derived from a reclassification of the geological overview map of Germany at 1:1M scale, and the European Soil database. The proposed SPM classification, developed in the framework of the EU-FP7 eSOTER project, is based on the degree of SPM consolidation, its geochemical character, and the major bedrock types. In addition, SPM-related surface processes are characterized since SPM is defined here as the original lithological material before the onset of weathering and soil formation processes. To assess the potential of SPM data for the spatial delineation of soil associations, random forest-based predictions of soils and its properties were carried out using relief attributes from digital elevation model data. Model runs were performed (i) with and (ii) without spatial information on SPM properties. The outputs were compared with independent soil information of model validation areas. Training and validation point data was selected from a comprehensive dataset representing more than 14

  3. Suspended particulate composition: evolution along a river linear and influence of regime flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Meur, Mathieu; Montargès-Pelletier, Emmanuelle; Bauer, Allan; Gley, Renaud; Migot, Sylvie; Mansuy-Huault, Laurence; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Razafitianamaharavo, Angelina; Villièras, Frédéric

    2015-04-01

    Suspended Particulate Matters are recognized to play a crucial role in the transport and fate of chemicals like trace metal elements. The affinity of trace metals with natural SPM is influenced by (i) the nature of metal (ii) physical-chemical conditions of the water column (iii) SPM physical characteristics (grain size, surface area) (iiii) SPM chemical characteristics (elemental composition, mineralogy, organic composition). Some authors observed that the SPM composition was the predominant factor controlling the affinity of trace metals with natural SPM. One purpose of this work is to follow the physical and chemical characteristics of SPM along the river linear in order to better understand the affinity between SPM and heavy metals. One other purpose is to study the influence of regime flow on SPM physical and chemical composition in order to detect any variation of SPM composition with regime flow. SPM were sampled along Moselle river (North East of France) following an urbanization gradient. Two tributaries were also sampled, the Madon river which drains an agricultural catchment and the Fensch stream which flows through an ancient steel-making basin. SPM were sampled several times during high flow and low flow. Particulate matter was extracted on field using continuous flow field centrifuge. Frozen-dried samples were then characterized in terms of size distribution, elemental composition (ICP - AES, ICP - MS), mineralogy (XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM), surface properties (gas adsorption techniques) and organic composition (Py-GC-MS and GC-MS). Grain size distribution evidenced the presence of coarser particles during high flow but no difference in the grain size distribution could be evidenced between the different stations. The grain size distribution of collected SPM appeared globally identical, although the increase of conductivity due to the junction of Meurthe river . In terms of composition, major element contents in SPM are characterized by the predominance of

  4. THE INTEGRATED USE OF COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY, SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY, AND VIRTUAL REALITY TO PREDICT THE CHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the last decade three new techniques scanning probe microscopy (SPM), virtual reality (YR) and computational chemistry ave emerged with the combined capability of a priori predicting the chemically reactivity of environmental surfaces. Computational chemistry provides the cap...

  5. Mechanism of resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin antibiotics in Streptococcus thermophilus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) group antibiotics in the dairy bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus (ST) is documented but the mechanism of resistance has not been elucidated. MIC values for erythromycin (Erm), azithromycin (Azm), tylosin (Tyl), spiramycin (Spm), pristinamyci...

  6. Nanoprobes for Future Generations of Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, M. J.; Jiang, C.-S.; Moutinho, H. R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2005-11-01

    In this Solar Program Review Meeting, we report on our most recent progress in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and its application to photovoltaics. We have developed an SPM to be operated in combination with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) JEOL5800. The SPM platform is compatible with a helium closed-circuit cryostat and fully accessible to the optics of the cathodoluminescence (CL) detectors with which the JEOL5800 is equipped. Among the innovative modes of operation that the combination --and synergy-- of SPM and electron microscopy provides, we describe (i) measurements of the lateral electron transport based on scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM); (ii) scanning tunneling luminescence (STL); (iii) electroluminescence mapping; and (iv) near-field cathodoluminescence.

  7. 75 FR 49891 - Drill Pipe from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Affirmative Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... China: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 75 FR 4345 (January 27, 2010). The affirmative...: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 75 FR 33245 (June 11, 2010) (Preliminary...), Jiangyin Sanliang Petroleum Machinery Co., Ltd. (SPM), Jiangyin Liangda Drill Pipe Co., Ltd....

  8. 76 FR 1971 - Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ...., Ltd. (DP Master), Jiangyin Sanliang Petroleum Machinery Co., Ltd. (SPM), Jiangyin Liangda Drill Pipe... China: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 75 FR 33245 (June 11, 2010...: Alignment of Final Countervailing Duty Determination with Final Antidumping Duty Determination, 75 FR...

  9. The Resolution Code of Acute Inflammation: Novel Pro-Resolving Lipid Mediators in Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Serhan, Charles N.; Chiang, Nan; Dalli, Jesmond

    2015-01-01

    Studies into the mechanisms in resolution of self-limited inflammation and acute reperfusion injury have uncovered a new genus of pro-resolving lipid mediators coined specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) including lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins that are each temporally produced by resolving-exudates with distinct actions for return to homeostasis. SPM evoke potent anti-inflammatory and novel pro-resolving mechanisms as well as enhance microbial clearance. While born in inflammation-resolution, SPM are conserved structures with functions discovered in microbial defense, pain, organ protection and tissue regeneration, wound healing, cancer, reproduction, and neurobiology-cognition. This review covers these SPM mechanisms and other new omega-3 PUFA pathways that open their path for functions in resolution physiology. PMID:25857211

  10. The second iteration of the Systems Prioritization Method: A systems prioritization and decision-aiding tool for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Volume 1, Synopsis of method and results

    SciTech Connect

    Prindle, N.H.; Mendenhall, F.T.; Boak, D.M.

    1996-05-01

    In March 1994, the US Department of Energy Carlsbad Area Office (DOE/CAO) embarked on an effort to design and implement a performance- based decision-aiding tool to provide an analytical basis for planning, prioritizing, and selecting programmatic options for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This tool, called Systems Prioritization Method (SPM) defines the most viable combinations of scientific investigations, engineered alternatives (EAs), and waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for supporting the final WIPP compliance application. The scope of SPM is restricted to selected portions of applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) long-term performance regulations. SPM calculates the probabilities of certain sets of activities demonstrating compliance with various regulations. SPM provides results in the form of a decision matrix to identify cost-effective programmatic paths with a high probability of successfully demonstrating compliance.

  11. Feasibility of voxel-based statistical analysis method for myocardial PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Yu, A.; Kim, Jin Su; Paik, Chang H.; Kim, Kyeong Min; Moo Lim, Sang

    2014-09-01

    Although statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis is widely used in neuroimaging studies, to our best knowledge, there was no application to myocardial PET data analysis. In this study, we developed the voxel based statistical analysis method for myocardial PET which provides statistical comparison results between groups in image space. PET Emission data of normal and myocardial infarction rats were acquired For the SPM analysis, a rat heart template was created. In addition, individual PET data was spatially normalized and smoothed. Two sample t-tests were performed to identify the myocardial infarct region. This developed SPM method was compared with conventional ROI methods. Myocardial glucose metabolism was decreased in the lateral wall of the left ventricle. In the result of ROI analysis, the mean value of the lateral wall was 29% decreased. The newly developed SPM method for myocardial PET could provide quantitative information in myocardial PET study.

  12. High reliability linear drive device for artificial hearts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jinghua; Zhao, Wenxiang; Liu, Guohai; Shen, Yue; Wang, Fangqun

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, a new high reliability linear drive device, termed as stator-permanent-magnet tubular oscillating actuator (SPM-TOA), is proposed for artificial hearts (AHs). The key is to incorporate the concept of two independent phases into this linear AH device, hence achieving high reliability operation. The fault-tolerant teeth are employed to provide the desired decoupling phases in magnetic circuit. Also, as the magnets and the coils are located in the stator, the proposed SPM-TOA takes the definite advantages of robust mover and direct-drive capability. By using the time-stepping finite element method, the electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed SPM-TOA are analyzed, including magnetic field distributions, flux linkages, back- electromotive forces (back-EMFs) self- and mutual inductances, as well as cogging and thrust forces. The results confirm that the proposed SPM-TOA meets the dimension, weight, and force requirements of the AH drive device.

  13. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum and Macklin effect: Overview and appearance on computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Sadayuki; Gibo, Shinji

    2014-11-28

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) is described as free air or gas located within the mediastinum that is not associated with any noticeable cause such as chest trauma. SPM has been associated with many conditions and triggers, including bronchial asthma, diabetic ketoacidosis, forceful straining during exercise, inhalation of drugs, as well as other activities associated with the Valsalva maneuver. The Macklin effect appears on thoracic computed tomography (CT) as linear collections of air contiguous to the bronchovascular sheaths. With the recent availability of multidetector-row CT, the Macklin effect has been seen in the clinical setting more frequently than expected. The aim of this review article is to describe the CT imaging spectrum of the Macklin effect in patients with SPM, focusing on the common appearance of the Macklin effect, pneumorrhachis, and persistent SPM with pneumatocele. PMID:25431639

  14. The Stochastic Parcel Model: A deterministic parameterization of stochastically entraining convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romps, David M.

    2016-03-01

    Convective entrainment is a process that is poorly represented in existing convective parameterizations. By many estimates, convective entrainment is the leading source of error in global climate models. As a potential remedy, an Eulerian implementation of the Stochastic Parcel Model (SPM) is presented here as a convective parameterization that treats entrainment in a physically realistic and computationally efficient way. Drawing on evidence that convecting clouds comprise air parcels subject to Poisson-process entrainment events, the SPM calculates the deterministic limit of an infinite number of such parcels. For computational efficiency, the SPM groups parcels at each height by their purity, which is a measure of their total entrainment up to that height. This reduces the calculation of convective fluxes to a sequence of matrix multiplications. The SPM is implemented in a single-column model and compared with a large-eddy simulation of deep convection.

  15. Picture quiz: a case of sudden severe chest pain: answers.

    PubMed

    Rabia, M Abu; Sullivan, P; Stivaros, S M

    2007-01-01

    Pneumomediastinum is a condition in which air presents in the mediastinum. It was first described by Laennec in 1819 as a consequence of trauma. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) was reported in 1939 by Hamman. PMID:21611614

  16. Estimation of suspended particulate matter concentration in the Mississippi Sound using MODIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Danielle

    The discharge of sediment-laden rivers into the Mississippi Sound increases the turbidity of coastal waters. The concentration of suspended particulates is an important parameter in the analysis of coastal water quality factors. The spatiotemporal resolution associated with satellite sensors makes remote sensing an ideal tool to monitor suspended particulate concentrations. Accordingly, the presented research evaluated the validity of published algorithms that relate remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) with suspended particulate matter for the Mississippi Sound. Additionally, regression analysis was used to correlate in situ SPM concentrations with coincident observations of visible and nearinfrared band reflectance collected by the MODIS Aqua sensor in order to develop a predictive model for SPM. The most robust algorithm yielded an RMSE of 15.53% (n = 86) in the determination of SPM concentrations. The application of this algorithm allows for the rapid assessment of water quality issues related to elevated SPM concentrations in the Mississippi Sound.

  17. Monitoring the effects of disposal of fine sediments from maintenance dredging on suspended particulate matter concentration in the Belgian nearshore area (southern North Sea).

    PubMed

    Fettweis, Michael; Baeye, Matthias; Francken, Frederic; Lauwaert, Brigitte; Van den Eynde, Dries; Van Lancker, Vera; Martens, Chantal; Michielsen, Tinne

    2011-02-01

    The impact of continuous disposal of fine-grained sediments from maintenance dredging works on the suspended particulate matter concentration in a shallow nearshore turbidity maximum was investigated during dredging experiment (port of Zeebrugge, southern North Sea). Before, during and after the experiment monitoring of SPM concentration using OBS and ADV altimetry was carried out at a location 5 km west of the disposal site. A statistical analysis, based on the concept of populations and sub-sampling, was applied to evaluate the effect. The data revealed that the SPM concentration near the bed was on average more than two times higher during the dredging experiment. The disposed material was mainly transported in the benthic layer and resulted in a long-term increase of SPM concentration and formation of fluid mud layers. The study shows that SPM concentration can be used as an indicator of environmental changes if representative time series are available. PMID:21122880

  18. Seasonal Assessment of Biomass and Fatty Acid Productivity by Tetraselmis sp. in the Ocean Using Semi-Permeable Membrane Photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Z-Hun; Park, Hanwool; Lee, Choul-Gyun

    2016-06-28

    A green microalga, Tetraselmis sp., was cultivated in the coastal seawater of Young-Heung Island using semi-permeable membrane photobioreactors (SPM-PBRs) in different seasons. The microalgae in the SPM-PBRs were able to grow on nutrients diffused into the PBRs from the surrounding seawater through SPMs. The biomass productivity varied depending on the ion permeabilities of the SPMs and environmental conditions, whereas the quality and quantity of fatty acids were constant. The temperature of seawater had a greater influence than solar radiation did on productivity of Tetraselmis sp. in SPM-PBRs. SPM-PBRs could provide technologies for concurrent algal biomass and fatty acids production, and eutrophication reduction in the ocean. PMID:26975763

  19. Accelerating image registration of MRI by GPU-based parallel computation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Teng-Yi; Tang, Yu-Wei; Ju, Shiun-Ying

    2011-06-01

    Automatic image registration for MRI applications generally requires many iteration loops and is, therefore, a time-consuming task. This drawback prolongs data analysis and delays the workflow of clinical routines. Recent advances in the massively parallel computation of graphic processing units (GPUs) may be a solution to this problem. This study proposes a method to accelerate registration calculations, especially for the popular statistical parametric mapping (SPM) system. This study reimplemented the image registration of SPM system to achieve an approximately 14-fold increase in speed in registering single-modality intrasubject data sets. The proposed program is fully compatible with SPM, allowing the user to simply replace the original image registration library of SPM to gain the benefit of the computation power provided by commodity graphic processors. In conclusion, the GPU computation method is a practical way to accelerate automatic image registration. This technology promises a broader scope of application in the field of image registration. PMID:21531103

  20. Cationic polyaspartamide-based nanocomplexes mediate siRNA entry and down-regulation of the pro-inflammatory mediator high mobility group box 1 in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Di Gioia, Sante; Sardo, Carla; Belgiovine, Giuliana; Triolo, Daniela; d'Apolito, Maria; Castellani, Stefano; Carbone, Annalucia; Giardino, Ida; Giammona, Gaetano; Cavallaro, Gennara; Conese, Massimo

    2015-08-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nonhistone protein secreted by airway epithelial cells in hyperinflammatory diseases such as asthma. In order to down-regulate HMGB1 expression in airway epithelial cells, siRNA directed against HMGB1 was delivered through nanocomplexes based on a cationic copolymer of poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl)-d,l-aspartamide (PHEA) by using H441 cells. Two copolymers were used in these experiments bearing respectively spermine side chains (PHEA-Spm) and both spermine and PEG2000 chains (PHEA-PEG-Spm). PHEA-Spm and PHEA-PEG-Spm derivatives complexed dsDNA oligonucleotides with a w/w ratio of 1 and higher as shown by a gel retardation assay. PHEA-Spm and PHEA-PEG-Spm siRNA polyplexes were sized 350-650 nm and 100-400 nm respectively and ranged from negativity/neutrality (at 0.5 ratio) to positivity (at 5 ratio) as ζ potential. Polyplexes formed either at a ratio of 0.5 (partially complexing) or at the ratio of 5 (fully complexing) were tested in subsequent experiments. Epifluorescence revealed that nanocomplexes favored siRNA entry into H441 cells in comparison with naked siRNA. As determined by flow cytometry and a trypan blue assay, PHEA-Spm and PHEA-PEG-Spm allowed siRNA uptake in 42-47% and 30% of cells respectively, however only with PHEA-Spm at w/w ratio of 5 these percentages were significantly higher than those obtained with naked siRNA (20%). Naked siRNA or complexed scrambled siRNA did not exert any effect on HMGB1mRNA levels, whereas PHEA-Spm/siRNA at the w/w ratio of 5 down-regulated HMGB1 mRNA up to 58% of control levels (untransfected cells). PEGylated PHEA-Spm/siRNA nanocomplexes were able to down-regulate HMGB1 mRNA levels up to 61% of control cells. MTT assay revealed excellent biocompatibility of copolymer/siRNA polyplexes with cells. In conclusion, we have found optimal conditions for down-regulation of HMGB1 by siRNA delivery mediated by polyaminoacidic polymers in airway epithelial cells in the absence of cytotoxicity

  1. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Martínez González, Olaia; Vélez de Mendizábal, Itsaso Zabaleta; Galarza Iriarte, Uxue; Vicente Martín, María Soledad; De Vega Castaño, María Del Carmen; Salmerón Egea, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la disfagia o dificultad de deglución afecta a 1 de cada 2 mayores hospitalizados y genera problemas de desnutrición o deshidratación, y aparición de neumonía por aspiración. En situaciones de disfagia orofaríngea, cuando la alimentación oral aún es posible, se deben espesar las texturas líquidas de cara a evitar dichas complicaciones. A los alimentos, tanto fríos como calientes, habitualmente se les añaden espesantes comerciales consistentes en almidones modificados siguiendo especificaciones muy generales que hacen difícil conseguir la textura adaptada a las necesidades personales. Objetivo: el objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto de la temperatura del alimento (10 oC y 50 oC), la dosificación (néctar, miel y pudin) y el tiempo transcurrido desde la preparación (0, 3, 5, 10, 20 min) sobre los parámetros de textura de agua espesada a base de uno de los espesantes más ampliamente comercializados. Método: las muestras se analizaron por triplicado en un texturómetro TA.XT2i (Stable Micro Systems, UK) mediante ensayo de compresión-extrusión, empleando una sonda de 2,5 cm de diámetro a una velocidad de 3 mm/s y con una célula de carga de 5 kg. A partir de las curvas fuerza vs. tiempo obtenidas se cuantificaron parámetros indicadores de la firmeza, la adhesividad y el trabajo de las muestras. Resultados y conclusión: en general, los parámetros relacionados con la consistencia fueron significativamente (α < 0,05) superiores en las muestras a mayor temperatura, lo que se puede relacionar con fenómenos incipientes de gelatinización. A su vez, se observó un incremento en los valores de todos los parámetros de textura al aumentar la concentración del espesante y a medida que transcurría el tiempo desde la mezcla de este en el agua. Estos resultados apuntan a la necesidad de realizar un trabajo exhaustivo de caracterización, ampliado también a otros productos y matrices alimentarias, de cara a modelizar la

  2. Integration of suspended-particulate matter and oil-transportation study. Final report, September 1984-September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, J.R.; Kirstein, B.E.; Clayton, J.R.; Clary, C.; Redding, R.

    1987-09-15

    Dispersed oil-droplet/suspended-particulate material (SPM) interactions provide a potential mechanism for transport of spilled oil to benthic marine environments. Oil/SPM interaction rates were measured to develop a mathematical model for sedimentation of spilled crude oil and refined petroleum products. Data are presented for the interaction of fresh and weathered Prudhoe Bay crude oil with a representative suspended particulate material type.

  3. Contrasting controls on the phosphorus concentration of suspended particulate matter under baseflow and storm event conditions in agricultural headwater streams.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard J; Rawlins, Barry G; Krueger, Tobias; Lézé, Bertrand; Hiscock, Kevin M; Pedentchouk, Nikolai

    2015-11-15

    Whilst the processes involved in the cycling of dissolved phosphorus (P) in rivers have been extensively studied, less is known about the mechanisms controlling particulate P concentrations during small and large flows. This deficiency is addressed through an analysis of large numbers of suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples collected under baseflow (n=222) and storm event (n=721) conditions over a 23-month period across three agricultural headwater catchments of the River Wensum, UK. Relationships between clay mineral and metal oxyhydroxide associated elements were assessed and multiple linear regression models for the prediction of SPM P concentration under baseflow and storm event conditions were formulated. These models, which explained 71-96% of the variation in SPM P concentration, revealed a pronounced shift in P association from iron (Fe) dominated during baseflow conditions to particulate organic carbon (POC) dominated during storm events. It is hypothesised this pronounced transition in P control mechanism, which is consistent across the three study catchments, is driven by changes in SPM source area under differing hydrological conditions. In particular, changes in SPM Fe-P ratios between small and large flows suggest there are three distinct sources of SPM Fe; surface soils, subsurface sediments and streambed iron sulphide. Further examination of weekly baseflow data also revealed seasonality in the Fe-P and aluminium oxalate-dithionate (Alox-Aldi) ratios of SPM, indicating temporal variability in sediment P sorption capacity. The results presented here significantly enhance our understanding of SPM P associations with soil derived organic and inorganic fractions under different flow regimes and has implications for the mitigation of P originating from different sources in agricultural catchments. PMID:26150307

  4. Shock Propagation Model version 2 and its application in predicting the arrivals at Earth of interplanetary shocks during Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X. H.; Feng, X. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Shock Propagation Model (SPM) based on an analytic solution of blast waves has been proposed to predict shock arrival times at Earth. Here to reduce the limitations of the SPM theoretical model in real applications and optimize its input parameters, a new version (called SPM2) is presented in order to enhance prediction performance. First, an empirical relationship is established to adjust the initial shock speed, which, as computed from the Type II burst drift rate, often contains observational uncertainties. Second, an additional acceleration/deceleration relation is added to the model to eliminate inherent prediction bias. Third, the propagation direction is derived in order to mitigate the isotropy limitation of blast wave theory in real predictions. Finally, an equivalent shock strength index at the Earth's location to judge whether or not an interplanetary shock will encounter the Earth is implemented in SPM2. The prediction results of SPM2 for 551 solar disturbance events of Solar Cycle 23 demonstrate that the success rate of SPM2 for both shock (W-shock) and nonshock (W/O-shock) events at Earth is ˜ 60%. The prediction error for the W-shock events is less than 12 h (root-mean-square) and 10 h (mean-absolute). Comparisons between the predicted results of SPM2 and those of Shock Time of Arrival (STOA), Interplanetary Shock Propagation (ISPM), and Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry version 2 (HAFv.2) based on similar data samples reveal that the SPM2 model offers generally equivalent prediction accuracy and reliability compared to the existing Fearless Forecast models (STOA, ISPM, and HAFv.2).

  5. Identification and signature profiles for pro-resolving and inflammatory lipid mediators in human tissue

    PubMed Central

    Colas, Romain A.; Shinohara, Masakazu; Dalli, Jesmond; Chiang, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Resolution of acute inflammation is an active process locally controlled by a novel genus of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) that orchestrate key resolution responses. Hence, it is of general interest to identify individual bioactive mediators and profile their biosynthetic pathways with related isomers as well as their relation(s) to classic eicosanoids in mammalian tissues. Lipid mediator (LM)-SPM levels and signature profiles of their biosynthetic pathways were investigated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS)-based LM metabololipidomics. LM and SPM were identified using ≥6 diagnostic ions and chromatographic behavior matching with both authentic and synthetic materials. This approach was validated using the composite reference plasma (SRM1950) of 100 healthy individuals. Using targeted LM metabololipidomics, we profiled LM and SPM pathways in human peripheral blood (plasma and serum) and lymphoid organs. In these, we identified endogenous SPM metabolomes, namely, the potent lipoxins (LX), resolvins (Rv), protectins (PD), and maresins (MaR). These included RvD1, RvD2, RvD3, MaR1, and NPD1/PD1, which were identified in amounts within their bioactive ranges. In plasma and serum, principal component analysis (PCA) identified signature profiles of eicosanoids and SPM clusters. Plasma-SPM increased with omega-3 and acetylsalicylic acid intake that correlated with increased phagocytosis of Escherichia coli in whole blood. These findings demonstrate an approach for identification of SPM pathways (e.g., resolvins, protectins, and maresins) in human blood and lymphoid tissues that were in amounts commensurate with their pro-resolving, organ protective, and tissue regeneration functions. LM metabololipidomics coupled with calibration tissues and physiological changes documented herein provide a tool for functional phenotypic profiling. PMID:24696140

  6. Identification and signature profiles for pro-resolving and inflammatory lipid mediators in human tissue.

    PubMed

    Colas, Romain A; Shinohara, Masakazu; Dalli, Jesmond; Chiang, Nan; Serhan, Charles N

    2014-07-01

    Resolution of acute inflammation is an active process locally controlled by a novel genus of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) that orchestrate key resolution responses. Hence, it is of general interest to identify individual bioactive mediators and profile their biosynthetic pathways with related isomers as well as their relation(s) to classic eicosanoids in mammalian tissues. Lipid mediator (LM)-SPM levels and signature profiles of their biosynthetic pathways were investigated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS)-based LM metabololipidomics. LM and SPM were identified using ≥6 diagnostic ions and chromatographic behavior matching with both authentic and synthetic materials. This approach was validated using the composite reference plasma (SRM1950) of 100 healthy individuals. Using targeted LM metabololipidomics, we profiled LM and SPM pathways in human peripheral blood (plasma and serum) and lymphoid organs. In these, we identified endogenous SPM metabolomes, namely, the potent lipoxins (LX), resolvins (Rv), protectins (PD), and maresins (MaR). These included RvD1, RvD2, RvD3, MaR1, and NPD1/PD1, which were identified in amounts within their bioactive ranges. In plasma and serum, principal component analysis (PCA) identified signature profiles of eicosanoids and SPM clusters. Plasma-SPM increased with omega-3 and acetylsalicylic acid intake that correlated with increased phagocytosis of Escherichia coli in whole blood. These findings demonstrate an approach for identification of SPM pathways (e.g., resolvins, protectins, and maresins) in human blood and lymphoid tissues that were in amounts commensurate with their pro-resolving, organ protective, and tissue regeneration functions. LM metabololipidomics coupled with calibration tissues and physiological changes documented herein provide a tool for functional phenotypic profiling. PMID:24696140

  7. Frequency of surveillance computed tomography in non-Hodgkin lymphoma and the risk of secondary primary malignancies: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chien, Sheng-Hsuan; Liu, Chia-Jen; Hu, Yu-Wen; Hong, Ying-Chung; Teng, Chung-Jen; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai

    2015-08-01

    With increasing usage of computed tomography (CT) for lymphoma patients receiving curative-intent treatment, development of secondary primary malignancy (SPM) related to radiation from CT scans becomes an emerging issue in these long-term survivors. We conducted a nationwide population-based study analyzing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients receiving curative-intent treatment between January 1997 and December 2010. Patients were divided into two populations by the medium number of CT performed. The cumulative incidence of SPM in these two groups was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. Propensity score matching was applied to eliminate potential confounders. Group stratification and multivariate analyses calculated by Cox proportional hazard models using competing risk analyses adjusted for mortality were performed to identify independent predictors for SPM. Patients receiving >8 CT scans had a significantly greater risk for developing SPM (hazard ratio [HR] 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.61-3.13; p < 0.001) than those with ≤8 scans and this difference remained significant even after correction with propensity score matching. Among the 180 SPM identified, those receiving more CT scans had significantly higher SPM incidence in cancers of the breast (HR 11.22), stomach (HR 5.22) and liver and biliary tract (HR 2.18) in comparison to those with less exposure. The risk of SPM was estimated to increase 3% per one more CT scan performed. Our study demonstrated that after curative-intent treatment, patients with NHL receiving more frequent surveillance CT scans would have an increased risk of SPM. PMID:25630766

  8. In situ observations of suspended particulate matter plumes at an offshore wind farm, southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeye, Matthias; Fettweis, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) plumes associated with the monopile foundations of the Belgian offshore wind farm (OWF) Belwind I were acoustically profiled by means of a Doppler current profiler (ADCP). Together with the analysis of a bottom lander dataset of optical and acoustic backscatter sensors (OBSs and ADPs respectively), the spatiotemporal SPM plume dynamics were inferred. The fieldwork comprised (1) near-bed measurements of hydrodynamics and SPM concentrations in the direct vicinity of the wind turbines, by means of a bottom lander over a spring-neap cycle in May 2010; this dataset represents a typically tide-driven situation because there was no significant meteorological forcing during the measurement period; (2) additional vessel-based measurements conducted in May 2013 to capture the SPM plumes inside and outside the OWF over part of a tidal cycle. Both in situ datasets revealed that the SPM plumes were generated at the turbine piles, consistent with aerial and space-borne imagery. The SPM plumes are well aligned with the tidal current direction in the wake of the monopiles, concentrations being estimated to reach up to 5 times that of the background concentration of about 3 mg/l. It is suggested that the epifaunal communities colonizing the monopile surface and the protective rock collar at the base play a key role as source of the suspended matter recorded in the plumes. The organisms filter and trap fine SPM from the water column, resulting in predominant accumulation of SPM, including detritus and (pseudo-) faeces, at the base of the piles. When tidal currents exceed a certain velocity, fine particles in the near-bed fluff layer are re-suspended and transported downstream in the wake of the piles.

  9. Combined Effects of Temperature and Seston Concentration on the Physiological Energetics of the Manila Clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee Yoon; Lee, Young-Jae; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Park, Hyun Je; Yun, Sung-Gyu; Kang, Chang-Keun

    2016-01-01

    The suspension-feeding Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is a native species of the western Pacific that is now widely distributed around the globe because of its commercial importance. To determine the adaptive physiological responses to changing thermal and nutritional conditions, clearance, filtration, feces production, ammonium excretion, respiration rates, and scope for growth (SFG) were measured in adult clams. The clams were exposed to 24 treatments involving the combination of four water temperatures (8, 13, 18, and 23°C) and six concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM: 9.5 to 350.5 mg L(-1)). Physiological rates were standardized by using the mean (480 mg) of tissue dry weights of experimental clams using allometric equations between physiological variables and tissue dry weight. Higher clearance rates were recorded at higher temperatures and lower SPM concentrations, and these rates decreased with increasing SPM concentration at individual temperatures. Consumed energy increased with increasing temperature and SPM concentration, peaking at around 100-200 mg L(-1) at 18-23°C. Whereas fecal energy was largely determined by SPM concentration, ammonia excretion was mainly governed by temperature. Respiration rate studies revealed a predominant quadratic effect of temperature on the metabolism, indicating a lack of acclimatory adjustment of metabolic rate to rising temperature. SFG values were positive under almost all the treatment conditions and were much higher at higher SPM concentrations (> 45 mg L(-1)), with the highest level being recorded at 18°C and 100-200 mg L(-1) SPM. Increased filtration rate offset the increased metabolic cost at warm temperatures. Our holistic findings suggest that a high degree of physiological plasticity allows R. philippinarum to tolerate the wide range of temperatures and SPM concentrations that are found in tidal flats, accounting in part for the successful distribution of this species over a wide variety

  10. Design of reconfigurable and structured spiral phase mask for optical security system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chao; Shen, Xueju

    2016-07-01

    We propose the design and use of structured spiral phase mask as keys in optical security systems. A protocol for the generation of this deterministic and reconfigurable phase mask is demonstrated. Experimental results of the proposed phase masks employed in the double random phase encoding (DRPE) system is presented. To show the advantages of this structured phase mask (SPM) over the random phase mask (RPM), both the encryption and decryption behaviors of the SPM and RPM are compared.

  11. Combined Effects of Temperature and Seston Concentration on the Physiological Energetics of the Manila Clam Ruditapes philippinarum

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee Yoon; Lee, Young-Jae; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Park, Hyun Je; Yun, Sung-Gyu; Kang, Chang-Keun

    2016-01-01

    The suspension-feeding Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is a native species of the western Pacific that is now widely distributed around the globe because of its commercial importance. To determine the adaptive physiological responses to changing thermal and nutritional conditions, clearance, filtration, feces production, ammonium excretion, respiration rates, and scope for growth (SFG) were measured in adult clams. The clams were exposed to 24 treatments involving the combination of four water temperatures (8, 13, 18, and 23°C) and six concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM: 9.5 to 350.5 mg L–1). Physiological rates were standardized by using the mean (480 mg) of tissue dry weights of experimental clams using allometric equations between physiological variables and tissue dry weight. Higher clearance rates were recorded at higher temperatures and lower SPM concentrations, and these rates decreased with increasing SPM concentration at individual temperatures. Consumed energy increased with increasing temperature and SPM concentration, peaking at around 100–200 mg L–1 at 18–23°C. Whereas fecal energy was largely determined by SPM concentration, ammonia excretion was mainly governed by temperature. Respiration rate studies revealed a predominant quadratic effect of temperature on the metabolism, indicating a lack of acclimatory adjustment of metabolic rate to rising temperature. SFG values were positive under almost all the treatment conditions and were much higher at higher SPM concentrations (> 45 mg L–1), with the highest level being recorded at 18°C and 100–200 mg L–1 SPM. Increased filtration rate offset the increased metabolic cost at warm temperatures. Our holistic findings suggest that a high degree of physiological plasticity allows R. philippinarum to tolerate the wide range of temperatures and SPM concentrations that are found in tidal flats, accounting in part for the successful distribution of this species over a wide

  12. Remote sensing of suspended particulate matter in turbid oyster-farming ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gernez, Pierre; Barillé, Laurent; Lerouxel, Astrid; Mazeran, Constant; Lucas, Axel; Doxaran, David

    2014-10-01

    High resolution satellite data of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer in full resolution mode (MERIS FR, pixel size is 300 m) were used to study the impact of suspended particulate matter (SPM) on oyster-farming sites in a macrotidal bay of the French Atlantic coast where SPM concentration can exceed 100 g m-3. Because MERIS standard SPM concentration retrieval saturates at about 50 g m-3, we developed an alternative method for turbid nearshore waters. The method consists in the combination of the Semi-Analytical Atmospheric and Bio-Optical (SAABIO) atmospheric correction with a regional bio-optical algorithm based on a linear relationship between SPM concentration and the reflectance band ratio at 865 and 560 nm. MERIS FR-derived SPM concentrations were validated from 10 up to 300 g m-3, and then merged with oyster ecophysiological responses to provide a spatial picture of the impact of SPM concentration on oyster-farming sites. Our approach demonstrates the potential of high resolution satellite remote sensing for aquaculture management and shellfish-farming ecosystems studies.

  13. The Heritable Activation of Cryptic Suppressor-Mutator Elements by an Active Element

    PubMed Central

    Fedoroff, N.

    1989-01-01

    A weakly active maize Suppressor-mutator (Spm-w) element is able to heritably activate cryptic Spm elements in the maize genome. The spontaneous activation frequency, which is 1-5 X 10(-5) in the present genetic background, increases by about 100-fold in the presence of an Spm-w and remains an order of magnitude above the background level a generation after removal of the activating Spm-w. Sectorial somatic reactivation of cryptic elements can be detected phenotypically in kernels. Selection of such kernels constitutes an efficient selection for plants with reactivated Spm elements. Analysis of the reactivation process reveals that it is gradual and proceeds through genetically metastable intermediates that exhibit different patterns of element expression during plant development. Newly reactivated elements tend to return to an inactive form. However, the probability that an element will remain in a heritably active state increases when the element is maintained in the presence of an active Spm element for several generations. PMID:2541047

  14. Functional Identification of a Novel Gene, moaE, for 3-Succinoylpyridine Degradation in Pseudomonas putida S16

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yi; Tang, Hongzhi; Wu, Geng; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Microbial degradation of N-heterocyclic compounds, including xanthine, quinoline, nicotinate, and nicotine, frequently requires molybdenum hydroxylases. The intramolecular electron transfer chain of molybdenum hydroxylases consists of a molybdenum cofactor, two distinct [2Fe-2S] clusters, and flavin adenine dinucleotide. 3-Succinoylpyridine monooxygenase (Spm), responsible for the transformation from 3-succinoylpyridine to 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine, is a crucial enzyme in the pyrrolidine pathway of nicotine degradation in Pseudomonas. Our previous work revealed that the heterotrimeric enzyme (SpmA, SpmB, and SpmC) requires molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide as a cofactor for their activities. In this study, we knocked out four genes, including PPS_1556, PPS_2936, PPS_4063, and PPS_4397, and found that a novel gene, PPS_4397 encoding moaE, is necessary for molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide biosynthesis. Resting cell reactions of the moaE deletion mutant incubated with 3 g l−1 nicotine at 30 °C resulted in accumulation of 3-succinoylpyridine, and the strain complemented by the moaE gene regained the ability to convert 3-succinoylpyridine. In addition, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the transcriptional levels of the genes of moaE, spmA, and spmC of Pseudomonas putida S16 were distinctly higher when grown in nicotine medium than in glycerol medium. PMID:26304596

  15. Scanning probe microscopies for the creation and characterization of interfacial architectures: Studies of alkyl thiolate monolayers at gold

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.

    1997-01-10

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) offers access to the structural and material properties of interfaces, and when combined with macroscopic characterization techniques results in a powerful interfacial development tool. However, the relative infancy of SPM techniques has dictated that initial investigations concentrate on model interfacial systems as benchmarks for testing the control and characterization capabilities of SPM. One such family of model interfacial systems results from the spontaneous adsorption of alkyl thiols to gold. This dissertation examines the application of SPM to the investigation of the interfacial properties of these alkyl thiolate monolayers. Structural investigations result in a proposed explanation for counterintuitive correlations between substrate roughness and heterogeneous electron transfer barrier properties. Frictional measurements are used for characterization of the surface free energy of a series of end-group functionalized monolayers, as well as for the material properties of monolayers composed of varying chain length alkyl thiols. Additional investigations used these characterization techniques to monitor the real-time evolution of chemical and electrochemical surface reactions. The results of these investigations demonstrates the value of SPM technology to the compositional mapping of surfaces, elucidation of interfacial defects, creation of molecularly sized chemically heterogeneous architectures, as well as to the monitoring of surface reactions. However, it is the future which will demonstrate the usefulness of SPM technology to the advancement of science and technology.

  16. Long-term ferry-based observations of the suspended sediment fluxes through the Marsdiep inlet using acoustic Doppler current profilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauw, J. J.; Merckelbach, L. M.; Ridderinkhof, H.; van Aken, H. M.

    2014-03-01

    Long-term measurements with a hull mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) under the ferry, crossing the Marsdiep inlet between the mainland and the island of Texel (the Netherlands), were used to determine the volume flux and the flux of suspended particulate matter (SPM) through this inlet for the period 2003-2005. Profiles of the SPM concentration were estimated from profiles of the acoustic backscatter intensity in which the shift between the low and the high turbulent regime is taken into account. Calibration constants and tuning parameters were estimated by using data collected during 7 different 13 hour anchor stations. The residual (water) volume flux through the inlet appears to vary strongly on a variety of time scales from daily to inter-annual. A regression analysis indicates that the daily residual volume transport correlates well with the daily mean wind component from the south; the latter likely drives the residual flow along the coast of Holland. The observed residual SPM transport of 7 to 11 Mton/yr is dominated by the correlation between tidal velocity and SPM concentration variations. This leads to an import as currents and SPM concentrations during flood were higher than those during ebb, a process generally known as tidal asymmetry. Our analysis has shown that regular observations with a ferry mounted ADCP is an effective method to monitor the volume and SPM transport processes in an estuary.

  17. Comparison of Three Methods for Localizing Interictal Epileptiform Discharges with Magnetoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Hideaki; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Knake, Susanne; Larsson, Pål G.; Hämäläinen, Matti S.; Takano, Kyoko; Okajima, Maki; Hatanaka, Keisaku; Saitoh, Shinji; Dale, Anders M.; Halgren, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To compare three methods of localizing the source of epileptiform activity recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG): equivalent current dipole (ECD), minimum current estimate (MCE), and dynamic statistical parametric mapping (dSPM), and to evaluate the solutions by comparison with clinical symptoms and other electrophysiological and neuroradiological findings. Methods Fourteen children of 3 to 15 years old were studied. MEG was collected with a whole-head 204-channel helmet-shaped sensor array. We calculated ECDs and made MCE and dSPM movies to estimate the cortical distribution of interictal epileptic discharges (IED) in these patients. Results The results for 4 patients with localization related epilepsy (LRE) and 1 patient with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome were consistent among all 3 analysis methods. In the rest of the patients MCE and dSPM suggested multifocal or widespread activity; in these patients the ECD results were so scattered that interpretation of the results was not possible. For 9 patients with LRE and generalized epilepsy, the epileptiform discharges were wide-spread or only slow waves, but dSPM suggested a possible propagation path of the IED. Conclusion MCE and dSPM could identify the propagation of epileptiform activity with high temporal resolution. The results of dSPM were more stable because the solutions were less sensitive to background brain activity. PMID:21946369

  18. Measurement Scale of the SOLIS Vector Spectromagnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harrison P.; Harvey, John W.; Henney, Carl J.; Keller, Christoph U.; Malanushenko, Olena M.

    2004-01-01

    Longitudinal magnetograms obtained with thc SOLIS Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) during a cross-calibration period are compared with similar data from the NASA/NSO Spectromagnetograph (SPM) at the NSO/Kitt Peak Vacuum Telescope as well as with SOHO/MDI and GONG magnetogram. The VSM began observation at the University of Arizona agricultural test site and collaborative observations were obtained with both the VSM and SPM from 2003 Aug 05 through 2003 Sep 21 where the SPM was officially retired. The VSM replaces the SPM and continues the 3O-year NSO/Kitt Peak synoptic magnetogram record. Magnetograms are compared by equating histograms and, for selected examples, by pixel-by-pixel comparison of co-registered images. The VSM was not corrected for polarization crosstalk and was operated without hast guiding. Solar activity was at best moderate during this period. Over the range of observed fields, the VSM magnetograms show greatly improved sensitivity but are otherwise virtually identical with "raw" SPM magnetogram. GONG magnetograms are also closely comparable with the SPM while MDI flux values tend to be stronger by a factor of 1.2 - 1.4. Dependence of the results on seeing will be discussed. Partial funding for this work was provided through Solar and Heliospheric Research Supporting Research and Technology grants from NASA's Office of Space Sciences.

  19. Que hay de nuevo acerca de la inmersion? Un Breve Recorrido por sus Fundamentos y por las Investigaciones Actuales (What's New in Immersion? A Brief Overview of Its Bases and Present-Day Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Josu

    This discussion briefly surveys the development of the immersion method of second language teaching, outlining the central program strategies and characteristics using Curtain's and Pesola's descriptions. An overview of recent research focuses on error correction and feedback studies as an example of pedagogical-methodological evolution in this…

  20. Haciendo que los colegios se hagan responsables por el logro (Holding Schools Accountable for Achievement). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    This digest in Spanish describes the key features of current accountability systems and explores their implications for administrators. It discusses various aspects of accountability systems, such as rigorous content standards and the alignment of professional development with standards and test results, and how these elements work together to…

  1. Medida da razao de ramificacao do Decaimento D+ {right arrow}K- K+ K+ duplamente suprimido por cabibbo

    SciTech Connect

    da Silva Carvalho, H.

    1997-11-01

    In this thesis, we performed a study for the decay D{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup +} and D{sub s}{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup +}, using the data collected by the E791, a hadroproduction of charm experiment at Fermilab. The D{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup +} decay is doubly Cabibbo suppressed while the D{sub s}{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup +} decay is singly Cabibbo suppressed. We found 11.6{+-}3.9 events in the D{sup +} mass region and 8.9{+-}3.3 in the D{sub s}{sup +} mass region. The D{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup +} branching ratio is measured to be (3.7{+-}1.3{+-}0.6)x10{sup -4} while the D{sub s}{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup +} branching ratio relative to D{sub s}{sup +}{yields}{phi}{pi}{sup +} is measured to be (4.2{+-}1.5{+-}0.6)x10{sup -2}.

  2. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  3. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide…

  4. Evaluacion de que consister y por que se lleva acabo? (Evaluation: What Does it Consist of, and for What Purpose?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    A guide is presented for the evaluation of the bilingual programs in the Austin, Texas, Independent School District. The reasons for an evaluation and a definition of program objectives and evaluation instruments are given. The program components, objectives and evaluation instruments for each grade level (K-4) are listed. The components involved…

  5. Como ayudar a los padres a prevenir el envenenamiento por plomo (Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. This Spanish-language Digest summarizes some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies…

  6. Monitoreo óptico de eta-Carina durante el pasaje por el periastro en 2014.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Lajús, E.; Salerno, N. E.; Scalia, M. C.; Ramos, X. S.; Giudici, F. N.; Gamen, R. C.

    2015-08-01

    We present the H light curves resulting from the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons of Car as well as its spectral evolution, including the latest ``event'' occurred in mid-2014. The direct CCD observations were made with the telescope ``VS Niemela'' the Observatory of La Plata, and spectroscopic observations were made with the telescope ``J. Sahade'' of Casleo, Argentina.

  7. Disponibilidade de nutrientes na fitomassa produzida por cultivares de milho (Zea mays L.) de diferentes niveis tecnologicos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Macronutrient uptake, accumulation, and exportation can be affected by corn genetic selection. The objectives of this study were to quantify macronutrient extraction and to evaluate C/P and C/N ratio. The experiment was established at Rolândia County, Paraná State. Ten corn varieties divided into pa...

  8. Distribución superficial de impactos en Iapetus originada por el remanente de una colisión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppetti, F. A.; Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.

    2015-08-01

    By means of Circular Restricted Three Body Problem Saturn--Iapetus, we analize potential impact distributions on the surface of Iapetus, originated from considering a low-energy population generated as remnants of a collisional event occurred in the past on the surface of this satellite. The results are analized in order to offer a new approach to explain the origin of the albedo dichotomy observed on Iapetus.

  9. Decreasing trends of suspended particulate matter and PM2.5 concentrations in Tokyo, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kunio; Homma, Junichi; Tamura, Kenji; Inoue, Mariko; Karita, Kanae; Yano, Eiji

    2013-06-01

    In Tokyo, the annual average suspended particulate matter (SPM) and PM2.5 concentrations have decreased in the past two decades. The present study quantitatively evaluated these decreasing trends using data from air-pollution monitoring stations. Annual SPM and PM2.5 levels at 83 monitoring stations and hourly SPM and PM2.5 levels at four monitoring stations in Tokyo, operated by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, were used for analysis, together with levels of co-pollutants and meteorological conditions. Traffic volume in Tokyo was calculated from the total traveling distance of vehicles as reported by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism. High positive correlations between SPM levels and nitrogen oxide levels, sulfur dioxide levels, and traffic volume were determined. The annual average SPM concentration declined by 62.6%from 59.4 microg/m3 in 1994 to 22.2 microg/m3 in 2010, and PM2.5 concentration also declined by 49.8% from 29.3 microg/m3 in 2001 to 14.7 microg/m3 in 2010. Likewise, the frequencies of hourly average SPM and PM2.5 concentrations exceeding the daily guideline values have significantly decreased since 2001 and the hourly average SPM or PM2.5 concentrations per traffic volume for each time period have also significantly decreased since 2001. However SPM and PM2.5 concentrations increased at some monitoring stations between 2004 and 2006 and from 2009 despite strengthened environmental regulations and improvements in vehicle engine performance. The annual average SPM and PM2.5 concentrations were positively correlated with traffic volumes and in particular with the volume of diesel trucks. These results suggest that the decreasing levels of SPM and PM2.5 in Tokyo may be attributable to decreased traffic volumes, along with the effects of stricter governmental regulation and improvements to vehicle engine performance, including the fitting of devices for exhaust emission reduction. PMID:23858999

  10. Effects of combustion emissions from the Eurasian continent in winter on seasonal δ 13C of elemental carbon in aerosols in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Hiroto; Haneishi, Yuya

    2012-01-01

    We investigated suspended particulate matter (SPM, particles with a 100% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm) and PM2.5 (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm) concentrations in aerosols sampled in Akita Prefecture, Japan, from April 2008 to January 2010, and the carbon isotope ratios (δ 13C) of elemental carbon (EC) in both SPM and PM2.5 and in samples from possible sources. We also determined the ion contents of SPM and estimated the back trajectories of air masses arriving at Akita Prefecture during the study period. The SPM concentration was very low (annual average, 15.2 μg m -3), and it tended to be higher in spring and lower in winter. We attributed the higher SPM in spring to dust storms brought from the Asian continent. The average annual PM2.5 concentration was 8.6 μg m -3. δ 13C of source samples (gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust, fireplace soot, open biomass burning emissions, street dust, soil, charcoal, and coal) ranged from -34.7‰ to -1.8‰. δ 13C values of soot from gasoline light-duty (-24.4 ± 0.7‰) and passenger vehicles (-24.1 ± 0.6‰) were very similar to that of soot from all diesel vehicles (-24.3 ± 0.3‰). δ 13C was enriched in SPM in winter compared with summer values, moreover, only a slight seasonal trend was detected in δ 13C in PM2.5. From these data and the source results, we hypothesized that the enrichment of δ 13C of SPM and PM2.5 in winter was a long-range effect of overseas combustion processes such as coal combustion. In addition, δ 13C of SPM was correlated with Cl - and Mg 2+ contents in SPM, suggesting the influence of sea salt. We verified this hypothesis by back trajectory analyses. The results indicated a continental influence effects on EC of SPM and PM2.5 in winter.

  11. Optical Characterisation of Suspended Particles in the Mackenzie River Plume (Canadian Arctic Ocean) and Implications for Ocean Colour Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doxaran, D.; Ehn, J.; Belanger, S.; Matsuoka, A.; Hooker, S.; Babin, M.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change significantly impacts Arctic shelf regions in terms of air temperature, ultraviolet radiation, melting of sea ice, precipitation, thawing of permafrost and coastal erosion. Direct consequences have been observed on the increasing Arctic river flow and a large amount of organic carbon sequestered in soils at high latitudes since the last glacial maximum can be expected to be delivered to the Arctic Ocean during the coming decade. Monitoring the fluxes and fate of this terrigenous organic carbon is problematic in such sparsely populated regions unless remote sensing techniques can be developed and proved to be operational. The main objective of this study is to develop an ocean colour algorithm to operationally monitor dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) on the Mackenzie River continental shelf (Canadian Arctic Ocean) using satellite imagery. The water optical properties are documented across the study area and related to concentrations of SPM and particulate organic carbon (POC). Robust SPM and POC : SPM proxies are identified, such as the light backscattering and attenuation coefficients, and relationships are established between these optical and biogeochemical parameters. Following a semi-analytical approach, a regional SPM quantification relationship is obtained for the inversion of the water reflectance signal into SPM concentration. This relationship is reproduced based on independent field optical measurements. It is successfully applied to a selection of MODIS satellite data which allow estimating fluxes at the river mouth and monitoring the extension and dynamics of the Mackenzie River surface plume in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Good agreement is obtained with field observations representative of the whole water column in the river delta zone where terrigenous SPM is mainly constrained (out of short periods of maximum river outflow). Most of the seaward export of SPM is observed to occur within the west side of the river mouth. Future

  12. Secondary Primary Malignancy Risk in Patients With Ovarian Cancer in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Yi-Ping; Liu, Chia-Jen; Hu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Min-Huang; Li, Chun-Pin; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Yang, Muh-Hwa; Chao, Yee

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the incidence of secondary primary malignancy (SPM) in patients with ovarian cancer using a nationwide retrospective population-based dataset. Patients newly diagnosed with ovarian cancer between 1997 and 2010 were identified using Taiwan's National Health Insurance database. Patients with antecedent malignancies were excluded. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for SPM were calculated and compared with the cancer incidence in the general population. Risk factors for cancer development were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard models. Effects of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy after ovarian cancer diagnosis were regarded as time-dependent variables to prevent immortal time bias. During the 14-year study period (follow-up of 56,214 person-years), 707 cancers developed in 12,127 patients with ovarian cancer. The SIR for all cancers was 2.78 (95% confidence interval 2.58–3.00). SIRs for follow-up periods of >5, 1–5, and <1 year were 1.87, 2.04, and 6.40, respectively. After the exclusion of SPM occurring within 1 year of ovarian cancer diagnosis, SIRs were significantly higher for cancers of the colon, rectum, and anus (2.14); lung and mediastinum (1.58); breast (1.68); cervix (1.65); uterus (7.96); bladder (3.17), and thyroid (2.23); as well as for leukemia (3.98) and others (3.83). Multivariate analysis showed that age ≥ 50 years was a significant SPM risk factor (hazard ratio [HR] 1.60). Different treatments for ovarian cancer, including radiotherapy (HR 2.07) and chemotherapy (HR 1.27), had different impacts on SPM risk. Patients with ovarian cancer are at increased risk of SPM development. Age ≥ 50 years, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are independent risk factors. Close surveillance of patients at high risk should be considered for the early detection of SPM. PMID:26402833

  13. Spatial-temporal dynamics and sources of total Hg in a hydroelectric reservoir in the Western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pestana, I A; Bastos, W R; Almeida, M G; de Carvalho, D P; Rezende, C E; Souza, C M M

    2016-05-01

    Damming rivers to construct hydroelectric reservoirs results in a series of impacts on the biogeochemical Hg cycle. For example, modifying the hydrodynamics of a natural watercourse can result in the suspension and transport of Hg deposits in the water column, which represents an exposure risk for biota. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influences of seasonality on the dispersion of total Hg in the Hydroelectric Power Plant (HPP)-Samuel Reservoir (Porto Velho/Brazil). Sampling campaigns were performed during the three following hydrological periods characteristic of the region: low (Oct/2011), ebbing (May/2012), and high (Feb/2013) water. Sediment profiles, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and aquatic macrophytes (Eicchornia crassipes and Oryza spp.) were collected, and their Hg concentrations and isotopic and elemental C and N signatures were determined. The drainage basin significantly influenced the SPM compositions during all the periods, with a small autochthonous influence from the reservoir during the low water. The highest SPM Hg concentrations inside the reservoir were observed during the high water period, suggesting that the hydrodynamics of this environment favor the suspension of fine SPM, which has a higher Hg adsorption capacity. The Hg concentrations in the sediment profiles were ten times lower than those in the SPM, indicating that large particles with low Hg concentrations were deposited to form the bottom sediment. Hg concentrations were higher in aquatic macrophyte roots than in their leaves and appeared to contribute to the formation of SPM during the low water period. In this environment, Hg transport mainly occurs in SPM from the Jamari River drainage basin, which is the primary source of Hg in this environment. PMID:26846239

  14. Fecal steroids in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta, South China: levels, potential sources and inputs to the coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Zhong; Guan, Yu-Feng; Ni, Hong-Gang; Liu, Gui-Jian; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2010-01-01

    Domestic sewage is a potential source of contamination deteriorating water quality in rivers and coastal environments. The present study determined the concentrations of eight steroids in both filtrate and suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples collected monthly at the eight major riverine runoff outlets of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China, from March 2005 to February 2006. The concentration of the eight steroids (sum of which is defined as Sigma(8)steroid) in the filtrate and SPM samples ranged 16.7-1340 ng L(-1) and 0.44-240 microg g(-1), respectively. The filtrate samples contained the highest levels of cholesterol (CHOE) and stigmasterol (STIG) on average, whereas the SPM samples had the largest relative abundances of CHOE and coprostanol (COP). In general, larger proportions of the steroids were associated with SPM than with the filtrate phase. The combined (filtrate plus SPM) concentrations of COP in riverine runoff of the PRD were at the midpoint of the global range in surface water. The concentrations of Sigma(8)steroid and COP in SPM were not significantly correlated with particulate organic carbon (POC), riverine runoff, or SPM concentrations, which indicates the dominance of nonpoint input sources for the occurrence of steroids in the PRD. The annual riverine inputs of Sigma(8)steroid and COP were estimated at 360 and 31.6 tons yr(-1), respectively, and the monthly inputs of both Sigma(8)steroid and COP were positively correlated with monthly runoff discharge. Furthermore, the concentrations of Sigma(8)steroid, COP, and CHOE showed significant temporal and spatial variability. These results can be explained by a combination of climatic characteristics, socioeconomic conditions, and steroid sources. Analyses of the diagnostic indices of COP and background information suggested that riverine runoff from the PRD may have been affected by domestic wastewater, which appeared to be a major COP source to the Pearl River Estuary and South China Sea

  15. A simple optical model to estimate suspended particulate matter in Yellow River Estuary.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhongfeng

    2013-11-18

    Distribution of the suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration is a key issue for analyzing the deposition and erosion variety of the estuary and evaluating the material fluxes from river to sea. Satellite remote sensing is a useful tool to investigate the spatial variation of SPM concentration in estuarial zones. However, algorithm developments and validations of the SPM concentrations in Yellow River Estuary (YRE) have been seldom performed before and therefore our knowledge on the quality of retrieval of SPM concentration is poor. In this study, we developed a new simple optical model to estimate SPM concentration in YRE by specifying the optimal wavelength ratios (600-710 nm)/ (530-590 nm) based on observations of 5 cruises during 2004 and 2011. The simple optical model was attentively calibrated and the optimal band ratios were selected for application to multiple sensors, 678/551 for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), 705/560 for the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) and 680/555 for the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI). With the simple optical model, the relative percentage difference and the mean absolute error were 35.4% and 15.6 gm(-3) respectively for MODIS, 42.2% and 16.3 gm(-3) for MERIS, and 34.2% and 14.7 gm(-3) for GOCI, based on an independent validation data set. Our results showed a good precision of estimation for SPM concentration using the new simple optical model, contrasting with the poor estimations derived from existing empirical models. Providing an available atmospheric correction scheme for satellite imagery, our simple model could be used for quantitative monitoring of SPM concentrations in YRE. PMID:24514305

  16. Spermine synthase overexpression in vivo does not increase susceptibility to DMBA/TPA skin carcinogenesis or Min-Apc intestinal tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Patricia A; Sass-Kuhn, Suzanne; Prakashagowda, Chethana; McCloskey, Diane; Feith, David

    2012-04-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated a link between elevated polyamine biosynthesis and neoplastic growth, but the specific contribution of spermine synthase to epithelial tumor development has never been explored in vivo. Mice with widespread overexpression of spermine synthase (CAG-SpmS) exhibit decreased spermidine levels, increased spermine and a significant rise in tissue spermine:spermidine ratio. We characterized the response of CAG-SpmS mice to two-stage skin chemical carcinogenesis as well as spontaneous intestinal carcinogenesis induced by loss of the Apc tumor suppressor in Apc (Min) (/+) (Min) mice. CAG-SpmS mice maintained the canonical increases in ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, polyamine content and epidermal thickness in response to tumor promoter treatment of the skin. The induction of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) activity and its product decarboxylated AdoMet were impaired in CAG-SpmS mice, and the spermine:spermidine ratio was increased 3-fold in both untreated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated skin. The susceptibility to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)/TPA skin carcinogenesis was not altered in CAG-SpmS mice, and SpmS overexpression did not modify the previously described tumor resistance of mice with targeted antizyme expression or the enhanced tumor response in mice with targeted spermidine/spermine-N ( 1) -acetyltransferase expression. CAG-SpmS/Min mice also exhibited elevated spermine:spermidine ratios in the small intestine and colon, yet their tumor multiplicity and size was similar to Min mice. Therefore, studies in two of the most widely used tumorigenesis models demonstrate that increased spermine synthase activity and the resulting elevation of the spermine:spermidine ratio does not alter susceptibility to tumor development initiated by c-Ha-Ras mutation or Apc loss. PMID:22258329

  17. Effect of flood events on transport of suspended sediments, organic matter and particulate metals in a forest watershed in the Basque Country (Northern Spain).

    PubMed

    Peraza-Castro, M; Sauvage, S; Sánchez-Pérez, J M; Ruiz-Romera, E

    2016-11-01

    An understanding of the processes controlling sediment, organic matter and metal export is critical to assessing and anticipating risk situations in water systems. Concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM), dissolved (DOC) and particulate (POC) organic carbon and metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Cr, Zn, Mn, Fe) in dissolved and particulate phases were monitored in a forest watershed in the Basque Country (Northern Spain) (31.5km(2)) over three hydrological years (2009-2012), to evaluate the effect of flood events on the transport of these materials. Good regression was found between SPM and particulate metal concentration, making it possible to compute the load during the twenty five flood events that occurred during the study period at an annual scale. Particulate metals were exported in the following order: Fe>Mn>Zn>Cr>Pb>Cu>Ni. Annual mean loads of SPM, DOC and POC were estimated at 2267t, 104t and 57t, respectively, and the load (kg) of particulate metals at 76 (Ni), 83 (Cu), 135 (Pb), 256 (Cr), 532 (Zn), 1783 (Mn) and 95170 (Fe). Flood events constituted 91%-SPM, 65%-DOC, 71%-POC, 80%-Cu, 85%-Ni, 72%-Pb, 84%-Cr, 74%-Zn, 87%-Mn and 88%-Fe of total load exported during the three years studied. Flood events were classified into three categories according to their capacity for transporting organic carbon and particulate metals. High intensity flood events are those with high transport capacity of SPM, organic carbon and particulate metals. Most of the SPM, DOC, POC and particulate metal load was exported by this type of flood event, which contributed 59% of SPM, 45% of organic carbon and 54% of metals. PMID:27392333

  18. Correlation between surface phonon mode and luminescence in nanocrystalline CdS thin films: An effect of ion beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Pragati Agarwal, Avinash; Saxena, Nupur; Singh, Fouran; Gupta, Vinay

    2014-07-28

    The influence of swift heavy ion irradiation (SHII) on surface phonon mode (SPM) and green emission in nanocrystalline CdS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition is studied. The SHII of nanocrystalline CdS thin films is carried out using 70 MeV Ni ions. The micro Raman analysis shows that asymmetry and broadening in fundamental longitudinal optical (LO) phonon mode increases systematically with increasing ion fluence. To analyze the role of phonon confinement, spatial correlation model (SCM) is fitted to the experimental data. The observed deviation of SCM to the experimental data is further investigated by fitting the micro Raman spectra using two Lorentzian line shapes. It is found that two Lorentzian functions (LFs) provide better fitting than SCM fitting and facilitate to identify the contribution of SPM in the observed distortion of LO mode. The behavior of SPM as a function of ion fluence is studied to correlate the observed asymmetry (Γ{sub a}/Γ{sub b}) and full width at half maximum of LO phonon mode and to understand the SHII induced enhancement of SPM. The ion beam induced interstitial and surface state defects in thin films, as observed by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy studies, may be the underlying reason for enhancement in SPM. PL studies also show enhancement in green luminescence with increase in ion fluence. PL analysis reveals that the variation in population density of surface state defects after SHII is similar to that of SPM. The correlation between SPM and luminescence and their dependence on ion irradiation fluence is explained with the help of thermal spike model.

  19. Short-term exposure to ambient particulate matter and emergency ambulance dispatch for acute illness in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tasmin, Saira; Ueda, Kayo; Stickley, Andrew; Yasumoto, Shinya; Phung, Vera Ling Hui; Oishi, Mizuki; Yasukouchi, Shusuke; Uehara, Yamato; Michikawa, Takehiro; Nitta, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Short-term exposure to air pollution may be linked to negative health outcomes that require an emergency medical response. However, few studies have been undertaken on this phenomenon to date. The aim of this study therefore was to examine the association between short-term exposure to ambient suspended particulate matter (SPM) and emergency ambulance dispatches (EADs) for acute illness in Japan. Daily EAD data, daily mean SPM and meteorological data were obtained for four prefectures in the Kanto region of Japan for the period from 2007 to 2011. The area-specific association between daily EAD for acute illness and SPM was explored using generalized linear models while controlling for ambient temperature, relative humidity, seasonality, long-term trends, day of the week and public holidays. Stratified analyses were conducted to evaluate the modifying effects of age, sex and medical conditions. Area-specific estimates were combined using meta-analyses. For the total study period the mean level of SPM was 23.7μg/m(3). In general, higher SPM was associated with a significant increase in EAD for acute illness [estimated pooled relative risk (RR): 1.008, 95% CI: 1.007 to 1.010 per 10μg/m(3) increase in SPM at lag 0-1]. The effects of SPM on EAD for acute illness were significantly greater for moderate/mild medical conditions (e.g. cases that resulted in <3weeks hospitalization or no hospitalization) when compared to severe medical conditions (e.g. critical cases, and cases that led to >3weeks hospitalization or which resulted in death). Using EAD data, this study has shown the adverse health effects of ambient air pollution. This highlights the importance of reducing the level of air pollution in order to maintain population health and well-being. PMID:27235903

  20. Voxel Based Analysis of Surgical Revascularization for Moyamoya Disease: Pre- and Postoperative SPECT Studies.

    PubMed

    Fushimi, Yasutaka; Okada, Tomohisa; Takagi, Yasushi; Funaki, Takeshi; Takahashi, Jun C; Miyamoto, Susumu; Togashi, Kaori

    2016-01-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic, progressive, cerebrovascular occlusive disease that causes abnormal enlargement of collateral pathways (moyamoya vessels) in the region of the basal ganglia and thalamus. Cerebral revascularization procedures remain the preferred treatment for patients with MMD, improving the compromised cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, voxel based analysis (VBA) of revascularization surgery for MMD based on data from pre- and postoperative data has not been established. The latest algorithm called as Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) has been introduced for VBA as the function of statistical parametric mapping (SPM8), and improved registration has been achieved by SPM8 with DARTEL. In this study, VBA was conducted to evaluate pre- and postoperative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images for MMD by SPM8 with DARTEL algorithm, and the results were compared with those from SPM8 without DARTEL (a conventional method). Thirty-two patients with MMD who underwent superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery as the first surgery were included and all patients underwent pre- and postoperative 3D T1-weighted imaging and SPECT. Pre- and postoperative SPECT images were registered to 3D T1-weighted images, then VBA was conducted. Postoperative SPECT showed more statistically increased CBF areas in the bypassed side cerebral hemisphere by using SPM8 with DARTEL (58,989 voxels; P<0.001), and increased ratio of CBF after operation was less than 15%. Meanwhile, postoperative SPECT showed less CBF increased areas by SPM8 without DARTEL. In conclusion, VBA was conducted for patients with MMD, and SPM8 with DARTEL revealed that postoperative SPECT showed statistically significant CBF increases over a relatively large area and with at most 15% increase ratio. PMID:26867219

  1. Novel oral formulation safely improving intestinal absorption of poorly absorbable drugs: utilization of polyamines and bile acids.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Masateru; Minami, Takanori; Hirota, Masao; Toguchi, Hajime; Odomi, Masaaki; Ogawara, Ken-ichi; Higaki, Kazutaka; Kimura, Toshikiro

    2006-03-10

    In order to develop a novel oral formulation that can safely improve the intestinal absorption of poorly absorbable drugs, polyamines such as spermine (SPM) and spermidine (SPD) was examined as an absorption enhancing adjuvant in rats. The absorption of rebamipide, classified into BCS Class IV, from colon was significantly improved by SPM or SPD, and the enhancing ability of SPM was larger than that of SPD. As a possible mixing and/or interaction of polyamines with bile acids were expected, the combinatorial use of sodium taurocholate (STC) with polyamines was also examined. The absorption of rebamipide was drastically improved by the combinatorial use of SPM or SPD with STC. As STC itself did not enhance the absorption of rebamipide so much, it was considered that polyamines and STC had a synergistic enhancing effect. In-vivo oral absorption study was also performed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of polyamines and their combinatorial use with STC in rats. Although the enhancing effect slightly attenuated comparing with the in-situ loop study, the absorption of rebamipide was significantly improved and the combinatorial use of 10 mM SPM with 25 mM STC showed the largest enhancing effect. Histopathological studies clearly showed that any significant change in stomach and duodenum was not caused by SPM (10 mM), SPD (10 mM) or their combinatorial use with STC (25 mM) at 1.5 or 8.0 h after oral administration. Taken all together, polyamines, especially SPM, and its combinatorial use with STC could improve the absorption of poorly absorbable drugs without any significant changes in gastrointestinal tract after oral administration in rats. PMID:16410031

  2. A new petroleum system in offshore Campeche, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Limon, M.

    1996-08-01

    A new petroleum system in the Sonda de Campeche of Mexico has been recently defined. This system is entirely Oxfordian in age, comprising eolian and beach sandstone reservoirs overlain by evaporates, which provide the seal, and in turn, overlain by organically rich, low energy carbonate mudstones, which are source rocks. This petroleum system was created during the late stages of opening of the Gulf of Mexico. The source rocks are composed of an algal mudstone overlying the evaporite sequence. Geochemistry, isotopic and biomarkers analyses allowed us to identify the Oxfordian source rock and also to obtain an excellent correlation with the Oxfordian oils reservoired in the discoveries. Oxfordian sandstones in the Sonda de Campeche exhibit excellent reservoir quality, ranging from 6 to 26% porosity and 2 to 2730 md permeability. The porosity is principally secondary due to the dissolution of dolomite, anhydrite and cement, but intergranular porosity can also be observed. The tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Mexico in the Sonda de Campeche produced three types of traps (1) faulted blocks of {open_quotes}domino{close_quotes} style, developed during the extensional stage; (2) faulted anticlines formed during the Middle Miocene compressive event; and (3) traps related to diapirism of salt of the Middle Miocene-Pleistocene. The seal rocks are mainly composed by Oxfordian evaporates. Oil generation was initiated in the Middle Miocene following the compressional stage. The potential source rocks reached maturity beneath a thick Tertiary overburden in downthrown fault blocks and expelled hydrocarbons which migrated in a predominantly vertical direction. The oils do not show any diagnostic evidence of bacterial alteration.

  3. The biogeochemical reactivity of suspended particulate matter at nested sites in the Dee basin, NE Scotland.

    PubMed

    Dawson, J J C; Adhikari, Y R; Soulsby, C; Stutter, M I

    2012-09-15

    Variation in the organic matter content associated with suspended particulate matter (SPM) is an often overlooked component of carbon cycling within freshwater riverine systems. The potential biogeochemical reactivity of particulate organic carbon (POC) that affect its interactions and fate, i.e. respired and lost to the atmosphere along river continua or ultimately exported to estuarine and oceanic pools was assessed. Eleven contrasting sites draining nested catchments (5-1837 km(2)) in the River Dee basin, NE Scotland were sampled during summer 2008 to evaluate spatio-temporal variations in quantity and quality (biogeochemical reactivity) of SPM during relatively low flow conditions. Mean SPM concentrations increased from 0.21 to 1.22 mg L(-1) between the uppermost and lowest mainstem sites. Individually, POC concentrations ranged from 0.08 to 0.55 mg L(-1) and accounted for ca. 3-15% of total aqueous organic carbon transported. The POC content was partitioned into autotrophic (2.78-73.0 mg C g(-1) SPM) and detrital (119-388 mg C g(-1) SPM) biomass carbon content. The particulate respired CO(2)-C as a % of the total carbon associated with SPM, measured by MicroResp™ over 18 h, varied in recalcitrance from 0.49% at peat-dominated sites to 3.20% at the lowermost mainstem site. Significant (p<0.05) relationships were observed between SPM biogeochemical reactivity measures (% respired CO(2)-C; chlorophyll α; bioavailable-phosphorus) and arable and improved grassland area, associated with increasing biological productivity downstream. Compositional characteristics and in-stream processing of SPM appear to be related to contributory land use pressures, that influence SPM characteristics and biogeochemistry (C:N:P stoichiometry) of its surrounding aqueous environment. As moorland influences declined, nutrient inputs from arable and improved grasslands increasingly affected the biogeochemical content and reactivity of both dissolved and particulate matter. This

  4. Molecular genetics and epigenetics of CACTA elements.

    PubMed

    Fedoroff, Nina V

    2013-01-01

    The CACTA transposons, so named for a highly conserved motif at element ends, comprise one of the most abundant superfamilies of Class 2 (cut-and-paste) plant transposons. CACTA transposons characteristically include subterminal sequences of several hundred nucleotides containing closely spaced direct and inverted repeats of a short, conserved sequence of 14-15 bp. The Supressor-mutator (Spm) transposon, identified and subjected to detailed genetic analysis by Barbara McClintock, remains the paradigmatic element of the CACTA family. The Spm transposon encodes two proteins required for transposition, the transposase (TnpD) and a regulatory protein (TnpA) that binds to the subterminal repeats. Spm expression is subject to both genetic and epigenetic regulation. The Spm-encoded TnpA serves as an activator of the epigenetically inactivated, methylated Spm, stimulating both transient and heritable activation of the transposon. TnpA also serves as a negative regulator of the demethylated active element promoter and is required, in addition to the TnpD, for transposition. PMID:23918429

  5. Characterization of superparamagnetic nanoparticle interactions with extracellular matrix in an in vitro system.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Sam J; Hallahan, Dennis E; Giorgio, Todd D

    2006-01-01

    Controlled dispersion of therapeutic agents within liquid- and gel-filled cavities represents a barrier to treatment of some cancers and other pathological states. Interstitial delivery is compromised by the poor mobility of macromolecules and larger nanoscale structures. We developed an in vitro system to quantify the suitability of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPM NPs) as a site-specific therapeutic vehicle for delivery through fluid- and gel-based systems. SPM NP motion was induced by an external magnetic field. NP migration was modulated by NP concentration and surface coating. 135 nanometer radius PEGylated NPs moved through the extracellular matrix with an average velocity of 1.5 mm h(-1), suitable for some clinical applications. Increasing the SPM NP radius to 400 nm while maintaining the same per NP magnetic susceptibility resulted in a greater than 1,000-fold reduction in magnetic mobility, to less than 0.01 mm h(-1). The critical influence of NP size on gel permeation was also observed in silica-coated 135 nm SPM NPs that aggregated under the experimental conditions. Aggregation played a critical role in determining the behavior of the nanoparticles. SPM NPs allow significant free-solution mobility to specific sites within a cavity and generate sufficient force to penetrate common in vivo gels. PMID:16477503

  6. Evidencing the natural and anthropogenic processes controlling trace metals dynamic in a highly stratified estuary: The Krka River estuary (Adriatic, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Cindrić, Ana-Marija; Garnier, Cédric; Oursel, Benjamin; Pižeta, Ivanka; Omanović, Dario

    2015-05-15

    Distributions of trace metals (TM), organic carbon, SPM and physico-chemical parameters were studied in the highly stratified Krka River estuary in winter/summer periods. The non-conservative behaviour of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu in the brackish layer (plume), easily spotted due to very low inputs by the river, was mainly caused by their inputs from the pleasure boats, nautical marinas and harbour (e.g. release from antifouling paints). Contrarily, Ni and Co followed near-conservative behaviour. The extremely low SPM discharged by the river, resulted in a predominant dissolved fraction (>80%) of all TM, except Pb. Vertical scavenging, coupled with the long residence time, caused accumulation and progressive upstream increase of TM and SPM in the bottom seawater. Decrease of distribution coefficient (KD) in the brackish layer for winter period was ascribed to the change of SPM nature (terrestrial vs. biogenic), whereas a variable and increased biogenic component of SPM caused scattered KDs in summer. PMID:25752536

  7. Ultrastructural analysis of a putative magnetoreceptor in the beak of homing pigeons.

    PubMed

    Fleissner, Gerta; Holtkamp-Rötzler, Elke; Hanzlik, Marianne; Winklhofer, Michael; Fleissner, Günther; Petersen, Nikolai; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2003-04-14

    With the use of different light and electron microscopic methods, we investigated the subcellular organization of afferent trigeminal terminals in the upper beak of the homing pigeon, Columba livia, which are about 5 microm in diameter and contain superparamagnetic magnetite (SPM) crystals. The SPM nanocrystals are assembled in clusters (diameter, approximately 1-2 microm). About 10 to 15 of these clusters occur inside one nerve terminal, arranged along the cell membrane. Each SPM cluster is embedded in a solid fibrous cup, open towards the cell surface, to which the cluster adheres by delicate fiber strands. In addition to the SPM clusters, a second inorganic iron compound has been identified: noncrystalline platelets of iron phosphate (about 500 nm wide and long and maximally 100 nm thick) that occur along a fibrous core of the terminal. The anatomic features suggested that these nerve endings could detect small intensity changes of the geomagnetic field. Such stimuli can induce deformations of the SPM clusters, which could be transduced into primary receptor potentials by mechanosensitive membrane receptor channels. The subepidermal fat cells surrounding the nerve endings prevent the inside from external mechanical stimuli. These structural findings corresponded to conclusions inferred from rock magnetic measurements, theoretical calculations, model experiments, and behavioral data, which also matched previous electrophysiologic recordings from migratory birds. PMID:12619070

  8. Effects of riverine suspended particulate matter on post-dredging metal re-contamination across the sediment-water interface.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng; Fan, Chengxin; Shen, Qiushi; Shao, Shiguang; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Qilin

    2016-02-01

    Environmental dredging is often used in river mouth areas to remove heavy metals. However, following dredging, high levels of metal-adsorbed suspended particulate matter (SPM) originating from polluted inflowing rivers might adversely affect the sediment-water interface (SWI). Here, we conducted a 360-day-long experiment investigating whether the riverine SPM adversely affects dredging outcome in a bay area of Lake Chaohu, China. We found that the heavy metal concentrations in the post-dredging surface sediment increased to pre-dredging levels for all metals studied (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) after the addition of SPM. In addition, the increased concentrations were mostly detected in the relatively bioavailable non-residual fractions. Of the metals studied, the rate of increase was the greatest for Zn and Cd (482.98% and 261.07%, respectively), mostly in the weak acid extractable fraction. These results were probably due to certain characteristics of SPM (fine grain size, and high concentrations of organic matter and heavy metals) and the good oxic conditions of the SWI. Furthermore, As was the only metal for which we observed an increasing trend of diffusive flux across the SWI. However, the flux was still significantly lower than that measured before dredging. In conclusion, the quantity and character of riverine metal-adsorbed SPM affect metal re-contamination across the post-dredging SWI, and this information should be incorporated into the management schemes of dredging projects dedicated to reducing metal contamination in similar areas. PMID:26606187

  9. Monthly variation and vertical distribution of parent and alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in estuarine water column: Role of suspended particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowei; Yuan, Ke; Chen, Baowei; Lin, Li; Huang, Bensheng; Luan, Tiangang

    2016-09-01

    The distribution and interaction of parent and alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPA-34 PAHs) among the multiple phases were investigated in estuarine water column of Humen outlet over a 12-months period. The water column was divided into 5 vertical layers, and each layer included dissolved phase, large- and small-size suspended particular matter (SPM). Regarding to EPA-34 PAHs, alkyl homologues were abundant, especially in the dissolved phase and small-size SPM. Moreover, SPM contributed a large proportion of EPA-34 PAHs in the water column especially for the large-size SPM, which therefore play an important role for the transportation of these pollutants. The EPA-34 PAHs concentrations in water column during wet season were higher than those in the dry season due to the decreasing of KD values which were affected by TSS and salinity obviously. Generally, the EPA-34 PAHs concentrations in the water column increased with the increasing of water depth, most of the highest concentrations of EPA-34 PAHs were found in the near-bottom layer due to the rapid sinking of large-size SPM and sediment resuspension. Additionally, during the ebb-flood tide period, the EPA-34 PAHs concentrations in different phases of the water column fluctuated oppositely based on the effects of hydrodynamic conditions. PMID:27318544

  10. Field observations on correlation of fatty acid profiles between suspended particulate matter and green-lipped mussels in subtropical waters of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wai Hing; Gao, Qin-Feng; Cheung, Siu Gin; Shin, Paul K S

    2008-01-01

    By analysis of the fatty acid profiles in mussel tissues and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in water, the present study showed a significant relationship of the trophic linkage between mussels and the SPM. At seven locations from inner to outer areas along the eutrophic Tolo Harbour and Tolo Channel, Hong Kong, the composition (as percentage of total fatty acids) of both monoenoic and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the tissues of green-lipped mussels Perna viridis and SPM in water had significant correlation (p<0.01). In particular, the composition of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n3) (as percentage of total fatty acids) in mussel tissues was statistically correlated with that in SPM (p<0.01), implying that mussels incorporate DHA, the biomarker of dinoflagellates. Principal component analysis further demonstrated that the fatty acid profiles of SPM were different among locations in the harbour, mid and outer channel of the study area, so were the mussel tissue fatty acid profiles. Cluster analysis of phytoplankton data also revealed the dominance of diatoms in the inner harbour and channel areas, whereas dinoflagellates were abundant in the outer channel waters. The possible implications of using benthic suspension feeders such as green-lipped mussels P. viridis for controlling phytoplankton abundance in coastal waters are discussed. PMID:18289610

  11. NMR assignment of intrinsically disordered self-processing module of the FrpC protein of Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Kubáň, Vojtěch; Nováček, Jiří; Bumba, Ladislav; Žídek, Lukáš

    2015-10-01

    The self-processing module (SPM) is an internal segment of the FrpC protein (P415-F591) secreted by the pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria meningitidis during meningococcal infection of human upper respiratory tract. SPM mediates 'protein trans-splicing', a unique natural mechanism for editing of proteins, which involves a calcium-dependent autocatalytic cleavage of the peptide bond between D414 and P415 and covalent linkage of the cleaved fragment through its carboxy-terminal group of D414 to [Formula: see text]-amino group of lysine residue within a neighboring polypeptide chain. We present an NMR resonance assignment of the calcium-free SPM, which displays characteristic features of intrinsically disordered proteins. Non-uniformly sampled 5D HN(CA)CONH, 4D HCBCACON, and HCBCANCO spectra were recorded to resolve poorly dispersed resonance frequencies of the disordered protein and 91 % of SPM residues were unambiguously assigned. Analysis of the chemical shifts revealed that two regions of the intrinsically disordered SPM (A95-S101 and R120-I127) have a tendency to form a helical structure, whereas the residues P1-D7 and G36-A40 have the propensity to adopt a [Formula: see text]-structure. PMID:26138689

  12. A significant look at the effects of Persian Gulf environmental conditions on sound scattering based on small perturbation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadimi, Parviz; Bolghasi, Alireza; Feizi Chekab, Mohammad A.; Zamanian, Rahim

    2015-12-01

    The main goal of this paper is to investigate sound scattering from the sea surface, by Kuo's small perturbation method (SPM), in the Persian Gulf's environmental conditions. Accordingly, the SPM method is reviewed, then it is demonstrated how it can accurately model sound scattering from the sea surface. Since in Kuo's approach, the effects of surface roughness and sub-surface bubble plumes on incident sounds can be studied separately, it is possible to investigate the importance of each mechanism in various scattering regimes. To conduct this study, wind and wave information reported by Arzanah station as well as some numerical atmospheric models for the Persian Gulf are presented and applied to examine sound scattering from the sea surface in the Persian Gulf region. Plots of scattering strength by Kuo's SPM method versus grazing angle for various frequencies, wave heights, and wind speeds are presented. The calculated scattering strength by the SPM method for various frequencies and wind speeds are compared against the results of critical sea tests 7 (CST-7). The favorable agreement achieved for sound scattering in the Persian Gulf region is indicative of the fact that the SPM method can, quite accurately indeed, model, and predict sound scattering from the sea surface.

  13. Computational implementation of a systems prioritization methodology for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: A preliminary example

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, J.C.; Anderson, D.R.; Baker, B.L.

    1996-04-01

    A systems prioritization methodology (SPM) is under development to provide guidance to the US DOE on experimental programs and design modifications to be supported in the development of a successful licensing application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. The purpose of the SPM is to determine the probabilities that the implementation of different combinations of experimental programs and design modifications, referred to as activity sets, will lead to compliance. Appropriate tradeoffs between compliance probability, implementation cost and implementation time can then be made in the selection of the activity set to be supported in the development of a licensing application. Descriptions are given for the conceptual structure of the SPM and the manner in which this structure determines the computational implementation of an example SPM application. Due to the sophisticated structure of the SPM and the computational demands of many of its components, the overall computational structure must be organized carefully to provide the compliance probabilities for the large number of activity sets under consideration at an acceptable computational cost. Conceptually, the determination of each compliance probability is equivalent to a large numerical integration problem. 96 refs., 31 figs., 36 tabs.

  14. Distribution behavior of superparamagnetic carbon nanotubes in an aqueous system.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xue; Liu, Yuqi; Yu, Lu; Hua, Zulin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the distribution behavior of superparamagnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SPM-MWCNTs) in an aqueous system containing Lake Tai sediment. Specifically, the effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and sediment on SPM-MWCNTs under various conditions and the interaction forms between them were evaluated through a modified mathematical model and characterization. The results showed that DOM can stabilize SPM-MWCNTs by providing sterically and electrostatically stable surfaces, even under high sodium concentrations. The fitting accuracy of the Freundlich adsorption isotherm is higher than that of the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Therefore, the adsorption of SPM-MWCNT on the sediment should proceed through a multiple, complex and heterogeneous adsorption mechanism. Characterization analyses indicated that DOM may serve as a bridge for the inorganic adsorption between SPM-MWCNTs and sediment. This study is the first to investigate the distribution behavior of magnetite coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which simplified the separation and quantification considerably. The findings of this study will serve as a valuable reference for future studies of magnetic CNTs. PMID:27599569

  15. Evidence for microsomal variation of opioid sites not coupled to N/sub i/

    SciTech Connect

    Spain, J.W.; Coscia, C.J.

    1986-03-05

    Previously, the authors demonstrated a multi-step association of variation of opioid agonists to bovine hippocampal synaptic membranes (SPM). A slowly formed high affinity state is most sensitive to the GTP analog, Gpp(NH)p. Multi-step association can be inferred from the assoc.-time dependent rate of dissociation seen for agonists, i.e., following a brief incubation period the rate of dissociation is more rapid than following a longer association. When 1 nM /sup 3/H-DADL (in the presence of 20 nM unlabeled DAGO) was incubated with microsomal membranes for 7, 12, 20, or 60 min, the off-rate remained constant, suggesting a bimolecular interaction. The monophasic rate of association to microsomes contrasted with the observed biphasic association to SPM. Computer simulation of binding models indicated that, while binding kinetics for SPM can best be simulated by a three-step sequential equilibrium, the pattern for microsomes represents a bimolecular interaction. In contrast to the profound increase in rate of dissociation from SPM's in the presence of Gpp(NH)p, microsome kinetics are not affected. The authors proposed that for SPM's the slowly formed state with a high sensitivity to Gpp(NH)p is a form of the ternary complex consisting of receptor, ligand and GTP binding protein. These results suggest that microsomal membranes, which they believe are primarily internal sites, do not form the ternary complex and are not coupled to N/sub i/.

  16. Distribution behavior of superparamagnetic carbon nanotubes in an aqueous system

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xue; Liu, Yuqi; Yu, Lu; Hua, Zulin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the distribution behavior of superparamagnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SPM-MWCNTs) in an aqueous system containing Lake Tai sediment. Specifically, the effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and sediment on SPM-MWCNTs under various conditions and the interaction forms between them were evaluated through a modified mathematical model and characterization. The results showed that DOM can stabilize SPM-MWCNTs by providing sterically and electrostatically stable surfaces, even under high sodium concentrations. The fitting accuracy of the Freundlich adsorption isotherm is higher than that of the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Therefore, the adsorption of SPM-MWCNT on the sediment should proceed through a multiple, complex and heterogeneous adsorption mechanism. Characterization analyses indicated that DOM may serve as a bridge for the inorganic adsorption between SPM-MWCNTs and sediment. This study is the first to investigate the distribution behavior of magnetite coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which simplified the separation and quantification considerably. The findings of this study will serve as a valuable reference for future studies of magnetic CNTs. PMID:27599569

  17. Nonlinear chirped-pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaohong; Wang, Yishan; Zhao, Wei; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Wei; Li, Cheng; Wang, Hushan

    2010-09-10

    Based on the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and waveguiding properties typical of the photonic crystal fiber structure, nonlinear chirped-pulse propagation and supercontinua generation in the femtosecond and picosecond regimes are investigated numerically. The simulation results indicate that an input chirp parameter mainly affects the initial stage of spectral broadening caused by the self-phase modulation (SPM) effect. In the femtosecond regime where the SPM effect plays an important role in the process of spectral broadening, an input positive chirp can enhance the supercontinuum bandwidth through a modified pulse compression phase and a decreased propagation distance required by soliton fission. In the picosecond regime, where the SPM effect contributes less to the continuum bandwidth and four-wave mixing process or modulational instability dominates the initial stage of spectral and temporal evolution, the output spectral shape and bandwidths are less sensitive to the input chirp parameters. PMID:20830188

  18. Comment on ``MEMS-based high speed scanning probe microscopy'' [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 043702 (2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degertekin, F. Levent; Torun, Hamdi

    2010-11-01

    In a recent article, Disseldorp et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 043702 (2010)] present a micromachined z-scanner for scanning probe microscopy (SPM). The scanner comprises a micromachined electrostatically actuated membrane anchored to its substrate with crab-leg flexures. This structure is used as a fast actuator specifically for atomic force microscope and scanning tunneling microscope. The authors present topographic images acquired using the scanner in this paper and elsewhere [F. C. Tabak et al., Ultramicroscopy 110, 599 (2010)]. Although the work is clearly described, it does not appear to be placed in proper context. For example, the authors claim that previous work on microelectromechanical systems SPM has not been focused on high-speed imaging with feedback, which is not supported by the existing literature. In addition, similar actuator structures, albeit slightly larger scale, have been designed and used for SPM applications. Here, we would like comment briefly on the existing literature to clarify the significance of the work.

  19. Oil droplet interaction with suspended sediment in the seawater column: influence of physical parameters and chemical dispersants.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Lisbet; Melbye, Alf G; Booth, Andy M

    2014-01-15

    The interaction of dispersed oil droplets with large diameter suspended particulate materials (SPM) has been little studied. In the current study, particle size, oil characteristics and chemical dispersant significantly influence the adsorption of oil droplets to SPM in seawater. Sediments with a smaller particulate size (clay) approaching that of the oil droplets (2-20 μm) adsorbed more oil per gram than sediments with large particle size (sand). Heavier, more polar oils with a high asphaltene content adsorbed more efficiently to SPM than lighter, less polar oils. A decrease in the smaller, more water soluble oil components in the sediment adsorbed oil was observed for all oil types. Addition of chemical dispersant decreased the adsorption of oil droplets to suspended carbonate sand in an exponential-like manner. No change in the relative distribution of compounds adsorbed to the sediment was observed, indicating dispersants do not alter the dissolution of compounds from oil droplets. PMID:24257650

  20. Local electrochemical functionality in energy storage materials and devices by scanning probe microscopies: status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Balke, Nina

    2010-09-15

    Energy storage and conversion systems are an integral component of emerging green technologies, including mobile electronic devices, automotive, and storage components of solar and wind energy economics. Despite the rapidly expanding manufacturing capabilities and wealth of phenomenological information on the macroscopic device behaviors, the microscopic mechanisms underpinning battery and fuel cell operations in the nanometer-micrometer range are virtually unknown. This lack of information is due to the dearth of experimental techniques capable of addressing elementary mechanisms involved in battery operation, including electronic and ion transport, vacancy injection, and interfacial reactions, on the nanometer scale. In this article, a brief overview of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) methods addressing nanoscale electrochemical functionalities is provided and compared with macroscopic electrochemical methods. Future applications of emergent SPM methods, including near field optical, electromechanical, microwave, and thermal probes and combined SPM-(S)TEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy) methods in energy storage and conversion materials are discussed. PMID:20730814

  1. Open Source Scanning Probe Microscopy Control Software Package Gxsm

    SciTech Connect

    Zahl P.; Wagner, T.; Moller, R.; Klust, A.

    2009-08-10

    Gxsm is a full featured and modern scanning probe microscopy (SPM) software. It can be used for powerful multidimensional image/data processing, analysis, and visualization. Connected toan instrument, it is operating many different avors of SPM, e.g., scanning tunneling microscopy(STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) or in general two-dimensional multi channel data acquisition instruments. The Gxsm core can handle different data types, e.g., integer and oating point numbers. An easily extendable plug-in architecture provides many image analysis and manipulation functions. A digital signal processor (DSP) subsystem runs the feedback loop, generates the scanning signals and acquires the data during SPM measurements. The programmable Gxsm vector probe engine performs virtually any thinkable spectroscopy and manipulation task, such as scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) or tip formation. The Gxsm software is released under the GNU general public license (GPL) and can be obtained via the Internet.

  2. Fast and reliable method of conductive carbon nanotube-probe fabrication for scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dremov, Vyacheslav Fedorov, Pavel; Grebenko, Artem; Fedoseev, Vitaly

    2015-05-15

    We demonstrate the procedure of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) conductive probe fabrication with a single multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) on a silicon cantilever pyramid. The nanotube bundle reliably attached to the metal-covered pyramid is formed using dielectrophoresis technique from the MWNT suspension. It is shown that the dimpled aluminum sample can be used both for shortening/modification of the nanotube bundle by applying pulse voltage between the probe and the sample and for controlling the probe shape via atomic force microscopy imaging the sample. Carbon nanotube attached to cantilever covered with noble metal is suitable for SPM imaging in such modulation regimes as capacitance contrast microscopy, Kelvin probe microscopy, and scanning gate microscopy. The majority of such probes are conductive with conductivity not degrading within hours of SPM imaging.

  3. Scanning probe microscope simulator for the assessment of noise in scanning probe microscopy controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Wutscher, T.; Niebauer, J.; Giessibl, F. J.

    2013-07-15

    We present an electronic circuit that allows to calibrate and troubleshoot scanning probe microscopy (SPM) controllers with respect to their noise performance. The control signal in an SPM is typically highly nonlinear—the tunneling current in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) varies exponentially with distance. The exponential current-versus-voltage characteristics of diodes allow to model the current dependence in STM. Additional inputs allow to simulate the effects of external perturbations and the reactions of the control electronics. We characterized the noise performance of the feedback controller using the apparent topography roughness of recorded images. For a comparison of different STM controllers, an optimal gain parameter was determined by exploring settling times through a rectangular perturbation signal. We used the circuit to directly compare the performance of two types of SPM controllers used in our laboratory.

  4. Radio frequency elevator for a pulsed positron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickmann, Marcel; Mitteneder, Johannes; Kögel, Gottfried; Egger, Werner; Sperr, Peter; Ackermann, Ulrich; Piochacz, Christian; Dollinger, Günther

    2016-06-01

    An elevator increases the potential energy of a particle beam with respect to ground potential without any alteration of kinetic energy and other beam parameters. This elevator is necessary for the implementation of the Munich Scanning Positron Microscope (SPM) at the intense positron source NEPOMUC at the research reactor FRM II in Munich. The principles of the rf elevator for pure electrostatically guided positrons are described. Measurements of beam quality behind the elevator are reported, which confirm that after the implementation of elevator and SPM at NEPOMUC the SPM can be operated at a considerably improved resolution (~ 0.3 μm) and event rate (~3.7 kHz) compared to the laboratory based β+-source.

  5. TOF-SIMS measurements for toxic air pollutants adsorbed on the surface of airborne particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyasu, Bunbunoshin; Hoshi, Takahiro; Owari, Masanori; Nihei, Yoshimasa

    2003-01-01

    Three kinds of particulate matter were collected: diesel and gasoline exhaust particles emitted directly from exhaust nozzle, and suspended particulate matter (SPM) near the traffic route. Soxhlet extraction was performed on each sample. By gas-chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of these extracts, di-ethyl phthalate and di- n-butyl phthalate were detected from the extract of SPM and diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). Because these phthalates were sometimes suspected as contamination, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) measurements were also performed on the samples collected at the same environment. By comparing obtained spectra, it is clear that these environmental endocrine disrupters (EEDs) were adsorbed on DEP surface. Thus, we concluded that the combination of conventional method and TOF-SIMS measurement is one of the most powerful techniques for analyzing the toxic air pollutants adsorbed on SPM surface.

  6. Scanning probe microscope simulator for the assessment of noise in scanning probe microscopy controllers.

    PubMed

    Wutscher, T; Niebauer, J; Giessibl, F J

    2013-07-01

    We present an electronic circuit that allows to calibrate and troubleshoot scanning probe microscopy (SPM) controllers with respect to their noise performance. The control signal in an SPM is typically highly nonlinear-the tunneling current in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) varies exponentially with distance. The exponential current-versus-voltage characteristics of diodes allow to model the current dependence in STM. Additional inputs allow to simulate the effects of external perturbations and the reactions of the control electronics. We characterized the noise performance of the feedback controller using the apparent topography roughness of recorded images. For a comparison of different STM controllers, an optimal gain parameter was determined by exploring settling times through a rectangular perturbation signal. We used the circuit to directly compare the performance of two types of SPM controllers used in our laboratory. PMID:23902073

  7. Multifrequency imaging in the intermittent contact mode of atomic force microscopy: beyond phase imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Senli; Santiago, Solares D; Mochalin, Vadym; Neitzel, Ioannis; Gogotsi, Yury G.; Kalinin, Sergei V; Jesse, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Force-based scanning probe microscopies have emerged as a mainstay for probing structural and mechanical properties of materials on the nanometer and molecular scales. Despite tremendous progress achieved to date, the cantilever dynamics in single frequency scanning probe microscopies (SPM) is undefined due to having only two output variables. Here we demonstrate on diamond nanoparticles with different functionalization layers that the use of broad band detection by multiple frequency SPM allows complete information on tip-surface interactions in intermittent contact SPM to be acquired. The obtained data allows sub-3nm resolution even in ambient environment. By tuning the strength of tip-surface interaction, the information on surface state can be obtained.

  8. The influence of extreme river discharge conditions on the quality of suspended particulate matter in Rivers Meuse and Rhine (The Netherlands).

    PubMed

    Hamers, Timo; Kamstra, Jorke H; van Gils, Jos; Kotte, Marcel C; van Hattum, Albertus G M

    2015-11-01

    As a consequence of climate change, increased precipitation in winter and longer periods of decreased precipitation in summer are expected to cause more frequent episodes of very high or very low river discharge in the Netherlands. To study the impact of such extreme river discharge conditions on water quality, toxicity profiles and pollutant profiles were determined of suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected from Rivers Meuse and Rhine. Archived (1993-2003) and fresh (2009-2011) SPM samples were selected from the Dutch annual monitoring program of the national water bodies (MWTL), representing episodes with river discharge conditions ranging from very low to regular to very high. SPM extracts were tested in a battery of in vitro bioassays for their potency to interact with the androgen receptor (AR), the estrogen receptor (ER), the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and the thyroid hormone transporter protein transthyretin (TTR). SPM extracts were further tested for their mutagenic potency (Ames assay) and their potency to inhibit bacterial respiration (Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence assay). Target-analyzed pollutant concentrations of the SPM samples and additional sample information were retrieved from a public database of MWTL results. In vitro toxicity profiles and pollutant profiles were analyzed in relation to discharge conditions and in relation to each other using correlation analysis and multivariate statistics. Compared to regular discharge conditions, composition of SPM during very high River Meuse and Rhine discharges shifted to more coarse, sandy, organic carbon (OC) poor particles. On the contrary, very low discharge led to a shift to more fine, OC rich material, probably dominated by algae. This shift was most evident in River Meuse, which is characterized by almost stagnant water conditions during episodes of drought. During such episodes, SPM extracts from River Meuse demonstrated increased potencies to inhibit bacterial respiration and to

  9. Humidity Effect on Nanoscale Electrochemistry in Solid Silver Ion Conductors and the Dual Nature of Its Locality

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Sangmo; Strelcov, Evgheni; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Tselev, Alexander; Noh, Tae Won; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-01-07

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a powerful tool to investigate electrochemistry in nanoscale volumes. While most SPM-based studies have focused on reactions at the tip-surface junction, charge and mass conservation requires coupled and intrinsically non-local cathodic and anodic processes that can be significantly affected by ambient humidity. Here, we explore the role of water in both cathodic and anodic processes, associated charge transport, and topographic volume changes depending on the polarity of tip bias. The first-order reversal curve current-voltage technique combined with simultaneous detection of the sample topography, referred to as FORC-IVz, was applied to a silver solid ion conductor. We found that the protons generated from water affect silver ionic conduction, silver particle formation and dissolution, and mechanical integrity of the material. This work highlights the dual nature (simultaneously local and non-local) of electrochemical SPM studies, which should be considered for comprehensive understanding of nanoscale electrochemistry.

  10. Suspended particulate matter in dwellings - the impact of tobacco smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Revsbech, P.; Korsgaard, J.; Lundqvist, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The indoor concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was measured in 44 retrofitted and tight dwellings, which had electric cooking and were central heated and where the basic ventilation rate in median amounted 0.23 air changes per hour as measured with a tracer dilution method. The indoor concentration of SPM was in medium 230 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ with a strong correlation to the tobacco consumption (r/sub s/ = 0.716), but with no correlation to the frequency of airing or the basic ventilation rate. Tobacco smoking seems to be the main indoor source of SPM in contemporary dwellings. The importance of these findings is underlined by epidemiologic studies on passive smoking and health. Air quality standards for the ambient air are based on certain risk groups such as infants, children, persons with chronic obstructive lung disorders, and indoor air standards should be based on the same concepts of health protection.

  11. Studying the active-site loop movement of the São Paolo metallo-β-lactamase-1† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Procedures for protein expression and purification, 19F-labelling, crystallisation, data collection, and structure determination, table of crystallographic data, table of crystallographic parameters and refinement statistics, figures showing binding mode and distances, procedures for mass spectrometry measurements, differential scanning fluorimetry measurements, stopped-flow measurements and other kinetics measurements. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc01752h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Brem, Jürgen; Struwe, Weston B.; Rydzik, Anna M.; Tarhonskaya, Hanna; Pfeffer, Inga; Flashman, Emily; van Berkel, Sander S.; Spencer, James; Claridge, Timothy D. W.; McDonough, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) catalyse the hydrolysis of almost all β-lactam antibiotics. We report biophysical and kinetic studies on the São Paulo MBL (SPM-1), which reveal its Zn(ii) ion usage and mechanism as characteristic of the clinically important di-Zn(ii) dependent B1 MBL subfamily. Biophysical analyses employing crystallography, dynamic 19F NMR and ion mobility mass spectrometry, however, reveal that SPM-1 possesses loop and mobile element regions characteristic of the B2 MBLs. These include a mobile α3 region which is important in catalysis and determining inhibitor selectivity. SPM-1 thus appears to be a hybrid B1/B2 MBL. The results have implications for MBL evolution and inhibitor design. PMID:25717359

  12. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: an important differential in acute chest pain.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Francesca; McCullough, Chris; Rahman, Asif

    2014-01-01

    A 38-year-old man presented with pleuritic chest pain that was present on waking and localised to the left costal margin with no radiation. He was otherwise asymptomatic and denied preceding trauma, heavy lifting, coughing or recent vomiting. Observations and examination were unremarkable; however, a chest radiograph showed a pneumomediastinum. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) is a rare condition that tends to follow a benign clinical course. A CT of the chest is generally only indicated if the chest X-ray fails to show an SPM in patients for whom there is a high index of clinical suspicion. A contrast-enhanced swallow study is only indicated if there is suspicion of an oesophageal tear or rupture. Evidence suggests that patients with SPM can be managed conservatively and observed for 24 h. PMID:25432910

  13. Occurrence and phase distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Zhong; Nie, Yun-Feng; Luo, Xian-Lin; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence and phase distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in waters at the eight riverine outlets of the Pearl River Delta (China) were examined based on a monthly sampling program from March 2005 to February 2006. The total concentrations of PAHs in the aqueous phase and suspended particulate matter (SPM) combined ranged from 55.5 to 522 ng/L, at the mid level of the global values in rivers and estuaries. No clear temporal and spatial trends of PAH concentrations were found. However, the concentrations of PAHs associated with SPM coincided with the monthly precipitation of Guangzhou, indicating the importance of atmospheric deposition. The PAHs found in the region were likely derived from a combined pyrolytic and petrogenic origin, as suggested by the molecular indices of PAHs. Normalized partition coefficient (K(oc)) between water and SPM was correlated with octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)) to understand the environmental behavior of PAHs. PMID:18289609

  14. Contributions from Particles in Europe (PiE) 2010, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France: an introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelsen, Ole A.; Chami, Malik; Doxaran, David

    2012-04-01

    This special issue of Geo-Marine Letters presents selected contributions from the international conference Particles in Europe (PiE) 2010 organized by Sequoia Scientific, Inc., and the Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche (LOV) on 15-17 November 2010 in Villefranche-sur-Mer, France, and guest-edited by Ole Mikkelsen, Malik Chami and David Doxaran. PiE was initiated in 2008, in order to promote and further our understanding of the importance of suspended particulate matter (SPM) for a very wide range of processes in the aquatic environment—from optics and acoustics, over sediment transport, to the global carbon balance. The papers in this special issue are in particular concerned with the interaction between SPM and water optical properties, as well as how to use optical proxy measurements to understand SPM processes. The next PiE conference is scheduled for 17-19 October 2012 in Barcelona, Spain.

  15. Scalar Potential Model of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, John

    2008-04-01

    Some observations of light are inconsistent with a wave--like model. Other observations of light are inconsistent with a particle--like model. A model of light is proposed wherein Newton's and Democritus's speculations are combined with the cosmological scalar potential model (SPM). The SPM was tested by confrontation with observations of galaxy HI rotation curves (RCs), asymmetric RCs, redshift, discrete redshift, galaxy central mass, and central velocity dispersion; and with observations of the Pioneer Anomaly. The resulting model of light will be tested by numerical simulation of a photon behaving in a wave-like manner such as diffusion, interference, reflection, spectrography, and the Afshar experiment. Although the SPM light model requires more work, early results are beginning to emerge that suggest possible tests because a few predictions are inconsistent with both the current particle and wave models of light and that suggest a re-interpretation of the equations of quantum mechanics.

  16. Mining Patterns of Disease Progression: A Topic-Model-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingxiao; Zhao, Junfeng; Wang, Yasha; Xie, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of how diseases progress and transform is crucial for clinical decision making. Frequent pattern mining techniques, such as sequential pattern mining (SPM) algorithms, can automatically extract such knowledge from large collections of electronic medical records (EMR). However, EMR data are usually unorganized and highly noisy. Finding meaningful disease patterns often calls for manual manipulation such as cohort and feature selection on EMR data by medical professionals. In this paper, we propose a topic-model-based SPM approach to find disease progression patterns from diagnostic records. We improve the traditional SPM algorithms by filtering and grouping the diagnosis sequences according to different clinical topics. These topics represent certain clinical conditions with closely related diagnoses, and are detected without prior medical knowledge. The experiment on real-world EMR data shows that our approach is able to find meaningful progression patterns with less noises, and can help quickly identify interesting patterns related to a certain clinical condition with less human effort. PMID:27577403

  17. Current, charge, and capacitance during scanning probe oxidation of silicon. II. Electrostatic and meniscus forces acting on cantilever bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagata, J. A.; Perez-Murano, F.; Martin, C.; Kuramochi, H.; Yokoyama, H.

    2004-08-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the electrical current passing through the tip-substrate junction during oxidation of silicon by scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is presented. This analysis identifies the electronic and ionic contributions to the total current, especially at the initial stages of the reaction, determines the effective contact area of the tip-substrate junction, and unifies the roles of space charge and meniscus formation. In this work, we concentrate on noncontact SPM oxidation. We analyze simultaneous force-distance and current-distance curves to demonstrate that total current flow during noncontact oxidation is significantly less for noncontact mode than for contact oxidation, although the resulting oxide volume is nearly identical. Ionization of water layers and mobile charge reorganization prior to and following meniscus formation is also shown to alter the tip-substrate capacitance and, therefore, the bending of the SPM cantilever.

  18. Beta systems error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric backscatter coefficient, beta, measured with an airborne CO Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) system operating in a continuous wave, focussed model is discussed. The Single Particle Mode (SPM) algorithm, was developed from concept through analysis of an extensive amount of data obtained with the system on board a NASA aircraft. The SPM algorithm is intended to be employed in situations where one particle at a time appears in the sensitive volume of the LDV. In addition to giving the backscatter coefficient, the SPM algorithm also produces as intermediate results the aerosol density and the aerosol backscatter cross section distribution. A second method, which measures only the atmospheric backscatter coefficient, is called the Volume Mode (VM) and was simultaneously employed. The results of these two methods differed by slightly less than an order of magnitude. The measurement uncertainties or other errors in the results of the two methods are examined.

  19. Fast and reliable method of conductive carbon nanotube-probe fabrication for scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dremov, Vyacheslav; Fedoseev, Vitaly; Fedorov, Pavel; Grebenko, Artem

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate the procedure of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) conductive probe fabrication with a single multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) on a silicon cantilever pyramid. The nanotube bundle reliably attached to the metal-covered pyramid is formed using dielectrophoresis technique from the MWNT suspension. It is shown that the dimpled aluminum sample can be used both for shortening/modification of the nanotube bundle by applying pulse voltage between the probe and the sample and for controlling the probe shape via atomic force microscopy imaging the sample. Carbon nanotube attached to cantilever covered with noble metal is suitable for SPM imaging in such modulation regimes as capacitance contrast microscopy, Kelvin probe microscopy, and scanning gate microscopy. The majority of such probes are conductive with conductivity not degrading within hours of SPM imaging.

  20. Manipulation of light in a generalized coupled Nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radha, R.; Vinayagam, P. S.; Porsezian, K.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate a generalized coupled nonlinear Schrodinger (GCNLS) equation containing Self-Phase Modulation (SPM), Cross-Phase Modulation (XPM) and Four Wave Mixing (FWM) describing the propagation of electromagnetic radiation through an optical fibre and generate the associated Lax-pair. We then construct bright solitons employing gauge transformation approach. The collisional dynamics of bright solitons indicates that it is not only possible to manipulate intensity (energy) between the two modes (optical beams), but also within a given mode unlike the Manakov model which does not have the same freedom. The freedom to manipulate intensity (energy) in a given mode or between two modes arises due to a suitable combination of SPM, XPM and FWM. While SPM and XPM are controlled by an arbitrary real parameter each, FWM is governed by two arbitrary complex parameters. The above model may have wider ramifications in nonlinear optics and Bose-Einstein Condensates (BECs).

  1. Precise seabed emplacement of an articulated loading platform in the North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Noblanc, A.; Schnader, H.E.

    1983-05-01

    The Statfjord B articulated loading platform is a single point mooring (SPM) consisting essentially of three principal components: gravity base, cylindrical column and rotating head. Built in West Germany and assembled in a Norwegian fjord, the unit was towed to the Statfjord B site and installed precisely adjacent to a seabed valve station and a previously laid sealine in August, 1982. Prior to arrival of the SPM at the site two piles had been driven into the seabed adjacent to the subsea valve station against which the SPM's gravity base was to be docked. Two matching guides had been incorporated in the gravity base for the purpose of mating with the piles. The SPM was maneuvered into position and held steady by three tugboats. A diving support vessel moored on location was equipped with two hydraulic heave compensating winches from which wire ropes were led vertically and fed through sheaves on the valve station to the SPM base. By maintaining constant tension on the pull-in wires and slowly paying out the tug towlines the gravity base was positioned precisely with respect to the horizontal axes and heading by mating the guides with the piles. Touchdown and skirt penetration were achieved by controlled ballasting of the column with water. An integrated acoustic transponder system provided precise real time data on SPM position, base and column angles and under-keel clearance. Final approach was monitored by means of closed circuit television (CCTV). This paper describes the technique developed to install the large structure with a very high degree of precision in two horizontal axes and in azimuth.

  2. Molecular analysis of the maize anthocyanin regulatory locus C1.

    PubMed Central

    Cone, K C; Burr, F A; Burr, B

    1986-01-01

    The C1 gene of maize plays a regulatory role in the production of anthocyanin pigments in the aleurone layer of the endosperm. As an initial step toward understanding the molecular details of how C1 controls pigment biosynthesis, we cloned the C1 gene. This was accomplished by first cloning a mutable allele of C1, c1-m5, which contains the transposable element Spm. A combination of molecular and genetic analysis was used to identify the Spm at the C1 locus. Individual genomic DNAs from a population in which the c1-mutable phenotype was segregating with the recessive c1 phenotype were digested with methyl-sensitive restriction enzymes and probed with a small DNA fragment derived from a defective Spm. One Sal I restriction fragment complementary to the Spm probe was shown to be present in the DNA of individuals with the c1-m5 phenotype but absent from DNA of individuals with a recessive c1 phenotype. Subsequent cloning and restriction analysis of this fragment revealed sequences flanking the Spm that proved to be C1-specific. A DNA fragment derived from the flanking sequences was then used as a probe to clone the wild-type C1 gene and several additional alleles of C1, including one stable recessive, two mutations caused by Ds insertions, one mutation induced by insertion of a defective Spm, and two dominant mutations, C1-S and C1-I. RNA blot hybridization analysis of three C1 alleles indicates that C1 regulation of the Bz1 and A1 structural genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway is at the transcriptional level. Images PMID:3025847

  3. Statistical parametric mapping applied to an autoradiographic study of cerebral activation during treadmill walking in rats.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Peter T; Holschneider, Daniel P; Maarek, Jean-Michel I; Yang, Jun; Mandelkern, Mark A

    2004-09-01

    Autoradiographs are conventionally analyzed by a region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. However, definition of ROIs on an image set is labor intensive, is subject to potential inter-rater bias, and is not well suited for anatomically variable structures that may not consistently correspond to specific ROIs. Most importantly, the ROI method is poorly suited for whole-brain analysis, where one wishes to detect all activations resulting from an experimental paradigm. A system developed for analysis of imaging data in humans, Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM), avoids some of these limitations but has not previously been adapted as a tool for the analysis of autoradiographs. Here, we describe the application of SPM to an autoradiographic data set mapping cerebral activation in rats during treadmill walking. We studied freely moving, non-tethered rats that received injections of the cerebral blood flow tracer [14C]-iodoantipyrine, while they were performing a treadmill task (n = 7) or during a quiescent control condition (n = 6). Results obtained with SPM were compared to those previously reported using a standard ROI-based method of analysis [J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23(2003) 925]. The SPM method confirmed most areas detected as significant using the ROI approach. However, in the subcortex, SPM detected additional significant regions that, because of their irregular structures, fell short of statistical significance when analyzed by ROI. The SPM approach offers the ability to perform a semi-automated whole-brain analysis, and coupled with autoradiography, provides an effective means to globally localize functional activity in small animals. PMID:15325372

  4. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum: A Rare Disease Associated with Chest Pain in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Song, Jinyoung; Kang, I-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) is a rare entity, with only a few cases reported, especially in adolescents. We aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics of SPM in adolescents and the diagnostic implications of computed tomography (CT) and esophagography therein. Materials and Methods This retrospective descriptive study was conducted as a review of medical records of 416 adolescents (10-18 years of age) with chest pain from March 2005 to June 2013. Information on clinical presentation, methods of diagnosis, hospital stay, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. Results Among adolescents complaining of chest pain, 11 patients had SPM (11/416, 2.64%). All patients presented with pleuritic chest pain, and 54.5% reported neck pain as the most common associated complaint. Clinical findings were nonspecific, and initial chest X-ray assessment was diagnostic only in three of 11 patients. However, reassessment of chest X-ray revealed diagnostic findings of SPM in five of the remaining eight patients. CT was diagnostic in all patients, while esophagography and echocardiogram were uninformative. Symptomatic improvement was noted within 2.45±1.2 hours (range, 0.5 to 4) after supportive care; mean hospital stay was 4.54±0.99 days (range, 2 to 6). No recurrence was observed. Conclusion SPM is a rare disease that should be considered in adolescent patients with pleuritic chest pain. Careful reading of initial chest X-rays is important to avoiding further unnecessary investigations. SPM is self-limited and treatment is supportive; nevertheless, if there are no indications of esophageal rupture, urgent esophagography is not recommended. PMID:26256992

  5. Functional proteomics of synaptic plasma membrane ATP-ases of rat hippocampus: effect of l-acetylcarnitine and relationships with Dementia and Depression pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Federica; Gorini, Antonella; Villa, Roberto Federico

    2015-06-01

    Synaptic energy state and mitochondrial dysfunction are crucial factors in many brain pathologies. l-acetylcarnitine, a natural derivative of carnitine, improves brain energy metabolism, and has been proposed for the Therapy of many neurological and psychiatric diseases. The effects of the drug on the maximum rate (Vmax) of enzymatic activities related to hippocampal synaptic energy utilization were evaluated, in the perspective of its employment for Dementias and Depression Therapy. Two types of synaptic plasma membranes (SPM1 and SPM2) were isolated from the hippocampus of rats treated with l-acetylcarnitine (30 and 60mg/kg i.p., 28 days, 5 days/week). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE); Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+)-ATP-ase; ouabain-insensitive Mg(2+)-ATP-ase; Na(+), K(+)-ATP-ase; Ca(2+), Mg(2+)-ATP-ase activities were evaluated. In control animals, enzymatic activities were differently expressed in SPM1 , being the evaluated enzymatic activities higher in SPM2. Subchronic treatment with l-acetylcarnitine (i) did not modify AChE on both SPMs; (ii) increased Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+)-ATP-ase, ouabain-insensitive Mg(2+)-ATP-ase and Na(+), K(+)-ATP-ase at the dose of 30 and 60mg/kg on SPM1 and SPM2; (iii) increased Ca(2+), Mg(2+)-ATP-ase activity on both SPMs at the dose of 60mg/kg. These results have been discussed considering the pathophysiology and treatment of Dementias and Depression because, although referred to normal healthy animals, they support the notion that l-acetylcarnitine may have positive effects in these pathologies. PMID:25797282

  6. A multistage crucible of revision and approval shapes IPCC policymaker summaries

    PubMed Central

    Mach, Katharine J.; Freeman, Patrick T.; Mastrandrea, Michael D.; Field, Christopher B.

    2016-01-01

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) member governments approve each report’s summary for policymakers (SPM) by consensus, discussing and agreeing on each sentence in a plenary session with scientist authors. A defining feature of IPCC assessment, the governmental approval process builds joint ownership of current knowledge by scientists and governments. The resulting SPM revisions have been extensively discussed in anecdotes, interviews, and perspectives, but they have not been comprehensively analyzed. We provide an in-depth evaluation of IPCC SPM revisions, establishing an evidential basis for understanding their nature. Revisions associated with governmental review and approval generally expand SPMs, with SPM text growing by 17 to 53% across recent assessment reports. Cases of high political sensitivity and failure to reach consensus are notable exceptions, resulting in SPM contractions. In contrast to recent claims, we find that IPCC SPMs are as readable, for multiple metrics of reading ease, as other professionally edited assessment summaries. Across reading-ease metrics, some SPMs become more readable through governmental review and approval, whereas others do not. In an SPM examined through the entire revision process, most revisions associated with governmental review and approval occurred before the start of the government-approval plenary session. These author revisions emphasize clarity, scientific rigor, and explanation. In contrast, the subsequent plenary revisions place greater emphasis especially on policy relevance, comprehensiveness of examples, and nuances of expert judgment. Overall, the value added by the IPCC process emerges in a multistage crucible of revision and approval, as individuals together navigate complex science-policy terrain. PMID:27532046

  7. A multistage crucible of revision and approval shapes IPCC policymaker summaries.

    PubMed

    Mach, Katharine J; Freeman, Patrick T; Mastrandrea, Michael D; Field, Christopher B

    2016-08-01

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) member governments approve each report's summary for policymakers (SPM) by consensus, discussing and agreeing on each sentence in a plenary session with scientist authors. A defining feature of IPCC assessment, the governmental approval process builds joint ownership of current knowledge by scientists and governments. The resulting SPM revisions have been extensively discussed in anecdotes, interviews, and perspectives, but they have not been comprehensively analyzed. We provide an in-depth evaluation of IPCC SPM revisions, establishing an evidential basis for understanding their nature. Revisions associated with governmental review and approval generally expand SPMs, with SPM text growing by 17 to 53% across recent assessment reports. Cases of high political sensitivity and failure to reach consensus are notable exceptions, resulting in SPM contractions. In contrast to recent claims, we find that IPCC SPMs are as readable, for multiple metrics of reading ease, as other professionally edited assessment summaries. Across reading-ease metrics, some SPMs become more readable through governmental review and approval, whereas others do not. In an SPM examined through the entire revision process, most revisions associated with governmental review and approval occurred before the start of the government-approval plenary session. These author revisions emphasize clarity, scientific rigor, and explanation. In contrast, the subsequent plenary revisions place greater emphasis especially on policy relevance, comprehensiveness of examples, and nuances of expert judgment. Overall, the value added by the IPCC process emerges in a multistage crucible of revision and approval, as individuals together navigate complex science-policy terrain. PMID:27532046

  8. Changes in free polyamine levels, expression of polyamine biosynthesis genes, and performance of rice cultivars under salt stress: a comparison with responses to drought

    PubMed Central

    Do, Phuc T.; Drechsel, Oliver; Heyer, Arnd G.; Hincha, Dirk K.; Zuther, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity affects a large proportion of rural area and limits agricultural productivity. To investigate differential adaptation to soil salinity, we studied salt tolerance of 18 varieties of Oryza sativa using a hydroponic culture system. Based on visual inspection and photosynthetic parameters, cultivars were classified according to their tolerance level. Additionally, biomass parameters were correlated with salt tolerance. Polyamines have frequently been demonstrated to be involved in plant stress responses and therefore soluble leaf polyamines were measured. Under salinity, putrescine (Put) content was unchanged or increased in tolerant, while dropped in sensitive cultivars. Spermidine (Spd) content was unchanged at lower NaCl concentrations in all, while reduced at 100 mM NaCl in sensitive cultivars. Spermine (Spm) content was increased in all cultivars. A comparison with data from 21 cultivars under long-term, moderate drought stress revealed an increase of Spm under both stress conditions. While Spm became the most prominent polyamine under drought, levels of all three polyamines were relatively similar under salt stress. Put levels were reduced under both, drought and salt stress, while changes in Spd were different under drought (decrease) or salt (unchanged) conditions. Regulation of polyamine metabolism at the transcript level during exposure to salinity was studied for genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of polyamines and compared to expression under drought stress. Based on expression profiles, investigated genes were divided into generally stress-induced genes (ADC2, SPD/SPM2, SPD/SPM3), one generally stress-repressed gene (ADC1), constitutively expressed genes (CPA1, CPA2, CPA4, SAMDC1, SPD/SPM1), specifically drought-induced genes (SAMDC2, AIH), one specifically drought-repressed gene (CPA3) and one specifically salt-stress repressed gene (SAMDC4), revealing both overlapping and specific stress responses under these conditions

  9. Optical variability of seawater in relation to particle concentration, composition, and size distribution in the nearshore marine environment at Imperial Beach, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woźniak, SłAwomir B.; Stramski, Dariusz; Stramska, Malgorzata; Reynolds, Rick A.; Wright, Vanessa M.; Miksic, Ezra Y.; Cichocka, Marta; Cieplak, Agnieszka M.

    2010-08-01

    We examined optical variability of seawater in relation to particle concentration, composition, and size distribution in the nearshore marine environment at Imperial Beach, California, over a period of 1.5 years. Measurements included the hyperspectral inherent optical properties (IOPs) of seawater (particulate beam attenuation, particulate and CDOM absorption coefficients within the spectral range 300-850 nm), particle size distribution (PSD) within the diameter range 2-60 μm, and the mass concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM), particulate organic carbon (POC), and chlorophyll a (Chl). The particulate assemblage spanned a wide range of concentrations and composition, from the dominance of mineral particles (POC/SPM < 0.06) with relatively steep PSDs to the high significance or dominance of organic particles (POC/SPM > 0.25) with considerably greater contribution of larger-sized particles. Large variability in the particulate characteristics produced correspondingly large variability in the IOPs; up to 100-fold variation in particulate absorption and scattering coefficients and several-fold variation in the SPM-specific and POC-specific coefficients. Analysis of these data demonstrates that knowledge of general characteristics about the particulate composition and size distribution leads to improved interpretations of the observed optical variability. We illustrate a multistep empirical approach for estimating proxies of particle concentration (SPM and POC), composition (POC/SPM), and size distribution (median diameter) from the measured IOPs in a complex coastal environment. The initial step provides information about a proxy for particle composition; other particulate characteristics are subsequently derived from relationships specific to different categories of particulate composition.

  10. Zn isotopes in the suspended load of the Seine River, France: Isotopic variations and source determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, JiuBin; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Louvat, Pascale; Huon, Sylvain

    2009-07-01

    We report Zn isotopic ratios (δ 66Zn) of river suspended particulate matter (SPM) and floodplain deposits (FD) from the Seine basin, France, with a precision ⩽0.05‰. A decrease in δ 66Zn from 0.30‰ to 0.08‰ is observed in SPM from the upstream to downstream parts of the fluvial system, associated with an increase in Zn concentration from 100 ppm to 400 ppm. The Zn/Al of SPM at the river mouth is up to five times greater than the Zn/Al of the natural background, and by normalizing to the later value we define a Zn enrichment factor. Suspended sediments from a temporal series of samples collected in Paris display a similar variation in δ 66Zn of between 0.08‰ and 0.26‰, while showing an inverse relationship between the Zn enrichment factor and δ 66Zn. The amount of Zn transported as suspended load varies from 10% to 90%, as a function of increasing discharge. The δ 66Zn of SPM and the dissolved load are correlated, suggesting that adsorption processes are probably not the dominant process by which the Zn enrichment of SPM takes place. Instead, we interpret our data as reflecting the mixture of two main populations of suspended particles with distinct δ 66Zn. The first is characteristic of natural silicate particles transported by erosion processes to the river, while the second likely represents anthropogenic particles derived from wastewater treatment plants or combined sewer overflows. Based on isotopic ratios, we calculate that 70% of Zn in SPM of the Seine River in Paris is of anthropogenic origin.

  11. Estuary Turbidity Maxima -- Connections between the Tidal-Fluvial and Estuarine Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jay, D. A.; Talke, S. A.; Hudson, A. S.; Twardowski, M.

    2015-12-01

    An Estuary turbidity maximum or zone (ETM or ETZ) is an area of elevated sediment concentration that often occurs in coastal plain, salt wedge, and river-dominated estuaries. ETMs influence the morphodynamic development, biogeochemical cycling, and contaminant distribution of the many systems in which they occur. In developed estuaries, they are often created or augmented by dredging. Material of either fluvial or marine origin may be trapped, but fluvial supply is dominant in most river-estuary ETMs. An ETM can be described in terms of the type of particle trapping mechanisms that concentrate or trap suspended particulate matter (SPM). Convergent alongchannel SPM fluxes are required to create an ETM, and for a steady-state to pertain, seaward fluxes related to river flow must be balanced by landward mean, tidal or overtide fluxes. Horizontal and vertical salinity and/or sediment gradients often enhance trapping by concentrating SPM near the bed and cause near-bed landward flow and SPM transport. Also, lateral processes can concentrate or disperse SPM, and lags between SPM concentration and velocity are often a dominant factor in systems with fine grained sediment. The settled bed in an ETM may be fine grained, but ETM also occur in sand-bedded systems where no long-term deposition of ETM material occurs. We summarize results of theoretical models that provide a conceptual understanding of how ETM fluxes trap material and how ETM properties vary in response to external forcing. Remote sensing images provide a spatial view of ETM phenomena, and analyses of 15 years of ocean color data for the Columbia River Estuary validate theoretical results. Recent advances in acoustic and optical instrumentation in other environments should facilitate a new generation of ETM measurements, providing better time-space coverage and better flux estimates. Accordingly, we suggest ETM research questions for the coming decade.

  12. PAH occurrence in chalk river systems from the Jura region (France). Pertinence of suspended particulate matter and sediment as matrices for river quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chiffre, Axelle; Degiorgi, François; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Bolard, Audrey; Chanez, Etienne; Badot, Pierre-Marie

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in surface water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment upstream and downstream of the discharges of two wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. Relationships between the levels of PAHs in these different matrices were also investigated. The sum of 16 US EPA PAHs ranged from 73.5 to 728.0 ng L(-1) in surface water and from 85.4 to 313.1 ng L(-1) in effluent. In SPM and sediment, ∑16PAHs ranged from 749.6 to 2,463 μg kg(-1) and from 690.7 μg kg(-1) to 3,625.6 μg kg(-1), respectively. Investigations performed upstream and downstream of both studied WWTPs showed that WWTP discharges may contribute to the overall PAH contaminations in the Loue and the Doubs rivers. Comparison between gammarid populations upstream and downstream of WWTP discharge showed that biota was impacted by the WWTP effluents. When based only on surface water samples, the assessment of freshwater quality did not provide evidence for a marked PAH contamination in either of the rivers studied. However, using SPM and sediment samples, we found PAH contents exceeding sediment quality guidelines. We conclude that sediment and SPM are relevant matrices to assess overall PAH contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, we found a positive linear correlation between PAH contents of SPM and sediment, showing that SPM represents an integrating matrix which is able to provide meaningful data about the overall contamination over a given time span. PMID:26139398

  13. Human Milk Proresolving Mediators Stimulate Resolution of Acute Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Dalli, Jesmond; Serhan, Charles N

    2015-01-01

    Human milk contains nutrients and bioactive products relevant to infant development and immunological protection. Here, we investigated the pro-resolving properties of milk using human milk lipid mediator isolates (HLMI) and determined their impact on resolution programs in vivo and with human macrophages. HLMI reduced maximum neutrophil numbers (14.6±1.2×106 to 11.0±1.0×106 cells/exudate) and shortened the resolution interval (Ri; 50% neutrophil reduction) 54% compared to peritonitis. Using rigorous liquid-chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS)-based lipid mediator (LM) metabololipidomics, we demonstrated that human milk possesses a proresolving LM-SPM signature profile, containing specialized proresolving mediators (SPM; e.g. resolvins, protectins, maresins and lipoxins) at bioactive levels (pico-nanomolar concentrations) that enhanced human macrophage efferocytosis and bacterial containment. SPM identified in human milk included D-series resolvins, (e.g. Resolvin (Rv) D1, RvD2, RvD3, AT-RvD3 and RvD4), Protectin (PD)1, Maresin (MaR)1, E-series resolvins (e.g. RvE1, RvE2 and RvE3) and lipoxins (LXA4 and LXB4). Of the SPM identified in human milk, RvD2 and MaR1 (50 ng/mouse) individually shortened Ri ~75%. Milk from mastitis gave higher LTB4 and prostanoids and lower SPM levels. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that human milk has pro-resolving actions via comprehensive LM-SPM profiling, describing a potentially novel mechanism in maternal-infant biochemical imprinting. PMID:26462421

  14. Observations of the sensitivity of beam attenuation to particle size in a coastal bottom boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, P. S.; Boss, E.; Newgard, J. P.; Law, B. A.; Milligan, T. G.

    2011-02-01

    The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the aggregated state of natural marine particles constrains the sensitivity of optical beam attenuation to particle size. An instrumented bottom tripod was deployed at the 12-m node of the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory to monitor particle size distributions, particle size-versus-settling-velocity relationships, and the beam attenuation coefficient (cp) in the bottom boundary layer in September 2007. An automated in situ filtration system on the tripod collected 24 direct estimates of suspended particulate mass (SPM) during each of five deployments. On a sampling interval of 5 min, data from a Sequoia Scientific LISST 100x Type B were merged with data from a digital floc camera to generate suspended particle volume size distributions spanning diameters from approximately 2 μm to 4 cm. Diameter-dependent densities were calculated from size-versus-settling-velocity data, allowing conversion of the volume size distributions to mass distributions, which were used to estimate SPM every 5 min. Estimated SPM and measured cp from the LISST 100x were linearly correlated throughout the experiment, despite wide variations in particle size. The slope of the line, which is the ratio of cp to SPM, was 0.22 g m-2. Individual estimates of cp:SPM were between 0.2 and 0.4 g m-2 for volumetric median particle diameters ranging from 10 to 150 μm. The wide range of values in cp:SPM in the literature likely results from three factors capable of producing factor-of-two variability in the ratio: particle size, particle composition, and the finite acceptance angle of commercial beam-transmissometers.

  15. Interferometer-Controlled Optical Tweezers Constructed for Nanotechnology and Biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    2002-01-01

    A new method to control microparticles was developed in-house at the NASA Glenn Research Center in support of the nanotechnology project under NASA's Aerospace Propulsion and Power Base Research Program. A prototype interferometer-controlled optical tweezers was constructed to manipulate scanning probe microscope (SPM) tips. A laser beam passed through a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and a microscope objective then produced an optical trap from the coaxial beams. The trap levitated and generated the coarse motion of a 10-mm polystyrene sphere used to simulate a SPM tip. The interference between the beams provided fine control of the forces and moments on the sphere. The interferometer included a piezoelectric-scanned mirror to modulate the interference pattern. The 10-mm sphere was observed to oscillate about 1 mm as the mirror and fringe pattern oscillated. The prototype tweezers proved the feasibility of constructing a more sophisticated interferometer tweezers to hold and manipulate SPM tips. The SPM tips are intended to interrogate and manipulate nanostructures. A more powerful laser will be used to generate multiple traps to hold nanostructures and SPM tips. The vibrating mirror in the interferometer will be replaced with a spatial light modulator. The modulator will allow the optical phase distribution in one leg of the interferometer to be programmed independently at 640 by 480 points for detailed control of the forces and moments. The interference patterns will be monitored to measure the motion of the SPM tips. Neuralnetwork technology will provide fast analysis of the interference patterns for diagnostic purposes and for local or remote feedback control of the tips. This effort also requires theoretical and modeling support in the form of scattering calculations for twin coherent beams from nonspherical particles.

  16. Variability in the fractionation of stable isotopes during degradation of two intertidal red algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Jaclyn M.; McQuaid, Christopher D.

    2009-04-01

    Macroalgae contribute to intertidal food webs primarily as detritus, with unclear implications for food web studies using stable isotope analysis. We examined differences in the thallus parts of two South African rhodophytes ( Gelidium pristoides and Hypnea spicifera) and changes in overall δ13C, δ15N signatures and C:N ratios during degradation in both the field and laboratory. We hypothesized that both degrading macroalgal tissue and macroalgal-derived suspended particulate material (SPM) would show negligible changes in δ13C, but enriched δ15N signatures and lower C:N ratios relative to healthy plants. Only C:N laboratory ratios conformed to predictions, with both species of macroalgae showing decomposition related changes in δ13C and significant depletions in δ15N in both the field and laboratory. In the laboratory, algal tissue and SPM from each species behaved similarly (though some effects were non-significant) but with differing strengths. Gelidium pristoides δ13C increased and C:N ratios decreased over time in tissue and SPM; δ15N became depleted only in SPM. Hypnea spicifera, δ13C, δ15N and C:N ratios all decreased during degradation in both SPM and algae. Over 60 days in the field, δ13C was depleted in both species (1-2‰) and in naturally senescent Gelidium pristoides fronds. δ15N was depleted in Hypnea spicifera (approx. 1‰), while C:N ratios of both species were unaffected. The two species differed in δ13C, δ15N and C:N after degradation, but only in C:N beforehand. We suggest isotope changes in the laboratory mainly reflect microbial effects, while in the field these are combined with leaching due to constant water replenishment and agitation. Differences between these two species in the isotope responses to degradation highlight the difficulty of linking the signature of SPM to its multiple sources.

  17. Characterization of disease-related covariance topographies with SSMPCA toolbox: effects of spatial normalization and PET scanners.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shichun; Ma, Yilong; Spetsieris, Phoebe G; Mattis, Paul; Feigin, Andrew; Dhawan, Vijay; Eidelberg, David

    2014-05-01

    To generate imaging biomarkers from disease-specific brain networks, we have implemented a general toolbox to rapidly perform scaled subprofile modeling (SSM) based on principal component analysis (PCA) on brain images of patients and normals. This SSMPCA toolbox can define spatial covariance patterns whose expression in individual subjects can discriminate patients from controls or predict behavioral measures. The technique may depend on differences in spatial normalization algorithms and brain imaging systems. We have evaluated the reproducibility of characteristic metabolic patterns generated by SSMPCA in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We used [(18) F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET scans from patients with PD and normal controls. Motor-related (PDRP) and cognition-related (PDCP) metabolic patterns were derived from images spatially normalized using four versions of SPM software (spm99, spm2, spm5, and spm8). Differences between these patterns and subject scores were compared across multiple independent groups of patients and control subjects. These patterns and subject scores were highly reproducible with different normalization programs in terms of disease discrimination and cognitive correlation. Subject scores were also comparable in patients with PD imaged across multiple PET scanners. Our findings confirm a very high degree of consistency among brain networks and their clinical correlates in PD using images normalized in four different SPM platforms. SSMPCA toolbox can be used reliably for generating disease-specific imaging biomarkers despite the continued evolution of image preprocessing software in the neuroimaging community. Network expressions can be quantified in individual patients independent of different physical characteristics of PET cameras. PMID:23671030

  18. Theory of Self-Phase Modulation and Spectral Broadening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y. R.; Yang, Guo-Zhen

    Self-phase modulation refers to the phenomenon in which a laser beam propagating in a medium interacts with the medium and imposes a phase modulation on itself. It is one of those very fascinating effects discovered in the early days of nonlinear optics (Bloembergen and Lallemand, 1966; Brewer, 1967; Cheung et al., 1968; Lallemand, 1966; Jones and Stoicheff, 1964; Shimizu, 1967; Stoicheff, 1963). The physical origin of the phenomenon lies in the fact that the strong field of a laser beam is capable of inducing an appreciable intensity-dependent refractive index change in the medium. The medium then reacts back and inflicts a phase change on the incoming wave, resulting in self-phase modulation (SPM). Since a laser beam has a finite cross section, and hence a transverse intensity profile, SPM on the beam should have a transverse spatial dependence, equivalent to a distortion of the wave front. Consequently, the beam will appear to have self-diffracted. Such a self-diffraction action, resulting from SPM in space, is responsible for the well-known nonlinear optical phenomena of self-focusing and self-defocusing (Marburger, 1975; Shen, 1975). It can give rise to a multiple ring structure in the diffracted beam if the SPM is sufficiently strong (Durbin et al., 1981; Santamato and Shen, 1984). In the case of a pulsed laser input, the temporal variation of the laser intensity leads to an SPM in time. Since the time derivative of the phase of a wave is simply the angular frequency of the wave, SPM also appears as a frequency modulation. Thus, the output beam appears with a self-induced spectral broadening (Cheung et al., 1968; Gustafson et al., 1969; Shimizu, 1967).

  19. Loss of Wnt5a disrupts second heart field cell deployment and may contribute to OFT malformations in DiGeorge syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Tanvi; Li, Ding; Théveniau-Ruissy, Magali; Hutson, Mary R.; Kelly, Robert G.; Wang, Jianbo

    2015-01-01

    Outflow tract (OFT) malformation accounts for ∼30% of human congenital heart defects and manifests frequently in TBX1 haplo-insufficiency associated DiGeorge (22q11.2 deletion) syndrome. OFT myocardium originates from second heart field (SHF) progenitors in the pharyngeal and splanchnic mesoderm (SpM), but how these progenitors are deployed to the OFT is unclear. We find that SHF progenitors in the SpM gradually gain epithelial character and are deployed to the OFT as a cohesive sheet. Wnt5a, a non-canonical Wnt, is expressed specifically in the caudal SpM and may regulate oriented cell intercalation to incorporate SHF progenitors into an epithelial-like sheet, thereby generating the pushing force to deploy SHF cells rostrally into the OFT. Using enhancer trap and Cre transgenes, our lineage tracing experiments show that in Wnt5a null mice, SHF progenitors are trapped in the SpM and fail to be deployed to the OFT efficiently, resulting in a reduction in the inferior OFT myocardial wall and its derivative, subpulmonary myocardium. Concomitantly, the superior OFT and subaortic myocardium are expanded. Finally, in chick embryos, blocking the Wnt5a function in the caudal SpM perturbs polarized elongation of SHF progenitors, and compromises their deployment to the OFT. Collectively, our results highlight a critical role for Wnt5a in deploying SHF progenitors from the SpM to the OFT. Given that Wnt5a is a putative transcriptional target of Tbx1, and the similar reduction of subpulmonary myocardium in Tbx1 mutant mice, our results suggest that perturbing Wnt5a-mediated SHF deployment may be an important pathogenic mechanism contributing to OFT malformations in DiGeorge syndrome. PMID:25410658

  20. Sources and distributions of branched and isoprenoid tetraether lipids on the Amazon shelf and fan: Implications for the use of GDGT-based proxies in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zell, Claudia; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Hollander, David; Lorenzoni, Laura; Baker, Paul; Silva, Cleverson Guizan; Nittrouer, Charles; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2014-08-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in river fan sediments have been used successfully to reconstruct mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and soil pH of the Congo River drainage basin. However, in a previous study of Amazon deep-sea fan sediments the reconstructed MAATs were ca. 10 °C colder than the actual MAAT of the Amazon basin. In this study we investigated this apparent offset, by comparing the concentrations and distributions of brGDGTs in Amazon River suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments to those in marine SPM and surface sediments. The riverine brGDGT input was evident from the elevated brGDGT concentrations in marine SPM and surface sediments close to the river mouth. The distributions of brGDGTs in marine SPM and sediments varied widely, but generally showed a higher relative abundance of methylated and cyclic brGDGTs than those in the river. Since this difference in brGDGT distribution was also found in intact polar lipid (IPL)-derived brGDGTs, which were more recently produced, the change in the marine brGDGT distribution was most likely due to marine in situ production. Consequently, the MAATs calculated based on the methylation of branched tetraethers (MBT) and the cyclisation of branched tetraethers (CBT) were lower and the CBT-derived pH values were higher than those of the Amazon basin. However, SPM and sediments from stations close to the river mouth still showed MBT/CBT values that were similar to those of the river. Therefore, we recommend caution when applying the MBT/CBT proxy, it should only be used in sediment cores that were under high river influence. The influence of riverine derived isoprenoid GDGT (isoGDGT) on the isoGDGT-based TEX86 temperature proxy was also examined in marine SPM and sediments. An input of riverine isoGDGTs from the Amazon River was apparent, but its influence on the marine TEX86 was minor since the TEX86 of SPM in the Amazon River was similar to that in the marine SPM and sediments.

  1. Theoretical investigations of EPR g factors for Ce3+ ion at monoclinic Cs site in YAlO3 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong-Gang; Zheng, Wen-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Three EPR principal g values (gx, gy and gz) for monoclinic (Cs) Ce3+ center in YAlO3 crystal are calculated by the complete diagonalization (of energy matrix) method (CDM) based on the superposition model (SPM) analysis. The calculated g factors are more reasonably closer to experimental results reported by Asatryan et al. (2002) than their same work in 1997. The reliability of fitted crystal-field parameters of YAP:Ce3+ crystal is also analyzed. In SPM calculations, the seeming abnormal negative power-law exponent t6 is found to be actually reasonable and its underlying cause may be explained by future ab initio studies.

  2. What is Scanning Probe Microscopy? And How Can It Be Used In Failure Analysis?

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, A.; Tangyunyong, P.

    1999-03-26

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques are not suitable as global defect-localization tools. They can, however, pinpoint the exact location of the defects once the approximate locations of the defects have been identified by other failure analysis techniques. SPM techniques also provide information such as 3-D topology, current, surface potential, and 2-D dopant profile that may not be readily obtainable with other techniques. This information, coupled with the unparalleled spatial resolution and high detection sensitivity can be used by failure analysts for root cause analysis.

  3. Sensor-actuator coupled device for active tracheal tube using solid polymer electrolyte membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihara, Tadashi; Nakamura, Taro; Mukai, Toshiharu; Asaka, Kinji

    2007-04-01

    A sensor-actuator coupled device was developed using solid polymer electrolyte membrane (SPM) as an active tracheal tube for ventilator. Active tracheal tube is a novel type of tube for ventilator that removes patient's phlegm automatically upon sensing the narrowing of trachea by phlegm. This type of active tube is extremely useful in clinical settings as currently the sole measure to remove phlegm from patient's tube is to do it manually by a nurse every few hours. As SPM works both as a sensor and an actuator, an effective compact device was developed. SPM based sensor-actuator coupled device was fabricated with modified gold plating method. Prepared SPM was fixed as an array on a plastic pipe of diameter 22 mm and was connected to a ventilator circuit and driven by a ventilator with a volume control ventilation (VCV) mode. SPM was connected both to a sensing unit and an actuation unit. Generated voltage developed by the membrane with the setting of the maximum pressure from 5 cmH IIO to 20 cmH IIO was in order of several hundred μV. SPM sensor demonstrated a biphasic response to the ventilator flow. The sensor data showed nearly linearly proportional voltage development to the intra-tracheal pressure. The sensed signal was filtered and digitized with an A/D converting unit on a PC board. A real time operating program was used to detect the sensed signal that indicates the narrowing of trachea. The program then activated a driving signal to control the actuation of the membrane. The signal was sent to a D/A converting unit. The output of the D/A unit was sent to an amplifier and the galvanostat unit which drives the membrane with constant current regardless of the change in the load. It was demonstrated that the sensor-actuator unit detects the narrowing of trachea within several hundreds milli-seconds and responds by actuating the same membrane with the driving voltage of 3-4 V and driving current of several hundred milli-ampere for each membrane. SPM array

  4. Validation of two air quality models for Indian mining conditions.

    PubMed

    Chaulya, S K; Ahmad, M; Singh, R S; Bandopadhyay, L K; Bondyopadhay, C; Mondal, G C

    2003-02-01

    All major mining activity particularly opencast mining contributes to the problem of suspended particulate matter (SPM) directly or indirectly. Therefore, assessment and prediction are required to prevent and minimize the deterioration of SPM due to various opencast mining operations. Determination of emission rate of SPM for these activities and validation of air quality models are the first and foremost concern. In view of the above, the study was taken up for determination of emission rate for SPM to calculate emission rate of various opencast mining activities and validation of commonly used two air quality models for Indian mining conditions. To achieve the objectives, eight coal and three iron ore mining sites were selected to generate site specific emission data by considering type of mining, method of working, geographical location, accessibility and above all resource availability. The study covers various mining activities and locations including drilling, overburden loading and unloading, coal/mineral loading and unloading, coal handling or screening plant, exposed overburden dump, stock yard, workshop, exposed pit surface, transport road and haul road. Validation of the study was carried out through Fugitive Dust Model (FDM) and Point, Area and Line sources model (PAL2) by assigning the measured emission rate for each mining activity, meteorological data and other details of the respective mine as an input to the models. Both the models were run separately for the same set of input data for each mine to get the predicted SPM concentration at three receptor locations for each mine. The receptor locations were selected such a way that at the same places the actual filed measurement were carried out for SPM concentration. Statistical analysis was carried out to assess the performance of the models based on a set measured and predicted SPM concentration data. The value of coefficient of correlation for PAL2 and FDM was calculated to be 0.990-0.994 and 0

  5. Assessment of the sources of suspended particulate matter aerosol using US EPA PMF 3.0.

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Firoz; Hirano, Koichiro; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper was to carry out a source apportionment of suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples using positive matrix factorization procedure. The central and local Government of Japan introduced strict emission regulations in 2002/10 and 2003/10, respectively, in curbing SPM pollution from major metropolitans. This paper also highlighted the impact of the measures taken by the central and local Government of Japan on the reduction of SPM and the contributions of sources. SPM samples were collected for 6 years starting from 1999 to 2005 at two sites, i.e., site A (urban) and site B (suburban) of Yokohama, Japan. Microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) were employed to measure Mg, Al, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb and Bi, while water soluble ions (Na(+), NH₄⁺, K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Cl(-), NO₃⁻ and SO₄²⁻ as well as carbonaceous mass (EC and OC) were analyzed using ion chromatograph and CHN analyzer, respectively. The sources identified at two sites were automobile, soil dust, marine aerosol, mixed sources, and secondarily formed aerosol. Also, source quantification was performed. Automobile and soil dust were striking contributors at site A. Automobile and soil dust of SPM aerosol might be produced from local origin at current study areas. Besides, Asian dust had an impact on high concentrations of SPM aerosol in some certain period of the year due to the outflows of East Asian emission. In contrast, secondary aerosol in the form of sulfate and ammonium as well as mixed sources (coal, long-transported Cs, and other unknown sources) were remarkable at site B. Stationary/industrial combustion has apparently more impact on the release of SPM components at site B than A. Automobile regulations in 2002 and 2003, respectively, resulted in reduction of SPM by 28% for site A and 16% for site B. There was also net reduction of automobile contribution at both sites due

  6. Availability of feature-oriented scanning probe microscopy for remote-controlled measurements on board a space laboratory or planet exploration Rover.

    PubMed

    Lapshin, Rostislav V

    2009-06-01

    Prospects for a feature-oriented scanning (FOS) approach to investigations of sample surfaces, at the micrometer and nanometer scales, with the use of scanning probe microscopy under space laboratory or planet exploration rover conditions, are examined. The problems discussed include decreasing sensitivity of the onboard scanning probe microscope (SPM) to temperature variations, providing autonomous operation, implementing the capabilities for remote control, self-checking, self-adjustment, and self-calibration. A number of topical problems of SPM measurements in outer space or on board a planet exploration rover may be solved via the application of recently proposed FOS methods. PMID:19566423

  7. Transportation and Distribution of Particulate Lignin in Changjiang (Yangtze River) Drainage Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, J.

    2006-12-01

    Plant, soil and surface sediment and surface suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples from Yangtze River basin were analyzed for elements, stable isotopes and lignin phenols to investigate the transport and early diagenesis characteristics of terrestrial organic matter (OM). There was relatively large amount of less degraded lignin in soils of middle/down reaches, compared to that of upper reaches. OC%, ¦Ä13C and λ8 (yields of lignin phenols) also discriminated soils of northern tributaries from soils of southern tributaries. Lignin characteristics of sediments and SPM in main stream were similar to soils. C/V, S/V (molar ratio of syringyl phenols to vanillyl phenols) and (Ad/Al)v (ratio of vanillic acid to vanillin) suggested a non- woody angiosperm tissues origin in sediments of down reaches and a soil origin in upper reaches. The change of lignin contents in SPM along the main stream from upper reaches to down reaches was reversed to that of sediments and lignin was much fresher, which indicated more plant detritus contribution to SPM. A simple three-end-member model with ¦Ä13C and λ8 was applied to evaluate the contribution of sources (plant detritus, soils of northern tributaries and southern tributaries) to OM in SPM and sediments. Results of calculation indicated soils of northern tributaries account for nearly \\70% of the OM in sediments of upper reaches and \\30% of that of down reaches. The contribution of plant detritus was very low to sediments of upper reaches and gradually increased to around \\50% to that of down reaches. As to SPM, plant detritus and northern soils contributed nearly \\50% and \\40% respectively to upper reaches and about \\20% and \\10% to down reaches. A model was built up to explain the lignin transfer from land to river, from surface SPM to surface sediments and it proved that lignin was relative reserved in Changjiang. Physical processes such as hydrodynamic sorting, velocity of flow and sedimentation controlled the

  8. Minimizing sulfur contamination and rinse water volume required following a sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide clean by performing a chemically basic rinse

    SciTech Connect

    Clews, P.J.; Nelson, G.C.; Resnick, P.J.; Matlock, C.A.; Adkins, C.L.J.

    1997-08-01

    Sulfuric acid hydrogen peroxide mixtures (SPM) are commonly used in the semiconductor industry to remove organic contaminants from wafer surfaces. This viscous solution is very difficult to rinse off wafer surfaces. Various rinsing conditions were tested and the resulting residual contamination on the wafer surface was measured. The addition of small amounts of a chemical base such as ammonium hydroxide to the rinse water has been found to be effective in reducing the surface concentration of sulfur and also mitigates the particle growth that occurs on SPM cleaned wafers. The volume of room temperature water required to rinse these wafers is also significantly reduced.

  9. Correlation study between suspended particulate matter and DOAS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Fuqi; Liu, Jianguo; Xie, Pinghua; Zhang, Yujun; Liu, Wenqing; Kuze, Hiroaki; Lagrosas, Nofel; Takeuchi, Nobuo

    2006-05-01

    Continuous data of aerosol optical thickness monitored using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) are correlated with the concentration of ground-measured suspended particulate matter (SPM). A high correlation is found between the DOAS and the ground SPM data, making it possible to calculate the mass extinction efficiency of the aerosols in the atmosphere. It is found that the value of mean mass extinction efficiency (MEE) varies over a range of 2.6 13.7 m2 g-1, with smaller and larger values occurring for size distributions dominated by coarse and fine particles, respectively.

  10. Implementation of a new parcellation of the orbitofrontal cortex in the automated anatomical labeling atlas.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Edmund T; Joliot, Marc; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2015-11-15

    An alternative parcellation of the orbitofrontal cortex is described for the automated anatomical labeling atlas of Tzourio-Mazoyer et al. (2002) (Automated anatomical labeling of activations in SPM using a macroscopic anatomical parcellation of the MNI MRI single-subject brain. NeuroImage 15:273-289). The new parcellation of the orbitofrontal cortex follows the description provided by Chiavaras, Petrides, and colleagues (2000, 2001). The new atlas is available as a toolbox for SPM at http://www.gin.cnrs.fr/AAL2. PMID:26241684

  11. Suspended Particulate Matter as an Indicator for Turbulent Diffusion due to Ocean Surface Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleskachevsky, A.; Dobrynin, M.; Babanin, A.

    2009-04-01

    Sometimes modelled Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) shows large deviations from measurement. These problems may be related to insufficient model physics or incorrect parameterizations. On the other side, the large sensitivity of SPM to external forcing and internal processes makes it a perfect marker to study turbulence in the ocean, because the vertical distribution of SPM depends on settling velocities and turbulence, which propagate material from bottom up to the surface in shallow seas. Satellite observations in the North Sea show that the SPM concentration at the surface grows rapidly during a storm and builds plume-shaped structures. The satellite data reveal also that SPM concentration decreases rapidly after the wave height decreases, justifying the hypothesis that strong turbulence created by surface waves is a major contributor to the SPM dynamics. In this paper, the impact of the surface waves on the turbulent mixing in the North Sea is studied. The wave-induced turbulence is parameterized and implemented into the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) as an additional source of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). A number of tests experiments are carried out in order to reproduce experiments in a water tank and observations in the North Sea. In a tank ink is injected into water of 1 m depth. Experiments with 0,667 Hz frequency waves of different amplitudes (no winds, no currents) are done. If the amplitude is less than 2 cm, the ink is moving along the wave orbits. The patch stays unchanged for minutes. The motion is clearly laminar. For amplitudes of about 3 cm some vortexes become visible eroding the upper parts of ink pattern. For amplitudes greater than 4 cm the motion is obviously turbulent and the ink is completely dissolved within seconds. The extended GOTM model reproduces these observations. In the North Sea the data from the satellites MOS (Modular Optoelectronic Scanner) and MERIS (MEdium-spectral Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) are used to

  12. Temporal coherence shaping based on spectral-domain destructive interference of pulses with different self-phase modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, D.; Takamasu, K.; Matsumoto, H.

    2013-03-01

    We show via a numerical simulation that the temporal coherence function (TCF) can be shaped by the destructive interference of pulses characterized by different amounts of self-phase modulation (SPM) in the spectral domain. We find that pulse spectra destructively interfering with one another can yield a TCF with distinct peaks. Numerical investigation demonstrates that the shape of the TCF is changeable not only by broadening the spectrum but also by overlapping spectra of the pulses that have experienced different amounts of SPM.

  13. Teaching Plasmonics, Scanning Probe Microscopy and Other Useful Experiments at the Upper Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Erik

    2012-10-01

    It is important to teach students concepts and experimental skills relating to modern research being performed today. Experiments that help educate students about the latest research helps them get jobs and into the doors at many great academic institutions. PSU's Advanced Experimental Class for physics undergraduates offers many novel experiments to help the students accomplish this task. Labs involving Plasmonics, thin film deposition, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and more will be discussed. In addition, a new NSF funded project involving the building of a Do-It-Yourself (DIY) SPM will be discussed.

  14. Functional recognition imaging using artificial neural networks: applications to rapid cellular identification via broadband electromechanical response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiforov, M. P.; Reukov, V. V.; Thompson, G. L.; Vertegel, A. A.; Guo, S.; Kalinin, S. V.; Jesse, S.

    2009-10-01

    Functional recognition imaging in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) using artificial neural network identification is demonstrated. This approach utilizes statistical analysis of complex SPM responses at a single spatial location to identify the target behavior, which is reminiscent of associative thinking in the human brain, obviating the need for analytical models. We demonstrate, as an example of recognition imaging, rapid identification of cellular organisms using the difference in electromechanical activity over a broad frequency range. Single-pixel identification of model Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria is achieved, demonstrating the viability of the method.

  15. Generation of three-octave-spanning transient Raman comb in hydrogen-filled hollow-core PCF.

    PubMed

    Tani, F; Belli, F; Abdolvand, A; Travers, J C; Russell, P St J

    2015-03-15

    A noise-seeded transient comb of Raman sidebands spanning three octaves from 180 to 2400 nm, is generated by pumping a hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber with 26-μJ, 300-fs pulses at 800 nm. The pump pulses are spectrally broadened by both Kerr and Raman-related self-phase modulation (SPM), and the broadening is then transferred to the Raman lines. In spite of the high intensity, and in contrast to bulk gas-cell based experiments, neither SPM broadening nor ionization are detrimental to comb formation. PMID:25768173

  16. Enhancement of self-phase modulation induced spectral broadening in silicon suspended membrane waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaojing; Cheng, Zhenzhou; Liu, Linghai; Zhu, Bingqing; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Wen; Wu, Xinru; Tsang, Hon Ki

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally observed a possibly enhanced self-phase modulation (SPM) in silicon suspended membrane waveguides (SMWs) by measuring the spectral broadening of optical pulses. The nonlinear coefficient n 2 and the two-photon absorption coefficient β 2 of silicon SMWs were measured to be (4.6 ± 0.9) × 10-18 m2 W-1 and 0.46 cm GW-1 at 1555 nm wavelength. We also proposed a method of using SPM-induced spectral broadening to obtain the coupling loss of a single grating coupler and experimentally compared the spectra of two grating couplers in silicon SMWs and in silicon-on-insulator waveguides.

  17. Suspended particulate matter flocculation in a natural tidal wetland located in the San Francisco Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraceno, J.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Wright, S. A.; Boss, E.; Downing, B. D.; Fleck, J.; Ganju, N. K.

    2011-12-01

    Suspended mineral and algal particles together comprise suspended particulate matter (SPM). The SPM size distribution influences the quantity and color of light penetration and the adsorption and transport of contaminants such as pesticides and metals. It is widely known that interaction with wetlands alters the size distribution and quality of particles through local primary production, differential settling and particle aggregation, however, our understanding of how tidal wetland processes affect SPM quantity and size spectra has been hampered by the difficulty of directly observing these parameters at tidal time scales. To evaluate how SPM concentration and size varied over tidal time scales and to better understand the relationship between organic matter and sediment characteristics, simultaneous measurements of dissolved organic matter, SPM concentration and organic content as well as in situ surrogates of particle concentration (turbidity, particulate attenuation, volume concentration) and particle size (laser diffraction) were carried out with measurements of current velocity (acoustic Doppler velocity meter) in the main channel of Brown's Island located in the western San Joaquin/Sacramento River Delta, CA. The study period coincided with high estuary sediment levels following a significant precipitation runoff event. In the Brown Island wetland, particle concentration and size dynamics were tied to variations in water level and velocity. Turbidity and attenuation covaried with the volume concentration of particles smaller than 33 um, which on average represented greater than 50% of particle population by volume. On average, these SPM concentration surrogates were three times higher in flood water than in ebb water; consistent with a loss of fine particles on the island. Following the highest flood tide, the decrease in fine particles was coincident with an increase in the concentration of particles larger than 130 um; a finding consistent with particle

  18. Resolvins, Specialized Pro-Resolving Lipid Mediators and their Potential Roles in Metabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Spite, Matthew; Clària, Joan; Serhan, Charles N.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation is associated with development of diseases characterized by altered nutrient metabolism. While an acute inflammatory response is host-protective and normally self-limited, chronic low-grade inflammation associated with metabolic diseases is sustained and detrimental. Resolution of inflammation involves termination of neutrophil recruitment, counter-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators, stimulation of macrophage-mediated clearance and tissue remodeling. Specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPM) -- resolvins, protectins and maresins -- are novel autacoids that resolve inflammation, protect organs, and stimulate tissue regeneration. Here, we review evidence that failure of resolution programs contributes to metabolic diseases and that SPM may play pivotal roles in their resolution. PMID:24239568

  19. Value of FDG PET/CT in staging of oral cancer: four simultaneous primary malignancies.

    PubMed

    Linz, Christian; Müller-Richter, Urs D A; Kircher, Stefan; Lapa, Constantin; Bluemel, Christina

    2015-05-01

    Patients with squamous cell cancer (SCC) of the head and neck are at increased risk for second primary malignancies (SPMs). We report on a 53-year-old patient with primary diagnosis of SCC in the anterior floor of the mouth. Panendoscopy suspected an SPM of the right vocal cord. FDG PET/CT, as a whole-body imaging method, confirmed this suspicion and raised concern for further SPM of both esophagus and colon. All malignancies were confirmed by biopsy. Subsequently, the patient underwent radiochemotherapy. In summary, FDG PET/CT revealed unexpected multiple SPMs, prevented unnecessary resection of the oral SCC, and enabled individualized therapeutic management. PMID:25742223

  20. Increased Risk of Second Primary Malignancy in Pediatric and Young Adult Patients Treated with Radioactive Iodine for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Jennifer L.; Jain, Kunal S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The long-term sequelae of radioactive iodine (RAI) for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in pediatric and young adult patients are not well-defined. Epidemiologic analyses of second primary malignancy (SPM) risk have only been performed in the adult population. Existing data are limited to case series with limited follow-up. The objective of this study was to analyze the elevated risk of SPM attributable to RAI in young patients treated for DTC. Methods: Population-based analysis of 3850 pediatric and young adult patients (<25 years old) undergoing treatment with surgery with/without RAI for DTC, followed in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry (1973–2008), equating to 54,727 person-years at risk (PYR). The excess risk of SPM was calculated relative to a reference population and expressed as standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) per 10,000 PYR. Excess risk was compared in RAI-treated and non-RAI-treated patients. Results: A total of 1571 patients (40%) received RAI. The percentage of patients treated with RAI increased over time, from 4% in 1973 to 62% in 2008 (p<0.001). Among patients who received RAI, 26 SPMs were observed, and 18.3 were expected. The relative risk of SPM at any site was significantly elevated (SIR=1.42), corresponding to 4.4 excess cases per 10,000 PYR. SPM risk was not elevated in the non-RAI-treated cohort (SIR=1.01, EAR=0). Patients treated with RAI were at dramatically elevated risk for development of a salivary malignancy (SIR=34.1), corresponding to 1.7 excess cases per 10,000 PYR. The risk of leukemia in RAI-treated patients was elevated (SIR=4.0, EAR=0.9) but did not reach statistical significance. There was no elevated risk of salivary cancer or leukemia in the non-RAI-treated cohort. Conclusions: Pediatric and young adult patients who receive RAI for DTC experience an elevated risk of SPM, mainly salivary gland cancer. These risks appear to be only slightly higher

  1. Spatial Variation in Chemical Properties of Suspended Matters in the North Pacific Surface Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoko, I.; Yasushi, N.; Mitsuo, U.

    2008-12-01

    Oceanic suspended particulate matters (SPM) play an important role in controlling trace chemical composition of seawater via sorption and desorption of trace elements and other substances in SPM, because of its longer residence time compared to falling particulate matters and its larger surface area-to- volume ratio. The physical and chemical properties of SPM reflect the characteristics of the water mass, including the interaction with biota and/or atmospheric input. In this study, using both bulk and single particle chemical analysis techniques, size and elemental compositions of the SPM collected in the Pacific area is characterized. SPM were obtained from surface seawater of the North Pacific during the several cruises in summer. The bulk elemental composition of particles for Si, Ca, Ti and Fe was determined by an X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Individual particles were also analyzed using an electron probe X-ray micro analyzer and characterized by size and elemental composition. Results of bulk analysis show that Si and Ca were much more abundant than Ti and Fe in surface water SPM. Average concentrations of Si and Ca were 3.3 ± 4.0 μg L-1 and 4.5 ± 7.6 μg L-1, respectively. Their high concentrations were found in the high primary productive region in the Northeastern subarctic Pacific. Fragments of diatoms and coccolithophorids were directly reflected to the amount of Si and Ca in SPM. Average concentration of Ti and Fe as the indicator of mineral particles was 96 ± 89 ng L-1 and 180 4± 210 ng L-1, respectively. The average Fe/Ti ratio in SPM was about a quarter of the ratio of crustal composition (Fe/Ti=8.5). Results of single particle analysis show that Ti and Fe were enriched in aluminosilicate-type particles with average diameter of 1.6 ± 1.2 μm. While Fe/Al ratio in the particles was constant with particle diameter, Ti/Al ratio was increased with decreasing particle diameter. It was suggested that chemical composition of mineral particles was

  2. Three-dimensional Numerical Simulation of Gas-particulate Flow around Breathing Human and Particulate Inhalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Yasuhiro; Okubo, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Toshiaki

    2006-05-01

    It is important to predict the environment around the breathing human because inhalation of virus (avian influenza, SARS) is recently severe worldwide problem, and air pollution caused by diesel emission particle (DEP) and asbestos attract a great deal of attention. In the present study, three-dimensional numerical simulation was carried out to predict unsteady flows around a breathing human and how suspended particulate matter (SPM, diameter˜1 μm) reaches the human nose in inhalation and exhalation. In the calculation, we find out smaller breathing angle and the closer distance between the human nose and pollutant region are effective in the inhalation of SPM.

  3. Assessing the origin of suspended particulate matter in the Rhône River from the geochemical signature of the particulate residual fraction and hydro-sedimentary numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrin, Aymeric; Bretier, Marie; Dugué, Violaine; Masson, Matthieu; Le-Bescond, Chloé; Panay, Josselin; Le Coz, Jérôme; Coquery, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) transport through rivers is a major vector for nutrient and pollutant fluxes to continental shelf areas. Since physico-chemical properties of SPM from each sub-catchment will determine pollutant reactivity, it is necessary to obtain relevant information on the origin of SPM, in order to apply effective strategies for sediment management. Fingerprinting approaches based on the concentrations of trace metals, rare earth elements, mineralogy or radionuclides, have been developed allowing identifying SPM at the sub-catchment scale. However, confounding factors such as non-conservative behavior and enrichment/depletion of elements during the sediment delivery process represent a main concern. In this way, few studies addressed SPM origin in large river systems from the upstream part to the coastal environment by applying multi-tracer signatures. This is probably due to evolution of non-conservative element signatures during transport linked to biogeochemical processes (e.g. organic matter degradation, flocculation, desorption). To avoid the problem of non-conservative element signatures, we propose a significant improvement of fingerprinting approaches based on the concentrations of major elements and trace metals measured in the residual (conservative) fraction of SPM. The aim of our study was to apply this original geochemical approach to the upper part of the Rhône River (France). This approach was used to estimate, at each given time in the Rhône River, the SPM inputs contribution of several sub-basins (Arve, Ain, Fier, Guiers and Bourbre rivers). The concentrations in the residual fraction were estimated by the difference of concentrations obtained after two different extraction methods on SPM (a total extraction by using a mixture of HN03, HCl and HF acids; and a soft extraction by applying only HCl 1M). By this method, we were able to determine a geochemical signature typical of each sub-basin which should be conservative in

  4. Efectos de Campos Magnéticos en las Tasas de Consumo de Madera por Coptotermes formosanus, la Termita Subterránea de Formosa.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty groups of 500 workers and 50 soldiers of Coptotermes formosanus were maintained in costume designed containers and fed with a piece of red oak wood (Quercus rubra). Twenty of these groups were exposed to permanent magnets with a flux of 800 G. Another 20 groups were exposed to a permanent mag...

  5. Realidades Suburbanas: Latinos en el Condado de Dakota. Una Investigacion Dirigida por HACER = Suburban Realities: Latinos in Dakota County. A Study Conducted by HACER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HACER: Hispanic Advocacy and Community Empowerment through Research, Minneapolis, MN.

    A research project was conducted between April and December of 1998 to learn about the experiences of the sizable numbers of Latinos who live in Dakota County (Minnesota). This diverse group was studied through examining existing demographic information, conducting interviews with 45 Latino and Anglo individuals, and conducting several focus…

  6. Effect of por-SiC buffer layer on the parameters of thin Er2O3 layers on silicon carbide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacherikov, Yu Yu; Konakova, R. V.; Okhrimenko, O. B.; Berezovska, N. I.; Kapitanchuk, L. M.; Svetlichnyi, A. M.; Svetlichnaya, L. A.

    2015-04-01

    Using optical absorption and Auger spectrometry techniques, we studied the effect of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the properties of erbium oxide films deposited onto a porous silicon carbide buffer layer formed on 4H-SiC substrates. An analysis of atomic composition of the films under investigation as a function of RTA duration was performed. It is shown that phase composition of erbium oxide films on silicon carbide substrates with a porous SiC layer can be changed by varying RTA duration.

  7. Escucheme Por Favor/Please Listen to Me: An Analysis of the Perceptions of Latino Students and Teachers in a High School Multilingual Teacher Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacio, Peter Vincent

    2010-01-01

    This case study used photo elicitation interviewing (PEI) to analyze perceptions of Latino students and their teachers in a multilanguage high school academy. It examined student involvement in school, dropout rate, and pursuit of a college education. Ten academy teachers and 10 Latino senior students were interviewed. Observations obtained…

  8. Library Safari: Tips for Parents of Young Readers and Explorers = De safari por la biblioteca: Consejos para padres de lectores y exploradores jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Aedin

    Visiting the library is a great way for parents to encourage their child's imagination and learning. It gives parents the opportunity to model good reading behavior and to show their child that they value books and reading. No matter how young the child is, a trip to the library can be an enjoyable outing for parents and their children. Most…

  9. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Leichliter, Jami S; Sun, Christina J; Bloom, Fred R

    2016-02-12

    Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005-2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men's social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. PMID:26916740

  10. "Pig in a poke (gato por liebre)": the "mota" (Calophysus macropterus) fishery, molecular evidence of commercialization in Colombia and toxicological analyses.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Cristian; Cubillos, Juan Camilo; Gómez, Rigoberto; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Overfishing has affected the population abundance trends of many commercial fish species. In the Amazon, the fishery of a catfish commonly known as "mota" or "piracatinga" (Calophysus macropterus) has become an important economic activity in the region as this species has replaced a number of other overexploited great catfish species in the markets. Due to this high exploitation, ways in which to increase captures have been identified. One strategy is to use decomposing animal carcasses as bait. Such strategy has increased the hunting pressure on endangered species such as caimans and river dolphins. We investigated which catfish species are currently commercialized in Colombian fish markets using DNA barcoding, and measured mercury concentration in the tissues of fish molecularly identified as C. macropterus. We collected 86 fish samples in markets of four Colombian cities. Sixty-eight of these were identified molecularly as C.macropterus. The mercury concentration of 29 such samples was analyzed. Samples presented total Hg concentrations higher than the limit for human consumption established by the WHO (0.5 μg/g). These results are worrisome and suggest that (1) C. macropterus is a widely used fish species for human consumption in Colombia and (2) C. macropterus has high concentrations of total Hg, making its consumption a public health risk. Results presented here suggest that C. macropterus has replaced capaz in most Colombian markets. This fishery threatens wild species of river dolphins and caimans, and is also a public health risk given the high mercury levels we found in a subsample of these fishes. PMID:24419666

  11. Communicating with Mexican Americans: Por Su Buena Salud = Communicando Con Mexico Americanos: For Their Good Health. Proceedings of the Conference (Houston, TX, September 13-14, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas J., Ed.; And Others

    The conference focused on the role of the Mexican American's cultural language, tradition, life style, health practices, and media utilization in the design of effective health education and information programs. Representing various local, state, and national health, education, and media organizations, the 108 participants attended sessions on…

  12. Comienza la construcción de instalación patrocinada por el NCI en Puerto Rico para realizar estudios

    Cancer.gov

    El gobierno de Puerto Rico ha destinado $196 millones de dólares para construir un hospital oncológico de 287 000 pies cuadrados en San Juan, que contará con 96 camas. El nuevo hospital es el primero en su clase en la región caribeña y en él se llevarán a

  13. Adolescentes que no habrían fumado pueden ser atraídos por los cigarrillos electrónicos

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo del blog Temas y relatos sobre un estudio reciente que sugiere que los adolescentes están usando cigarrillos electrónicos no solo como sustituto de cigarrillos convencionales sino cigarrillos electrónicos están atrayendo nuevos usuarios de tabaco

  14. Comparacion de Modelos de Educacion Sexual en El Conocimiento y Cambio de Actitudes en Practicas Sexuales por Alumnos de Nivel Superior en La Region De Caguas, Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    2012-01-01

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of…

  15. Stakeholder views on policy options for responding to the growing challenge from obesity in France: findings from the PorGrow project.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, M; Kameli, Y; Delpeuch, F

    2007-05-01

    To explore the perspectives of key stakeholders towards a range of policy options to prevent obesity in France, a multi-criteria mapping method was used to gather quantitative and qualitative data from 21 types of stakeholder groups. During structured interviews, stakeholders appraised a set of pre-defined options by reference to criteria of their own choosing and provided relative weights to their criteria, and overall rankings of the policy options. Efficacy, feasibility and societal benefits were the groups of criteria given most importance by stakeholders. There was most consensus and preference for options related to health education, particularly in schools, compared with options that aimed at changing the environment to prevent obesity, i.e. options around physical activity; options that modified food supply and demand; and information-related options. There was little support for technological solutions or institutional reforms. While there was broad interest in a range of different options, those related to behaviour change through education were the most valued by stakeholders. Raising awareness among policymakers about the convincing scientific evidence for the effectiveness of environmental level policy options will be a crucial first step. PMID:17371308

  16. Ameiridae Boeck and Argestidae Por revisited, with establishment of Parameiropsidae, a new family of Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda) from deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corgosinho, P. H. C.; Martínez Arbizu, P.

    2010-09-01

    Four new species of Parameiropsis are described from Angola and Guinea Basins and the Arctic Laptev Sea. The male of Parameiropsis poseidonicus sp. n. differs from that of P. neptuni sp. n. and P. senckenbergi sp. n. in antennule segmentation, length of the proximal aesthetasc, length of the outermost seta of the antennary endopod, degree of reduction of the mouthparts, relative length of the inner spine of the basis of thoracopod 1, shape of the furca and body length. The female of P. amphitriteae sp. n. differs from previously described females of other species in the smaller exopod and endpod of thoracopod 1, reduced armature of thoracopods 1-6, length of the outer setae of exopods and endopods of thoracopods 2-4, and mandible exopod weakly developed and fused to the basis. Parameiropsis is redefined by the following autapomorphies: presence of aesthetasc on 3rd segment of female antennule; antenna strong, with endopod curved upwardly, and shape of the outermost (strongly ornamented) spine; triangular labrum; elongated corpus mandibularis, gnathobasis very long; basis of mandibular palp unarmed; elongated maxillule, with long and flexible setae on praecoxal arthrite; basis of the maxilla with strongly modified claw. To discuss the phylogenetic position of Parameiropsis, we revaluated the subfamilies of Ameiridae (viz. Ameirinae and Stenocopiinae) and the family Argestidae. Anoplosomella and Malacopsyllus revealed to be not closely related to Ameiridae and are transferred to Argestidae, sharing with other members of this family the morphology of the mandible gnathobasis, armature of maxilla and armature and length of the first segment of the antennule. Argestoides prehensilis does not show any of the characters that we consider autapomorphic for Argestidae. Instead, it shows many characters in common with several Ameiridae species. Parameiropsis does not have any character that could justify its inclusion within Ameiridae or even within Podogennonta. It also cannot be included satisfactorily within Argestidae nor Exanechentera. Therefore, we here propose a new family for Parameiropsis, with unclear relationships within Harpacticoida. After these taxonomic rearrangements, Ameiridae and Argestidae are considered monophyletic based on certain maxilla characters that we consider autapomorphic for each group. A key to the identification of the known species of Parameiropsis is added at the end.

  17. Comparacion de modelos de Educacion Sexual en el conocimiento y cambio de actitudes en practicas sexuales por alumnos de nivel superior en la region de Caguas, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD). In addition, it provides activities to increase the self-esteem, the communication and the decision making. This investigation had the intention to compare the SETM and the HBM in the increase of knowledge and change of attitudes of high risk of propagation of the STD using a validated questionnaire (Agency of the United States for the International-USAID Development), named "Endesa 2007" and, adapted to Puerto Rico by the Dra.Marta Collazo to a sample of students between the 17 and 19 years of 2 state schools of San Lorenzo, as a pretest, and, selected by convenience. Then, a 10 hours training was administered to half of the students using the SETM to STD and condom use lessons. The other half of the students received additional lessons using the HBM. Finally, both groups took the questionnaire again as a posttest. The sample of students, in average, did not reach the knowledge and basic levels of attitudes towards the STD in the pretest. This reflected 2 possible implications on the SETM. In first place, that the way in which the STD is implemented as part of the Sexual Education curriculum is inefficient. Secondly, the possibility that the acquired information or attitudes does not have permanence. Culminated the questionnaire, the HBM increase the knowledge of the STD in 0.41 points (average) over the SETM. There was not a significant difference between both models, in attitudes, implying that both models are equally effective. The findings suggests that the HBM is more effective increasing the knowledge on the STD, but equally effective than the SETM in attitude change for the Puerto Rican youth.

  18. The effects of the porous buffer layer and doping with dysprosium on internal stresses in the GaInP:Dy/por-GaAs/GaAs(100) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Seredin, P. V.; Gordienko, N. N.; Glotov, A. V.; Zhurbina, I. A.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Arsent'ev, I. N. Shishkov, M. V.

    2009-08-15

    In structures with a porous buffer layer, residual internal stresses caused by a mismatch between the crystal-lattice parameters of the epitaxial GaInP alloy and the GaAs substrate are redistributed to the porous layer that acts as a buffer and is conducive to disappearance of internal stresses. Doping of the epitaxial layer with dysprosium exerts a similar effect on the internal stresses in the film-substrate structure.

  19. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy (Preguntas por responder en la política educativa de lenguas extranjeras en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla Carvajal, Camilo Andrés; Tejada-Sánchez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its…

  20. "¿Por qué leemos esto en la clase de español?": The Politics of Teaching Literature in Spanglish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postma, Regan L.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses what is at stake in teaching works written in "Spanglish" in Spanish departments and what teaching such works might mean for students and the scholarly community at large. This article primarily comes out of the author's experiences teaching "Spanglish" works in Spanish courses at a major research…

  1. Beneficios y riesgos de la terapia estrogénica en la menopausia varían por edad, de acuerdo con el e

    Cancer.gov

    Los datos de seguimiento a largo plazo del estudio Iniciativa para la Salud de la Mujer (WHI) proporcionan información nueva e importante sobre los posibles riesgos y beneficios de la terapia hormonal para tratar síntomas relacionadas con la menopausia.

  2. Alignment mechanisms of paramagnetic grains revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seki, Munezo

    1989-01-01

    Taking into account the tight coupling of grain axis with angular momentum due to effective dissipation of rotation energy, the alignment of spheroidal grains was investigated by paramagnetic relaxation. Alignment degree will be significantly improved in diffuse clouds. The inclusions of superparamagnetic (SPM) substances may play a key role in grain alignment in dark clouds as well as in diffuse clouds.

  3. A synergistic blocking effect of Mg(2+) and spermine on the inward rectifier K(+) (Kir2.1) channel pore.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Wei; Kuo, Chung-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Inward rectifier K(+) channels (Kir2.1) exhibit an extraordinary rectifying feature in the current-voltage relationship. We have previously showed that the bundle-crossing region of the transmembrane domain constitutes the crucial segment responsible for the polyamine block. In this study, we demonstrated that the major blocking effect of intracellular Mg(2+) on Kir2.1 channels is also closely correlated with K(+) current flow, and the coupled movements of Mg(2+) and K(+) seem to happen in the same flux-coupling segment of the pore as polyamines. With a preponderant outward K(+) flow, intracellular Mg(2+) would also be pushed to and thus stay at the outermost site of a flux-coupling segment in the bundle-crossing region of Kir2.1 channels to block the pore, although with a much lower apparent affinity than spermine (SPM). However, in contrast to the evident possibilities of outward exit of SPM through the channel pore especially during strong membrane depolarization, intracellular Mg(2+) does not seem to traverse the Kir2.1 channel pore in any case. Intracellular Mg(2+) and SPM therefore may have a synergistic action on the pore-blocking effect, presumably via prohibition of the outward exit of the higher-affinity blocking SPM by the lower-affinity Mg(2+). PMID:26869275

  4. A synergistic blocking effect of Mg2+ and spermine on the inward rectifier K+ (Kir2.1) channel pore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chiung-Wei; Kuo, Chung-Chin

    2016-02-01

    Inward rectifier K+ channels (Kir2.1) exhibit an extraordinary rectifying feature in the current-voltage relationship. We have previously showed that the bundle-crossing region of the transmembrane domain constitutes the crucial segment responsible for the polyamine block. In this study, we demonstrated that the major blocking effect of intracellular Mg2+ on Kir2.1 channels is also closely correlated with K+ current flow, and the coupled movements of Mg2+ and K+ seem to happen in the same flux-coupling segment of the pore as polyamines. With a preponderant outward K+ flow, intracellular Mg2+ would also be pushed to and thus stay at the outermost site of a flux-coupling segment in the bundle-crossing region of Kir2.1 channels to block the pore, although with a much lower apparent affinity than spermine (SPM). However, in contrast to the evident possibilities of outward exit of SPM through the channel pore especially during strong membrane depolarization, intracellular Mg2+ does not seem to traverse the Kir2.1 channel pore in any case. Intracellular Mg2+ and SPM therefore may have a synergistic action on the pore-blocking effect, presumably via prohibition of the outward exit of the higher-affinity blocking SPM by the lower-affinity Mg2+.

  5. Factors Influencing Students' Achievement in Form 5 Islamic Studies Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    bin Che Noh, Mohd Aderi; Omar, Noraini binti; bin Kasan, Hasnan

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing the factors influencing the achievements of students in the subject of Islamic Studies for Form 5 SPM (KBSM) in schools in the area of Samarahan, Sarawak. The factors analysed is attitude and interest. This is a survey based study and data was compiled from the survey forms which had the topic "Factors…

  6. Novel control scheme for a high-speed metrological scanning probe microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorbringer-Dorozhovets, N.; Hausotte, T.; Manske, E.; Shen, J. C.; Jäger, G.

    2011-09-01

    Some time ago, an interferometer-based metrological scanning probe microscope (SPM) was developed at the Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology of the Ilmenau University of Technology, Germany. The specialty of this SPM is the combined deflection detection system that comprises an interferometer and a beam deflection. Due to this system it is possible to simultaneously measure the displacement, bending and torsion of the probe (cantilever). The SPM is integrated into a nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine (NPM machine) and allows measurements with a resolution of 0.1 nm over a range of 25 mm × 25 mm × 5 mm. Excellent results were achieved for measurements of calibrated step height and lateral standards and these results are comparable to the calibration values from the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) (Dorozhovets N et al 2007 Proc. SPIE 6616 661624-1-7). The disadvantage was a low attainable scanning speed and accordingly large expenditure of time. Control dynamics and scanning speed are limited because of the high masses of the stage and corner mirror of the machine. For the vertical axis an additional high-speed piezoelectric drive is integrated in the SPM in order to increase the measuring dynamics. The movement of the piezoelectric drive is controlled and traceable measured by the interferometer. Hence, nonlinearity and hysteresis in the actuator do not affect the measurement. The outcome of this is an improvement of the bending control of the cantilever and much higher scan speeds of up to 200 µm s-1.

  7. Pulse-Width Saturation and Kelly-Sideband Shift in a Graphene-Nanosheet Mode-Locked Fiber Laser with Weak Negative Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chun-Yu; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Wu, Chung-Lun; Lo, Jui-Yung; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2015-04-01

    The optimized soliton mode locking of the erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) and its pulse-shortening dynamic with the graphene nanosheet is demonstrated by precisely detuning the weakly negative group-delay dispersion (GDD) and maintaining strong self-phase-modulation (SPM), to obtain the shortest pulse width of 449 fs with a spectral linewidth of 6.02 nm. The pulse evolution with the mode-locking mechanism changing from the self-amplitude-modulation of the saturable absorber, to the soliton compression caused by the GDD and SPM is experimentally and numerically investigated in detail. Under high pumping powers, the enlarged up-chirp inside the EDFL cavity can induce a significant Kelly-sideband shift of up to 0.5 nm. The passively-mode-locked EDFL pulse width is controllable by detuning the GDD and SPM parameters, so that the pulse width can be compressed from 642 to 449 fs while reducing the negative GDD from -0.354 to -0.154 ps2 . The compression ratio can be also improved by strengthening the SPM at this stage.

  8. Development of a Theoretically Based Treatment for Sentence Comprehension Deficits in Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiran, Swathi; Caplan, David; Sandberg, Chaleece; Levy, Joshua; Berardino, Alex; Ascenso, Elsa; Villard, Sarah; Tripodis, Yorghos

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Two new treatments, 1 based on sentence to picture matching (SPM) and the other on object manipulation (OM), that train participants on the thematic roles of sentences using pictures or by manipulating objects were piloted. Method: Using a single-subject multiple-baseline design, sentence comprehension was trained on the affected sentence…

  9. Measurement of tire tread in urban air by pyrolysis-gas chromatography with flame photometric detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Man Goo; Yagawa, Kazuo; Inoue, Hidenari; Lee, Yong Keun; Shirai, Tsuneo

    The concentration of tire tread in suspended particulate matter (SPM) was measured by a new method based on benzothiazole generated by pyrolysis of vulcanization accelerator. The variation of production yields of benzothiazole was examined for 24 kinds of tire treads currently used in Japan Pyrolysis was carried out at 670°C using a Curie-point pyrolyzer. The vertical profile and diurnal pattern of tire tread were investigated with 4-h samples continuously collected for 24 h at a heavy traffic density area in Tokyo. The diurnal percentage of tire tread in SPM at the sampling site of 86 m height showed two peaks following the trend of traffic density throughout the day. The concentration of tire tread collected at the 86 m level was about 30% of that at the 0 m level during the daytime. The seasonal variation of concentration of tire tread in SPM was measured at the sampling site located 20 km SW of Tokyo. The weight percentage of tire tread in SPM varied between 1.3 and 3% in winter with NE-NW wind and varied between 0.5 and 1.5% in spring with SE-SW wind.

  10. Dancing with the Tides: Fluctuations of Coastal Phytoplankton Orchestrated by Different Oscillatory Modes of the Tidal Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Blauw, Anouk N.; Benincà, Elisa; Laane, Remi W. P. M.; Greenwood, Naomi; Huisman, Jef

    2012-01-01

    Population fluctuations are often driven by an interplay between intrinsic population processes and extrinsic environmental forcing. To investigate this interplay, we analyzed fluctuations in coastal phytoplankton concentration in relation to the tidal cycle. Time series of chlorophyll fluorescence, suspended particulate matter (SPM), salinity and temperature were obtained from an automated measuring platform in the southern North Sea, covering 9 years of data at a resolution of 12 to 30 minutes. Wavelet analysis showed that chlorophyll fluctuations were dominated by periodicities of 6 hours 12 min, 12 hours 25 min, 24 hours and 15 days, which correspond to the typical periodicities of tidal current speeds, the semidiurnal tidal cycle, the day-night cycle, and the spring-neap tidal cycle, respectively. During most of the year, chlorophyll and SPM fluctuated in phase with tidal current speed, indicative of alternating periods of sinking and vertical mixing of algal cells and SPM driven by the tidal cycle. Spring blooms slowly built up over several spring-neap tidal cycles, and subsequently expanded in late spring when a strong decline of the SPM concentration during neap tide enabled a temporary “escape” of the chlorophyll concentration from the tidal mixing regime. Our results demonstrate that the tidal cycle is a major determinant of phytoplankton fluctuations at several different time scales. These findings imply that high-resolution monitoring programs are essential to capture the natural variability of phytoplankton in coastal waters. PMID:23166639

  11. Chemical tracers, sterol biomarkers and satellite imagery in the study of a river plume ecosystem in the Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Narayanan; Kim, Moonkoo; Hong, Sang Hee; Jin, Yongnu; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; Son, Young Baek; Choi, Dong-Lim; Shim, Won Joon

    2012-02-01

    An attempt has been made using the molecular signatures of anthropogenic persistent organic chemicals such as DDTs and PCBs and sterol biomarkers in suspended particulate matter (SPM) to verify certain biogeochemical postulations, especially the origin of low salinity water mass and SPM in a river plume ecosystem in the Yellow Sea. This investigation was also assisted by satellite imagery using SeaWiFS and concurrent measurement of salinity. The target chemicals were measured in SPM, sampled near Yangtze River mouth to stations that were close to Jeju Island, Korea. ΣDDTs and ΣPCBs in SPM were at ultra trace levels (parts-per-quadrillion) ranging from 3.3 to 39 and from 20 to 68 pg L -1, respectively; while Σsterols occurred from 3200 to 32,000 pg L -1 range. The spatial distribution and molecular compositions were studied. This study illustrated the effectiveness of unconventional molecular tracers in identifying water masses and movement of riverine plumes to regional seas in the transport of sediments and contaminants. Additionally, it highlighted the importance of long range-longitudinal transport of contaminants (transboundary pollution) in regional seas and their impact on the ecosystem.

  12. Suspended particulate matter estimates using optical and acoustic sensors: application in Nestos River plume (Thracian Sea, North Aegean Sea).

    PubMed

    Anastasiou, Sotiria; Sylaios, Georgios K; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigates the use of combined methods of optical and acoustic sensors, in collaboration with direct in situ measurements, for the calibration and validation of a model transforming acoustic backscatter intensity series into suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration datasets. The model follows previously elaborated techniques, placing particular attention to the parameterization of the acoustic absorption index as a function of water physical properties. Results were obtained from the annual deployment (during 2007-2008) of an upward-facing acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) (307 kHz), equipped with a Wave Array, and an optical backscatter sensor (OBS), at the bottom of Thassos Passage near Nestos River plume (Thracian Sea, Northern Greece). The OBS was calibrated through linear regression, using 2007 and 2012 field sampling data, exhibiting an error of 13-14 % due to chlorophyll presence. The ADCP signal was calibrated through simultaneous measurements of backscatter intensity and turbidity profiles. Harmonic analysis on the model-produced SPM concentrations explained the tidal influence on their variability, especially during the summer. Empirical orthogonal functions analysis revealed the impact of waves and wave-induced currents on SPM variability. Finally, Nestos River sediment load was found uncorrelated to the SPM change in Thassos Passage, due to the dispersal and sediment deposition near the river mouth. PMID:26026846

  13. PREDICTING CHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF HUMIC SUBSTANCES FOR MINERALS AND XENOBIOTICS: USE OF COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY, SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY AND VIRTUAL REALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this chapter we review the literature on scanning probe microscopy (SPM), virtual reality (VR), and computational chemistry and our earlier work dealing with modeling lignin, lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC), humic substances (HSs) and non-bonded organo-mineral interactions...

  14. Cognitive Sex Differences in Reasoning Tasks: Evidence from Brazilian Samples of Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Widaman, Keith F.; Rindermann, Heiner; Primi, Ricardo; Mansur-Alves, Marcela; Pena, Carla Couto

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences on the Attention Test (AC), the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), and the Brazilian Cognitive Battery (BPR5), were investigated using four large samples (total N=6780), residing in the states of Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo. The majority of samples used, which were obtained from educational settings, could be considered a…

  15. Summary of the systems prioritization method as a decision-aiding method for the waste isolation pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boak, D.M.; Prindle, N.H.; Lincoln, R.

    1996-12-01

    In March 1994, the U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Area Office (DOE/CAO) implemented a performance-based decision-aiding method to assist in programmatic prioritization within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project with respect to applicable U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) long-term performance requirements in 40 CFR 191.13(a) (radionuclide containment requirements) and 40 CFR 268.6 (hazardous constituent concentration requirements). This method, the Systems Prioritization Method (SPM), was designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to: (1) identify programmatic options (activities) and their costs and durations; (2) analyze combinations of activities (activity sets) in terms of their predicted contribution to long-term performance of the WIPP disposal system; and (3) analyze cost, duration, and performance tradeoffs. The results of the second iteration of SPM (SPM-2) were the basis for recommendations to DOE/CAO in May 1995 for programmatic prioritization within the WIPP project. This paper presents a summary of the SPM implementation, key results, and lessons learned.

  16. An Undergraduate Nanotechnology Engineering Laboratory Course on Atomic Force Microscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, D.; Fagan, R. D.; Hesjedal, T.

    2011-01-01

    The University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, is home to North America's first undergraduate program in nanotechnology. As part of the Nanotechnology Engineering degree program, a scanning probe microscopy (SPM)-based laboratory has been developed for students in their fourth year. The one-term laboratory course "Nanoprobing and Lithography"…

  17. Understanding Succession Planning and Management Efforts at Midwestern University: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mateso, Peter E. E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this concurrent triangulation mixed methods study was to understand the status of succession planning and management (SPM) efforts of the subject university as perceived by the fulltime academic and fulltime administrative staff. Four research questions guided this study: (1) how do fulltime academic staff and fulltime…

  18. 40 CFR 58.15 - Annual air monitoring data certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Administrator (through the appropriate Regional Office) an annual summary report of all the ambient air quality data collected at all SLAMS and at SPM stations using FRM, FEM, or ARMs. The annual report(s) shall be submitted for data collected from January 1 to December 31 of the previous year. The annual summary...

  19. 40 CFR 58.15 - Annual air monitoring data certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Administrator (through the appropriate Regional Office) an annual summary report of all the ambient air quality data collected at all SLAMS and at SPM stations using FRM, FEM, or ARMs. The annual report(s) shall be submitted for data collected from January 1 to December 31 of the previous year. The annual summary...

  20. Cholesterol Asymmetry in Synaptic Plasma Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Wood, W. Gibson; Igbavboa, Urule; Müller, Walter E.; Eckert, Gunter P.

    2010-01-01

    Lipids are essential for the structural and functional integrity of membranes. Membrane lipids are not randomly distributed but are localized in different domains. A common characteristic of these membrane domains is their association with cholesterol. Lipid rafts and caveolae are examples of cholesterol enriched domains, which have attracted keen interest. However, two other important cholesterol domains are the exofacial and cytofacial leaflets of the plasma membrane. The two leaflets that make up the bilayer differ in their fluidity, electrical charge, lipid distribution, and active sites of certain proteins. The synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) cytofacial leaflet contains over 85% of the total SPM cholesterol as compared with the exofacial leaflet. This asymmetric distribution of cholesterol is not fixed or immobile but can be modified by different conditions in vivo: 1) chronic ethanol consumption; 2) statins; 3) aging; and 4) apoE isoform. Several potential candidates have been proposed as mechanisms involved in regulation of SPM cholesterol asymmetry: apoE, low-density-lipoprotein receptor, sterol carrier protein-2, fatty acid binding proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, p-glycoprotein and caveolin-1. This review examines cholesterol asymmetry in SPM, potential mechanisms of regulation and impact on membrane structure and function. PMID:21214553