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Sample records for por trichophyton mentagrophytes

  1. Tinea incognito due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Castellanos, María Elena; Mayorga-Rodríguez, Jorge Arturo; Sandoval-Tress, Cecilia; Hernández-Torres, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    Tinea incognito is a ringworm infection modified by corticosteroids. We report a case of a 2-year-old girl who developed tinea incognito due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes after applying methylprednisolone aceponate for 3 months. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic and mycological examination, which led to the identification of Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes, a zoophilic dermatophyte. Previous corticosteroid use in dermatophyte infections can alter their clinical appearance leading to misdiagnosis and delay in appropriate therapy. PMID:17302756

  2. Differentiation between Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum by sorbitol assimilation.

    PubMed Central

    Rezusta, A; Rubio, M C; Alejandre, M C

    1991-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum was easily differentiated from T. mentagrophytes by its ability to assimilate sorbitol with an API 20C AUX strip. One hundred percent of 36 T. rubrum strains and none of 147 T. mentagrophytes strains assimilated sorbitol. PMID:1993760

  3. Majocchi's granuloma of the vulva caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    PubMed

    Chang, S E; Lee, D K; Choi, J H; Moon, K C; Koh, J K

    2005-11-01

    We report a case of Majocchi's granuloma caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes on the vulva in a 23-year-old girl who had used topical steroids for many years. Her dog was a source of the infection. PMID:16262873

  4. Trichophyton mentagrophytes cause underestimated contagious zoophilic fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Czaika, Viktor Alexander; Lam, Phi-Anh

    2013-05-01

    Trichophytia infection, paraphrased cuddly toy mycosis, occurs primarily in prepubertal children, occasionally in infants and adults. The presented case shows the highly contagious infection of four family members with Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Effective treatment requires detailed diagnostic: identifying the dermatophyte, finding the infection source, treating the infection carriers. Tinea must be treated systemically and topically because of infectivity and ignitability. Systemic terbinafine or fluconazole treatment and topical fixed combination isoconazole nitrate/diflucortolone valerate are recommended. PMID:23574024

  5. Historic topics on classification of Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex.

    PubMed

    Kano, Rui; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    D. Gruby (1842-1844) detected the fungus in tinea as a causative agent and C.P. Robin (1853) described Microsporum mentagrophytes that was transferred to Trichophyton by Blanchard (1896). Sabouraud (1910) established a group of ectothrix microïde which was divided into gypseum type (6 species: T. asteroids, T. granulosum, T. lacticolor and 3 species) and niveum type (T. radians and T. denticulatum). Thereafter, Epidermophyton simii Pinoy, 1912 and T. interdigitale Priestly, 1917 were reported. These species were classified as T. mentagrophytes by C.W. Emmons (1934 and 1940). Arthroderma simii Stockdale et al., 1965, A. benhamiae, Ajello and Cheng, 1967 and A. vanbreuseghemii Takashio, 1973 were discovered as teleomorphs of T. simii, T. mentagrophytes var. granulosum and T. mentagrophytes (mainly granulosum-asteroides form), respectively. Makimura et al., (1998) reported phylogenetic classification of T. mentagrophytes complex strains based on DNA sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) regions, indicating that A. vanbreuseghemii and T. interdigitale belong to the same clade that was later named T. interdigatale by Gräser et al.(1999). This naming has confused medical and veterinary doctors since anthropophilic isolates (T. interdigitale) and zoophilic isolates (A. vanbreuseghemii) were included as the same species. PMID:24943211

  6. Improved procedures for differentiating Microsporum persicolor from Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    PubMed Central

    Kane, J; Sigler, L; Summerbell, R C

    1987-01-01

    Microsporum persicolor, a zoophilic dermatophyte species, is seldom recorded causing human infections in North America. Its identification has been enhanced as a direct result of the development of improved techniques for its characterization. Identifying characteristics include induction of rough-walled macroconidia on sodium chloride-amended medium, absence of good growth at 37 degrees C, and absence of a pH change during growth on casein glucose medium. In contrast, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, a species commonly confused with M. persicolor, has smooth-walled macroconidia, grows well at 37 degrees C, and produces an alkaline reaction on casein glucose medium. Images PMID:3429639

  7. Xanthomegnin detection does not discriminate between Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complexes.

    PubMed

    Kandemir, Hazal; Ilkit, Macit; Çürük, Akif

    2015-04-01

    Here, we aimed to discriminate the Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complexes, via detection of xanthomegnin using HPLC. We concluded that it is not a reliable technique for discriminating the two complexes, because strains belonging to both T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complexes displayed xanthomegnin activity. PMID:25702626

  8. Tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a 20-day-old neonate.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Sita; Malhotra, Suresh Kumar; Aggarwal, Yukti

    2015-12-01

    Although candidiasis in newborns is not uncommon, superficial dermatophyte infections of infants is quite rare. The causative agents of neonatal tinea reported in various case studies have been Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, and Trichophyton violaceum. To the best of our knowledge, no case report of neonatal tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes has been reported earlier. PMID:26904450

  9. Tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a 20-day-old neonate

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Sita; Malhotra, Suresh Kumar; Aggarwal, Yukti

    2015-01-01

    Although candidiasis in newborns is not uncommon, superficial dermatophyte infections of infants is quite rare. The causative agents of neonatal tinea reported in various case studies have been Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, and Trichophyton violaceum. To the best of our knowledge, no case report of neonatal tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes has been reported earlier. PMID:26904450

  10. [Degradation of human hair in vitro by Trichophyton mentagrophytes].

    PubMed

    Guarro, J; Figueras, J; Cano, J

    1988-02-01

    The degradation "in vitro" of human hair, invaded by the dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes was studied by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The digestion of the hair started as well in the cuticle as in the cortex, in the regions with low content of keratin, especially in the intercellular spaces. The exocuticle and epicuticle were the most resistant parts of the cuticle in fungal degradation, due to its high content in cystine. In the cortex the macrofibrils were first separated from each other and later attacked on the surface and the interior, arriving to be almost completely degraded. At the end only pigmented granules and rests of membranes could be observed. After a month the hair was almost entirely destroyed probably due to an enzymatic process although some mechanical alteration could also be observed. PMID:3077984

  11. In vitro characterization of Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes biofilms.

    PubMed

    Costa-Orlandi, C B; Sardi, J C O; Santos, C T; Fusco-Almeida, A M; Mendes-Giannini, M J S

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophytes are fungi responsible for a disease known as dermatophytosis. Biofilms are sessile microbial communities surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) with increased resistance to antimicrobial agents and host defenses. This paper describes, for the first time, the characteristics of Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes biofilms. Biofilm formation was analyzed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as well as by staining with crystal violet and safranin. Metabolic activity was determined using the XTT reduction assay. Both species were able to form mature biofilms in 72 h. T. rubrum biofilm produced more biomass and EPS and was denser than T. mentagrophytes biofilm. The SEM results demonstrated a coordinated network of hyphae in all directions, embedded within EPS in some areas. Research and characterization of biofilms formed by dermatophytes may contribute to the search of new drugs for the treatment of these mycoses and might inform future revisions with respect to the dose and duration of treatment of currently available antifungals. PMID:24856309

  12. Which Fungus Originally was Trichophyton mentagrophytes? Historical Review and Illustration by a Clinical Case.

    PubMed

    Chollet, Annemay; Cattin, Vincent; Fratti, Marina; Mignon, Bernard; Monod, Michel

    2015-08-01

    Several dermatophytes producing numerous pyriform or round microconidia were called Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Among these dermatophytes are the teleomorph species Arthroderma benhamiae, Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii and Arthroderma simii, and other species such as Trichophyton interdigitale, Trichophyton erinacei and Trichophyton quinckeanum for which only the anamorph is known. Confusion exists about which fungus should be really called T. mentagrophytes and about the rational use of this name in practice. We report a case of beard ringworm (tinea barbae) with A. vanbreuseghemii. According to both clinical signs and the type of hair parasitism, this case was exactly compatible to the first description of a non-favic dermatophytosis by Gruby under the name of "mentagrophyte" from which was derived the dermatophyte epithet mentagrophytes. In addition, the phenotypic characters of the isolated fungus in cultures perfectly matched with those of the first description of a dermatophyte under T. mentagrophytes by Blanchard (Parasites animaux et parasites végétaux à l'exclusion des Bactéries, Masson, Paris, 1896). In conclusion, T. mentagrophytes corresponds to the fungus later named A. vanbreuseghemii. However, because the neotype of T. mentagrophytes was not adequately designated in regard to the ancient literature, we would privilege the use of A. vanbreuseghemii and abandon the name of T. mentagrophytes. PMID:25912796

  13. Fine structural characterization of microbodies and Woronin bodies in Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    PubMed

    Vannini, G L; Mares, D

    1975-08-15

    Microbodies and Woronin bodies, organelles surrounded by a single unit membrane, were identified in the hyphal cells of Trichophyton mentagrophytes by employing a fixative containing TAPO. The fine structure of the organelles is described and their possible significance discussed. PMID:1157867

  14. Enzymatic activity of Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes from breeding rabbits with and without skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Figueredo, Luciana A; Coccioli, Carmela; Camarda, Antonio; Otranto, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes are zoophilic dermatophytes which can cause skin infections in animals and humans. The clinical expression of this infection strongly varies depending on host, fungal species as well as enzyme production. No comparative studies are available on the enzymatic activities of M. canis and T. mentagrophytes isolated from breeding rabbits. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the capability of M. canis and T. mentagrophytes isolated from rabbits both with and without lesions in producing different enzymes. The relationship of dermatophyte enzymatic activities and presence/absence of skin lesions has also been investigated. A total of 260 isolates of T. mentagrophytes and 25 isolates of M. canis sampled both from healthy and lesioned skin of rabbits, as well as from air samples of positive farms were examined. The results showed that T. mentagrophytes and M. canis from rabbits produce different enzymes. However, only elastase and gelatinase were linked to the appearance of lesions in T. mentagrophytes infections, whereas lipase in those by M. canis. PMID:22175244

  15. [The effect of Tween-80 on the differentiation of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum strains with FT-IR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Ergın, Çagri; İlkit, Macit; Gök, Yaşar; Çon, Ahmet Hilmi; Özel, Mustafa Zafer; Kabay, Nilgün; Döğen, Aylin; Baygu, Yasemin

    2014-07-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum, are two of the frequently identified dermatophyte species in routine microbiology laboratories. Although newer technologies may assist in species-level identification, direct application of these methods usually require improvement in order to obtain reliable identification of these species. Earlier data have shown that dermatophytes may be identified with FT-IR spectroscopy although there are some limitations. In particular, the organic bond ranges in FT-IR spectra showed more irregularity because of the eucaryotic complexity of the molds. In this study, Tween-80 which is an inorganic molecule, was added to the dermatophyte growth medium in order to investigate its effect on FT-IR spectroscopy analysis of dermatophytes. Nine reference dermatophyte strains [5 T.mentagrophytes complex (T.asteroides CBS 424.63, T.erinacei CBS 344.79, CBS 511.73, CBS 677.86, T.mentagrophytes CBS 110.65) and 4 T.rubrum complex strains with different morphotypes (T.fluviomuniense CBS 592.68, T.kuryangei CBS 422.67, T.raubitschekii CBS 102856, T.rubrum CBS 392.58)] were included in the study. All strains were cultured on Sabouraud glucose agar either with or without 1% Tween-80 for three weeks. After the incubation period, superficial scrapings from each dermatophyte colony were analyzed using FT-IR spectroscopy. All measurements were performed in transmission mode between 4400 and 400 cm-1. Numerous spectral window data were analyzed by principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering was performed. The second derivations of spectral ranges revealed clear grouping of T.mentagrophytes complex and T.rubrum complex in association over five separate spectral ranges. The findings also showed that while all of the T.mentagrophytes strains contained lipid compounds in their mold structure after Tween-80 incubation (p< 0.025), T.rubrum strains did not. Based on these results, it was concluded that culture medium containing Tween-80

  16. Effective treatment of tinea corporis due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes with combined isoconazole nitrate and diflucortolone valerate therapy.

    PubMed

    Czaika, Viktor A

    2013-05-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes is the dermatophyte species most commonly reported in cases of guinea pig-associated dermatophytosis (or guinea pig fungus) a condition that more often affects children than adults. In this case, a 13-year-old girl with recent direct contact with guinea pigs presented with a previously undertreated inflammatory skin lesion on the left side of her upper body, which was positive both for Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The condition was subsequently diagnosed as tinea corporis due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes with concomitant bacterial infection and effectively treated with 2 weeks of twice-daily application of Travocort cream containing isoconazole nitrate 1% and diflucortolone valerate 0.1%. Visible improvement in the lesion was apparent after only 1 week of treatment. PMID:23574023

  17. Assessment of the function of SUB6 in the pathogenic dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yao; Niu, Qifang; Yu, Xiaoxiao; Jia, Xiaolin; Wang, Jing; Lin, Degui; Jin, Yipeng

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes is a keratinophilic pathogenic fungus that infects both humans and animals. Subtilisins are important for T. mentagrophytes virulence, particularly when invading the epidermal barrier of the host. Subtilisin gene SUB6 belongs to a seven-member gene family (SUB1-SUB7) encoding the subtilisin serine proteases. Additionally, the SUB6 gene product Sub6, which is thought to be the major allergen Tri r2 in Trichophyton rubrum, elicits both immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in humans. To assess its gene function, SUB6 was disrupted using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. Polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analyses were used to confirm the disruption. In vitro virulence analyses comparing the mutant with the wild-type strain showed that proteolytic activity was significantly increased in the SUB6 gene disruption strain (SUB6::hph), which corresponded to the significantly increase in MEP4 (metalloprotease gene) and SUB3 expression of SUB6::hph. The SUB6::hph -infected animals showed attenuated clinical symptoms and pathological changes, and because of the persistently high level of immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, the increase in DTH-related cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-12 was delayed and lower than that in animals infected with the wild-type strain. These results suggested that SUB6::hph had attenuated virulence in vivo, and that a genetically-linked regulatory effect may account for the increase in proteolytic activity and the residual pathogenicity of the mutant strain. PMID:26333355

  18. Anti-Trichophyton mentagrophytes activity and percutaneous permeation of butenafine in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Arika, T; Hase, T; Yokoo, M

    1993-02-01

    We examined anti-Trichophyton mentagrophytes activity, cutaneous penetration, and skin localization of butenafine, a novel benzylamine antifungal agent. The following results were obtained. (i) In the guinea pig dorsal skin trichophytosis model, butenafine produced complete eradication of fungi from infected sites. Clotrimazole was active when animals were infected with 10(4) or 10(5) cells but was almost inactive when the inoculum size was 10(6) cells. (ii) The MICs of butenafine and clotrimazole against arthrospores of T. mentagrophytes KD-04 were 0.025 and 0.39 microgram/ml, respectively. (iii) When 0.2 ml of a 1% 14C-butenafine solution was applied for 23 h/day for 7 days, high radioactivity corresponding to 250 to 500 micrograms of butenafine per g of skin in the epidermis, including the horny layer, was observed. (iv) Butenafine penetrates through transepidermal and transfollicular routes. The excellent therapeutic efficacy of butenafine on experimental dermatophytosis may be attributed to its low MIC and good penetration and distribution in the horny layer and hair follicles, where fungi reside. PMID:8452371

  19. Anti-Trichophyton mentagrophytes activity and percutaneous permeation of butenafine in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Arika, T; Hase, T; Yokoo, M

    1993-01-01

    We examined anti-Trichophyton mentagrophytes activity, cutaneous penetration, and skin localization of butenafine, a novel benzylamine antifungal agent. The following results were obtained. (i) In the guinea pig dorsal skin trichophytosis model, butenafine produced complete eradication of fungi from infected sites. Clotrimazole was active when animals were infected with 10(4) or 10(5) cells but was almost inactive when the inoculum size was 10(6) cells. (ii) The MICs of butenafine and clotrimazole against arthrospores of T. mentagrophytes KD-04 were 0.025 and 0.39 microgram/ml, respectively. (iii) When 0.2 ml of a 1% 14C-butenafine solution was applied for 23 h/day for 7 days, high radioactivity corresponding to 250 to 500 micrograms of butenafine per g of skin in the epidermis, including the horny layer, was observed. (iv) Butenafine penetrates through transepidermal and transfollicular routes. The excellent therapeutic efficacy of butenafine on experimental dermatophytosis may be attributed to its low MIC and good penetration and distribution in the horny layer and hair follicles, where fungi reside. PMID:8452371

  20. Fungistatic mechanism of human transferrin for Rhizopus oryzae and Trichophyton mentagrophytes: alternative to simple iron deprivation.

    PubMed Central

    Artis, W M; Patrusky, E; Rastinejad, F; Duncan, R L

    1983-01-01

    Human serum, human transferrin (TF), and the iron chelator 1,10-phenanthroline (OP) produce iron-reversible fungistatic activity which has been attributed to simple iron deprivation. In this study, the influence of the size of the inoculum on the inhibitory activity of serum, TF, and OP prepared with the same iron-binding capacity (2.5 micrograms/ml) for Rhizopus oryzae and Trichophyton mentagrophytes was examined. Inhibition was monitored in liquid microcultures maintained at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4 to 7.5 by measuring the change in absorbance density. Increasing the number of spores in the inoculum disrupted the fungistatic activity of serum and TF, but not that of OP. The dilution at which OP lost fungistatic activity was not affected by the number of spores in the inoculum and was the same for both fungi. The dilution at which TF and serum lost fungistatic activity was dependent upon both the quantity of the inoculum and the species of fungus. The number of viable spores, rather than the total number of spores in the inoculum, was determined to be important in overcoming the inhibition of fungal growth by serum and TF. The fungistatic activity of serum and TF could be diminished by the preexposure of the serum to viable but nongrowing spores. Direct and indirect fluorescence studies indicated that both T. mentagrophytes and R. oryzae absorbed TF. Glucose uptake by R. oryzae was inhibited by a 4-h exposure to 5.0 to 0.15 mg of apotransferrin per ml. These results suggest that the fungistatic activity of TF for R. oryzae and T. mentagrophytes may not be attributable to simple iron deprivation and raise the possibility of a requirement for a direct interaction. Images PMID:6885162

  1. Molecular identification and classification of Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex strains isolated from humans and selected animal species.

    PubMed

    Ziółkowska, Grażyna; Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Gnat, Sebastian; Trościańczyk, Aleksandra; Zięba, Przemysław; Dziedzic, Barbara Majer

    2015-03-01

    Species differentiation within Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex group currently poses a major diagnostic challenge, with molecular methods increasingly supplementing classical identification based on the morphological and physiological properties of the fungi. Diagnostic and epidemiological research aimed at determining the source and means of transmission of dermatophytoses in both humans and animals requires not only species differentiation of isolates but also differentiation within species. The study was conducted on 24 isolates originating in humans and various animal species with clinical symptoms of dermatophytosis. The analysis included phenotypical identification methods and molecular methods: internal transcribed spacer sequencing and ITS-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with multi-enzyme restriction. ITS sequence analysis identified the isolates to species - Trichophyton interdigitale, Arthroderma benhamiae and A. vanbreuseghemii, and ITS-RFLP detected six different genotypes. Genotypes I, II and III characterised strains belonging to A. benhamiae, genotype IV characterised the A. vanbreuseghemii strain, and genotypes V and VI occurred only within the species T. interdigitale. Strains isolated from guinea pigs were dominant within genotype I, while genotype II was found mainly in strains from foxes. Multi-enzyme restriction analysis of this region enables intraspecific differentiation, which may be useful in epidemiological research, particularly in determining the source of infections. PMID:25643744

  2. A case of Trichophyton mentagrophytes infection in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    PubMed

    Pressanti, Charline; Delverdier, Maxence; Iriart, Xavier; Morcel, Frédérique; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2012-10-01

    A 2-year-old male fennec fox presented with a 4 month history of nonpruritic, crusty skin lesions on the forehead, the pinnae and the tail tip. Initial investigations, including routine haematology, biochemistry profile, multiple skin scrapings, trichoscopic examination, Wood's lamp examination and fungal culture, failed to reveal any abnormalities. Histopathological examination of a first set of skin biopsies showed an interface dermatitis pattern, with lymphocyte infiltration in the basal layer, a significant lymphocytic exocytosis and occasional apoptotic basal epidermal keratinocytes; periodic acid Schiff stain did not reveal any fungal elements. On further biopsies, there was a pustular neutrophilic dermatitis, with numerous crusts containing high numbers of arthrospores and fungal hyphae. Trichophyton mentagrophytes infection was confirmed on fungal culture and PCR. The fennec fox received oral itraconazole (5 mg/kg once daily for 6 weeks) combined with a miconazole and chlorhexidine shampoo applied on affected areas once weekly, followed with an enilconazole dip. The fox improved dramatically, and a fungal culture performed at 6 weeks was negative. Unfortunately, a few days later the fennec fox developed anorexia, icterus and died. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Trichophyton infection in a fennec fox and, although a postmortem examination was not performed, this is possibly the first report of fatal acute liver failure associated with itraconazole in a canid. PMID:22822716

  3. Polymorphisms in the ITS rDNA regions for differentiating strains of the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex in Sfax-Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Drira, I; Neji, S; Hadrich, I; Trabelsi, H; Sellami, H; Cheikhrouhou, F; Guidara, R; Makni, F; Ayadi, A

    2014-08-01

    The Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex is the main cause of superficial mycoses in humans and animals. Molecular research has provided useful insights into the taxonomy of this complex to overcome the challenges with conventional diagnostics. The aim of this study was to identify, type and differentiate anthropophilic and zoophilic species of the T. mentagrophytes complex. Sixty clinical samples identified as T. mentagrophytes by morphological characteristics were isolated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. The identification of our strains by conventional methods was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing in 93.34% of the cases. The strains under investigation were recategorised as T. rubrum (Tr2711). In addition, PCR products were independently digested with the restriction endonucleases, MvaI and HinfI, to produce a single dominant profile for T. interdigitale. ITS sequence analysis revealed a polymorphism in the ITS1 and 5.8S regions. Analysis of the consensus sequences distinguished four types of genotypes among our T. interdigitale species. Moreover, ITS type I was the dominant genotype characterising the anthropophilic variant of T. interdigitale. The phylogenetic study showed that only 5% of our strains were zoophilic. PCR sequencing was useful for distinguishing anthropophilic and zoophilic species of T. interdigitale, in which the differentiation is relevant because it helps to prescribe the correct treatment and to identify the surrounding source of infection. PMID:24621449

  4. Chiral N-benzyl-N-methyl-1-(naphthalen-1-yl)ethanamines and their in vitro antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Thvedt, Thor H Krane; Kaasa, Kristin; Sundby, Eirik; Charnock, Colin; Hoff, Bård Helge

    2013-10-01

    In the search for new antifungal compounds and to explore structure activity relationships, a series of 24 chiral benzyl amine type antifungals was synthesised and characterised. In vitro testing against the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans revealed that several derivatives had MIC50 values similar to that of the commercial drug Butenafine. All of these contained a bulky group in the para position of the benzyl fragment. Eighteen compounds were also tested for activity against the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum. Of these (R)-N-(4-tert-butylbenzyl)-N-methyl-1-(naphthalen-1-yl)ethanamine (MIC50: 0.06 μg/mL) and a para-benzyloxy substituted derivative (MIC50: 0.125 μg/mL) possessed high activity. Testing of derivatives with a stereocentre at the benzylic carbon, revealed that (S)-stereochemistry was required for potency: a MIC50 value of 1 μg/mL was obtained for (S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-N-methyl-N-(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)ethanamine. Preparation of the corresponding fluoromethyl compound was achieved employing lipase B from Candida antarctica as catalyst in the key step. A low antifungal activity was observed for the fluorinated derivative indicating the importance of the amine basicity for the antifungal potency of these compounds. PMID:24051242

  5. Combined effect of heat, essential oils and salt on fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a foot bath.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Shigeharu; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Hasumi, Yayoi; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

    2007-01-01

    This work was originally undertaken to determine the effective conditions of essential oils against Trichophyton mentagrophytes in vitro for the treatment of tinea pedis in a foot bath. Agar blocks implanted with T. mentagrophytes were immersed in 0.1% aqueous agar containing two-fold dilutions of essential oils with or without sodium chloride at 27 degrees C, 37 degrees C and 42 degrees C for 10 and 20 min. The number of surviving mycelia on the agar blocks was determined from the standard curves of the colony diameter and original inocula of the conidia. At the same time, the thermal effect on the cellular morphology was examined using SEM. Most fungal mycelia (99.7%) were killed after treatment at 42 degrees C for 20 min without essential oil. The fungicidal activity of essential oils was markedly enhanced by treating at 42 degrees C for 20 min as compared with that at 27 degrees C, showing 1/4 - 1/32-fold reduction of minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC to kill 99.99%). The order of the fungicidal activity of 11 essential oils was oregano, thyme thymol, cinnamon bark > lemongrass > clove, palmarose, peppermint, lavender > geranium Bourbon, tea tree > thyme geraniol oils. MFCs were further reduced to 1/2 - 1/8 by the addition of 10% sodium chloride. The salt effect was explained, at least partly, by an increase in mycelial adsorption of antifungal constituents in the presence of sodium chloride. Considerable hyphal damage was done at 27 degrees C by the essential oils, but no further alteration in morphology of the hyphae treated at 42 degrees C with or without oil was observed by SEM. The inhibitory effect of heat and oils was also observed against mycelia of T. rubrum and conidia of T. mentagrophytes. Thermotherapy combined with essential oils and salt would be promising to treat tinea pedis in a foot bath. PMID:17287720

  6. Tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (molecular type Arthroderma benhamiae ) mimics impetigo : a case report and literature review of cases in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Utako; Yokoyama, Kae; Hiruma, Masataro; Kano, Rui; Takamori, Kenji; Suga, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    A 36-year-old female elementary schoolteacher presented with aggregated serous papules surrounded by mild erythema, extending from both nasal wings/nostrils down to the upper lip. No improvement was seen following treatment of the lesions with topical antibiotics for impetigo. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) direct microscopy confirmed the presence of mycelia, and the infection was diagnosed as tinea faciei. The isolate was identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes using morphological analysis and as Arthroderma benhamiae using genetic analysis. Here we describe that case and summarize the clinical features of other cases of A. benhamiae infection in Japan that have been reported in the literature. PMID:25855021

  7. [From guinea pig to man: Tinea outbreak due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. porcellae in pet shops in Nancy (France)].

    PubMed

    Bloch, M; Cavignaux, R; Debourgogne, A; Dorin, J; Machouart, M; Contet-Audonneau, N

    2016-09-01

    Dermatophytes are responsible for widespread superficial fungal infections, currently representing a real public health problem. Some of the fungi involved in these mycoses are transmitted by pets, illustrating great host specificity within this fungal group. Thus, a new variety of zoophilic dermatophyte has been described in recent years by the Mycology Laboratory of the University Hospital of Nancy, within the complex T. mentagrophytes. This variant was named T. mentagrophytes var. porcellae, following the observation of a significant number of patients with dermatomycoses of exposed parts of the body and having had contact with a guinea pig. The current work follows this first description and aims to assess the frequency of T. mentagrophytes var. porcellae in guinea pigs within three pet shops in the region of Nancy (France). In total, almost two thirds of collected guinea pigs were carriers of this new dermatophyte. This study highlights the risks associated with the adaptation of dermatophytes to potential new hosts that may spread to new species. Thus, in this context, sanitary measures could be proposed to the pet shops, usually not informed of the risks facing the growing enthusiasm of the population for new pets, in order to limit contamination. PMID:27546890

  8. An isolate of Arthroderma benhamiae with Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei anamorph isolated from a four-toed hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoko; Haritani, Kuniko; Sano, Ayako; Takizawa, Kayoko; Fukushima, Kazutaka; Miyaji, Makoto; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2002-01-01

    A female four-toed hedgehog probably imported from Africa and kept as a pet by a family suffered from depilation and mite (Caparinia tripilis) infection. Depilated quills were inoculated on a commercially available medium and an isolate of the dermatophytes was obtained. A giant colony after 14 days incubation on yeast extract Sabourauds agar had a central umbo with white granular surface and a yellow pigment ring in the reverse. The hedgehog isolate produced numerous elongated microconidia singly attached along the sides of hyphae. Macroconidia were somewhat irregular in shape and size and 2-6 septa. Abundant intermediate sized spores between micro- and macro conidia and few spirals were observed. Hair perforation and urease activity tests were positive. Maximum growth temperature was 40 C. In the mating tests using the tester strains of both African and Americano-European races of Arthroderma benhamiae, the strain produced numerous gymnothecia only when paired with the African race mating type minus(-). In addition, 591 bases of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA gene including the 5.8S region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) were sequenced and corresponded to those of T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank accession numbers Z97996 and Z97997) by more than 99.7%. Therefore, our case is the first isolation of A. benhamiae with T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei anamorph in Japan. PMID:12402026

  9. Molecular Taxonomy of the Trichophyton rubrum Complex

    PubMed Central

    Gräser, Y.; Kuijpers, A. F. A.; Presber, W.; de Hoog, G. S.

    2000-01-01

    The validity of taxa around Trichophyton rubrum was evaluated by a combination of phenetic and molecular methods. Morphological and physiological features were compared to results of sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal operon, PCR fingerprinting, and amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. The 15 species and varieties investigated (Trichophyton circonvolutum, Trichophyton fischeri, Trichophyton fluviomuniense, Trichophyton glabrum, Trichophyton gourvilii, Trichophyton kanei, Trichophyton kuryangei, Trichophyton megninii, Trichophyton pedis, Trichophyton raubitschekii, Trichophyton rodhaini, Trichophyton rubrum var. nigricans, Trichophyton soudanense, Trichophyton violaceum var. indicum, and Trichophyton yaoundei) were reclassified or synonymized as T. rubrum or T. violaceum. PMID:10970379

  10. Five-hour diagnosis of dermatophyte nail infections with specific detection of Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Brillowska-Dabrowska, Anna; Saunte, Ditte Marie; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2007-04-01

    A rapid two-step DNA extraction method and a multiplex PCR for the detection of dermatophytes in general and Trichophyton rubrum specifically were developed and evaluated with DNA extracted from pure cultures and from clinically diseased nails. DNA from the following dermatophytes was used: Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum audouinii, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum nanum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton schoenleinii, Trichophyton soudanense, Trichophyton terrestre, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton verrucosum, and Trichophyton violaceum. Human DNA and DNA from the following nondermatophyte fungi were included as controls: Alternaria, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Malassezia furfur, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. A total of 118 nail samples received for routine microscopy and culture for dermatophytes were subsequently tested by the two PCRs separately and in a multiplex format. Using DNA extracted from pure cultures and the pan-dermatophyte PCR, the T. rubrum-specific PCR sequentially and in a multiplex format correctly detected all dermatophytes and additionally correctly identified T. rubrum. Comparison of the traditional diagnostic evaluation (microscopy and culture) of nail samples with PCR on DNA directly extracted from the nails showed excellent agreement between PCR and microscopy, but the number of samples with dermatophyte species identification was increased considerably from 22.9% to 41.5%, mainly due to the identification of T. rubrum by PCR in microscopy-positive but culture-negative samples. In conclusion, this 5-hour diagnostic test was shown to increase not only the speed but also the sensitivity of investigation for nail dermatophytosis. PMID:17267633

  11. Anti-Trichophyton Activity of Protocatechuates and Their Synergism with Fluconazole

    PubMed Central

    Gullo, Fernanda Patrícia; Sardi, Janaina de Cássia Orlandi; Costa-Orlandi, Caroline Barcelos; Sangalli-Leite, Fernanda; Scorzoni, Liliana; Regasini, Luis Octávio; Petrônio, Maicon Segalla; Souza, Patrícia Fernanda; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophytosis and superficial mycosis are a major global public health problem that affects 20–25% of the world's population. The increase in fungal resistance to the commercially available antifungal agents, in conjunction with the limited spectrum of action of such drugs, emphasises the need to develop new antifungal agents. Natural products are attractive prototypes for antifungal agents due to their broad spectrum of biological activities. This study aimed to verify the antifungal activity of protocatechuic acid, 3,4-diacetoxybenzoic, and fourteen alkyl protocatechuates (3,4-dihydroxybenzoates) against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes and to further assess their activities when combined with fluconazole. Susceptibility and synergism assays were conducted as described in M38-A2 (CLSI), with modifications. Three strains of Trichophyton rubrum and three strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes were used in this work. The pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, and decyl protocatechuates showed great fungicidal effects, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.97 to 7.8 mg/L. Heptyl showed a synergistic activity (FIC index = 0.49), reducing the MIC of fluconazole by fourfold. All substances tested were safe, especially the hexyl, heptyl, octyl, and nonyl compounds, all of which showed a high selectivity index, particularly in combination with fluconazole. These ester associations with fluconazole may represent a promising source of prototypes in the search for anti-Trichophyton therapeutic agents. PMID:25136374

  12. In vitro Antifungal Activity of Luliconazole against Trichophyton spp.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Jun; Nanjoh, Yasuko; Koga, Hiroyasu; Toga, Tetsuo; Makimura, Koichi; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of luliconazole against Trichophyton rubrum (14 strains) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (14 strains), which are the most common cause of tinea, were compared with those of 6 topical antifungal drugs of lanoconazole, bifonazole, efinaconazole, liranaftate, naftifine and terbinafine. Luliconazole showed the most potent antifungal activity (MIC90 =0.00098 μg/ml and MFC90 =0.0078 μg/ml) among the compounds tested against the two species. Efinaconazole and bifonazole, the drug of azole-class, showed a large MFC/MIC ratio. On the other hand, these ratios of luliconazole and lanoconazole were as small as those of liranaftate, naftifine and terbinafine which are thought to possess fungicidal mechanism. These results suggest that luliconazole possesses fungicidal activity against both species of Trichophyton. In this study, we found that luliconazole had the most potent antifungal activity among the major topical antimycotics used in Japan and the US. Luliconazole would be the best-in-class drug for dermatophytosis in clinics. PMID:26936346

  13. Use of Padlock Probes and Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA) for Rapid Identification of Trichophyton Species, Related to Human and Animal Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Hamideh; Shokohi, Tahereh; Badali, Hamid; Mayahi, Saba; Didehdar, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Background: The high degree of phenotypic similarity among Trichophyton species makes their identification difficult. Objectives: The current study aims to establish the use of rolling circle amplification (RCA) based on internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) as a powerful, simple, and rapid procedure for distinguishing closely related organisms, and specifically to identify Trichophyton species, which cause human and animal disorders. Materials and Methods: A total of sixty-one isolates belonging to three species of Trichophyton were identified to the species level based on microscopic and macroscopic examinations and their ITS rDNA regions were sequenced. Three specific circular oligonucleotide probes targeting the ITS1 and ITS2 regions were designed to differentiate Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, and T. tonsurans. Results: Of the 61 putative Trichophyton clinical isolates, 52 were identified to the species level. The most common species was T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (31 isolates), followed by T. rubrum (11 isolates), T. tonsurans (9 isolates), and T. violaceum (1 isolates); moreover, 9 isolates were identified as non-Trichophyton species. The RCA method correctly identified four Trichophyton species and was 100% specific for each species. Neither cross-reaction between the examined species of Trichophyton nor false positive or false negative results were observed. Conclusions: Species identification of Trichophyton is crucially important for epidemiological and phylogenetic purposes and for genotype delineation. RCA based on ITS polymorphisms can be used to generate identification barcodes and as an alternative to DNA sequencing; it is a very fast, specific, and economical tool for species identification. PMID:26421127

  14. Dermatophyte-hormone relationships: characterization of progesterone-binding specificity and growth inhibition in the genera Trichophyton and Microsporum.

    PubMed Central

    Clemons, K V; Schär, G; Stover, E P; Feldman, D; Stevens, D A

    1988-01-01

    We reported previously that Trichophyton mentagrophytes contains a cytoplasmic macromolecule which specifically binds progesterone. Progesterone is also an effective inhibitor of growth of the fungus. We report here studies which characterize more fully the specific binding properties and the functional responses of T. mentagrophytes and taxonomically related fungi to a series of mammalian steroid hormones. Scatchard analysis of [3H]progesterone binding in both the + and - mating types of Arthroderma benhamiae and in Microsporum canis revealed a single class of binding sites with approximately the same affinity as that in T. mentagrophytes (Kd, 1 X 10(-7) to 2 X 10(-7) M). Trichophyton rubrum had a protein with a higher binding affinity (Kd, 1.6 X 10(-8) M). Characterization of the [3H]progesterone-binding sites in T. mentagrophytes showed the binder to be a protein which was destroyed by trypsin and heating to 56 degrees C. Previous examination of the steroid-binding specificity in T. mentagrophytes had demonstrated that deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were effective competitors for [3H]progesterone binding. Expansion of this study to include other competitors revealed that R5020 (a synthetic progestin), androstenedione, and dehydroepiandosterone possessed relative binding affinities which were 20, 11, and 9% of that of progesterone, respectively. Other ligands tested were less effective. Competition studies for the binder in M. canis resulted in similar findings: DOC and DHT were effective competitors for [3H]progesterone binding. The growth of A. benhamiae + and -, M. canis, and T. rubrum were all inhibited by progesterone in a dose-responsive manner, with 50% inhibition achieved at concentrations of 9.8 x 10(-6), 1.2 x 10(-5), 1.5 x 10(-5), and 2.7 x 10(-6) M. respectively,. PMID:3182998

  15. The Efficacy of Ultraviolet Irradiation on Trichophyton Species Isolated From Nails

    PubMed Central

    Nematollahi, Ahmad Reza; Badiee, Parisa; Nournia, Ensieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The treatment of onychomycosis is a challenge and infections are typically more severe and difficult to treat in toenails than in fingernails. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the fungicidal effect of ultraviolet radiation on the growth of dermatophytes isolated from nails. Patients and Methods: Samples from patients with clinical manifestations of onychomycosis were inoculated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated at 30°C for 14 days. Isolated species were identified by specific laboratory examinations; UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C light were used to irradiate two strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum. Colony count, size and growth rate of the isolated fungi were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Results: Trichophyton rubrum type 1 was less sensitive to UV-A and UV-C, and more sensitive to UV-B than type 2. T. mentagrophytes type 2 was slightly responsive to UV-A therapy, although no decrease in colony count was observed. Increased doses of UV-B and UV-C irradiation decreased the counts. The effect of radiation on colony size was dependent on the dose and type of irradiation. Conclusions: UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C light seem to be effective in decreasing colony growth of the most prevalent fungi, which caused onychomycosis in the current study samples. Further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of ultraviolet light therapy, identify possible side effects, and establish appropriate dosages for the antifungal effect of this therapy. PMID:26322201

  16. Diagnostic PCR tests for Microsporum audouinii, M. canis and Trichophyton infections.

    PubMed

    Brillowska-Dabrowska, Anna; Swierkowska, Aleksandra; Lindhardt Saunte, Ditte Marie; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2010-05-01

    Since traditional diagnosis of dermatophyte infections is slow, we present a rapid new PCR test for detection of Trichophyton spp., Microsporum canis and M. audouinii infections. The performance of the test was evaluated with: 58 dermatophyte isolates; 10 yeast, mould and human DNA control samples; 25 routine specimens from patients suspected of having dermatophytosis; 10 hair specimens from guinea pigs experimentally infected with M. canis; and two samples from un-infected control animals. DNA was prepared by a 10-min procedure from pure cultures as previously described. The 302 bp PCR product was obtained for 35/35 Trichophyton isolates (10 species included) and the 279 bp for 3/3 M. canis and 4/4 M. audouinii samples. None of the 2 E. floccosum, 11 M. gypseum, 3 M M. persicolor or 12 control samples (yeast, mould, human DNA) were positive with either of the two PCR tests. Among the patient specimens, seven were T. rubrum positive, two for T. mentagrophytes, one was positive for T. tonsurans and 15 were dermatophyte negative by routine investigation (culture and/or pan-dermatophyte + T. rubrum multiplex PCR). The PCR results with our procedures were in 100% agreement with these results. Finally, the Microsporum PCR was positive for 10/10 guinea pig specimens from infected animals but for 0/2 of the control animal samples. The evaluation of the two PCR tests indicated excellent sensitivity and specificity. PMID:19886764

  17. Polyclonality of Trichophyton rubrum Isolates in aDermatophytosis Patient with Multiple Lesions.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kiminobu; Mochizuki, Hirokazu; Izumi, Katsuhiko; Sakata, Yuichi; Ushigami, Tsuyoshi; Nishibu, Akiko; Anzawa, Kazushi; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We cultured 15 isolates of Trichophyton rubrum and one isolate of Trichophyton mentagrophytes from an 82-year-old male tinea patient with multiple lesions. To determine whether feet lesions were the source of dermatophytes of other tinea lesions, we extracted total cellular DNA from the T. rubrum isolates(13 from feet, two from right waist and buttock). PCR targeting the non-transcribed spacer(NTS)region of ribosomal RNA gene was performed. Molecular polymorphisms were detected by length variation of amplicons.Four molecular types were found among the 15 isolates. The predominant type, which we previously named Type III, comprised seven isolates cultured from both feet and from left waist and buttock. This was followed by Type VI, five isolates; Type V, two isolates; and Type IV, one isolate. Apart from type III, which was cultured from both feet, isolates were cultured from one foot only. The patient was successfully treated for all types with a six-month course of oral terbinafine and topical luliconazole. The molecular typing supported the notion that tinea pedis was the source of tinea corporis in the patient. PMID:27251316

  18. An experience from an outbreak of tinea capitis gladiatorum due to Trichophyton tonsurans.

    PubMed

    Ergin, S; Ergin, C; Erdoğan, B S; Kaleli, I; Evliyaoğlu, D

    2006-03-01

    'Tinea corporis gladiatorum' describes a dermatophytosis transmitted mainly from close skin contact among wrestlers. Although tinea corporis is well recognized, no data are available for tinea capitis infections in wrestlers. After finding tinea capitis infection in a student wrestler, we aimed to search for possible ringworm infections among wrestlers in a wrestling boarding-school. Of the 32 wrestlers, 29, aged 12-18 years, were affected, of whom 22 had scalp involvement. Trichophyton tonsurans was isolated from 20 of the patients, and T. mentagrophytes from the remaining two. Isolated strains of dermatophytes were susceptible to terbinafine and itraconazole. The patients with tinea capitis received oral terbinafine for 4 weeks, and patients with more than two lesions but without scalp involvement received oral terbinafine for 2 weeks. Overall clinical and mycological cure rate was 72.4% and 70%, respectively, at assessment at week 6. The asymptomatic dermatophyte carrier rate was negative 1 year after control of the epidemic. Terbinafine seems to be an alternative drug for the treatment of tinea capitis caused by T. tonsurans; however, control of an outbreak may be very difficult and effective preventive measures should be considered. PMID:16487093

  19. In vitro susceptibility patterns of clinically important Trichophyton and Epidermophyton species against nine antifungal drugs.

    PubMed

    Badali, Hamid; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Mashedi, Olga; de Hoog, G Sybren; Meis, Jacques F

    2015-05-01

    Despite the common, worldwide, occurrence of dermatophytes, little information is available regarding susceptibility profiles against currently available and novel antifungal agents. A collection of sixty-eight clinical Trichophyton species and Epidermophyton floccosum were previously identified and verified to the species level by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA. MICs of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole, terbinafine and MECs of caspofungin and anidulafungin were performed based on CLSI M38-A2. The resulting MIC90 s of all strains were, in increasing order, as follows: terbinafine (0.063 mg l(-1) ); posaconazole (1 mg l(-1) ); isavuconazole and anidulafungin (2 mg l(-1) ); itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin (4 mg l(-1) ) and fluconazole (>64 mg l(-1) ). These results confirm that terbinafine is an excellent agent for treatment of dermatophytosis due to T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. verrucosum, T. schoenleinii and E. floccosum. In addition, the new azoles POS and ISA are potentially useful antifungals to treat dermatophytosis. However, the clinical effectiveness of these novel antifungals remains to be determined. PMID:25757042

  20. Silicon Phthalocyanine 4 Phototoxicity in Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Minh; Dimaano, Matthew L.; Oyetakin-White, Patricia; Retuerto, Mauricio A.; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.; Cooper, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the leading pathogen that causes long-lasting skin and nail dermatophyte infections. Currently, topical treatment consists of terbinafine for the skin and ciclopirox for the nails, whereas systemic agents, such as oral terbinafine and itraconazole, are also prescribed. These systemic drugs have severe side effects, including liver toxicity. Topical therapies, however, are sometimes ineffective. This led us to investigate alternative treatment options, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT). Although PDT is traditionally recognized as a therapeutic option for treating a wide range of medical conditions, including age-related macular degeneration and malignant cancers, its antimicrobial properties have also received considerable attention. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the susceptibility of dermatophytic fungi to PDT is relatively unknown. As a noninvasive treatment, PDT uses a photosensitizing drug and light, which, in the presence of oxygen, results in cellular destruction. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of cytotoxicity of PDT in vitro using the silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 [SiPc(OSi(CH3)2(CH2)3N(CH3)2)(OH)] in T. rubrum. Confocal microscopy revealed that Pc 4 binds to cytoplasmic organelles, and upon irradiation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated. The impairment of fungal metabolic activities as measured by an XTT (2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyanilide inner salt) assay indicated that 1.0 μM Pc 4 followed by 670 to 675 nm light at 2.0 J/cm2 reduced the overall cell survival rate, which was substantiated by a dry weight assay. In addition, we found that this therapeutic approach is effective against terbinafine-sensitive (24602) and terbinafine-resistant (MRL666) strains. These data suggest that Pc 4-PDT may have utility as a treatment for dermatophytosis. PMID:24614382

  1. Regulation of Trichophyton rubrum proteolytic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Apodaca, G; McKerrow, J H

    1989-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte of humans and normally colonizes the superficial layers of the epidermis (stratum corneum). Several proteinases with a possible role in the metabolism of host proteins have been purified from this fungus. The regulation of these enzymes and their role in fungal metabolism were studied at the biochemical level. General proteolytic (azocollytic) activity was repressed when log-phase cultures of T. rubrum were grown in a minimal medium that contained readily metabolized sources of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus. When either carbon, nitrogen, or sulfur was deleted from this minimal medium, azocollytic activity was derepressed. In all cases a high-molecular-weight activity (Mr, greater than 200,000) was expressed. A 71,000-Mr proteinase was observed in nitrogen-depleted cultures, and proteolytic species of Mr 124,000 and 27,000 were secreted in sulfur-depleted cultures. The addition of either inorganic (MgSO4, Na2SO3, NaS2O3) or organic (methionine, cysteine) sulfur to the sulfur-depleted medium repressed the expression of azocollytic activity. In contrast, keratinolytic activity was not repressed by carbon, nitrogen, or sulfur but instead was induced when a protein source was included in the minimal medium. Stationary-phase cultures of T. rubrum secreted all proteolytic activities constitutively. Unlike log-phase cultures, the stationary-phase cultures secreted azocollytic, elastinolytic, and keratinolytic activity in minimal medium. These activities fell in the carbon-, nitrogen-, and phosphorous-depleted media but remained high in sulfur-depleted medium. The following model is proposed for the regulation of T. rubrum proteolytic activity. In the initial stages of infection, T. rubrum grows logarithmically. In this state, proteolytic activity is derepressed whenever carbon, nitrogen, or sulfur is lacking in the fungal milieu. The general proteinases produced would act on the nonkeratinous proteins in the

  2. Multilocus Genotyping Identifies Infections by Multiple Strains of Trichophyton tonsurans▿

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Rahman, Susan M.; Preuett, Barry; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Acquisition of multiple genetic strains of a single dermatophyte species should not be unexpected in areas of high endemicity, and yet multistrain infections are infrequently reported. This communication details mixed Trichophyton tonsurans infections and highlights the need to confirm the presence of multiple strains in a clinical single isolate by use of a multilocus approach. PMID:17442802

  3. The novel azole R126638 is a selective inhibitor of ergosterol synthesis in Candida albicans, Trichophyton spp., and Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Vanden Bossche, Hugo; Ausma, Jannie; Bohets, Hilde; Vermuyten, Karen; Willemsens, Gustaaf; Marichal, Patrick; Meerpoel, Lieven; Odds, Frank; Borgers, Marcel

    2004-09-01

    R126638 is a novel triazole with in vitro activity similar to that of itraconazole against dermatophytes, Candida spp., and Malassezia spp. In animal models of dermatophyte infections, R126638 showed superior antifungal activity. R126638 inhibits ergosterol synthesis in Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, and Microsporum canis at nanomolar concentrations, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) similar to those of itraconazole. The decreased synthesis of ergosterol and the concomitant accumulation of 14 alpha-methylsterols provide indirect evidence that R126638 inhibits the activity of CYP51 that catalyzes the oxidative removal of the 14 alpha-methyl group of lanosterol or eburicol. The IC(50)s for cholesterol synthesis from acetate in human hepatoma cells were 1.4 microM for itraconazole and 3.1 microM for R126638. Compared to itraconazole (IC(50) = 3.5 microM), R126638 is a poor inhibitor of the 1 alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (IC(50) > 10 microM). Micromolar concentrations of R126638 and itraconazole inhibited the 24-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) and the conversion of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) into polar metabolites. At concentrations up to 10 microM, R126638 had almost no effect on cholesterol side chain cleavage (CYP11A1), 11 beta-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), 17-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase (CYP17), aromatase (CYP19), or 4-hydroxylation of all-trans retinoic acid (CYP26). At 10 microM, R126638 did not show clear inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C10, CYP2C19, or CYP2E1. Compared to itraconazole, R126638 had a lower interaction potential with testosterone 6 beta hydroxylation and cyclosporine hydroxylation, both of which are catalyzed by CYP3A4, whereas both antifungals inhibited the CYP3A4-catalyzed hydroxylation of midazolam similarly. The results suggest that R126638 has promising properties and merits further in vivo investigations for the treatment of dermatophyte and yeast

  4. Photodynamic action of protoporphyrin IX derivatives on Trichophyton rubrum*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Rogério Rodrigo; Kozusny-Andreani, Dora Inês; Fernandes, Adjaci Uchôa; Baptista, Mauricio da Silva

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dermatophytes are filamentous keratinophilic fungi. Trichophyton rubrum is a prevalent infectious agent in tineas and other skin diseases. Drug therapy is considered to be limited in the treatment of such infections, mainly due to low accessibility of the drug to the tissue attacked and development of antifungal resistance in these microorganisms. In this context, Photodynamic Therapy is presented as an alternative. OBJECTIVE Evaluate, in vitro, the photodynamic activity of four derivatives of Protoporphyrin IX by irradiation with LED 400 nm in T. rubrum. METHOD Assays were subjected to irradiation by twelve cycles of ten minutes at five minute intervals. RESULT Photodynamic action appeared as effective with total elimination of UFCs from the second irradiation cycle. CONCLUSION Studies show that the photodynamic activity on Trichophyton rubrum relates to a suitable embodiment of the photosensitizer, which can be maximized by functionalization of peripheral groups of the porphyrinic ring. PMID:27192510

  5. Molecular Markers Reveal Exclusively Clonal Reproduction in Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Gräser, Y.; Kühnisch, J.; Presber, W.

    1999-01-01

    Genotypic variability among 96 Trichophyton rubrum strains which displayed different colony morphologies and were collected from four continents was investigated. Twelve markers representing 57 loci were analyzed by PCR fingerprinting, amplified fragment length polymorphism, and random amplified monomorphic DNA markers. Interestingly, none of the methods used revealed any DNA polymorphism, indicating a strictly clonal mode of reproduction and a strong adaptation to human skin. PMID:10523582

  6. [A case of Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans].

    PubMed

    Urano, Shoko; Shirai, Shigeko; Suzuki, Yoko; Sugaya, Keiko; Takigawa, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    A 10-year-old Peruvian girl, living in Japan since 1996, visited our hospital in August 2000 complaining of alopecia which had been present on her scalp for one year. The bald areas appeared as multiple small, scattered, angular patches with indistinct margins. Follicular pustules, erythemic nodules and lymphadenopathy were also seen. In the culture of the affected hair, a tan surface with wiry undulations grew on Sabouraud's media. The colony reverse had reddish-brown central pigmentation. Slide cultured fungi produced great numbers of round and short club-shaped microconidia, hyphae and intercalary chlamydospores. These fungi showed the following characteristics: positive urease test, no pigment production on cornmeal agar and positive thiamine dependency. The restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern and the nucleotide sequences of ribosomal-DNA internal transcribed spacer region of the causative fungus was compatible with Trichophyton tonsurans. Daily administration of 125 mg of terbinafine resulted in a satisfactory response and the lesion healed almost completely. PMID:12590256

  7. Dermatophytosis in farmed mink (Mustela vison) caused by Trichophyton equinum.

    PubMed

    Overy, David P; Marron-Lopez, Fany; Muckle, Anne; Bourque, Andrea; Lund, Lorraine; MacHattie, David; Lopez, Alfonso

    2015-09-01

    This report details 2 outbreaks of dermatophytosis in 2 different mink ranches. On the first farm, only kits were affected, while on the second farm, small numbers of adults were infected. Affected mink were otherwise clinically healthy and in good body condition. Three animals were euthanized and submitted for autopsy. Grossly, mink exhibited locally extensive to coalescing areas of crusting alopecia but no other significant gross lesions in internal organs. Microscopically, skin lesions were characterized by chronic hyperplastic dermatitis with folliculitis, furunculosis, occasional intracorneal pustules, and large numbers of intrafollicular fungal arthrospores and hyphae. The dermatophyte was cultured and identified as Trichophyton equinum based on molecular barcoding of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA gene. PMID:26223793

  8. A chronic disseminated dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton violaceum.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ping; Li, Zhi-hua; Geng, Chengfang; Jiang, Qing; Jin, Yun; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Liu, Weida; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2015-02-01

    A 48-year-old female had presented dandruff and breakable hair for more than 40 years, dry scaly erythema on bilateral palms and feet accompanying with nail destruction for 20 years, and scaling papules on the buttock for 5 years. Direct microscopic examination showed endothrix anthroconidia within broken hair and septate and branched hyphae within skin and nail lesion. Fungal cultures from all infected sites were examined by morphology, ITS sequencing, and random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting, and were identified as Trichophyton violaceum from the same source. The patient was treated with oral terbinafine 0.25 g/day as well as with 1% terbinafine gel for external use and with 2% ketoconazole lotion for shampoo and bath. A follow-up after 4 weeks showed that the lesions decreased significantly. PMID:25322706

  9. Tinea manuum due to Trichophyton erinacei from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Drira, I; Neji, S; Hadrich, I; Sellami, H; Makni, F; Ayadi, A

    2015-09-01

    Trichophyton erinacei is a zoonotic fungus affecting hedgehogs. Although several human infections with this organism have been documented in the literature, it has rarely been isolated as a human pathogen. This paper reports on an erythematous lesion spotted on the hand of a 10-year-old girl. Based on the culture of the patient's skin scrapings, the pathogen was mycologically identified as T. erinacei, which was further confirmed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacers of the fungal nuclear ribosomal DNA using universal primer ITS1-ITS4. This is the first case of T. erinacei in a Tunisian patient. A survey was carried out on the environment of our patient, and the results revealed the presence of hedgehogs with suspect scaly lesions. The same fungus was isolated from the hair and scales of the hedgehog, which was confirmed by PCR sequencing. The frequency of T. erinacei has often been underestimated, which is attributed not only to the gaps of knowledge still existing in the current understanding of the dermatophyte but also to differential diagnosis problems. Molecular study offers a simple and rapid tool to identify the source of infection and, hence, avoid the risk of recurrence. PMID:26091573

  10. Analysis of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum expressed sequence tags

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingling; Ma, Li; Leng, Wenchuan; Liu, Tao; Yu, Lu; Yang, Jian; Yang, Li; Zhang, Wenliang; Zhang, Qian; Dong, Jie; Xue, Ying; Zhu, Yafang; Xu, Xingye; Wan, Zhe; Ding, Guohui; Yu, Fudong; Tu, Kang; Li, Yixue; Li, Ruoyu; Shen, Yan; Jin, Qi

    2006-01-01

    Background Dermatophytes are the primary causative agent of dermatophytoses, a disease that affects billions of individuals worldwide. Trichophyton rubrum is the most common of the superficial fungi. Although T. rubrum is a recognized pathogen for humans, little is known about how its transcriptional pattern is related to development of the fungus and establishment of disease. It is therefore necessary to identify genes whose expression is relevant to growth, metabolism and virulence of T. rubrum. Results We generated 10 cDNA libraries covering nearly the entire growth phase and used them to isolate 11,085 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs), including 3,816 contigs and 7,269 singletons. Comparisons with the GenBank non-redundant (NR) protein database revealed putative functions or matched homologs from other organisms for 7,764 (70%) of the ESTs. The remaining 3,321 (30%) of ESTs were only weakly similar or not similar to known sequences, suggesting that these ESTs represent novel genes. Conclusion The present data provide a comprehensive view of fungal physiological processes including metabolism, sexual and asexual growth cycles, signal transduction and pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:17032460

  11. Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum infection.

    PubMed

    Ran, Xin; Zhuang, Kaiwen; Ran, Yuping

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of tinea corporis on amputated leg stump caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patient, a 54-year-old male, experienced a serious traffic accident, resulted his right leg amputated 3 years ago. Since then prosthesis was fitted and protective equipment of silicone stocking was worn for the stump. He consulted with circular, patchy and scaly erythemas with itching on his right below knee amputation stump for 2 months. The diagnoses of tinea corporis on the stump was made based on a positive KOH direct microscopic examination, morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 4, confirmed that the isolate from the scales was T. rubrum. The patient was cured with oral terbinafine and topical naftifine-ketaconazole cream following 2% ketaconazole shampoo wash for 3 weeks. Long times using prosthesis together with protective equipment of silicone stocking, leading to the local environment of airtight and humid within the prosthesis favors T. rubrum infection of the stump could be considered as the precipitating factors. PMID:26288747

  12. Clinical Trichophyton rubrum strain exhibiting primary resistance to terbinafine.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Pranab K; Leidich, Steven D; Isham, Nancy; Leitner, Ingrid; Ryder, Neil S; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal susceptibilities of six clinical Trichophyton rubrum isolates obtained sequentially from a single onychomycosis patient who failed oral terbinafine therapy (250 mg/day for 24 weeks) were determined by broth microdilution and macrodilution methodologies. Strain relatedness was examined by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses. Data obtained from both broth micro- and macrodilution assays were in agreement and revealed that the six clinical isolates had greatly reduced susceptibilities to terbinafine. The MICs of terbinafine for these strains were >4 microg/ml, whereas they were <0.0002 microg/ml for the susceptible reference strains. Consistent with these findings, the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of terbinafine for all six strains were >128 microg/ml, whereas they were 0.0002 microg/ml for the reference strain. The MIC of terbinafine for the baseline strain (cultured at the initial screening visit and before therapy was started) was already 4,000-fold higher than normal, suggesting that this is a case of primary resistance to terbinafine. The results obtained by the broth macrodilution procedure revealed that the terbinafine MICs and MFCs for sequential isolates apparently increased during the course of therapy. RAPD analyses did not reveal any differences between the isolates. The terbinafine-resistant isolates exhibited normal susceptibilities to clinically available antimycotics including itraconazole, fluconazole, and griseofulvin. However, these isolates were fully cross resistant to several other known squalene epoxidase inhibitors, including naftifine, butenafine, tolnaftate, and tolciclate, suggesting a target-specific mechanism of resistance. This is the first confirmed report of terbinafine resistance in dermatophytes. PMID:12499173

  13. Clinical Trichophyton rubrum Strain Exhibiting Primary Resistance to Terbinafine

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Leidich, Steven D.; Isham, Nancy; Leitner, Ingrid; Ryder, Neil S.; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal susceptibilities of six clinical Trichophyton rubrum isolates obtained sequentially from a single onychomycosis patient who failed oral terbinafine therapy (250 mg/day for 24 weeks) were determined by broth microdilution and macrodilution methodologies. Strain relatedness was examined by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses. Data obtained from both broth micro- and macrodilution assays were in agreement and revealed that the six clinical isolates had greatly reduced susceptibilities to terbinafine. The MICs of terbinafine for these strains were >4 μg/ml, whereas they were <0.0002 μg/ml for the susceptible reference strains. Consistent with these findings, the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of terbinafine for all six strains were >128 μg/ml, whereas they were 0.0002 μg/ml for the reference strain. The MIC of terbinafine for the baseline strain (cultured at the initial screening visit and before therapy was started) was already 4,000-fold higher than normal, suggesting that this is a case of primary resistance to terbinafine. The results obtained by the broth macrodilution procedure revealed that the terbinafine MICs and MFCs for sequential isolates apparently increased during the course of therapy. RAPD analyses did not reveal any differences between the isolates. The terbinafine-resistant isolates exhibited normal susceptibilities to clinically available antimycotics including itraconazole, fluconazole, and griseofulvin. However, these isolates were fully cross resistant to several other known squalene epoxidase inhibitors, including naftifine, butenafine, tolnaftate, and tolciclate, suggesting a target-specific mechanism of resistance. This is the first confirmed report of terbinafine resistance in dermatophytes. PMID:12499173

  14. Arthroderma olidum, sp. nov. A new addition to the Trichophyton terrestre complex.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Colin K; Borman, Andrew M; Linton, Christopher J; Bridge, Paul D; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2006-08-01

    In 1981, four fungal isolates from hair of the European badger (Meles meles) were examined by Dr Phyllis Stockdale at the Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, and deposited in the UK National Collection of Pathogenic Fungi as an undescribed member of the Trichophyton terrestre complex. The present paper formalizes the complete description of a new ascomycete taxon, Arthroderma olidum following successful recent attempts to re-isolate the same fungus from the soil of Badger holes in South West England. Furthermore, using ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, we show that the asexual form of A. olidum is conspecific with the recently described Trichophyton eboreum1 isolated from a human skin specimen in Germany. PMID:16882612

  15. Chronic widespread dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton rubrum: a syndrome associated with a Trichophyton-specific functional defect of phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Maria da Glória T.; Santana, Grazielle B.; Criado, Paulo R.; Benard, Gil

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are agents of typically benign superficial infections. However, an increasing number of severe infections in immunocompromised hosts has been reported. We aimed to understand the factors underlying the existence of a cohort of patients presenting with chronic widespread dermatophytosis (CWD) due to Trichophyton rubrum, but with no signs of immunodeficiency. Their disease is usually recurrent and difficult to manage. Fourteen patients meeting the following criteria for CWD were studied: T. rubrum culture-proven skin lesions of ≥10 cm in at least one dimension; the involvement of at least three non-contiguous localizations of >1 year’s duration; and no predisposing conditions. For comparison, we also studied 13 acute Tinea pedis patients. Macrophages and neutrophils were isolated and tested for T. rubrum conidia phagocytic and killing activity. H2O2, NO, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine release were measured. All experiments were run with age- and sex-matched healthy donors’ cells in parallel. CWD patients’ macrophages and neutrophils presented with reduced T. rubrum–phagocytic and killing abilities, and reduced H2O2 and NO release when compared with those of healthy donors. CWD patients’ macrophages secreted lower levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, but enhanced levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Neutrophil secretion closely followed this unbalanced pattern. In contrast, responses to the positive controls zymosan, lipopolysaccharide, and phorbol myristate acetate were comparable with those of healthy donors. The same experiments were performed with macrophages and neutrophils from the acute Tinea pedis patients and showed no differences when compared with the matched healthy donors. Patients with CWD have a T. rubrum-related functional deficiency of phagocytes and may represent a distinct clinical entity in the complex spectrum of the Trichophyton

  16. Keratomycosis: Etiology, Risk Factors and Differential Diagnosis- A Mini Review on Trichophyton spp.

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sanjay; Jayachandran

    2014-01-01

    Fungal keratitis is an infectious disease of the cornea. Lack of suspicion and delayed diagnosis herald the onset of complications often leading to permanent loss of vision or worse, enucleation. While a variety of pathogenic fungi especially non-dermatophyte molds associated with fungal keratitis have been identified, a comprehensive review identifying the Trichophyton spp. has not been completed. Trichophyton spp. is a rare but important entity implicated in fungal keratitis. Case reports from around the world designate it as a dangerous pathogen. Trichophyton spp. implicated in keratitis has not previously been reported and is considerably greater than suggested by incidence studies. Patient outcome is heavily reliant upon correct identification, timely intervention and effective treatment. Species identification, the risk factors associated with, and pathogenesis of keratitis will allow the development of improved therapies. This mini review provides a resource for clinicians and researchers to recognize Trichophyton spp. as a potent etiological agent capable of causing keratitis. It is no more a dermatophyte limited to infection of appendages. PMID:25478343

  17. Keratomycosis: Etiology, Risk Factors and Differential Diagnosis- A Mini Review on Trichophyton spp.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Yukti; Jain, Sanjay; Jayachandran

    2014-10-01

    Fungal keratitis is an infectious disease of the cornea. Lack of suspicion and delayed diagnosis herald the onset of complications often leading to permanent loss of vision or worse, enucleation. While a variety of pathogenic fungi especially non-dermatophyte molds associated with fungal keratitis have been identified, a comprehensive review identifying the Trichophyton spp. has not been completed. Trichophyton spp. is a rare but important entity implicated in fungal keratitis. Case reports from around the world designate it as a dangerous pathogen. Trichophyton spp. implicated in keratitis has not previously been reported and is considerably greater than suggested by incidence studies. Patient outcome is heavily reliant upon correct identification, timely intervention and effective treatment. Species identification, the risk factors associated with, and pathogenesis of keratitis will allow the development of improved therapies. This mini review provides a resource for clinicians and researchers to recognize Trichophyton spp. as a potent etiological agent capable of causing keratitis. It is no more a dermatophyte limited to infection of appendages. PMID:25478343

  18. Biological, Biochemical, and Molecular Characterization of a New Clinical Trichophyton rubrum Isolate Resistant to Terbinafine

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Colin S.; Leitner, Ingrid; Hofbauer, Bettina; Fielding, Ceri A.; Favre, Bertrand; Ryder, Neil S.

    2006-01-01

    We have characterized a new clinical strain of Trichophyton rubrum highly resistant to terbinafine but exhibiting normal susceptibility to drugs with other mechanisms of action. Resistance to terbinafine in this strain is caused by a missense mutation in the squalene epoxidase gene leading to the amino acid substitution F397L. PMID:16723593

  19. Mycostatic effect of recombinant dermcidin against Trichophyton rubrum and reduced dermcidin expression in the sweat of tinea pedis patients.

    PubMed

    Arai, Satoru; Yoshino, Takashi; Fujimura, Takao; Maruyama, Sachie; Nakano, Toshiaki; Mukuno, Akira; Sato, Naoya; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2015-01-01

    Trichophytosis, a common dermatophytosis, affects nearly 20-25% of the world's population. However, little is known about mechanisms for preventing colonization of Trichophyton on the skin. Dermcidin, an antimicrobial peptide that provides innate immunity to the skin and is constitutively secreted even in the absence of inflammatory stimulation, was studied to elucidate its antimycotic activity against Trichophyton. Recombinant dermcidin was determined to have antimycotic activity against Trichophyton rubrum, as evaluated by colony-forming unit (CFU) assays. The killing rate of dermcidin was 40.5% and 93.4% at 50 μg/mL (the average dermcidin concentration in healthy subjects) and 270 μg/mL, respectively. An effect of dermcidin treatment was found to be a reduction of the metabolic activity of Trichophyton as determined by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide assay. Further, dermcidin concentrations in sweat of tinea pedis patients were found to be lower than those of healthy subjects. These findings suggest a mycostatic role for dermcidin, at normal sweat concentrations. Accordingly, we suspect that dermcidin, at normal sweat concentrations, inhibits growth of Trichophyton, where Trichophyton is subsequently eliminated in conjunction with epidermis turnover. Dermcidin, therefore, appears to play a role in the skin protection mechanism that prevents colonization of tinea pedis. PMID:25384912

  20. [Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae : Clinical therapeutic aspects of a new pathogen in dermatology].

    PubMed

    Hiernickel, C; Wiegand, C; Schliemann, S; Seyfarth, F; Jung, K; Elsner, P; Hipler, U-C

    2016-09-01

    Cutaneous infections with Trichophyton species of Arthroderma (A.) benhamiae are increasingly being detected in Germany. This dermatophyte typically causes tinea corporis, tinea faciei or tinea capitis with in part heavy clinical manifestation like kerion celsi. In special cases diagnosis and therapy can be difficult. In this article, four clinical cases are presented, whereby attention is given to special clinical situations and therapeutic aspects with regard to Trichophyton species of A. benhamiae: Case 1: Kerion celsi by in a 6-year-old boy; Case 2: Deep trichophytia at the mons pubis in a 32-year-old man working in a pet shop and his 27-year-old female partner; Case 3: Tinea manuum in a 7-year-old girl; Case 4: Tinea corporis in an 8‑year-old girl. PMID:27380384

  1. Comparison of the In Vitro Activities of Newer Triazoles and Established Antifungal Agents against Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Shuwen; Zhang, Chao; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Zhu, Shuang; Tan, Xin; Wen, Yiyang; Huang, Xin; Lei, Wenzhi; Zhou, Zhaojing; Fang, Wenjie; Shen, Shuaishuai; Deng, Danqi

    2015-01-01

    One hundred eleven clinical Trichophyton rubrum isolates were tested against 7 antifungal agents. The geometric mean MICs of all isolates were, in increasing order: terbinafine, 0.03 mg/liter; voriconazole, 0.05 mg/liter; posaconazole, 0.11 mg/liter; isavuconazole, 0.13 mg/liter; itraconazole, 0.26 mg/liter; griseofulvin, 1.65 mg/liter; and fluconazole, 2.12 mg/liter. PMID:25896691

  2. Tinea corporis due to Trichophyton violaceum: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Smriti, C; Anuradha, S; Kamlesh, T; Isampreet, K; Nitin, K

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are Fungi which infect keratinized tissues, that is, skin epidermis, hair and nails. Trichophyton violaceum is an anthropophilic, cosmopolitan dermatophyte. It primarily causes tinea capitis and less commonly tinea corporis and tinea unguium. We present a report of two cases of tinea corporis due to T. violaceum in children. Infections due to T. violaceum are important because of its transmissibility within families and community and its potential to spread and establish in new geographical areas. PMID:26470976

  3. Trichoderma spp. antagonism to the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum: implications in treatment of onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Omero, C; Dror, Y; Freeman, A

    2004-08-01

    Onychomycosis--the dermatophytic invasion of the nail--is difficult to eradicate with drug treatment. The hyphae of the main invading pathogen, Trichophyton rubrum, are often interwoven with the nail plate, preventing effective anti-mycotic agents from reaching its growing tips. An alternative approach to treat onychomycosis may possibly be the application of a biological control agent against the pathogen. In analogy with the success of biocontrol of phytopathogenic fungi, we screened a series of commercially available Trichoderma strains for potential antagonism between Trichoderma and Trichophyton spp. A wide spectrum of antagonism capacity, ranging from effective overgrowth to no interaction was found, with Trichoderma virens NRRL 26672 being the most effective against the Trichophyton strains tested e.g. T. rubrum NCPF118. Furthermore, T. virens NRRL 26672 grown with T. rubrum NCPF118 hyphae as a carbon source, exhibited enhanced induced secretion of active extracellular chitinases and beta-glucosidases, affecting lysis and sporulation on T. rubrum NCPF118 hyphae. Growth of Trichod. virens NRRL 26672 in poor medium also resulted in secretion of antibiotics active in arresting the growth of T. rubrum NCPF118 inoculum. Our findings may open new directions for the treatment of onychomycosis, either in combination with known medications or as a new "natural" route. PMID:15518345

  4. Trichophyton erinacei kerion barbae from a hedgehog with direct osculatory transfer to another person.

    PubMed

    Sidwell, R U; Chan, I; Francis, N; Bunker, C B

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of kerion tinea barbae infection due to Trichophyton erinacei in a 37-year-old man. The infection had also been transferred to his partner by direct contact from kissing. T. erinacei is a zoophilic dermatophyte occasionally harboured by the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). There are few reports of human infection in the literature, and it rarely causes a kerion. There is only one previous report of tinea barbae occurrence due to T. erinacei. This case highlights the possibility of one of the more unusual fungal infections that can be acquired in the UK, and highlights the necessity of asking specific questions to identify possible sources of infection. PMID:24016062

  5. Widespread and invasive Trichophyton rubrum infection mimicking Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Kyung-Sool; Jang, Ho-Sun; Son, Hyo-Sung; Oh, Chang-Keun; Kwon, Yoo-Wook; Kim, Ki-Hong; Suh, Soon-Bong

    2004-10-01

    Opportunistic fungal infections are commonly encountered in AIDS patients. Candidiasis, tinea pedis, onychomycosis, and deep mycotic infections have been the fungal infections most frequently reported in these patients. Dermatophyte infections can appear to be atypical and aggressive in these patients and may lead to a misdiagnosis. We report a Trichophyton rubrum infection in a 44-year-old man with AIDS that presented as a widespread and multiple tumor-like appearance. After the patient was treated with terbinafine for 21 weeks, the lesions cleared completely. We think that this type of dermatophyte infection is very unusual in patients with AIDS and could lead to inappropriate diagnostic processes and treatments. PMID:15672716

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of vinyl ether-containing azole derivatives as inhibitors of Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lulu; Yang, Wenge; Wang, Kai; Zhu, Jing; Shen, Fei; Hu, Yonghong

    2012-07-15

    In an attempt to search for many target compounds with excellent activities, a series of vinyl ether-containing azole derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as antifungal agents. Results of preliminary antifungal tests against Trichophyton rubrum in vitro indicated that most of the synthesized compounds showed excellent activities. In comparison with fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, omoconazole and amphotericin B, several compounds (such as 7d, 7g and 7h) exhibited more potent inhibitory activities, suggesting that they were promising leads for the development of novel antifungal agents. PMID:22683344

  7. The fungus Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. causes skin infections that resemble white-nose syndrome of hibernating bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Minnis, Andrew M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Redell, Jennifer A.; White, J. Paul; Kaarakka, Heather M.; Muller, Laura K.; Lindner, David L.; Verant, Michelle L.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Blehert, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Before the discovery of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, there were no reports of fungal skin infections in bats during hibernation. In 2011, bats with grossly visible fungal skin infections similar in appearance to WNS were reported from multiple sites in Wisconsin, USA, a state outside the known range of P. destructans and WNS at that time. Tape impressions or swab samples were collected from affected areas of skin from bats with these fungal infections in 2012 and analyzed by microscopy, culture, or direct DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). A psychrophilic species ofTrichophyton was isolated in culture, detected by direct DNA amplification and sequencing, and observed on tape impressions. Deoxyribonucleic acid indicative of the same fungus was also detected on three of five bat carcasses collected in 2011 and 2012 from Wisconsin, Indiana, and Texas, USA. Superficial fungal skin infections caused by Trichophyton sp. were observed in histopathology for all three bats. Sequencing of the ITS of Trichophyton sp., along with its inability to grow at 25 C, indicated that it represented a previously unknown species, described herein as Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. Genetic diversity present within T. redellii suggests it is native to North America but that it had been overlooked before enhanced efforts to study fungi associated with bats in response to the emergence of WNS.

  8. The fungus Trichophyton redellii sp. Nov. Causes skin infections that resemble white-nose syndrome of hibernating bats.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Minnis, Andrew M; Meteyer, Carol U; Redell, Jennifer A; White, J Paul; Kaarakka, Heather M; Muller, Laura K; Lindner, Daniel L; Verant, Michelle L; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Blehert, David S

    2015-01-01

    Before the discovery of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, there were no reports of fungal skin infections in bats during hibernation. In 2011, bats with grossly visible fungal skin infections similar in appearance to WNS were reported from multiple sites in Wisconsin, US, a state outside the known range of P. destructans and WNS at that time. Tape impressions or swab samples were collected from affected areas of skin from bats with these fungal infections in 2012 and analyzed by microscopy, culture, or direct DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). A psychrophilic species of Trichophyton was isolated in culture, detected by direct DNA amplification and sequencing, and observed on tape impressions. Deoxyribonucleic acid indicative of the same fungus was also detected on three of five bat carcasses collected in 2011 and 2012 from Wisconsin, Indiana, and Texas, US. Superficial fungal skin infections caused by Trichophyton sp. were observed in histopathology for all three bats. Sequencing of the ITS of Trichophyton sp., along with its inability to grow at 25 C, indicated that it represented a previously unknown species, described herein as Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. Genetic diversity present within T. redellii suggests it is native to North America but that it had been overlooked before enhanced efforts to study fungi associated with bats in response to the emergence of WNS. PMID:25375940

  9. Forty-eight-hour diagnosis of onychomycosis with subtyping of Trichophyton rubrum strains.

    PubMed

    Kardjeva, V; Summerbell, R; Kantardjiev, T; Devliotou-Panagiotidou, D; Sotiriou, E; Gräser, Y

    2006-04-01

    A novel strategy for the molecular identification of fungal agents of onychomycosis (including Trichophyton rubrum) has been designed based on the use of species-specific and universal primers in conjunction with a commercial kit that allows the extraction of DNA directly from the nail specimens. The microsatellite marker T1, which is based on a (GT)n repeat, was applied for the species-specific identification of Trichophyton rubrum. To evaluate how often Scopulariopsis spp. are detected in nail specimens, a second primer pair was designed to amplify specifically a 336-bp DNA fragment of the 28S region of the nuclear rRNA gene of S. brevicaulis and closely related species. Other fungal species were identified using amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis or sequencing. In addition, polyacrylamide gel separation of the T1-PCR product allowed subtyping of T. rubrum strains. We studied 195 nail specimens (the "nail sample") and 66 previously collected etiologic strains (the "strain sample") from 261 onychomycosis patients from Bulgaria and Greece. Of the etiologic agents obtained from both samples, T. rubrum was the most common organism, confirmed to be present in 76% of all cases and serving as the sole or (rarely) mixed etiologic agent in 199 of 218 cases (91%) where the identity of the causal organism(s) was confirmed. Other agents seen included molds (6% of cases with identified etiologic agents; mainly S. brevicaulis) and other dermatophyte species (4%; most frequently Trichophyton interdigitale). Simultaneous infections with two fungal species were confirmed in a small percentage of cases (below 1%). The proportion of morphologically identified cultures revealed by molecular study to have been misidentified was 6%. Subtyping revealed that all but five T. rubrum isolates were of the common type B that is prevalent in Europe. In comparison to microscopy and

  10. Forty-Eight-Hour Diagnosis of Onychomycosis with Subtyping of Trichophyton rubrum Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kardjeva, V.; Summerbell, R.; Kantardjiev, T.; Devliotou-Panagiotidou, D.; Sotiriou, E.; Gräser, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A novel strategy for the molecular identification of fungal agents of onychomycosis (including Trichophyton rubrum) has been designed based on the use of species-specific and universal primers in conjunction with a commercial kit that allows the extraction of DNA directly from the nail specimens. The microsatellite marker T1, which is based on a (GT)n repeat, was applied for the species-specific identification of Trichophyton rubrum. To evaluate how often Scopulariopsis spp. are detected in nail specimens, a second primer pair was designed to amplify specifically a 336-bp DNA fragment of the 28S region of the nuclear rRNA gene of S. brevicaulis and closely related species. Other fungal species were identified using amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis or sequencing. In addition, polyacrylamide gel separation of the T1-PCR product allowed subtyping of T. rubrum strains. We studied 195 nail specimens (the “nail sample”) and 66 previously collected etiologic strains (the “strain sample”) from 261 onychomycosis patients from Bulgaria and Greece. Of the etiologic agents obtained from both samples, T. rubrum was the most common organism, confirmed to be present in 76% of all cases and serving as the sole or (rarely) mixed etiologic agent in 199 of 218 cases (91%) where the identity of the causal organism(s) was confirmed. Other agents seen included molds (6% of cases with identified etiologic agents; mainly S. brevicaulis) and other dermatophyte species (4%; most frequently Trichophyton interdigitale). Simultaneous infections with two fungal species were confirmed in a small percentage of cases (below 1%). The proportion of morphologically identified cultures revealed by molecular study to have been misidentified was 6%. Subtyping revealed that all but five T. rubrum isolates were of the common type B that is prevalent in Europe. In comparison to microscopy

  11. Origins of Microsatellite Diversity in the Trichophyton rubrum- T. violaceum Clade (Dermatophytes)

    PubMed Central

    Ohst, T.; de Hoog, S.; Presber, W.; Stavrakieva, V.; Gräser, Y.

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed the population structure of the anthropophilic dermatophyte species Trichophyton violaceum, which mainly causes tinea capitis, and T. rubrum, the most frequently isolated agent of dermatophytosis worldwide. A microsatellite marker (T1) was developed by using the enrichment technique for microsatellites. The T1 marker containing a (GT)8-10 repeat was proven to specifically amplify both species, underlining their close kinship. Four polymorphic alleles were detected within a set of about 130 strains by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with this marker. An association with geographic origin of the isolates was apparent. Given the close relatedness of both species, these data suggest an African origin of the entire T. rubrum complex, followed by the emergence of a new genotype (B) in Asia with subsequent spread of this genotype over Europe and the United States. PMID:15472291

  12. A Case of Tinea Corporis due to Trichophyton tonsurans that Manifested as Impetigo.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Harunari; Nakashima, Chikako; Hase, Midori; Sei, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    A 41-year-old man visited our dermatology clinic because an eruption, which was resistant to steroid ointment treatment, had appeared on his right forearm. An oval, soybean-sized erythematous infiltrated lesion with scales and crusts was located in the central part of the extensor surface of the right forearm and showed partial erosion with attached yellow crusts. The lesion had an impetigo-like appearance. Fungal elements were confirmed from the scales by KOH examination and the fungus was identified as Trichophyton tonsurans by fungal culture and molecular method. Clinical features of T. tonsurans infection vary, wherein some patients have strong inflammatory manifestations, while others remain as asymptomatic carriers. Especially at the early stage of the infection, diagnosis is difficult because it is often misdiagnosed as eczema. We report a case of T. tonsurans infection that had impetigo-like appearance. We also studied the mechanism of the disease. PMID:27581776

  13. Tinea capitis due to Trichophyton soudanense with a papular IDE reaction in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Landro, A; Marchesi, L; Passera, M; Arosio, M

    2008-12-01

    A little boy from a Nigerian family who lives in a little industrialized village in the suburbs of Bergamo, (Northern Italy), has never been to his country but presented with tinea capitis and with a secondary papular pruritic eruption of the trunk. Fungal cultures analysis have shown the development of Trichophyton soudanense, an anthropophilic dermatophyte which is endemic in Africa, but only rarely reported in Italy and in other European countries. The growing racial mixing related to migratory movements is favoring, also in Italy, the integration of this strain with the species which are most commonly responsible for dermatophytoses and the appearance of papular IDE reactions which were only occasionally seen in the Italian children population. PMID:19169215

  14. A 9-Month-Old Girl from Iran with Extensive Erythematous Plaques Due to Trichophyton simii, a Zoophilic Dermatophyte.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Saham; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Nouripour-Sisakht, Sadegh; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Jannesar, Ramin; Mohammadi, Haniyeh; Fazli, Yousef; Ilkit, Macit; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton simii is generally considered to be limited to endemic areas, particularly one area of India. However, the high similarity between the morphological features of atypical T. simii isolates and those of other dermatophytes such as Trichophyton interdigitale and Arthroderma benhamiae may lead to misidentification of the cause of dermatophytosis in many instances. We investigated a rare case of tinea corporis in a 9-month-old female with extensive erythematous lesions. Morphological features of the recovered isolate from the culture resulted in the identification of Trichophyton interdigitale. For accurate identification, the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene were sequenced and the isolate was ultimately identified as T. simii. In conclusion, T. simii, which has been formerly known to be restricted to specific endemic regions, appears to be not infrequent in non-endemic areas but instead simply less well-known and consequently underestimated. To determine its actual prevalence of infection, the application of DNA-based molecular methodologies is required. PMID:26767834

  15. A Large Outbreak of Trichophyton Tonsurans Among Healthcare Workers in a Pediatric Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Shroba, Jodi; Olson-Burgess, Cindy; Preuett, Barry; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Trichophyton tonsurans remains a wide spread cause of dermataophytoses among U.S. children, yet nosocomial spread may go unrecognized in a health care setting. We describe a staff outbreak of T. tonsurans infection among healthcare workers in a freestanding pediatric hospital. Methods Epidemiologic evaluation (retrospective and prospective) was performed in the healthcare providers and ancillary staff assigned to a 27-bed inpatient medical unit where a suspected outbreak occurred. Results Twenty-one individuals including staff, a hospital volunteer and a patient developed tinea corporis during a 5 month period. All infections coincided with multiple admissions of a 2 year old suspected index patient who demonstrated persistent infections of the scalp and arm. Fungal isolates obtained from the index patient and affected staff (when available) were subjected to multi-locus strain typing which revealed an identical genetic match between the index case and infected hospital personnel. Conclusion T. tonsurans can spread widely among staff members caring for children with recalcitrant dermatophyte infections. Timely recognition that work-place transmission may be the etiology of a succession of infections occurring in a single inpatient unit is necessary to limit the number of infected individuals. PMID:18834726

  16. Highly Discriminatory Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Markers for Genotyping of Trichophyton interdigitale Strains

    PubMed Central

    Drira, Ines; Hadrich, Ines; Neji, Sourour; Mahfouth, Nedia; Trabelsi, Houaida; Sellami, Hayet; Makni, Fattouma

    2014-01-01

    Trichophyton interdigitale is the second most frequent cause of superficial fungal infections of various parts of the human body. Studying the population structure and genotype differentiation of T. interdigitale strains may lead to significant improvements in clinical practice. The present study aimed to develop and select suitable variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) markers for 92 clinical strains of T. interdigitale. On the basis of an analysis of four VNTR markers, four to eight distinct alleles were detected for each marker. The marker with the highest discriminatory power had eight alleles and a D value of 0.802. The combination of all four markers yielded a D value of 0.969 with 29 distinct multilocus genotypes. VNTR typing revealed the genetic diversity of the strains, identifying three populations according to their colonization sites. A correlation between phenotypic characteristics and multilocus genotypes was observed. Seven patients harbored T. interdigitale strains with different genotypes. Typing of clinical T. interdigitale samples by VNTR markers displayed excellent discriminatory power and 100% reproducibility. PMID:24989614

  17. Equine Dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton bullosum, a Poorly Known Zoophilic Dermatophyte Masquerading as T. verrucosum.

    PubMed

    Lyskova, Pavlina; Hubka, Vit; Petricakova, Anna; Dobias, Radim; Cmokova, Adela; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2015-12-01

    Trichophyton bullosum is a zoophilic dermatophyte from the Arthroderma benhamiae complex with a poorly known distribution. In this study, we report a case of dermatophytosis caused by T. bullosum in a 6-year-old male horse who had a skin lesion located in a saddle area. The infection spread rapidly to the upper chest and to both sides of the trunk. The dermatophyte was isolated in culture and identified by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS rDNA). To date, this is the first verified case of animal infection due to T. bullosum in Europe following the 2012 report of human infection in France. We hypothesize that this species can be relatively common in horses and donkeys, but it is confused with other zoophilic species responsible for infections with similar clinical manifestations, and when isolated in culture, it is misidentified as the phenotypically similar T. verrucosum. Previous cases of dermatophytosis caused by T. verrucosum-like dermatophytes in horses and donkeys were reviewed together with human infections transmitted from these animals. This summary estimates possible distribution width of T. bullosum. The taxonomy of T. verrucosum-like dermatophytes is extremely difficult due to lack of original material and poor morphology of species. Molecular genetic methods are necessary to verify the identification of these fungi. ITS1 or ITS2 region of rDNA alone is sufficient for correct identification. PMID:26290003

  18. Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae - a new infectious agent in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Nenoff, Pietro; Uhrlaß, Silke; Krüger, Constanze; Erhard, Marcel; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Seyfarth, Florian; Herrmann, Jürgen; Wetzig, Tino; Schroedl, Wieland; Gräser, Yvonne

    2014-07-01

    In Germany, infections due to the zoophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton (T.) species of Arthroderma benhamiae are being more frequently diagnosed. The source of infection of this emerging pathogen overlaps with that of the zoophilic species T. interdigitale. The most common source are guinea pigs. T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae causes inflammatory dermatophytosis in children and adolescents. In addition to tinea capitis, it may cause both tinea corporis, tinea manus and frequently tinea faciei. In Germany, T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae is a frequent zoophilic dermatophyte, which in regions is probably more frequent than Microsporum canis. The mycological identification of the isolates with their yellow stained colonies is based on their macroscopic and microscopic features. However, some exhibit colony features consistent with those of T. interdigitale. These strains only can be identified unambiguously by means of molecular techniques. Using detection methods such as PCR-ELISA or real-time PCR, the dermatophyte can be identified directly from clinical material. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA has been approved as culture confirmation test for T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae. In addition, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) is useful. Widespread dermatophytosis due to T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae, in particular of tinea capitis, requires oral antifungal agents. Terbinafine is most effective, alternatives are fluconazole and itraconazole. PMID:24981469

  19. Trichophyton tonsurans infection in Japan: epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and infection control.

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Junichiro; Ogawa, Yumi; Hiruma, Masataro

    2015-03-01

    In this review, we summarize the status of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in Japan in terms of epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and infection control. Since approximately 2000, outbreaks of T. tonsurans infections among combat sports club members have been reported frequently, with the infection then spreading to their friends and family members. The most common clinical features of T. tonsurans infection are tinea corporis, which is difficult to differentiate from eczema, and tinea capitis. Tinea capitis is classified as the seborrheic form, kerion celsi form or "black dot" form, although 90% or more of patients are asymptomatic carriers. The diagnosis of symptomatic T. tonsurans infection is established by potassium hydroxide examination and fungal culture. However, because there are many asymptomatic carriers of T. tonsurans infection, tests using the hairbrush culture method are necessary. An increase in asymptomatic carriers of T. tonsurans makes assessment of the current prevalence of the infection challenging and underscores the importance of educational efforts and public awareness campaigns to prevent T. tonsurans epidemics. PMID:25736317

  20. Gene Expression Response of Trichophyton rubrum during Coculture on Keratinocytes Exposed to Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Silva, Gabriel; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most common causative agent of dermatomycoses worldwide, causing infection in the stratum corneum, nails, and hair. Despite the high prevalence of these infections, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the fungal-host interaction, particularly during antifungal treatment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the gene expression of T. rubrum cocultured with keratinocytes and treated with the flavonoid trans-chalcone and the glycoalkaloid α-solanine. Both substances showed a marked antifungal activity against T. rubrum strain CBS (MIC = 1.15 and 17.8 µg/mL, resp.). Cytotoxicity assay against HaCaT cells produced IC50 values of 44.18 to trans-chalcone and 61.60 µM to α-solanine. The interaction of keratinocytes with T. rubrum conidia upregulated the expression of genes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, ergosterol synthesis, and genes encoding proteases but downregulated the ABC transporter TruMDR2 gene. However, both antifungals downregulated the ERG1 and ERG11, metalloprotease 4, serine proteinase, and TruMDR2 genes. Furthermore, the trans-chalcone downregulated the genes involved in the glyoxylate pathway, isocitrate lyase, and citrate synthase. Considering the urgent need for more efficient and safer antifungals, these results contribute to a better understanding of fungal-host interactions and to the discovery of new antifungal targets. PMID:26257814

  1. Skin Infection due to Trichophyton tonsurans Still Occurs in People in Korea but not as Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Since 1995, Trichophyton tonsurans has been one of the causative agents of dermatophytosis in Korea. Herein we evaluate 77 patients infected with T. tonsurans who visited an outpatient clinic between 2004 and 2014. Infections due to T. tonsurans were diagnosed by mycological examination, which included direct microscopic examination using 15% KOH and culture in potato dextrose agar complemented with 0.5% chloramphenicol. The annual prevalence of infection due to T. tonsurans was the highest in 2014 (15 cases) but remained constant in non-gladiators between 2004 and 2014. The ratio of male to female patients was 1:0.3. The spring season presented the highest incidence compared with other seasons, with 27 cases. The incidence of infections due to T. tonsurans among gladiators was highest in spring compared with the other seasons whereas the incidence in non-gladiators was the highest in the winter. The body site most commonly affected was the face. Tinea corporis was the most common subtype of dermatophytosis caused by T. tonsurans. Herein, we demonstrate that the prevalence of infection with T. tonsurans remain constant throughout the study period in Korea. PMID:26839486

  2. Skin Infection due to Trichophyton tonsurans Still Occurs in People in Korea but not as Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Weon Ju; Sim, Hyun Bo; Jang, Yong Hyun; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Do Won; Jun, Jae Bok; Bang, Yong Jun

    2016-02-01

    Since 1995, Trichophyton tonsurans has been one of the causative agents of dermatophytosis in Korea. Herein we evaluate 77 patients infected with T. tonsurans who visited an outpatient clinic between 2004 and 2014. Infections due to T. tonsurans were diagnosed by mycological examination, which included direct microscopic examination using 15% KOH and culture in potato dextrose agar complemented with 0.5% chloramphenicol. The annual prevalence of infection due to T. tonsurans was the highest in 2014 (15 cases) but remained constant in non-gladiators between 2004 and 2014. The ratio of male to female patients was 1:0.3. The spring season presented the highest incidence compared with other seasons, with 27 cases. The incidence of infections due to T. tonsurans among gladiators was highest in spring compared with the other seasons whereas the incidence in non-gladiators was the highest in the winter. The body site most commonly affected was the face. Tinea corporis was the most common subtype of dermatophytosis caused by T. tonsurans. Herein, we demonstrate that the prevalence of infection with T. tonsurans remain constant throughout the study period in Korea. PMID:26839486

  3. Antimicrobial activity of Paenibacillus kribbensis POC 115 against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Cotta, Simone Raposo; da Mota, Fabio Faria; Tupinambá, Gleiser; Ishida, Kelly; Rozental, Sonia; E Silva, Davi Oliveira; da Silva, Antônio Jorge Ribeiro; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Seldin, Lucy

    2012-03-01

    In a search for an antifungal substance with activity against the dermatophyte fungus Trichophyton rubrum, strain POC 115 was chosen among different Paenibacillus strains for its phenotypic and genetic characterization and for preliminary characterization of its antimicrobial substance. Strain POC 115 was identified as belonging to Paenibacillus kribbensis. Physico-chemical characterization of the antimicrobial substance showed that it was not stable during heat and organic solvents treatments, but its activity was preserved at a wide range of pH and after treatment with pronase E, trypsin and DNase I. The crude concentrated supernatant of POC 115 culture was partially purified and the fraction presenting antimicrobial activity was further analyzed by UPLC/Mass Spectrometry. Two peaks were observed at 2.02 (mass 1,207 D) and 2.71 (mass 1,014 D) min in the mass chromatogram. The antimicrobial substance produced by POC 115 was correlated to iturin family compounds based on a set of primers designed for the amplification of PKS operon in the POC 115 genome. As happens with the mode of action of the antibiotics of the iturin group, the AMS produced by POC 115 caused the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane of T. rubrum and the subsequent withdraw of the intracellular material. This is the first report on the production of antimicrobial substances in P. kribbensis, and it may be of great relevance as an alternative or supplementary substance to antifungal drugs currently used against dermatophytes. PMID:22805816

  4. A Trichophyton Rubrum Infection Model Based on the Reconstructed Human Epidermis - Episkin®

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Pan-Pan; Huang, Xin-Zhu; Yi, Jin-Ling; Chen, Zhi-Rui; Ma, Han; Ye, Cong-Xiu; Chen, Xian-Yan; Lai, Wei; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trichophyton rubrum represents the most common infectious fungus responsible for dermatophytosis in human, but the mechanism involved is still not completely understood. An appropriate model constructed to simulate host infection is the prerequisite to study the pathogenesis of dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum. In this study, we intended to develop a new T. rubrum infection model in vitro, using the three-dimensional reconstructed epidermis - EpiSkin®, and to pave the way for further investigation of the mechanisms involved in T. rubrum infection. Methods: The reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) was infected by inoculating low-dose (400 conidia) and high-dose (4000 conidia) T. rubrum conidia to optimize the infection dose. During the various periods after infection, the samples were processed for pathological examination and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. Results: The histological analysis of RHE revealed a fully differentiated epidermis with a functional stratum corneum, which was analogous to the normal human epidermis. The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining and the periodic acid-Schiff staining showed that the infection dose of 400 conidia was in accord with the pathological characteristics of host dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum. SEM observations further exhibited the process of T. rubrum infection in an intuitionistic way. Conclusions: We established the T. rubrum infection model on RHE in vitro successfully. It is a promising model for further investigation of the mechanisms involved in T. rubrum infection. PMID:26712433

  5. Potential of Ergosterol Synthesis Inhibitors To Cause Resistance or Cross-Resistance in Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Celandroni, Francesco; Gueye, Sokhna Aissatou; Salvetti, Sara; Senesi, Sonia; Bulgheroni, Anna; Mailland, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Superficial mycoses caused by Trichophyton rubrum are among the most common infections worldwide. T. rubrum infections are difficult to treat and are often associated with recurrences after interruption of the antifungal therapy. Nevertheless, reports on T. rubrum resistance to commonly used antifungal drugs are rare. In this study, we compared the in vitro resistance frequencies and development of resistance to terbinafine, itraconazole, amorolfine, and ciclopirox in T. rubrum. Results demonstrated that naturally occurring mutants were isolated at a frequency of 10−7 for itraconazole and 10−9 for terbinafine and amorolfine. To mimic conditions of body sites in which low drug levels are reached during therapy, T. rubrum was propagated for 10 transfers in media containing subinhibitory drug concentrations. Resistance to itraconazole, terbinafine, and amorolfine emerged at a higher frequency than was seen with spontaneous mutation. Itraconazole-resistant mutants also showed decreased susceptibility to amorolfine as well as to terbinafine, and amorolfine-resistant mutants were also less susceptible to terbinafine. No mutant resistant to ciclopirox was isolated, suggesting no propensity of T. rubrum to develop resistance to this drug. How different drug mechanisms of action can influence the onset of resistance is discussed. PMID:24614379

  6. [Tinea capitis profunda due to Trichophyton verrucosum with cMRSA superinfection in an infant].

    PubMed

    Blömer, R-H; Keilani, N; Faber, A; Rodeck, B; Krüger, C; Uhrlaß, S; Gräser, Y; Nenoff, P

    2012-08-01

    A 28-month-old boy developed a cutaneous and subcutaneous lesion of the scalp together with alopecia. Treatment with sulfadiazine silver ointment and oral administration of cefaclor failed. The boy lived on a farm where cows and calves were present. He presented with a 5 cm erythematous, erosive, edematous, and sharply defined lesion with yellow crusts and circumscribed alopecia on the temporoparietal scalp. Peripheral hairs were easily epilated. Swabs from the wound revealed cMRSA (community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Panton Valentine Leukocidin [PVL] toxin negative). There was no improvement after treatment with cefuroxime intravenously over 3 days. Therapy was changed to vancomycin and fosfomycin. Because of the purulent abscess, surgical incision was performed. PCR (polymerase chain reaction)-Elisa assay detected Trichophyton (T.) interdigitale-DNA from wound secretion and skin biopsy. Because of the clinical and molecular diagnosis of tinea capitis, oral antifungal therapy with fluconazole 5 mg kg(-1) body weight was started, along with cotrimoxazole and fosfomycin for the cMRSA. After 4 weeks incubation, the causative agent T. verrucosum was grown on culture and its identity confirmed by sequencing of the "internal transcribed spacer" (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA. After 4 weeks of fluconazole, the lesion was nearly healed. PMID:22406762

  7. Mating Type Gene (MAT) and Itraconazole Susceptibility of Trichophyton tonsurans Strains Isolated in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Junichiro; Okubo, Miki; Kano, Rui; Kumagawa, Mai; Hiruma, Masataro; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2016-06-01

    Infection by Trichophyton tonsurans is an emerging fungal epidemic in Japan. Itraconazole (ITZ) and terbinafine have been used for the treatment of this infection for 15 years. However, patients with T. tonsurans infections have been shown to remain uncured or to become reinfected, suggesting that subclinical infection or polyphyletic strains and/or antifungal drug-resistant strains might be occurring in Japan. In this study, PCR analysis was performed to confirm the presence of the mating type locus MAT in genomic DNA from 60 Japanese clinical isolates of T. tonsurans, and to assess the previously postulated clonal origin of clinical isolates of this species. Antifungal susceptibility testing on isolates also was performed to confirm the absence of strains resistant to ITZ. PCR analysis proved that all 60 strains contained the MAT1-1 allele, while none contained the MAT1-2 allele. As determined by E-test, the mean MIC of ITZ in the 60 strains was 0.023 mg/L (range 0.002-0.125 mg/L). All strains of T. tonsurans isolated in Japan were clonal and were not resistant to ITZ. Therefore, dermatophytosis due to T. tonsurans is expected to respond to ITZ, since clinical isolates of T. tonsurans tested to date have been susceptible to this antifungal. This infection is proliferating as a subclinical infection in Japan. PMID:26762628

  8. Genetic Heterogeneity in the rRNA Gene Locus of Trichophyton tonsurans

    PubMed Central

    Gaedigk, Andrea; Gaedigk, Roger; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M.

    2003-01-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans is the major pediatric pathogen in tinea capitis, causing disparate disease presentations. Little is known about genetic variation, which may ultimately be linked to divergent disease status. This investigation was aimed at identifying genetic variants of T. tonsurans by methods that can facilitate strain discrimination in population-based studies. Ninety-two isolates were acquired from six U.S. microbiology laboratories, and genomic DNA was isolated from mature colonies. The nontranscribed spacer (NTS) was amplified by PCR, and products from isolates with various amplicon sizes were fully sequenced. Nested amplification, targeting a variable internal repeat (VIR) region, allowed assignment of variant type by fragment size. Subvariant type was assigned by a combination of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism-based assays. Five variants differing in size (348 to 700 bp) and sequence were identified within the VIR region comprised of several large repeats (104, 140, and 194 bp) arranged in tandem. Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected across the NTS, with five occurring in the constant regions flanking the VIR region and two occurring in the VIR region. Additionally, a 10-bp insertion and a 14-bp deletion were identified upstream of the VIR region. The combination of SNPs revealed seven haplotype patterns which were stable upon serial passage over 1 year. No sequence variations were identified within the internal transcribed spacer regions. Unique NTS sequences were utilized to develop a duplex PCR assay that discriminated T. tonsurans from other dermatophytes. Of the 92 isolates evaluated, this genotyping scheme distinguished 12 distinct strains, providing evidence of genetic heterogeneity in T. tonsurans. PMID:14662928

  9. Antimicrobial effects of allicin and ketoconazole on trichophyton rubrum under in vitro condition

    PubMed Central

    Aala, Farzad; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Jamal, Farida; Rezaie, Sassan

    2012-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is caused by a group of pathogenic fungi namely, dermatophytes, is among the most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide. Azole drugs are widely used in the treatment of dermatomycosis, but can cause various side effects and drug resistance to the patients. Hence, for solving this problem can be used from the plant extract as alternative for chemical drugs. Allicin is a pure bioactive compound isolated from garlic was tested for its potential as a treatment of dermatomycosis in this study. This study evaluated the in vitro efficacy of pure allicin against ten isolates of Trichophyton rubrum and the MIC50 and MIC90 ranged from 0.78-12.5 μg/ml for allicin. The results revealed that the order of efficacy based on the MICs values, all isolates showed almost comparable response to allicin and ketoconazole except for some isolates, at 28 °C for both 7 and 10 days incubation. Mann-Whitney test indicate that MICs at 7 days incubation was not observed a significant difference between the effects of allicin and ketoconazole (p > 0.05), but MICs at 10 days incubation, a significant difference was observed (p ≤ 0.05). On the other side, time kill studies revealed that allicin used its fungicidal activity within 12-24 h of management in vitro as well as ketoconazole. In conclusion, allicin showed very good potential as an antifungal compound against mycoses-causing dermatophytes, almost the same as the synthetic drug ketoconazole. Therefore, this antifungal agent appears to be effective, safe and suitable alternative for the treatment of dermatomycosis. PMID:24031891

  10. Calcofluor White Combination Antifungal Treatments for Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Kingsbury, Joanne M.; Heitman, Joseph; Pinnell, Sheldon R.

    2012-01-01

    Superficial mycoses caused by dermatophyte fungi are among the most common infections worldwide, yet treatment is restricted by limited effective drugs available, drug toxicity, and emergence of drug resistance. The stilbene fluorescent brightener calcofluor white (CFW) inhibits fungi by binding chitin in the cell wall, disrupting cell wall integrity, and thus entails a different mechanism of inhibition than currently available antifungal drugs. To identify novel therapeutic options for the treatment of skin infections, we compared the sensitivity of representative strains of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans to CFW and a panel of fluorescent brighteners and phytoalexin compounds. We identified the structurally related stilbene fluorescent brighteners 71, 85, 113 and 134 as fungicidal to both T. rubrum and C. albicans to a similar degree as CFW, and the stilbene phytoalexins pinosylvan monomethyl ether and pterostilbene inhibited to a lesser degree, allowing us to develop a structure-activity relationship for fungal inhibition. Given the abilities of CFW to absorb UV365 nm and bind specifically to fungal cell walls, we tested whether CFW combined with UV365 nm irradiation would be synergistic to fungi and provide a novel photodynamic treatment option. However, while both treatments individually were cytocidal, UV365 nm irradiation reduced sensitivity to CFW, which we attribute to CFW photoinactivation. We also tested combination treatments of CFW with other fungal inhibitors and identified synergistic interactions between CFW and some ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors in C. albicans. Therefore, our studies identify novel fungal inhibitors and drug interactions, offering promise for combination topical treatment regimes for superficial mycoses. PMID:22792174

  11. Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris oils inhibit virulence in Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus spp

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Emergence of drug-resistant strains has demanded for alternative means of combating fungal infections. Oils of Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris have long been used in ethnomedicine for ailments of various fungal infections. Since their activity has not been reported in particular against drug-resistant fungi, this study was aimed to evaluate the effects of oils of C. copticum and T. vulgaris on the growth and virulence of drug-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp. and Trichophyton rubrum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed thymol constituting 44.71% and 22.82% of T. vulgaris and C. copticum, respectively. Inhibition of mycelial growth by essential oils was recorded in the order of thymol > T. vulgaris > C. copticum against the tested strains. RBC lysis assay showed no tested oils to be toxic even up to concentration two folds higher than their respective MFCs. Thymol exhibited highest synergy in combination with fluconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus MTCC2550 (FICI value 0.187) and T. rubrum IOA9 (0.156) as determined by checkerboard method. Thymol and T. vulgaris essential oil were equally effective against both the macro and arthroconidia growth (MIC 72 μg/mL). A > 80% reduction in elastase activity was recorded for A. fumigatus MTCC2550 by C. copticum, T. vulgaris oils and thymol. The effectiveness of these oils against arthroconidia and synergistic interaction of thymol and T. vulgaris with fluconazole can be exploited to potentiate the antifungal effects of fluconazole against drug-resistant strains of T. rubrum and Aspergillus spp. PMID:25242937

  12. Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris oils inhibit virulence in Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus spp.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Emergence of drug-resistant strains has demanded for alternative means of combating fungal infections. Oils of Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris have long been used in ethnomedicine for ailments of various fungal infections. Since their activity has not been reported in particular against drug-resistant fungi, this study was aimed to evaluate the effects of oils of C. copticum and T. vulgaris on the growth and virulence of drug-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp. and Trichophyton rubrum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed thymol constituting 44.71% and 22.82% of T. vulgaris and C. copticum, respectively. Inhibition of mycelial growth by essential oils was recorded in the order of thymol > T. vulgaris > C. copticum against the tested strains. RBC lysis assay showed no tested oils to be toxic even up to concentration two folds higher than their respective MFCs. Thymol exhibited highest synergy in combination with fluconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus MTCC2550 (FICI value 0.187) and T. rubrum IOA9 (0.156) as determined by checkerboard method. Thymol and T. vulgaris essential oil were equally effective against both the macro and arthroconidia growth (MIC 72 μg/mL). A > 80% reduction in elastase activity was recorded for A. fumigatus MTCC2550 by C. copticum, T. vulgaris oils and thymol. The effectiveness of these oils against arthroconidia and synergistic interaction of thymol and T. vulgaris with fluconazole can be exploited to potentiate the antifungal effects of fluconazole against drug-resistant strains of T. rubrum and Aspergillus spp. PMID:25242937

  13. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Kampo Medicine Water Extracts against Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Da, Xia; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Hein, Kyaw Zaw; Morita, Eishin

    2016-06-01

    Kampo medicines consist of a variety of crude animal, plant, and mineral extracts that have long been used to relieve different symptoms, and are relatively safe. However, their mechanisms of actions have not been well investigated. We screened 61 commercially available Kampo medicines to determine if they contain constituents with antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum. The antifungal effect of the Kampo medicines was determined by measuring the mean absorbance of treated fungal culture media. Lower absorbance values suggested a higher inhibition of the growth rate of T. rubrum by the Kampo medicines. We found that seven of the evaluated formulations exhibited a comparable antifungal activity to that of fluconazole at 14 mg/mL. The seven active Kampo medicines were Saiko-keishi-kankyou-to, Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to, Saiko-keishi-to, Keishi-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to, Dai-saiko-to, Bohu-tsu-sho-san, and Otsu-ji-to. The seven Kampo medicines with antifungal activity contain 30 different crude extracts, and Ou-gon (Scutellaria root) is a supplement contained in six of the seven formulations. Therefore, Ou-gon was considered to play a major role in their antifungal effect. The antifungal assay of the Ou-gon water extract showed that it significantly inhibited the growth of T. rubrum at a concentration of 20 mg/mL. Future studies will focus on the isolation and identification of the antifungal components of the crude extracts of Ou-gon, which may be potentially useful, new, and safe antifungal drugs. PMID:27534111

  14. Management of a Trichophyton tonsurans outbreak in a day-care center.

    PubMed

    Gray, Robert M; Champagne, Caroline; Waghorn, David; Ong, Eugene; Grabczynska, Sophie A; Morris, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans is the leading cause of tinea capitis in the United Kingdom (UK) as well as causing tinea corporis. This organism has been linked to several outbreaks in the UK and abroad, and such outbreaks may be prolonged since T. tonsurans can be difficult to control. There remains an incomplete consensus in the literature on the optimal management of such outbreaks of this infection. Following notification that a child with T. tonsurans was identified at a day-care center in the UK, initial investigations identified nine cases of fungal infection involving children and staff over the previous 7 months. We report on the management of an outbreak of T. tonsurans tinea capitis and tinea corporis among children and staff in a day-care center. An outbreak control team with representatives from dermatology, microbiology, day-care center management, and the Health Protection Agency initiated case ascertainment by scalp inspection and brushing of all children and staff at the nursery. Two complete rounds of screening were required before the outbreak was declared over. Infection control measures included antifungal shampoo use, exclusion of identified cases for a short period, removal of shared items from the center, and enhanced decontamination of fomites. The outbreak, which lasted longer than 12 months, involved 12 children and 7 staff members. Of these, 12 cases were confirmed by positive fungal culture. T. tonsurans is difficult to manage, especially in childcare settings, but case ascertainment, appropriate treatment with oral agents, and sustained infection control measures can be effective in controlling such outbreaks. PMID:25257708

  15. [A case of black dot ringworm caused by Trichophyton tonsurans in Chiba Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoko; Sano, Ayako; Komori, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2005-01-01

    A 74-year-old woman visited a clinic in Kisarazu, Chiba Prefecture in December 2002 complaining of itching, scale and alopecia. She had been diagnosed as having tinea capitis by a direct microscopic examination of scales, and been treated with an antifungal cream and steroid lotion since 1999. The bald area spread from frontal to occipital in which multiple black dots and red papules were scattered. Abundant endothrix spores were observed in the hair shaft. A mycelial colony was isolated from the black dots. A giant colony on Sabouraud's agar was white, powdery and flattened with cottony elevation at the center in the obverse, and a reddish-brown pigmentation in the reverse. The isolate produced abundant microconidia that were round to club-and balloon-shaped with extreme swelling, while macroconidia and spiral bodies were few. Hair perforation test was negative and urease activity test was positive. ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA sequencing revealed 100% homology with T. tonsurans isolated from two old women in Niigata Prefecture. On the other hand, 3 bases were different from those of the outbreak isolates from judo and wrestling players infected through international matches. T. tonsurans has polymorphism and the present isolate might be an autochthonous genotype in Japan. This is the first time T. tonsurans was isolated in Chiba Prefecture. But this prefecture had been known as an endemic area of Trichophyton coccineum, which was very similar in morphological and physiological characteristics to those of T. tonsurans before World War II. These facts raise the question of whether T. tonsurans has existed in this prefecture before. PMID:16282970

  16. A different kind of hedgehog pathway: tinea manus due to Trichophyton erinacei transmitted by an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Weishaupt, Julia; Kolb-Mäurer, Annette; Lempert, Sigrid; Nenoff, Pietro; Uhrlaß, Silke; Hamm, Henning; Goebeler, Matthias

    2014-02-01

    The unusual case of a 29-year-old woman with tinea manus caused by infection due to Trichophyton erinacei is described. The patient presented with marked erosive inflammation of the entire fifth finger of her right hand. Mycological and genomic diagnostics resulted in identification of T. erinacei as the responsible pathogen, which had been transmitted by a domestic African pygmy hedgehog, Atelerix albiventris. Upon prolonged treatment with topical and systemic antifungal agents skin lesions slowly resolved. This case illustrates that the increasingly popular keeping of extraordinary pets such as hedgehogs may bear the risk of infections with uncommon dermatophytes. PMID:23889168

  17. Two cases of tinea ciliaris with blepharitis due to Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton verrucosum and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Gulay Ozel; Dadaci, Zeynep; Ozer, Turkan Toka

    2014-09-01

    Dermatophytes are rarely taken into account among the causes of blepharitis. In our report, we describe a 69-year-old man and a 40-year-old woman with chronic blepharitis for 10 years and 4 years respectively, in whom we examined the scales and pulled eyelashes on direct microscopy and isolated Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton verrrucosum in the culture. We emphasise that dermatophytes may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of chronic blepharitis. In chronic, treatment resistance blepharitis fungal infections may be considered as possible cause. PMID:24724801

  18. The Improvement of the Resistance to Candida albicans and Trichophyton interdigitale of Some Woven Fabrics Based on Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Stelescu, Maria Daniela; Manaila, Elena; Nicula, Gheorghe; Iordache, Ovidiu; Dinca, Laurentiu Christian; Berechet, Mariana-Daniela; Vamesu, Mariana; Gurau, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the improvement of the antimicrobial character of woven fabrics based on cotton. The woven fabrics were cleaned in oxygen plasma and treated by padding with silver chloride and titanium dioxide particles. The existence of silver and titanium on woven fabrics was evidenced by electronic microscope images (SEM, EDAX) and by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The antimicrobial tests were performed with two fungi: Candida albicans and Trichophyton interdigitale. The obtained antimicrobial effect was considerably higher compared to the raw fabrics. Treatment of dyed fabrics with a colloidal solution based on silver chloride and titanium dioxide particles does not considerably influence colour resistance of dyes. PMID:25276112

  19. Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans presenting as an obscure patchy hair loss due to daily antifungal shampoo use.

    PubMed

    Sombatmaithai, Alita; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Tuchinda, Papapit; Surawan, Theetat; Muanprasart, Chanai; Matthapan, Lalita; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas

    2015-04-01

    Tinea capitis is unusual and often misdiagnosed in healthy adults. We report a case of a healthy woman with a several-year history of asymptomatic, bizarre-shaped, non-scarring alopecia. She had used over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo regularly for a long time. An initial potassium hydroxide preparation showed negative result for fungal organism. The scalp biopsy revealed endothrix infection, and dermoscopic examination demonstrated the comma hair and corkscrew hair signs. The fungal culture showed Trichophyton tonsurans. The daily use of antifungal shampoo could be the important factor to conceal clinical and laboratory findings for diagnosis of T. tonsurans tinea capitis in our case, which required high clinical suspicion and histopathology and dermoscopic examinations. PMID:26114071

  20. Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans presenting as an obscure patchy hair loss due to daily antifungal shampoo use

    PubMed Central

    Sombatmaithai, Alita; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Tuchinda, Papapit; Surawan, Theetat; Muanprasart, Chanai; Matthapan, Lalita; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas

    2015-01-01

    Tinea capitis is unusual and often misdiagnosed in healthy adults. We report a case of a healthy woman with a several-year history of asymptomatic, bizarre-shaped, non-scarring alopecia. She had used over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo regularly for a long time. An initial potassium hydroxide preparation showed negative result for fungal organism. The scalp biopsy revealed endothrix infection, and dermoscopic examination demonstrated the comma hair and corkscrew hair signs. The fungal culture showed Trichophyton tonsurans. The daily use of antifungal shampoo could be the important factor to conceal clinical and laboratory findings for diagnosis of T. tonsurans tinea capitis in our case, which required high clinical suspicion and histopathology and dermoscopic examinations. PMID:26114071

  1. Occurrence of dermatomycosis (ringworm) due to Trichophyton verrucosum in dairy calves and its spread to animal attendants.

    PubMed

    Wabacha, J K; Gitau, G K; Bebora, L C; Bwanga, C O; Wamuri, Z M; Mbithi, P M

    1998-12-01

    Persistent dermatomycosis (ringworm) caused by Trichophyton verrucosum affected 20 dairy calves aged between 3 months and 1 year and housed together. The infection also spread to 2 animal attendants working among the calves. The major clinical lesions observed on the affected calves were extensive alopecia and/or circumscribed thick hairless skin patches affecting the head, neck, flanks and limbs. The observed lesions persisted for more than 17 weeks and most of the calves did not respond to topical treatment with various anti-fungal drugs within the anticipated period of 9 weeks. Two animal attendants developed skin lesions that were circumscribed and itchy and there was good response to treatment following the application of anti-fungal skin ointment. Although ringworm in dairy animals in Kenya has not previously been associated with spread to humans, the potential is evident from this report. PMID:10192093

  2. Apollo MEED mycology revisited and reviewed, including the Trichophyton terrestre keratinophilic growth at splashdown and 23 years after exposure to space parameters.

    PubMed

    Volz, P A; Long, J D; Veselenak, J M

    1995-01-01

    Keratinophilic Trichophyton terrestre conidia were exposed to selected parameters of space flight including 254, 280 and 300 nm UV light, full light and total darkness of space. Phenotypic isolates were grown on human hair collected from one source at years 1 and 23 after splashdown. The patterns of fungal growth on the hair, and the hair deterioration rates, were noted according to the space exposure. Growth and deterioration were consistent but slightly reduced at year 23. PMID:7476563

  3. Outbreak of tinea corporis gladiatorum, a fungal skin infection due to Trichophyton tonsurans, in a French high level judo team.

    PubMed

    Poisson, D M; Rousseau, D; Defo, Defo; Estève, E

    2005-09-01

    An outbreak of 49 cases of tinea corporis gladiatorum due to Trichophyton tonsurans infection occurred in a high level judo team of 131 members in Orleans, central France, between October 2004 and April 2005. The team was divided into 5 groups: cadet-junior boys (n=44), cadet-junior girls (n=33), male university students (n= 15), female university students (n=21), and a group called 'pole technique' made up of high level judokas who have finished academic study (n=18). The outbreak involved 86% of the cadet-junior boys, but only 6 men in the 'pole technique' (33%) and only 5 of the 69 other team members (7%) (cadet-junior girls and university students). We describe the outbreak and the results of a survey that found a known risk factor for the 'pole technique': sharing an electric hair shaver. Personal hygiene practices were found to be very good among the cadet-junior boys. The high attack rate in this group may be linked to the poor shower facilities in the gymnasium where they practiced that led them to have their showers several hours after the end of daily practice. PMID:16280611

  4. Screening examination and treatment of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in judo athletes affiliated with the University Judo Federation of Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Suganami, Morio; Ogawa, Yumi Shiraki; Hiruma, Masataro; Ogawa, Hideoki

    2011-07-01

    In Japan, Trichophyton tonsurans infection has become an increasing problem among combat sports participants. We investigated the prevalence of T. tonsurans infection in athletes affiliated to judo clubs in the 21 First Division universities that were registered with the University Judo Federation of Tokyo in 2008. Study procedures performed by the subjects included (i) completion of a questionnaire concerning lifestyle, risk factors for tinea corporis and medical history; (ii) scrubbing the scalp with a circular hairbrush to obtain samples for fungal culture; (iii) anti-fungal treatment as recommended by a dermatologist, based on the number of fungal colonies isolated from the hairbrush; and (iv) repeat testing using the hairbrush method 3 months after treatment recommendations were received. Of 902 study subjects, 102 (11.3%) yielded positive hairbrush culture results. Of these, 14 individuals (13.7%) had tinea corporis; the remainder were asymptomatic. Conversion to negative fungal culture was observed in 85 of 96 culture-positive individuals who performed the second hairbrush culture test following treatment. Control of T. tonsurans infection among judo athletes could be achieved by educating athletes, trainers and coaches in judo clubs concerning detection, prevention, and treatment of T. tonsurans infection. PMID:20002880

  5. Tinea Capitis: Mixed or Consecutive Infection with White and Violet Strains of Trichophyton violaceum: A Diagnostic or Therapeutic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Roma

    2015-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a common dermatophyte infection affecting scalp and hair of pre-pubertal children. With introduction of Griseofulvin in 1958, there has been considerable improvement in the treatment of tinea capitis. A seven-year-old male child was brought to the dermatology clinic. He presented with diffuse white scaly patches of alopecia on scalp of one-year duration. The child was sent to the microbiology section of the National Health laboratory, Botswana for the collection of the samples. The samples consisted of scalp scrapings and few plucked hairs from the suspicious areas, which were collected by swab and scalpel blade methods. Potassium hydroxide (10% KOH) mounts were prepared for scales and hair samples. Scales were positive for fungal elements and endothrix type of perforation was seen in hair. Cultures on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar (SDA) and Derm agar were incubated at 25°C, which yielded white variant of Trichophyton violaceum after two weeks of incubation. T. vioaceum (white variant) grew in all the plates. After six weeks of treatment with griseofulvin, the repeat culture grew only T. violaceum (violet strain). The child showed a definite clinical improvement. PMID:26814801

  6. Increasing Prevalence of Trichophyton rubrum Identified through an Analysis of 115,846 Cases over the Last 37 Years.

    PubMed

    Lee, Weon Ju; Kim, Sang Lim; Jang, Yong Hyun; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Do Won; Bang, Yong Jun; Jun, Jae Bok

    2015-05-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte in the world with the highest prevalence in Korea. There are few reports about epidemiological and mycological characteristics of T. rubrum based on long-term, large-scale studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of T. rubrum infections in Korea. We retrospectively investigated with patients' records about the epidemiological and mycological status of 115,846 cases with T. rubrum infection that was mycologically diagnosed at Catholic Skin Disease Clinic from 1979 to 2013. Direct microscopy in 15% KOH solution and culture was done in each case. The annual incidence of patients with T. rubrum infection had been increasing during the period; and of 131,122 patients with dermatophytosis, 115,846 patients (88.35%) had T. rubrum infection. Disease was most prevalent among patients in their twenties in the 1970s and 1980s; in their thirties in the 1990s; in their forties in the 2000s; and in their fifties in the 2010s. The sex ratio was 1.5:1. T. rubrum infection was most commonly seen in summer and was found predominantly in patients living in urban areas. Toe webs were most frequently involved, followed by toenails and groin. This epidemiologic findings provide useful information for prevention of T. rubrum infection and future dermatophytosis prospects. PMID:25931797

  7. Growth Inhibition and Morphological Alterations of Trichophyton Rubrum Induced by Essential oil from Cymbopogon Winterianus Jowitt Ex Bor

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; Alves Wanderley, Paulo; Cavalcanti Viana, Fernando Antônio; Baltazar de Lima, Rita; Barbosa de Sousa, Frederico; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is one of the most common fungi causer of dermatophytosis, mycosis that affect humans and animals around the world. Researches aiming new products with antifungal activity become necessary to overcome difficulties on treatment of these infections. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of essential oil from Cymbopogon winterianus against the dermatophyte T. rubrum. The antifungal screening was performed by solid medium diffusion method with 16 T. rubrum strains, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) were determined using the microdilution method. The effects on mycelial dry weight and morphology were also observed. Screening showed essential oil in natura inhibited all the tested strains, with inhibition zones between 24-28 mm diameter. MIC50 and MIC90 values of the essential oil were 312 μg/mL for nearly all the essayed strains (93.75 %) while the MFC50 and MFC90 values were about eight times higher than MIC for all tested strains. All tested essential oil concentrations managed to inhibit strongly the mycelium development. Main morphological changes on the fungal strains observed under light microscopy, which were provided by the essential oil include loss of conidiation, alterations concerning form and pigmentation of hyphae. In the oil presence, colonies showed folds, cream color and slightly darker than the control, pigment production was absent on the reverse and with evident folds. It is concluded that C. winterianus essential oil showed activity against T. rubrum. Therefore, it could be known as potential antifungal compound especially for protection against dermatophytosis. PMID:24031626

  8. Synergistic combination of violacein and azoles that leads to enhanced killing of major human pathogenic dermatophytic fungi Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Anju, S.; Kumar, Nishanth S.; Krishnakumar, B.; Kumar, B. S. Dileep

    2015-01-01

    Superficial mycoses caused by dermatophytic fungi such as Trichophyton rubrum represent the most common type of worldwide human infection affecting various keratinized tissues in our body such as the skin, hair, and nails, etc. The dermatophytic infection is a significant public health threat due to its persistent nature and high recurrence rates, and thus alternative treatments to cure this fungal infection are urgently required. The present study mainly focused on the synergistic activity of violacein with four azole drugs (ketoconazole, fluconazole, clotrimazole, and itraconazole) against T. rubrum. The synergistic antifungal activities of violacein and azoles were measured by checkerboard microdilution and time-kill assays. In our study, combinations of violacein and azoles predominantly recorded synergistic effect (FIC index < 0.5). Significant synergistic value was recorded by the combination of violacein and clotrimazole. Time-kill assay by the combination of MIC concentration of violacein and azoles recorded that the growth of the T. rubrum was significantly arrested after 4–12 h of treatment. The combination of violacein and azoles leads to the enhanced inhibition of mycelial growth and conidial germination. Moreover combination enhanced the rate of release of intracellular materials. Morphological changes by SEM analysis were also prominent with the combination. A normal human cell line [Foreskin (FS) normal fibroblast] was used to check the cytotoxicity of violacein. Interestingly violacein recorded no cytotoxicity up to 100 μg/ml. The in vitro synergistic effect of violacein and azoles against clinically relevant fungi, T. rubrum, is reported here for the first time. Finally, our findings support the potential use of the violacein as an antifungal agent especially against dermatophytic fungi T. rubrum. PMID:26322275

  9. A potential plant-derived antifungal acetylenic acid mediates its activity by interfering with fatty acid homeostasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    6-Nonadecynoic acid (6-NDA), a plant-derived acetylenic acid, exhibits strong inhibitory activity against the human fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In the present study, transcriptional profiling coupled with mutant and biochemical analyses...

  10. Reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in dermatomycete genus Trichophyton Malmsten 1848 based on ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region, partial 28S rRNA and beta-tubulin genes sequences.

    PubMed

    Pchelin, Ivan M; Zlatogursky, Vasily V; Rudneva, Mariya V; Chilina, Galina A; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Lavnikevich, Dmitry M; Vasilyeva, Natalya V; Taraskina, Anastasia E

    2016-09-01

    Trichophyton spp. are important causative agents of superficial mycoses. The phylogeny of the genus and accurate strain identification, based on the ribosomal ITS region sequencing, are still under development. The present work is aimed at (i) inferring the genus phylogeny from partial ITS, LSU and BT2 sequences (ii) description of ribosomal ITS region polymorphism in 15 strains of Trichophyton interdigitale. We performed DNA sequence-based species identification and phylogenetic analysis on 48 strains belonging to the genus Trichophyton. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred by maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods on concatenated ITS, LSU and BT2 sequences. Ribosomal ITS region polymorphisms were assessed directly on the alignment. By phylogenetic reconstruction, we reveal major anthropophilic and zoophilic species clusters in the genus Trichophyton. We describe several sequences of the ITS region of T. interdigitale, which do not fit in the traditional polymorphism scheme and propose emendations in this scheme for discrimination between ITS sequence types in T. interdigitale. The new polymorphism scheme will allow inclusion of a wider spectrum of isolates while retaining its explanatory power. This scheme was also found to be partially congruent with NTS typing technique. PMID:27071492

  11. Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 promote control of the fungal pathogen Trichophyton rubrum independently of IL-17 and adaptive immunity in experimental deep dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Fabio Sy; Yabe, Rikio; Iwakura, Yoichiro; de Almeida, Sandro R; Saijo, Shinobu

    2016-07-01

    Dermatophytoses are chronic fungal infections, the main causative agent of which is Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum). Despite their high occurrence worldwide, the immunological mechanisms underlying these diseases remain largely unknown. Here, we uncovered the C-type lectin receptors, Dectin-1 and Dectin-2, as key elements in the immune response to T. rubrum infection in a model of deep dermatophytosis. In vitro, we observed that deficiency in Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 severely compromised cytokine production by dendritic cells. In vivo, mice lacking Dectin-1 and/or Dectin-2 showed an inadequate pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to T. rubrum infection, impairing its resolution. Strikingly, neither adaptive immunity nor IL-17 response were required for fungal clearance, highlighting innate immunity as the main checkpoint in the pathogenesis of T. rubrum infection. PMID:27189427

  12. Discovery of a sexual stage in Trichophyton onychocola, a presumed geophilic dermatophyte isolated from toenails of patients with a history of T. rubrum onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Hubka, Vit; Nissen, Christoffer V; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Arendrup, Maiken C; Cmokova, Adela; Kubatova, Alena; Skorepova, Magdalena; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2015-11-01

    Trichophyton onychocola is a recently described geophilic dermatophyte that has been isolated from a toenail of Czech patient with a history of onychomycosis due to T. rubrum and clinical suspicion of relapse. In this study, we report a similar case from Denmark in an otherwise healthy 56-year-old man. The patient had a history of great toenail infection caused by T. rubrum in 2004 and presented with suspected relapse in 2011 and 2013. Trichophyton onychocola was the only microbial agent isolated at the second visit in 2013 and the identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Direct microscopic nail examination was positive for hyphae, however the etiological significance of T. onychocola was not supported by repeated isolation of the fungus. This new species may be an overlooked geophilic species due to the resemblance to some common species, for example, zoophilic T. interdigitale or some species of geophilic dermatophytes. We included differential diagnosis with phenotypically similar species; however, it is recommended that molecular methods are used for correct identification. The MAT locus of Danish strain was of opposite mating type than in the previously isolated Czech strain and the two isolates were successfully mated. The mating experiments with related heterothallic species T. thuringiense and Arthroderma melis were negative. The sexual state showed all typical signs of arthroderma-morph and is described by using optical as well as scanning electron microscopy. The sexual state was induced on a set of agar media, however low cultivation temperature and the presence of keratin source were crucial for the success rather than formulation of medium. PMID:26129891

  13. Antifungal activities of nine traditional Mexican medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Navarro García, V M; Gonzalez, A; Fuentes, M; Aviles, M; Rios, M Y; Zepeda, G; Rojas, M G

    2003-07-01

    Eighteen plant extracts from nine traditional Mexican medicinal plants were tested for antifungal activity against two dermatophyte fungal species (Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum), one non-dermatophyte (Aspergillus niger), and one yeast (Candida albicans). The strongest effect was manifested by the hexane extracts from Eupatorium aschenbornianum and Sedum oxypetalum, as well as the methanol extracts from Lysiloma acapulcensis and Annona cherimolia. PMID:12787958

  14. Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells from Patients with Dermatophytosis Restrict the Growth of Trichophyton rubrum and Induce CD4-T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Karla; Bomfim, Gisele Facholi; Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Almeida, Sandro Rogerio

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophytes are the most common agents of superficial mycoses that are caused by mold fungi. Trichophyton rubrum is the most common pathogen causing dermatophytosis. The immunology of dermatophytosis is currently poorly understood. Recently, our group investigated the interaction of T. rubrum conidia with peritoneal mouse macrophages. We found that macrophages phagocytose T. rubrum conidia resulted in a down-modulation of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and in the expression of co-stimulatory molecules. Furthermore, it induced the production of IL-10, and T. rubrum conidia differentiated into hyphae that grew and killed the macrophages after 8 hrs of culture. This work demonstrated that dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, from patients or normal individuals, avidly interact with pathogenic fungus T. rubrum. The dermatophyte has two major receptors on human monocyte-derived DC: DC-SIGN and mannose receptor. In contrast macrophage has only mannose receptor that participates in the phagocytosis or bound process. Another striking aspect of this study is that unlike macrophages that permit rapid growth of T. rubrum, human DC inhibited the growth and induces Th activation. The ability of DC from patients to interact and kill T. rubrum and to present Ags to T cells suggests that DC may play an important role in the host response to T. rubrum infection by coordinating the development of cellular immune response. PMID:25372145

  15. Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) as a Molecular Target for the Development of Novel Drugs Against the Dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Tiago R.; Peres, Nalu T. A.; Martins, Maíra P.; Lang, Elza A. S.; Sanches, Pablo R.; Rossi, Antonio; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of fungal infections is difficult due to several reasons, such as side effects of drugs, emergence of resistant strains, and limited number of molecular targets for the drug compounds. In fungi, heat shock proteins (Hsps) have been implicated in several processes with the conserved molecular chaperone Hsp90 emerging as a potential target for antifungal therapy. It plays key cellular roles by eliciting molecular response to environmental changes, morphogenesis, antifungal resistance, and fungal pathogenicity. Here, we evaluated the transcription profiles of hsp genes of the most prevalent dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum in response to different environmental challenges including nutrient availability, interaction with cells and molecules of the host tissue, and drug exposure. The results suggest that each Hsp responds to a specific stress condition and that the cohort of Hsps facilitates fungal survival under various environmental challenges. Chemical inhibition of Hsp90 resulted in increased susceptibility of the fungus to itraconazole and micafungin, and decreased its growth in human nails in vitro. Moreover, some hsp and related genes were modulated by Hsp90 at the transcriptional level. We are suggesting a role of Hsp90 in the pathogenicity and drug susceptibility of T. rubrum as well as the regulation of other Hsps. The synergism observed between the inhibition of Hsp90 and the effect of itraconazole or micafungin in reducing the fungal growth is of great interest as a novel and potential strategy to treat dermatophytoses. PMID:26617583

  16. Comparison of the antifungal efficacy of terbinafine hydrochloride and ciclopirox olamine containing formulations against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum in an infected nail plate model.

    PubMed

    Täuber, Anja; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2014-07-01

    Onychomycosis is a fungal infection mostly induced by dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum. Due to slow nail growth, the treatment takes 3-9 months depending on the nail size and infected area. Hence, high efficacy of the active ingredient without systemic side effects is of major interest. To test the efficacy of an antifungal formulation, an appropriate in vitro model reflecting the in vivo situation as close as possible is required. In this study, a variety of antifungal formulations, i.e., commercial ones (Ciclopoli and Lamisil cream), those used in compounding pharmacies (Pentravan) as well as poloxamer 407-based systems, have been evaluated in an infected nail plate model. The active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) were ciclopirox olamine and terbinafine hydrochloride. The poloxamer 407-based formulations consisted of poloxamer 407, double distilled water, propylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, medium chain triglycerides and either 1% ciclopirox olamine or 1% terbinafine hydrochloride as API, respectively. Former studies have shown high permeation rates of terbinafine hydrochloride from similar poloxamer 407-based formulations with dimethyl isosorbide instead of propylene glycol. The present contribution shows superior inhibition of T. rubrum growth from poloxamer 407-based formulations in comparison to the commercial Lamisil cream. Moreover, poloxamer 407-based formulations were equally effective as the nail lacquer Ciclopoli even though the poloxamer formulations contained only 1% of the drug instead of 8% in the marketed lacquer. Poloxamer 407-based systems containing ciclopirox olamine proved to be about as effective as similar terbinafine hydrochloride systems. PMID:24490976

  17. Microsatellite-Primed PCR for Intra-species Genetic Relatedness in Trichophyton ajelloi Strains Isolated in Poland from Various Soil Samples

    PubMed Central

    Ciesielska, Anita; Bohacz, Justyna; Korniłłowicz-Kowalska, Teresa; Stączek, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Trichophyton ajelloi is a geophilic dermatophyte that specializes in the decomposition of native keratin. It exists in soil with a permanent influx of keratin matter. In the present study, two PCR-based methods were used for the identification and intra-species differentiation of T. ajelloi strains isolated from 3 types of soils with different physicochemical properties. The first method, employed for molecular identification, was PCR amplification of the 5.8S rRNA gene and its flanking regions encoding internal transcribed spacers (ITSs), followed by restriction enzyme digestion using endonuclease HinfI. The second method, employed for molecular differentiation, was microsatellite-primed PCR (MSP-PCR) using the repetitive oligonucleotide (GACA)4. All the T. ajelloi strains were also identified using a traditional culture method. Our results showed that molecular identification using the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method agreed with the identification made using the traditional approach. On the other hand, PCR-RFLP results showed no strain differentiation, while MSP-PCR using the (GACA)4 primer identified different varieties among the T. ajelloi strains. The reasons for the intra-species differentiation of T. ajelloi have been discussed. PMID:24859370

  18. Infected nail plate model made of human hair keratin for evaluating the efficacy of different topical antifungal formulations against Trichophyton rubrum in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lusiana; Reichl, Stephan; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2013-08-01

    A novel model of infected nail plate for testing the efficacy of topical antifungal formulations has been developed. This model utilized keratin film made of human hair keratin as a nail plate model. Subsequent to infection by Trichophyton rubrum, the common causative agent of onychomycosis, keratin films as infected nail plate models were treated with selected topical formulations, that is cream, gel, and nail lacquer. Bovine hoof was compared to keratin film. In contrast to the common antifungal susceptibility test, the antifungal drugs tested were applied as ready-to-use formulations because the vehicle may modify and control the drug action both in vitro and in vivo. Extrapolating the potency of an antifungal drug from an in vitro susceptibility test only would not be representative of the in vivo situation since these drugs are applied as ready-to-use formulations, for example as a nail lacquer. Although terbinafine has been acknowledged to be the most effective antifungal agent against T. rubrum, its antifungal efficacy was improved by its incorporation into an optimal formulation. Different gels proved superior to cream. Therefore, this study is able to discriminate between efficacies of different topical antifungal formulations based on their activities against T. rubrum. PMID:23419812

  19. Kerion and Tinea Corporis Caused by Rabbit-Derived Trichophyton interdigitale in Three Siblings and One Consulting Doctor Using β-Tubulin Gene to Identify the Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Ping; Sheng, Ping; Liu, Zhong; Li, Wen; Wang, Jie-Di; Huang, Wen-Ming; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Trichophyton interdigitale is generally deemed as an anamorph of Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing, but recently their anamorph/teleomorph connection should be cautioned based on β-tubulin phylogeny. We report three siblings and one consulting doctor who developed kerion and tinea corporis after contact with domestic rabbits. Seven same strains were isolated from four patients and three regions of a sick rabbit. The ITS and D1/D2 sequences of our isolate were 99 % homologous to A. Vanbreuseghemii, while β-tubulin sequence was 100 % identical to T. interdigitale. Our isolate was identified as T. interdigitale based on maximum likelihood analysis of β-tubulin. Random amplified polymorphic DNA revealed that the band patterns of five isolated strains and another rabbit-derived strain WCH023 were identical for OPF-03 and OPF-12. Skin lesions of all patients resolved completely for 2- to 6-week therapy of oral terbinafine and topical 1 % bifonazole or 1 % terbinafine cream. This study demonstrates that T. interdigitale of rabbit origin can cause various types of human dermatophytosis by mild scratch. Terbinafine may be the first choice for dermatophytosis caused by T. interdigitale. PMID:27115611

  20. In vitro and ex vivo infection models help assess the molecular aspects of the interaction of Trichophyton rubrum with the host milieu.

    PubMed

    Peres, Nalu Teixeira de Aguiar; Silva, Larissa Gomes da; Santos, Rodrigo da Silva; Jacob, Tiago Rinaldi; Persinoti, Gabriela Felix; Rocha, Lenaldo Branco; Falcão, Juliana Pfrimer; Rossi, Antonio; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce Maria

    2016-05-01

    Dermatophytes are fungal pathogens that cause cutaneous infections such as onychomycosis and athlete's foot in both healthy and immunocompromised patients.Trichophyton rubrumis the most prevalent dermatophyte causing human nail and skin infections worldwide, and because of its anthropophilic nature, animal infection models are limited. The purpose of this work was to compare the expression profile ofT. rubrumgenes encoding putative virulence factors during growth inex vivoandin vitroinfection models. The efficiency of theex vivoskin infection model was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which showed that the conidia had produced hyphae that penetrated into the epidermis. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the expression of some genes is modulated in response to the infection model used, as compared to that observed in cells grown in glucose-containing media. We concluded thatex vivoinfection models help assess the molecular aspects of the interaction ofT. rubrumwith the host milieu, and thus provide insights into the modulation of genes during infection. PMID:26768373

  1. In vitro antifungal, anti-elastase and anti-keratinase activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum-, Syzygium- and Cymbopogon-species against Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2011-12-15

    This study was aimed to evaluate effects of certain essential oils namely Cinnamomum verum, Syzygium aromaticum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini and their major components cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, citral and geraniol respectively, on growth, hyphal ultrastructure and virulence factors of Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum. The antifungal activity of essential oils and their major constituents was in the order of cinnamaldehyde>eugenol>geraniol=C. verum>citral>S. aromaticum>C. citratus>C. martini, both in liquid and solid media against T. rubrum and A. fumigatus. Based on promising antifungal activity of eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, these oils were further tested for their inhibitory activity against ungerminated and germinated conidia in test fungi. Cinnamaldehyde was found to be more active than eugenol. To assess the possible mode of action of cinnamaldehyde, electron microscopic studies were conducted. The observations revealed multiple sites of action of cinnamaldehyde mainly on cell membranes and endomembranous structures of the fungal cell. Further, test oils were also tested for their anti-virulence activity. More than 70% reduction in elastase activity was recorded in A. fumigatus by the oils of C. verum, C. martini, eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and geraniol. Similar reduction in keratinase activity in A. niger was recorded for the oils of C. martini and geraniol. Maximum reduction (96.56%) in elastase activity was produced by cinnamaldehyde whereas; geraniol caused maximum inhibition (97.31%) of keratinase activity. Our findings highlight anti-elastase and anti-keratinase activity of above mentioned essential oils as a novel property to be exploited in controlling invasive and superficial mycoses. PMID:21893402

  2. [Trichophyton tonsurans infection among judo practitioners who attended the National Junior High School Judo Tournament in Japan (2005): incidence and therapeutic response].

    PubMed

    Suganami, Morio; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Shiraki, Yumi; Hiruma, Masataro; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2006-01-01

    The spread of Trichophyton tonsurans infection among high school students and university undergraduates who practice Judo is an emerging problem in Japan and other countries. However, the extent of infection among Judo practitioners in junior high school in Japan is unknown. We conducted an epidemiological study of T. tonsurans infection among students who participated in the national junior high school Judo tournament in 2005. Of the 1,039 tournament participants invited to undergo screening, 496 (218 boys and 278 girls) consented, and 45 participants (9.1%) were found to be positive by hairbrush culture. We found the following to be relative risk factors for T. tonsurans infection: 1) male gender, 2) frequent judo practice in groups at either a high school or a dojo, 3) presence of tinea corporis in practice partners, 4) history of tinea corporis, 5) classification in lower-weight categories. 45 culture positive subjects were offered treatment and re-examined by hairbrush culture 3 months later. All twelve of them had negative cultures after miconazole shampoo treatment. A half of 12 subjects who had systemic antifungal therapy with itraconazole had positive culture. These observations suggest that T. tonsurans infection is rapidly spreading among junior high school Judo players in Japan. We speculate that the outbreak is caused, at least in part, by ignorance of the disease among Judo students, coaches and officials due to the high incidence of carriers and the mild or asymptomatic form of disease seen in infected individuals. Appropriate measures should be taken immediately to prevent more severe outbreak of this disease. PMID:17086166

  3. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  4. Effect of Culture Supernatant Derived from Trichophyton Rubrum Grown in the Nail Medium on the Innate Immunity-related Molecules of HaCaT

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xin-Zhu; Liang, Pan-Pan; Ma, Han; Yi, Jin-Ling; Yin, Song-Chao; Chen, Zhi-Rui; Li, Mei-Rong; Lai, Wei; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trichophyton rubrum is superficial fungi characteristically confined to dead keratinized tissues. These observations suggest that the soluble components released by the fungus could influence the host immune response in a cell in contact-free manner. Therefore, this research aimed to analyze whether the culture supernatant derived from T. rubrum grown in the nail medium could elicit the immune response of keratinocyte effectively. Methods: The culture supernatants of two strains (T1a, TXHB) were compared for the β-glucan concentrations and their capacity to impact the innate immunity of keratinocytes. The β-glucan concentrations in the supernatants were determined with the fungal G-test kit and protein concentrations with bicinchoninic acid protein quantitative method, then HaCaT was stimulated with different concentrations of culture supernatants by adopting morphological method to select a suitable dosage. Expressions of host defense genes were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction after the HaCaT was stimulated with the culture supernatants. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance, followed by the least significant difference test. Results: The T. rubrum strains (T1a and TXHB) released β-glucan of 87.530 ± 37.581 pg/ml and 15.747 ± 6.453 pg/ml, respectively into the media. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), TLR4, and CARD9 were moderately up-regulated in HaCaT within 6-h applications of both supernatants. HaCaT cells were more responsive to T1a than TXHB. The slight increase of dendritic cells-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin expression was faster and stronger, induced by T1a supernatant than TXHB. The moderate decreases of RNase 7, the slight up-regulations of Dectin-1 and interleukin-8 at the mRNA level were detected only in response to T1a rather than TXHB. After a long-time contact, all the elevated defense genes decreased after 24 h. Conclusion: The

  5. Misdiagnosed zoophile tinea faciei and tinea corporis effectively treated with isoconazole nitrate and diflucortolone valerate combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Czaika, Viktor A

    2013-05-01

    There have been few published reports on the human transmission of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, a zoophilic fungus frequently occurring in pets. Here we report on 2 girls, living with a pet dwarf rabbit, who presented with inflammatory skin lesions positive for T. mentagrophytes and subsequently diagnosed as zoophile tinea faciei and tinea corporis. The patients were successfully treated with systemic terbinafine and 2-week therapy with Travocort cream containing isoconazole nitrate 1% and diflucortolone valerate 0.1%. PMID:23574022

  6. [DNA extraction and identification of Trichophyton rubrum by real-time polymerase chain reaction from direct nail scraping specimens of patients with onycomycosis].

    PubMed

    Berk, Elife; Kuştimur, Semra; Kalkancı, Ayşe; Oztaş, O Murat

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most frequently encountered dermatophyte species causing onichomycosis. The routine diagnosis of dermatophytes depends on the direct microscopic examination (DME) and culture methods, however due to the phenotypic identification problems related to those agents, the molecular methods come into question. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the identification of T.rubrum by comparing to DME and culture methods, from nail samples of patients with the complaints of onychomycosis. A total of 90 patients of whom 58 were male who were admitted to the dermatology outpatients clinics of our hospital with the complaints of color/shape changes in the nails and thickening of the nail, were included in the study, together with the 20 healthy volunteer subjects as controls. The nail scraping samples obtained from the patients and controls were examined with direct microscopy using 15% potassium hydroxide, dimethyl sulphoxide and chlorazole black mixture and cultivated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar with and without cycloheximide. For DNA isolation, after the disruption of nail samples with a steel tool, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol purification method were used. The amplification and demonstration of the T.rubrum DNA have been performed by using specific primers and probes following TaqMan protocol of RT-PCR (LightCycler-Roche, USA) method. Seventy-two of the patients yielded positive and 18 yielded negative results with DME. Growth of molds was detected in the cultures of 20 (27.8%) of the 72 DME positive patients and all of the isolates were identified as T.rubrum. No fungal growth was seen in the samples of 18 patients who were DME negative. In DME positive group, 67 (93%) patients were found to be positive in RT-PCR, while 8 (44.4%) patients were RT-PCR positive in DME negative group. All of the culture positive samples (n= 20) were also found positive in RT

  7. Trans-chalcone and quercetin down-regulate fatty acid synthase gene expression and reduce ergosterol content in the human pathogenic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a promising antifungal target due to its marked structural differences between fungal and mammalian cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of flavonoids described in the scientific literature as FAS inhibitors (quercetin, trans-chalcone, ellagic acid, luteolin, galangin, and genistein) against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum and their effects on fatty acid and ergosterol synthesis. Methods The antifungal activity of the natural products was tested by the microdilution assay for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The effect of the compounds on the cell membrane was evaluated using a protoplast regeneration assay. Ergosterol content was quantified by spectrophotometry. Inhibition of FAS by flavonoids was evaluated by an enzymatic assay to determine IC50 values. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure transcription levels of the FAS1 and ERG6 genes involved in fatty acid and ergosterol biosynthesis, respectively, during exposure of T. rubrum to the flavonoids tested. Results The flavonoids quercetin and trans-chalcone were effective against T. rubrum, with MICs of 125 and 7.5 μg/mL for the wild-type strain (MYA3108) and of 63 and 1.9 μg/mL for the ABC transporter mutant strain (ΔTruMDR2), respectively. The MICs of the fluconazole and cerulenin controls were 63 and 125 μg/mL for the wild-type strain and 30 and 15 μg/mL for the mutant strain, respectively. Quercetin and trans-chalcone also reduced ergosterol content in the two strains, indicating that interference with fatty acid and ergosterol synthesis caused cell membrane disruption. The MIC of quercetin reduced the number of regenerated protoplasts by 30.26% (wild-type strain) and by 91.66% (mutant strain). Half the MIC (0.5 MIC) of quercetin did not reduce the number of regenerated wild-type fungal colonies, but caused a 36.19% reduction in the number of mutant strain protoplasts. In contrast, the MIC and 0

  8. Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Wei; Chou, Jia-Ying; Murugan, M; Shieh, Bor-Jinn; Chen, Hueih-Min

    2007-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated extracts could be of use for the future development of anti-skin disease agents. PMID:16406607

  9. Dermatophytosis in donkeys (Equus asinus) due to Microsporum racemosum, an unusual geophilic agent.

    PubMed

    Nardoni, Simona; Rocchigiani, Guido; Papini, Roberto Amerigo; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Brajon, Giovanni; Martini, Mina; Salari, Federica; Mancianti, Francesca

    2016-06-01

    Reports about ringworm in donkeys are scanty and refer to zoonotic agents such as Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton verrucosum. Seventeen Asino Amiatina donkeys semi-extensively farmed in paddocks showed alopecic nummular, scaling areas mainly on head and neck. Microsporum racemosum cultivated from the lesions was identified by morphology and PCR. Affected animals healed spontaneously. The present record reports for the first time the occurrence of ringworm due to M. racemosum in naturally infected animals. PMID:27453813

  10. Antifungal activity of fractions and two pure compounds of flowers from Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Sartori, M R K; Pretto, J B; Cruz, A B; Bresciani, L F V; Yunes, R A; Sortino, M; Zacchino, S A; Cechinel, V Filho

    2003-08-01

    Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae), a traditionally used native Brazilian medicinal plant, showed antifungal activity against dermatophytes in dilution tests. The hexane, dichloromethane and butanol fractions displayed activity against Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, with minimal inhibitory concentrations between 250 and 1000 microg/mL. Two pure compounds, identified as kaurenoic acid (1) and luteolin (2), also showed activity against these dermatophytes. PMID:12967035

  11. Antifungal activity of the methanolic extract and alkaloids of Glaucium oxylobum.

    PubMed

    Morteza-Semnani, K; Amin, Gh; Shidfar, M R; Hadizadeh, H; Shafiee, A

    2003-07-01

    The methanolic extract and total alkaloids of the aerial parts of Glaucium oxylobum exhibited good activity against Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Epidermophyton floccosum. Four alkaloids, dicentrine, glaucine, protopine, and alpha-allocryptopine, were identified as the compounds responsible for the antifungal activity of this plant. PMID:12837370

  12. In vitro antifungal activity of Schizozygia coffaeoides bail. (Apocynaceae) extracts.

    PubMed

    Kariba, R M; Siboe, G M; Dossaji, S F

    2001-01-01

    Leaf extracts of Schizozygia coffaeoides were investigated for antifungal activity using the disc diffusion assay technique. Petroleum ether 40-60 degrees C, dichloromethane-ethyl acetate (1:1) and methanol extracts were fungitoxic to Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, Cladosporium cucumerinum and Candida albicans. The extracts were fungistatic in action. PMID:11137346

  13. Epidemiology of sporadic (non-epidemic) cases of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in Japan based on PCR-RFLP analysis of non-transcribed spacer region of ribosomal RNA gene.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Kawasaki, Masako; Anzawa, Kazushi; Fujita, Jun; Ushigami, Tsuyoshi; Takeda, Kiminobu; Sano, Ayako; Takahashi, Yoko; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2008-05-01

    A number of cases of Trichophyton tonsurans infection have been reported among sportsmen and women participating in wrestling, judo, and sumo wrestling in Japan, but there have also been sporadic reports of cases with no history of contact with these sports. A molecular method using restriction enzyme analysis of PCR-amplified fragments targeting the non-transcribed spacer region (NTS) of ribosomal RNA gene in fungal nuclei was applied to T. tonsurans strains isolated from sporadic cases in Japan. Five of 6 molecular types recorded in Japan, i.e., NTS types I, II, IV, V, and VI, and two new types, designated NTS VII and NTS VIII, were observed among 10 strains isolated from sporadic cases. The NTS IV strains, considered not to be related to the present epidemic, were found to be the most prevalent molecular type accounting for 4 of the 10 strains isolated. NTS I was the most prevalent type in the current epidemic in Japan, but it was cultured from only one patient who was later noted to be the daughter of a retired judo practitioner. Four subjects had histories of living abroad and were considered to have been infected outside Japan. The strains in these cases were NTS II, V, VI, and VII. The results of this study suggested that the NTS IV strains were originally present in Japan at a low incidence, but that there has been a recent influx of NTS I, II, V, VI, and VII from abroad, which has been accompanied by the secondary spread of strains from wrestlers and practitioners of martial arts to the general community. PMID:18503175

  14. Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Apiales - POR 1 is missing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Laursen, Tomas; Weitzel, Corinna; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-05-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor to eukaryotic microsomal cytochromes P450 enzymes. The number of PORs within plant species is limited to one to four isoforms, with the most common being two PORs per plant. These enzymes provide electrons to a huge number of different cytochromes P450s (from 50 to several hundred within one plant). Within the eudicotyledons, PORs can be divided into two major clades, POR 1 and POR 2. Based on our own sequencing analysis and publicly available data, we have identified 45 PORs from the angiosperm order Apiales. These were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis along with 237 other publicly available (NCBI and oneKP) POR sequences found within the clade Asterids. Here, we show that the order Apiales only harbor members of the POR 2 clade, which are further divided into two distinct subclades. This is in contrast to most other eudicotyledon orders that have both POR 1 and POR 2. This suggests that through gene duplications and one gene deletion, Apiales only contain members of the POR 2 clade. Three POR 2 isoforms from Thapsia garganica L., Apiaceae, were all full-length in an Illumina root transcriptome dataset (available from the SRA at NCBI). All three genes were shown to be functional upon reconstitution into nanodiscs, confirming that none of the isoforms are pseudogenes. PMID:26854662

  15. Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

  16. Single-Step PCR Using (GACA)4 Primer: Utility for Rapid Identification of Dermatophyte Species and Strains▿

    PubMed Central

    Shehata, Atef S.; Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Aboulatta, Hassan N.; El Akhras, Atef I.; Abbadi, Said H.; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

    2008-01-01

    Dermatophytes are fungi that belong to three genera: Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Identification of dermatophyte species is essential for appropriate diagnosis and treatment of dermatophytosis. Routine identification depends on macroscopic and microscopic morphology, which is time-consuming and does not identify dermatophyte strains. In this study, two PCR-based methods were compared for their abilities to identify 21 dermatophyte isolates obtained from Egyptian patients to the species and strain levels. The first method employed a two-step method: PCR amplification, using ITS1 and ITS4 as primers, followed by restriction enzyme digestion using the endonuclease MvaI. The second method employed a one-step approach employing the repetitive oligonucleotide (GACA)4 as a primer. Dermatophyte strains were also identified using a conventional culture method. Our results showed that the conventional culture method identified four species: Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton violaceum. Moreover, both PCR methods agreed with the diagnosis made using the conventional approach. Furthermore, ITS1/ITS4-based PCR provided no strain differentiation, while (GACA)4-based PCR identified different varieties among the T. mentagrophytes isolates. Taken together, our results suggest that (GACA)4-based PCR has utility as a simple and rapid method for identification of dermatophyte species as well as utility for differentiation of T. mentagrophytes variants. PMID:18579714

  17. A Multi-Target Approach toward the Development of Novel Candidates for Antidermatophytic Activity: Ultrastructural Evidence on α-Bisabolol-Treated Microsporum gypseum.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Carlo; Baldisserotto, Anna; Malisardi, Gemma; Vicentini, Chiara B; Mares, Donatella; Andreotti, Elisa; Vertuani, Silvia; Manfredini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Multi-target strategies are directed toward targets that are unrelated (or distantly related) and can create opportunities to address different pathologies. The antidermatophytic activities of nine natural skin lighteners: α-bisabolol, kojic acid, β-arbutin, azelaic acid, hydroquinone, nicotinamide, glycine, glutathione and ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate, were evaluated, in comparison with the known antifungal drug fluconazole, on nine dermatophytes responsible for the most common dermatomycoses: Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton violaceum, Nannizzia cajetani, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, Arthroderma gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton tonsurans. α-Bisabolol showed the best antifungal activity against all fungi and in particular; against M. gypseum. Further investigations were conducted on this fungus to evaluate the inhibition of spore germination and morphological changes induced by α-bisabolol by TEM. PMID:26132903

  18. Mycological Pattern of Dermatophytosis in and Around Shimla Hills

    PubMed Central

    Bhagra, Suruchi; Ganju, Sunite A; Kanga, Anil; Sharma, Nand Lal; Guleria, Ramesh C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Dermatophytosis is defined as the fungal infection of the skin, hair and nails by a group of keratinophillic fungi known as dermatophytes. Aims and Objectives: This study is an attempt to find out various species of dermatophytes in clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis. Materials and Methods: One hundred samples were subjected to direct microscopy by potassium hydroxide wet mount (KOH) and isolation on culture with Sabourauds dextrose agar. Results: Out of these 80 (80%) samples were KOH positive while 20 (20%) were KOH negative. Overall culture positivity rate was 68%. Dermatophytosis was more common in males, the M:F ratio was 4:1. Conclusion: Total seven species were isolated on culture. Trichophyton rubrum (66.17%) was the commonest isolate followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (19.11%), Trichophyton violaceum (7.35%), Trichophyton tonsurans (2.94%) and one isolate each of Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum (1.47%). PMID:24891658

  19. Antifungal metabolites from Blumea balsamifera.

    PubMed

    Ragasa, Consolacion Y; Co, Angel Lyn Kristin C; Rideout, John A

    2005-04-01

    The leaves of Blumea balsamifera afforded icthyothereol acetate, cryptomeridiol, lutein, and beta-carotene. The structures of icthyothereol acetate (1) and cryptomeridiol (2) were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, while those of lutein and beta-carotene were identified by comparison with literature data. Antimicrobial tests indicated that 1 has moderate activity against the fungi Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Candida albicans, while 2 has low activity against A. niger, T. mentagrophytes, and C. albicans. Both compounds have no antimicrobial activity against Psuedomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli. PMID:15702636

  20. Mechanism of Action of Efinaconazole, a Novel Triazole Antifungal Agent

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Maria; Shibanushi, Toshiyuki; Iwata, Atsushi; Kangawa, Yumi; Inui, Fumie; Siu, William J. Jo; Pillai, Radhakrishnan; Nishiyama, Yayoi

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of action of efinaconazole, a new triazole antifungal, was investigated with Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. Efinaconazole dose-dependently decreased ergosterol production and accumulated 4,4-dimethylsterols and 4α-methylsterols at concentrations below its MICs. Efinaconazole induced morphological and ultrastructural changes in T. mentagrophytes hyphae that became more prominent with increasing drug concentrations. In conclusion, the primary mechanism of action of efinaconazole is blockage of ergosterol biosynthesis, presumably through sterol 14α-demethylase inhibition, leading to secondary degenerative changes. PMID:23459486

  1. Antimicrobial activity of wax and hexane extracts from Citrus spp. peels.

    PubMed

    Johann, Susana; Oliveira, Vetúria Lopes de; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Schripsema, Jan; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Branco, Alexsandro; Smânia Jr, Artur

    2007-09-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal properties of wax and hexane extracts of Citrus spp. peels were tested using bioautographic and microdilution techniques against three plant pathogenic fungi (Penicillium digitatum, Curvularia sp., and Colletotrichum sp.), two human pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis), and two opportunistic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). Two polymethoxylated flavonoids and a coumarin derivative, were isolated and identified from peel extracts, which presented antimicrobial activity especially against M. canis and T. mentagrophytes: 4',5,6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone (tangeritin) and 3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxyflavone (nobiletin) from C. reticulata; and 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (also known as escoparone, scoparone or scoparin) from C. limon. PMID:17923995

  2. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2011-04-10

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ∼40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ∼60%, is found on ∼28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (∼8% of Asians and ∼13% of Caucasians) at -152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ∼30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  3. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ~40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ~60%, is found on ~28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (~8% of Asians and ~13% of Caucasians) at −152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ~30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically-relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  4. In vitro susceptibility of dermatomycoses agents to six antifungal drugs and evaluation by fractional inhibitory concentration index of combined effects of amorolfine and itraconazole in dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Takashi; Asahara, Miwa; Yamamoto, Mikachi; Yamaura, Mariko; Matsumura, Mitsuru; Goto, Kazuo; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Mirhendi, Hossein; Makimura, Miho; Makimura, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the antifungal drug susceptibility of fungi responsible for dermatomycoses, minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) tests were performed in 44 strains of dermatophytes, including Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton verrucosum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum, with six antifungal drugs (amorolfine, terbinafine, butenafine, ketoconazole, itraconazole and bifonazole) by broth microdilution assay according to Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute protocols. Six possible dermatomycosis-causing non-dermatophytic fungi were also tested. The two major causes of tinea, T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes, showed significantly different sensitivities to ketoconazole and bifonazole. Clinically derived dermatophytes were sensitive to the six antifungal drugs tested. However, non-dermatophytes, especially Fusarium spp., tended to be resistant to these antifungal drugs. In Trichophyton spp., the MICs of non-azole drugs had narrower distributions than those of azoles. To evaluate the effects of antifungal drug combinations, the fractional inhibitory concentration index was calculated for the combination of amorolfine and itraconazole as representative external and internal drugs for dermatophytes. It was found that this combination had synergistic or additive effects on most dermatophytes, and had no antagonistic effects. The variation in susceptibility of clinically derived fungal isolates indicates that identification of causative fungi is indispensable for appropriately choosing effective antifungal drugs in the early stages of infection. The results of combination assay suggest that multiple drugs with different antifungal mechanisms against growth of dermatophytes should be used to treat refractory dermatomycoses, especially onychomycosis. PMID:24215461

  5. [Identification of geophilic and zoophilic dermatophytes in siblings with tinea capitis. A pathogenic factor or contamination?].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, S; Ott, H; Barker, M; Heimann, G; Poblete-Gutiérrez, P; Frank, J

    2004-10-01

    Two siblings of African origin presented with multiple scaling patches and alopecia on the scalp four weeks after returning from a vacation in Eritrea. Direct KOH examination revealed fungal elements; Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton terrestre were identified in the fungal culture. We discuss the putative pathogenic role of both microorganisms in causing disease. Although infection with Microsporum canis currently accounts for almost fifty percent of all cases of tinea capitis in Germany, other fungi have gained importance due to tourism and increasing migration. PMID:15340708

  6. Desigualdades por cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Información básica de las desigualdades en salud por cáncer en EE. UU., factores que contribuyen a la carga desproporcionada del cáncer en algunos grupos y ejemplos de desigualdades en incidencia y mortalidad entre ciertos grupos de la población.

  7. Scanning electron microscopy of superficial white onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Hiram Larangeira de; Boabaid, Roberta Oliveira; Timm, Vitor; Silva, Ricardo Marques E; Castro, Luis Antonio Suita de

    2015-01-01

    Superficial white onychomycosis is characterized by opaque, friable, whitish superficial spots on the nail plate. We examined an affected halux nail of a 20-year-old male patient with scanning electron microscopy. The mycological examination isolated Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Abundant hyphae with the formation of arthrospores were found on the nail's surface, forming small fungal colonies. These findings showed the great capacity for dissemination of this form of onychomycosis. PMID:26560225

  8. Manzamenone O, new trimeric fatty acid derivative from a marine sponge Plakortis sp.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naonobu; Asai, Miki; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Gonoi, Tohru; Fromont, Jane; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

    2013-05-17

    A new structurally unique trimeric fatty acid derivative, manzamenone O (1), was isolated from a marine sponge Plakortis sp. Manzamenone O (1) has a novel skeleton consisting of C-C bonded octahydroindenone and dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane moieties and three long aliphatic chains. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and conformational analysis. Manzamenone O (1) exhibited antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Aspergillis niger, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. PMID:23651077

  9. Scanning electron microscopy of superficial white onychomycosis*

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Boabaid, Roberta Oliveira; Timm, Vitor; Silva, Ricardo Marques e; de Castro, Luis Antonio Suita

    2015-01-01

    Superficial white onychomycosis is characterized by opaque, friable, whitish superficial spots on the nail plate. We examined an affected halux nail of a 20-year-old male patient with scanning electron microscopy. The mycological examination isolated Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Abundant hyphae with the formation of arthrospores were found on the nail's surface, forming small fungal colonies. These findings showed the great capacity for dissemination of this form of onychomycosis. PMID:26560225

  10. Identification of Dermatophyte Species by 28S Ribosomal DNA Sequencing with a Commercial Kit

    PubMed Central

    Ninet, Béatrice; Jan, Isabelle; Bontems, Olympia; Léchenne, Barbara; Jousson, Olivier; Panizzon, Renato; Lew, Daniel; Monod, Michel

    2003-01-01

    We have shown that dermatophyte species can be easily identified on the basis of a DNA sequence encoding a part of the large-subunit (LSU) rRNA (28S rRNA) by using the MicroSeq D2 LSU rRNA Fungal Sequencing Kit. Two taxa causing distinct dermatophytoses were clearly distinguished among isolates of the Trichophyton mentagrophytes species complex. PMID:12574293

  11. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  12. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  13. Effects of butenafine hydrochloride, a new benzylamine derivative, on experimental dermatophytosis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Arika, T; Yokoo, M; Hase, T; Maeda, T; Amemiya, K; Yamaguchi, H

    1990-01-01

    Butenafine hydrochloride, N-4-tert-butylbenzyl-N-methyl-1-naphthalenemethylamine hydrochloride (butenafine), is a novel antifungal agent of the class of benzylamine derivatives. Butenafine was investigated for its activity against guinea pig dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes or Microsporum canis in comparison with those of naftifine, tolnaftate, clotrimazole, and bifonazole. Topical butenafine showed excellent efficacy against dermatophytosis when it was applied once daily, and the effect was superior to those of all four reference drugs. When applied once at 24 or 48 h before infection, the drug exhibited excellent prophylactic efficacy against experimental T. mentagrophytes infection. The concentrations of butenafine in animal skin at 24 and 48 h after application of 0.2 ml of a 1% solution were several hundred times higher than those required to kill T. mentagrophytes and M. canis. The good efficacy of butenafine against dermatophytosis may be attributable to its fungicidal activity and long retention in the skin after topical application. PMID:2073116

  14. Effects of butenafine hydrochloride, a new benzylamine derivative, on experimental dermatophytosis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Arika, T; Yokoo, M; Hase, T; Maeda, T; Amemiya, K; Yamaguchi, H

    1990-11-01

    Butenafine hydrochloride, N-4-tert-butylbenzyl-N-methyl-1-naphthalenemethylamine hydrochloride (butenafine), is a novel antifungal agent of the class of benzylamine derivatives. Butenafine was investigated for its activity against guinea pig dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes or Microsporum canis in comparison with those of naftifine, tolnaftate, clotrimazole, and bifonazole. Topical butenafine showed excellent efficacy against dermatophytosis when it was applied once daily, and the effect was superior to those of all four reference drugs. When applied once at 24 or 48 h before infection, the drug exhibited excellent prophylactic efficacy against experimental T. mentagrophytes infection. The concentrations of butenafine in animal skin at 24 and 48 h after application of 0.2 ml of a 1% solution were several hundred times higher than those required to kill T. mentagrophytes and M. canis. The good efficacy of butenafine against dermatophytosis may be attributable to its fungicidal activity and long retention in the skin after topical application. PMID:2073116

  15. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES.

    PubMed

    Biasi-Garbin, Renata Perugini; Demitto, Fernanda de Oliveira; Amaral, Renata Claro Ribeiro do; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE), Libidibia ferrea (AE), and Persea americana (AcE) also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species. PMID:27007561

  16. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    PubMed Central

    BIASI-GARBIN, Renata Perugini; DEMITTO, Fernanda de Oliveira; do AMARAL, Renata Claro Ribeiro; FERREIRA, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; SOARES, Luiz Alberto Lira; SVIDZINSKI, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; BAEZA, Lilian Cristiane; YAMADA-OGATTA, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytesATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE), Libidibia ferrea (AE), and Persea americana (AcE) also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species. PMID:27007561

  17. Anti-dermatophytic activity of marine sponge, Sigmadocia carnosa (Dendy) on clinically isolated fungi

    PubMed Central

    Dhayanithi, NB; Kumar, TT Ajith; Kalaiselvam, M; Balasubramanian, T; Sivakumar, N

    2012-01-01

    Objective To screen the anti-fungal effects and find out the active metabolites from sponge, Sigmadocia carnosa (S. carnosa) against four dermatophytic fungi. Methods The methanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extract of marine sponge, S. carnosa was examined against Trichophyton mentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes), Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum), Epidermophyton floccosum (E. floccosum) and Microsporum gypseum (M. gypseum) and qualitative analysed to find out the active molecules. Results The methanol extract of sponge was expressed significant activity than ethyl acetate and acetone. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of methanol extract of sponge that resulted in complete growth inhibition of T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, E. floccosum and M. gypseum were found to 125, 250, 250 and 250 µg/mL respectively. But, 100 % inhibition of fungal spore germination was observed in T. mentagrophytes at 500 µg/mL concentration followed by T. rubrum, E. floccosum and M. gypseum at 1 000 µg/mL concentration. Other two extracts showed weak anti spore germination activity against the tested dermatophytic fungi. Methanol extracts showed presence of terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and glycosides. Conclusion Based on the literature, this is the first study which has conducted to inhibit the growth and spore germination of dermatophytic fungi with S. carnosa. Further research also needs to purify and characterize the secondary metabolites from the sponge, S. carnosa for the valuable source of novel substances for future drug discovery. PMID:23569985

  18. Tinea barbae (tinea sycosis): experience with nine cases.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Ramírez-Tamayo, Teresa; Saúl, Amado

    2003-12-01

    Tinea barbae is a rare dermatophytosis that affects the hair and hair follicles of the beard and mustache. This paper presents 9 cases of tinea barbae observed over an 18-year period of time and classified as follows: 1 was superficial and 8 were deep (6 folliculitis-like and 2 kerion-like). Most of the cases (4) were associated with topical steroid therapy, others with pet contact (3 cases) and one with diabetes. The causal agents isolated were: Trichophyton rubrum in 3; Microsporum canis in 3; Trichophyton mentagrophytes in 2; and Trichophyton tonsurans in one. The involvement of the hair was observed and classified in all cases. The trichophytin skin reaction was positive in all 9 patients. All the patients were treated with systemic antimycotics, 3 cases with griseofulvin, 1 with ketoconazole, 3 with itraconazole, and 2 with terbinafine. Clinical and mycologic cures were achieved at 6 to 8 weeks of treatment at the usual doses. PMID:14739517

  19. In vitro antifungal activity and mechanism of essential oil from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) on dermatophyte species.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hong; Chen, Xinping; Liang, Jingnan

    2015-01-01

    Fennel seed essential oil (FSEO) is a plant-derived natural therapeutic against dermatophytes. In this study, the antifungal effects of FSEO were investigated from varied aspects, such as MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration, mycelia growth, spore germination and biomass. The results indicated that FSEO had potent antifungal activities on Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 40051, Trichophyton tonsurans 10-0400, Microsporum gypseum 44693-1 and Trichophyton mentagrophytes 10-0060, which is better than the commonly used antifungal agents fluconazole and amphotericin B. Flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy experiments suggested that the antifungal mechanism of FSEO was to damage the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles. Further study revealed that it could also inhibit the mitochondrial enzyme activities, such as succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and ATPase. With better antifungal activity than the commonly used antifungal agents and less possibility of inducing drug resistance, FSEO could be used as a potential antidermatophytic agent. PMID:25351709

  20. Novel pyrazine analogs of chalcones: synthesis and evaluation of their antifungal and antimycobacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Kucerova-Chlupacova, Marta; Kunes, Jiri; Buchta, Vladimir; Vejsova, Marcela; Opletalova, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis and invasive mycoses, represent serious health problems. As a part of our long-term efforts to find new agents for the treatment of these diseases, a new series of pyrazine analogs of chalcones bearing an isopropyl group in position 5 of the pyrazine ring was prepared. The structures of the compounds were corroborated by IR and NMR spectroscopy and their purity confirmed by elemental analysis. The susceptibility of eight fungal strains to the studied compounds was tested. The results have been compared with the activity of some previously reported propyl derivatives. The only strain that was susceptible to the studied compounds was Trichophyton mentagrophytes. It was found that replacing a non-branched propyl with a branched isopropyl did not have a decisive and unequivocal influence on the in vitro antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes. In vitro activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes comparable with that of fluconazole was exhibited by nitro-substituted derivatives. Unfortunately, no compound exhibited efficacy comparable with that of terbinafine, which is the most widely used agent for treating mycoses caused by dermatophytes. Some of the prepared compounds were assayed for antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The highest potency was also displayed by nitro-substituted compounds. The results of the present study are in a good agreement with our previous findings and confirm the positive influence of electron-withdrawing groups on the B-ring of chalcones on the antifungal and antimycobacterial activity of these compounds. PMID:25587786

  1. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  2. A clinical and mycologic study of tinea corporis and pedis in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, M; Sánchez, J L

    1984-10-01

    A study of the causative agents of tinea corporis and pedis in Puerto Rico in 1982 disclosed four different dermatophytes from a total of 97 cases. Among the total of 49 fungus specimens collected in tinea corporis, the mycologic flora consisted of four different fungus species: Trichophyton rubrum, 42 isolates (85.7%); Epidermophyton floccosum, 4 (8.1%); Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 2 (4%); and Microsporum ferrugineum, 1 (2%). Among the total of 48 fungus specimens collected in tinea pedis, the mycologic flora consisted of 3 different fungus species as follows: T. rubrum, 35 isolates (72.9%); T. mentagrophytes 8 (16.6%); and E. floccosum, 5 (10.4%). Trichophyton rubrum caused 77 of 97 fungal isolates (79.3%). One surprising finding was the isolation of M. ferrugineum in a case of tinea corporis, documenting the first autochtonous case of this species in the island. This dermatophyte had previously been known only in Japan and adjacent areas of the Far East, Southern Europe, and Africa. PMID:6500796

  3. Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Two Closely Related Species, Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl., from Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Sivasothy, Yasodha; Nagoor, Noor Hasima; Jamil, Natasha; Awang, Khalijah

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the unripe and ripe fruits of Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl. were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The oils were principally monoterpenic in nature. The unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. mutica were characterized by camphor (21.0% and 15.8%), camphene (16.6% and 10.2%), β-pinene (8.6% and 13.5%), and trans,trans-farnesol (8.0% and 11.2%), respectively. The oils of the unripe and ripe fruits were moderately active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. 1,8-Cineole (34.2% and 35.9%) and β-pinene (20.2% and 19.0%) were the two most abundant components in the unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. latilabris. The oil of the unripe fruits elicits moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes while Candida glabrata was moderately sensitive to the oil of the ripe fruits. PMID:24987733

  4. Dermatophyte and non dermatophyte fungi in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Khaled, Jamal M.; Golah, Hammed A; Khalel, Abdulla S.; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Mothana, Ramzi A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dermatophytes are a scientific label for a group of three genera (Microsporum, Epidermophyton and Trichophyton) of fungus that causes skin disease in animals and humans. Conventional methods for identification of these fungi are rapid and simple but are not accurate comparing to molecular methods. Objective This study aimed to isolate human pathogenic dermatophytes which cause dermatophytosis in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia and to identify these fungi by using conventional and molecular methods. Methods The study was conducted in Medical Complex, Riyadh and King Saud University. Samples of infected skin, hairs and nails were collected from 112 patients. Diagnosis of skin infections, direct microscopic test, isolation and identification of dermatophytes by conventional and molecular methods were carried out. Results The results indicated that the tinea capitis infection had the highest prevalence among the patients (22.3%) while Tinea barbae had the lowest. In this study the identified dermatophyte isolates belong to nine species as Trichophyton violaceum, Trichophyton verrucosum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton schoenleinii, Trichophyton concentricum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum audouinii and Epidermophyton floccosum which cause skin infections were isolated during this study. Non dermatophyte isolates included 5 isolates from Aspergillus spp. 4 isolates from Acremonium potronii and 15 isolates from Candida spp. M. canis were the most common species (25% of isolated dermatophytes). Out of the 52 dermatophyte isolates identified by conventional methods, there were 45 isolates identified by the molecular method. Conclusions The results concluded that approximately M. canis caused a quarter of dermatophyte cases, tinea capitis infection was prevalent and the molecular method was more accurate than conventional methods. PMID:26288566

  5. Trichophyton dermatophytosis--a disease easily confused with pemphigus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, W M; Yager, J A

    1997-01-01

    Trichophytosis is a rare diagnosis in dogs in Ontario, but recently 4 dogs with a scaling and crusting, alopecic, facial dermatitis have been so diagnosed. In all cases, the histopathological findings of severe epidermal and follicular interface dermatitis, accompanied by an acantholytic intraepidermal pustular dermatitis suggested an immune-mediated disease. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9262861

  6. Tinea cutis glabrae: causes of diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Łuczkowska, Magdalena; Żaba, Ryszard; Adamski, Zygmunt

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophytoses belong to the most common disease entities encountered in everyday dermatological practice. Despite the fact that their clinical presentation, course and treatment response remain rather typical, they often present a considerable diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We present a case of a 54-year-old male who presented to the outpatient clinic of the Department of Dermatology in December 2012 with the diagnosis of erythema gyratum repens for further diagnosis and treatment of skin lesions gradually intensifying in the previous 2 years. The skin changes presented as spreading annular erythematous lesions, with papules and plaques located peripherally, and accompanying pruritus. Due to the clinical presentation and anamnesis, working conditions (poultry farm), and lack of response to previous treatment, mycological culture was performed. Epithelial scrapings of the trunk and the groins proved to be positive. After 3 weeks, Trichophyton mentagrophytes var mentagrophytes was identified by epithelial cell culture. PMID:25610361

  7. Problems in the diagnosis of profound trichophytosis barbae.

    PubMed

    Kozielewicz, D; Wernik, J; Mikucka, A; Ciesielska, A; Kruszynska, E; Gospodarek, E; Pawlowska, M; Halota, W

    2015-01-01

    Zoophilic species of human dermatophytoses, such as Trichophyton mentagrophytes are significantly rare. We present a case of a 42-year-old male who for 2 months had been unsuccessfully treated and then referred to hospital with suspected actinomycosis. Lesions on the skin on his neck, submandibular area, cheeks and groins were consistent with extremely painful, merging inflammatory tumours and infiltrations with the presence of numerous pustules in hair follicles that poured purulent contents forming into yellow crusts after compression. The treatment with terbinafine was successful. The final identification of the Trichopyton mentagrophytes var. granulosum strain was performed based on a microscopic assessment of the culture, and the result of species identification was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. PMID:26068357

  8. Dermatophytes from urban soils in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva Pontes, Z B V; Oliveira, A C

    2008-01-01

    A total of 68 soil samples was collected from "favelas" (slums), schools, public squares, beaches and vacant lots in the city of João Pessoa-PB, Brazil. A search for dermatophytes in these soils was carried out by using the Vanbreuseghem technique. As a result, 48 strains and 6 dermatophytes species were isolated. Trichophyton terrestre (25.0%), Microsporum gypseum (20.8%) and Anthroderma gypsea (2.1%) were identified among the geophilic species, and T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (37.5%) among the zoophilic species and T. tonsurans (4.2%), among the anthropophilic species. The growth of 75% of dermatophytes occurred in alkaline pH (7.02-9.00) and their presence in the soil should not be underestimated, since some of the identified species are aetiological agents of dermatophytoses in humans and animals. PMID:19024503

  9. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. PMID:23075153

  10. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  11. Optimization of PCR—RFLP Directly from the Skin and Nails in Cases of Dermatophytosis, Targeting the ITS and the 18S Ribosomal DNA Regions

    PubMed Central

    Elavarashi, Elangovan; Kindo, Anupma Jyoti; Kalyani, Jagannathan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A pan fungal primer targeting the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region and optimization of PCR-RFLP using a dermatophyte specific primer targeted the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region were performed for the identification of dermatophyte species and strains directly from clinical specimens. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty eight specimens (129 skin scrapings and 9 nail clippings) from clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis were collected and subjected to direct microscopy and culture. Among them, 66 skin scrapings and 3 nail clippings were processed for genotyping by PCR-RFLP analysis using the Mva I, Hae III and the Dde I restriction enzymes. Results: Of the 138 specimens, 81 specimens were positive for dermatophytosis, the most common one being Trichophyton rubrum (47), followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (25) and Epidermophyton floccosum (9). Of the 47 T. rubrum isolates, 10 were T. rubrum var. raubitschekii which were identified phenotypically as urease positive and by DNA sequencing. Since they exhibited minor morphological and physiological features, they have currently been synonymized with T. rubrum. Of the 25 T. mentagrophytes isolates, three were Trichophyton interdigitale, which were identified by DNA sequencing. Among the 66 skin specimens smear, culture and PCR showed the presence of dermatophytes in 36 (54.54%), 42 (63.63%) and 47 (71.21%) cases respectively. Among the three nail specimens, only one was found to be positive for dermatophytosis by smear, culture and PCR. Conclusion: Amplification of the dermatophyte specific primer is appropriate in the identification of dermatophytes directly from the clinical material. PCR targeting the ITS region by using the Mva I and the Dde I enzymes was equally good for the RFLP analysis. However, by using the above three restriction enzymes, no strain variations were detected among the T. rubrum and the T. mentagrophytes strains. PMID:23730638

  12. Heat resistance of dermatophyte's conidiospores from athletes kits stored in Nigerian University Sport's Center.

    PubMed

    Essien, J P; Jonah, I; Umoh, A A; Eduok, S I; Akpan, E J; Umoiyoho, A

    2009-03-01

    The incidence and heat resistance of conidiospores produced by dermatophytes isolated from athlete's kits (canvasses, stockings and spike shoes) stored in Nigerian University Sport's Centre were investigated. Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum oudouinii, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton concentricum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum were isolated and their incidence on the athlete's kits varied with the species and type of kits. Among the isolates T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and E. floccosum with 25%, 23% and 20% prevalence rates respectively, were the most common isolates, and are often associated with tinea pedis (athletes foot). Canvasses with the highest incidence of dermatophytes (25 out of 34 fungal isolates) were the most contaminated kits and could serve as effective articles for the transmission of tinea pedis among athletes in Nigeria. The common etiological agents screened, produced asexual spores (conidiospores) that exhibited high resistance to heat treatment at 80 degrees C. Of the three isolates, E. floccosum, with a decimal reduction time (D-value) of D80 = 4.4 min was the most resistant followed by T. mentagrophytes with D80 = 4.0 min and then T. rubrum with D80 = 3.2 min. The spores elimination pattern indicates that increasing the heating duration would decrease the decimal reduction time and possibly denature the fungal propagules but may damage the skin during treatment with hot water compresses. The findings have shown that the use of hot water compresses is palliative but heat treatment especially vapour-heat treatment offers adequate preventive measures if applied for periodic treatment of contaminated kits. However, determining the correct condition for effective decontamination will require detailed understanding of the heat resistance of fungal spores. Otherwise treatment of kits with detergent and chaotropic agent such as urea and guanidinium salt is preferred to heat treatment. PMID:19388558

  13. Disminuyen en los Estados Unidos las infecciones por VPH.

    Cancer.gov

    La infección por los tipos del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) en el blanco de la vacuna cuadrivalente se redujo en casi dos tercios en las adolescentes desde que se recomendó la vacunación en los Estados Unidos.

  14. Centros oncológicos designados por el NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El programa de centros oncológicos designados por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) reconoce a los centros de todo el país que cumplen con rigurosos criterios para participar en proyectos avanzados de primer nivel para la investigación multidisciplinaria del cáncer.

  15. In vitro and in vivo antidermatophytic activities of some Iranian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Kazemi, Abdolhasan

    2015-11-01

    In the last decades, the number of people suffering from dermatophytoses has seriously increased, which may be due to the development of resistant strains to a range of antifungal drugs. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antidermatophytic properties of eight extracts from the selected spices and herbs, which were ethno-medicinally used in Iran against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton interdigitale, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum (10 strain of each). The in vitro antifungal activities of the extracts from four spices and four plants were evaluated by the broth macro dilution method against four dermatophyte strains. In addition, the in vivo therapeutic effects of Myrtus communis L. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume extracts (the most active extracts) on dermatophytosis induced by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes in guinea pigs were evaluated. Results of in vitro antifungal assay revealed that all the tested extracts demonstrated both fungistatic and fungicidal activities with the geometric mean (GM) MIC ranging from 0.058 to 3.73 mg/ml and GM (MFC) ranging from 0.058 to 7.46 mg/ml, respectively. Two extracts (M. communis and C. zeylanicum) significantly inhibited the growth of all the tested dermatophytes, while other extracts demonstrated weak (MICs of >0.625 mg/ml) to moderate (MICs ranging from 100 to 0.625 mg/ml) activities. In vivo antidermatophytic assay demonstrated that clotrimazole cured T. mentagrophytes and M. canis infection on days 21 and 17, respectively, whereas M. communis and C. zeylanicum extracts significantly (p < 0.05) cured T. mentagrophytes and M. canis infection on days 9 and 13 as well as 9, 11, respectively. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phenols, and alkaloids in M. communis and alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins in C. zeylanicum. Findings of the present study also provided the scientific evidence that natural plants could be used in traditional medicine for the

  16. Tinea Incognita in a Patient with Crest Syndrome: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gorgievska-Sukarovska, Biljana; Skerlev, Mihael; Žele-Starčević, Lidija

    2015-01-01

    Tinea incognita is a dermatophytic infection that is difficult to diagnose, usually modified by inappropriate topical or systemic corticosteroid therapy. We report an extensive case of tinea incognita caused by the zoophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes (var. granulosa) in a 49-year-old female patient with CREST (Calcinosis; Raynaud phenomenon; Esophageal involvement; Sclerodactyly; Teleangiectasia) syndrome. Immunocompromised patients, as well as patients with keratinization disorders, seem to be especially susceptible to dermatophytic infections with atypical clinical presentation that is sometimes bizarre and difficult to recognize. Therefore, close monitoring and mycological skin examination is recommended in order to avoid misdiagnosis and to give the patient the best chance of recovery. PMID:26476904

  17. Isolation of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi from the vicinity of salt pan soils of Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, S K

    2004-04-01

    Soil samples from twenty salt pans and their vicinity around Mumbai and Thane were screened for the occurrence of keratinophilic fungi and related dermatophytes. Ten species classified in six genera were recovered using horse hair as bait. The isolated species were reported in the following order of dominance: Chrysosporium indicum (12.0%), Microsporum gypseum complex (7.2%), C. tropicum (5.6%), C. state of Ctenomyces serratus (4.0%), Trichophyton terrestre (3.2%), Malbranchea aurantiaca (2.4%), C. fluviale (1.6%), Uncinocarpus reesii (1.6%), Malbranchea sp. (0.8%), and T. mentagrophytes (0.8%). PMID:15180153

  18. Nonanoic Acid, an Antifungal Compound from Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yun-Woo; Jung, Jin-Young; Lee, In-Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    The root of Hibiscus syriacus (Malvaceae) has been used for treatment of fungal diseases such as tinea pedis (athlete's foot). In this study, we investigated the antifungal constituent of the root of Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma, which was produced by a mutation breeding using gamma ray irradiation, and compared the antifungal activity of H. syriacus Ggoma and its parent type. According to the results, the methanolic extract of H. syriacus Ggoma exhibited four times higher antifungal activity than its parent type against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Following purification through various column chromatographies, the antifungal substance was identified as nonanoic acid on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. PMID:22870060

  19. Nonanoic Acid, an Antifungal Compound from Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yun-Woo; Jung, Jin-Young; Lee, In-Kyoung; Kang, Si-Yong; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2012-06-01

    The root of Hibiscus syriacus (Malvaceae) has been used for treatment of fungal diseases such as tinea pedis (athlete's foot). In this study, we investigated the antifungal constituent of the root of Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma, which was produced by a mutation breeding using gamma ray irradiation, and compared the antifungal activity of H. syriacus Ggoma and its parent type. According to the results, the methanolic extract of H. syriacus Ggoma exhibited four times higher antifungal activity than its parent type against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Following purification through various column chromatographies, the antifungal substance was identified as nonanoic acid on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. PMID:22870060

  20. Neutral red assay in minimum fungicidal concentrations of antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, T; Naka, W; Tajima, S; Nishikawa, T

    1996-01-01

    We assayed the fungicidal effects of antifungal agents using neutral red staining. Fungal elements of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum were treated with various concentrations of antifungal agents in 96-well filtration plates and then stained with neutral red. The amount of neutral red incorporated by the surviving viable cells was determined from the automated spectrophotometric readings at 550 nm. The minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of antifungal agents determined by this assay correlated well with those determined by conventional assay. This newly developed procedure should provide a rapid, reproducible, quantitative, qualitative and semi-automated susceptibility test for determination of the MFCs of the fungicidal agents. PMID:8912170

  1. The Auckland skin clinic tinea pedis and erythrasma study.

    PubMed

    Allen, S; Christmas, T I; McKinney, W; Parr, D; Oliver, G F

    1990-08-22

    Three hundred consecutive patients attending the Auckland Hospital dermatology clinic were examined clinically and microbiologically for evidence of interdigital or plantar mycological or bacterial infection. One hundred and nine patients were shown by laboratory investigation to have an infection. Of these, only 89 displayed clinical signs of infection. Erythrasma, a desquamative condition caused by Corynebacterium minutissimum, was the commonest infection in this study. The commonest dermatophyte isolated was Trichophyton mentagrophytes var interdigitale. There was a significant rise in the incidence of both types of infection with age. PMID:2385417

  2. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Bis-[4-methoxy-3-(6-aryl-7H-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]-thiadiazin-3-yl)phenyl]methanes and Bis-[(triazolo[3,4-b]thiadiazipin-3-yl)phenyl]methanes.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Avula

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel Bis-[4-methoxy-3-(6-aryl-7H-[1,2,4]tria zolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]-thiadiazin-3-yl)phenyl]methanes and Bis-[(triazolo[3,4-b]thiadiazipin-3-yl)phenyl]methanes ( 5a-e & 6a-e ) has been synthesized and characterized by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, MS and elemental analysis. All the newly synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klobsinella aerogenes and Chromobacteriumviolaceum and antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Compounds 5b, 5d,5e, 6b, 6c and 6e exhibited potent activity against the test bacteria and fungi, and emerged as potential molecules for further development. PMID:26970802

  3. Tavaborole topical solution, 5% for the treatment of toenail onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Zane, L T; Plattner, J; Chanda, S; Coronado, D; Merchant, T; Alley, M R K; Gupta, A K

    2015-10-01

    Tavaborole topical solution, 5% (tavaborole) is a novel, boron-based, antifungal pharmaceutical agent indicated for treatment of toenail onychomycosis due to the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum or Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In preclinical studies, tavaborole effectively penetrated through full-thickness, non-diseased cadaver fingernails, including those with up to four layers of nail polish. Limited systemic absorption was observed following topical application of tavaborole. In phase III clinical trials involving patients with distal subungual onychomycosis affecting 20-60% of a target great toenail, significantly more patients treated with tavaborole versus vehicle achieved completely clear nail with negative mycology following daily application for 48 weeks. Treatment-emergent adverse events reported by at least 1% of patients treated with tavaborole and at a greater frequency versus vehicle included ingrown toenail, exfoliation, erythema and dermatitis. Treatment discontinuations were uncommon. Results from preclinical studies and phase III clinical trials establish tavaborole as a safe and efficacious treatment for toenail onychomycosis. PMID:26583302

  4. Pattern of Dermatophytes in Patients Attend in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital.

    PubMed

    Monwar, S; Hossain, M A; Mahmud, M C; Paul, S K; Nasreen, S A; Joly, S N; Begum, H; Abdullah, S A; Haque, N; Sarkar, S R

    2015-10-01

    Dermatophytosis is a common fungal disease which involves the keratinized tissue. This is an attempt to observe the spectrum of dermatophytes among the clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis attending the outpatient department of Dermatology and Venereology, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh during the period of July 2013 to December 2014. Two hundred thirty (230) clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis were subjected in this study. Sixty three cases (27.39%) were positive for fungus in direct microscopy while 53(23.04%) were culture positive. Among the clinical types tinea unguium was the most common followed by tinea corporis. Dermatophytosis was more common in the age group of 21-30 years. The male to female ratio was 1.53:1. Trichophyton rubrum 44(83.04%) was found common etiological dermatophyte species followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes 5(9.43%) and Epidermophyton floccosum 4(7.55%). PMID:26620004

  5. [Research of keratinophiles in the soil and their effects on human cutaneous pathology in the Lyons area].

    PubMed

    Coudert, J; Michel-Brun, J; Mojon, M; Pichot, J

    1979-01-01

    Between 1967 and 1977, the systematic research of keratinophiles of the ground in a radius of 30--50 km around Lyon, has shown the ubiquitarian predominance of Microsporum nanum, which is probably the most ancient occupant of the ground. The most intensive areas of human and animal occupation in the Rhodanian tract show the predominance of Microsporum gypseum, which is scarcely found in man. Sporadic localizations, tightly limites, bound to cirulcation axes and international gathering, let us detect Microsporum cookei, Trichophyton verrucosum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Chrysosporium keratinophilum, and Keratinomyces ajelloi. However, in the last years, a progressive extension of recently imported kinds and a decrease in native kinds appears to have occurred. PMID:488487

  6. Evaluation of incubation time for dermatophytes cultures.

    PubMed

    Rezusta, Antonio; de la Fuente, Sonia; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Vidal-García, Matxalen; Alcalá, Leticia; López-Calleja, Ana; Ruiz, Maria Angeles; Revillo, Maria José

    2016-07-01

    In general, it is recommended to incubate dermatophytes cultures for a minimum of 4 weeks. Several aspects of routine fungal cultures should be evaluated in order to implement appropriate and necessary changes. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum incubation time for routine dermatophytes cultures, analysing the time to find first fungal growth by visual observation. We recorded the time when the initial growth was detected for all dermatophyte isolates during a 4-year period. A total of 5459 dermatophyte cultures were submitted to our laboratory. From the total cultures, only 16 (1.42%) isolates were recovered over/after 17 days of incubation and only three dermatophyte species were recovered over 17 days. Fourteen isolates belong to Trichophyton rubrum, one isolate to Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex and one isolate to Epidermophyton floccosum. We concluded that an incubation period of 17 days is enough to establish a microbiological diagnosis of dermatophytosis. PMID:27144472

  7. [In vitro growth of human pathogenic fungi on different stocking fabrics].

    PubMed

    Günther, A; Effendy, I

    2002-01-01

    Athlete's foot and onychomycosis can be aggravated due to inappropriate footwear. In this study we examined whether stockings of synthetic and mixed fabrics may influence the growth behaviour of the commonly isolated fungi Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. A standardized suspension of each fungus was given to each sample of twelve stockings of different materials. The size of the growing colonies and the velocity of their growth were measured and compared to each other. Based on our data stockings depending on their fabric mixture seem to support or inhibit respectively the growth of fungi. Stockings composed of polyamide and a high percentage of polyurethane (Elasthan) and silk stockings as well may likely promote the fungal growth. PMID:12073558

  8. Antifungal Activity of Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robinson(Asteraceae) of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ngono Ngane, A; Ebelle Etame, R; Ndifor, F; Biyiti, L; Amvam Zollo, P H; Bouchet, P

    2006-01-01

    An aqueous ethanol extract of leaves of Chromolaena odorata and some of its fractions were examined for their antifungal properties by dilution methods on solid and liquid media, using yeasts and filamentous fungi. Extract and fractions inhibit the in vitro growth of Cryptococcus neoformans, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum with a minimal inhibitory concentration range from 62.5 to 500 microg/ml for the extract and from 25 to 100 microg/ml for fractions. A qualitative chemical analysis of the extract and fractions showed the presence of biologically active constituents such as some coumarins, flavonoids, phenols, tannins and sterols. No toxic effect was observed in mice treated per os with the extract. This study provides a scientific confirmation of the use of Chromolaena odorata in traditional medicine. PMID:16567942

  9. Tinea genitalis: a new entity of sexually transmitted infection? Case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Luchsinger, Isabelle; Bosshard, Philipp Peter; Kasper, Romano Silvio; Reinhardt, Dominic; Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Investigation on recent cases of tinea genitalis after travelling to South East Asia. Methods Patients with tinea in the genital region, which emerged after sex in South East Asia, underwent further assessment including microscopy, cultures and DNA analyses. Results The case series includes seven patients. In six patients, Trichophyton interdigitale (former Trichophyton mentagrophytes) was detected. Three patients suffered from a severe inflammatory reaction of the soft tissue and two of them needed hospitalisation due to severe pain. In four patients, cicatrising healing was noticed. Five patients were declared incapacitated for work. Conclusions Sexual activity should be considered as a potentially important and previously underappreciated means of transmission of T. interdigitale. To avoid irreversible scarring alopecia, prompt initiation of antifungal treatment is essential and adequate isolation and identification of the pathogen is mandatory. PMID:26071391

  10. Antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanol extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. against dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Atiqur; Al-Reza, Sharif M.; Siddiqui, Shah Alam; Chang, Taehyun; Kang, Sun Chul

    2014-01-01

    The antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanolic leaf extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. was evaluated for controlling the growth of dermatophytes. The oil (1,000 ppm) and extracts (1,500 ppm) of L. japonica revealed 55.1–70.3 % and 40.1–65.5 % antidermatophytic effect against Microsporum canis KCTC 6348, 6349, 6591, Trichophyton rubrum KCTC 6345, 6352, 6375, Trichophyton mentagrophytes KCTC 6077 and 6085, respectively, along with their respective minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 62.5-500 and 125-1,000 µg/ml. Also, the oil had strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested dermatophytes as well as concentration and time-dependent kinetic inhibition of M. canis KCTC 6348. The results demonstrated that L. japonica oil and extracts could be potential sources of natural fungicides to protect human and animals from fungal infections. PMID:26417269

  11. Bioactive constituents of Homalomena aromatica essential oil and its antifungal activity against dermatophytes and yeasts.

    PubMed

    Policegoudra, R S; Goswami, S; Aradhya, S M; Chatterjee, S; Datta, S; Sivaswamy, R; Chattopadhyay, P; Singh, L

    2012-03-01

    Homalomena aromatica rhizomes are rich source of essential oils, which have been attributed for various medicinal uses. In the present investigation, essential oil from H. aromatica rhizomes was isolated and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS) analysis. Fifty-five chemical constituents were reported from H. aromatica rhizomes of which T-muurolol (5.32%), viridiflorol (3.69%), α-selinene (2.19%), M-cymene (2.19%) and γ-Muurolene (1.81%) were identified and reported for the first time. Other major components were identified as linalool (62.5%), terpene-4-ol (7.08%), δ-cadinene (5.57%), α-cadinol (3.71%) and spatulenol (1.81%). H. aromatica rhizome essential oil showed high antimicrobial activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum fulvum, Microsporum gypseum, Trichosporon beigelii and Candida albicans. PMID:23177818

  12. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Cancer.gov

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevención de más de 795 000 muertes por cáncer de pulmón en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este país hubiera cesado después de la publicación d

  13. Evolution of tinea capitis in the Nanchang area, Southern China: a 50-year survey (1965-2014).

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ping; Geng, Chengfang; Li, Zhihua; Jin, Yun; Jiang, Qing; Tao, Li; Luo, Yunpeng; Xiong, Zhiwei; Wu, Shaoxi; Li, Dongmei; Liu, Weida; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2015-05-01

    Tinea capitis remains a common public health problem worldwide especially in developing areas. Aetiologic agents and clinical pattern vary with geography and history of socioeconomic conditions. Three community surveys and a prospective study were carried out over the past 50 years (1965-2014) in the Qingyunpu District of Nanchang, Southern China. Clinical presentation and spectrum of aetiological agents were monitored to understand the evolution of tinea capitis. In 1965 favus was highly epidemic and Trichophyton schoenleinii presented as the overwhelming aetiological agents of scalp infection in the study area, with a prevalence of 3.41% of the population. During a governmental campaign to eliminate tinea capitis initiated in mid of 1960s, favus was successfully controlled and the prevalence decreased to less than 0.01% in 1977. After that period, clinical presentation and spectrum of fungi changed with social development. Trichophyton schoenleinii was replaced by Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Nowadays, the species corresponds with a dominant black dot type of tinea capitis in the Nanchang area. The prevalence of causative agents of tinea capitis is not only related to geography but also to socioeconomic factors. Multiple factors have to be considered for the management for control of this disease. PMID:25756741

  14. The anti-dermatophyte activity of Allium hirtifolium Boiss aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, M; Kazempour, N

    2015-03-01

    In an attempt at demonstrating the efficacy of Allium hirtifolium aqueous extract in control of skin fungal infections as traditional use, we evaluated the anti-dermatophyte activities of A. hirtifolium aqueous extract from bulbs and of ketoconazole against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton schoenleinii and Trichophyton verrucosum var. album by food poisoning technique, disc diffusion and micro broth dilution assays. The anti-fungal activity of A. hirtifolium was excellent when it was compared with ketoconazole. The anti-fungal evaluation by food poisoning method showed that A. hirtifolium extract inhibited the growth of dermatophytes dose-dependently. The inhibition zone diameter (IZ) of A. hirtifolium extract (15 μg/disc) was in the range of 28.8 ± 0.31 to 67.7 ± 1.5mm, while ketoconazole (15 μg/disc) had the IZ lower than 13mm. The MIC and MFC values of A. hirtifolium extract were in the range of 0.2-1.7 and 0.4-0.7 μg/mL; respectively. Therefore, A. hirtifolium extract showed a strong anti-fungal activity against human and animal dermatophytes. PMID:25456419

  15. Neisseria meningitidis Lacking the Major Porins PorA and PorB Is Viable and Modulates Apoptosis and the Oxidative Burst of Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Peak, Ian R; Chen, Adrienne; Jen, Freda E-C; Jennings, Courtney; Schulz, Benjamin L; Saunders, Nigel J; Khan, Arshad; Seifert, H Steven; Jennings, Michael P

    2016-08-01

    The bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis expresses two major outer-membrane porins. PorA expression is subject to phase-variation (high frequency, random, on-off switching), and both PorA and PorB are antigenically variable between strains. PorA expression is variable and not correlated with meningococcal colonisation or invasive disease, whereas all naturally-occurring strains express PorB suggesting strong selection for expression. We have generated N. meningitidis strains lacking expression of both major porins, demonstrating that they are dispensable for bacterial growth in vitro. The porAB mutant strain has an exponential growth rate similar to the parental strain, as do the single porA or porB mutants, but the porAB mutant strain does not reach the same cell density in stationary phase. Proteomic analysis suggests that the double mutant strain exhibits compensatory expression changes in proteins associated with cellular redox state, energy/nutrient metabolism, and membrane stability. On solid media, there is obvious growth impairment that is rescued by addition of blood or serum from mammalian species, particularly heme. These porin mutants are not impaired in their capacity to inhibit both staurosporine-induced apoptosis and a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced oxidative burst in human neutrophils suggesting that the porins are not the only bacterial factors that can modulate these processes in host cells. PMID:26562068

  16. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  17. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    This document describes Acceptance Testing performed on Portable Exhauster POR-007/Skid E. It includes measurements of bearing vibration levels, pressure decay testing, programmable logic controller interlocks, high vacuum, flow and pressure control functional testing. The purpose of Acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-0490, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  18. Anti-fungal potential of ozone against some dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Ouf, Salama A; Moussa, Tarek A; Abd-Elmegeed, Alshimaa M; Eltahlawy, Samar R

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophytes are classified in three genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum and Trichophyton. They have the capacity to invade keratinized tissue to produce a cutaneous infection known as dermatophytoses. This investigation was performed to study the effect of gaseous ozone and ozonized oil on three specific properties of six different dermatophytes. These properties included sporulation, mycelia leakage of sugar and nutrients and the activity of their hydrolytic enzymes. Generally, ozonized oil was found to be more efficacious than gaseous ozone. Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis were the most susceptible, while Trichophyton interdigitale and T. mentagrophytes were relatively resistant. The study revealed a steady decline in spore production of M. gypseum and M. canis on application of ozonated oil. An increase in leakage of electrolytes and sugar was noticed after treatment with ozonized oil in the case of M. gypseum, M. canis, T. interdigitale, T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum. The results also revealed loss in urease, amylase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase and keratinase enzyme producing capacity of the investigated fungi. PMID:27287337

  19. Argentinean propolis from Zuccagnia punctata Cav. (Caesalpinieae) exudates: phytochemical characterization and antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Agüero, María Belén; Gonzalez, Mariela; Lima, Beatriz; Svetaz, Laura; Sánchez, Marianela; Zacchino, Susana; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Palermo, Jorge; Wunderlin, Daniel; Tapia, Alejandro

    2010-01-13

    This paper reports the in vitro antifungal activity of propolis extracts from the province of Tucuman (Argentina) as well as the identification of their main antifungal compounds and botanical origin. The antifungal activity was determined by the microdilution technique, using reference microorganisms and clinical isolates. All dermatophytes and yeasts tested were strongly inhibited by different propolis extracts (MICs between 16 and 125 microg mL(-1)). The most susceptible species were Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. The main bioactive compounds were 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone 2 and 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone 3. Both displayed strong activity against clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (MICs and MFCs between 1.9 and 2.9 microg mL(-1)). Additionally, galangin 5, pinocembrin 6, and 7-hydroxy-8-methoxyflavanone 9 were isolated from propolis samples and Zuccagnia punctata exudates, showing moderate antifungal activity. This is the first study matching the chemical profile of Z. punctata Cav. exudates with their corresponding propolis, giving strong evidence on the botanical origin of the studied propolis. PMID:19916546

  20. Keratinolysis and its morphological expression in hair digestion by airborne fungi.

    PubMed

    Filipello Marchisio, V; Fusconi, A; Rigo, S

    1994-08-01

    The morphological expression of keratinolysis in fungi isolated from the air of Torino (98 isolates belonging to 36 species) was studied. Light microscopy on whole material and on semithin sections, as well as scanning electron microscopy was used. There were 19 keratinolytically active species, with seven in the genus Chrysosporium (C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, C. pannicola, C. tropicum, C. an. Arthroderma cuniculi, C. an. Pectinotrichum llanense, C. an. Renispora flavissima), four in the genus Malbranchea (M. arcuata, M. fulva, M. sulphurea, M. st. Uncinocarpus reesii), and three in the genus Trichophyton (T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. terrestre). In addition there were Aphanoascus fulvescens, Beauveria bassiana, Geomyces pannorum v. pannorum, Gymnoascus umbrinus and Myceliophthora vellerea. Most of these species were capable of developing structures related to surface erosion and radial penetration contemporaneously. However Gymnoascus umbrinus, Myceliophthora vellerea, an isolate of C. indicum, C. tropicum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes demonstrated only surface erosion. Different isolates of one species can vary in their production of invasive structures and in degree of keratinolytic activity. Thus such activity, like many biochemical activities of fungi, does not appear to be a constant or rigorously species-specific character. PMID:7527126

  1. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Araucaria araucana (Mol.) K. Koch heartwood lignans.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Avila, J Guillermo; García, Ana M; Becerra, José; Flores, Cristian; Aqueveque, Pedro; Bittner, Magalis; Hoeneisen, Maritza; Martinez, Miguel; Silva, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Five lignans (secoisolariciresinol, pinoresinol, eudesmin, lariciresinol, and lariciresinol-4-methyl ether) were isolated from an MeOH extract from Araucaria araucana (Mol.) K. Koch wood for the first time in this species and their structures determined with spectroscopic methods. The antimicrobial activities of these compounds were determined for the bacteria Citrobacter sp., Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for the white rooting and staining fungi Mucor miehei, Paecilomyces variotii, Ceratocystis pilifera, Trametes versicolor, and Penicillium notatum, and in addition, the MeOH extract was evaluated against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Fusarium moniliforme, F. sporotrichum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The most sensitive bacteria against pinoresinol were the Gram-positive. However, secoisolariciresinol exhibited a significant antifungal activity on fungi of white rooting and wood staining and this compound completely inhibited the mycelial growth of T. versicolor and C. pilifera at 300 and 400 microg per disc, respectively, whereas pinoresinol showed a moderate inhibitory activity. On the other hand, the MeOH extract had the highest activity against rooting and staining and pathogenic fungi as well as T. versicolor, Fusarium spp. and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, inhibiting completely the growth at 400 microg per disc. PMID:16610214

  2. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han Chien; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Lee, Wen-Ju; Yap, Hui-Yi; Wang, Shao-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL). Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing. PMID:27446946

  3. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL). Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing. PMID:27446946

  4. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Caceres, A; Lopez, B R; Giron, M A; Logemann, H

    1991-03-01

    Skin infections are common diseases in developing countries, of which dermatophytoses are of particular concern in the tropics, especially in infants. Through ethnobotanical surveys and literature review 100 plants were detected as being used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytoses. Of these, 44 plants were screened for in vitro activity against the most common dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum). Results showed that aqueous extracts from 22 of the plants tested inhibit one or more of the dermatophytes. The most commonly inhibited dermatophytes were E. floccosum (43.2%), T. rubrum (36.0%), and T. mentagrophytes (31.8%); the less inhibited were M. canis (22.7%) and M. gypseum (24.0%). Plants of American origin which exhibited anti-dermatophyte activity were: Byrsonima crassifolia, Cassia grandis, Cassia occidentalis, Diphysa carthagenensis, Gliricidia sepium, Piscidia piscipula, Sambucus mexicana, Smilax regelii, Solanum americanum and Solanum nigrescens. Fungicidal and fungistatic activities as well as the minimal inhibitory concentration were demonstrated. These results provide a scientific basis for the use of these plants for the treatment of dermatophyte infections in man. PMID:2056755

  5. Typing and surface charges of the variable loop regions of PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Paola; Neri, Arianna; Tanabe, Mikio; Fazio, Cecilia; Massari, Paola

    2016-06-01

    PorB is a pan-Neisserial major outer membrane protein with a trimeric β-barrel structure. Each monomer presents eight periplasmic turns and eight surface exposed loop regions with sequence variability. PorB induces activation of host cell responses via a TLR2-dependent mechanism likely mediated by electrostatic interactions between TLR2 and PorB surface exposed loops. Variability in the loop amino acid sequence is known to influence cell responses to PorB in vitro, particularly for the residues in L5 and L7. In this work, the sequence of the porB gene and the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from 35 invasive meningococcal isolates belonging to the main clonal complexes identified in Italy and from five carriage genomes available on the website http://pubmlst.org/neisseria/ were examined. Analysis of the porB encoding regions from the invasive meningococci has identified four new alleles and a potential association between porB alleles, serogroup, and clonal complexes. Through computer-based modeling and analysis of the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from these strains, loop charge segregation between PorB from invasive serogroups B and C was observed. Specifically, loops 1, 4, and 7 were negatively charged and L2 and L8 were mostly neutral in serogroup B isolates, while an overall homogeneous positive surface charge was present in PorB from invasive serogroup C strains. A higher PorB sequence variability was observed among carriage genomes, and a general prevalence of negative loop surface charges. The surface charge differences in PorB from serogroups B and C invasive and carriage strains may, in part, influence the outcomes of Neisseriae interactions with host cells. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(6):488-495, 2016. PMID:27156582

  6. Eastern cottontail (sylvilagus floridanus) as carrier of dermatophyte fungi.

    PubMed

    Gallo, M G; Tizzani, P; Peano, A; Rambozzi, L; Meneguz, P G

    2005-09-01

    Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus, fam. Leporidae), introduced into Piedmont (Italy) in the 1960s, was studied as carrier of dermatophyte fungi. Of 216 hair samples collected from animals culled between September 1999 and July 2000 in the Province of Alessandria (Piedmont, Italy) during a pest control project, 57 (26.4%) yielded dermatophyte colonies. As two different species of dermatophytes grew from two samples, a total of 59 fungal isolates (26.5%) were obtained. Six dermatophyte species both geophilic (M. gypseum, M. cookei, Trichophyton ajelloi, T. terrestre) and zoophilic (M. canis, T. mentagrophytes) were identified. No sex-related differences were found but season-related differences were observed. The highest prevalence of dermatophyte-positive samples was recorded in May-September, due to the geophilic fungi whose prevalence decreased during colder and increased during warmer months (p < 0.001). The presence of zoophilic dermatophytes, T. mentagrophytes, commonly associated with rodents, small mammals and lagomorphs and M. canis, usually correlated with domestic environment, did not change the whole year round. As Eastern cottontail has been showed to be a carrier of dermatophytes transmissible to man (M. canis, T. mentagrophytes and M. gypseum), it may represent a source of infection for gamekeepers, hunters and veterinarians. PMID:16170613

  7. Occurrence of Dermatophytes in Fresh Bat Guano1

    PubMed Central

    Kajihiro, Edwin S.

    1965-01-01

    Evidence is presented in support of the hypothesis that fresh bat guano serves as a means of pathogenic fungi dissemination in caves. A total of 371 guano samples were collected from caves in southeastern New Mexico. Each sample was agitated in sterile saline and sand. The supernatant fluid was treated with an antibiotic and streaked on differential media. Cultures were incubated at 25 and 37 C and examined at intervals over a 4-week period. For animal inoculation, highly concentrated inoculum was injected intraperitoneally into white Swiss mice. Animals were sacrificed 4 weeks later, and portions of their lung, liver, and spleen were cultured on selective media, incubated at 25 C, and examined at intervals over a 4-week period. Microsporum gypseum was isolated at all 10 collecting stations with an incidence of 22.4%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes at 7 stations with an incidence of 5%, T. rubrum at 3 stations with an incidence of 3%, and T. terrestre at 1 station with an incidence of 0.5%. From a total of 60 pools of liver-spleen-lung suspensions, 6 pools yielded positive cultures of Histoplasma capsulatum and 1 pool yielded T. mentagrophytes. No significant difference was found among the different selective media with respect to recovery of dermatophytes. Among the human pathogenic fungi isolated were Candida sp., Cladosporium sp., Coccidioides immitis, Cryptococcus neoformans, H. capsulatum, M. gypseum, T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. terrestre, and Sporotrichum sp. Images Fig. 1 PMID:5867652

  8. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    Portable Exhauster POR-008 was procured via HNF-0490, Specification for a Portable Exhausted System for Waste Tank Ventilation. Prior to taking ownership, acceptance testing was performed at the vendors. However at the conclusion of testing a number of issues remained that required resolution before the exhausters could be used by Project W-320. The purpose of acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-O49O, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  9. Multilaboratory Evaluation of In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Dermatophytes for ME1111.

    PubMed

    Ghannoum, M; Chaturvedi, V; Diekema, D; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L; Rennie, R; Walsh, T; Wengenack, N; Fothergill, A; Wiederhold, N

    2016-03-01

    ME1111 is a novel small molecule antifungal agent under development for the topical treatment of onychomycosis. Standardization of the susceptibility testing method for this candidate antifungal is needed. Toward this end, 8 independent laboratories determined the interlaboratory reproducibility of ME1111 susceptibility testing. In addition, we subsequently identified 2 strains as quality control (QC) isolates for the method. In the reproducibility study, 5 blinded clinical strains each of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum were tested, while the QC study tested 6 blinded T. rubrum or T. mentagrophytes ATCC strains. Testing was performed in frozen microtiter panels according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 methodology. In the reproducibility study, 9 of 15 clinical strains showed interlaboratory agreement of >90% at the 80% inhibition endpoint, with a range of agreement of 76.2% to 100%. In the QC study, 4 of the 6 ATCC strains showed interlaboratory agreement of >90%. ME1111 demonstrated excellent interlaboratory agreement when tested against dermatophytes. Based on this data, the CLSI Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Tests approved the susceptibility testing of ME1111 against dermatophytes according to M38-A2 methodology, which stipulates RPMI 1640 as the test medium, an inoculum size of 1 to 3 × 10(3) CFU/ml, and an incubation time and temperature of 96 h at 35°C. The MIC endpoint should be 80% inhibition compared with the growth control. T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438 and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 28185 were selected as QC isolates, with an acceptable range of 0.12 to 1 μg/ml for the two strains. PMID:26719434

  10. VDAC and the bacterial porin PorB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae share mitochondrial import pathways.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anne; Rassow, Joachim; Grimm, Jan; Machuy, Nikolaus; Meyer, Thomas F; Rudel, Thomas

    2002-04-15

    The human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae induces host cell apoptosis during infection by delivering the outer membrane protein PorB to the host cell's mitochondria. PorB is a pore-forming beta-barrel protein sharing several features with the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which is involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Here we show that PorB of pathogenic Neisseria species produced by host cells is efficiently targeted to mitochondria. Imported PorB resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane and forms multimers with similar sizes as in the outer bacterial membrane. The mitochondria completely lose their membrane potential, a characteristic previously observed in cells infected with gonococci or treated with purified PorB. Closely related bacterial porins of non-pathogenic Neisseria mucosa or Escherichia coli remain in the cytosol. Import of PorB into mitochondria in vivo is independent of a linear signal sequence. Insertion of PorB into the mitochondrial outer membrane in vitro depends on the activity of Tom5, Tom20 and Tom40, but is independent of Tom70. Our data show that human VDAC and bacterial PorB are imported into mitochondria by a similar mechanism. PMID:11953311

  11. Mechanism of Action of ME1111, a Novel Antifungal Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Takahata, Sho; Kubota, Natsuki; Takei-Masuda, Naomi; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Mari; Alshahni, Mohamed Mahdi; Abe, Shigeru; Tabata, Yuji; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2016-02-01

    Despite the existing treatment options for onychomycosis, there remains a strong demand for potent topical medications. ME1111 is a novel antifungal agent that is active against dermatophytes, has an excellent ability to penetrate human nails, and is being developed as a topical agent for onychomycosis. In the present study, we investigated its mechanism of action. Trichophyton mentagrophytes mutants with reduced susceptibility to ME1111 were selected in our laboratory, and genome sequences were determined for 3 resistant mutants. The inhibitory effect on a candidate target was evaluated by a spectrophotometric enzyme assay using mitochondrial fractions. Point mutations were introduced into candidate genes by a reverse genetics approach. Whole-genome analysis of the 3 selected mutants revealed point mutations in the structural regions of genes encoding subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (complex II). All of the laboratory-generated resistant mutants tested harbored a mutation in one of the subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (SdhB, SdhC, or SdhD). Most of the mutants showed cross-resistance to carboxin and boscalid, which are succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors. ME1111 strongly inhibited the succinate-2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol reductase reaction in Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (50% inhibitory concentrations [IC50s] of 0.029 and 0.025 μg/ml, respectively) but demonstrated only moderate inhibition of the same reaction in human cell lines. Furthermore, the target protein of ME1111 was confirmed by the introduction of point mutations causing the amino acid substitutions in SdhB, SdhC, and SdhD found in the laboratory-generated resistant mutants, which resulted in reduced susceptibility to ME1111. Thus, ME1111 is a novel inhibitor of the succinate dehydrogenase of Trichophyton species, and its mechanism of action indicates its selective profile. PMID:26596944

  12. Epidemiology of Superficial Fungal Infections in Guangdong, Southern China: A Retrospective Study from 2004 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenying; Lu, Changming; Li, Xiqing; Zhang, Junmin; Zhan, Ping; Xi, Liyan; Sun, Jiufeng; Yu, Xinbing

    2016-06-01

    Superficial fungal infections are common worldwide; however, the distribution of pathogenic species varies among geographical areas and changes over time. This study aimed to determine the epidemiologic profile of superficial fungal infections during 2004-2014 in Guangzhou, Southern China. Data regarding the superficial mycoses from outpatients and inpatients in our hospital were recorded and analyzed. From the 3367 patients that were enrolled in the study, 3385 samples were collected from skin, hair and nail lesions. Of the 697 positive cultures, dermatophytes were the most prevalent isolates (84.36 %), followed by yeasts (14.92 %) and non-dermatophyte molds (0.72 %). Trichophyton rubrum (56.24 %) was the most common dermatophyte isolated from cases of tinea unguium (83.92 %), tinea pedis (71.19 %), tinea cruris (91.66 %), tinea corporis (91.81 %) and tinea manuum (65.00 %). Trichophyton mentagrophytes (13.35 %) and Microsporum canis (10.19 %) were the predominant species associated with cases of tinea faciei (54.55 %) and tinea capitis (54.13 %), respectively. Yeasts and molds were identified primarily from other cases of superficial fungal infections. In conclusion, when compared to previous studies in the same area, the epidemiology of superficial mycoses in Guangdong did not significantly change from 2004 to 2014. The prevalence of causative agents and the spectrum of superficial fungal infections, particularly tinea caused by dermatophyte infection, are similar to reports from several specific regions in China and Europe, whereas increasing incidences of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis occurred in Guangdong, China. PMID:26883512

  13. Hemolytic activity of dermatophytes species isolated from clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Aktas, E; Yıgıt, N

    2015-03-01

    Hemolytic activity was recently reported for several pathogenic fungal species, such as Aspergillus, Candida, Trichophyton, Penicillium and Fusarium. Based on a number of mechanistic and characterization studies, several fungal hemolysins have been proposed as virulence factors. Hemolysins lyse red blood cells resulting in the release of iron, an important growth factor for microbes especially during infection. The requirement of iron in fungal growth is necessary for metabolic processes and as a catalyst for various biochemical processes. Expression of a hemolytic protein with capabilities to lyse red blood cells has also been suggested to provide a survival strategy for fungi during opportunistic infections. The aims of this study were to investigate the hemolytic activities of dermatophytes species isolated from patients with dermatophytosis. Hair, skin and nail samples of patients were examined with direct microscopy using potassium hydroxide and cultivated on Mycobiotic agar and Sabouraud's dextrose agar. To determine hemolytic activities of dermatophytes species, they were subcultured on Columbia Agar with 5% sheep blood and incubated for 7-14 days at 25°C in aerobic conditions. Media which displayed hemolysis were further incubated for 1-5 days at 37°C to increase hemolytic activity. In this study, 66 dermatophytes strains were isolated from clinical specimens and were identified by six different species: 43 (65.1%) Trichophyton rubrum, 7 (10.7%) Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 5 (7.6%) Microsporum canis, 5 (7.6%) Trichophyton tonsurans, 4 (6.0%) Epidermophyton floccosum and 2 (3.0%) Trichophyton violaceum. Twenty-one T. rubrum strains showed incomplete (alpha) hemolysis and nine T. rubrum strains showed complete (beta) hemolysis, whereas hemolysis was absent in 13 T. rubrum strains. Four T. mentagrophytes strains showed complete hemolysis and three T. tonsurans strains showed incomplete hemolysis. However, M. canis, E. floccosum and T. violaceum species had

  14. Detection of dermatophytes in human nail and skin dust produced during podiatric treatments in people without typical clinical signs of mycoses.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Danuta; Nawrot, Urszula; Włodarczyk, Katarzyna; Pajączkowska, Magdalena; Patrzałek, Anna; Pęcak, Anna; Mozdyniewicz, Paulina; Fleischer, Małgorzata

    2016-06-01

    Pedicures are the most common cosmetic foot treatment. Many pedicurists and podiatrists suffer from respiratory infections and diseases such as asthma, sinusitis, chronic cough and bronchitis. Skin and nail dust may play an important role in the development of occupational diseases and the transmission of mycosis to other clients. To examine the presence of dermatophytes in nail and skin dust produced during podiatric treatments of people without typical symptoms of mycosis and to assess the epidemiological hazards of tinea pedis for podiatrists as well as other clients. Seventy-seven samples underwent direct microscopy and culture. The results of direct microscopy were positive in 28/77 samples (36.36%) and doubtful in 3/77 (3.9%). Fungi were cultured from 36/77 samples (46.75%), including 8/77 (10.3%) positive for dermatophytes (Trichophyton rubrum-6 isolates and Trichophyton mentagrophytes-2). Material collected during podiatric treatments is potentially infected by pathogenic fungi; thus, there is a need to protect both workers who perform such treatments, as well as other clients, to prevent the transmission of pathogens in the Salon environment. Exposure to this occupational hazard may increase not only the risk of respiratory infections but also increase asthmatic or allergic reactions to Trichophyton. PMID:26931181

  15. Interdigital foot infections: Corynebacterium minutissimum and agents of superficial mycoses

    PubMed Central

    Sariguzel, Fatma Mutlu; Koc, A. Nedret; Yagmur, Gülhan; Berk, Elife

    2014-01-01

    Interdigital foot infections are mostly caused initially by dermatophytes, yeasts and less frequently by bacteria. Erythrasma caused by Corynebacterium minutissimum can be confused with superficial mycoses. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of the etiologic agents of superficial mycoses and the frequency of Corynebacterium minutissimum in interdigital foot infections. All the samples obtained from the 121 patients with interdigital foot infections were examined directly with the use of 20% potassium hydroxide mounts and Gram stain under the microscope and cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar plates. In identification of superficial mycoses, the rate was found to be 14% with the cultural method and 14% with direct microscopic examination. Using a combination of direct microscopic examination and culture, a 33.8% ratio was achieved. In the culture of these samples, the most isolated factor was Trichophyton rubrum (33.7%). In 24 of the patients (19.8%) Corynebacterium minutissimum was detected by Gram staining, in 6 of these patients Trichophyton rubrum was found, Trichophyton mentagrophytes was found in 2 and Trichosporon spp. was found in 1. The examination of interdigital foot lesions in the laboratory, the coexistence of erythrasma with dermatophytes and yeast should be considered. PMID:25477907

  16. Interdigital foot infections: Corynebacterium minutissimum and agents of superficial mycoses.

    PubMed

    Sariguzel, Fatma Mutlu; Koc, A Nedret; Yagmur, Gülhan; Berk, Elife

    2014-01-01

    Interdigital foot infections are mostly caused initially by dermatophytes, yeasts and less frequently by bacteria. Erythrasma caused by Corynebacterium minutissimum can be confused with superficial mycoses. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of the etiologic agents of superficial mycoses and the frequency of Corynebacterium minutissimum in interdigital foot infections. All the samples obtained from the 121 patients with interdigital foot infections were examined directly with the use of 20% potassium hydroxide mounts and Gram stain under the microscope and cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar plates. In identification of superficial mycoses, the rate was found to be 14% with the cultural method and 14% with direct microscopic examination. Using a combination of direct microscopic examination and culture, a 33.8% ratio was achieved. In the culture of these samples, the most isolated factor was Trichophyton rubrum (33.7%). In 24 of the patients (19.8%) Corynebacterium minutissimum was detected by Gram staining, in 6 of these patients Trichophyton rubrum was found, Trichophyton mentagrophytes was found in 2 and Trichosporon spp. was found in 1. The examination of interdigital foot lesions in the laboratory, the coexistence of erythrasma with dermatophytes and yeast should be considered. PMID:25477907

  17. Prevalence of Fungal Skin Infections in Iranian Wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Razaghi, Alireza; Noori, Adel; Hashemi, Sayed-Jamal; Asghari, Rajab; Ziaee, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Fungal infections are one of the most common skin infections. Athletes, especially in contact sports such as wrestlers are the group at risk of fungal skin infections (FSI). The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of FSI and some effective factors in wrestlers in Tehran, Iran. Methods This study was a cross-sectional descriptive study which was conducted in 2009 and subjects were wrestlers of wrestling clubs of Tehran, Iran. In this study the prevalence of FSI and its related factors was collected based on clinical history, physical examination and laboratory tests. We also determined the rate of dermatophytic contamination of wrestling mats. The relationship between independent variables and incidence of fungal infection analyzed by Chi square test and regression analysis. Results In this study, out of 454 wrestlers, 111 (24.5%) subjects had suspicious fungal skin lesions on physical examination. The Prevalence of FSI was 8.2% in all of the wrestlers (34.2% of the wrestlers with suspicious lesion). Malassezia furfur (50%) and trichophyton tonsurans (30%) were the most common causative agents. Epidermophyton floccosum (7.5%), Trichophyton rubrum (5%), Candida albicans (5%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (2.5%) were other isolated fungi. Eleven wrestling mats (44%) were contaminated with different fungal organisms. Conclusion The prevalence of fungal skin infection in Iranian wrestlers is relatively high. Appropriate preventive measures need to be prepared and implemented to reduce incidence of FSI in wrestlers. PMID:23785573

  18. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and chemical characterization of essential oils of Thymusvulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Origanum majorana from northeastern México.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Boone, Laura; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Torres-Cirio, Anabel; Rivas-Galindo, Verónica Mayela; de-Torres, Noemí Waksman; González, Gloria; Pérez-López, Luis Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    There have been no reports of antifungal activity and composition of extracts from Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis or Origanum majorana from northeastern México. Antifungal activity of these oils against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum was measured by diffusion assay. Additionally, antibacterial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes was examined by microdilution. Antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracil reduction test. The plant oils were characterized by both GC/MS and GC/FID. Oils of T. vulgaris and O. majorana showed growth inhibition activity against dermatophytes, especially T. vulgaris oil, which completely inhibited growth of all tested dermatophytes. The oils also showed bioactivity against bacteria, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values between 62.5 and 500 μg/mL. The antioxidant activity of the oils was low, with effective concentration (EC50) values <250μg/mL. The major components in the oils were as follows: T. vulgaris, o-cymene, μ-terpinene, thymol and carvacrol; R. officinalis, terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole; O. majorana, terpinen-4-ol and thymol. PMID:25631514

  19. The epidemiology and mating behavior of Arthroderma benhamiae var. erinacei in household four-toed hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoko; Sano, Ayako; Takizawa, Kayoko; Fukushima, Kazutaka; Miyaji, Makoto; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiological survey of Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei in the household hedgehog and other rodents was made between January 17, 2002 and February 28, 2002 in Japan. Quills and hairs were collected from sources identified via the internet. The fungus was isolated only from the quills of four-toed hedgehogs (7/18; 39%) from Kanto to Kyushu regions. Isolates were examined morphologically, physiologically and genetically, and identified as T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei anamorph. The isolates were also genetically compared with European hedgehog (Erinaceus europeus)-borne T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei and Kenyan hedgehog (Aterelix albiventris)-borne Arthroderma benhamiae, and their genotypes of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA were all identical. The isolates were crossed with A. benhamiae Americano-European race and African race, A. vanbreuseghemii and A. simii, with the result that they mated only with African race (+) or (-). Mating types of the isolates were (+) in 6 isolates and (-) in one. An intra-isolate mating between one of the 6 plus isolates and the minus one formed abundant mature gymnothesia, the mating type ratio of the F1 progeny was approximately 1:1, and the sib crossings of F1 progeny produced abundant fertile gymnothesia. The present study revealed that the intra-Japanese hedgehog-borne isolate crossing showed complete fertility and that the sexual degeneration pointed out by Takashio (Mycologia 71: 968-976, 1979) did not exist. Two pairs of mating, (+) and (-) mating types of Japanese isolates with (-) and (+) tester strains of A. benhamiae African race formed less gymnothesia, mating type ratios were unbalanced, and sib crossings of F1 progeny produced small gymnothesia containing a low number of asci, pseudogymothesia, or none, respectively. These results show that A. benhamiae var. erinacei, the teleomorph of T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei, belongs to a different mating group (e.g. hedgehog race) than the Americano-European and

  20. Successful Mnemonics for "por"/"para" and Affirmative Commands with Pronouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Two mnemonic devices, "4A Rule" and "PERFECT," are described to simplify the learning of two grammar points: the placement of object pronouns with respect to commands and the distinction between "por" and "para." (five references) (LB)

  1. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Zoe A; Seviour, Robert J; Tucci, Joseph; Petrovski, Steve

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  2. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Zoe A.; Seviour, Robert J.; Tucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  3. Crystallographic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis PorB extracellular loops potentially implicated in TLR2 recognition.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Christof; Toussi, Deana N; Zaucha, Jan; Wetzler, Lee M; Rüppel, Nadine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2014-03-01

    Among all Neisseriae species, Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the only human pathogens, causative agents of bacterial meningitis and gonorrhoea, respectively. PorB, a pan-Neisseriae trimeric porin that mediates diffusive transport of essential molecules across the bacterial outer membrane, is also known to activate host innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling. The molecular mechanism of PorB binding to TLR2 is not known, but it has been hypothesized that electrostatic interactions contribute to ligand/receptor binding. Strain-specific sequence variability in the surface-exposed loops of PorB which are potentially implicated in TLR2 binding, may explain the difference in TLR2-mediated cell activation in vitro by PorB homologs from the commensal Neisseriae lactamica and the pathogen N. meningitidis. Here, we report a comparative structural analysis of PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup B strain 8765 (63% sequence homology with PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup W135) and a mutant in which amino acid substitutions in the extracellular loop 7 lead to significantly reduced TLR2-dependent activity in vitro. We observe that this mutation both alters the loop conformation and causes dramatic changes of electrostatic surface charge, both of which may affect TLR2 recognition and signaling. PMID:24361688

  4. Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T.M.

    2010-06-25

    PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP-PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction.

  5. Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 Å resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP–PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction. PMID:20351243

  6. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kaelynn

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  7. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Benítez, J F; Blomström, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge. PMID:26728078

  8. Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

  9. Gliding Motility and Por Secretion System Genes Are Widespread among Members of the Phylum Bacteroidetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yongtao

    2013-01-01

    The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, “Gramella forsetii,” Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility. PMID:23123910

  10. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  11. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  12. An Analysis of Interlanguage Development Over Time: Part 1, "por" and "para".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntermann, Gail

    1992-01-01

    The first part of a larger planned investigation, this study examines the use of "por" and "para" by nine Peace Corps volunteers in oral interviews at the end of training and roughly one year later, to trace their acquisition over time, in two learning contexts. (24 references) (LB)

  13. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were as substitutions for other prepositions…

  14. The porA gene in serogroup A meningococci: evolutionary stability and mechanism of genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Suker, J; Feavers, I M; Achtman, M; Morelli, G; Wang, J F; Maiden, M C

    1994-04-01

    Molecular analyses were applied to the genes encoding variants of the serosubtyping antigen, the class 1 outer membrane protein (PorA), from 55 serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis strains. These genes were evolutionarily stable and exhibited a limited range of genetic variation, primarily generated by recombination. Translation of the gene sequences revealed a total of 19 distinct amino acid sequences in the variable regions of the protein, 6 of which were not recognized by currently available serosubtyping monoclonal antibodies. Knowledge of these amino acid sequences permitted a rational re-assignment of serosubtype names. Comparison of the complete genes with porA gene sequences from serogroup B and C meningococci showed that serogroup A possessed a limited number of the possible porA genes from a globally distributed gene pool. Each serogroup A subgroup was characterized by one of four porA gene types, probably acquired upon subgroup divergence, which was stable over periods of decades and during epidemiological spread. Comparison with other variable genes (pil and iga) indicated that the three alleles were independently assorted within the subgroup, suggesting that their gene types were older than the subgroups in which they occurred. PMID:8057850

  15. Informe a la Nación de mortalidad por cáncer sigue bajando

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, de 1975 a 2009, indica que los índices generales de mortalidad por cáncer siguen bajando en los Estados Unidos en hombres y mujeres, entre todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales y para todo

  16. 18S rDNA polymerase chain reaction and sequencing in onychomycosis diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Walberg, Mette; Mørk, Cato; Sandven, Per; Jorde, Anne Tomine; Bjørås, Magnar; Gaustad, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Diagnostic approaches to onychomycosis have traditionally been based on a combination of culture and microscopy. In the present study clinical specimens from 346 patients with suspected onychomycosis were analysed by 18S polymerase chain reaction (detection) followed by sequencing and subsequent database search (identification) in parallel with routine culture on agar (detection and identification). In 49 samples Trichophyton rubrum was identified by culture and sequencing. In 67 additional culture negative samples, a positive dermatophyte sequence was obtained (T. rubrum in 54, T. mentagrophytes in 5, and T. species in 8 samples). Fifteen samples cultured positive while no sequence was obtained. Two hundred and seven samples were negative by culture as well as by sequencing. Nails from 10 healthy controls were negative by culture and sequencing. In conclusion, the number of specimens that were positive by polymerase chain reaction was more than double the number that were positive by culture alone. PMID:16710579

  17. Antifungal Activity of Luliconazole Nail Solution on in vitro and in vivo Onychomycosis Model.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Nami; Kubota, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated luliconazole nail solution, originally generated formulation, for the topical treatment of onychomycosis by two infection models. First, a suspension of Trichophyton mentagrophytes was dropped onto the ventral layer of human nail plate and these nails were set in Franz diffusion cells. After 9-day culture, luliconazole nail solutions (1, 3, and 5%) were applied to the dorsal surface of the nails once a day for 7 days. After application, fungal viability was assessed by measuring the ATP contents of the samples. The dose-dependent efficacy was confirmed, with 3% and 5% luliconazole nail solutions producing significantly lower ATP levels at 7-day treatment. When 3% and 5% luliconazole nail solutions were evaluated in a rabbit model of onychomycosis, both concentrations completely inhibited the recovery of fungi on culture after 4-week treatment. We therefore think these results indicate that 5% luliconazole nail solution is sufficiently potent for treatment of onychomycosis. PMID:26936347

  18. Tinea profunda of the genital area. Successful treatment of a rare skin disease.

    PubMed

    Bakardzhiev, Ilko; Chokoeva, Anastasiya; Tchernev, Georgi; Wollina, Uwe; Lotti, Torello

    2016-05-01

    We present a rare case of 36-year-old female patient, who developed a severe Majocchi granuloma in the pubis after waxing, with isolated causative agent Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The condition was initially misdiagnosed as a bacterial folliculitis and treated unsuccessfully with topical corticosteroids and antibiotics. After the adequate diagnose was confirmed by mycological examination, followed by histopathological verification, complete remission of the symptoms was achieved at the 4th week after initiating 6 weeks course of antifungal therapy with Terbinafine 250 mg/daily dose, while good therapeutic response was observed even in the 10th day. The etiopathogenesis of the disease, as well as its current treatment options are considered, in respect to the rare occurrence of this condition in the pubic area and its frequent misdiagnosis. PMID:26555874

  19. In vitro antagonistic activity of monoterpenes and their mixtures against 'toe nail fungus' pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ramsewak, Russel S; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Stommel, Manfred; Selanders, Louise

    2003-04-01

    The antibiotic effect of the active ingredients in Meijer medicated chest rub (eucalyptus oil, camphor and menthol) as well as the inactive ingredients (thymol, oil of turpentine, oil of nutmeg and oil of cedar leaf) were studied in vitro using the fungal pathogens responsible for onychomycosis, such as the dermatophytes Tricophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton fl occosum and Epidermophyton stockdale. The zones of inhibition data revealed that camphor (1). menthol (2). thymol (3). and oil of Eucalyptus citriodora were the most efficacious components against the test organisms. The MIC(100) for mixtures of these four components in various carrier solvents revealed that formulations consisting of 5 mg/mL concentrations of each have a potential to be efffective in controlling onychomycosis. PMID:12722144

  20. Acetoxychavicol Acetate, an Antifungal Component of Alpinia galanga1.

    PubMed

    Janssen, A M; Scheffer, J J

    1985-12-01

    The essential oils from fresh and dried rhizomes of ALPINIA GALANGA showed an antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, a yeast and some dermatophytes, using the agar overlay technique. The main components of the oils were also tested and terpinen-4-ol was found most active. An N-pentane/diethyl ether extract of dried rhizomes was active against TRICHOPHYTON MENTAGROPHYTES. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate, 1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate and 1'-hydroxychavicol acetate identified by MS and NMR were found in the antifungally active fractions obtained by LSC. Acetoxychavicol acetate was active against the seven fungi tested and its MIC value for dermatophytes ranged from 50 to 250 microg/ml. Dried sliced rhizomes contained 1.5% of this compound. The compound was not found in rhizomes of ALPINIA OFFICINARUM, ZINGIBER OFFICINALE and KAEMPFERIA GALANGA. PMID:17345272

  1. Preliminary studies of the antifungal activities of some medicinal plants against Basidiobolus and some other pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Nwosu, M O; Okafor, J I

    1995-01-01

    The antifungal activities of extracts of 10 medicinal plants collected from south-eastern parts of Nigeria were tested against seven pathogenic fungi using the broth dilution and agar plate methods. All the extracts at 1:10 dilution inhibited the growth of Basidiobolus haptosporus and B. ranarum but did not inhibit that of Aspergillus fumigatus, Geotrichum candidum and Candida albicans. While extracts from Piper guineense, Ocimum gratissimum, Moringa oleifera and Erythrophleum suaveolens inhibited the growth of Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes, those from Fatropha curcas, Mitracarpus villosus, Azadirachta indica and Gongronema latifolium failed to do so at 1:10 dilution. Extract from Piper sp. was also able to inhibit the growth of B. haptosporus at a concentration as low as 1:80 dilution followed by those of Ocimum and Rauvolfia spp. at 1:40 dilution. These results indicate possible use of certain plant extracts in the treatment of subcutaneous phycomycosis in humans and animals. PMID:8531930

  2. Evaluation of topical antifungal products in an in vitro onychomycosis model.

    PubMed

    Sleven, Reindert; Lanckacker, Ellen; Delputte, Peter; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Many topical commercial products are currently available for the treatment of onychomycosis. However, limited data are available concerning their antifungal activity. Using an in vitro onychomycosis model, the daily application of seven nail formulations was compared to the antifungal reference drug amorolfine (Loceryl(®) ) and evaluated for inhibitory activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes using an agar diffusion test. Of all commercial nail formulations, only Excilor(®) and Nailner(®) demonstrated inhibitory activity, which was much lower compared to the daily application of Loceryl(®) . However, Excilor(®) showed similar efficacy compared to the conventional weekly application of Loceryl(®) . These results suggest a role for organic acids in the antifungal effect of Excilor(®) (acetic acid, ethyl lactate) and Nailner(®) (lactic acid, citric acid, ethyl lactate) as all tested formulations without organic acids were inactive. PMID:26857689

  3. Novel triazole alcohol antifungals derived from fluconazole: design, synthesis, and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Seyedeh Mahdieh; Badali, Hamid; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Samadi, Nasrin; Afsarian, Mohammad Hosein; Irannejad, Hamid; Emami, Saeed

    2015-02-01

    A series of new triazole alcohol antifungals were designed by replacing one of the triazolyl moiety from fluconazole with a distinct 4-amino-3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole motif, which is found in some antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing of target compounds demonstrated that the direct analogs of fluconazole (difluorophenethyl-triazoles) were less active against fungi, while compound 10h containing dichloro substitutions on both phenyl rings of the molecule had potent activity against yeasts including Candida albicans (four strains) and Cryptococcus neoformans (MICs = 2-8 μg/mL). Also, compound 10h was active against Candida parapsilosis, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, while it showed no activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Finally, a molecular docking study suggested that compound 10h interacts suitably with lanosterol 14α-demethylase, which is the key enzyme in ergosterol biosynthesis. PMID:25182365

  4. The low keratin affinity of efinaconazole contributes to its nail penetration and fungicidal activity in topical onychomycosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Keita; Sugimoto, Noriaki; Hosaka, Shinya; Katafuchi-Nagashima, Maria; Arakawa, Yoshio; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Jo Siu, William; Pillai, Radhakrishnan

    2014-07-01

    Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail disease that is difficult to treat topically due to the deep location of the infection under the densely keratinized nail plate. Keratin affinity of topical drugs is an important physicochemical property impacting therapeutic efficacy. To be effective, topical drugs must penetrate the nail bed and retain their antifungal activity within the nail matrix, both of which are adversely affected by keratin binding. We investigated these properties for efinaconazole, a new topical antifungal for onychomycosis, compared with those of the existing topical drugs ciclopirox and amorolfine. The efinaconazole free-drug concentration in keratin suspensions was 14.3%, significantly higher than the concentrations of ciclopirox and amorolfine, which were 0.7% and 1.9%, respectively (P < 0.001). Efinaconazole was released from keratin at a higher proportion than in the reference drugs, with about half of the remaining keratin-bound efinaconazole removed after washing. In single-dose in vitro studies, efinaconazole penetrated full-thickness human nails into the receptor phase and also inhibited the growth of Trichophyton rubrum under the nail. In the presence of keratin, efinaconazole exhibited fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes comparable to that of amorolfine and superior to that of ciclopirox. In a guinea pig onychomycosis model with T. mentagrophytes infection, an efinaconazole solution significantly decreased nail fungal burden compared to that of ciclopirox and amorolfine lacquers (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the high nail permeability of efinaconazole and its potent fungicidal activity in the presence of keratin are related to its low keratin affinity, which may contribute to its efficacy in onychomycosis. PMID:24752277

  5. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of KP-103, a Novel Triazole Derivative, and Its Therapeutic Efficacy against Experimental Plantar Tinea Pedis and Cutaneous Candidiasis in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Yokoo, Mamoru; Arika, Tadashi; Yamaguchi, Hideyo

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro activity of KP-103, a novel triazole derivative, against pathogenic fungi that cause dermatomycoses and its therapeutic efficacy against plantar tinea pedis and cutaneous candidiasis in guinea pigs were investigated. MICs were determined by a broth microdilution method with morpholinepropanesulfonic acid-buffered RPMI 1640 medium for Candida species and with Sabouraud dextrose broth for dermatophytes and by an agar dilution method with medium C for Malassezia furfur. KP-103 was the most active of all the drugs tested against Candida albicans (geometric mean [GM] MIC, 0.002 μg/ml), other Candida species including Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata (GM MICs, 0.0039 to 0.0442 μg/ml), and M. furfur (GM MIC, 0.025 μg/ml). KP-103 (1% solution) was highly effective as a treatment for guinea pigs with cutaneous candidiasis and achieved mycological eradication in 8 of the 10 infected animals, whereas none of the imidazoles tested (1% solutions) was effective in even reducing the levels of the infecting fungi. KP-103 was as active as clotrimazole and neticonazole but was less active than lanoconazole and butenafine against Trichophyton rubrum (MIC at which 80% of isolates are inhibited [MIC80], 0.125 μg/ml) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (MIC80, 0.25 μg/ml). However, KP-103 (1% solution) exerted therapeutic efficacy superior to that of neticonazole and comparable to those of lanoconazole and butenafine, yielding negative cultures for all samples from guinea pigs with plantar tinea pedis tested. This suggests that KP-103 has better pharmacokinetic properties in skin tissue than the reference drugs. Because the in vitro activity of KP-103, unlike those of the reference drugs, against T. mentagrophytes was not affected by hair as a keratinic substance, its excellent therapeutic efficacy seems to be attributable to good retention of its antifungal activity in skin tissue, in addition to its potency. PMID:11302816

  6. In vitro antifungal activity of KP-103, a novel triazole derivative, and its therapeutic efficacy against experimental plantar tinea pedis and cutaneous candidiasis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Y; Yokoo, M; Arika, T; Yamaguchi, H

    2001-05-01

    The in vitro activity of KP-103, a novel triazole derivative, against pathogenic fungi that cause dermatomycoses and its therapeutic efficacy against plantar tinea pedis and cutaneous candidiasis in guinea pigs were investigated. MICs were determined by a broth microdilution method with morpholinepropanesulfonic acid-buffered RPMI 1640 medium for Candida species and with Sabouraud dextrose broth for dermatophytes and by an agar dilution method with medium C for Malassezia furfur. KP-103 was the most active of all the drugs tested against Candida albicans (geometric mean [GM] MIC, 0.002 microg/ml), other Candida species including Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata (GM MICs, 0.0039 to 0.0442 microg/ml), and M. furfur (GM MIC, 0.025 microg/ml). KP-103 (1% solution) was highly effective as a treatment for guinea pigs with cutaneous candidiasis and achieved mycological eradication in 8 of the 10 infected animals, whereas none of the imidazoles tested (1% solutions) was effective in even reducing the levels of the infecting fungi. KP-103 was as active as clotrimazole and neticonazole but was less active than lanoconazole and butenafine against Trichophyton rubrum (MIC at which 80% of isolates are inhibited [MIC(80)], 0.125 microg/ml) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (MIC(80), 0.25 microg/ml). However, KP-103 (1% solution) exerted therapeutic efficacy superior to that of neticonazole and comparable to those of lanoconazole and butenafine, yielding negative cultures for all samples from guinea pigs with plantar tinea pedis tested. This suggests that KP-103 has better pharmacokinetic properties in skin tissue than the reference drugs. Because the in vitro activity of KP-103, unlike those of the reference drugs, against T. mentagrophytes was not affected by hair as a keratinic substance, its excellent therapeutic efficacy seems to be attributable to good retention of its antifungal activity in skin tissue, in addition to its potency. PMID:11302816

  7. Butenafine.

    PubMed

    McNeely, W; Spencer, C M

    1998-03-01

    Butenafine is a new antifungal agent with primary fungicidal activity against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum which cause tinea infections. 14C-labelled butenafine (approximately 30 micrograms/g tissue) was found within guinea-pig dorsal skin 24 hours after topical application. Most of the drug was distributed into the epidermis including the horny layer. Small amounts were found in the dermis, probably transported via sebaceous glands and hair follicles. In vitro, the minimum concentration that completely inhibited growth of dermatophytes (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) for butenafine against T. mentagrophytes and M. canis were similar (0.012 to 0.05 mg/L) and were 4 to 130 times lower than those for naftifine, tolnaftate, clotrimazole and bifonazole. It also has greater activity against T. rubrum, M. gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum when compared with naftifine, tolnaftate and clotrimazole; comparisons with bifonazole against these strains were not available. Assessment after 1 week's treatment in patients with tinea pedis revealed that mycological cure rates were greater in those who received twice-daily butenafine for 1 week or once-daily butenafine for 4 weeks than in placebo recipients. Mycological and overall cure rates were either further increased or maintained up to 5 weeks after treatment cessation compared with end-of-treatment values. In patients with tinea cruris or tinea corporis who received once-daily butenafine 1% for 2 weeks, the mycological and overall cure rates continued to increase for up to 4 weeks after treatment cessation. PMID:9530545

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Tinea Unguium and Tinea Pedis in the General Population in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Perea, Sofia; Ramos, Maria Jose; Garau, Margarita; Gonzalez, Alba; Noriega, Antonio R.; del Palacio, Amalia

    2000-01-01

    This study prospectively evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of tinea unguium and tinea pedis in the general adult population in Madrid, Spain. One thousand subjects were clinically examined, and samples of nails and scales from the interdigital spaces of the feet were taken from those patients presenting with signs or symptoms of onychomycosis and/or tinea pedis, respectively. In addition, a sample from the fourth interdigital space of both feet was collected from all individuals with a piece of sterilized wool carpet. Tinea unguium was defined as a positive direct examination with potassium hydroxide and culture of the etiological agent from subjects with clinically abnormal nails. Patients with positive dermatophyte cultures of foot specimens were considered to have tinea pedis. The prevalence of tinea unguium was 2.8% (4.0% for men and 1.7% for women), and the prevalence of tinea pedis was 2.9% (4.2% for men and 1.7% for women). The etiological agents of tinea unguium were identified as Trichopyton rubrum (82.1%), followed by Trichopyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (14.3%) and Trichopyton tonsurans (3.5%). Trichophyton rubrum (44.8%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (44.8%), followed by Epidermophyton floccosum (7%) and T. tonsurans (3.4%), were the organisms isolated from patients with tinea pedis. The percentage of subjects who suffered simultaneously from both diseases was 1.1% (1.7% for men and 0.6% for women). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, age (relative risk [RR], 1.03) and gender (RR, 2.50) were independent risk factors for tinea unguium, while only gender (RR, 2.65) was predictive for the occurrence of tinea pedis. In both analyses, the presence of one of the two conditions was associated with a higher risk for the appearance of the other disease (RR, >25). PMID:10970362

  9. Potent In Vitro Antifungal Activities of Naturally Occurring Acetylenic Acids▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xing-Cong; Jacob, Melissa R.; Khan, Shabana I.; Ashfaq, M. Khalid; Babu, K. Suresh; Agarwal, Ameeta K.; ElSohly, Hala N.; Manly, Susan P.; Clark, Alice M.

    2008-01-01

    Our continuing effort in antifungal natural product discovery has led to the identification of five 6-acetylenic acids with chain lengths from C16 to C20: 6-hexadecynoic acid (compound 1), 6-heptadecynoic acid (compound 2), 6-octadecynoic acid (compound 3), 6-nonadecynoic acid (compound 4), and 6-icosynoic acid (compound 5) from the plant Sommera sabiceoides. Compounds 2 and 5 represent newly isolated fatty acids. The five acetylenic acids were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activities against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum by comparison with the positive control drugs amphotericin B, fluconazole, ketoconazole, caspofungin, terbinafine, and undecylenic acid. The compounds showed various degrees of antifungal activity against the 21 tested strains. Compound 4 was the most active, in particular against the dermatophytes T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum and the opportunistic pathogens C. albicans and A. fumigatus, with MICs comparable to several control drugs. Inclusion of two commercially available acetylenic acids, 9-octadecynoic acid (compound 6) and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (compound 7), in the in vitro antifungal testing further demonstrated that the antifungal activities of the acetylenic acids were associated with their chain lengths and positional triple bonds. In vitro toxicity testing against mammalian cell lines indicated that compounds 1 to 5 were not toxic at concentrations up to 32 μM. Furthermore, compounds 3 and 4 did not produce obvious toxic effects in mice at a dose of 34 μmol/kg of body weight when administered intraperitoneally. Taking into account the low in vitro and in vivo toxicities and significant antifungal potencies, these 6-acetylenic acids may be excellent leads for further preclinical studies. PMID:18458131

  10. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.