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Sample records for por trichophyton mentagrophytes

  1. Tinea incognito due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Castellanos, María Elena; Mayorga-Rodríguez, Jorge Arturo; Sandoval-Tress, Cecilia; Hernández-Torres, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    Tinea incognito is a ringworm infection modified by corticosteroids. We report a case of a 2-year-old girl who developed tinea incognito due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes after applying methylprednisolone aceponate for 3 months. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic and mycological examination, which led to the identification of Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes, a zoophilic dermatophyte. Previous corticosteroid use in dermatophyte infections can alter their clinical appearance leading to misdiagnosis and delay in appropriate therapy. PMID:17302756

  2. Differentiation between Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum by sorbitol assimilation.

    PubMed Central

    Rezusta, A; Rubio, M C; Alejandre, M C

    1991-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum was easily differentiated from T. mentagrophytes by its ability to assimilate sorbitol with an API 20C AUX strip. One hundred percent of 36 T. rubrum strains and none of 147 T. mentagrophytes strains assimilated sorbitol. PMID:1993760

  3. Majocchi's granuloma of the vulva caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    PubMed

    Chang, S E; Lee, D K; Choi, J H; Moon, K C; Koh, J K

    2005-11-01

    We report a case of Majocchi's granuloma caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes on the vulva in a 23-year-old girl who had used topical steroids for many years. Her dog was a source of the infection. PMID:16262873

  4. Trichophyton mentagrophytes cause underestimated contagious zoophilic fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Czaika, Viktor Alexander; Lam, Phi-Anh

    2013-05-01

    Trichophytia infection, paraphrased cuddly toy mycosis, occurs primarily in prepubertal children, occasionally in infants and adults. The presented case shows the highly contagious infection of four family members with Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Effective treatment requires detailed diagnostic: identifying the dermatophyte, finding the infection source, treating the infection carriers. Tinea must be treated systemically and topically because of infectivity and ignitability. Systemic terbinafine or fluconazole treatment and topical fixed combination isoconazole nitrate/diflucortolone valerate are recommended. PMID:23574024

  5. Historic topics on classification of Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex.

    PubMed

    Kano, Rui; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    D. Gruby (1842-1844) detected the fungus in tinea as a causative agent and C.P. Robin (1853) described Microsporum mentagrophytes that was transferred to Trichophyton by Blanchard (1896). Sabouraud (1910) established a group of ectothrix microïde which was divided into gypseum type (6 species: T. asteroids, T. granulosum, T. lacticolor and 3 species) and niveum type (T. radians and T. denticulatum). Thereafter, Epidermophyton simii Pinoy, 1912 and T. interdigitale Priestly, 1917 were reported. These species were classified as T. mentagrophytes by C.W. Emmons (1934 and 1940). Arthroderma simii Stockdale et al., 1965, A. benhamiae, Ajello and Cheng, 1967 and A. vanbreuseghemii Takashio, 1973 were discovered as teleomorphs of T. simii, T. mentagrophytes var. granulosum and T. mentagrophytes (mainly granulosum-asteroides form), respectively. Makimura et al., (1998) reported phylogenetic classification of T. mentagrophytes complex strains based on DNA sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) regions, indicating that A. vanbreuseghemii and T. interdigitale belong to the same clade that was later named T. interdigatale by Gräser et al.(1999). This naming has confused medical and veterinary doctors since anthropophilic isolates (T. interdigitale) and zoophilic isolates (A. vanbreuseghemii) were included as the same species. PMID:24943211

  6. Improved procedures for differentiating Microsporum persicolor from Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    PubMed Central

    Kane, J; Sigler, L; Summerbell, R C

    1987-01-01

    Microsporum persicolor, a zoophilic dermatophyte species, is seldom recorded causing human infections in North America. Its identification has been enhanced as a direct result of the development of improved techniques for its characterization. Identifying characteristics include induction of rough-walled macroconidia on sodium chloride-amended medium, absence of good growth at 37 degrees C, and absence of a pH change during growth on casein glucose medium. In contrast, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, a species commonly confused with M. persicolor, has smooth-walled macroconidia, grows well at 37 degrees C, and produces an alkaline reaction on casein glucose medium. Images PMID:3429639

  7. Xanthomegnin detection does not discriminate between Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complexes.

    PubMed

    Kandemir, Hazal; Ilkit, Macit; Çürük, Akif

    2015-04-01

    Here, we aimed to discriminate the Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complexes, via detection of xanthomegnin using HPLC. We concluded that it is not a reliable technique for discriminating the two complexes, because strains belonging to both T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complexes displayed xanthomegnin activity. PMID:25702626

  8. Tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a 20-day-old neonate.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Sita; Malhotra, Suresh Kumar; Aggarwal, Yukti

    2015-12-01

    Although candidiasis in newborns is not uncommon, superficial dermatophyte infections of infants is quite rare. The causative agents of neonatal tinea reported in various case studies have been Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, and Trichophyton violaceum. To the best of our knowledge, no case report of neonatal tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes has been reported earlier. PMID:26904450

  9. Tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a 20-day-old neonate

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Sita; Malhotra, Suresh Kumar; Aggarwal, Yukti

    2015-01-01

    Although candidiasis in newborns is not uncommon, superficial dermatophyte infections of infants is quite rare. The causative agents of neonatal tinea reported in various case studies have been Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, and Trichophyton violaceum. To the best of our knowledge, no case report of neonatal tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes has been reported earlier. PMID:26904450

  10. [Degradation of human hair in vitro by Trichophyton mentagrophytes].

    PubMed

    Guarro, J; Figueras, J; Cano, J

    1988-02-01

    The degradation "in vitro" of human hair, invaded by the dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes was studied by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The digestion of the hair started as well in the cuticle as in the cortex, in the regions with low content of keratin, especially in the intercellular spaces. The exocuticle and epicuticle were the most resistant parts of the cuticle in fungal degradation, due to its high content in cystine. In the cortex the macrofibrils were first separated from each other and later attacked on the surface and the interior, arriving to be almost completely degraded. At the end only pigmented granules and rests of membranes could be observed. After a month the hair was almost entirely destroyed probably due to an enzymatic process although some mechanical alteration could also be observed. PMID:3077984

  11. In vitro characterization of Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes biofilms.

    PubMed

    Costa-Orlandi, C B; Sardi, J C O; Santos, C T; Fusco-Almeida, A M; Mendes-Giannini, M J S

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophytes are fungi responsible for a disease known as dermatophytosis. Biofilms are sessile microbial communities surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) with increased resistance to antimicrobial agents and host defenses. This paper describes, for the first time, the characteristics of Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes biofilms. Biofilm formation was analyzed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as well as by staining with crystal violet and safranin. Metabolic activity was determined using the XTT reduction assay. Both species were able to form mature biofilms in 72 h. T. rubrum biofilm produced more biomass and EPS and was denser than T. mentagrophytes biofilm. The SEM results demonstrated a coordinated network of hyphae in all directions, embedded within EPS in some areas. Research and characterization of biofilms formed by dermatophytes may contribute to the search of new drugs for the treatment of these mycoses and might inform future revisions with respect to the dose and duration of treatment of currently available antifungals. PMID:24856309

  12. Which Fungus Originally was Trichophyton mentagrophytes? Historical Review and Illustration by a Clinical Case.

    PubMed

    Chollet, Annemay; Cattin, Vincent; Fratti, Marina; Mignon, Bernard; Monod, Michel

    2015-08-01

    Several dermatophytes producing numerous pyriform or round microconidia were called Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Among these dermatophytes are the teleomorph species Arthroderma benhamiae, Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii and Arthroderma simii, and other species such as Trichophyton interdigitale, Trichophyton erinacei and Trichophyton quinckeanum for which only the anamorph is known. Confusion exists about which fungus should be really called T. mentagrophytes and about the rational use of this name in practice. We report a case of beard ringworm (tinea barbae) with A. vanbreuseghemii. According to both clinical signs and the type of hair parasitism, this case was exactly compatible to the first description of a non-favic dermatophytosis by Gruby under the name of "mentagrophyte" from which was derived the dermatophyte epithet mentagrophytes. In addition, the phenotypic characters of the isolated fungus in cultures perfectly matched with those of the first description of a dermatophyte under T. mentagrophytes by Blanchard (Parasites animaux et parasites végétaux à l'exclusion des Bactéries, Masson, Paris, 1896). In conclusion, T. mentagrophytes corresponds to the fungus later named A. vanbreuseghemii. However, because the neotype of T. mentagrophytes was not adequately designated in regard to the ancient literature, we would privilege the use of A. vanbreuseghemii and abandon the name of T. mentagrophytes. PMID:25912796

  13. Fine structural characterization of microbodies and Woronin bodies in Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    PubMed

    Vannini, G L; Mares, D

    1975-08-15

    Microbodies and Woronin bodies, organelles surrounded by a single unit membrane, were identified in the hyphal cells of Trichophyton mentagrophytes by employing a fixative containing TAPO. The fine structure of the organelles is described and their possible significance discussed. PMID:1157867

  14. Enzymatic activity of Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes from breeding rabbits with and without skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Figueredo, Luciana A; Coccioli, Carmela; Camarda, Antonio; Otranto, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes are zoophilic dermatophytes which can cause skin infections in animals and humans. The clinical expression of this infection strongly varies depending on host, fungal species as well as enzyme production. No comparative studies are available on the enzymatic activities of M. canis and T. mentagrophytes isolated from breeding rabbits. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the capability of M. canis and T. mentagrophytes isolated from rabbits both with and without lesions in producing different enzymes. The relationship of dermatophyte enzymatic activities and presence/absence of skin lesions has also been investigated. A total of 260 isolates of T. mentagrophytes and 25 isolates of M. canis sampled both from healthy and lesioned skin of rabbits, as well as from air samples of positive farms were examined. The results showed that T. mentagrophytes and M. canis from rabbits produce different enzymes. However, only elastase and gelatinase were linked to the appearance of lesions in T. mentagrophytes infections, whereas lipase in those by M. canis. PMID:22175244

  15. [The effect of Tween-80 on the differentiation of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum strains with FT-IR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Ergın, Çagri; İlkit, Macit; Gök, Yaşar; Çon, Ahmet Hilmi; Özel, Mustafa Zafer; Kabay, Nilgün; Döğen, Aylin; Baygu, Yasemin

    2014-07-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum, are two of the frequently identified dermatophyte species in routine microbiology laboratories. Although newer technologies may assist in species-level identification, direct application of these methods usually require improvement in order to obtain reliable identification of these species. Earlier data have shown that dermatophytes may be identified with FT-IR spectroscopy although there are some limitations. In particular, the organic bond ranges in FT-IR spectra showed more irregularity because of the eucaryotic complexity of the molds. In this study, Tween-80 which is an inorganic molecule, was added to the dermatophyte growth medium in order to investigate its effect on FT-IR spectroscopy analysis of dermatophytes. Nine reference dermatophyte strains [5 T.mentagrophytes complex (T.asteroides CBS 424.63, T.erinacei CBS 344.79, CBS 511.73, CBS 677.86, T.mentagrophytes CBS 110.65) and 4 T.rubrum complex strains with different morphotypes (T.fluviomuniense CBS 592.68, T.kuryangei CBS 422.67, T.raubitschekii CBS 102856, T.rubrum CBS 392.58)] were included in the study. All strains were cultured on Sabouraud glucose agar either with or without 1% Tween-80 for three weeks. After the incubation period, superficial scrapings from each dermatophyte colony were analyzed using FT-IR spectroscopy. All measurements were performed in transmission mode between 4400 and 400 cm-1. Numerous spectral window data were analyzed by principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering was performed. The second derivations of spectral ranges revealed clear grouping of T.mentagrophytes complex and T.rubrum complex in association over five separate spectral ranges. The findings also showed that while all of the T.mentagrophytes strains contained lipid compounds in their mold structure after Tween-80 incubation (p< 0.025), T.rubrum strains did not. Based on these results, it was concluded that culture medium containing Tween-80

  16. Effective treatment of tinea corporis due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes with combined isoconazole nitrate and diflucortolone valerate therapy.

    PubMed

    Czaika, Viktor A

    2013-05-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes is the dermatophyte species most commonly reported in cases of guinea pig-associated dermatophytosis (or guinea pig fungus) a condition that more often affects children than adults. In this case, a 13-year-old girl with recent direct contact with guinea pigs presented with a previously undertreated inflammatory skin lesion on the left side of her upper body, which was positive both for Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The condition was subsequently diagnosed as tinea corporis due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes with concomitant bacterial infection and effectively treated with 2 weeks of twice-daily application of Travocort cream containing isoconazole nitrate 1% and diflucortolone valerate 0.1%. Visible improvement in the lesion was apparent after only 1 week of treatment. PMID:23574023

  17. Assessment of the function of SUB6 in the pathogenic dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yao; Niu, Qifang; Yu, Xiaoxiao; Jia, Xiaolin; Wang, Jing; Lin, Degui; Jin, Yipeng

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes is a keratinophilic pathogenic fungus that infects both humans and animals. Subtilisins are important for T. mentagrophytes virulence, particularly when invading the epidermal barrier of the host. Subtilisin gene SUB6 belongs to a seven-member gene family (SUB1-SUB7) encoding the subtilisin serine proteases. Additionally, the SUB6 gene product Sub6, which is thought to be the major allergen Tri r2 in Trichophyton rubrum, elicits both immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in humans. To assess its gene function, SUB6 was disrupted using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. Polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analyses were used to confirm the disruption. In vitro virulence analyses comparing the mutant with the wild-type strain showed that proteolytic activity was significantly increased in the SUB6 gene disruption strain (SUB6::hph), which corresponded to the significantly increase in MEP4 (metalloprotease gene) and SUB3 expression of SUB6::hph. The SUB6::hph -infected animals showed attenuated clinical symptoms and pathological changes, and because of the persistently high level of immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, the increase in DTH-related cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-12 was delayed and lower than that in animals infected with the wild-type strain. These results suggested that SUB6::hph had attenuated virulence in vivo, and that a genetically-linked regulatory effect may account for the increase in proteolytic activity and the residual pathogenicity of the mutant strain. PMID:26333355

  18. Anti-Trichophyton mentagrophytes activity and percutaneous permeation of butenafine in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Arika, T; Hase, T; Yokoo, M

    1993-02-01

    We examined anti-Trichophyton mentagrophytes activity, cutaneous penetration, and skin localization of butenafine, a novel benzylamine antifungal agent. The following results were obtained. (i) In the guinea pig dorsal skin trichophytosis model, butenafine produced complete eradication of fungi from infected sites. Clotrimazole was active when animals were infected with 10(4) or 10(5) cells but was almost inactive when the inoculum size was 10(6) cells. (ii) The MICs of butenafine and clotrimazole against arthrospores of T. mentagrophytes KD-04 were 0.025 and 0.39 microgram/ml, respectively. (iii) When 0.2 ml of a 1% 14C-butenafine solution was applied for 23 h/day for 7 days, high radioactivity corresponding to 250 to 500 micrograms of butenafine per g of skin in the epidermis, including the horny layer, was observed. (iv) Butenafine penetrates through transepidermal and transfollicular routes. The excellent therapeutic efficacy of butenafine on experimental dermatophytosis may be attributed to its low MIC and good penetration and distribution in the horny layer and hair follicles, where fungi reside. PMID:8452371

  19. Anti-Trichophyton mentagrophytes activity and percutaneous permeation of butenafine in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Arika, T; Hase, T; Yokoo, M

    1993-01-01

    We examined anti-Trichophyton mentagrophytes activity, cutaneous penetration, and skin localization of butenafine, a novel benzylamine antifungal agent. The following results were obtained. (i) In the guinea pig dorsal skin trichophytosis model, butenafine produced complete eradication of fungi from infected sites. Clotrimazole was active when animals were infected with 10(4) or 10(5) cells but was almost inactive when the inoculum size was 10(6) cells. (ii) The MICs of butenafine and clotrimazole against arthrospores of T. mentagrophytes KD-04 were 0.025 and 0.39 microgram/ml, respectively. (iii) When 0.2 ml of a 1% 14C-butenafine solution was applied for 23 h/day for 7 days, high radioactivity corresponding to 250 to 500 micrograms of butenafine per g of skin in the epidermis, including the horny layer, was observed. (iv) Butenafine penetrates through transepidermal and transfollicular routes. The excellent therapeutic efficacy of butenafine on experimental dermatophytosis may be attributed to its low MIC and good penetration and distribution in the horny layer and hair follicles, where fungi reside. PMID:8452371

  20. Fungistatic mechanism of human transferrin for Rhizopus oryzae and Trichophyton mentagrophytes: alternative to simple iron deprivation.

    PubMed Central

    Artis, W M; Patrusky, E; Rastinejad, F; Duncan, R L

    1983-01-01

    Human serum, human transferrin (TF), and the iron chelator 1,10-phenanthroline (OP) produce iron-reversible fungistatic activity which has been attributed to simple iron deprivation. In this study, the influence of the size of the inoculum on the inhibitory activity of serum, TF, and OP prepared with the same iron-binding capacity (2.5 micrograms/ml) for Rhizopus oryzae and Trichophyton mentagrophytes was examined. Inhibition was monitored in liquid microcultures maintained at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4 to 7.5 by measuring the change in absorbance density. Increasing the number of spores in the inoculum disrupted the fungistatic activity of serum and TF, but not that of OP. The dilution at which OP lost fungistatic activity was not affected by the number of spores in the inoculum and was the same for both fungi. The dilution at which TF and serum lost fungistatic activity was dependent upon both the quantity of the inoculum and the species of fungus. The number of viable spores, rather than the total number of spores in the inoculum, was determined to be important in overcoming the inhibition of fungal growth by serum and TF. The fungistatic activity of serum and TF could be diminished by the preexposure of the serum to viable but nongrowing spores. Direct and indirect fluorescence studies indicated that both T. mentagrophytes and R. oryzae absorbed TF. Glucose uptake by R. oryzae was inhibited by a 4-h exposure to 5.0 to 0.15 mg of apotransferrin per ml. These results suggest that the fungistatic activity of TF for R. oryzae and T. mentagrophytes may not be attributable to simple iron deprivation and raise the possibility of a requirement for a direct interaction. Images PMID:6885162

  1. Molecular identification and classification of Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex strains isolated from humans and selected animal species.

    PubMed

    Ziółkowska, Grażyna; Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Gnat, Sebastian; Trościańczyk, Aleksandra; Zięba, Przemysław; Dziedzic, Barbara Majer

    2015-03-01

    Species differentiation within Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex group currently poses a major diagnostic challenge, with molecular methods increasingly supplementing classical identification based on the morphological and physiological properties of the fungi. Diagnostic and epidemiological research aimed at determining the source and means of transmission of dermatophytoses in both humans and animals requires not only species differentiation of isolates but also differentiation within species. The study was conducted on 24 isolates originating in humans and various animal species with clinical symptoms of dermatophytosis. The analysis included phenotypical identification methods and molecular methods: internal transcribed spacer sequencing and ITS-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with multi-enzyme restriction. ITS sequence analysis identified the isolates to species - Trichophyton interdigitale, Arthroderma benhamiae and A. vanbreuseghemii, and ITS-RFLP detected six different genotypes. Genotypes I, II and III characterised strains belonging to A. benhamiae, genotype IV characterised the A. vanbreuseghemii strain, and genotypes V and VI occurred only within the species T. interdigitale. Strains isolated from guinea pigs were dominant within genotype I, while genotype II was found mainly in strains from foxes. Multi-enzyme restriction analysis of this region enables intraspecific differentiation, which may be useful in epidemiological research, particularly in determining the source of infections. PMID:25643744

  2. A case of Trichophyton mentagrophytes infection in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    PubMed

    Pressanti, Charline; Delverdier, Maxence; Iriart, Xavier; Morcel, Frédérique; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2012-10-01

    A 2-year-old male fennec fox presented with a 4 month history of nonpruritic, crusty skin lesions on the forehead, the pinnae and the tail tip. Initial investigations, including routine haematology, biochemistry profile, multiple skin scrapings, trichoscopic examination, Wood's lamp examination and fungal culture, failed to reveal any abnormalities. Histopathological examination of a first set of skin biopsies showed an interface dermatitis pattern, with lymphocyte infiltration in the basal layer, a significant lymphocytic exocytosis and occasional apoptotic basal epidermal keratinocytes; periodic acid Schiff stain did not reveal any fungal elements. On further biopsies, there was a pustular neutrophilic dermatitis, with numerous crusts containing high numbers of arthrospores and fungal hyphae. Trichophyton mentagrophytes infection was confirmed on fungal culture and PCR. The fennec fox received oral itraconazole (5 mg/kg once daily for 6 weeks) combined with a miconazole and chlorhexidine shampoo applied on affected areas once weekly, followed with an enilconazole dip. The fox improved dramatically, and a fungal culture performed at 6 weeks was negative. Unfortunately, a few days later the fennec fox developed anorexia, icterus and died. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Trichophyton infection in a fennec fox and, although a postmortem examination was not performed, this is possibly the first report of fatal acute liver failure associated with itraconazole in a canid. PMID:22822716

  3. Polymorphisms in the ITS rDNA regions for differentiating strains of the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex in Sfax-Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Drira, I; Neji, S; Hadrich, I; Trabelsi, H; Sellami, H; Cheikhrouhou, F; Guidara, R; Makni, F; Ayadi, A

    2014-08-01

    The Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex is the main cause of superficial mycoses in humans and animals. Molecular research has provided useful insights into the taxonomy of this complex to overcome the challenges with conventional diagnostics. The aim of this study was to identify, type and differentiate anthropophilic and zoophilic species of the T. mentagrophytes complex. Sixty clinical samples identified as T. mentagrophytes by morphological characteristics were isolated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. The identification of our strains by conventional methods was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing in 93.34% of the cases. The strains under investigation were recategorised as T. rubrum (Tr2711). In addition, PCR products were independently digested with the restriction endonucleases, MvaI and HinfI, to produce a single dominant profile for T. interdigitale. ITS sequence analysis revealed a polymorphism in the ITS1 and 5.8S regions. Analysis of the consensus sequences distinguished four types of genotypes among our T. interdigitale species. Moreover, ITS type I was the dominant genotype characterising the anthropophilic variant of T. interdigitale. The phylogenetic study showed that only 5% of our strains were zoophilic. PCR sequencing was useful for distinguishing anthropophilic and zoophilic species of T. interdigitale, in which the differentiation is relevant because it helps to prescribe the correct treatment and to identify the surrounding source of infection. PMID:24621449

  4. Chiral N-benzyl-N-methyl-1-(naphthalen-1-yl)ethanamines and their in vitro antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Thvedt, Thor H Krane; Kaasa, Kristin; Sundby, Eirik; Charnock, Colin; Hoff, Bård Helge

    2013-10-01

    In the search for new antifungal compounds and to explore structure activity relationships, a series of 24 chiral benzyl amine type antifungals was synthesised and characterised. In vitro testing against the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans revealed that several derivatives had MIC50 values similar to that of the commercial drug Butenafine. All of these contained a bulky group in the para position of the benzyl fragment. Eighteen compounds were also tested for activity against the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum. Of these (R)-N-(4-tert-butylbenzyl)-N-methyl-1-(naphthalen-1-yl)ethanamine (MIC50: 0.06 μg/mL) and a para-benzyloxy substituted derivative (MIC50: 0.125 μg/mL) possessed high activity. Testing of derivatives with a stereocentre at the benzylic carbon, revealed that (S)-stereochemistry was required for potency: a MIC50 value of 1 μg/mL was obtained for (S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-N-methyl-N-(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)ethanamine. Preparation of the corresponding fluoromethyl compound was achieved employing lipase B from Candida antarctica as catalyst in the key step. A low antifungal activity was observed for the fluorinated derivative indicating the importance of the amine basicity for the antifungal potency of these compounds. PMID:24051242

  5. Combined effect of heat, essential oils and salt on fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a foot bath.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Shigeharu; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Hasumi, Yayoi; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

    2007-01-01

    This work was originally undertaken to determine the effective conditions of essential oils against Trichophyton mentagrophytes in vitro for the treatment of tinea pedis in a foot bath. Agar blocks implanted with T. mentagrophytes were immersed in 0.1% aqueous agar containing two-fold dilutions of essential oils with or without sodium chloride at 27 degrees C, 37 degrees C and 42 degrees C for 10 and 20 min. The number of surviving mycelia on the agar blocks was determined from the standard curves of the colony diameter and original inocula of the conidia. At the same time, the thermal effect on the cellular morphology was examined using SEM. Most fungal mycelia (99.7%) were killed after treatment at 42 degrees C for 20 min without essential oil. The fungicidal activity of essential oils was markedly enhanced by treating at 42 degrees C for 20 min as compared with that at 27 degrees C, showing 1/4 - 1/32-fold reduction of minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC to kill 99.99%). The order of the fungicidal activity of 11 essential oils was oregano, thyme thymol, cinnamon bark > lemongrass > clove, palmarose, peppermint, lavender > geranium Bourbon, tea tree > thyme geraniol oils. MFCs were further reduced to 1/2 - 1/8 by the addition of 10% sodium chloride. The salt effect was explained, at least partly, by an increase in mycelial adsorption of antifungal constituents in the presence of sodium chloride. Considerable hyphal damage was done at 27 degrees C by the essential oils, but no further alteration in morphology of the hyphae treated at 42 degrees C with or without oil was observed by SEM. The inhibitory effect of heat and oils was also observed against mycelia of T. rubrum and conidia of T. mentagrophytes. Thermotherapy combined with essential oils and salt would be promising to treat tinea pedis in a foot bath. PMID:17287720

  6. Tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (molecular type Arthroderma benhamiae ) mimics impetigo : a case report and literature review of cases in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Utako; Yokoyama, Kae; Hiruma, Masataro; Kano, Rui; Takamori, Kenji; Suga, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    A 36-year-old female elementary schoolteacher presented with aggregated serous papules surrounded by mild erythema, extending from both nasal wings/nostrils down to the upper lip. No improvement was seen following treatment of the lesions with topical antibiotics for impetigo. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) direct microscopy confirmed the presence of mycelia, and the infection was diagnosed as tinea faciei. The isolate was identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes using morphological analysis and as Arthroderma benhamiae using genetic analysis. Here we describe that case and summarize the clinical features of other cases of A. benhamiae infection in Japan that have been reported in the literature. PMID:25855021

  7. [From guinea pig to man: Tinea outbreak due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. porcellae in pet shops in Nancy (France)].

    PubMed

    Bloch, M; Cavignaux, R; Debourgogne, A; Dorin, J; Machouart, M; Contet-Audonneau, N

    2016-09-01

    Dermatophytes are responsible for widespread superficial fungal infections, currently representing a real public health problem. Some of the fungi involved in these mycoses are transmitted by pets, illustrating great host specificity within this fungal group. Thus, a new variety of zoophilic dermatophyte has been described in recent years by the Mycology Laboratory of the University Hospital of Nancy, within the complex T. mentagrophytes. This variant was named T. mentagrophytes var. porcellae, following the observation of a significant number of patients with dermatomycoses of exposed parts of the body and having had contact with a guinea pig. The current work follows this first description and aims to assess the frequency of T. mentagrophytes var. porcellae in guinea pigs within three pet shops in the region of Nancy (France). In total, almost two thirds of collected guinea pigs were carriers of this new dermatophyte. This study highlights the risks associated with the adaptation of dermatophytes to potential new hosts that may spread to new species. Thus, in this context, sanitary measures could be proposed to the pet shops, usually not informed of the risks facing the growing enthusiasm of the population for new pets, in order to limit contamination. PMID:27546890

  8. An isolate of Arthroderma benhamiae with Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei anamorph isolated from a four-toed hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoko; Haritani, Kuniko; Sano, Ayako; Takizawa, Kayoko; Fukushima, Kazutaka; Miyaji, Makoto; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2002-01-01

    A female four-toed hedgehog probably imported from Africa and kept as a pet by a family suffered from depilation and mite (Caparinia tripilis) infection. Depilated quills were inoculated on a commercially available medium and an isolate of the dermatophytes was obtained. A giant colony after 14 days incubation on yeast extract Sabourauds agar had a central umbo with white granular surface and a yellow pigment ring in the reverse. The hedgehog isolate produced numerous elongated microconidia singly attached along the sides of hyphae. Macroconidia were somewhat irregular in shape and size and 2-6 septa. Abundant intermediate sized spores between micro- and macro conidia and few spirals were observed. Hair perforation and urease activity tests were positive. Maximum growth temperature was 40 C. In the mating tests using the tester strains of both African and Americano-European races of Arthroderma benhamiae, the strain produced numerous gymnothecia only when paired with the African race mating type minus(-). In addition, 591 bases of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA gene including the 5.8S region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) were sequenced and corresponded to those of T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank accession numbers Z97996 and Z97997) by more than 99.7%. Therefore, our case is the first isolation of A. benhamiae with T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei anamorph in Japan. PMID:12402026

  9. Molecular Taxonomy of the Trichophyton rubrum Complex

    PubMed Central

    Gräser, Y.; Kuijpers, A. F. A.; Presber, W.; de Hoog, G. S.

    2000-01-01

    The validity of taxa around Trichophyton rubrum was evaluated by a combination of phenetic and molecular methods. Morphological and physiological features were compared to results of sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal operon, PCR fingerprinting, and amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. The 15 species and varieties investigated (Trichophyton circonvolutum, Trichophyton fischeri, Trichophyton fluviomuniense, Trichophyton glabrum, Trichophyton gourvilii, Trichophyton kanei, Trichophyton kuryangei, Trichophyton megninii, Trichophyton pedis, Trichophyton raubitschekii, Trichophyton rodhaini, Trichophyton rubrum var. nigricans, Trichophyton soudanense, Trichophyton violaceum var. indicum, and Trichophyton yaoundei) were reclassified or synonymized as T. rubrum or T. violaceum. PMID:10970379

  10. Five-hour diagnosis of dermatophyte nail infections with specific detection of Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Brillowska-Dabrowska, Anna; Saunte, Ditte Marie; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2007-04-01

    A rapid two-step DNA extraction method and a multiplex PCR for the detection of dermatophytes in general and Trichophyton rubrum specifically were developed and evaluated with DNA extracted from pure cultures and from clinically diseased nails. DNA from the following dermatophytes was used: Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum audouinii, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum nanum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton schoenleinii, Trichophyton soudanense, Trichophyton terrestre, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton verrucosum, and Trichophyton violaceum. Human DNA and DNA from the following nondermatophyte fungi were included as controls: Alternaria, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Malassezia furfur, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. A total of 118 nail samples received for routine microscopy and culture for dermatophytes were subsequently tested by the two PCRs separately and in a multiplex format. Using DNA extracted from pure cultures and the pan-dermatophyte PCR, the T. rubrum-specific PCR sequentially and in a multiplex format correctly detected all dermatophytes and additionally correctly identified T. rubrum. Comparison of the traditional diagnostic evaluation (microscopy and culture) of nail samples with PCR on DNA directly extracted from the nails showed excellent agreement between PCR and microscopy, but the number of samples with dermatophyte species identification was increased considerably from 22.9% to 41.5%, mainly due to the identification of T. rubrum by PCR in microscopy-positive but culture-negative samples. In conclusion, this 5-hour diagnostic test was shown to increase not only the speed but also the sensitivity of investigation for nail dermatophytosis. PMID:17267633

  11. Anti-Trichophyton Activity of Protocatechuates and Their Synergism with Fluconazole

    PubMed Central

    Gullo, Fernanda Patrícia; Sardi, Janaina de Cássia Orlandi; Costa-Orlandi, Caroline Barcelos; Sangalli-Leite, Fernanda; Scorzoni, Liliana; Regasini, Luis Octávio; Petrônio, Maicon Segalla; Souza, Patrícia Fernanda; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophytosis and superficial mycosis are a major global public health problem that affects 20–25% of the world's population. The increase in fungal resistance to the commercially available antifungal agents, in conjunction with the limited spectrum of action of such drugs, emphasises the need to develop new antifungal agents. Natural products are attractive prototypes for antifungal agents due to their broad spectrum of biological activities. This study aimed to verify the antifungal activity of protocatechuic acid, 3,4-diacetoxybenzoic, and fourteen alkyl protocatechuates (3,4-dihydroxybenzoates) against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes and to further assess their activities when combined with fluconazole. Susceptibility and synergism assays were conducted as described in M38-A2 (CLSI), with modifications. Three strains of Trichophyton rubrum and three strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes were used in this work. The pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, and decyl protocatechuates showed great fungicidal effects, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.97 to 7.8 mg/L. Heptyl showed a synergistic activity (FIC index = 0.49), reducing the MIC of fluconazole by fourfold. All substances tested were safe, especially the hexyl, heptyl, octyl, and nonyl compounds, all of which showed a high selectivity index, particularly in combination with fluconazole. These ester associations with fluconazole may represent a promising source of prototypes in the search for anti-Trichophyton therapeutic agents. PMID:25136374

  12. In vitro Antifungal Activity of Luliconazole against Trichophyton spp.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Jun; Nanjoh, Yasuko; Koga, Hiroyasu; Toga, Tetsuo; Makimura, Koichi; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of luliconazole against Trichophyton rubrum (14 strains) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (14 strains), which are the most common cause of tinea, were compared with those of 6 topical antifungal drugs of lanoconazole, bifonazole, efinaconazole, liranaftate, naftifine and terbinafine. Luliconazole showed the most potent antifungal activity (MIC90 =0.00098 μg/ml and MFC90 =0.0078 μg/ml) among the compounds tested against the two species. Efinaconazole and bifonazole, the drug of azole-class, showed a large MFC/MIC ratio. On the other hand, these ratios of luliconazole and lanoconazole were as small as those of liranaftate, naftifine and terbinafine which are thought to possess fungicidal mechanism. These results suggest that luliconazole possesses fungicidal activity against both species of Trichophyton. In this study, we found that luliconazole had the most potent antifungal activity among the major topical antimycotics used in Japan and the US. Luliconazole would be the best-in-class drug for dermatophytosis in clinics. PMID:26936346

  13. Use of Padlock Probes and Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA) for Rapid Identification of Trichophyton Species, Related to Human and Animal Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Hamideh; Shokohi, Tahereh; Badali, Hamid; Mayahi, Saba; Didehdar, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Background: The high degree of phenotypic similarity among Trichophyton species makes their identification difficult. Objectives: The current study aims to establish the use of rolling circle amplification (RCA) based on internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) as a powerful, simple, and rapid procedure for distinguishing closely related organisms, and specifically to identify Trichophyton species, which cause human and animal disorders. Materials and Methods: A total of sixty-one isolates belonging to three species of Trichophyton were identified to the species level based on microscopic and macroscopic examinations and their ITS rDNA regions were sequenced. Three specific circular oligonucleotide probes targeting the ITS1 and ITS2 regions were designed to differentiate Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, and T. tonsurans. Results: Of the 61 putative Trichophyton clinical isolates, 52 were identified to the species level. The most common species was T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (31 isolates), followed by T. rubrum (11 isolates), T. tonsurans (9 isolates), and T. violaceum (1 isolates); moreover, 9 isolates were identified as non-Trichophyton species. The RCA method correctly identified four Trichophyton species and was 100% specific for each species. Neither cross-reaction between the examined species of Trichophyton nor false positive or false negative results were observed. Conclusions: Species identification of Trichophyton is crucially important for epidemiological and phylogenetic purposes and for genotype delineation. RCA based on ITS polymorphisms can be used to generate identification barcodes and as an alternative to DNA sequencing; it is a very fast, specific, and economical tool for species identification. PMID:26421127

  14. Dermatophyte-hormone relationships: characterization of progesterone-binding specificity and growth inhibition in the genera Trichophyton and Microsporum.

    PubMed Central

    Clemons, K V; Schär, G; Stover, E P; Feldman, D; Stevens, D A

    1988-01-01

    We reported previously that Trichophyton mentagrophytes contains a cytoplasmic macromolecule which specifically binds progesterone. Progesterone is also an effective inhibitor of growth of the fungus. We report here studies which characterize more fully the specific binding properties and the functional responses of T. mentagrophytes and taxonomically related fungi to a series of mammalian steroid hormones. Scatchard analysis of [3H]progesterone binding in both the + and - mating types of Arthroderma benhamiae and in Microsporum canis revealed a single class of binding sites with approximately the same affinity as that in T. mentagrophytes (Kd, 1 X 10(-7) to 2 X 10(-7) M). Trichophyton rubrum had a protein with a higher binding affinity (Kd, 1.6 X 10(-8) M). Characterization of the [3H]progesterone-binding sites in T. mentagrophytes showed the binder to be a protein which was destroyed by trypsin and heating to 56 degrees C. Previous examination of the steroid-binding specificity in T. mentagrophytes had demonstrated that deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were effective competitors for [3H]progesterone binding. Expansion of this study to include other competitors revealed that R5020 (a synthetic progestin), androstenedione, and dehydroepiandosterone possessed relative binding affinities which were 20, 11, and 9% of that of progesterone, respectively. Other ligands tested were less effective. Competition studies for the binder in M. canis resulted in similar findings: DOC and DHT were effective competitors for [3H]progesterone binding. The growth of A. benhamiae + and -, M. canis, and T. rubrum were all inhibited by progesterone in a dose-responsive manner, with 50% inhibition achieved at concentrations of 9.8 x 10(-6), 1.2 x 10(-5), 1.5 x 10(-5), and 2.7 x 10(-6) M. respectively,. PMID:3182998

  15. The Efficacy of Ultraviolet Irradiation on Trichophyton Species Isolated From Nails

    PubMed Central

    Nematollahi, Ahmad Reza; Badiee, Parisa; Nournia, Ensieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The treatment of onychomycosis is a challenge and infections are typically more severe and difficult to treat in toenails than in fingernails. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the fungicidal effect of ultraviolet radiation on the growth of dermatophytes isolated from nails. Patients and Methods: Samples from patients with clinical manifestations of onychomycosis were inoculated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated at 30°C for 14 days. Isolated species were identified by specific laboratory examinations; UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C light were used to irradiate two strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum. Colony count, size and growth rate of the isolated fungi were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Results: Trichophyton rubrum type 1 was less sensitive to UV-A and UV-C, and more sensitive to UV-B than type 2. T. mentagrophytes type 2 was slightly responsive to UV-A therapy, although no decrease in colony count was observed. Increased doses of UV-B and UV-C irradiation decreased the counts. The effect of radiation on colony size was dependent on the dose and type of irradiation. Conclusions: UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C light seem to be effective in decreasing colony growth of the most prevalent fungi, which caused onychomycosis in the current study samples. Further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of ultraviolet light therapy, identify possible side effects, and establish appropriate dosages for the antifungal effect of this therapy. PMID:26322201

  16. Polyclonality of Trichophyton rubrum Isolates in aDermatophytosis Patient with Multiple Lesions.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kiminobu; Mochizuki, Hirokazu; Izumi, Katsuhiko; Sakata, Yuichi; Ushigami, Tsuyoshi; Nishibu, Akiko; Anzawa, Kazushi; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We cultured 15 isolates of Trichophyton rubrum and one isolate of Trichophyton mentagrophytes from an 82-year-old male tinea patient with multiple lesions. To determine whether feet lesions were the source of dermatophytes of other tinea lesions, we extracted total cellular DNA from the T. rubrum isolates(13 from feet, two from right waist and buttock). PCR targeting the non-transcribed spacer(NTS)region of ribosomal RNA gene was performed. Molecular polymorphisms were detected by length variation of amplicons.Four molecular types were found among the 15 isolates. The predominant type, which we previously named Type III, comprised seven isolates cultured from both feet and from left waist and buttock. This was followed by Type VI, five isolates; Type V, two isolates; and Type IV, one isolate. Apart from type III, which was cultured from both feet, isolates were cultured from one foot only. The patient was successfully treated for all types with a six-month course of oral terbinafine and topical luliconazole. The molecular typing supported the notion that tinea pedis was the source of tinea corporis in the patient. PMID:27251316

  17. Diagnostic PCR tests for Microsporum audouinii, M. canis and Trichophyton infections.

    PubMed

    Brillowska-Dabrowska, Anna; Swierkowska, Aleksandra; Lindhardt Saunte, Ditte Marie; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2010-05-01

    Since traditional diagnosis of dermatophyte infections is slow, we present a rapid new PCR test for detection of Trichophyton spp., Microsporum canis and M. audouinii infections. The performance of the test was evaluated with: 58 dermatophyte isolates; 10 yeast, mould and human DNA control samples; 25 routine specimens from patients suspected of having dermatophytosis; 10 hair specimens from guinea pigs experimentally infected with M. canis; and two samples from un-infected control animals. DNA was prepared by a 10-min procedure from pure cultures as previously described. The 302 bp PCR product was obtained for 35/35 Trichophyton isolates (10 species included) and the 279 bp for 3/3 M. canis and 4/4 M. audouinii samples. None of the 2 E. floccosum, 11 M. gypseum, 3 M M. persicolor or 12 control samples (yeast, mould, human DNA) were positive with either of the two PCR tests. Among the patient specimens, seven were T. rubrum positive, two for T. mentagrophytes, one was positive for T. tonsurans and 15 were dermatophyte negative by routine investigation (culture and/or pan-dermatophyte + T. rubrum multiplex PCR). The PCR results with our procedures were in 100% agreement with these results. Finally, the Microsporum PCR was positive for 10/10 guinea pig specimens from infected animals but for 0/2 of the control animal samples. The evaluation of the two PCR tests indicated excellent sensitivity and specificity. PMID:19886764

  18. In vitro susceptibility patterns of clinically important Trichophyton and Epidermophyton species against nine antifungal drugs.

    PubMed

    Badali, Hamid; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Mashedi, Olga; de Hoog, G Sybren; Meis, Jacques F

    2015-05-01

    Despite the common, worldwide, occurrence of dermatophytes, little information is available regarding susceptibility profiles against currently available and novel antifungal agents. A collection of sixty-eight clinical Trichophyton species and Epidermophyton floccosum were previously identified and verified to the species level by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA. MICs of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole, terbinafine and MECs of caspofungin and anidulafungin were performed based on CLSI M38-A2. The resulting MIC90 s of all strains were, in increasing order, as follows: terbinafine (0.063 mg l(-1) ); posaconazole (1 mg l(-1) ); isavuconazole and anidulafungin (2 mg l(-1) ); itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin (4 mg l(-1) ) and fluconazole (>64 mg l(-1) ). These results confirm that terbinafine is an excellent agent for treatment of dermatophytosis due to T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. verrucosum, T. schoenleinii and E. floccosum. In addition, the new azoles POS and ISA are potentially useful antifungals to treat dermatophytosis. However, the clinical effectiveness of these novel antifungals remains to be determined. PMID:25757042

  19. An experience from an outbreak of tinea capitis gladiatorum due to Trichophyton tonsurans.

    PubMed

    Ergin, S; Ergin, C; Erdoğan, B S; Kaleli, I; Evliyaoğlu, D

    2006-03-01

    'Tinea corporis gladiatorum' describes a dermatophytosis transmitted mainly from close skin contact among wrestlers. Although tinea corporis is well recognized, no data are available for tinea capitis infections in wrestlers. After finding tinea capitis infection in a student wrestler, we aimed to search for possible ringworm infections among wrestlers in a wrestling boarding-school. Of the 32 wrestlers, 29, aged 12-18 years, were affected, of whom 22 had scalp involvement. Trichophyton tonsurans was isolated from 20 of the patients, and T. mentagrophytes from the remaining two. Isolated strains of dermatophytes were susceptible to terbinafine and itraconazole. The patients with tinea capitis received oral terbinafine for 4 weeks, and patients with more than two lesions but without scalp involvement received oral terbinafine for 2 weeks. Overall clinical and mycological cure rate was 72.4% and 70%, respectively, at assessment at week 6. The asymptomatic dermatophyte carrier rate was negative 1 year after control of the epidemic. Terbinafine seems to be an alternative drug for the treatment of tinea capitis caused by T. tonsurans; however, control of an outbreak may be very difficult and effective preventive measures should be considered. PMID:16487093

  20. Silicon Phthalocyanine 4 Phototoxicity in Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Minh; Dimaano, Matthew L.; Oyetakin-White, Patricia; Retuerto, Mauricio A.; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.; Cooper, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the leading pathogen that causes long-lasting skin and nail dermatophyte infections. Currently, topical treatment consists of terbinafine for the skin and ciclopirox for the nails, whereas systemic agents, such as oral terbinafine and itraconazole, are also prescribed. These systemic drugs have severe side effects, including liver toxicity. Topical therapies, however, are sometimes ineffective. This led us to investigate alternative treatment options, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT). Although PDT is traditionally recognized as a therapeutic option for treating a wide range of medical conditions, including age-related macular degeneration and malignant cancers, its antimicrobial properties have also received considerable attention. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the susceptibility of dermatophytic fungi to PDT is relatively unknown. As a noninvasive treatment, PDT uses a photosensitizing drug and light, which, in the presence of oxygen, results in cellular destruction. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of cytotoxicity of PDT in vitro using the silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 [SiPc(OSi(CH3)2(CH2)3N(CH3)2)(OH)] in T. rubrum. Confocal microscopy revealed that Pc 4 binds to cytoplasmic organelles, and upon irradiation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated. The impairment of fungal metabolic activities as measured by an XTT (2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyanilide inner salt) assay indicated that 1.0 μM Pc 4 followed by 670 to 675 nm light at 2.0 J/cm2 reduced the overall cell survival rate, which was substantiated by a dry weight assay. In addition, we found that this therapeutic approach is effective against terbinafine-sensitive (24602) and terbinafine-resistant (MRL666) strains. These data suggest that Pc 4-PDT may have utility as a treatment for dermatophytosis. PMID:24614382

  1. Regulation of Trichophyton rubrum proteolytic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Apodaca, G; McKerrow, J H

    1989-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte of humans and normally colonizes the superficial layers of the epidermis (stratum corneum). Several proteinases with a possible role in the metabolism of host proteins have been purified from this fungus. The regulation of these enzymes and their role in fungal metabolism were studied at the biochemical level. General proteolytic (azocollytic) activity was repressed when log-phase cultures of T. rubrum were grown in a minimal medium that contained readily metabolized sources of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus. When either carbon, nitrogen, or sulfur was deleted from this minimal medium, azocollytic activity was derepressed. In all cases a high-molecular-weight activity (Mr, greater than 200,000) was expressed. A 71,000-Mr proteinase was observed in nitrogen-depleted cultures, and proteolytic species of Mr 124,000 and 27,000 were secreted in sulfur-depleted cultures. The addition of either inorganic (MgSO4, Na2SO3, NaS2O3) or organic (methionine, cysteine) sulfur to the sulfur-depleted medium repressed the expression of azocollytic activity. In contrast, keratinolytic activity was not repressed by carbon, nitrogen, or sulfur but instead was induced when a protein source was included in the minimal medium. Stationary-phase cultures of T. rubrum secreted all proteolytic activities constitutively. Unlike log-phase cultures, the stationary-phase cultures secreted azocollytic, elastinolytic, and keratinolytic activity in minimal medium. These activities fell in the carbon-, nitrogen-, and phosphorous-depleted media but remained high in sulfur-depleted medium. The following model is proposed for the regulation of T. rubrum proteolytic activity. In the initial stages of infection, T. rubrum grows logarithmically. In this state, proteolytic activity is derepressed whenever carbon, nitrogen, or sulfur is lacking in the fungal milieu. The general proteinases produced would act on the nonkeratinous proteins in the

  2. Multilocus Genotyping Identifies Infections by Multiple Strains of Trichophyton tonsurans▿

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Rahman, Susan M.; Preuett, Barry; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Acquisition of multiple genetic strains of a single dermatophyte species should not be unexpected in areas of high endemicity, and yet multistrain infections are infrequently reported. This communication details mixed Trichophyton tonsurans infections and highlights the need to confirm the presence of multiple strains in a clinical single isolate by use of a multilocus approach. PMID:17442802

  3. The novel azole R126638 is a selective inhibitor of ergosterol synthesis in Candida albicans, Trichophyton spp., and Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Vanden Bossche, Hugo; Ausma, Jannie; Bohets, Hilde; Vermuyten, Karen; Willemsens, Gustaaf; Marichal, Patrick; Meerpoel, Lieven; Odds, Frank; Borgers, Marcel

    2004-09-01

    R126638 is a novel triazole with in vitro activity similar to that of itraconazole against dermatophytes, Candida spp., and Malassezia spp. In animal models of dermatophyte infections, R126638 showed superior antifungal activity. R126638 inhibits ergosterol synthesis in Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, and Microsporum canis at nanomolar concentrations, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) similar to those of itraconazole. The decreased synthesis of ergosterol and the concomitant accumulation of 14 alpha-methylsterols provide indirect evidence that R126638 inhibits the activity of CYP51 that catalyzes the oxidative removal of the 14 alpha-methyl group of lanosterol or eburicol. The IC(50)s for cholesterol synthesis from acetate in human hepatoma cells were 1.4 microM for itraconazole and 3.1 microM for R126638. Compared to itraconazole (IC(50) = 3.5 microM), R126638 is a poor inhibitor of the 1 alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (IC(50) > 10 microM). Micromolar concentrations of R126638 and itraconazole inhibited the 24-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) and the conversion of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) into polar metabolites. At concentrations up to 10 microM, R126638 had almost no effect on cholesterol side chain cleavage (CYP11A1), 11 beta-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), 17-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase (CYP17), aromatase (CYP19), or 4-hydroxylation of all-trans retinoic acid (CYP26). At 10 microM, R126638 did not show clear inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C10, CYP2C19, or CYP2E1. Compared to itraconazole, R126638 had a lower interaction potential with testosterone 6 beta hydroxylation and cyclosporine hydroxylation, both of which are catalyzed by CYP3A4, whereas both antifungals inhibited the CYP3A4-catalyzed hydroxylation of midazolam similarly. The results suggest that R126638 has promising properties and merits further in vivo investigations for the treatment of dermatophyte and yeast

  4. Photodynamic action of protoporphyrin IX derivatives on Trichophyton rubrum*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Rogério Rodrigo; Kozusny-Andreani, Dora Inês; Fernandes, Adjaci Uchôa; Baptista, Mauricio da Silva

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dermatophytes are filamentous keratinophilic fungi. Trichophyton rubrum is a prevalent infectious agent in tineas and other skin diseases. Drug therapy is considered to be limited in the treatment of such infections, mainly due to low accessibility of the drug to the tissue attacked and development of antifungal resistance in these microorganisms. In this context, Photodynamic Therapy is presented as an alternative. OBJECTIVE Evaluate, in vitro, the photodynamic activity of four derivatives of Protoporphyrin IX by irradiation with LED 400 nm in T. rubrum. METHOD Assays were subjected to irradiation by twelve cycles of ten minutes at five minute intervals. RESULT Photodynamic action appeared as effective with total elimination of UFCs from the second irradiation cycle. CONCLUSION Studies show that the photodynamic activity on Trichophyton rubrum relates to a suitable embodiment of the photosensitizer, which can be maximized by functionalization of peripheral groups of the porphyrinic ring. PMID:27192510

  5. Molecular Markers Reveal Exclusively Clonal Reproduction in Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Gräser, Y.; Kühnisch, J.; Presber, W.

    1999-01-01

    Genotypic variability among 96 Trichophyton rubrum strains which displayed different colony morphologies and were collected from four continents was investigated. Twelve markers representing 57 loci were analyzed by PCR fingerprinting, amplified fragment length polymorphism, and random amplified monomorphic DNA markers. Interestingly, none of the methods used revealed any DNA polymorphism, indicating a strictly clonal mode of reproduction and a strong adaptation to human skin. PMID:10523582

  6. [A case of Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans].

    PubMed

    Urano, Shoko; Shirai, Shigeko; Suzuki, Yoko; Sugaya, Keiko; Takigawa, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    A 10-year-old Peruvian girl, living in Japan since 1996, visited our hospital in August 2000 complaining of alopecia which had been present on her scalp for one year. The bald areas appeared as multiple small, scattered, angular patches with indistinct margins. Follicular pustules, erythemic nodules and lymphadenopathy were also seen. In the culture of the affected hair, a tan surface with wiry undulations grew on Sabouraud's media. The colony reverse had reddish-brown central pigmentation. Slide cultured fungi produced great numbers of round and short club-shaped microconidia, hyphae and intercalary chlamydospores. These fungi showed the following characteristics: positive urease test, no pigment production on cornmeal agar and positive thiamine dependency. The restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern and the nucleotide sequences of ribosomal-DNA internal transcribed spacer region of the causative fungus was compatible with Trichophyton tonsurans. Daily administration of 125 mg of terbinafine resulted in a satisfactory response and the lesion healed almost completely. PMID:12590256

  7. A chronic disseminated dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton violaceum.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ping; Li, Zhi-hua; Geng, Chengfang; Jiang, Qing; Jin, Yun; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Liu, Weida; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2015-02-01

    A 48-year-old female had presented dandruff and breakable hair for more than 40 years, dry scaly erythema on bilateral palms and feet accompanying with nail destruction for 20 years, and scaling papules on the buttock for 5 years. Direct microscopic examination showed endothrix anthroconidia within broken hair and septate and branched hyphae within skin and nail lesion. Fungal cultures from all infected sites were examined by morphology, ITS sequencing, and random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting, and were identified as Trichophyton violaceum from the same source. The patient was treated with oral terbinafine 0.25 g/day as well as with 1% terbinafine gel for external use and with 2% ketoconazole lotion for shampoo and bath. A follow-up after 4 weeks showed that the lesions decreased significantly. PMID:25322706

  8. Dermatophytosis in farmed mink (Mustela vison) caused by Trichophyton equinum.

    PubMed

    Overy, David P; Marron-Lopez, Fany; Muckle, Anne; Bourque, Andrea; Lund, Lorraine; MacHattie, David; Lopez, Alfonso

    2015-09-01

    This report details 2 outbreaks of dermatophytosis in 2 different mink ranches. On the first farm, only kits were affected, while on the second farm, small numbers of adults were infected. Affected mink were otherwise clinically healthy and in good body condition. Three animals were euthanized and submitted for autopsy. Grossly, mink exhibited locally extensive to coalescing areas of crusting alopecia but no other significant gross lesions in internal organs. Microscopically, skin lesions were characterized by chronic hyperplastic dermatitis with folliculitis, furunculosis, occasional intracorneal pustules, and large numbers of intrafollicular fungal arthrospores and hyphae. The dermatophyte was cultured and identified as Trichophyton equinum based on molecular barcoding of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA gene. PMID:26223793

  9. Tinea manuum due to Trichophyton erinacei from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Drira, I; Neji, S; Hadrich, I; Sellami, H; Makni, F; Ayadi, A

    2015-09-01

    Trichophyton erinacei is a zoonotic fungus affecting hedgehogs. Although several human infections with this organism have been documented in the literature, it has rarely been isolated as a human pathogen. This paper reports on an erythematous lesion spotted on the hand of a 10-year-old girl. Based on the culture of the patient's skin scrapings, the pathogen was mycologically identified as T. erinacei, which was further confirmed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacers of the fungal nuclear ribosomal DNA using universal primer ITS1-ITS4. This is the first case of T. erinacei in a Tunisian patient. A survey was carried out on the environment of our patient, and the results revealed the presence of hedgehogs with suspect scaly lesions. The same fungus was isolated from the hair and scales of the hedgehog, which was confirmed by PCR sequencing. The frequency of T. erinacei has often been underestimated, which is attributed not only to the gaps of knowledge still existing in the current understanding of the dermatophyte but also to differential diagnosis problems. Molecular study offers a simple and rapid tool to identify the source of infection and, hence, avoid the risk of recurrence. PMID:26091573

  10. Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum infection.

    PubMed

    Ran, Xin; Zhuang, Kaiwen; Ran, Yuping

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of tinea corporis on amputated leg stump caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patient, a 54-year-old male, experienced a serious traffic accident, resulted his right leg amputated 3 years ago. Since then prosthesis was fitted and protective equipment of silicone stocking was worn for the stump. He consulted with circular, patchy and scaly erythemas with itching on his right below knee amputation stump for 2 months. The diagnoses of tinea corporis on the stump was made based on a positive KOH direct microscopic examination, morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 4, confirmed that the isolate from the scales was T. rubrum. The patient was cured with oral terbinafine and topical naftifine-ketaconazole cream following 2% ketaconazole shampoo wash for 3 weeks. Long times using prosthesis together with protective equipment of silicone stocking, leading to the local environment of airtight and humid within the prosthesis favors T. rubrum infection of the stump could be considered as the precipitating factors. PMID:26288747

  11. Analysis of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum expressed sequence tags

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingling; Ma, Li; Leng, Wenchuan; Liu, Tao; Yu, Lu; Yang, Jian; Yang, Li; Zhang, Wenliang; Zhang, Qian; Dong, Jie; Xue, Ying; Zhu, Yafang; Xu, Xingye; Wan, Zhe; Ding, Guohui; Yu, Fudong; Tu, Kang; Li, Yixue; Li, Ruoyu; Shen, Yan; Jin, Qi

    2006-01-01

    Background Dermatophytes are the primary causative agent of dermatophytoses, a disease that affects billions of individuals worldwide. Trichophyton rubrum is the most common of the superficial fungi. Although T. rubrum is a recognized pathogen for humans, little is known about how its transcriptional pattern is related to development of the fungus and establishment of disease. It is therefore necessary to identify genes whose expression is relevant to growth, metabolism and virulence of T. rubrum. Results We generated 10 cDNA libraries covering nearly the entire growth phase and used them to isolate 11,085 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs), including 3,816 contigs and 7,269 singletons. Comparisons with the GenBank non-redundant (NR) protein database revealed putative functions or matched homologs from other organisms for 7,764 (70%) of the ESTs. The remaining 3,321 (30%) of ESTs were only weakly similar or not similar to known sequences, suggesting that these ESTs represent novel genes. Conclusion The present data provide a comprehensive view of fungal physiological processes including metabolism, sexual and asexual growth cycles, signal transduction and pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:17032460

  12. Clinical Trichophyton rubrum strain exhibiting primary resistance to terbinafine.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Pranab K; Leidich, Steven D; Isham, Nancy; Leitner, Ingrid; Ryder, Neil S; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal susceptibilities of six clinical Trichophyton rubrum isolates obtained sequentially from a single onychomycosis patient who failed oral terbinafine therapy (250 mg/day for 24 weeks) were determined by broth microdilution and macrodilution methodologies. Strain relatedness was examined by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses. Data obtained from both broth micro- and macrodilution assays were in agreement and revealed that the six clinical isolates had greatly reduced susceptibilities to terbinafine. The MICs of terbinafine for these strains were >4 microg/ml, whereas they were <0.0002 microg/ml for the susceptible reference strains. Consistent with these findings, the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of terbinafine for all six strains were >128 microg/ml, whereas they were 0.0002 microg/ml for the reference strain. The MIC of terbinafine for the baseline strain (cultured at the initial screening visit and before therapy was started) was already 4,000-fold higher than normal, suggesting that this is a case of primary resistance to terbinafine. The results obtained by the broth macrodilution procedure revealed that the terbinafine MICs and MFCs for sequential isolates apparently increased during the course of therapy. RAPD analyses did not reveal any differences between the isolates. The terbinafine-resistant isolates exhibited normal susceptibilities to clinically available antimycotics including itraconazole, fluconazole, and griseofulvin. However, these isolates were fully cross resistant to several other known squalene epoxidase inhibitors, including naftifine, butenafine, tolnaftate, and tolciclate, suggesting a target-specific mechanism of resistance. This is the first confirmed report of terbinafine resistance in dermatophytes. PMID:12499173

  13. Clinical Trichophyton rubrum Strain Exhibiting Primary Resistance to Terbinafine

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Leidich, Steven D.; Isham, Nancy; Leitner, Ingrid; Ryder, Neil S.; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal susceptibilities of six clinical Trichophyton rubrum isolates obtained sequentially from a single onychomycosis patient who failed oral terbinafine therapy (250 mg/day for 24 weeks) were determined by broth microdilution and macrodilution methodologies. Strain relatedness was examined by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses. Data obtained from both broth micro- and macrodilution assays were in agreement and revealed that the six clinical isolates had greatly reduced susceptibilities to terbinafine. The MICs of terbinafine for these strains were >4 μg/ml, whereas they were <0.0002 μg/ml for the susceptible reference strains. Consistent with these findings, the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of terbinafine for all six strains were >128 μg/ml, whereas they were 0.0002 μg/ml for the reference strain. The MIC of terbinafine for the baseline strain (cultured at the initial screening visit and before therapy was started) was already 4,000-fold higher than normal, suggesting that this is a case of primary resistance to terbinafine. The results obtained by the broth macrodilution procedure revealed that the terbinafine MICs and MFCs for sequential isolates apparently increased during the course of therapy. RAPD analyses did not reveal any differences between the isolates. The terbinafine-resistant isolates exhibited normal susceptibilities to clinically available antimycotics including itraconazole, fluconazole, and griseofulvin. However, these isolates were fully cross resistant to several other known squalene epoxidase inhibitors, including naftifine, butenafine, tolnaftate, and tolciclate, suggesting a target-specific mechanism of resistance. This is the first confirmed report of terbinafine resistance in dermatophytes. PMID:12499173

  14. Arthroderma olidum, sp. nov. A new addition to the Trichophyton terrestre complex.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Colin K; Borman, Andrew M; Linton, Christopher J; Bridge, Paul D; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2006-08-01

    In 1981, four fungal isolates from hair of the European badger (Meles meles) were examined by Dr Phyllis Stockdale at the Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, and deposited in the UK National Collection of Pathogenic Fungi as an undescribed member of the Trichophyton terrestre complex. The present paper formalizes the complete description of a new ascomycete taxon, Arthroderma olidum following successful recent attempts to re-isolate the same fungus from the soil of Badger holes in South West England. Furthermore, using ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, we show that the asexual form of A. olidum is conspecific with the recently described Trichophyton eboreum1 isolated from a human skin specimen in Germany. PMID:16882612

  15. Chronic widespread dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton rubrum: a syndrome associated with a Trichophyton-specific functional defect of phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Maria da Glória T.; Santana, Grazielle B.; Criado, Paulo R.; Benard, Gil

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are agents of typically benign superficial infections. However, an increasing number of severe infections in immunocompromised hosts has been reported. We aimed to understand the factors underlying the existence of a cohort of patients presenting with chronic widespread dermatophytosis (CWD) due to Trichophyton rubrum, but with no signs of immunodeficiency. Their disease is usually recurrent and difficult to manage. Fourteen patients meeting the following criteria for CWD were studied: T. rubrum culture-proven skin lesions of ≥10 cm in at least one dimension; the involvement of at least three non-contiguous localizations of >1 year’s duration; and no predisposing conditions. For comparison, we also studied 13 acute Tinea pedis patients. Macrophages and neutrophils were isolated and tested for T. rubrum conidia phagocytic and killing activity. H2O2, NO, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine release were measured. All experiments were run with age- and sex-matched healthy donors’ cells in parallel. CWD patients’ macrophages and neutrophils presented with reduced T. rubrum–phagocytic and killing abilities, and reduced H2O2 and NO release when compared with those of healthy donors. CWD patients’ macrophages secreted lower levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, but enhanced levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Neutrophil secretion closely followed this unbalanced pattern. In contrast, responses to the positive controls zymosan, lipopolysaccharide, and phorbol myristate acetate were comparable with those of healthy donors. The same experiments were performed with macrophages and neutrophils from the acute Tinea pedis patients and showed no differences when compared with the matched healthy donors. Patients with CWD have a T. rubrum-related functional deficiency of phagocytes and may represent a distinct clinical entity in the complex spectrum of the Trichophyton

  16. Keratomycosis: Etiology, Risk Factors and Differential Diagnosis- A Mini Review on Trichophyton spp.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Yukti; Jain, Sanjay; Jayachandran

    2014-10-01

    Fungal keratitis is an infectious disease of the cornea. Lack of suspicion and delayed diagnosis herald the onset of complications often leading to permanent loss of vision or worse, enucleation. While a variety of pathogenic fungi especially non-dermatophyte molds associated with fungal keratitis have been identified, a comprehensive review identifying the Trichophyton spp. has not been completed. Trichophyton spp. is a rare but important entity implicated in fungal keratitis. Case reports from around the world designate it as a dangerous pathogen. Trichophyton spp. implicated in keratitis has not previously been reported and is considerably greater than suggested by incidence studies. Patient outcome is heavily reliant upon correct identification, timely intervention and effective treatment. Species identification, the risk factors associated with, and pathogenesis of keratitis will allow the development of improved therapies. This mini review provides a resource for clinicians and researchers to recognize Trichophyton spp. as a potent etiological agent capable of causing keratitis. It is no more a dermatophyte limited to infection of appendages. PMID:25478343

  17. Keratomycosis: Etiology, Risk Factors and Differential Diagnosis- A Mini Review on Trichophyton spp.

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sanjay; Jayachandran

    2014-01-01

    Fungal keratitis is an infectious disease of the cornea. Lack of suspicion and delayed diagnosis herald the onset of complications often leading to permanent loss of vision or worse, enucleation. While a variety of pathogenic fungi especially non-dermatophyte molds associated with fungal keratitis have been identified, a comprehensive review identifying the Trichophyton spp. has not been completed. Trichophyton spp. is a rare but important entity implicated in fungal keratitis. Case reports from around the world designate it as a dangerous pathogen. Trichophyton spp. implicated in keratitis has not previously been reported and is considerably greater than suggested by incidence studies. Patient outcome is heavily reliant upon correct identification, timely intervention and effective treatment. Species identification, the risk factors associated with, and pathogenesis of keratitis will allow the development of improved therapies. This mini review provides a resource for clinicians and researchers to recognize Trichophyton spp. as a potent etiological agent capable of causing keratitis. It is no more a dermatophyte limited to infection of appendages. PMID:25478343

  18. Biological, Biochemical, and Molecular Characterization of a New Clinical Trichophyton rubrum Isolate Resistant to Terbinafine

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Colin S.; Leitner, Ingrid; Hofbauer, Bettina; Fielding, Ceri A.; Favre, Bertrand; Ryder, Neil S.

    2006-01-01

    We have characterized a new clinical strain of Trichophyton rubrum highly resistant to terbinafine but exhibiting normal susceptibility to drugs with other mechanisms of action. Resistance to terbinafine in this strain is caused by a missense mutation in the squalene epoxidase gene leading to the amino acid substitution F397L. PMID:16723593

  19. Mycostatic effect of recombinant dermcidin against Trichophyton rubrum and reduced dermcidin expression in the sweat of tinea pedis patients.

    PubMed

    Arai, Satoru; Yoshino, Takashi; Fujimura, Takao; Maruyama, Sachie; Nakano, Toshiaki; Mukuno, Akira; Sato, Naoya; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2015-01-01

    Trichophytosis, a common dermatophytosis, affects nearly 20-25% of the world's population. However, little is known about mechanisms for preventing colonization of Trichophyton on the skin. Dermcidin, an antimicrobial peptide that provides innate immunity to the skin and is constitutively secreted even in the absence of inflammatory stimulation, was studied to elucidate its antimycotic activity against Trichophyton. Recombinant dermcidin was determined to have antimycotic activity against Trichophyton rubrum, as evaluated by colony-forming unit (CFU) assays. The killing rate of dermcidin was 40.5% and 93.4% at 50 μg/mL (the average dermcidin concentration in healthy subjects) and 270 μg/mL, respectively. An effect of dermcidin treatment was found to be a reduction of the metabolic activity of Trichophyton as determined by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide assay. Further, dermcidin concentrations in sweat of tinea pedis patients were found to be lower than those of healthy subjects. These findings suggest a mycostatic role for dermcidin, at normal sweat concentrations. Accordingly, we suspect that dermcidin, at normal sweat concentrations, inhibits growth of Trichophyton, where Trichophyton is subsequently eliminated in conjunction with epidermis turnover. Dermcidin, therefore, appears to play a role in the skin protection mechanism that prevents colonization of tinea pedis. PMID:25384912

  20. [Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae : Clinical therapeutic aspects of a new pathogen in dermatology].

    PubMed

    Hiernickel, C; Wiegand, C; Schliemann, S; Seyfarth, F; Jung, K; Elsner, P; Hipler, U-C

    2016-09-01

    Cutaneous infections with Trichophyton species of Arthroderma (A.) benhamiae are increasingly being detected in Germany. This dermatophyte typically causes tinea corporis, tinea faciei or tinea capitis with in part heavy clinical manifestation like kerion celsi. In special cases diagnosis and therapy can be difficult. In this article, four clinical cases are presented, whereby attention is given to special clinical situations and therapeutic aspects with regard to Trichophyton species of A. benhamiae: Case 1: Kerion celsi by in a 6-year-old boy; Case 2: Deep trichophytia at the mons pubis in a 32-year-old man working in a pet shop and his 27-year-old female partner; Case 3: Tinea manuum in a 7-year-old girl; Case 4: Tinea corporis in an 8‑year-old girl. PMID:27380384

  1. Comparison of the In Vitro Activities of Newer Triazoles and Established Antifungal Agents against Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Shuwen; Zhang, Chao; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Zhu, Shuang; Tan, Xin; Wen, Yiyang; Huang, Xin; Lei, Wenzhi; Zhou, Zhaojing; Fang, Wenjie; Shen, Shuaishuai; Deng, Danqi

    2015-01-01

    One hundred eleven clinical Trichophyton rubrum isolates were tested against 7 antifungal agents. The geometric mean MICs of all isolates were, in increasing order: terbinafine, 0.03 mg/liter; voriconazole, 0.05 mg/liter; posaconazole, 0.11 mg/liter; isavuconazole, 0.13 mg/liter; itraconazole, 0.26 mg/liter; griseofulvin, 1.65 mg/liter; and fluconazole, 2.12 mg/liter. PMID:25896691

  2. Tinea corporis due to Trichophyton violaceum: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Smriti, C; Anuradha, S; Kamlesh, T; Isampreet, K; Nitin, K

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are Fungi which infect keratinized tissues, that is, skin epidermis, hair and nails. Trichophyton violaceum is an anthropophilic, cosmopolitan dermatophyte. It primarily causes tinea capitis and less commonly tinea corporis and tinea unguium. We present a report of two cases of tinea corporis due to T. violaceum in children. Infections due to T. violaceum are important because of its transmissibility within families and community and its potential to spread and establish in new geographical areas. PMID:26470976

  3. Trichoderma spp. antagonism to the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum: implications in treatment of onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Omero, C; Dror, Y; Freeman, A

    2004-08-01

    Onychomycosis--the dermatophytic invasion of the nail--is difficult to eradicate with drug treatment. The hyphae of the main invading pathogen, Trichophyton rubrum, are often interwoven with the nail plate, preventing effective anti-mycotic agents from reaching its growing tips. An alternative approach to treat onychomycosis may possibly be the application of a biological control agent against the pathogen. In analogy with the success of biocontrol of phytopathogenic fungi, we screened a series of commercially available Trichoderma strains for potential antagonism between Trichoderma and Trichophyton spp. A wide spectrum of antagonism capacity, ranging from effective overgrowth to no interaction was found, with Trichoderma virens NRRL 26672 being the most effective against the Trichophyton strains tested e.g. T. rubrum NCPF118. Furthermore, T. virens NRRL 26672 grown with T. rubrum NCPF118 hyphae as a carbon source, exhibited enhanced induced secretion of active extracellular chitinases and beta-glucosidases, affecting lysis and sporulation on T. rubrum NCPF118 hyphae. Growth of Trichod. virens NRRL 26672 in poor medium also resulted in secretion of antibiotics active in arresting the growth of T. rubrum NCPF118 inoculum. Our findings may open new directions for the treatment of onychomycosis, either in combination with known medications or as a new "natural" route. PMID:15518345

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of vinyl ether-containing azole derivatives as inhibitors of Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lulu; Yang, Wenge; Wang, Kai; Zhu, Jing; Shen, Fei; Hu, Yonghong

    2012-07-15

    In an attempt to search for many target compounds with excellent activities, a series of vinyl ether-containing azole derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as antifungal agents. Results of preliminary antifungal tests against Trichophyton rubrum in vitro indicated that most of the synthesized compounds showed excellent activities. In comparison with fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, omoconazole and amphotericin B, several compounds (such as 7d, 7g and 7h) exhibited more potent inhibitory activities, suggesting that they were promising leads for the development of novel antifungal agents. PMID:22683344

  5. Widespread and invasive Trichophyton rubrum infection mimicking Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Kyung-Sool; Jang, Ho-Sun; Son, Hyo-Sung; Oh, Chang-Keun; Kwon, Yoo-Wook; Kim, Ki-Hong; Suh, Soon-Bong

    2004-10-01

    Opportunistic fungal infections are commonly encountered in AIDS patients. Candidiasis, tinea pedis, onychomycosis, and deep mycotic infections have been the fungal infections most frequently reported in these patients. Dermatophyte infections can appear to be atypical and aggressive in these patients and may lead to a misdiagnosis. We report a Trichophyton rubrum infection in a 44-year-old man with AIDS that presented as a widespread and multiple tumor-like appearance. After the patient was treated with terbinafine for 21 weeks, the lesions cleared completely. We think that this type of dermatophyte infection is very unusual in patients with AIDS and could lead to inappropriate diagnostic processes and treatments. PMID:15672716

  6. Trichophyton erinacei kerion barbae from a hedgehog with direct osculatory transfer to another person.

    PubMed

    Sidwell, R U; Chan, I; Francis, N; Bunker, C B

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of kerion tinea barbae infection due to Trichophyton erinacei in a 37-year-old man. The infection had also been transferred to his partner by direct contact from kissing. T. erinacei is a zoophilic dermatophyte occasionally harboured by the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). There are few reports of human infection in the literature, and it rarely causes a kerion. There is only one previous report of tinea barbae occurrence due to T. erinacei. This case highlights the possibility of one of the more unusual fungal infections that can be acquired in the UK, and highlights the necessity of asking specific questions to identify possible sources of infection. PMID:24016062

  7. The fungus Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. causes skin infections that resemble white-nose syndrome of hibernating bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Minnis, Andrew M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Redell, Jennifer A.; White, J. Paul; Kaarakka, Heather M.; Muller, Laura K.; Lindner, David L.; Verant, Michelle L.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Blehert, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Before the discovery of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, there were no reports of fungal skin infections in bats during hibernation. In 2011, bats with grossly visible fungal skin infections similar in appearance to WNS were reported from multiple sites in Wisconsin, USA, a state outside the known range of P. destructans and WNS at that time. Tape impressions or swab samples were collected from affected areas of skin from bats with these fungal infections in 2012 and analyzed by microscopy, culture, or direct DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). A psychrophilic species ofTrichophyton was isolated in culture, detected by direct DNA amplification and sequencing, and observed on tape impressions. Deoxyribonucleic acid indicative of the same fungus was also detected on three of five bat carcasses collected in 2011 and 2012 from Wisconsin, Indiana, and Texas, USA. Superficial fungal skin infections caused by Trichophyton sp. were observed in histopathology for all three bats. Sequencing of the ITS of Trichophyton sp., along with its inability to grow at 25 C, indicated that it represented a previously unknown species, described herein as Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. Genetic diversity present within T. redellii suggests it is native to North America but that it had been overlooked before enhanced efforts to study fungi associated with bats in response to the emergence of WNS.

  8. The fungus Trichophyton redellii sp. Nov. Causes skin infections that resemble white-nose syndrome of hibernating bats.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Minnis, Andrew M; Meteyer, Carol U; Redell, Jennifer A; White, J Paul; Kaarakka, Heather M; Muller, Laura K; Lindner, Daniel L; Verant, Michelle L; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Blehert, David S

    2015-01-01

    Before the discovery of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, there were no reports of fungal skin infections in bats during hibernation. In 2011, bats with grossly visible fungal skin infections similar in appearance to WNS were reported from multiple sites in Wisconsin, US, a state outside the known range of P. destructans and WNS at that time. Tape impressions or swab samples were collected from affected areas of skin from bats with these fungal infections in 2012 and analyzed by microscopy, culture, or direct DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). A psychrophilic species of Trichophyton was isolated in culture, detected by direct DNA amplification and sequencing, and observed on tape impressions. Deoxyribonucleic acid indicative of the same fungus was also detected on three of five bat carcasses collected in 2011 and 2012 from Wisconsin, Indiana, and Texas, US. Superficial fungal skin infections caused by Trichophyton sp. were observed in histopathology for all three bats. Sequencing of the ITS of Trichophyton sp., along with its inability to grow at 25 C, indicated that it represented a previously unknown species, described herein as Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. Genetic diversity present within T. redellii suggests it is native to North America but that it had been overlooked before enhanced efforts to study fungi associated with bats in response to the emergence of WNS. PMID:25375940

  9. Forty-Eight-Hour Diagnosis of Onychomycosis with Subtyping of Trichophyton rubrum Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kardjeva, V.; Summerbell, R.; Kantardjiev, T.; Devliotou-Panagiotidou, D.; Sotiriou, E.; Gräser, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A novel strategy for the molecular identification of fungal agents of onychomycosis (including Trichophyton rubrum) has been designed based on the use of species-specific and universal primers in conjunction with a commercial kit that allows the extraction of DNA directly from the nail specimens. The microsatellite marker T1, which is based on a (GT)n repeat, was applied for the species-specific identification of Trichophyton rubrum. To evaluate how often Scopulariopsis spp. are detected in nail specimens, a second primer pair was designed to amplify specifically a 336-bp DNA fragment of the 28S region of the nuclear rRNA gene of S. brevicaulis and closely related species. Other fungal species were identified using amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis or sequencing. In addition, polyacrylamide gel separation of the T1-PCR product allowed subtyping of T. rubrum strains. We studied 195 nail specimens (the “nail sample”) and 66 previously collected etiologic strains (the “strain sample”) from 261 onychomycosis patients from Bulgaria and Greece. Of the etiologic agents obtained from both samples, T. rubrum was the most common organism, confirmed to be present in 76% of all cases and serving as the sole or (rarely) mixed etiologic agent in 199 of 218 cases (91%) where the identity of the causal organism(s) was confirmed. Other agents seen included molds (6% of cases with identified etiologic agents; mainly S. brevicaulis) and other dermatophyte species (4%; most frequently Trichophyton interdigitale). Simultaneous infections with two fungal species were confirmed in a small percentage of cases (below 1%). The proportion of morphologically identified cultures revealed by molecular study to have been misidentified was 6%. Subtyping revealed that all but five T. rubrum isolates were of the common type B that is prevalent in Europe. In comparison to microscopy

  10. Forty-eight-hour diagnosis of onychomycosis with subtyping of Trichophyton rubrum strains.

    PubMed

    Kardjeva, V; Summerbell, R; Kantardjiev, T; Devliotou-Panagiotidou, D; Sotiriou, E; Gräser, Y

    2006-04-01

    A novel strategy for the molecular identification of fungal agents of onychomycosis (including Trichophyton rubrum) has been designed based on the use of species-specific and universal primers in conjunction with a commercial kit that allows the extraction of DNA directly from the nail specimens. The microsatellite marker T1, which is based on a (GT)n repeat, was applied for the species-specific identification of Trichophyton rubrum. To evaluate how often Scopulariopsis spp. are detected in nail specimens, a second primer pair was designed to amplify specifically a 336-bp DNA fragment of the 28S region of the nuclear rRNA gene of S. brevicaulis and closely related species. Other fungal species were identified using amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis or sequencing. In addition, polyacrylamide gel separation of the T1-PCR product allowed subtyping of T. rubrum strains. We studied 195 nail specimens (the "nail sample") and 66 previously collected etiologic strains (the "strain sample") from 261 onychomycosis patients from Bulgaria and Greece. Of the etiologic agents obtained from both samples, T. rubrum was the most common organism, confirmed to be present in 76% of all cases and serving as the sole or (rarely) mixed etiologic agent in 199 of 218 cases (91%) where the identity of the causal organism(s) was confirmed. Other agents seen included molds (6% of cases with identified etiologic agents; mainly S. brevicaulis) and other dermatophyte species (4%; most frequently Trichophyton interdigitale). Simultaneous infections with two fungal species were confirmed in a small percentage of cases (below 1%). The proportion of morphologically identified cultures revealed by molecular study to have been misidentified was 6%. Subtyping revealed that all but five T. rubrum isolates were of the common type B that is prevalent in Europe. In comparison to microscopy and

  11. A Case of Tinea Corporis due to Trichophyton tonsurans that Manifested as Impetigo.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Harunari; Nakashima, Chikako; Hase, Midori; Sei, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    A 41-year-old man visited our dermatology clinic because an eruption, which was resistant to steroid ointment treatment, had appeared on his right forearm. An oval, soybean-sized erythematous infiltrated lesion with scales and crusts was located in the central part of the extensor surface of the right forearm and showed partial erosion with attached yellow crusts. The lesion had an impetigo-like appearance. Fungal elements were confirmed from the scales by KOH examination and the fungus was identified as Trichophyton tonsurans by fungal culture and molecular method. Clinical features of T. tonsurans infection vary, wherein some patients have strong inflammatory manifestations, while others remain as asymptomatic carriers. Especially at the early stage of the infection, diagnosis is difficult because it is often misdiagnosed as eczema. We report a case of T. tonsurans infection that had impetigo-like appearance. We also studied the mechanism of the disease. PMID:27581776

  12. Tinea capitis due to Trichophyton soudanense with a papular IDE reaction in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Landro, A; Marchesi, L; Passera, M; Arosio, M

    2008-12-01

    A little boy from a Nigerian family who lives in a little industrialized village in the suburbs of Bergamo, (Northern Italy), has never been to his country but presented with tinea capitis and with a secondary papular pruritic eruption of the trunk. Fungal cultures analysis have shown the development of Trichophyton soudanense, an anthropophilic dermatophyte which is endemic in Africa, but only rarely reported in Italy and in other European countries. The growing racial mixing related to migratory movements is favoring, also in Italy, the integration of this strain with the species which are most commonly responsible for dermatophytoses and the appearance of papular IDE reactions which were only occasionally seen in the Italian children population. PMID:19169215

  13. Origins of Microsatellite Diversity in the Trichophyton rubrum- T. violaceum Clade (Dermatophytes)

    PubMed Central

    Ohst, T.; de Hoog, S.; Presber, W.; Stavrakieva, V.; Gräser, Y.

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed the population structure of the anthropophilic dermatophyte species Trichophyton violaceum, which mainly causes tinea capitis, and T. rubrum, the most frequently isolated agent of dermatophytosis worldwide. A microsatellite marker (T1) was developed by using the enrichment technique for microsatellites. The T1 marker containing a (GT)8-10 repeat was proven to specifically amplify both species, underlining their close kinship. Four polymorphic alleles were detected within a set of about 130 strains by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with this marker. An association with geographic origin of the isolates was apparent. Given the close relatedness of both species, these data suggest an African origin of the entire T. rubrum complex, followed by the emergence of a new genotype (B) in Asia with subsequent spread of this genotype over Europe and the United States. PMID:15472291

  14. A 9-Month-Old Girl from Iran with Extensive Erythematous Plaques Due to Trichophyton simii, a Zoophilic Dermatophyte.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Saham; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Nouripour-Sisakht, Sadegh; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Jannesar, Ramin; Mohammadi, Haniyeh; Fazli, Yousef; Ilkit, Macit; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton simii is generally considered to be limited to endemic areas, particularly one area of India. However, the high similarity between the morphological features of atypical T. simii isolates and those of other dermatophytes such as Trichophyton interdigitale and Arthroderma benhamiae may lead to misidentification of the cause of dermatophytosis in many instances. We investigated a rare case of tinea corporis in a 9-month-old female with extensive erythematous lesions. Morphological features of the recovered isolate from the culture resulted in the identification of Trichophyton interdigitale. For accurate identification, the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene were sequenced and the isolate was ultimately identified as T. simii. In conclusion, T. simii, which has been formerly known to be restricted to specific endemic regions, appears to be not infrequent in non-endemic areas but instead simply less well-known and consequently underestimated. To determine its actual prevalence of infection, the application of DNA-based molecular methodologies is required. PMID:26767834

  15. Gene Expression Response of Trichophyton rubrum during Coculture on Keratinocytes Exposed to Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Silva, Gabriel; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most common causative agent of dermatomycoses worldwide, causing infection in the stratum corneum, nails, and hair. Despite the high prevalence of these infections, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the fungal-host interaction, particularly during antifungal treatment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the gene expression of T. rubrum cocultured with keratinocytes and treated with the flavonoid trans-chalcone and the glycoalkaloid α-solanine. Both substances showed a marked antifungal activity against T. rubrum strain CBS (MIC = 1.15 and 17.8 µg/mL, resp.). Cytotoxicity assay against HaCaT cells produced IC50 values of 44.18 to trans-chalcone and 61.60 µM to α-solanine. The interaction of keratinocytes with T. rubrum conidia upregulated the expression of genes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, ergosterol synthesis, and genes encoding proteases but downregulated the ABC transporter TruMDR2 gene. However, both antifungals downregulated the ERG1 and ERG11, metalloprotease 4, serine proteinase, and TruMDR2 genes. Furthermore, the trans-chalcone downregulated the genes involved in the glyoxylate pathway, isocitrate lyase, and citrate synthase. Considering the urgent need for more efficient and safer antifungals, these results contribute to a better understanding of fungal-host interactions and to the discovery of new antifungal targets. PMID:26257814

  16. Skin Infection due to Trichophyton tonsurans Still Occurs in People in Korea but not as Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Since 1995, Trichophyton tonsurans has been one of the causative agents of dermatophytosis in Korea. Herein we evaluate 77 patients infected with T. tonsurans who visited an outpatient clinic between 2004 and 2014. Infections due to T. tonsurans were diagnosed by mycological examination, which included direct microscopic examination using 15% KOH and culture in potato dextrose agar complemented with 0.5% chloramphenicol. The annual prevalence of infection due to T. tonsurans was the highest in 2014 (15 cases) but remained constant in non-gladiators between 2004 and 2014. The ratio of male to female patients was 1:0.3. The spring season presented the highest incidence compared with other seasons, with 27 cases. The incidence of infections due to T. tonsurans among gladiators was highest in spring compared with the other seasons whereas the incidence in non-gladiators was the highest in the winter. The body site most commonly affected was the face. Tinea corporis was the most common subtype of dermatophytosis caused by T. tonsurans. Herein, we demonstrate that the prevalence of infection with T. tonsurans remain constant throughout the study period in Korea. PMID:26839486

  17. Skin Infection due to Trichophyton tonsurans Still Occurs in People in Korea but not as Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Weon Ju; Sim, Hyun Bo; Jang, Yong Hyun; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Do Won; Jun, Jae Bok; Bang, Yong Jun

    2016-02-01

    Since 1995, Trichophyton tonsurans has been one of the causative agents of dermatophytosis in Korea. Herein we evaluate 77 patients infected with T. tonsurans who visited an outpatient clinic between 2004 and 2014. Infections due to T. tonsurans were diagnosed by mycological examination, which included direct microscopic examination using 15% KOH and culture in potato dextrose agar complemented with 0.5% chloramphenicol. The annual prevalence of infection due to T. tonsurans was the highest in 2014 (15 cases) but remained constant in non-gladiators between 2004 and 2014. The ratio of male to female patients was 1:0.3. The spring season presented the highest incidence compared with other seasons, with 27 cases. The incidence of infections due to T. tonsurans among gladiators was highest in spring compared with the other seasons whereas the incidence in non-gladiators was the highest in the winter. The body site most commonly affected was the face. Tinea corporis was the most common subtype of dermatophytosis caused by T. tonsurans. Herein, we demonstrate that the prevalence of infection with T. tonsurans remain constant throughout the study period in Korea. PMID:26839486

  18. Antimicrobial activity of Paenibacillus kribbensis POC 115 against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Cotta, Simone Raposo; da Mota, Fabio Faria; Tupinambá, Gleiser; Ishida, Kelly; Rozental, Sonia; E Silva, Davi Oliveira; da Silva, Antônio Jorge Ribeiro; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Seldin, Lucy

    2012-03-01

    In a search for an antifungal substance with activity against the dermatophyte fungus Trichophyton rubrum, strain POC 115 was chosen among different Paenibacillus strains for its phenotypic and genetic characterization and for preliminary characterization of its antimicrobial substance. Strain POC 115 was identified as belonging to Paenibacillus kribbensis. Physico-chemical characterization of the antimicrobial substance showed that it was not stable during heat and organic solvents treatments, but its activity was preserved at a wide range of pH and after treatment with pronase E, trypsin and DNase I. The crude concentrated supernatant of POC 115 culture was partially purified and the fraction presenting antimicrobial activity was further analyzed by UPLC/Mass Spectrometry. Two peaks were observed at 2.02 (mass 1,207 D) and 2.71 (mass 1,014 D) min in the mass chromatogram. The antimicrobial substance produced by POC 115 was correlated to iturin family compounds based on a set of primers designed for the amplification of PKS operon in the POC 115 genome. As happens with the mode of action of the antibiotics of the iturin group, the AMS produced by POC 115 caused the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane of T. rubrum and the subsequent withdraw of the intracellular material. This is the first report on the production of antimicrobial substances in P. kribbensis, and it may be of great relevance as an alternative or supplementary substance to antifungal drugs currently used against dermatophytes. PMID:22805816

  19. Equine Dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton bullosum, a Poorly Known Zoophilic Dermatophyte Masquerading as T. verrucosum.

    PubMed

    Lyskova, Pavlina; Hubka, Vit; Petricakova, Anna; Dobias, Radim; Cmokova, Adela; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2015-12-01

    Trichophyton bullosum is a zoophilic dermatophyte from the Arthroderma benhamiae complex with a poorly known distribution. In this study, we report a case of dermatophytosis caused by T. bullosum in a 6-year-old male horse who had a skin lesion located in a saddle area. The infection spread rapidly to the upper chest and to both sides of the trunk. The dermatophyte was isolated in culture and identified by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS rDNA). To date, this is the first verified case of animal infection due to T. bullosum in Europe following the 2012 report of human infection in France. We hypothesize that this species can be relatively common in horses and donkeys, but it is confused with other zoophilic species responsible for infections with similar clinical manifestations, and when isolated in culture, it is misidentified as the phenotypically similar T. verrucosum. Previous cases of dermatophytosis caused by T. verrucosum-like dermatophytes in horses and donkeys were reviewed together with human infections transmitted from these animals. This summary estimates possible distribution width of T. bullosum. The taxonomy of T. verrucosum-like dermatophytes is extremely difficult due to lack of original material and poor morphology of species. Molecular genetic methods are necessary to verify the identification of these fungi. ITS1 or ITS2 region of rDNA alone is sufficient for correct identification. PMID:26290003

  20. Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae - a new infectious agent in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Nenoff, Pietro; Uhrlaß, Silke; Krüger, Constanze; Erhard, Marcel; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Seyfarth, Florian; Herrmann, Jürgen; Wetzig, Tino; Schroedl, Wieland; Gräser, Yvonne

    2014-07-01

    In Germany, infections due to the zoophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton (T.) species of Arthroderma benhamiae are being more frequently diagnosed. The source of infection of this emerging pathogen overlaps with that of the zoophilic species T. interdigitale. The most common source are guinea pigs. T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae causes inflammatory dermatophytosis in children and adolescents. In addition to tinea capitis, it may cause both tinea corporis, tinea manus and frequently tinea faciei. In Germany, T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae is a frequent zoophilic dermatophyte, which in regions is probably more frequent than Microsporum canis. The mycological identification of the isolates with their yellow stained colonies is based on their macroscopic and microscopic features. However, some exhibit colony features consistent with those of T. interdigitale. These strains only can be identified unambiguously by means of molecular techniques. Using detection methods such as PCR-ELISA or real-time PCR, the dermatophyte can be identified directly from clinical material. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA has been approved as culture confirmation test for T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae. In addition, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) is useful. Widespread dermatophytosis due to T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae, in particular of tinea capitis, requires oral antifungal agents. Terbinafine is most effective, alternatives are fluconazole and itraconazole. PMID:24981469

  1. Trichophyton tonsurans infection in Japan: epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and infection control.

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Junichiro; Ogawa, Yumi; Hiruma, Masataro

    2015-03-01

    In this review, we summarize the status of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in Japan in terms of epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and infection control. Since approximately 2000, outbreaks of T. tonsurans infections among combat sports club members have been reported frequently, with the infection then spreading to their friends and family members. The most common clinical features of T. tonsurans infection are tinea corporis, which is difficult to differentiate from eczema, and tinea capitis. Tinea capitis is classified as the seborrheic form, kerion celsi form or "black dot" form, although 90% or more of patients are asymptomatic carriers. The diagnosis of symptomatic T. tonsurans infection is established by potassium hydroxide examination and fungal culture. However, because there are many asymptomatic carriers of T. tonsurans infection, tests using the hairbrush culture method are necessary. An increase in asymptomatic carriers of T. tonsurans makes assessment of the current prevalence of the infection challenging and underscores the importance of educational efforts and public awareness campaigns to prevent T. tonsurans epidemics. PMID:25736317

  2. Potential of Ergosterol Synthesis Inhibitors To Cause Resistance or Cross-Resistance in Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Celandroni, Francesco; Gueye, Sokhna Aissatou; Salvetti, Sara; Senesi, Sonia; Bulgheroni, Anna; Mailland, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Superficial mycoses caused by Trichophyton rubrum are among the most common infections worldwide. T. rubrum infections are difficult to treat and are often associated with recurrences after interruption of the antifungal therapy. Nevertheless, reports on T. rubrum resistance to commonly used antifungal drugs are rare. In this study, we compared the in vitro resistance frequencies and development of resistance to terbinafine, itraconazole, amorolfine, and ciclopirox in T. rubrum. Results demonstrated that naturally occurring mutants were isolated at a frequency of 10−7 for itraconazole and 10−9 for terbinafine and amorolfine. To mimic conditions of body sites in which low drug levels are reached during therapy, T. rubrum was propagated for 10 transfers in media containing subinhibitory drug concentrations. Resistance to itraconazole, terbinafine, and amorolfine emerged at a higher frequency than was seen with spontaneous mutation. Itraconazole-resistant mutants also showed decreased susceptibility to amorolfine as well as to terbinafine, and amorolfine-resistant mutants were also less susceptible to terbinafine. No mutant resistant to ciclopirox was isolated, suggesting no propensity of T. rubrum to develop resistance to this drug. How different drug mechanisms of action can influence the onset of resistance is discussed. PMID:24614379

  3. Highly Discriminatory Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Markers for Genotyping of Trichophyton interdigitale Strains

    PubMed Central

    Drira, Ines; Hadrich, Ines; Neji, Sourour; Mahfouth, Nedia; Trabelsi, Houaida; Sellami, Hayet; Makni, Fattouma

    2014-01-01

    Trichophyton interdigitale is the second most frequent cause of superficial fungal infections of various parts of the human body. Studying the population structure and genotype differentiation of T. interdigitale strains may lead to significant improvements in clinical practice. The present study aimed to develop and select suitable variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) markers for 92 clinical strains of T. interdigitale. On the basis of an analysis of four VNTR markers, four to eight distinct alleles were detected for each marker. The marker with the highest discriminatory power had eight alleles and a D value of 0.802. The combination of all four markers yielded a D value of 0.969 with 29 distinct multilocus genotypes. VNTR typing revealed the genetic diversity of the strains, identifying three populations according to their colonization sites. A correlation between phenotypic characteristics and multilocus genotypes was observed. Seven patients harbored T. interdigitale strains with different genotypes. Typing of clinical T. interdigitale samples by VNTR markers displayed excellent discriminatory power and 100% reproducibility. PMID:24989614

  4. A Large Outbreak of Trichophyton Tonsurans Among Healthcare Workers in a Pediatric Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Shroba, Jodi; Olson-Burgess, Cindy; Preuett, Barry; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Trichophyton tonsurans remains a wide spread cause of dermataophytoses among U.S. children, yet nosocomial spread may go unrecognized in a health care setting. We describe a staff outbreak of T. tonsurans infection among healthcare workers in a freestanding pediatric hospital. Methods Epidemiologic evaluation (retrospective and prospective) was performed in the healthcare providers and ancillary staff assigned to a 27-bed inpatient medical unit where a suspected outbreak occurred. Results Twenty-one individuals including staff, a hospital volunteer and a patient developed tinea corporis during a 5 month period. All infections coincided with multiple admissions of a 2 year old suspected index patient who demonstrated persistent infections of the scalp and arm. Fungal isolates obtained from the index patient and affected staff (when available) were subjected to multi-locus strain typing which revealed an identical genetic match between the index case and infected hospital personnel. Conclusion T. tonsurans can spread widely among staff members caring for children with recalcitrant dermatophyte infections. Timely recognition that work-place transmission may be the etiology of a succession of infections occurring in a single inpatient unit is necessary to limit the number of infected individuals. PMID:18834726

  5. Mating Type Gene (MAT) and Itraconazole Susceptibility of Trichophyton tonsurans Strains Isolated in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Junichiro; Okubo, Miki; Kano, Rui; Kumagawa, Mai; Hiruma, Masataro; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2016-06-01

    Infection by Trichophyton tonsurans is an emerging fungal epidemic in Japan. Itraconazole (ITZ) and terbinafine have been used for the treatment of this infection for 15 years. However, patients with T. tonsurans infections have been shown to remain uncured or to become reinfected, suggesting that subclinical infection or polyphyletic strains and/or antifungal drug-resistant strains might be occurring in Japan. In this study, PCR analysis was performed to confirm the presence of the mating type locus MAT in genomic DNA from 60 Japanese clinical isolates of T. tonsurans, and to assess the previously postulated clonal origin of clinical isolates of this species. Antifungal susceptibility testing on isolates also was performed to confirm the absence of strains resistant to ITZ. PCR analysis proved that all 60 strains contained the MAT1-1 allele, while none contained the MAT1-2 allele. As determined by E-test, the mean MIC of ITZ in the 60 strains was 0.023 mg/L (range 0.002-0.125 mg/L). All strains of T. tonsurans isolated in Japan were clonal and were not resistant to ITZ. Therefore, dermatophytosis due to T. tonsurans is expected to respond to ITZ, since clinical isolates of T. tonsurans tested to date have been susceptible to this antifungal. This infection is proliferating as a subclinical infection in Japan. PMID:26762628

  6. [Tinea capitis profunda due to Trichophyton verrucosum with cMRSA superinfection in an infant].

    PubMed

    Blömer, R-H; Keilani, N; Faber, A; Rodeck, B; Krüger, C; Uhrlaß, S; Gräser, Y; Nenoff, P

    2012-08-01

    A 28-month-old boy developed a cutaneous and subcutaneous lesion of the scalp together with alopecia. Treatment with sulfadiazine silver ointment and oral administration of cefaclor failed. The boy lived on a farm where cows and calves were present. He presented with a 5 cm erythematous, erosive, edematous, and sharply defined lesion with yellow crusts and circumscribed alopecia on the temporoparietal scalp. Peripheral hairs were easily epilated. Swabs from the wound revealed cMRSA (community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Panton Valentine Leukocidin [PVL] toxin negative). There was no improvement after treatment with cefuroxime intravenously over 3 days. Therapy was changed to vancomycin and fosfomycin. Because of the purulent abscess, surgical incision was performed. PCR (polymerase chain reaction)-Elisa assay detected Trichophyton (T.) interdigitale-DNA from wound secretion and skin biopsy. Because of the clinical and molecular diagnosis of tinea capitis, oral antifungal therapy with fluconazole 5 mg kg(-1) body weight was started, along with cotrimoxazole and fosfomycin for the cMRSA. After 4 weeks incubation, the causative agent T. verrucosum was grown on culture and its identity confirmed by sequencing of the "internal transcribed spacer" (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA. After 4 weeks of fluconazole, the lesion was nearly healed. PMID:22406762

  7. A Trichophyton Rubrum Infection Model Based on the Reconstructed Human Epidermis - Episkin®

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Pan-Pan; Huang, Xin-Zhu; Yi, Jin-Ling; Chen, Zhi-Rui; Ma, Han; Ye, Cong-Xiu; Chen, Xian-Yan; Lai, Wei; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trichophyton rubrum represents the most common infectious fungus responsible for dermatophytosis in human, but the mechanism involved is still not completely understood. An appropriate model constructed to simulate host infection is the prerequisite to study the pathogenesis of dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum. In this study, we intended to develop a new T. rubrum infection model in vitro, using the three-dimensional reconstructed epidermis - EpiSkin®, and to pave the way for further investigation of the mechanisms involved in T. rubrum infection. Methods: The reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) was infected by inoculating low-dose (400 conidia) and high-dose (4000 conidia) T. rubrum conidia to optimize the infection dose. During the various periods after infection, the samples were processed for pathological examination and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. Results: The histological analysis of RHE revealed a fully differentiated epidermis with a functional stratum corneum, which was analogous to the normal human epidermis. The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining and the periodic acid-Schiff staining showed that the infection dose of 400 conidia was in accord with the pathological characteristics of host dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum. SEM observations further exhibited the process of T. rubrum infection in an intuitionistic way. Conclusions: We established the T. rubrum infection model on RHE in vitro successfully. It is a promising model for further investigation of the mechanisms involved in T. rubrum infection. PMID:26712433

  8. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Kampo Medicine Water Extracts against Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Da, Xia; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Hein, Kyaw Zaw; Morita, Eishin

    2016-06-01

    Kampo medicines consist of a variety of crude animal, plant, and mineral extracts that have long been used to relieve different symptoms, and are relatively safe. However, their mechanisms of actions have not been well investigated. We screened 61 commercially available Kampo medicines to determine if they contain constituents with antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum. The antifungal effect of the Kampo medicines was determined by measuring the mean absorbance of treated fungal culture media. Lower absorbance values suggested a higher inhibition of the growth rate of T. rubrum by the Kampo medicines. We found that seven of the evaluated formulations exhibited a comparable antifungal activity to that of fluconazole at 14 mg/mL. The seven active Kampo medicines were Saiko-keishi-kankyou-to, Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to, Saiko-keishi-to, Keishi-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to, Dai-saiko-to, Bohu-tsu-sho-san, and Otsu-ji-to. The seven Kampo medicines with antifungal activity contain 30 different crude extracts, and Ou-gon (Scutellaria root) is a supplement contained in six of the seven formulations. Therefore, Ou-gon was considered to play a major role in their antifungal effect. The antifungal assay of the Ou-gon water extract showed that it significantly inhibited the growth of T. rubrum at a concentration of 20 mg/mL. Future studies will focus on the isolation and identification of the antifungal components of the crude extracts of Ou-gon, which may be potentially useful, new, and safe antifungal drugs. PMID:27534111

  9. Calcofluor White Combination Antifungal Treatments for Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Kingsbury, Joanne M.; Heitman, Joseph; Pinnell, Sheldon R.

    2012-01-01

    Superficial mycoses caused by dermatophyte fungi are among the most common infections worldwide, yet treatment is restricted by limited effective drugs available, drug toxicity, and emergence of drug resistance. The stilbene fluorescent brightener calcofluor white (CFW) inhibits fungi by binding chitin in the cell wall, disrupting cell wall integrity, and thus entails a different mechanism of inhibition than currently available antifungal drugs. To identify novel therapeutic options for the treatment of skin infections, we compared the sensitivity of representative strains of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans to CFW and a panel of fluorescent brighteners and phytoalexin compounds. We identified the structurally related stilbene fluorescent brighteners 71, 85, 113 and 134 as fungicidal to both T. rubrum and C. albicans to a similar degree as CFW, and the stilbene phytoalexins pinosylvan monomethyl ether and pterostilbene inhibited to a lesser degree, allowing us to develop a structure-activity relationship for fungal inhibition. Given the abilities of CFW to absorb UV365 nm and bind specifically to fungal cell walls, we tested whether CFW combined with UV365 nm irradiation would be synergistic to fungi and provide a novel photodynamic treatment option. However, while both treatments individually were cytocidal, UV365 nm irradiation reduced sensitivity to CFW, which we attribute to CFW photoinactivation. We also tested combination treatments of CFW with other fungal inhibitors and identified synergistic interactions between CFW and some ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors in C. albicans. Therefore, our studies identify novel fungal inhibitors and drug interactions, offering promise for combination topical treatment regimes for superficial mycoses. PMID:22792174

  10. Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris oils inhibit virulence in Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus spp

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Emergence of drug-resistant strains has demanded for alternative means of combating fungal infections. Oils of Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris have long been used in ethnomedicine for ailments of various fungal infections. Since their activity has not been reported in particular against drug-resistant fungi, this study was aimed to evaluate the effects of oils of C. copticum and T. vulgaris on the growth and virulence of drug-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp. and Trichophyton rubrum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed thymol constituting 44.71% and 22.82% of T. vulgaris and C. copticum, respectively. Inhibition of mycelial growth by essential oils was recorded in the order of thymol > T. vulgaris > C. copticum against the tested strains. RBC lysis assay showed no tested oils to be toxic even up to concentration two folds higher than their respective MFCs. Thymol exhibited highest synergy in combination with fluconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus MTCC2550 (FICI value 0.187) and T. rubrum IOA9 (0.156) as determined by checkerboard method. Thymol and T. vulgaris essential oil were equally effective against both the macro and arthroconidia growth (MIC 72 μg/mL). A > 80% reduction in elastase activity was recorded for A. fumigatus MTCC2550 by C. copticum, T. vulgaris oils and thymol. The effectiveness of these oils against arthroconidia and synergistic interaction of thymol and T. vulgaris with fluconazole can be exploited to potentiate the antifungal effects of fluconazole against drug-resistant strains of T. rubrum and Aspergillus spp. PMID:25242937

  11. Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris oils inhibit virulence in Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus spp.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Emergence of drug-resistant strains has demanded for alternative means of combating fungal infections. Oils of Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris have long been used in ethnomedicine for ailments of various fungal infections. Since their activity has not been reported in particular against drug-resistant fungi, this study was aimed to evaluate the effects of oils of C. copticum and T. vulgaris on the growth and virulence of drug-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp. and Trichophyton rubrum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed thymol constituting 44.71% and 22.82% of T. vulgaris and C. copticum, respectively. Inhibition of mycelial growth by essential oils was recorded in the order of thymol > T. vulgaris > C. copticum against the tested strains. RBC lysis assay showed no tested oils to be toxic even up to concentration two folds higher than their respective MFCs. Thymol exhibited highest synergy in combination with fluconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus MTCC2550 (FICI value 0.187) and T. rubrum IOA9 (0.156) as determined by checkerboard method. Thymol and T. vulgaris essential oil were equally effective against both the macro and arthroconidia growth (MIC 72 μg/mL). A > 80% reduction in elastase activity was recorded for A. fumigatus MTCC2550 by C. copticum, T. vulgaris oils and thymol. The effectiveness of these oils against arthroconidia and synergistic interaction of thymol and T. vulgaris with fluconazole can be exploited to potentiate the antifungal effects of fluconazole against drug-resistant strains of T. rubrum and Aspergillus spp. PMID:25242937

  12. Management of a Trichophyton tonsurans outbreak in a day-care center.

    PubMed

    Gray, Robert M; Champagne, Caroline; Waghorn, David; Ong, Eugene; Grabczynska, Sophie A; Morris, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans is the leading cause of tinea capitis in the United Kingdom (UK) as well as causing tinea corporis. This organism has been linked to several outbreaks in the UK and abroad, and such outbreaks may be prolonged since T. tonsurans can be difficult to control. There remains an incomplete consensus in the literature on the optimal management of such outbreaks of this infection. Following notification that a child with T. tonsurans was identified at a day-care center in the UK, initial investigations identified nine cases of fungal infection involving children and staff over the previous 7 months. We report on the management of an outbreak of T. tonsurans tinea capitis and tinea corporis among children and staff in a day-care center. An outbreak control team with representatives from dermatology, microbiology, day-care center management, and the Health Protection Agency initiated case ascertainment by scalp inspection and brushing of all children and staff at the nursery. Two complete rounds of screening were required before the outbreak was declared over. Infection control measures included antifungal shampoo use, exclusion of identified cases for a short period, removal of shared items from the center, and enhanced decontamination of fomites. The outbreak, which lasted longer than 12 months, involved 12 children and 7 staff members. Of these, 12 cases were confirmed by positive fungal culture. T. tonsurans is difficult to manage, especially in childcare settings, but case ascertainment, appropriate treatment with oral agents, and sustained infection control measures can be effective in controlling such outbreaks. PMID:25257708

  13. [A case of black dot ringworm caused by Trichophyton tonsurans in Chiba Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoko; Sano, Ayako; Komori, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2005-01-01

    A 74-year-old woman visited a clinic in Kisarazu, Chiba Prefecture in December 2002 complaining of itching, scale and alopecia. She had been diagnosed as having tinea capitis by a direct microscopic examination of scales, and been treated with an antifungal cream and steroid lotion since 1999. The bald area spread from frontal to occipital in which multiple black dots and red papules were scattered. Abundant endothrix spores were observed in the hair shaft. A mycelial colony was isolated from the black dots. A giant colony on Sabouraud's agar was white, powdery and flattened with cottony elevation at the center in the obverse, and a reddish-brown pigmentation in the reverse. The isolate produced abundant microconidia that were round to club-and balloon-shaped with extreme swelling, while macroconidia and spiral bodies were few. Hair perforation test was negative and urease activity test was positive. ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA sequencing revealed 100% homology with T. tonsurans isolated from two old women in Niigata Prefecture. On the other hand, 3 bases were different from those of the outbreak isolates from judo and wrestling players infected through international matches. T. tonsurans has polymorphism and the present isolate might be an autochthonous genotype in Japan. This is the first time T. tonsurans was isolated in Chiba Prefecture. But this prefecture had been known as an endemic area of Trichophyton coccineum, which was very similar in morphological and physiological characteristics to those of T. tonsurans before World War II. These facts raise the question of whether T. tonsurans has existed in this prefecture before. PMID:16282970

  14. Genetic Heterogeneity in the rRNA Gene Locus of Trichophyton tonsurans

    PubMed Central

    Gaedigk, Andrea; Gaedigk, Roger; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M.

    2003-01-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans is the major pediatric pathogen in tinea capitis, causing disparate disease presentations. Little is known about genetic variation, which may ultimately be linked to divergent disease status. This investigation was aimed at identifying genetic variants of T. tonsurans by methods that can facilitate strain discrimination in population-based studies. Ninety-two isolates were acquired from six U.S. microbiology laboratories, and genomic DNA was isolated from mature colonies. The nontranscribed spacer (NTS) was amplified by PCR, and products from isolates with various amplicon sizes were fully sequenced. Nested amplification, targeting a variable internal repeat (VIR) region, allowed assignment of variant type by fragment size. Subvariant type was assigned by a combination of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism-based assays. Five variants differing in size (348 to 700 bp) and sequence were identified within the VIR region comprised of several large repeats (104, 140, and 194 bp) arranged in tandem. Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected across the NTS, with five occurring in the constant regions flanking the VIR region and two occurring in the VIR region. Additionally, a 10-bp insertion and a 14-bp deletion were identified upstream of the VIR region. The combination of SNPs revealed seven haplotype patterns which were stable upon serial passage over 1 year. No sequence variations were identified within the internal transcribed spacer regions. Unique NTS sequences were utilized to develop a duplex PCR assay that discriminated T. tonsurans from other dermatophytes. Of the 92 isolates evaluated, this genotyping scheme distinguished 12 distinct strains, providing evidence of genetic heterogeneity in T. tonsurans. PMID:14662928

  15. Antimicrobial effects of allicin and ketoconazole on trichophyton rubrum under in vitro condition

    PubMed Central

    Aala, Farzad; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Jamal, Farida; Rezaie, Sassan

    2012-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is caused by a group of pathogenic fungi namely, dermatophytes, is among the most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide. Azole drugs are widely used in the treatment of dermatomycosis, but can cause various side effects and drug resistance to the patients. Hence, for solving this problem can be used from the plant extract as alternative for chemical drugs. Allicin is a pure bioactive compound isolated from garlic was tested for its potential as a treatment of dermatomycosis in this study. This study evaluated the in vitro efficacy of pure allicin against ten isolates of Trichophyton rubrum and the MIC50 and MIC90 ranged from 0.78-12.5 μg/ml for allicin. The results revealed that the order of efficacy based on the MICs values, all isolates showed almost comparable response to allicin and ketoconazole except for some isolates, at 28 °C for both 7 and 10 days incubation. Mann-Whitney test indicate that MICs at 7 days incubation was not observed a significant difference between the effects of allicin and ketoconazole (p > 0.05), but MICs at 10 days incubation, a significant difference was observed (p ≤ 0.05). On the other side, time kill studies revealed that allicin used its fungicidal activity within 12-24 h of management in vitro as well as ketoconazole. In conclusion, allicin showed very good potential as an antifungal compound against mycoses-causing dermatophytes, almost the same as the synthetic drug ketoconazole. Therefore, this antifungal agent appears to be effective, safe and suitable alternative for the treatment of dermatomycosis. PMID:24031891

  16. Two cases of tinea ciliaris with blepharitis due to Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton verrucosum and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Gulay Ozel; Dadaci, Zeynep; Ozer, Turkan Toka

    2014-09-01

    Dermatophytes are rarely taken into account among the causes of blepharitis. In our report, we describe a 69-year-old man and a 40-year-old woman with chronic blepharitis for 10 years and 4 years respectively, in whom we examined the scales and pulled eyelashes on direct microscopy and isolated Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton verrrucosum in the culture. We emphasise that dermatophytes may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of chronic blepharitis. In chronic, treatment resistance blepharitis fungal infections may be considered as possible cause. PMID:24724801

  17. A different kind of hedgehog pathway: tinea manus due to Trichophyton erinacei transmitted by an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Weishaupt, Julia; Kolb-Mäurer, Annette; Lempert, Sigrid; Nenoff, Pietro; Uhrlaß, Silke; Hamm, Henning; Goebeler, Matthias

    2014-02-01

    The unusual case of a 29-year-old woman with tinea manus caused by infection due to Trichophyton erinacei is described. The patient presented with marked erosive inflammation of the entire fifth finger of her right hand. Mycological and genomic diagnostics resulted in identification of T. erinacei as the responsible pathogen, which had been transmitted by a domestic African pygmy hedgehog, Atelerix albiventris. Upon prolonged treatment with topical and systemic antifungal agents skin lesions slowly resolved. This case illustrates that the increasingly popular keeping of extraordinary pets such as hedgehogs may bear the risk of infections with uncommon dermatophytes. PMID:23889168

  18. The Improvement of the Resistance to Candida albicans and Trichophyton interdigitale of Some Woven Fabrics Based on Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Stelescu, Maria Daniela; Manaila, Elena; Nicula, Gheorghe; Iordache, Ovidiu; Dinca, Laurentiu Christian; Berechet, Mariana-Daniela; Vamesu, Mariana; Gurau, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the improvement of the antimicrobial character of woven fabrics based on cotton. The woven fabrics were cleaned in oxygen plasma and treated by padding with silver chloride and titanium dioxide particles. The existence of silver and titanium on woven fabrics was evidenced by electronic microscope images (SEM, EDAX) and by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The antimicrobial tests were performed with two fungi: Candida albicans and Trichophyton interdigitale. The obtained antimicrobial effect was considerably higher compared to the raw fabrics. Treatment of dyed fabrics with a colloidal solution based on silver chloride and titanium dioxide particles does not considerably influence colour resistance of dyes. PMID:25276112

  19. Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans presenting as an obscure patchy hair loss due to daily antifungal shampoo use.

    PubMed

    Sombatmaithai, Alita; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Tuchinda, Papapit; Surawan, Theetat; Muanprasart, Chanai; Matthapan, Lalita; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas

    2015-04-01

    Tinea capitis is unusual and often misdiagnosed in healthy adults. We report a case of a healthy woman with a several-year history of asymptomatic, bizarre-shaped, non-scarring alopecia. She had used over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo regularly for a long time. An initial potassium hydroxide preparation showed negative result for fungal organism. The scalp biopsy revealed endothrix infection, and dermoscopic examination demonstrated the comma hair and corkscrew hair signs. The fungal culture showed Trichophyton tonsurans. The daily use of antifungal shampoo could be the important factor to conceal clinical and laboratory findings for diagnosis of T. tonsurans tinea capitis in our case, which required high clinical suspicion and histopathology and dermoscopic examinations. PMID:26114071

  20. Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans presenting as an obscure patchy hair loss due to daily antifungal shampoo use

    PubMed Central

    Sombatmaithai, Alita; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Tuchinda, Papapit; Surawan, Theetat; Muanprasart, Chanai; Matthapan, Lalita; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas

    2015-01-01

    Tinea capitis is unusual and often misdiagnosed in healthy adults. We report a case of a healthy woman with a several-year history of asymptomatic, bizarre-shaped, non-scarring alopecia. She had used over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo regularly for a long time. An initial potassium hydroxide preparation showed negative result for fungal organism. The scalp biopsy revealed endothrix infection, and dermoscopic examination demonstrated the comma hair and corkscrew hair signs. The fungal culture showed Trichophyton tonsurans. The daily use of antifungal shampoo could be the important factor to conceal clinical and laboratory findings for diagnosis of T. tonsurans tinea capitis in our case, which required high clinical suspicion and histopathology and dermoscopic examinations. PMID:26114071

  1. Occurrence of dermatomycosis (ringworm) due to Trichophyton verrucosum in dairy calves and its spread to animal attendants.

    PubMed

    Wabacha, J K; Gitau, G K; Bebora, L C; Bwanga, C O; Wamuri, Z M; Mbithi, P M

    1998-12-01

    Persistent dermatomycosis (ringworm) caused by Trichophyton verrucosum affected 20 dairy calves aged between 3 months and 1 year and housed together. The infection also spread to 2 animal attendants working among the calves. The major clinical lesions observed on the affected calves were extensive alopecia and/or circumscribed thick hairless skin patches affecting the head, neck, flanks and limbs. The observed lesions persisted for more than 17 weeks and most of the calves did not respond to topical treatment with various anti-fungal drugs within the anticipated period of 9 weeks. Two animal attendants developed skin lesions that were circumscribed and itchy and there was good response to treatment following the application of anti-fungal skin ointment. Although ringworm in dairy animals in Kenya has not previously been associated with spread to humans, the potential is evident from this report. PMID:10192093

  2. Apollo MEED mycology revisited and reviewed, including the Trichophyton terrestre keratinophilic growth at splashdown and 23 years after exposure to space parameters.

    PubMed

    Volz, P A; Long, J D; Veselenak, J M

    1995-01-01

    Keratinophilic Trichophyton terrestre conidia were exposed to selected parameters of space flight including 254, 280 and 300 nm UV light, full light and total darkness of space. Phenotypic isolates were grown on human hair collected from one source at years 1 and 23 after splashdown. The patterns of fungal growth on the hair, and the hair deterioration rates, were noted according to the space exposure. Growth and deterioration were consistent but slightly reduced at year 23. PMID:7476563

  3. Outbreak of tinea corporis gladiatorum, a fungal skin infection due to Trichophyton tonsurans, in a French high level judo team.

    PubMed

    Poisson, D M; Rousseau, D; Defo, Defo; Estève, E

    2005-09-01

    An outbreak of 49 cases of tinea corporis gladiatorum due to Trichophyton tonsurans infection occurred in a high level judo team of 131 members in Orleans, central France, between October 2004 and April 2005. The team was divided into 5 groups: cadet-junior boys (n=44), cadet-junior girls (n=33), male university students (n= 15), female university students (n=21), and a group called 'pole technique' made up of high level judokas who have finished academic study (n=18). The outbreak involved 86% of the cadet-junior boys, but only 6 men in the 'pole technique' (33%) and only 5 of the 69 other team members (7%) (cadet-junior girls and university students). We describe the outbreak and the results of a survey that found a known risk factor for the 'pole technique': sharing an electric hair shaver. Personal hygiene practices were found to be very good among the cadet-junior boys. The high attack rate in this group may be linked to the poor shower facilities in the gymnasium where they practiced that led them to have their showers several hours after the end of daily practice. PMID:16280611

  4. Increasing Prevalence of Trichophyton rubrum Identified through an Analysis of 115,846 Cases over the Last 37 Years.

    PubMed

    Lee, Weon Ju; Kim, Sang Lim; Jang, Yong Hyun; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Do Won; Bang, Yong Jun; Jun, Jae Bok

    2015-05-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte in the world with the highest prevalence in Korea. There are few reports about epidemiological and mycological characteristics of T. rubrum based on long-term, large-scale studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of T. rubrum infections in Korea. We retrospectively investigated with patients' records about the epidemiological and mycological status of 115,846 cases with T. rubrum infection that was mycologically diagnosed at Catholic Skin Disease Clinic from 1979 to 2013. Direct microscopy in 15% KOH solution and culture was done in each case. The annual incidence of patients with T. rubrum infection had been increasing during the period; and of 131,122 patients with dermatophytosis, 115,846 patients (88.35%) had T. rubrum infection. Disease was most prevalent among patients in their twenties in the 1970s and 1980s; in their thirties in the 1990s; in their forties in the 2000s; and in their fifties in the 2010s. The sex ratio was 1.5:1. T. rubrum infection was most commonly seen in summer and was found predominantly in patients living in urban areas. Toe webs were most frequently involved, followed by toenails and groin. This epidemiologic findings provide useful information for prevention of T. rubrum infection and future dermatophytosis prospects. PMID:25931797

  5. Screening examination and treatment of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in judo athletes affiliated with the University Judo Federation of Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Suganami, Morio; Ogawa, Yumi Shiraki; Hiruma, Masataro; Ogawa, Hideoki

    2011-07-01

    In Japan, Trichophyton tonsurans infection has become an increasing problem among combat sports participants. We investigated the prevalence of T. tonsurans infection in athletes affiliated to judo clubs in the 21 First Division universities that were registered with the University Judo Federation of Tokyo in 2008. Study procedures performed by the subjects included (i) completion of a questionnaire concerning lifestyle, risk factors for tinea corporis and medical history; (ii) scrubbing the scalp with a circular hairbrush to obtain samples for fungal culture; (iii) anti-fungal treatment as recommended by a dermatologist, based on the number of fungal colonies isolated from the hairbrush; and (iv) repeat testing using the hairbrush method 3 months after treatment recommendations were received. Of 902 study subjects, 102 (11.3%) yielded positive hairbrush culture results. Of these, 14 individuals (13.7%) had tinea corporis; the remainder were asymptomatic. Conversion to negative fungal culture was observed in 85 of 96 culture-positive individuals who performed the second hairbrush culture test following treatment. Control of T. tonsurans infection among judo athletes could be achieved by educating athletes, trainers and coaches in judo clubs concerning detection, prevention, and treatment of T. tonsurans infection. PMID:20002880

  6. Tinea Capitis: Mixed or Consecutive Infection with White and Violet Strains of Trichophyton violaceum: A Diagnostic or Therapeutic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Roma

    2015-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a common dermatophyte infection affecting scalp and hair of pre-pubertal children. With introduction of Griseofulvin in 1958, there has been considerable improvement in the treatment of tinea capitis. A seven-year-old male child was brought to the dermatology clinic. He presented with diffuse white scaly patches of alopecia on scalp of one-year duration. The child was sent to the microbiology section of the National Health laboratory, Botswana for the collection of the samples. The samples consisted of scalp scrapings and few plucked hairs from the suspicious areas, which were collected by swab and scalpel blade methods. Potassium hydroxide (10% KOH) mounts were prepared for scales and hair samples. Scales were positive for fungal elements and endothrix type of perforation was seen in hair. Cultures on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar (SDA) and Derm agar were incubated at 25°C, which yielded white variant of Trichophyton violaceum after two weeks of incubation. T. vioaceum (white variant) grew in all the plates. After six weeks of treatment with griseofulvin, the repeat culture grew only T. violaceum (violet strain). The child showed a definite clinical improvement. PMID:26814801

  7. Growth Inhibition and Morphological Alterations of Trichophyton Rubrum Induced by Essential oil from Cymbopogon Winterianus Jowitt Ex Bor

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; Alves Wanderley, Paulo; Cavalcanti Viana, Fernando Antônio; Baltazar de Lima, Rita; Barbosa de Sousa, Frederico; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is one of the most common fungi causer of dermatophytosis, mycosis that affect humans and animals around the world. Researches aiming new products with antifungal activity become necessary to overcome difficulties on treatment of these infections. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of essential oil from Cymbopogon winterianus against the dermatophyte T. rubrum. The antifungal screening was performed by solid medium diffusion method with 16 T. rubrum strains, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) were determined using the microdilution method. The effects on mycelial dry weight and morphology were also observed. Screening showed essential oil in natura inhibited all the tested strains, with inhibition zones between 24-28 mm diameter. MIC50 and MIC90 values of the essential oil were 312 μg/mL for nearly all the essayed strains (93.75 %) while the MFC50 and MFC90 values were about eight times higher than MIC for all tested strains. All tested essential oil concentrations managed to inhibit strongly the mycelium development. Main morphological changes on the fungal strains observed under light microscopy, which were provided by the essential oil include loss of conidiation, alterations concerning form and pigmentation of hyphae. In the oil presence, colonies showed folds, cream color and slightly darker than the control, pigment production was absent on the reverse and with evident folds. It is concluded that C. winterianus essential oil showed activity against T. rubrum. Therefore, it could be known as potential antifungal compound especially for protection against dermatophytosis. PMID:24031626

  8. Synergistic combination of violacein and azoles that leads to enhanced killing of major human pathogenic dermatophytic fungi Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Anju, S.; Kumar, Nishanth S.; Krishnakumar, B.; Kumar, B. S. Dileep

    2015-01-01

    Superficial mycoses caused by dermatophytic fungi such as Trichophyton rubrum represent the most common type of worldwide human infection affecting various keratinized tissues in our body such as the skin, hair, and nails, etc. The dermatophytic infection is a significant public health threat due to its persistent nature and high recurrence rates, and thus alternative treatments to cure this fungal infection are urgently required. The present study mainly focused on the synergistic activity of violacein with four azole drugs (ketoconazole, fluconazole, clotrimazole, and itraconazole) against T. rubrum. The synergistic antifungal activities of violacein and azoles were measured by checkerboard microdilution and time-kill assays. In our study, combinations of violacein and azoles predominantly recorded synergistic effect (FIC index < 0.5). Significant synergistic value was recorded by the combination of violacein and clotrimazole. Time-kill assay by the combination of MIC concentration of violacein and azoles recorded that the growth of the T. rubrum was significantly arrested after 4–12 h of treatment. The combination of violacein and azoles leads to the enhanced inhibition of mycelial growth and conidial germination. Moreover combination enhanced the rate of release of intracellular materials. Morphological changes by SEM analysis were also prominent with the combination. A normal human cell line [Foreskin (FS) normal fibroblast] was used to check the cytotoxicity of violacein. Interestingly violacein recorded no cytotoxicity up to 100 μg/ml. The in vitro synergistic effect of violacein and azoles against clinically relevant fungi, T. rubrum, is reported here for the first time. Finally, our findings support the potential use of the violacein as an antifungal agent especially against dermatophytic fungi T. rubrum. PMID:26322275

  9. A potential plant-derived antifungal acetylenic acid mediates its activity by interfering with fatty acid homeostasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    6-Nonadecynoic acid (6-NDA), a plant-derived acetylenic acid, exhibits strong inhibitory activity against the human fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In the present study, transcriptional profiling coupled with mutant and biochemical analyses...

  10. Reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in dermatomycete genus Trichophyton Malmsten 1848 based on ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region, partial 28S rRNA and beta-tubulin genes sequences.

    PubMed

    Pchelin, Ivan M; Zlatogursky, Vasily V; Rudneva, Mariya V; Chilina, Galina A; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Lavnikevich, Dmitry M; Vasilyeva, Natalya V; Taraskina, Anastasia E

    2016-09-01

    Trichophyton spp. are important causative agents of superficial mycoses. The phylogeny of the genus and accurate strain identification, based on the ribosomal ITS region sequencing, are still under development. The present work is aimed at (i) inferring the genus phylogeny from partial ITS, LSU and BT2 sequences (ii) description of ribosomal ITS region polymorphism in 15 strains of Trichophyton interdigitale. We performed DNA sequence-based species identification and phylogenetic analysis on 48 strains belonging to the genus Trichophyton. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred by maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods on concatenated ITS, LSU and BT2 sequences. Ribosomal ITS region polymorphisms were assessed directly on the alignment. By phylogenetic reconstruction, we reveal major anthropophilic and zoophilic species clusters in the genus Trichophyton. We describe several sequences of the ITS region of T. interdigitale, which do not fit in the traditional polymorphism scheme and propose emendations in this scheme for discrimination between ITS sequence types in T. interdigitale. The new polymorphism scheme will allow inclusion of a wider spectrum of isolates while retaining its explanatory power. This scheme was also found to be partially congruent with NTS typing technique. PMID:27071492

  11. Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 promote control of the fungal pathogen Trichophyton rubrum independently of IL-17 and adaptive immunity in experimental deep dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Fabio Sy; Yabe, Rikio; Iwakura, Yoichiro; de Almeida, Sandro R; Saijo, Shinobu

    2016-07-01

    Dermatophytoses are chronic fungal infections, the main causative agent of which is Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum). Despite their high occurrence worldwide, the immunological mechanisms underlying these diseases remain largely unknown. Here, we uncovered the C-type lectin receptors, Dectin-1 and Dectin-2, as key elements in the immune response to T. rubrum infection in a model of deep dermatophytosis. In vitro, we observed that deficiency in Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 severely compromised cytokine production by dendritic cells. In vivo, mice lacking Dectin-1 and/or Dectin-2 showed an inadequate pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to T. rubrum infection, impairing its resolution. Strikingly, neither adaptive immunity nor IL-17 response were required for fungal clearance, highlighting innate immunity as the main checkpoint in the pathogenesis of T. rubrum infection. PMID:27189427

  12. Discovery of a sexual stage in Trichophyton onychocola, a presumed geophilic dermatophyte isolated from toenails of patients with a history of T. rubrum onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Hubka, Vit; Nissen, Christoffer V; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Arendrup, Maiken C; Cmokova, Adela; Kubatova, Alena; Skorepova, Magdalena; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2015-11-01

    Trichophyton onychocola is a recently described geophilic dermatophyte that has been isolated from a toenail of Czech patient with a history of onychomycosis due to T. rubrum and clinical suspicion of relapse. In this study, we report a similar case from Denmark in an otherwise healthy 56-year-old man. The patient had a history of great toenail infection caused by T. rubrum in 2004 and presented with suspected relapse in 2011 and 2013. Trichophyton onychocola was the only microbial agent isolated at the second visit in 2013 and the identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Direct microscopic nail examination was positive for hyphae, however the etiological significance of T. onychocola was not supported by repeated isolation of the fungus. This new species may be an overlooked geophilic species due to the resemblance to some common species, for example, zoophilic T. interdigitale or some species of geophilic dermatophytes. We included differential diagnosis with phenotypically similar species; however, it is recommended that molecular methods are used for correct identification. The MAT locus of Danish strain was of opposite mating type than in the previously isolated Czech strain and the two isolates were successfully mated. The mating experiments with related heterothallic species T. thuringiense and Arthroderma melis were negative. The sexual state showed all typical signs of arthroderma-morph and is described by using optical as well as scanning electron microscopy. The sexual state was induced on a set of agar media, however low cultivation temperature and the presence of keratin source were crucial for the success rather than formulation of medium. PMID:26129891

  13. Antifungal activities of nine traditional Mexican medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Navarro García, V M; Gonzalez, A; Fuentes, M; Aviles, M; Rios, M Y; Zepeda, G; Rojas, M G

    2003-07-01

    Eighteen plant extracts from nine traditional Mexican medicinal plants were tested for antifungal activity against two dermatophyte fungal species (Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum), one non-dermatophyte (Aspergillus niger), and one yeast (Candida albicans). The strongest effect was manifested by the hexane extracts from Eupatorium aschenbornianum and Sedum oxypetalum, as well as the methanol extracts from Lysiloma acapulcensis and Annona cherimolia. PMID:12787958

  14. Infected nail plate model made of human hair keratin for evaluating the efficacy of different topical antifungal formulations against Trichophyton rubrum in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lusiana; Reichl, Stephan; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2013-08-01

    A novel model of infected nail plate for testing the efficacy of topical antifungal formulations has been developed. This model utilized keratin film made of human hair keratin as a nail plate model. Subsequent to infection by Trichophyton rubrum, the common causative agent of onychomycosis, keratin films as infected nail plate models were treated with selected topical formulations, that is cream, gel, and nail lacquer. Bovine hoof was compared to keratin film. In contrast to the common antifungal susceptibility test, the antifungal drugs tested were applied as ready-to-use formulations because the vehicle may modify and control the drug action both in vitro and in vivo. Extrapolating the potency of an antifungal drug from an in vitro susceptibility test only would not be representative of the in vivo situation since these drugs are applied as ready-to-use formulations, for example as a nail lacquer. Although terbinafine has been acknowledged to be the most effective antifungal agent against T. rubrum, its antifungal efficacy was improved by its incorporation into an optimal formulation. Different gels proved superior to cream. Therefore, this study is able to discriminate between efficacies of different topical antifungal formulations based on their activities against T. rubrum. PMID:23419812

  15. Kerion and Tinea Corporis Caused by Rabbit-Derived Trichophyton interdigitale in Three Siblings and One Consulting Doctor Using β-Tubulin Gene to Identify the Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Ping; Sheng, Ping; Liu, Zhong; Li, Wen; Wang, Jie-Di; Huang, Wen-Ming; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Trichophyton interdigitale is generally deemed as an anamorph of Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing, but recently their anamorph/teleomorph connection should be cautioned based on β-tubulin phylogeny. We report three siblings and one consulting doctor who developed kerion and tinea corporis after contact with domestic rabbits. Seven same strains were isolated from four patients and three regions of a sick rabbit. The ITS and D1/D2 sequences of our isolate were 99 % homologous to A. Vanbreuseghemii, while β-tubulin sequence was 100 % identical to T. interdigitale. Our isolate was identified as T. interdigitale based on maximum likelihood analysis of β-tubulin. Random amplified polymorphic DNA revealed that the band patterns of five isolated strains and another rabbit-derived strain WCH023 were identical for OPF-03 and OPF-12. Skin lesions of all patients resolved completely for 2- to 6-week therapy of oral terbinafine and topical 1 % bifonazole or 1 % terbinafine cream. This study demonstrates that T. interdigitale of rabbit origin can cause various types of human dermatophytosis by mild scratch. Terbinafine may be the first choice for dermatophytosis caused by T. interdigitale. PMID:27115611

  16. Comparison of the antifungal efficacy of terbinafine hydrochloride and ciclopirox olamine containing formulations against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum in an infected nail plate model.

    PubMed

    Täuber, Anja; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2014-07-01

    Onychomycosis is a fungal infection mostly induced by dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum. Due to slow nail growth, the treatment takes 3-9 months depending on the nail size and infected area. Hence, high efficacy of the active ingredient without systemic side effects is of major interest. To test the efficacy of an antifungal formulation, an appropriate in vitro model reflecting the in vivo situation as close as possible is required. In this study, a variety of antifungal formulations, i.e., commercial ones (Ciclopoli and Lamisil cream), those used in compounding pharmacies (Pentravan) as well as poloxamer 407-based systems, have been evaluated in an infected nail plate model. The active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) were ciclopirox olamine and terbinafine hydrochloride. The poloxamer 407-based formulations consisted of poloxamer 407, double distilled water, propylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, medium chain triglycerides and either 1% ciclopirox olamine or 1% terbinafine hydrochloride as API, respectively. Former studies have shown high permeation rates of terbinafine hydrochloride from similar poloxamer 407-based formulations with dimethyl isosorbide instead of propylene glycol. The present contribution shows superior inhibition of T. rubrum growth from poloxamer 407-based formulations in comparison to the commercial Lamisil cream. Moreover, poloxamer 407-based formulations were equally effective as the nail lacquer Ciclopoli even though the poloxamer formulations contained only 1% of the drug instead of 8% in the marketed lacquer. Poloxamer 407-based systems containing ciclopirox olamine proved to be about as effective as similar terbinafine hydrochloride systems. PMID:24490976

  17. Microsatellite-Primed PCR for Intra-species Genetic Relatedness in Trichophyton ajelloi Strains Isolated in Poland from Various Soil Samples

    PubMed Central

    Ciesielska, Anita; Bohacz, Justyna; Korniłłowicz-Kowalska, Teresa; Stączek, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Trichophyton ajelloi is a geophilic dermatophyte that specializes in the decomposition of native keratin. It exists in soil with a permanent influx of keratin matter. In the present study, two PCR-based methods were used for the identification and intra-species differentiation of T. ajelloi strains isolated from 3 types of soils with different physicochemical properties. The first method, employed for molecular identification, was PCR amplification of the 5.8S rRNA gene and its flanking regions encoding internal transcribed spacers (ITSs), followed by restriction enzyme digestion using endonuclease HinfI. The second method, employed for molecular differentiation, was microsatellite-primed PCR (MSP-PCR) using the repetitive oligonucleotide (GACA)4. All the T. ajelloi strains were also identified using a traditional culture method. Our results showed that molecular identification using the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method agreed with the identification made using the traditional approach. On the other hand, PCR-RFLP results showed no strain differentiation, while MSP-PCR using the (GACA)4 primer identified different varieties among the T. ajelloi strains. The reasons for the intra-species differentiation of T. ajelloi have been discussed. PMID:24859370

  18. Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells from Patients with Dermatophytosis Restrict the Growth of Trichophyton rubrum and Induce CD4-T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Karla; Bomfim, Gisele Facholi; Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Almeida, Sandro Rogerio

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophytes are the most common agents of superficial mycoses that are caused by mold fungi. Trichophyton rubrum is the most common pathogen causing dermatophytosis. The immunology of dermatophytosis is currently poorly understood. Recently, our group investigated the interaction of T. rubrum conidia with peritoneal mouse macrophages. We found that macrophages phagocytose T. rubrum conidia resulted in a down-modulation of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and in the expression of co-stimulatory molecules. Furthermore, it induced the production of IL-10, and T. rubrum conidia differentiated into hyphae that grew and killed the macrophages after 8 hrs of culture. This work demonstrated that dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, from patients or normal individuals, avidly interact with pathogenic fungus T. rubrum. The dermatophyte has two major receptors on human monocyte-derived DC: DC-SIGN and mannose receptor. In contrast macrophage has only mannose receptor that participates in the phagocytosis or bound process. Another striking aspect of this study is that unlike macrophages that permit rapid growth of T. rubrum, human DC inhibited the growth and induces Th activation. The ability of DC from patients to interact and kill T. rubrum and to present Ags to T cells suggests that DC may play an important role in the host response to T. rubrum infection by coordinating the development of cellular immune response. PMID:25372145

  19. Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) as a Molecular Target for the Development of Novel Drugs Against the Dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Tiago R.; Peres, Nalu T. A.; Martins, Maíra P.; Lang, Elza A. S.; Sanches, Pablo R.; Rossi, Antonio; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of fungal infections is difficult due to several reasons, such as side effects of drugs, emergence of resistant strains, and limited number of molecular targets for the drug compounds. In fungi, heat shock proteins (Hsps) have been implicated in several processes with the conserved molecular chaperone Hsp90 emerging as a potential target for antifungal therapy. It plays key cellular roles by eliciting molecular response to environmental changes, morphogenesis, antifungal resistance, and fungal pathogenicity. Here, we evaluated the transcription profiles of hsp genes of the most prevalent dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum in response to different environmental challenges including nutrient availability, interaction with cells and molecules of the host tissue, and drug exposure. The results suggest that each Hsp responds to a specific stress condition and that the cohort of Hsps facilitates fungal survival under various environmental challenges. Chemical inhibition of Hsp90 resulted in increased susceptibility of the fungus to itraconazole and micafungin, and decreased its growth in human nails in vitro. Moreover, some hsp and related genes were modulated by Hsp90 at the transcriptional level. We are suggesting a role of Hsp90 in the pathogenicity and drug susceptibility of T. rubrum as well as the regulation of other Hsps. The synergism observed between the inhibition of Hsp90 and the effect of itraconazole or micafungin in reducing the fungal growth is of great interest as a novel and potential strategy to treat dermatophytoses. PMID:26617583

  20. In vitro and ex vivo infection models help assess the molecular aspects of the interaction of Trichophyton rubrum with the host milieu.

    PubMed

    Peres, Nalu Teixeira de Aguiar; Silva, Larissa Gomes da; Santos, Rodrigo da Silva; Jacob, Tiago Rinaldi; Persinoti, Gabriela Felix; Rocha, Lenaldo Branco; Falcão, Juliana Pfrimer; Rossi, Antonio; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce Maria

    2016-05-01

    Dermatophytes are fungal pathogens that cause cutaneous infections such as onychomycosis and athlete's foot in both healthy and immunocompromised patients.Trichophyton rubrumis the most prevalent dermatophyte causing human nail and skin infections worldwide, and because of its anthropophilic nature, animal infection models are limited. The purpose of this work was to compare the expression profile ofT. rubrumgenes encoding putative virulence factors during growth inex vivoandin vitroinfection models. The efficiency of theex vivoskin infection model was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which showed that the conidia had produced hyphae that penetrated into the epidermis. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the expression of some genes is modulated in response to the infection model used, as compared to that observed in cells grown in glucose-containing media. We concluded thatex vivoinfection models help assess the molecular aspects of the interaction ofT. rubrumwith the host milieu, and thus provide insights into the modulation of genes during infection. PMID:26768373

  1. In vitro antifungal, anti-elastase and anti-keratinase activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum-, Syzygium- and Cymbopogon-species against Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2011-12-15

    This study was aimed to evaluate effects of certain essential oils namely Cinnamomum verum, Syzygium aromaticum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini and their major components cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, citral and geraniol respectively, on growth, hyphal ultrastructure and virulence factors of Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum. The antifungal activity of essential oils and their major constituents was in the order of cinnamaldehyde>eugenol>geraniol=C. verum>citral>S. aromaticum>C. citratus>C. martini, both in liquid and solid media against T. rubrum and A. fumigatus. Based on promising antifungal activity of eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, these oils were further tested for their inhibitory activity against ungerminated and germinated conidia in test fungi. Cinnamaldehyde was found to be more active than eugenol. To assess the possible mode of action of cinnamaldehyde, electron microscopic studies were conducted. The observations revealed multiple sites of action of cinnamaldehyde mainly on cell membranes and endomembranous structures of the fungal cell. Further, test oils were also tested for their anti-virulence activity. More than 70% reduction in elastase activity was recorded in A. fumigatus by the oils of C. verum, C. martini, eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and geraniol. Similar reduction in keratinase activity in A. niger was recorded for the oils of C. martini and geraniol. Maximum reduction (96.56%) in elastase activity was produced by cinnamaldehyde whereas; geraniol caused maximum inhibition (97.31%) of keratinase activity. Our findings highlight anti-elastase and anti-keratinase activity of above mentioned essential oils as a novel property to be exploited in controlling invasive and superficial mycoses. PMID:21893402

  2. [Trichophyton tonsurans infection among judo practitioners who attended the National Junior High School Judo Tournament in Japan (2005): incidence and therapeutic response].

    PubMed

    Suganami, Morio; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Shiraki, Yumi; Hiruma, Masataro; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2006-01-01

    The spread of Trichophyton tonsurans infection among high school students and university undergraduates who practice Judo is an emerging problem in Japan and other countries. However, the extent of infection among Judo practitioners in junior high school in Japan is unknown. We conducted an epidemiological study of T. tonsurans infection among students who participated in the national junior high school Judo tournament in 2005. Of the 1,039 tournament participants invited to undergo screening, 496 (218 boys and 278 girls) consented, and 45 participants (9.1%) were found to be positive by hairbrush culture. We found the following to be relative risk factors for T. tonsurans infection: 1) male gender, 2) frequent judo practice in groups at either a high school or a dojo, 3) presence of tinea corporis in practice partners, 4) history of tinea corporis, 5) classification in lower-weight categories. 45 culture positive subjects were offered treatment and re-examined by hairbrush culture 3 months later. All twelve of them had negative cultures after miconazole shampoo treatment. A half of 12 subjects who had systemic antifungal therapy with itraconazole had positive culture. These observations suggest that T. tonsurans infection is rapidly spreading among junior high school Judo players in Japan. We speculate that the outbreak is caused, at least in part, by ignorance of the disease among Judo students, coaches and officials due to the high incidence of carriers and the mild or asymptomatic form of disease seen in infected individuals. Appropriate measures should be taken immediately to prevent more severe outbreak of this disease. PMID:17086166

  3. Effect of Culture Supernatant Derived from Trichophyton Rubrum Grown in the Nail Medium on the Innate Immunity-related Molecules of HaCaT

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xin-Zhu; Liang, Pan-Pan; Ma, Han; Yi, Jin-Ling; Yin, Song-Chao; Chen, Zhi-Rui; Li, Mei-Rong; Lai, Wei; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trichophyton rubrum is superficial fungi characteristically confined to dead keratinized tissues. These observations suggest that the soluble components released by the fungus could influence the host immune response in a cell in contact-free manner. Therefore, this research aimed to analyze whether the culture supernatant derived from T. rubrum grown in the nail medium could elicit the immune response of keratinocyte effectively. Methods: The culture supernatants of two strains (T1a, TXHB) were compared for the β-glucan concentrations and their capacity to impact the innate immunity of keratinocytes. The β-glucan concentrations in the supernatants were determined with the fungal G-test kit and protein concentrations with bicinchoninic acid protein quantitative method, then HaCaT was stimulated with different concentrations of culture supernatants by adopting morphological method to select a suitable dosage. Expressions of host defense genes were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction after the HaCaT was stimulated with the culture supernatants. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance, followed by the least significant difference test. Results: The T. rubrum strains (T1a and TXHB) released β-glucan of 87.530 ± 37.581 pg/ml and 15.747 ± 6.453 pg/ml, respectively into the media. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), TLR4, and CARD9 were moderately up-regulated in HaCaT within 6-h applications of both supernatants. HaCaT cells were more responsive to T1a than TXHB. The slight increase of dendritic cells-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin expression was faster and stronger, induced by T1a supernatant than TXHB. The moderate decreases of RNase 7, the slight up-regulations of Dectin-1 and interleukin-8 at the mRNA level were detected only in response to T1a rather than TXHB. After a long-time contact, all the elevated defense genes decreased after 24 h. Conclusion: The

  4. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  5. Misdiagnosed zoophile tinea faciei and tinea corporis effectively treated with isoconazole nitrate and diflucortolone valerate combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Czaika, Viktor A

    2013-05-01

    There have been few published reports on the human transmission of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, a zoophilic fungus frequently occurring in pets. Here we report on 2 girls, living with a pet dwarf rabbit, who presented with inflammatory skin lesions positive for T. mentagrophytes and subsequently diagnosed as zoophile tinea faciei and tinea corporis. The patients were successfully treated with systemic terbinafine and 2-week therapy with Travocort cream containing isoconazole nitrate 1% and diflucortolone valerate 0.1%. PMID:23574022

  6. Trans-chalcone and quercetin down-regulate fatty acid synthase gene expression and reduce ergosterol content in the human pathogenic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a promising antifungal target due to its marked structural differences between fungal and mammalian cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of flavonoids described in the scientific literature as FAS inhibitors (quercetin, trans-chalcone, ellagic acid, luteolin, galangin, and genistein) against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum and their effects on fatty acid and ergosterol synthesis. Methods The antifungal activity of the natural products was tested by the microdilution assay for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The effect of the compounds on the cell membrane was evaluated using a protoplast regeneration assay. Ergosterol content was quantified by spectrophotometry. Inhibition of FAS by flavonoids was evaluated by an enzymatic assay to determine IC50 values. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure transcription levels of the FAS1 and ERG6 genes involved in fatty acid and ergosterol biosynthesis, respectively, during exposure of T. rubrum to the flavonoids tested. Results The flavonoids quercetin and trans-chalcone were effective against T. rubrum, with MICs of 125 and 7.5 μg/mL for the wild-type strain (MYA3108) and of 63 and 1.9 μg/mL for the ABC transporter mutant strain (ΔTruMDR2), respectively. The MICs of the fluconazole and cerulenin controls were 63 and 125 μg/mL for the wild-type strain and 30 and 15 μg/mL for the mutant strain, respectively. Quercetin and trans-chalcone also reduced ergosterol content in the two strains, indicating that interference with fatty acid and ergosterol synthesis caused cell membrane disruption. The MIC of quercetin reduced the number of regenerated protoplasts by 30.26% (wild-type strain) and by 91.66% (mutant strain). Half the MIC (0.5 MIC) of quercetin did not reduce the number of regenerated wild-type fungal colonies, but caused a 36.19% reduction in the number of mutant strain protoplasts. In contrast, the MIC and 0

  7. [DNA extraction and identification of Trichophyton rubrum by real-time polymerase chain reaction from direct nail scraping specimens of patients with onycomycosis].

    PubMed

    Berk, Elife; Kuştimur, Semra; Kalkancı, Ayşe; Oztaş, O Murat

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most frequently encountered dermatophyte species causing onichomycosis. The routine diagnosis of dermatophytes depends on the direct microscopic examination (DME) and culture methods, however due to the phenotypic identification problems related to those agents, the molecular methods come into question. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the identification of T.rubrum by comparing to DME and culture methods, from nail samples of patients with the complaints of onychomycosis. A total of 90 patients of whom 58 were male who were admitted to the dermatology outpatients clinics of our hospital with the complaints of color/shape changes in the nails and thickening of the nail, were included in the study, together with the 20 healthy volunteer subjects as controls. The nail scraping samples obtained from the patients and controls were examined with direct microscopy using 15% potassium hydroxide, dimethyl sulphoxide and chlorazole black mixture and cultivated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar with and without cycloheximide. For DNA isolation, after the disruption of nail samples with a steel tool, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol purification method were used. The amplification and demonstration of the T.rubrum DNA have been performed by using specific primers and probes following TaqMan protocol of RT-PCR (LightCycler-Roche, USA) method. Seventy-two of the patients yielded positive and 18 yielded negative results with DME. Growth of molds was detected in the cultures of 20 (27.8%) of the 72 DME positive patients and all of the isolates were identified as T.rubrum. No fungal growth was seen in the samples of 18 patients who were DME negative. In DME positive group, 67 (93%) patients were found to be positive in RT-PCR, while 8 (44.4%) patients were RT-PCR positive in DME negative group. All of the culture positive samples (n= 20) were also found positive in RT

  8. Dermatophytosis in donkeys (Equus asinus) due to Microsporum racemosum, an unusual geophilic agent.

    PubMed

    Nardoni, Simona; Rocchigiani, Guido; Papini, Roberto Amerigo; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Brajon, Giovanni; Martini, Mina; Salari, Federica; Mancianti, Francesca

    2016-06-01

    Reports about ringworm in donkeys are scanty and refer to zoonotic agents such as Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton verrucosum. Seventeen Asino Amiatina donkeys semi-extensively farmed in paddocks showed alopecic nummular, scaling areas mainly on head and neck. Microsporum racemosum cultivated from the lesions was identified by morphology and PCR. Affected animals healed spontaneously. The present record reports for the first time the occurrence of ringworm due to M. racemosum in naturally infected animals. PMID:27453813

  9. Antifungal activity of fractions and two pure compounds of flowers from Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Sartori, M R K; Pretto, J B; Cruz, A B; Bresciani, L F V; Yunes, R A; Sortino, M; Zacchino, S A; Cechinel, V Filho

    2003-08-01

    Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae), a traditionally used native Brazilian medicinal plant, showed antifungal activity against dermatophytes in dilution tests. The hexane, dichloromethane and butanol fractions displayed activity against Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, with minimal inhibitory concentrations between 250 and 1000 microg/mL. Two pure compounds, identified as kaurenoic acid (1) and luteolin (2), also showed activity against these dermatophytes. PMID:12967035

  10. Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Wei; Chou, Jia-Ying; Murugan, M; Shieh, Bor-Jinn; Chen, Hueih-Min

    2007-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated extracts could be of use for the future development of anti-skin disease agents. PMID:16406607

  11. Antifungal activity of the methanolic extract and alkaloids of Glaucium oxylobum.

    PubMed

    Morteza-Semnani, K; Amin, Gh; Shidfar, M R; Hadizadeh, H; Shafiee, A

    2003-07-01

    The methanolic extract and total alkaloids of the aerial parts of Glaucium oxylobum exhibited good activity against Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Epidermophyton floccosum. Four alkaloids, dicentrine, glaucine, protopine, and alpha-allocryptopine, were identified as the compounds responsible for the antifungal activity of this plant. PMID:12837370

  12. In vitro antifungal activity of Schizozygia coffaeoides bail. (Apocynaceae) extracts.

    PubMed

    Kariba, R M; Siboe, G M; Dossaji, S F

    2001-01-01

    Leaf extracts of Schizozygia coffaeoides were investigated for antifungal activity using the disc diffusion assay technique. Petroleum ether 40-60 degrees C, dichloromethane-ethyl acetate (1:1) and methanol extracts were fungitoxic to Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, Cladosporium cucumerinum and Candida albicans. The extracts were fungistatic in action. PMID:11137346

  13. Epidemiology of sporadic (non-epidemic) cases of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in Japan based on PCR-RFLP analysis of non-transcribed spacer region of ribosomal RNA gene.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Kawasaki, Masako; Anzawa, Kazushi; Fujita, Jun; Ushigami, Tsuyoshi; Takeda, Kiminobu; Sano, Ayako; Takahashi, Yoko; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2008-05-01

    A number of cases of Trichophyton tonsurans infection have been reported among sportsmen and women participating in wrestling, judo, and sumo wrestling in Japan, but there have also been sporadic reports of cases with no history of contact with these sports. A molecular method using restriction enzyme analysis of PCR-amplified fragments targeting the non-transcribed spacer region (NTS) of ribosomal RNA gene in fungal nuclei was applied to T. tonsurans strains isolated from sporadic cases in Japan. Five of 6 molecular types recorded in Japan, i.e., NTS types I, II, IV, V, and VI, and two new types, designated NTS VII and NTS VIII, were observed among 10 strains isolated from sporadic cases. The NTS IV strains, considered not to be related to the present epidemic, were found to be the most prevalent molecular type accounting for 4 of the 10 strains isolated. NTS I was the most prevalent type in the current epidemic in Japan, but it was cultured from only one patient who was later noted to be the daughter of a retired judo practitioner. Four subjects had histories of living abroad and were considered to have been infected outside Japan. The strains in these cases were NTS II, V, VI, and VII. The results of this study suggested that the NTS IV strains were originally present in Japan at a low incidence, but that there has been a recent influx of NTS I, II, V, VI, and VII from abroad, which has been accompanied by the secondary spread of strains from wrestlers and practitioners of martial arts to the general community. PMID:18503175

  14. Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Apiales - POR 1 is missing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Laursen, Tomas; Weitzel, Corinna; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-05-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor to eukaryotic microsomal cytochromes P450 enzymes. The number of PORs within plant species is limited to one to four isoforms, with the most common being two PORs per plant. These enzymes provide electrons to a huge number of different cytochromes P450s (from 50 to several hundred within one plant). Within the eudicotyledons, PORs can be divided into two major clades, POR 1 and POR 2. Based on our own sequencing analysis and publicly available data, we have identified 45 PORs from the angiosperm order Apiales. These were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis along with 237 other publicly available (NCBI and oneKP) POR sequences found within the clade Asterids. Here, we show that the order Apiales only harbor members of the POR 2 clade, which are further divided into two distinct subclades. This is in contrast to most other eudicotyledon orders that have both POR 1 and POR 2. This suggests that through gene duplications and one gene deletion, Apiales only contain members of the POR 2 clade. Three POR 2 isoforms from Thapsia garganica L., Apiaceae, were all full-length in an Illumina root transcriptome dataset (available from the SRA at NCBI). All three genes were shown to be functional upon reconstitution into nanodiscs, confirming that none of the isoforms are pseudogenes. PMID:26854662

  15. Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

  16. Single-Step PCR Using (GACA)4 Primer: Utility for Rapid Identification of Dermatophyte Species and Strains▿

    PubMed Central

    Shehata, Atef S.; Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Aboulatta, Hassan N.; El Akhras, Atef I.; Abbadi, Said H.; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

    2008-01-01

    Dermatophytes are fungi that belong to three genera: Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Identification of dermatophyte species is essential for appropriate diagnosis and treatment of dermatophytosis. Routine identification depends on macroscopic and microscopic morphology, which is time-consuming and does not identify dermatophyte strains. In this study, two PCR-based methods were compared for their abilities to identify 21 dermatophyte isolates obtained from Egyptian patients to the species and strain levels. The first method employed a two-step method: PCR amplification, using ITS1 and ITS4 as primers, followed by restriction enzyme digestion using the endonuclease MvaI. The second method employed a one-step approach employing the repetitive oligonucleotide (GACA)4 as a primer. Dermatophyte strains were also identified using a conventional culture method. Our results showed that the conventional culture method identified four species: Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton violaceum. Moreover, both PCR methods agreed with the diagnosis made using the conventional approach. Furthermore, ITS1/ITS4-based PCR provided no strain differentiation, while (GACA)4-based PCR identified different varieties among the T. mentagrophytes isolates. Taken together, our results suggest that (GACA)4-based PCR has utility as a simple and rapid method for identification of dermatophyte species as well as utility for differentiation of T. mentagrophytes variants. PMID:18579714

  17. Mycological Pattern of Dermatophytosis in and Around Shimla Hills

    PubMed Central

    Bhagra, Suruchi; Ganju, Sunite A; Kanga, Anil; Sharma, Nand Lal; Guleria, Ramesh C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Dermatophytosis is defined as the fungal infection of the skin, hair and nails by a group of keratinophillic fungi known as dermatophytes. Aims and Objectives: This study is an attempt to find out various species of dermatophytes in clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis. Materials and Methods: One hundred samples were subjected to direct microscopy by potassium hydroxide wet mount (KOH) and isolation on culture with Sabourauds dextrose agar. Results: Out of these 80 (80%) samples were KOH positive while 20 (20%) were KOH negative. Overall culture positivity rate was 68%. Dermatophytosis was more common in males, the M:F ratio was 4:1. Conclusion: Total seven species were isolated on culture. Trichophyton rubrum (66.17%) was the commonest isolate followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (19.11%), Trichophyton violaceum (7.35%), Trichophyton tonsurans (2.94%) and one isolate each of Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum (1.47%). PMID:24891658

  18. A Multi-Target Approach toward the Development of Novel Candidates for Antidermatophytic Activity: Ultrastructural Evidence on α-Bisabolol-Treated Microsporum gypseum.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Carlo; Baldisserotto, Anna; Malisardi, Gemma; Vicentini, Chiara B; Mares, Donatella; Andreotti, Elisa; Vertuani, Silvia; Manfredini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Multi-target strategies are directed toward targets that are unrelated (or distantly related) and can create opportunities to address different pathologies. The antidermatophytic activities of nine natural skin lighteners: α-bisabolol, kojic acid, β-arbutin, azelaic acid, hydroquinone, nicotinamide, glycine, glutathione and ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate, were evaluated, in comparison with the known antifungal drug fluconazole, on nine dermatophytes responsible for the most common dermatomycoses: Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton violaceum, Nannizzia cajetani, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, Arthroderma gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton tonsurans. α-Bisabolol showed the best antifungal activity against all fungi and in particular; against M. gypseum. Further investigations were conducted on this fungus to evaluate the inhibition of spore germination and morphological changes induced by α-bisabolol by TEM. PMID:26132903

  19. Antifungal metabolites from Blumea balsamifera.

    PubMed

    Ragasa, Consolacion Y; Co, Angel Lyn Kristin C; Rideout, John A

    2005-04-01

    The leaves of Blumea balsamifera afforded icthyothereol acetate, cryptomeridiol, lutein, and beta-carotene. The structures of icthyothereol acetate (1) and cryptomeridiol (2) were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, while those of lutein and beta-carotene were identified by comparison with literature data. Antimicrobial tests indicated that 1 has moderate activity against the fungi Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Candida albicans, while 2 has low activity against A. niger, T. mentagrophytes, and C. albicans. Both compounds have no antimicrobial activity against Psuedomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli. PMID:15702636

  20. Antimicrobial activity of wax and hexane extracts from Citrus spp. peels.

    PubMed

    Johann, Susana; Oliveira, Vetúria Lopes de; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Schripsema, Jan; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Branco, Alexsandro; Smânia Jr, Artur

    2007-09-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal properties of wax and hexane extracts of Citrus spp. peels were tested using bioautographic and microdilution techniques against three plant pathogenic fungi (Penicillium digitatum, Curvularia sp., and Colletotrichum sp.), two human pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis), and two opportunistic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). Two polymethoxylated flavonoids and a coumarin derivative, were isolated and identified from peel extracts, which presented antimicrobial activity especially against M. canis and T. mentagrophytes: 4',5,6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone (tangeritin) and 3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxyflavone (nobiletin) from C. reticulata; and 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (also known as escoparone, scoparone or scoparin) from C. limon. PMID:17923995

  1. Mechanism of Action of Efinaconazole, a Novel Triazole Antifungal Agent

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Maria; Shibanushi, Toshiyuki; Iwata, Atsushi; Kangawa, Yumi; Inui, Fumie; Siu, William J. Jo; Pillai, Radhakrishnan; Nishiyama, Yayoi

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of action of efinaconazole, a new triazole antifungal, was investigated with Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. Efinaconazole dose-dependently decreased ergosterol production and accumulated 4,4-dimethylsterols and 4α-methylsterols at concentrations below its MICs. Efinaconazole induced morphological and ultrastructural changes in T. mentagrophytes hyphae that became more prominent with increasing drug concentrations. In conclusion, the primary mechanism of action of efinaconazole is blockage of ergosterol biosynthesis, presumably through sterol 14α-demethylase inhibition, leading to secondary degenerative changes. PMID:23459486

  2. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2011-04-10

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ∼40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ∼60%, is found on ∼28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (∼8% of Asians and ∼13% of Caucasians) at -152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ∼30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  3. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ~40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ~60%, is found on ~28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (~8% of Asians and ~13% of Caucasians) at −152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ~30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically-relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  4. In vitro susceptibility of dermatomycoses agents to six antifungal drugs and evaluation by fractional inhibitory concentration index of combined effects of amorolfine and itraconazole in dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Takashi; Asahara, Miwa; Yamamoto, Mikachi; Yamaura, Mariko; Matsumura, Mitsuru; Goto, Kazuo; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Mirhendi, Hossein; Makimura, Miho; Makimura, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the antifungal drug susceptibility of fungi responsible for dermatomycoses, minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) tests were performed in 44 strains of dermatophytes, including Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton verrucosum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum, with six antifungal drugs (amorolfine, terbinafine, butenafine, ketoconazole, itraconazole and bifonazole) by broth microdilution assay according to Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute protocols. Six possible dermatomycosis-causing non-dermatophytic fungi were also tested. The two major causes of tinea, T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes, showed significantly different sensitivities to ketoconazole and bifonazole. Clinically derived dermatophytes were sensitive to the six antifungal drugs tested. However, non-dermatophytes, especially Fusarium spp., tended to be resistant to these antifungal drugs. In Trichophyton spp., the MICs of non-azole drugs had narrower distributions than those of azoles. To evaluate the effects of antifungal drug combinations, the fractional inhibitory concentration index was calculated for the combination of amorolfine and itraconazole as representative external and internal drugs for dermatophytes. It was found that this combination had synergistic or additive effects on most dermatophytes, and had no antagonistic effects. The variation in susceptibility of clinically derived fungal isolates indicates that identification of causative fungi is indispensable for appropriately choosing effective antifungal drugs in the early stages of infection. The results of combination assay suggest that multiple drugs with different antifungal mechanisms against growth of dermatophytes should be used to treat refractory dermatomycoses, especially onychomycosis. PMID:24215461

  5. [Identification of geophilic and zoophilic dermatophytes in siblings with tinea capitis. A pathogenic factor or contamination?].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, S; Ott, H; Barker, M; Heimann, G; Poblete-Gutiérrez, P; Frank, J

    2004-10-01

    Two siblings of African origin presented with multiple scaling patches and alopecia on the scalp four weeks after returning from a vacation in Eritrea. Direct KOH examination revealed fungal elements; Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton terrestre were identified in the fungal culture. We discuss the putative pathogenic role of both microorganisms in causing disease. Although infection with Microsporum canis currently accounts for almost fifty percent of all cases of tinea capitis in Germany, other fungi have gained importance due to tourism and increasing migration. PMID:15340708

  6. Desigualdades por cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Información básica de las desigualdades en salud por cáncer en EE. UU., factores que contribuyen a la carga desproporcionada del cáncer en algunos grupos y ejemplos de desigualdades en incidencia y mortalidad entre ciertos grupos de la población.

  7. Scanning electron microscopy of superficial white onychomycosis*

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Boabaid, Roberta Oliveira; Timm, Vitor; Silva, Ricardo Marques e; de Castro, Luis Antonio Suita

    2015-01-01

    Superficial white onychomycosis is characterized by opaque, friable, whitish superficial spots on the nail plate. We examined an affected halux nail of a 20-year-old male patient with scanning electron microscopy. The mycological examination isolated Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Abundant hyphae with the formation of arthrospores were found on the nail's surface, forming small fungal colonies. These findings showed the great capacity for dissemination of this form of onychomycosis. PMID:26560225

  8. Identification of Dermatophyte Species by 28S Ribosomal DNA Sequencing with a Commercial Kit

    PubMed Central

    Ninet, Béatrice; Jan, Isabelle; Bontems, Olympia; Léchenne, Barbara; Jousson, Olivier; Panizzon, Renato; Lew, Daniel; Monod, Michel

    2003-01-01

    We have shown that dermatophyte species can be easily identified on the basis of a DNA sequence encoding a part of the large-subunit (LSU) rRNA (28S rRNA) by using the MicroSeq D2 LSU rRNA Fungal Sequencing Kit. Two taxa causing distinct dermatophytoses were clearly distinguished among isolates of the Trichophyton mentagrophytes species complex. PMID:12574293

  9. Manzamenone O, new trimeric fatty acid derivative from a marine sponge Plakortis sp.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naonobu; Asai, Miki; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Gonoi, Tohru; Fromont, Jane; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

    2013-05-17

    A new structurally unique trimeric fatty acid derivative, manzamenone O (1), was isolated from a marine sponge Plakortis sp. Manzamenone O (1) has a novel skeleton consisting of C-C bonded octahydroindenone and dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane moieties and three long aliphatic chains. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and conformational analysis. Manzamenone O (1) exhibited antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Aspergillis niger, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. PMID:23651077

  10. Scanning electron microscopy of superficial white onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Hiram Larangeira de; Boabaid, Roberta Oliveira; Timm, Vitor; Silva, Ricardo Marques E; Castro, Luis Antonio Suita de

    2015-01-01

    Superficial white onychomycosis is characterized by opaque, friable, whitish superficial spots on the nail plate. We examined an affected halux nail of a 20-year-old male patient with scanning electron microscopy. The mycological examination isolated Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Abundant hyphae with the formation of arthrospores were found on the nail's surface, forming small fungal colonies. These findings showed the great capacity for dissemination of this form of onychomycosis. PMID:26560225

  11. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  12. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  13. Effects of butenafine hydrochloride, a new benzylamine derivative, on experimental dermatophytosis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Arika, T; Yokoo, M; Hase, T; Maeda, T; Amemiya, K; Yamaguchi, H

    1990-01-01

    Butenafine hydrochloride, N-4-tert-butylbenzyl-N-methyl-1-naphthalenemethylamine hydrochloride (butenafine), is a novel antifungal agent of the class of benzylamine derivatives. Butenafine was investigated for its activity against guinea pig dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes or Microsporum canis in comparison with those of naftifine, tolnaftate, clotrimazole, and bifonazole. Topical butenafine showed excellent efficacy against dermatophytosis when it was applied once daily, and the effect was superior to those of all four reference drugs. When applied once at 24 or 48 h before infection, the drug exhibited excellent prophylactic efficacy against experimental T. mentagrophytes infection. The concentrations of butenafine in animal skin at 24 and 48 h after application of 0.2 ml of a 1% solution were several hundred times higher than those required to kill T. mentagrophytes and M. canis. The good efficacy of butenafine against dermatophytosis may be attributable to its fungicidal activity and long retention in the skin after topical application. PMID:2073116

  14. Effects of butenafine hydrochloride, a new benzylamine derivative, on experimental dermatophytosis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Arika, T; Yokoo, M; Hase, T; Maeda, T; Amemiya, K; Yamaguchi, H

    1990-11-01

    Butenafine hydrochloride, N-4-tert-butylbenzyl-N-methyl-1-naphthalenemethylamine hydrochloride (butenafine), is a novel antifungal agent of the class of benzylamine derivatives. Butenafine was investigated for its activity against guinea pig dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes or Microsporum canis in comparison with those of naftifine, tolnaftate, clotrimazole, and bifonazole. Topical butenafine showed excellent efficacy against dermatophytosis when it was applied once daily, and the effect was superior to those of all four reference drugs. When applied once at 24 or 48 h before infection, the drug exhibited excellent prophylactic efficacy against experimental T. mentagrophytes infection. The concentrations of butenafine in animal skin at 24 and 48 h after application of 0.2 ml of a 1% solution were several hundred times higher than those required to kill T. mentagrophytes and M. canis. The good efficacy of butenafine against dermatophytosis may be attributable to its fungicidal activity and long retention in the skin after topical application. PMID:2073116

  15. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES.

    PubMed

    Biasi-Garbin, Renata Perugini; Demitto, Fernanda de Oliveira; Amaral, Renata Claro Ribeiro do; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE), Libidibia ferrea (AE), and Persea americana (AcE) also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species. PMID:27007561

  16. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    PubMed Central

    BIASI-GARBIN, Renata Perugini; DEMITTO, Fernanda de Oliveira; do AMARAL, Renata Claro Ribeiro; FERREIRA, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; SOARES, Luiz Alberto Lira; SVIDZINSKI, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; BAEZA, Lilian Cristiane; YAMADA-OGATTA, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytesATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE), Libidibia ferrea (AE), and Persea americana (AcE) also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species. PMID:27007561

  17. Anti-dermatophytic activity of marine sponge, Sigmadocia carnosa (Dendy) on clinically isolated fungi

    PubMed Central

    Dhayanithi, NB; Kumar, TT Ajith; Kalaiselvam, M; Balasubramanian, T; Sivakumar, N

    2012-01-01

    Objective To screen the anti-fungal effects and find out the active metabolites from sponge, Sigmadocia carnosa (S. carnosa) against four dermatophytic fungi. Methods The methanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extract of marine sponge, S. carnosa was examined against Trichophyton mentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes), Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum), Epidermophyton floccosum (E. floccosum) and Microsporum gypseum (M. gypseum) and qualitative analysed to find out the active molecules. Results The methanol extract of sponge was expressed significant activity than ethyl acetate and acetone. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of methanol extract of sponge that resulted in complete growth inhibition of T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, E. floccosum and M. gypseum were found to 125, 250, 250 and 250 µg/mL respectively. But, 100 % inhibition of fungal spore germination was observed in T. mentagrophytes at 500 µg/mL concentration followed by T. rubrum, E. floccosum and M. gypseum at 1 000 µg/mL concentration. Other two extracts showed weak anti spore germination activity against the tested dermatophytic fungi. Methanol extracts showed presence of terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and glycosides. Conclusion Based on the literature, this is the first study which has conducted to inhibit the growth and spore germination of dermatophytic fungi with S. carnosa. Further research also needs to purify and characterize the secondary metabolites from the sponge, S. carnosa for the valuable source of novel substances for future drug discovery. PMID:23569985

  18. Tinea barbae (tinea sycosis): experience with nine cases.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Ramírez-Tamayo, Teresa; Saúl, Amado

    2003-12-01

    Tinea barbae is a rare dermatophytosis that affects the hair and hair follicles of the beard and mustache. This paper presents 9 cases of tinea barbae observed over an 18-year period of time and classified as follows: 1 was superficial and 8 were deep (6 folliculitis-like and 2 kerion-like). Most of the cases (4) were associated with topical steroid therapy, others with pet contact (3 cases) and one with diabetes. The causal agents isolated were: Trichophyton rubrum in 3; Microsporum canis in 3; Trichophyton mentagrophytes in 2; and Trichophyton tonsurans in one. The involvement of the hair was observed and classified in all cases. The trichophytin skin reaction was positive in all 9 patients. All the patients were treated with systemic antimycotics, 3 cases with griseofulvin, 1 with ketoconazole, 3 with itraconazole, and 2 with terbinafine. Clinical and mycologic cures were achieved at 6 to 8 weeks of treatment at the usual doses. PMID:14739517

  19. In vitro antifungal activity and mechanism of essential oil from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) on dermatophyte species.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hong; Chen, Xinping; Liang, Jingnan

    2015-01-01

    Fennel seed essential oil (FSEO) is a plant-derived natural therapeutic against dermatophytes. In this study, the antifungal effects of FSEO were investigated from varied aspects, such as MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration, mycelia growth, spore germination and biomass. The results indicated that FSEO had potent antifungal activities on Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 40051, Trichophyton tonsurans 10-0400, Microsporum gypseum 44693-1 and Trichophyton mentagrophytes 10-0060, which is better than the commonly used antifungal agents fluconazole and amphotericin B. Flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy experiments suggested that the antifungal mechanism of FSEO was to damage the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles. Further study revealed that it could also inhibit the mitochondrial enzyme activities, such as succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and ATPase. With better antifungal activity than the commonly used antifungal agents and less possibility of inducing drug resistance, FSEO could be used as a potential antidermatophytic agent. PMID:25351709

  20. Novel pyrazine analogs of chalcones: synthesis and evaluation of their antifungal and antimycobacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Kucerova-Chlupacova, Marta; Kunes, Jiri; Buchta, Vladimir; Vejsova, Marcela; Opletalova, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis and invasive mycoses, represent serious health problems. As a part of our long-term efforts to find new agents for the treatment of these diseases, a new series of pyrazine analogs of chalcones bearing an isopropyl group in position 5 of the pyrazine ring was prepared. The structures of the compounds were corroborated by IR and NMR spectroscopy and their purity confirmed by elemental analysis. The susceptibility of eight fungal strains to the studied compounds was tested. The results have been compared with the activity of some previously reported propyl derivatives. The only strain that was susceptible to the studied compounds was Trichophyton mentagrophytes. It was found that replacing a non-branched propyl with a branched isopropyl did not have a decisive and unequivocal influence on the in vitro antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes. In vitro activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes comparable with that of fluconazole was exhibited by nitro-substituted derivatives. Unfortunately, no compound exhibited efficacy comparable with that of terbinafine, which is the most widely used agent for treating mycoses caused by dermatophytes. Some of the prepared compounds were assayed for antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The highest potency was also displayed by nitro-substituted compounds. The results of the present study are in a good agreement with our previous findings and confirm the positive influence of electron-withdrawing groups on the B-ring of chalcones on the antifungal and antimycobacterial activity of these compounds. PMID:25587786

  1. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  2. Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Two Closely Related Species, Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl., from Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Sivasothy, Yasodha; Nagoor, Noor Hasima; Jamil, Natasha; Awang, Khalijah

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the unripe and ripe fruits of Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl. were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The oils were principally monoterpenic in nature. The unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. mutica were characterized by camphor (21.0% and 15.8%), camphene (16.6% and 10.2%), β-pinene (8.6% and 13.5%), and trans,trans-farnesol (8.0% and 11.2%), respectively. The oils of the unripe and ripe fruits were moderately active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. 1,8-Cineole (34.2% and 35.9%) and β-pinene (20.2% and 19.0%) were the two most abundant components in the unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. latilabris. The oil of the unripe fruits elicits moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes while Candida glabrata was moderately sensitive to the oil of the ripe fruits. PMID:24987733

  3. A clinical and mycologic study of tinea corporis and pedis in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, M; Sánchez, J L

    1984-10-01

    A study of the causative agents of tinea corporis and pedis in Puerto Rico in 1982 disclosed four different dermatophytes from a total of 97 cases. Among the total of 49 fungus specimens collected in tinea corporis, the mycologic flora consisted of four different fungus species: Trichophyton rubrum, 42 isolates (85.7%); Epidermophyton floccosum, 4 (8.1%); Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 2 (4%); and Microsporum ferrugineum, 1 (2%). Among the total of 48 fungus specimens collected in tinea pedis, the mycologic flora consisted of 3 different fungus species as follows: T. rubrum, 35 isolates (72.9%); T. mentagrophytes 8 (16.6%); and E. floccosum, 5 (10.4%). Trichophyton rubrum caused 77 of 97 fungal isolates (79.3%). One surprising finding was the isolation of M. ferrugineum in a case of tinea corporis, documenting the first autochtonous case of this species in the island. This dermatophyte had previously been known only in Japan and adjacent areas of the Far East, Southern Europe, and Africa. PMID:6500796

  4. Dermatophyte and non dermatophyte fungi in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Khaled, Jamal M.; Golah, Hammed A; Khalel, Abdulla S.; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Mothana, Ramzi A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dermatophytes are a scientific label for a group of three genera (Microsporum, Epidermophyton and Trichophyton) of fungus that causes skin disease in animals and humans. Conventional methods for identification of these fungi are rapid and simple but are not accurate comparing to molecular methods. Objective This study aimed to isolate human pathogenic dermatophytes which cause dermatophytosis in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia and to identify these fungi by using conventional and molecular methods. Methods The study was conducted in Medical Complex, Riyadh and King Saud University. Samples of infected skin, hairs and nails were collected from 112 patients. Diagnosis of skin infections, direct microscopic test, isolation and identification of dermatophytes by conventional and molecular methods were carried out. Results The results indicated that the tinea capitis infection had the highest prevalence among the patients (22.3%) while Tinea barbae had the lowest. In this study the identified dermatophyte isolates belong to nine species as Trichophyton violaceum, Trichophyton verrucosum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton schoenleinii, Trichophyton concentricum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum audouinii and Epidermophyton floccosum which cause skin infections were isolated during this study. Non dermatophyte isolates included 5 isolates from Aspergillus spp. 4 isolates from Acremonium potronii and 15 isolates from Candida spp. M. canis were the most common species (25% of isolated dermatophytes). Out of the 52 dermatophyte isolates identified by conventional methods, there were 45 isolates identified by the molecular method. Conclusions The results concluded that approximately M. canis caused a quarter of dermatophyte cases, tinea capitis infection was prevalent and the molecular method was more accurate than conventional methods. PMID:26288566

  5. Trichophyton dermatophytosis--a disease easily confused with pemphigus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, W M; Yager, J A

    1997-01-01

    Trichophytosis is a rare diagnosis in dogs in Ontario, but recently 4 dogs with a scaling and crusting, alopecic, facial dermatitis have been so diagnosed. In all cases, the histopathological findings of severe epidermal and follicular interface dermatitis, accompanied by an acantholytic intraepidermal pustular dermatitis suggested an immune-mediated disease. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9262861

  6. Dermatophytes from urban soils in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva Pontes, Z B V; Oliveira, A C

    2008-01-01

    A total of 68 soil samples was collected from "favelas" (slums), schools, public squares, beaches and vacant lots in the city of João Pessoa-PB, Brazil. A search for dermatophytes in these soils was carried out by using the Vanbreuseghem technique. As a result, 48 strains and 6 dermatophytes species were isolated. Trichophyton terrestre (25.0%), Microsporum gypseum (20.8%) and Anthroderma gypsea (2.1%) were identified among the geophilic species, and T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (37.5%) among the zoophilic species and T. tonsurans (4.2%), among the anthropophilic species. The growth of 75% of dermatophytes occurred in alkaline pH (7.02-9.00) and their presence in the soil should not be underestimated, since some of the identified species are aetiological agents of dermatophytoses in humans and animals. PMID:19024503

  7. Problems in the diagnosis of profound trichophytosis barbae.

    PubMed

    Kozielewicz, D; Wernik, J; Mikucka, A; Ciesielska, A; Kruszynska, E; Gospodarek, E; Pawlowska, M; Halota, W

    2015-01-01

    Zoophilic species of human dermatophytoses, such as Trichophyton mentagrophytes are significantly rare. We present a case of a 42-year-old male who for 2 months had been unsuccessfully treated and then referred to hospital with suspected actinomycosis. Lesions on the skin on his neck, submandibular area, cheeks and groins were consistent with extremely painful, merging inflammatory tumours and infiltrations with the presence of numerous pustules in hair follicles that poured purulent contents forming into yellow crusts after compression. The treatment with terbinafine was successful. The final identification of the Trichopyton mentagrophytes var. granulosum strain was performed based on a microscopic assessment of the culture, and the result of species identification was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. PMID:26068357

  8. Tinea cutis glabrae: causes of diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Łuczkowska, Magdalena; Żaba, Ryszard; Adamski, Zygmunt

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophytoses belong to the most common disease entities encountered in everyday dermatological practice. Despite the fact that their clinical presentation, course and treatment response remain rather typical, they often present a considerable diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We present a case of a 54-year-old male who presented to the outpatient clinic of the Department of Dermatology in December 2012 with the diagnosis of erythema gyratum repens for further diagnosis and treatment of skin lesions gradually intensifying in the previous 2 years. The skin changes presented as spreading annular erythematous lesions, with papules and plaques located peripherally, and accompanying pruritus. Due to the clinical presentation and anamnesis, working conditions (poultry farm), and lack of response to previous treatment, mycological culture was performed. Epithelial scrapings of the trunk and the groins proved to be positive. After 3 weeks, Trichophyton mentagrophytes var mentagrophytes was identified by epithelial cell culture. PMID:25610361

  9. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. PMID:23075153

  10. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  11. Heat resistance of dermatophyte's conidiospores from athletes kits stored in Nigerian University Sport's Center.

    PubMed

    Essien, J P; Jonah, I; Umoh, A A; Eduok, S I; Akpan, E J; Umoiyoho, A

    2009-03-01

    The incidence and heat resistance of conidiospores produced by dermatophytes isolated from athlete's kits (canvasses, stockings and spike shoes) stored in Nigerian University Sport's Centre were investigated. Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum oudouinii, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton concentricum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum were isolated and their incidence on the athlete's kits varied with the species and type of kits. Among the isolates T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and E. floccosum with 25%, 23% and 20% prevalence rates respectively, were the most common isolates, and are often associated with tinea pedis (athletes foot). Canvasses with the highest incidence of dermatophytes (25 out of 34 fungal isolates) were the most contaminated kits and could serve as effective articles for the transmission of tinea pedis among athletes in Nigeria. The common etiological agents screened, produced asexual spores (conidiospores) that exhibited high resistance to heat treatment at 80 degrees C. Of the three isolates, E. floccosum, with a decimal reduction time (D-value) of D80 = 4.4 min was the most resistant followed by T. mentagrophytes with D80 = 4.0 min and then T. rubrum with D80 = 3.2 min. The spores elimination pattern indicates that increasing the heating duration would decrease the decimal reduction time and possibly denature the fungal propagules but may damage the skin during treatment with hot water compresses. The findings have shown that the use of hot water compresses is palliative but heat treatment especially vapour-heat treatment offers adequate preventive measures if applied for periodic treatment of contaminated kits. However, determining the correct condition for effective decontamination will require detailed understanding of the heat resistance of fungal spores. Otherwise treatment of kits with detergent and chaotropic agent such as urea and guanidinium salt is preferred to heat treatment. PMID:19388558

  12. Optimization of PCR—RFLP Directly from the Skin and Nails in Cases of Dermatophytosis, Targeting the ITS and the 18S Ribosomal DNA Regions

    PubMed Central

    Elavarashi, Elangovan; Kindo, Anupma Jyoti; Kalyani, Jagannathan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A pan fungal primer targeting the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region and optimization of PCR-RFLP using a dermatophyte specific primer targeted the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region were performed for the identification of dermatophyte species and strains directly from clinical specimens. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty eight specimens (129 skin scrapings and 9 nail clippings) from clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis were collected and subjected to direct microscopy and culture. Among them, 66 skin scrapings and 3 nail clippings were processed for genotyping by PCR-RFLP analysis using the Mva I, Hae III and the Dde I restriction enzymes. Results: Of the 138 specimens, 81 specimens were positive for dermatophytosis, the most common one being Trichophyton rubrum (47), followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (25) and Epidermophyton floccosum (9). Of the 47 T. rubrum isolates, 10 were T. rubrum var. raubitschekii which were identified phenotypically as urease positive and by DNA sequencing. Since they exhibited minor morphological and physiological features, they have currently been synonymized with T. rubrum. Of the 25 T. mentagrophytes isolates, three were Trichophyton interdigitale, which were identified by DNA sequencing. Among the 66 skin specimens smear, culture and PCR showed the presence of dermatophytes in 36 (54.54%), 42 (63.63%) and 47 (71.21%) cases respectively. Among the three nail specimens, only one was found to be positive for dermatophytosis by smear, culture and PCR. Conclusion: Amplification of the dermatophyte specific primer is appropriate in the identification of dermatophytes directly from the clinical material. PCR targeting the ITS region by using the Mva I and the Dde I enzymes was equally good for the RFLP analysis. However, by using the above three restriction enzymes, no strain variations were detected among the T. rubrum and the T. mentagrophytes strains. PMID:23730638

  13. Disminuyen en los Estados Unidos las infecciones por VPH.

    Cancer.gov

    La infección por los tipos del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) en el blanco de la vacuna cuadrivalente se redujo en casi dos tercios en las adolescentes desde que se recomendó la vacunación en los Estados Unidos.

  14. Centros oncológicos designados por el NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El programa de centros oncológicos designados por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) reconoce a los centros de todo el país que cumplen con rigurosos criterios para participar en proyectos avanzados de primer nivel para la investigación multidisciplinaria del cáncer.

  15. In vitro and in vivo antidermatophytic activities of some Iranian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Kazemi, Abdolhasan

    2015-11-01

    In the last decades, the number of people suffering from dermatophytoses has seriously increased, which may be due to the development of resistant strains to a range of antifungal drugs. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antidermatophytic properties of eight extracts from the selected spices and herbs, which were ethno-medicinally used in Iran against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton interdigitale, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum (10 strain of each). The in vitro antifungal activities of the extracts from four spices and four plants were evaluated by the broth macro dilution method against four dermatophyte strains. In addition, the in vivo therapeutic effects of Myrtus communis L. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume extracts (the most active extracts) on dermatophytosis induced by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes in guinea pigs were evaluated. Results of in vitro antifungal assay revealed that all the tested extracts demonstrated both fungistatic and fungicidal activities with the geometric mean (GM) MIC ranging from 0.058 to 3.73 mg/ml and GM (MFC) ranging from 0.058 to 7.46 mg/ml, respectively. Two extracts (M. communis and C. zeylanicum) significantly inhibited the growth of all the tested dermatophytes, while other extracts demonstrated weak (MICs of >0.625 mg/ml) to moderate (MICs ranging from 100 to 0.625 mg/ml) activities. In vivo antidermatophytic assay demonstrated that clotrimazole cured T. mentagrophytes and M. canis infection on days 21 and 17, respectively, whereas M. communis and C. zeylanicum extracts significantly (p < 0.05) cured T. mentagrophytes and M. canis infection on days 9 and 13 as well as 9, 11, respectively. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phenols, and alkaloids in M. communis and alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins in C. zeylanicum. Findings of the present study also provided the scientific evidence that natural plants could be used in traditional medicine for the

  16. Nonanoic Acid, an Antifungal Compound from Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yun-Woo; Jung, Jin-Young; Lee, In-Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    The root of Hibiscus syriacus (Malvaceae) has been used for treatment of fungal diseases such as tinea pedis (athlete's foot). In this study, we investigated the antifungal constituent of the root of Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma, which was produced by a mutation breeding using gamma ray irradiation, and compared the antifungal activity of H. syriacus Ggoma and its parent type. According to the results, the methanolic extract of H. syriacus Ggoma exhibited four times higher antifungal activity than its parent type against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Following purification through various column chromatographies, the antifungal substance was identified as nonanoic acid on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. PMID:22870060

  17. Nonanoic Acid, an Antifungal Compound from Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yun-Woo; Jung, Jin-Young; Lee, In-Kyoung; Kang, Si-Yong; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2012-06-01

    The root of Hibiscus syriacus (Malvaceae) has been used for treatment of fungal diseases such as tinea pedis (athlete's foot). In this study, we investigated the antifungal constituent of the root of Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma, which was produced by a mutation breeding using gamma ray irradiation, and compared the antifungal activity of H. syriacus Ggoma and its parent type. According to the results, the methanolic extract of H. syriacus Ggoma exhibited four times higher antifungal activity than its parent type against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Following purification through various column chromatographies, the antifungal substance was identified as nonanoic acid on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. PMID:22870060

  18. Isolation of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi from the vicinity of salt pan soils of Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, S K

    2004-04-01

    Soil samples from twenty salt pans and their vicinity around Mumbai and Thane were screened for the occurrence of keratinophilic fungi and related dermatophytes. Ten species classified in six genera were recovered using horse hair as bait. The isolated species were reported in the following order of dominance: Chrysosporium indicum (12.0%), Microsporum gypseum complex (7.2%), C. tropicum (5.6%), C. state of Ctenomyces serratus (4.0%), Trichophyton terrestre (3.2%), Malbranchea aurantiaca (2.4%), C. fluviale (1.6%), Uncinocarpus reesii (1.6%), Malbranchea sp. (0.8%), and T. mentagrophytes (0.8%). PMID:15180153

  19. Tinea Incognita in a Patient with Crest Syndrome: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gorgievska-Sukarovska, Biljana; Skerlev, Mihael; Žele-Starčević, Lidija

    2015-01-01

    Tinea incognita is a dermatophytic infection that is difficult to diagnose, usually modified by inappropriate topical or systemic corticosteroid therapy. We report an extensive case of tinea incognita caused by the zoophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes (var. granulosa) in a 49-year-old female patient with CREST (Calcinosis; Raynaud phenomenon; Esophageal involvement; Sclerodactyly; Teleangiectasia) syndrome. Immunocompromised patients, as well as patients with keratinization disorders, seem to be especially susceptible to dermatophytic infections with atypical clinical presentation that is sometimes bizarre and difficult to recognize. Therefore, close monitoring and mycological skin examination is recommended in order to avoid misdiagnosis and to give the patient the best chance of recovery. PMID:26476904

  20. The Auckland skin clinic tinea pedis and erythrasma study.

    PubMed

    Allen, S; Christmas, T I; McKinney, W; Parr, D; Oliver, G F

    1990-08-22

    Three hundred consecutive patients attending the Auckland Hospital dermatology clinic were examined clinically and microbiologically for evidence of interdigital or plantar mycological or bacterial infection. One hundred and nine patients were shown by laboratory investigation to have an infection. Of these, only 89 displayed clinical signs of infection. Erythrasma, a desquamative condition caused by Corynebacterium minutissimum, was the commonest infection in this study. The commonest dermatophyte isolated was Trichophyton mentagrophytes var interdigitale. There was a significant rise in the incidence of both types of infection with age. PMID:2385417

  1. Neutral red assay in minimum fungicidal concentrations of antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, T; Naka, W; Tajima, S; Nishikawa, T

    1996-01-01

    We assayed the fungicidal effects of antifungal agents using neutral red staining. Fungal elements of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum were treated with various concentrations of antifungal agents in 96-well filtration plates and then stained with neutral red. The amount of neutral red incorporated by the surviving viable cells was determined from the automated spectrophotometric readings at 550 nm. The minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of antifungal agents determined by this assay correlated well with those determined by conventional assay. This newly developed procedure should provide a rapid, reproducible, quantitative, qualitative and semi-automated susceptibility test for determination of the MFCs of the fungicidal agents. PMID:8912170

  2. [In vitro growth of human pathogenic fungi on different stocking fabrics].

    PubMed

    Günther, A; Effendy, I

    2002-01-01

    Athlete's foot and onychomycosis can be aggravated due to inappropriate footwear. In this study we examined whether stockings of synthetic and mixed fabrics may influence the growth behaviour of the commonly isolated fungi Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. A standardized suspension of each fungus was given to each sample of twelve stockings of different materials. The size of the growing colonies and the velocity of their growth were measured and compared to each other. Based on our data stockings depending on their fabric mixture seem to support or inhibit respectively the growth of fungi. Stockings composed of polyamide and a high percentage of polyurethane (Elasthan) and silk stockings as well may likely promote the fungal growth. PMID:12073558

  3. Antifungal Activity of Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robinson(Asteraceae) of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ngono Ngane, A; Ebelle Etame, R; Ndifor, F; Biyiti, L; Amvam Zollo, P H; Bouchet, P

    2006-01-01

    An aqueous ethanol extract of leaves of Chromolaena odorata and some of its fractions were examined for their antifungal properties by dilution methods on solid and liquid media, using yeasts and filamentous fungi. Extract and fractions inhibit the in vitro growth of Cryptococcus neoformans, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum with a minimal inhibitory concentration range from 62.5 to 500 microg/ml for the extract and from 25 to 100 microg/ml for fractions. A qualitative chemical analysis of the extract and fractions showed the presence of biologically active constituents such as some coumarins, flavonoids, phenols, tannins and sterols. No toxic effect was observed in mice treated per os with the extract. This study provides a scientific confirmation of the use of Chromolaena odorata in traditional medicine. PMID:16567942

  4. Tinea genitalis: a new entity of sexually transmitted infection? Case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Luchsinger, Isabelle; Bosshard, Philipp Peter; Kasper, Romano Silvio; Reinhardt, Dominic; Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Investigation on recent cases of tinea genitalis after travelling to South East Asia. Methods Patients with tinea in the genital region, which emerged after sex in South East Asia, underwent further assessment including microscopy, cultures and DNA analyses. Results The case series includes seven patients. In six patients, Trichophyton interdigitale (former Trichophyton mentagrophytes) was detected. Three patients suffered from a severe inflammatory reaction of the soft tissue and two of them needed hospitalisation due to severe pain. In four patients, cicatrising healing was noticed. Five patients were declared incapacitated for work. Conclusions Sexual activity should be considered as a potentially important and previously underappreciated means of transmission of T. interdigitale. To avoid irreversible scarring alopecia, prompt initiation of antifungal treatment is essential and adequate isolation and identification of the pathogen is mandatory. PMID:26071391

  5. [Research of keratinophiles in the soil and their effects on human cutaneous pathology in the Lyons area].

    PubMed

    Coudert, J; Michel-Brun, J; Mojon, M; Pichot, J

    1979-01-01

    Between 1967 and 1977, the systematic research of keratinophiles of the ground in a radius of 30--50 km around Lyon, has shown the ubiquitarian predominance of Microsporum nanum, which is probably the most ancient occupant of the ground. The most intensive areas of human and animal occupation in the Rhodanian tract show the predominance of Microsporum gypseum, which is scarcely found in man. Sporadic localizations, tightly limites, bound to cirulcation axes and international gathering, let us detect Microsporum cookei, Trichophyton verrucosum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Chrysosporium keratinophilum, and Keratinomyces ajelloi. However, in the last years, a progressive extension of recently imported kinds and a decrease in native kinds appears to have occurred. PMID:488487

  6. Evaluation of incubation time for dermatophytes cultures.

    PubMed

    Rezusta, Antonio; de la Fuente, Sonia; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Vidal-García, Matxalen; Alcalá, Leticia; López-Calleja, Ana; Ruiz, Maria Angeles; Revillo, Maria José

    2016-07-01

    In general, it is recommended to incubate dermatophytes cultures for a minimum of 4 weeks. Several aspects of routine fungal cultures should be evaluated in order to implement appropriate and necessary changes. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum incubation time for routine dermatophytes cultures, analysing the time to find first fungal growth by visual observation. We recorded the time when the initial growth was detected for all dermatophyte isolates during a 4-year period. A total of 5459 dermatophyte cultures were submitted to our laboratory. From the total cultures, only 16 (1.42%) isolates were recovered over/after 17 days of incubation and only three dermatophyte species were recovered over 17 days. Fourteen isolates belong to Trichophyton rubrum, one isolate to Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex and one isolate to Epidermophyton floccosum. We concluded that an incubation period of 17 days is enough to establish a microbiological diagnosis of dermatophytosis. PMID:27144472

  7. Bioactive constituents of Homalomena aromatica essential oil and its antifungal activity against dermatophytes and yeasts.

    PubMed

    Policegoudra, R S; Goswami, S; Aradhya, S M; Chatterjee, S; Datta, S; Sivaswamy, R; Chattopadhyay, P; Singh, L

    2012-03-01

    Homalomena aromatica rhizomes are rich source of essential oils, which have been attributed for various medicinal uses. In the present investigation, essential oil from H. aromatica rhizomes was isolated and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS) analysis. Fifty-five chemical constituents were reported from H. aromatica rhizomes of which T-muurolol (5.32%), viridiflorol (3.69%), α-selinene (2.19%), M-cymene (2.19%) and γ-Muurolene (1.81%) were identified and reported for the first time. Other major components were identified as linalool (62.5%), terpene-4-ol (7.08%), δ-cadinene (5.57%), α-cadinol (3.71%) and spatulenol (1.81%). H. aromatica rhizome essential oil showed high antimicrobial activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum fulvum, Microsporum gypseum, Trichosporon beigelii and Candida albicans. PMID:23177818

  8. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Bis-[4-methoxy-3-(6-aryl-7H-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]-thiadiazin-3-yl)phenyl]methanes and Bis-[(triazolo[3,4-b]thiadiazipin-3-yl)phenyl]methanes.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Avula

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel Bis-[4-methoxy-3-(6-aryl-7H-[1,2,4]tria zolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]-thiadiazin-3-yl)phenyl]methanes and Bis-[(triazolo[3,4-b]thiadiazipin-3-yl)phenyl]methanes ( 5a-e & 6a-e ) has been synthesized and characterized by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, MS and elemental analysis. All the newly synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klobsinella aerogenes and Chromobacteriumviolaceum and antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Compounds 5b, 5d,5e, 6b, 6c and 6e exhibited potent activity against the test bacteria and fungi, and emerged as potential molecules for further development. PMID:26970802

  9. Tavaborole topical solution, 5% for the treatment of toenail onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Zane, L T; Plattner, J; Chanda, S; Coronado, D; Merchant, T; Alley, M R K; Gupta, A K

    2015-10-01

    Tavaborole topical solution, 5% (tavaborole) is a novel, boron-based, antifungal pharmaceutical agent indicated for treatment of toenail onychomycosis due to the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum or Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In preclinical studies, tavaborole effectively penetrated through full-thickness, non-diseased cadaver fingernails, including those with up to four layers of nail polish. Limited systemic absorption was observed following topical application of tavaborole. In phase III clinical trials involving patients with distal subungual onychomycosis affecting 20-60% of a target great toenail, significantly more patients treated with tavaborole versus vehicle achieved completely clear nail with negative mycology following daily application for 48 weeks. Treatment-emergent adverse events reported by at least 1% of patients treated with tavaborole and at a greater frequency versus vehicle included ingrown toenail, exfoliation, erythema and dermatitis. Treatment discontinuations were uncommon. Results from preclinical studies and phase III clinical trials establish tavaborole as a safe and efficacious treatment for toenail onychomycosis. PMID:26583302

  10. Pattern of Dermatophytes in Patients Attend in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital.

    PubMed

    Monwar, S; Hossain, M A; Mahmud, M C; Paul, S K; Nasreen, S A; Joly, S N; Begum, H; Abdullah, S A; Haque, N; Sarkar, S R

    2015-10-01

    Dermatophytosis is a common fungal disease which involves the keratinized tissue. This is an attempt to observe the spectrum of dermatophytes among the clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis attending the outpatient department of Dermatology and Venereology, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh during the period of July 2013 to December 2014. Two hundred thirty (230) clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis were subjected in this study. Sixty three cases (27.39%) were positive for fungus in direct microscopy while 53(23.04%) were culture positive. Among the clinical types tinea unguium was the most common followed by tinea corporis. Dermatophytosis was more common in the age group of 21-30 years. The male to female ratio was 1.53:1. Trichophyton rubrum 44(83.04%) was found common etiological dermatophyte species followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes 5(9.43%) and Epidermophyton floccosum 4(7.55%). PMID:26620004

  11. Antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanol extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. against dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Atiqur; Al-Reza, Sharif M.; Siddiqui, Shah Alam; Chang, Taehyun; Kang, Sun Chul

    2014-01-01

    The antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanolic leaf extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. was evaluated for controlling the growth of dermatophytes. The oil (1,000 ppm) and extracts (1,500 ppm) of L. japonica revealed 55.1–70.3 % and 40.1–65.5 % antidermatophytic effect against Microsporum canis KCTC 6348, 6349, 6591, Trichophyton rubrum KCTC 6345, 6352, 6375, Trichophyton mentagrophytes KCTC 6077 and 6085, respectively, along with their respective minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 62.5-500 and 125-1,000 µg/ml. Also, the oil had strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested dermatophytes as well as concentration and time-dependent kinetic inhibition of M. canis KCTC 6348. The results demonstrated that L. japonica oil and extracts could be potential sources of natural fungicides to protect human and animals from fungal infections. PMID:26417269

  12. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Cancer.gov

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevención de más de 795 000 muertes por cáncer de pulmón en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este país hubiera cesado después de la publicación d

  13. Evolution of tinea capitis in the Nanchang area, Southern China: a 50-year survey (1965-2014).

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ping; Geng, Chengfang; Li, Zhihua; Jin, Yun; Jiang, Qing; Tao, Li; Luo, Yunpeng; Xiong, Zhiwei; Wu, Shaoxi; Li, Dongmei; Liu, Weida; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2015-05-01

    Tinea capitis remains a common public health problem worldwide especially in developing areas. Aetiologic agents and clinical pattern vary with geography and history of socioeconomic conditions. Three community surveys and a prospective study were carried out over the past 50 years (1965-2014) in the Qingyunpu District of Nanchang, Southern China. Clinical presentation and spectrum of aetiological agents were monitored to understand the evolution of tinea capitis. In 1965 favus was highly epidemic and Trichophyton schoenleinii presented as the overwhelming aetiological agents of scalp infection in the study area, with a prevalence of 3.41% of the population. During a governmental campaign to eliminate tinea capitis initiated in mid of 1960s, favus was successfully controlled and the prevalence decreased to less than 0.01% in 1977. After that period, clinical presentation and spectrum of fungi changed with social development. Trichophyton schoenleinii was replaced by Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Nowadays, the species corresponds with a dominant black dot type of tinea capitis in the Nanchang area. The prevalence of causative agents of tinea capitis is not only related to geography but also to socioeconomic factors. Multiple factors have to be considered for the management for control of this disease. PMID:25756741

  14. The anti-dermatophyte activity of Allium hirtifolium Boiss aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, M; Kazempour, N

    2015-03-01

    In an attempt at demonstrating the efficacy of Allium hirtifolium aqueous extract in control of skin fungal infections as traditional use, we evaluated the anti-dermatophyte activities of A. hirtifolium aqueous extract from bulbs and of ketoconazole against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton schoenleinii and Trichophyton verrucosum var. album by food poisoning technique, disc diffusion and micro broth dilution assays. The anti-fungal activity of A. hirtifolium was excellent when it was compared with ketoconazole. The anti-fungal evaluation by food poisoning method showed that A. hirtifolium extract inhibited the growth of dermatophytes dose-dependently. The inhibition zone diameter (IZ) of A. hirtifolium extract (15 μg/disc) was in the range of 28.8 ± 0.31 to 67.7 ± 1.5mm, while ketoconazole (15 μg/disc) had the IZ lower than 13mm. The MIC and MFC values of A. hirtifolium extract were in the range of 0.2-1.7 and 0.4-0.7 μg/mL; respectively. Therefore, A. hirtifolium extract showed a strong anti-fungal activity against human and animal dermatophytes. PMID:25456419

  15. Neisseria meningitidis Lacking the Major Porins PorA and PorB Is Viable and Modulates Apoptosis and the Oxidative Burst of Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Peak, Ian R; Chen, Adrienne; Jen, Freda E-C; Jennings, Courtney; Schulz, Benjamin L; Saunders, Nigel J; Khan, Arshad; Seifert, H Steven; Jennings, Michael P

    2016-08-01

    The bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis expresses two major outer-membrane porins. PorA expression is subject to phase-variation (high frequency, random, on-off switching), and both PorA and PorB are antigenically variable between strains. PorA expression is variable and not correlated with meningococcal colonisation or invasive disease, whereas all naturally-occurring strains express PorB suggesting strong selection for expression. We have generated N. meningitidis strains lacking expression of both major porins, demonstrating that they are dispensable for bacterial growth in vitro. The porAB mutant strain has an exponential growth rate similar to the parental strain, as do the single porA or porB mutants, but the porAB mutant strain does not reach the same cell density in stationary phase. Proteomic analysis suggests that the double mutant strain exhibits compensatory expression changes in proteins associated with cellular redox state, energy/nutrient metabolism, and membrane stability. On solid media, there is obvious growth impairment that is rescued by addition of blood or serum from mammalian species, particularly heme. These porin mutants are not impaired in their capacity to inhibit both staurosporine-induced apoptosis and a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced oxidative burst in human neutrophils suggesting that the porins are not the only bacterial factors that can modulate these processes in host cells. PMID:26562068

  16. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  17. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    This document describes Acceptance Testing performed on Portable Exhauster POR-007/Skid E. It includes measurements of bearing vibration levels, pressure decay testing, programmable logic controller interlocks, high vacuum, flow and pressure control functional testing. The purpose of Acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-0490, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  18. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Araucaria araucana (Mol.) K. Koch heartwood lignans.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Avila, J Guillermo; García, Ana M; Becerra, José; Flores, Cristian; Aqueveque, Pedro; Bittner, Magalis; Hoeneisen, Maritza; Martinez, Miguel; Silva, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Five lignans (secoisolariciresinol, pinoresinol, eudesmin, lariciresinol, and lariciresinol-4-methyl ether) were isolated from an MeOH extract from Araucaria araucana (Mol.) K. Koch wood for the first time in this species and their structures determined with spectroscopic methods. The antimicrobial activities of these compounds were determined for the bacteria Citrobacter sp., Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for the white rooting and staining fungi Mucor miehei, Paecilomyces variotii, Ceratocystis pilifera, Trametes versicolor, and Penicillium notatum, and in addition, the MeOH extract was evaluated against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Fusarium moniliforme, F. sporotrichum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The most sensitive bacteria against pinoresinol were the Gram-positive. However, secoisolariciresinol exhibited a significant antifungal activity on fungi of white rooting and wood staining and this compound completely inhibited the mycelial growth of T. versicolor and C. pilifera at 300 and 400 microg per disc, respectively, whereas pinoresinol showed a moderate inhibitory activity. On the other hand, the MeOH extract had the highest activity against rooting and staining and pathogenic fungi as well as T. versicolor, Fusarium spp. and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, inhibiting completely the growth at 400 microg per disc. PMID:16610214

  19. Anti-fungal potential of ozone against some dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Ouf, Salama A; Moussa, Tarek A; Abd-Elmegeed, Alshimaa M; Eltahlawy, Samar R

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophytes are classified in three genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum and Trichophyton. They have the capacity to invade keratinized tissue to produce a cutaneous infection known as dermatophytoses. This investigation was performed to study the effect of gaseous ozone and ozonized oil on three specific properties of six different dermatophytes. These properties included sporulation, mycelia leakage of sugar and nutrients and the activity of their hydrolytic enzymes. Generally, ozonized oil was found to be more efficacious than gaseous ozone. Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis were the most susceptible, while Trichophyton interdigitale and T. mentagrophytes were relatively resistant. The study revealed a steady decline in spore production of M. gypseum and M. canis on application of ozonated oil. An increase in leakage of electrolytes and sugar was noticed after treatment with ozonized oil in the case of M. gypseum, M. canis, T. interdigitale, T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum. The results also revealed loss in urease, amylase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase and keratinase enzyme producing capacity of the investigated fungi. PMID:27287337

  20. Argentinean propolis from Zuccagnia punctata Cav. (Caesalpinieae) exudates: phytochemical characterization and antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Agüero, María Belén; Gonzalez, Mariela; Lima, Beatriz; Svetaz, Laura; Sánchez, Marianela; Zacchino, Susana; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Palermo, Jorge; Wunderlin, Daniel; Tapia, Alejandro

    2010-01-13

    This paper reports the in vitro antifungal activity of propolis extracts from the province of Tucuman (Argentina) as well as the identification of their main antifungal compounds and botanical origin. The antifungal activity was determined by the microdilution technique, using reference microorganisms and clinical isolates. All dermatophytes and yeasts tested were strongly inhibited by different propolis extracts (MICs between 16 and 125 microg mL(-1)). The most susceptible species were Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. The main bioactive compounds were 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone 2 and 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone 3. Both displayed strong activity against clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (MICs and MFCs between 1.9 and 2.9 microg mL(-1)). Additionally, galangin 5, pinocembrin 6, and 7-hydroxy-8-methoxyflavanone 9 were isolated from propolis samples and Zuccagnia punctata exudates, showing moderate antifungal activity. This is the first study matching the chemical profile of Z. punctata Cav. exudates with their corresponding propolis, giving strong evidence on the botanical origin of the studied propolis. PMID:19916546

  1. Keratinolysis and its morphological expression in hair digestion by airborne fungi.

    PubMed

    Filipello Marchisio, V; Fusconi, A; Rigo, S

    1994-08-01

    The morphological expression of keratinolysis in fungi isolated from the air of Torino (98 isolates belonging to 36 species) was studied. Light microscopy on whole material and on semithin sections, as well as scanning electron microscopy was used. There were 19 keratinolytically active species, with seven in the genus Chrysosporium (C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, C. pannicola, C. tropicum, C. an. Arthroderma cuniculi, C. an. Pectinotrichum llanense, C. an. Renispora flavissima), four in the genus Malbranchea (M. arcuata, M. fulva, M. sulphurea, M. st. Uncinocarpus reesii), and three in the genus Trichophyton (T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. terrestre). In addition there were Aphanoascus fulvescens, Beauveria bassiana, Geomyces pannorum v. pannorum, Gymnoascus umbrinus and Myceliophthora vellerea. Most of these species were capable of developing structures related to surface erosion and radial penetration contemporaneously. However Gymnoascus umbrinus, Myceliophthora vellerea, an isolate of C. indicum, C. tropicum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes demonstrated only surface erosion. Different isolates of one species can vary in their production of invasive structures and in degree of keratinolytic activity. Thus such activity, like many biochemical activities of fungi, does not appear to be a constant or rigorously species-specific character. PMID:7527126

  2. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL). Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing. PMID:27446946

  3. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Caceres, A; Lopez, B R; Giron, M A; Logemann, H

    1991-03-01

    Skin infections are common diseases in developing countries, of which dermatophytoses are of particular concern in the tropics, especially in infants. Through ethnobotanical surveys and literature review 100 plants were detected as being used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytoses. Of these, 44 plants were screened for in vitro activity against the most common dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum). Results showed that aqueous extracts from 22 of the plants tested inhibit one or more of the dermatophytes. The most commonly inhibited dermatophytes were E. floccosum (43.2%), T. rubrum (36.0%), and T. mentagrophytes (31.8%); the less inhibited were M. canis (22.7%) and M. gypseum (24.0%). Plants of American origin which exhibited anti-dermatophyte activity were: Byrsonima crassifolia, Cassia grandis, Cassia occidentalis, Diphysa carthagenensis, Gliricidia sepium, Piscidia piscipula, Sambucus mexicana, Smilax regelii, Solanum americanum and Solanum nigrescens. Fungicidal and fungistatic activities as well as the minimal inhibitory concentration were demonstrated. These results provide a scientific basis for the use of these plants for the treatment of dermatophyte infections in man. PMID:2056755

  4. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han Chien; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Lee, Wen-Ju; Yap, Hui-Yi; Wang, Shao-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL). Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing. PMID:27446946

  5. Typing and surface charges of the variable loop regions of PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Paola; Neri, Arianna; Tanabe, Mikio; Fazio, Cecilia; Massari, Paola

    2016-06-01

    PorB is a pan-Neisserial major outer membrane protein with a trimeric β-barrel structure. Each monomer presents eight periplasmic turns and eight surface exposed loop regions with sequence variability. PorB induces activation of host cell responses via a TLR2-dependent mechanism likely mediated by electrostatic interactions between TLR2 and PorB surface exposed loops. Variability in the loop amino acid sequence is known to influence cell responses to PorB in vitro, particularly for the residues in L5 and L7. In this work, the sequence of the porB gene and the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from 35 invasive meningococcal isolates belonging to the main clonal complexes identified in Italy and from five carriage genomes available on the website http://pubmlst.org/neisseria/ were examined. Analysis of the porB encoding regions from the invasive meningococci has identified four new alleles and a potential association between porB alleles, serogroup, and clonal complexes. Through computer-based modeling and analysis of the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from these strains, loop charge segregation between PorB from invasive serogroups B and C was observed. Specifically, loops 1, 4, and 7 were negatively charged and L2 and L8 were mostly neutral in serogroup B isolates, while an overall homogeneous positive surface charge was present in PorB from invasive serogroup C strains. A higher PorB sequence variability was observed among carriage genomes, and a general prevalence of negative loop surface charges. The surface charge differences in PorB from serogroups B and C invasive and carriage strains may, in part, influence the outcomes of Neisseriae interactions with host cells. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(6):488-495, 2016. PMID:27156582

  6. Eastern cottontail (sylvilagus floridanus) as carrier of dermatophyte fungi.

    PubMed

    Gallo, M G; Tizzani, P; Peano, A; Rambozzi, L; Meneguz, P G

    2005-09-01

    Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus, fam. Leporidae), introduced into Piedmont (Italy) in the 1960s, was studied as carrier of dermatophyte fungi. Of 216 hair samples collected from animals culled between September 1999 and July 2000 in the Province of Alessandria (Piedmont, Italy) during a pest control project, 57 (26.4%) yielded dermatophyte colonies. As two different species of dermatophytes grew from two samples, a total of 59 fungal isolates (26.5%) were obtained. Six dermatophyte species both geophilic (M. gypseum, M. cookei, Trichophyton ajelloi, T. terrestre) and zoophilic (M. canis, T. mentagrophytes) were identified. No sex-related differences were found but season-related differences were observed. The highest prevalence of dermatophyte-positive samples was recorded in May-September, due to the geophilic fungi whose prevalence decreased during colder and increased during warmer months (p < 0.001). The presence of zoophilic dermatophytes, T. mentagrophytes, commonly associated with rodents, small mammals and lagomorphs and M. canis, usually correlated with domestic environment, did not change the whole year round. As Eastern cottontail has been showed to be a carrier of dermatophytes transmissible to man (M. canis, T. mentagrophytes and M. gypseum), it may represent a source of infection for gamekeepers, hunters and veterinarians. PMID:16170613

  7. Occurrence of Dermatophytes in Fresh Bat Guano1

    PubMed Central

    Kajihiro, Edwin S.

    1965-01-01

    Evidence is presented in support of the hypothesis that fresh bat guano serves as a means of pathogenic fungi dissemination in caves. A total of 371 guano samples were collected from caves in southeastern New Mexico. Each sample was agitated in sterile saline and sand. The supernatant fluid was treated with an antibiotic and streaked on differential media. Cultures were incubated at 25 and 37 C and examined at intervals over a 4-week period. For animal inoculation, highly concentrated inoculum was injected intraperitoneally into white Swiss mice. Animals were sacrificed 4 weeks later, and portions of their lung, liver, and spleen were cultured on selective media, incubated at 25 C, and examined at intervals over a 4-week period. Microsporum gypseum was isolated at all 10 collecting stations with an incidence of 22.4%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes at 7 stations with an incidence of 5%, T. rubrum at 3 stations with an incidence of 3%, and T. terrestre at 1 station with an incidence of 0.5%. From a total of 60 pools of liver-spleen-lung suspensions, 6 pools yielded positive cultures of Histoplasma capsulatum and 1 pool yielded T. mentagrophytes. No significant difference was found among the different selective media with respect to recovery of dermatophytes. Among the human pathogenic fungi isolated were Candida sp., Cladosporium sp., Coccidioides immitis, Cryptococcus neoformans, H. capsulatum, M. gypseum, T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. terrestre, and Sporotrichum sp. Images Fig. 1 PMID:5867652

  8. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    Portable Exhauster POR-008 was procured via HNF-0490, Specification for a Portable Exhausted System for Waste Tank Ventilation. Prior to taking ownership, acceptance testing was performed at the vendors. However at the conclusion of testing a number of issues remained that required resolution before the exhausters could be used by Project W-320. The purpose of acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-O49O, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  9. Multilaboratory Evaluation of In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Dermatophytes for ME1111.

    PubMed

    Ghannoum, M; Chaturvedi, V; Diekema, D; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L; Rennie, R; Walsh, T; Wengenack, N; Fothergill, A; Wiederhold, N

    2016-03-01

    ME1111 is a novel small molecule antifungal agent under development for the topical treatment of onychomycosis. Standardization of the susceptibility testing method for this candidate antifungal is needed. Toward this end, 8 independent laboratories determined the interlaboratory reproducibility of ME1111 susceptibility testing. In addition, we subsequently identified 2 strains as quality control (QC) isolates for the method. In the reproducibility study, 5 blinded clinical strains each of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum were tested, while the QC study tested 6 blinded T. rubrum or T. mentagrophytes ATCC strains. Testing was performed in frozen microtiter panels according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 methodology. In the reproducibility study, 9 of 15 clinical strains showed interlaboratory agreement of >90% at the 80% inhibition endpoint, with a range of agreement of 76.2% to 100%. In the QC study, 4 of the 6 ATCC strains showed interlaboratory agreement of >90%. ME1111 demonstrated excellent interlaboratory agreement when tested against dermatophytes. Based on this data, the CLSI Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Tests approved the susceptibility testing of ME1111 against dermatophytes according to M38-A2 methodology, which stipulates RPMI 1640 as the test medium, an inoculum size of 1 to 3 × 10(3) CFU/ml, and an incubation time and temperature of 96 h at 35°C. The MIC endpoint should be 80% inhibition compared with the growth control. T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438 and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 28185 were selected as QC isolates, with an acceptable range of 0.12 to 1 μg/ml for the two strains. PMID:26719434

  10. Epidemiology of Superficial Fungal Infections in Guangdong, Southern China: A Retrospective Study from 2004 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenying; Lu, Changming; Li, Xiqing; Zhang, Junmin; Zhan, Ping; Xi, Liyan; Sun, Jiufeng; Yu, Xinbing

    2016-06-01

    Superficial fungal infections are common worldwide; however, the distribution of pathogenic species varies among geographical areas and changes over time. This study aimed to determine the epidemiologic profile of superficial fungal infections during 2004-2014 in Guangzhou, Southern China. Data regarding the superficial mycoses from outpatients and inpatients in our hospital were recorded and analyzed. From the 3367 patients that were enrolled in the study, 3385 samples were collected from skin, hair and nail lesions. Of the 697 positive cultures, dermatophytes were the most prevalent isolates (84.36 %), followed by yeasts (14.92 %) and non-dermatophyte molds (0.72 %). Trichophyton rubrum (56.24 %) was the most common dermatophyte isolated from cases of tinea unguium (83.92 %), tinea pedis (71.19 %), tinea cruris (91.66 %), tinea corporis (91.81 %) and tinea manuum (65.00 %). Trichophyton mentagrophytes (13.35 %) and Microsporum canis (10.19 %) were the predominant species associated with cases of tinea faciei (54.55 %) and tinea capitis (54.13 %), respectively. Yeasts and molds were identified primarily from other cases of superficial fungal infections. In conclusion, when compared to previous studies in the same area, the epidemiology of superficial mycoses in Guangdong did not significantly change from 2004 to 2014. The prevalence of causative agents and the spectrum of superficial fungal infections, particularly tinea caused by dermatophyte infection, are similar to reports from several specific regions in China and Europe, whereas increasing incidences of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis occurred in Guangdong, China. PMID:26883512

  11. Mechanism of Action of ME1111, a Novel Antifungal Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Takahata, Sho; Kubota, Natsuki; Takei-Masuda, Naomi; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Mari; Alshahni, Mohamed Mahdi; Abe, Shigeru; Tabata, Yuji; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2016-02-01

    Despite the existing treatment options for onychomycosis, there remains a strong demand for potent topical medications. ME1111 is a novel antifungal agent that is active against dermatophytes, has an excellent ability to penetrate human nails, and is being developed as a topical agent for onychomycosis. In the present study, we investigated its mechanism of action. Trichophyton mentagrophytes mutants with reduced susceptibility to ME1111 were selected in our laboratory, and genome sequences were determined for 3 resistant mutants. The inhibitory effect on a candidate target was evaluated by a spectrophotometric enzyme assay using mitochondrial fractions. Point mutations were introduced into candidate genes by a reverse genetics approach. Whole-genome analysis of the 3 selected mutants revealed point mutations in the structural regions of genes encoding subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (complex II). All of the laboratory-generated resistant mutants tested harbored a mutation in one of the subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (SdhB, SdhC, or SdhD). Most of the mutants showed cross-resistance to carboxin and boscalid, which are succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors. ME1111 strongly inhibited the succinate-2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol reductase reaction in Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (50% inhibitory concentrations [IC50s] of 0.029 and 0.025 μg/ml, respectively) but demonstrated only moderate inhibition of the same reaction in human cell lines. Furthermore, the target protein of ME1111 was confirmed by the introduction of point mutations causing the amino acid substitutions in SdhB, SdhC, and SdhD found in the laboratory-generated resistant mutants, which resulted in reduced susceptibility to ME1111. Thus, ME1111 is a novel inhibitor of the succinate dehydrogenase of Trichophyton species, and its mechanism of action indicates its selective profile. PMID:26596944

  12. VDAC and the bacterial porin PorB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae share mitochondrial import pathways.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anne; Rassow, Joachim; Grimm, Jan; Machuy, Nikolaus; Meyer, Thomas F; Rudel, Thomas

    2002-04-15

    The human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae induces host cell apoptosis during infection by delivering the outer membrane protein PorB to the host cell's mitochondria. PorB is a pore-forming beta-barrel protein sharing several features with the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which is involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Here we show that PorB of pathogenic Neisseria species produced by host cells is efficiently targeted to mitochondria. Imported PorB resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane and forms multimers with similar sizes as in the outer bacterial membrane. The mitochondria completely lose their membrane potential, a characteristic previously observed in cells infected with gonococci or treated with purified PorB. Closely related bacterial porins of non-pathogenic Neisseria mucosa or Escherichia coli remain in the cytosol. Import of PorB into mitochondria in vivo is independent of a linear signal sequence. Insertion of PorB into the mitochondrial outer membrane in vitro depends on the activity of Tom5, Tom20 and Tom40, but is independent of Tom70. Our data show that human VDAC and bacterial PorB are imported into mitochondria by a similar mechanism. PMID:11953311

  13. Hemolytic activity of dermatophytes species isolated from clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Aktas, E; Yıgıt, N

    2015-03-01

    Hemolytic activity was recently reported for several pathogenic fungal species, such as Aspergillus, Candida, Trichophyton, Penicillium and Fusarium. Based on a number of mechanistic and characterization studies, several fungal hemolysins have been proposed as virulence factors. Hemolysins lyse red blood cells resulting in the release of iron, an important growth factor for microbes especially during infection. The requirement of iron in fungal growth is necessary for metabolic processes and as a catalyst for various biochemical processes. Expression of a hemolytic protein with capabilities to lyse red blood cells has also been suggested to provide a survival strategy for fungi during opportunistic infections. The aims of this study were to investigate the hemolytic activities of dermatophytes species isolated from patients with dermatophytosis. Hair, skin and nail samples of patients were examined with direct microscopy using potassium hydroxide and cultivated on Mycobiotic agar and Sabouraud's dextrose agar. To determine hemolytic activities of dermatophytes species, they were subcultured on Columbia Agar with 5% sheep blood and incubated for 7-14 days at 25°C in aerobic conditions. Media which displayed hemolysis were further incubated for 1-5 days at 37°C to increase hemolytic activity. In this study, 66 dermatophytes strains were isolated from clinical specimens and were identified by six different species: 43 (65.1%) Trichophyton rubrum, 7 (10.7%) Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 5 (7.6%) Microsporum canis, 5 (7.6%) Trichophyton tonsurans, 4 (6.0%) Epidermophyton floccosum and 2 (3.0%) Trichophyton violaceum. Twenty-one T. rubrum strains showed incomplete (alpha) hemolysis and nine T. rubrum strains showed complete (beta) hemolysis, whereas hemolysis was absent in 13 T. rubrum strains. Four T. mentagrophytes strains showed complete hemolysis and three T. tonsurans strains showed incomplete hemolysis. However, M. canis, E. floccosum and T. violaceum species had

  14. Interdigital foot infections: Corynebacterium minutissimum and agents of superficial mycoses

    PubMed Central

    Sariguzel, Fatma Mutlu; Koc, A. Nedret; Yagmur, Gülhan; Berk, Elife

    2014-01-01

    Interdigital foot infections are mostly caused initially by dermatophytes, yeasts and less frequently by bacteria. Erythrasma caused by Corynebacterium minutissimum can be confused with superficial mycoses. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of the etiologic agents of superficial mycoses and the frequency of Corynebacterium minutissimum in interdigital foot infections. All the samples obtained from the 121 patients with interdigital foot infections were examined directly with the use of 20% potassium hydroxide mounts and Gram stain under the microscope and cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar plates. In identification of superficial mycoses, the rate was found to be 14% with the cultural method and 14% with direct microscopic examination. Using a combination of direct microscopic examination and culture, a 33.8% ratio was achieved. In the culture of these samples, the most isolated factor was Trichophyton rubrum (33.7%). In 24 of the patients (19.8%) Corynebacterium minutissimum was detected by Gram staining, in 6 of these patients Trichophyton rubrum was found, Trichophyton mentagrophytes was found in 2 and Trichosporon spp. was found in 1. The examination of interdigital foot lesions in the laboratory, the coexistence of erythrasma with dermatophytes and yeast should be considered. PMID:25477907

  15. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and chemical characterization of essential oils of Thymusvulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Origanum majorana from northeastern México.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Boone, Laura; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Torres-Cirio, Anabel; Rivas-Galindo, Verónica Mayela; de-Torres, Noemí Waksman; González, Gloria; Pérez-López, Luis Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    There have been no reports of antifungal activity and composition of extracts from Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis or Origanum majorana from northeastern México. Antifungal activity of these oils against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum was measured by diffusion assay. Additionally, antibacterial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes was examined by microdilution. Antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracil reduction test. The plant oils were characterized by both GC/MS and GC/FID. Oils of T. vulgaris and O. majorana showed growth inhibition activity against dermatophytes, especially T. vulgaris oil, which completely inhibited growth of all tested dermatophytes. The oils also showed bioactivity against bacteria, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values between 62.5 and 500 μg/mL. The antioxidant activity of the oils was low, with effective concentration (EC50) values <250μg/mL. The major components in the oils were as follows: T. vulgaris, o-cymene, μ-terpinene, thymol and carvacrol; R. officinalis, terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole; O. majorana, terpinen-4-ol and thymol. PMID:25631514

  16. Interdigital foot infections: Corynebacterium minutissimum and agents of superficial mycoses.

    PubMed

    Sariguzel, Fatma Mutlu; Koc, A Nedret; Yagmur, Gülhan; Berk, Elife

    2014-01-01

    Interdigital foot infections are mostly caused initially by dermatophytes, yeasts and less frequently by bacteria. Erythrasma caused by Corynebacterium minutissimum can be confused with superficial mycoses. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of the etiologic agents of superficial mycoses and the frequency of Corynebacterium minutissimum in interdigital foot infections. All the samples obtained from the 121 patients with interdigital foot infections were examined directly with the use of 20% potassium hydroxide mounts and Gram stain under the microscope and cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar plates. In identification of superficial mycoses, the rate was found to be 14% with the cultural method and 14% with direct microscopic examination. Using a combination of direct microscopic examination and culture, a 33.8% ratio was achieved. In the culture of these samples, the most isolated factor was Trichophyton rubrum (33.7%). In 24 of the patients (19.8%) Corynebacterium minutissimum was detected by Gram staining, in 6 of these patients Trichophyton rubrum was found, Trichophyton mentagrophytes was found in 2 and Trichosporon spp. was found in 1. The examination of interdigital foot lesions in the laboratory, the coexistence of erythrasma with dermatophytes and yeast should be considered. PMID:25477907

  17. Prevalence of Fungal Skin Infections in Iranian Wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Razaghi, Alireza; Noori, Adel; Hashemi, Sayed-Jamal; Asghari, Rajab; Ziaee, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Fungal infections are one of the most common skin infections. Athletes, especially in contact sports such as wrestlers are the group at risk of fungal skin infections (FSI). The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of FSI and some effective factors in wrestlers in Tehran, Iran. Methods This study was a cross-sectional descriptive study which was conducted in 2009 and subjects were wrestlers of wrestling clubs of Tehran, Iran. In this study the prevalence of FSI and its related factors was collected based on clinical history, physical examination and laboratory tests. We also determined the rate of dermatophytic contamination of wrestling mats. The relationship between independent variables and incidence of fungal infection analyzed by Chi square test and regression analysis. Results In this study, out of 454 wrestlers, 111 (24.5%) subjects had suspicious fungal skin lesions on physical examination. The Prevalence of FSI was 8.2% in all of the wrestlers (34.2% of the wrestlers with suspicious lesion). Malassezia furfur (50%) and trichophyton tonsurans (30%) were the most common causative agents. Epidermophyton floccosum (7.5%), Trichophyton rubrum (5%), Candida albicans (5%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (2.5%) were other isolated fungi. Eleven wrestling mats (44%) were contaminated with different fungal organisms. Conclusion The prevalence of fungal skin infection in Iranian wrestlers is relatively high. Appropriate preventive measures need to be prepared and implemented to reduce incidence of FSI in wrestlers. PMID:23785573

  18. Detection of dermatophytes in human nail and skin dust produced during podiatric treatments in people without typical clinical signs of mycoses.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Danuta; Nawrot, Urszula; Włodarczyk, Katarzyna; Pajączkowska, Magdalena; Patrzałek, Anna; Pęcak, Anna; Mozdyniewicz, Paulina; Fleischer, Małgorzata

    2016-06-01

    Pedicures are the most common cosmetic foot treatment. Many pedicurists and podiatrists suffer from respiratory infections and diseases such as asthma, sinusitis, chronic cough and bronchitis. Skin and nail dust may play an important role in the development of occupational diseases and the transmission of mycosis to other clients. To examine the presence of dermatophytes in nail and skin dust produced during podiatric treatments of people without typical symptoms of mycosis and to assess the epidemiological hazards of tinea pedis for podiatrists as well as other clients. Seventy-seven samples underwent direct microscopy and culture. The results of direct microscopy were positive in 28/77 samples (36.36%) and doubtful in 3/77 (3.9%). Fungi were cultured from 36/77 samples (46.75%), including 8/77 (10.3%) positive for dermatophytes (Trichophyton rubrum-6 isolates and Trichophyton mentagrophytes-2). Material collected during podiatric treatments is potentially infected by pathogenic fungi; thus, there is a need to protect both workers who perform such treatments, as well as other clients, to prevent the transmission of pathogens in the Salon environment. Exposure to this occupational hazard may increase not only the risk of respiratory infections but also increase asthmatic or allergic reactions to Trichophyton. PMID:26931181

  19. The epidemiology and mating behavior of Arthroderma benhamiae var. erinacei in household four-toed hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoko; Sano, Ayako; Takizawa, Kayoko; Fukushima, Kazutaka; Miyaji, Makoto; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiological survey of Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei in the household hedgehog and other rodents was made between January 17, 2002 and February 28, 2002 in Japan. Quills and hairs were collected from sources identified via the internet. The fungus was isolated only from the quills of four-toed hedgehogs (7/18; 39%) from Kanto to Kyushu regions. Isolates were examined morphologically, physiologically and genetically, and identified as T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei anamorph. The isolates were also genetically compared with European hedgehog (Erinaceus europeus)-borne T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei and Kenyan hedgehog (Aterelix albiventris)-borne Arthroderma benhamiae, and their genotypes of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA were all identical. The isolates were crossed with A. benhamiae Americano-European race and African race, A. vanbreuseghemii and A. simii, with the result that they mated only with African race (+) or (-). Mating types of the isolates were (+) in 6 isolates and (-) in one. An intra-isolate mating between one of the 6 plus isolates and the minus one formed abundant mature gymnothesia, the mating type ratio of the F1 progeny was approximately 1:1, and the sib crossings of F1 progeny produced abundant fertile gymnothesia. The present study revealed that the intra-Japanese hedgehog-borne isolate crossing showed complete fertility and that the sexual degeneration pointed out by Takashio (Mycologia 71: 968-976, 1979) did not exist. Two pairs of mating, (+) and (-) mating types of Japanese isolates with (-) and (+) tester strains of A. benhamiae African race formed less gymnothesia, mating type ratios were unbalanced, and sib crossings of F1 progeny produced small gymnothesia containing a low number of asci, pseudogymothesia, or none, respectively. These results show that A. benhamiae var. erinacei, the teleomorph of T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei, belongs to a different mating group (e.g. hedgehog race) than the Americano-European and

  20. Successful Mnemonics for "por"/"para" and Affirmative Commands with Pronouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Two mnemonic devices, "4A Rule" and "PERFECT," are described to simplify the learning of two grammar points: the placement of object pronouns with respect to commands and the distinction between "por" and "para." (five references) (LB)

  1. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Zoe A; Seviour, Robert J; Tucci, Joseph; Petrovski, Steve

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  2. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Zoe A.; Seviour, Robert J.; Tucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  3. Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 Å resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP–PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction. PMID:20351243

  4. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kaelynn

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  5. Crystallographic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis PorB extracellular loops potentially implicated in TLR2 recognition.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Christof; Toussi, Deana N; Zaucha, Jan; Wetzler, Lee M; Rüppel, Nadine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2014-03-01

    Among all Neisseriae species, Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the only human pathogens, causative agents of bacterial meningitis and gonorrhoea, respectively. PorB, a pan-Neisseriae trimeric porin that mediates diffusive transport of essential molecules across the bacterial outer membrane, is also known to activate host innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling. The molecular mechanism of PorB binding to TLR2 is not known, but it has been hypothesized that electrostatic interactions contribute to ligand/receptor binding. Strain-specific sequence variability in the surface-exposed loops of PorB which are potentially implicated in TLR2 binding, may explain the difference in TLR2-mediated cell activation in vitro by PorB homologs from the commensal Neisseriae lactamica and the pathogen N. meningitidis. Here, we report a comparative structural analysis of PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup B strain 8765 (63% sequence homology with PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup W135) and a mutant in which amino acid substitutions in the extracellular loop 7 lead to significantly reduced TLR2-dependent activity in vitro. We observe that this mutation both alters the loop conformation and causes dramatic changes of electrostatic surface charge, both of which may affect TLR2 recognition and signaling. PMID:24361688

  6. Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T.M.

    2010-06-25

    PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP-PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction.

  7. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Benítez, J F; Blomström, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge. PMID:26728078

  8. Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

  9. Gliding Motility and Por Secretion System Genes Are Widespread among Members of the Phylum Bacteroidetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yongtao

    2013-01-01

    The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, “Gramella forsetii,” Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility. PMID:23123910

  10. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  11. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  12. An Analysis of Interlanguage Development Over Time: Part 1, "por" and "para".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntermann, Gail

    1992-01-01

    The first part of a larger planned investigation, this study examines the use of "por" and "para" by nine Peace Corps volunteers in oral interviews at the end of training and roughly one year later, to trace their acquisition over time, in two learning contexts. (24 references) (LB)

  13. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were as substitutions for other prepositions…

  14. The porA gene in serogroup A meningococci: evolutionary stability and mechanism of genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Suker, J; Feavers, I M; Achtman, M; Morelli, G; Wang, J F; Maiden, M C

    1994-04-01

    Molecular analyses were applied to the genes encoding variants of the serosubtyping antigen, the class 1 outer membrane protein (PorA), from 55 serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis strains. These genes were evolutionarily stable and exhibited a limited range of genetic variation, primarily generated by recombination. Translation of the gene sequences revealed a total of 19 distinct amino acid sequences in the variable regions of the protein, 6 of which were not recognized by currently available serosubtyping monoclonal antibodies. Knowledge of these amino acid sequences permitted a rational re-assignment of serosubtype names. Comparison of the complete genes with porA gene sequences from serogroup B and C meningococci showed that serogroup A possessed a limited number of the possible porA genes from a globally distributed gene pool. Each serogroup A subgroup was characterized by one of four porA gene types, probably acquired upon subgroup divergence, which was stable over periods of decades and during epidemiological spread. Comparison with other variable genes (pil and iga) indicated that the three alleles were independently assorted within the subgroup, suggesting that their gene types were older than the subgroups in which they occurred. PMID:8057850

  15. Informe a la Nación de mortalidad por cáncer sigue bajando

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, de 1975 a 2009, indica que los índices generales de mortalidad por cáncer siguen bajando en los Estados Unidos en hombres y mujeres, entre todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales y para todo

  16. Acetoxychavicol Acetate, an Antifungal Component of Alpinia galanga1.

    PubMed

    Janssen, A M; Scheffer, J J

    1985-12-01

    The essential oils from fresh and dried rhizomes of ALPINIA GALANGA showed an antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, a yeast and some dermatophytes, using the agar overlay technique. The main components of the oils were also tested and terpinen-4-ol was found most active. An N-pentane/diethyl ether extract of dried rhizomes was active against TRICHOPHYTON MENTAGROPHYTES. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate, 1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate and 1'-hydroxychavicol acetate identified by MS and NMR were found in the antifungally active fractions obtained by LSC. Acetoxychavicol acetate was active against the seven fungi tested and its MIC value for dermatophytes ranged from 50 to 250 microg/ml. Dried sliced rhizomes contained 1.5% of this compound. The compound was not found in rhizomes of ALPINIA OFFICINARUM, ZINGIBER OFFICINALE and KAEMPFERIA GALANGA. PMID:17345272

  17. Preliminary studies of the antifungal activities of some medicinal plants against Basidiobolus and some other pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Nwosu, M O; Okafor, J I

    1995-01-01

    The antifungal activities of extracts of 10 medicinal plants collected from south-eastern parts of Nigeria were tested against seven pathogenic fungi using the broth dilution and agar plate methods. All the extracts at 1:10 dilution inhibited the growth of Basidiobolus haptosporus and B. ranarum but did not inhibit that of Aspergillus fumigatus, Geotrichum candidum and Candida albicans. While extracts from Piper guineense, Ocimum gratissimum, Moringa oleifera and Erythrophleum suaveolens inhibited the growth of Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes, those from Fatropha curcas, Mitracarpus villosus, Azadirachta indica and Gongronema latifolium failed to do so at 1:10 dilution. Extract from Piper sp. was also able to inhibit the growth of B. haptosporus at a concentration as low as 1:80 dilution followed by those of Ocimum and Rauvolfia spp. at 1:40 dilution. These results indicate possible use of certain plant extracts in the treatment of subcutaneous phycomycosis in humans and animals. PMID:8531930

  18. Tinea profunda of the genital area. Successful treatment of a rare skin disease.

    PubMed

    Bakardzhiev, Ilko; Chokoeva, Anastasiya; Tchernev, Georgi; Wollina, Uwe; Lotti, Torello

    2016-05-01

    We present a rare case of 36-year-old female patient, who developed a severe Majocchi granuloma in the pubis after waxing, with isolated causative agent Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The condition was initially misdiagnosed as a bacterial folliculitis and treated unsuccessfully with topical corticosteroids and antibiotics. After the adequate diagnose was confirmed by mycological examination, followed by histopathological verification, complete remission of the symptoms was achieved at the 4th week after initiating 6 weeks course of antifungal therapy with Terbinafine 250 mg/daily dose, while good therapeutic response was observed even in the 10th day. The etiopathogenesis of the disease, as well as its current treatment options are considered, in respect to the rare occurrence of this condition in the pubic area and its frequent misdiagnosis. PMID:26555874

  19. Antifungal Activity of Luliconazole Nail Solution on in vitro and in vivo Onychomycosis Model.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Nami; Kubota, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated luliconazole nail solution, originally generated formulation, for the topical treatment of onychomycosis by two infection models. First, a suspension of Trichophyton mentagrophytes was dropped onto the ventral layer of human nail plate and these nails were set in Franz diffusion cells. After 9-day culture, luliconazole nail solutions (1, 3, and 5%) were applied to the dorsal surface of the nails once a day for 7 days. After application, fungal viability was assessed by measuring the ATP contents of the samples. The dose-dependent efficacy was confirmed, with 3% and 5% luliconazole nail solutions producing significantly lower ATP levels at 7-day treatment. When 3% and 5% luliconazole nail solutions were evaluated in a rabbit model of onychomycosis, both concentrations completely inhibited the recovery of fungi on culture after 4-week treatment. We therefore think these results indicate that 5% luliconazole nail solution is sufficiently potent for treatment of onychomycosis. PMID:26936347

  20. 18S rDNA polymerase chain reaction and sequencing in onychomycosis diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Walberg, Mette; Mørk, Cato; Sandven, Per; Jorde, Anne Tomine; Bjørås, Magnar; Gaustad, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Diagnostic approaches to onychomycosis have traditionally been based on a combination of culture and microscopy. In the present study clinical specimens from 346 patients with suspected onychomycosis were analysed by 18S polymerase chain reaction (detection) followed by sequencing and subsequent database search (identification) in parallel with routine culture on agar (detection and identification). In 49 samples Trichophyton rubrum was identified by culture and sequencing. In 67 additional culture negative samples, a positive dermatophyte sequence was obtained (T. rubrum in 54, T. mentagrophytes in 5, and T. species in 8 samples). Fifteen samples cultured positive while no sequence was obtained. Two hundred and seven samples were negative by culture as well as by sequencing. Nails from 10 healthy controls were negative by culture and sequencing. In conclusion, the number of specimens that were positive by polymerase chain reaction was more than double the number that were positive by culture alone. PMID:16710579

  1. In vitro antagonistic activity of monoterpenes and their mixtures against 'toe nail fungus' pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ramsewak, Russel S; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Stommel, Manfred; Selanders, Louise

    2003-04-01

    The antibiotic effect of the active ingredients in Meijer medicated chest rub (eucalyptus oil, camphor and menthol) as well as the inactive ingredients (thymol, oil of turpentine, oil of nutmeg and oil of cedar leaf) were studied in vitro using the fungal pathogens responsible for onychomycosis, such as the dermatophytes Tricophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton fl occosum and Epidermophyton stockdale. The zones of inhibition data revealed that camphor (1). menthol (2). thymol (3). and oil of Eucalyptus citriodora were the most efficacious components against the test organisms. The MIC(100) for mixtures of these four components in various carrier solvents revealed that formulations consisting of 5 mg/mL concentrations of each have a potential to be efffective in controlling onychomycosis. PMID:12722144

  2. Novel triazole alcohol antifungals derived from fluconazole: design, synthesis, and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Seyedeh Mahdieh; Badali, Hamid; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Samadi, Nasrin; Afsarian, Mohammad Hosein; Irannejad, Hamid; Emami, Saeed

    2015-02-01

    A series of new triazole alcohol antifungals were designed by replacing one of the triazolyl moiety from fluconazole with a distinct 4-amino-3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole motif, which is found in some antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing of target compounds demonstrated that the direct analogs of fluconazole (difluorophenethyl-triazoles) were less active against fungi, while compound 10h containing dichloro substitutions on both phenyl rings of the molecule had potent activity against yeasts including Candida albicans (four strains) and Cryptococcus neoformans (MICs = 2-8 μg/mL). Also, compound 10h was active against Candida parapsilosis, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, while it showed no activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Finally, a molecular docking study suggested that compound 10h interacts suitably with lanosterol 14α-demethylase, which is the key enzyme in ergosterol biosynthesis. PMID:25182365

  3. Evaluation of topical antifungal products in an in vitro onychomycosis model.

    PubMed

    Sleven, Reindert; Lanckacker, Ellen; Delputte, Peter; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Many topical commercial products are currently available for the treatment of onychomycosis. However, limited data are available concerning their antifungal activity. Using an in vitro onychomycosis model, the daily application of seven nail formulations was compared to the antifungal reference drug amorolfine (Loceryl(®) ) and evaluated for inhibitory activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes using an agar diffusion test. Of all commercial nail formulations, only Excilor(®) and Nailner(®) demonstrated inhibitory activity, which was much lower compared to the daily application of Loceryl(®) . However, Excilor(®) showed similar efficacy compared to the conventional weekly application of Loceryl(®) . These results suggest a role for organic acids in the antifungal effect of Excilor(®) (acetic acid, ethyl lactate) and Nailner(®) (lactic acid, citric acid, ethyl lactate) as all tested formulations without organic acids were inactive. PMID:26857689

  4. The low keratin affinity of efinaconazole contributes to its nail penetration and fungicidal activity in topical onychomycosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Keita; Sugimoto, Noriaki; Hosaka, Shinya; Katafuchi-Nagashima, Maria; Arakawa, Yoshio; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Jo Siu, William; Pillai, Radhakrishnan

    2014-07-01

    Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail disease that is difficult to treat topically due to the deep location of the infection under the densely keratinized nail plate. Keratin affinity of topical drugs is an important physicochemical property impacting therapeutic efficacy. To be effective, topical drugs must penetrate the nail bed and retain their antifungal activity within the nail matrix, both of which are adversely affected by keratin binding. We investigated these properties for efinaconazole, a new topical antifungal for onychomycosis, compared with those of the existing topical drugs ciclopirox and amorolfine. The efinaconazole free-drug concentration in keratin suspensions was 14.3%, significantly higher than the concentrations of ciclopirox and amorolfine, which were 0.7% and 1.9%, respectively (P < 0.001). Efinaconazole was released from keratin at a higher proportion than in the reference drugs, with about half of the remaining keratin-bound efinaconazole removed after washing. In single-dose in vitro studies, efinaconazole penetrated full-thickness human nails into the receptor phase and also inhibited the growth of Trichophyton rubrum under the nail. In the presence of keratin, efinaconazole exhibited fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes comparable to that of amorolfine and superior to that of ciclopirox. In a guinea pig onychomycosis model with T. mentagrophytes infection, an efinaconazole solution significantly decreased nail fungal burden compared to that of ciclopirox and amorolfine lacquers (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the high nail permeability of efinaconazole and its potent fungicidal activity in the presence of keratin are related to its low keratin affinity, which may contribute to its efficacy in onychomycosis. PMID:24752277

  5. Potent In Vitro Antifungal Activities of Naturally Occurring Acetylenic Acids▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xing-Cong; Jacob, Melissa R.; Khan, Shabana I.; Ashfaq, M. Khalid; Babu, K. Suresh; Agarwal, Ameeta K.; ElSohly, Hala N.; Manly, Susan P.; Clark, Alice M.

    2008-01-01

    Our continuing effort in antifungal natural product discovery has led to the identification of five 6-acetylenic acids with chain lengths from C16 to C20: 6-hexadecynoic acid (compound 1), 6-heptadecynoic acid (compound 2), 6-octadecynoic acid (compound 3), 6-nonadecynoic acid (compound 4), and 6-icosynoic acid (compound 5) from the plant Sommera sabiceoides. Compounds 2 and 5 represent newly isolated fatty acids. The five acetylenic acids were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activities against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum by comparison with the positive control drugs amphotericin B, fluconazole, ketoconazole, caspofungin, terbinafine, and undecylenic acid. The compounds showed various degrees of antifungal activity against the 21 tested strains. Compound 4 was the most active, in particular against the dermatophytes T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum and the opportunistic pathogens C. albicans and A. fumigatus, with MICs comparable to several control drugs. Inclusion of two commercially available acetylenic acids, 9-octadecynoic acid (compound 6) and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (compound 7), in the in vitro antifungal testing further demonstrated that the antifungal activities of the acetylenic acids were associated with their chain lengths and positional triple bonds. In vitro toxicity testing against mammalian cell lines indicated that compounds 1 to 5 were not toxic at concentrations up to 32 μM. Furthermore, compounds 3 and 4 did not produce obvious toxic effects in mice at a dose of 34 μmol/kg of body weight when administered intraperitoneally. Taking into account the low in vitro and in vivo toxicities and significant antifungal potencies, these 6-acetylenic acids may be excellent leads for further preclinical studies. PMID:18458131

  6. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of KP-103, a Novel Triazole Derivative, and Its Therapeutic Efficacy against Experimental Plantar Tinea Pedis and Cutaneous Candidiasis in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Yokoo, Mamoru; Arika, Tadashi; Yamaguchi, Hideyo

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro activity of KP-103, a novel triazole derivative, against pathogenic fungi that cause dermatomycoses and its therapeutic efficacy against plantar tinea pedis and cutaneous candidiasis in guinea pigs were investigated. MICs were determined by a broth microdilution method with morpholinepropanesulfonic acid-buffered RPMI 1640 medium for Candida species and with Sabouraud dextrose broth for dermatophytes and by an agar dilution method with medium C for Malassezia furfur. KP-103 was the most active of all the drugs tested against Candida albicans (geometric mean [GM] MIC, 0.002 μg/ml), other Candida species including Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata (GM MICs, 0.0039 to 0.0442 μg/ml), and M. furfur (GM MIC, 0.025 μg/ml). KP-103 (1% solution) was highly effective as a treatment for guinea pigs with cutaneous candidiasis and achieved mycological eradication in 8 of the 10 infected animals, whereas none of the imidazoles tested (1% solutions) was effective in even reducing the levels of the infecting fungi. KP-103 was as active as clotrimazole and neticonazole but was less active than lanoconazole and butenafine against Trichophyton rubrum (MIC at which 80% of isolates are inhibited [MIC80], 0.125 μg/ml) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (MIC80, 0.25 μg/ml). However, KP-103 (1% solution) exerted therapeutic efficacy superior to that of neticonazole and comparable to those of lanoconazole and butenafine, yielding negative cultures for all samples from guinea pigs with plantar tinea pedis tested. This suggests that KP-103 has better pharmacokinetic properties in skin tissue than the reference drugs. Because the in vitro activity of KP-103, unlike those of the reference drugs, against T. mentagrophytes was not affected by hair as a keratinic substance, its excellent therapeutic efficacy seems to be attributable to good retention of its antifungal activity in skin tissue, in addition to its potency. PMID:11302816

  7. In vitro antifungal activity of KP-103, a novel triazole derivative, and its therapeutic efficacy against experimental plantar tinea pedis and cutaneous candidiasis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Y; Yokoo, M; Arika, T; Yamaguchi, H

    2001-05-01

    The in vitro activity of KP-103, a novel triazole derivative, against pathogenic fungi that cause dermatomycoses and its therapeutic efficacy against plantar tinea pedis and cutaneous candidiasis in guinea pigs were investigated. MICs were determined by a broth microdilution method with morpholinepropanesulfonic acid-buffered RPMI 1640 medium for Candida species and with Sabouraud dextrose broth for dermatophytes and by an agar dilution method with medium C for Malassezia furfur. KP-103 was the most active of all the drugs tested against Candida albicans (geometric mean [GM] MIC, 0.002 microg/ml), other Candida species including Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata (GM MICs, 0.0039 to 0.0442 microg/ml), and M. furfur (GM MIC, 0.025 microg/ml). KP-103 (1% solution) was highly effective as a treatment for guinea pigs with cutaneous candidiasis and achieved mycological eradication in 8 of the 10 infected animals, whereas none of the imidazoles tested (1% solutions) was effective in even reducing the levels of the infecting fungi. KP-103 was as active as clotrimazole and neticonazole but was less active than lanoconazole and butenafine against Trichophyton rubrum (MIC at which 80% of isolates are inhibited [MIC(80)], 0.125 microg/ml) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (MIC(80), 0.25 microg/ml). However, KP-103 (1% solution) exerted therapeutic efficacy superior to that of neticonazole and comparable to those of lanoconazole and butenafine, yielding negative cultures for all samples from guinea pigs with plantar tinea pedis tested. This suggests that KP-103 has better pharmacokinetic properties in skin tissue than the reference drugs. Because the in vitro activity of KP-103, unlike those of the reference drugs, against T. mentagrophytes was not affected by hair as a keratinic substance, its excellent therapeutic efficacy seems to be attributable to good retention of its antifungal activity in skin tissue, in addition to its potency. PMID:11302816

  8. Butenafine.

    PubMed

    McNeely, W; Spencer, C M

    1998-03-01

    Butenafine is a new antifungal agent with primary fungicidal activity against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum which cause tinea infections. 14C-labelled butenafine (approximately 30 micrograms/g tissue) was found within guinea-pig dorsal skin 24 hours after topical application. Most of the drug was distributed into the epidermis including the horny layer. Small amounts were found in the dermis, probably transported via sebaceous glands and hair follicles. In vitro, the minimum concentration that completely inhibited growth of dermatophytes (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) for butenafine against T. mentagrophytes and M. canis were similar (0.012 to 0.05 mg/L) and were 4 to 130 times lower than those for naftifine, tolnaftate, clotrimazole and bifonazole. It also has greater activity against T. rubrum, M. gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum when compared with naftifine, tolnaftate and clotrimazole; comparisons with bifonazole against these strains were not available. Assessment after 1 week's treatment in patients with tinea pedis revealed that mycological cure rates were greater in those who received twice-daily butenafine for 1 week or once-daily butenafine for 4 weeks than in placebo recipients. Mycological and overall cure rates were either further increased or maintained up to 5 weeks after treatment cessation compared with end-of-treatment values. In patients with tinea cruris or tinea corporis who received once-daily butenafine 1% for 2 weeks, the mycological and overall cure rates continued to increase for up to 4 weeks after treatment cessation. PMID:9530545

  9. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Tinea Unguium and Tinea Pedis in the General Population in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Perea, Sofia; Ramos, Maria Jose; Garau, Margarita; Gonzalez, Alba; Noriega, Antonio R.; del Palacio, Amalia

    2000-01-01

    This study prospectively evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of tinea unguium and tinea pedis in the general adult population in Madrid, Spain. One thousand subjects were clinically examined, and samples of nails and scales from the interdigital spaces of the feet were taken from those patients presenting with signs or symptoms of onychomycosis and/or tinea pedis, respectively. In addition, a sample from the fourth interdigital space of both feet was collected from all individuals with a piece of sterilized wool carpet. Tinea unguium was defined as a positive direct examination with potassium hydroxide and culture of the etiological agent from subjects with clinically abnormal nails. Patients with positive dermatophyte cultures of foot specimens were considered to have tinea pedis. The prevalence of tinea unguium was 2.8% (4.0% for men and 1.7% for women), and the prevalence of tinea pedis was 2.9% (4.2% for men and 1.7% for women). The etiological agents of tinea unguium were identified as Trichopyton rubrum (82.1%), followed by Trichopyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (14.3%) and Trichopyton tonsurans (3.5%). Trichophyton rubrum (44.8%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (44.8%), followed by Epidermophyton floccosum (7%) and T. tonsurans (3.4%), were the organisms isolated from patients with tinea pedis. The percentage of subjects who suffered simultaneously from both diseases was 1.1% (1.7% for men and 0.6% for women). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, age (relative risk [RR], 1.03) and gender (RR, 2.50) were independent risk factors for tinea unguium, while only gender (RR, 2.65) was predictive for the occurrence of tinea pedis. In both analyses, the presence of one of the two conditions was associated with a higher risk for the appearance of the other disease (RR, >25). PMID:10970362

  10. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  11. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-06-27

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-005 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  12. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-006 skid D

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-07-29

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  13. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-004 skid B

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-05-06

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-004 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  14. [The use of polymerase chain reaction in laboratory diagnosis of dermatophytosis].

    PubMed

    Tiryaki, Yasin; Gültekin Korkmazgil, Berna; Eyigör, Mete; Aydın, Neriman

    2015-04-01

    Dermatophytes are among the common causes of fungal infections in the community. Classical diagnostic tests for dermatophytosis have some disadvantages such as failure of direct microscopy in species differentiation and culture methods being time consuming and having low sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the identification of dermatophytes directly from the clinical samples and the cultures. A total of 123 samples that comprise 63 skin and 60 nail scrapings obtained from 110 patients (69 female, 41 male; age range: 4-82 years) who were prediagnosed as dermatophytosis, were included in the study. Samples were examined with routine direct microscopy, culture and two different nested PCR (nPCR) protocols. The first was a pan-dermatophyte nPCR protocol targeting chitin synthase gene (CHS-1) of dermatophytes and the second was a nPCR protocol which targets specific ITS-1 genes of Trichophyton rubrum and T.mentagrophytes. Similar PCR methods were also applied to cultivated strains. Sequence analysis was performed for the samples that yielded positive results in pan-dermatophyte nPCR and negative results in T.rubrum/T.mentagrophytes - specific nPCR. Hyphae and/or spore structures were observed in 62 (50%) samples with direct microscopic examination and dermatophytes were isolated in 30 (24%) samples. Twenty-eight of the isolates grown in culture were identified as T.rubrum, and two as T.mentagrophytes with T.rubrum/T.mentagrophytes-specific nPCR protocol. In direct application, 67 (55%) of the clinical samples were found positive with pan-dermatophyte nPCR and 65 (53%) were positive with T.rubrum/T.mentagrophytes-specific nPCR. Samples which were negative in direct microscopic examination were also negative in culture. Nine of them were found positive with pan-dermatophyte nPCR and eight were positive with T.rubrum/T.mentagrophytes-specific nPCR. Two of the 30 samples which were positive in culture

  15. In vitro activity of CAY-1, a saponin from Capsicum frutescens, against microsporum and trichophyton species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dermatomycoses are among the world’s most common diseases. The incidence of dermatomycoses has increased over recent years, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. In previous studies, the saponin CAY-1, a saponin from cayenne pepper (Capsicum frutenses), has shown antifungal activities against...

  16. Phytochemical study and screening for antimicrobial activity of flavonoids of Euphorbia hirta

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Geeta; Kumar, Padma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to phytochemical and antimicrobial study of Euphorbia hirta Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids (free and bound) of Euphorbia hirta L. was determined by disc diffusion assay against four bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus) and four fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Candida albicans). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract was evaluated through micro broth dilution method, while minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration was determined by subculturing the relevant samples. Total activity (TA) of extracts against each sensitive pathogen was also evaluated. Results: Out of fungi; A. flavus, A. niger, and T. mentagrophytes were found to be resistant, against which none of the tested extracts showed activity. Bound flavonoids extract of root showed best activity against C. albicans (inhibition zone (IZ) 27.66, MIC 0.039, minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) 0.039). TA of free flavonoid extract of root was found to be the same for P. mirabilis and S. aureus (192.30 ml/g). Two flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol were identified in the bound flavonoids of stem extract which showed activity against all the microorganisms. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation indicate that E. hirta has good antimicrobial activity with low range of MIC, hence can be exploited for future plant-based antimicrobial drugs. PMID:24083146

  17. Superficial mycotic infections of the foot in a native pediatric population: a pathogenic role for Trichosporon cutaneum?

    PubMed

    Archer-Dubon, Carla; Orozco-Topete, Rocío; Leyva-Santiago, Jaime; Arenas, Roberto; Carbajosa, Josefina; Ysunza, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Superficial mycotic infections of the feet are usually caused by Tricophyton rubrum, predominantly affecting adults and resulting from the use of occlusive footwear. We carried out a mycologic study of superficial foot infections in a rural school in Mexico where most people wear a leather, nonocclusive sandal. Forty students had clinical signs of 50 fungal infections of the foot: 39 athlete's foot and 11 onychomycosis. Thirty-one boys and 9 girls were studied. Hyphae were seen in 11 cases of athlete's foot and 5 of onychomycosis. Twenty-one cultures were positive (42%). The most frequently isolated fungi were the opportunistic Trichosporon cutaneum in 42.8%, Candida sp. (23.8%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (23.8%), and Candida glabrata (9.5%). Superficial mycotic infections of the feet and nails were most frequent in children and adolescents who usually wear nonocclusive shoes. The most frequent pathogens were Candida sp. and T. mentagrophytes. It is interesting to note the prevalence of T. cutaneum that has recently been implicated in mycoses of the feet and nails. We did not isolate T. rubrum in any patient. PMID:12869147

  18. In vitro susceptibility of fungi to acyclic inhibitors of 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclases.

    PubMed

    Airaudi, D; Ceruti, M; Bianco, C; Filipello Marchisio, V

    1996-01-01

    In the present study we determine the antifungal properties of two acyclic inhibitors of 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclases: 22,23-epoxy-2-aza-2,3-dihydrosqualene (EAS) and azasqualene alcohol (ASA). Fungistatic and fungicidal activity towards dermatophytes and other fungi involved in cutaneous and systemic infections was tested (48 isolates from 10 species). The tests were carried out by inoculating 10 microliters of mycelial homogenate in 1 ml of Sabouraud glucose liquid medium containing serial dilutions of 100 to 0.25 micrograms ml-1 of the substance. For each isolate, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of both compounds were determined. EAS was more active (MIC range 1.5-25 micrograms ml-1) than ASA (MIC range 3-50 micrograms ml-1). At the highest concentration tested, EAS also showed fungicidal action towards some isolates of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. terrestre, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis and Scopulariopsis brumptii. The most sensitive species was T. mentagrophytes, the most resistant T. rubrum. PMID:8786759

  19. In vitro survival of human pathogenic fungi in seawater.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J H

    1979-03-01

    The survival of propagules from 4 pathogenic fungi, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichosporon cutaneum, Candida albicans, and Microsporum gypseum was studied in seawater subjected to different temperature (20--35 degrees C) and salinity (6--50%) levels in diurnal rhythm of 12 h cycles. Survival was measured by viability of propagules over a period of 52 weeks. All fungi, except T. cutaneum at 35 degrees C survived the experimental conditions for 52 weeks. Temperature was the most influential factor. When temperature increased, M. gypseum responded with enhanced viability whereas survival for C. albicans and T. cutaneum was inhibited. At 35 degrees C, T. cutaneum was not viable after 6--7 weeks even though it survived the initial 5 weeks with less loss of viability than the other test organisms. No correlation was seen between salinity level and loss of viability. Diurnal light had an inhibitory effect on T. cutaneum and C. albicans survival under in vitro conditions approximating those of seawater in Hawaii. M. gypseum had the highest level of survival over 52 weeks under usual in situ conditions simulated in vitro, followed by T. mentagrophytes, T. cutaneum, and C. albicans. Survival for 52 weeks even when salinity and temperature levels exceed those of the natural habitat indicates that seawater which washes sand beaches can be an environmental niche for potentially pathogenic fungi. PMID:375437

  20. In vitro survival of human pathogenic fungi in Hawaiian beach sand.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J H

    1979-03-01

    In vitro studies utilizing 4 pathogenic fungi, Trichosporon cutaneum, Candida albicans, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, all known from Hawaiian beaches, indicate that they survive in the fluctuating beach habitat where they can serve as potential sources of infection for significant periods of time. Survival was measured by testing the viability of propagules at intervals for 6 months. All species survived 6 months under 1 or more experimental conditions. Survival patterns showed both increases and decreases depending upon the given parameters designed to simulate various beach conditions. Propagules inoculated on hair and horn (keratinized inoculum) did not remain viable longer than propagules from pure culture suspensions (non-keratinized). Microbial antagonism was not a major factor in survival. All species survived at least 1 month in non-sterile sand inoculated with keratinized propagules. This condition approximated the natural sand habitat. Alternate wetting and drying of sand caused an overall decrease in survival time except for M. gypseum (non-keratinized inoculum) at 37 degrees C in sterile sand and T. mentagrophytes (keratinized inoculum) at 37 degrees C in non-sterile sand. Temperature was important: increasing temperature resulted in a general decrease in survival time; 45 degrees C was definitely inhibitory, with the exception of T. cutaneum which survived that level for 6 months (keratinized inoculum). Salinity did not influence survival. PMID:375438

  1. In Vitro Nail Penetration and Antifungal Activity of Tavaborole, a Boron-Based Pharmaceutical.

    PubMed

    Coronado, Dina; Merchant, Tejal; Chanda, Sanjay; Zane, Lee T

    2015-06-01

    An effective topical antifungal medication must penetrate through the nail plate at sufficient concentrations to eradicate the fungal infection. Tavaborole topical solution, 5% is a novel boron-based pharmaceutical approved for the treatment of toenail onychomycosis due to Trichophyton rubrum or T mentagrophytes. Four in vitro studies assessed the antifungal activity and nail penetration of tavaborole. In Study 1, tavaborole demonstrated minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.25-2 μg/mL against all fungi tested; addition of 5% keratin powder did not affect the MIC against T rubrum. The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values for tavaborole against T rubrum and T mentagrophytes were 8 and 16 μg/mL, respectively. In Study 2, tavaborole effectively penetrated through the nail plate; mean concentrations in the ventral/intermediate nail layer were significantly higher than ciclopirox at day 15. In Study 3, mean cumulative tavaborole penetration through ex vivo human nails was significantly higher than ciclopirox at day 15. In Study 4, tavaborole demonstrated superior nail penetration and fungicidal activity, as measured by zones of inhibition. These studies demonstrated the superior penetration of tavaborole through the nail plate vs ciclopirox. Tavaborole demonstrated robust antifungal activity, with low MIC and MFC values, even in the presence of keratin. PMID:26091387

  2. In vitro degradation of equine keratin by dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi.

    PubMed

    Apprich, Veronika; Spergser, Joachim; Rosengarten, Renate; Stanek, Christian

    2006-05-31

    Keratinolytic properties of two dermatophytes (Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and three moulds (Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Alternaria alternata, Geotrichum candidum) isolated from diseased equine hooves were examined to improve the understanding of pathogenic mechanisms leading to equine onychomycosis. Equine hoof horn material and skin, as well as hoof keratin and dermal keratin extracted from corresponding tissues, were used as sole carbon and nitrogen sources in five test tubes for each fungus. Within 18 days, supernatants of all tubes were repeatedly examined for keratinolytic activity by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. In addition, fungal growth rates were determined to identify the preferred tissue of the individual fungi. Among the fungi examined, M. gypseum was the most keratinolytic species, followed by T. mentagrophytes and S. brevicaulis. In the concentration applied, the moulds A. alternata and G. candidum showed minimal keratinolytic activity. With respect to growth rates, M. gypseum favoured hoof horn material, S. brevicaulis and G. candidum preferred skin as a keratin source, whereas for the other two fungi no clear preference was detectable. PMID:16377103

  3. Correlation between Serological and Sequencing Analyses of the PorB Outer Membrane Protein in the Neisseria meningitidis Serotyping System

    PubMed Central

    Sacchi, Claudio T.; Lemos, Ana P. S.; Whitney, Anne M.; Solari, Claude A.; Brandt, Mary E.; Melles, Carmo E. A.; Frasch, Carl E.; Mayer, Leonard W.

    1998-01-01

    The current serological typing scheme for Neisseria meningitidis is not comprehensive; a proportion of isolates are not serotypeable. DNA sequence analysis and predicted amino acid sequences were used to characterize the structures of variable-region (VR) epitopes on N. meningitidis PorB proteins (PorB VR typing). Twenty-six porB gene sequences were obtained from GenBank and aligned with 41 new sequences. Primary amino acid structures predicted from those genes were grouped into 30 VR families of related variants that displayed at least 60% similarity. We correlated VR families with monoclonal antibody (MAb) reactivities, establishing a relationship between VR families and epitope locations for 15 serotype-defining MAbs. The current panel of serotype-defining MAbs underestimates by at least 50% the PorB VR variability because reagents for several major VR families are lacking or because a number of VR variants within some families are not recognized by serotype-defining MAbs. These difficulties, also reported for serosubtyping based on the PorA protein, are shown as inconsistent results between serological and sequence analyses, leading to inaccurate strain identification and incomplete epidemiological data. The information from this study enabled the expansion of the panel of MAbs currently available for serotyping, by including MAbs of previously undetermined specificities. Use of the expanded serotype panel enabled us to improve the sensitivity of serotyping by resolving a number of formerly nonserotypeable strains. In most cases, this information can be used to predict the VR family placement of unknown PorB proteins without sequencing the entire porB gene. PorB VR typing complements serotyping, and a combination of both techniques may be used for full characterization of meningococcal strains. The present work represents the most complete and integrated data set of PorB VR sequences and MAb reactivities of serogroup B and C meningococci produced to date. PMID

  4. Zinc Finger Nuclease Knock-out of NADPH:Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) in Human Tumor Cell Lines Demonstrates That Hypoxia-activated Prodrugs Differ in POR Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jiechuang; Gu, Yongchuan; Pruijn, Frederik B.; Smaill, Jeff B.; Patterson, Adam V.; Guise, Christopher P.; Wilson, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of POR in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, POR knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and POR-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by POR overexpression. Knocking out POR had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the POR knock-outs. Thus, although POR expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development. PMID:24196959

  5. Characterization of Plasmid pOR1 from Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale and Construction of a Shuttle Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Ruud; Chansiripornchai, Niwat; Gaastra, Wim; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2004-01-01

    The bacterium Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale has been recognized as an emerging pathogen in poultry since about 10 years ago. Knowledge of this bacterium and its mechanisms of virulence is still very limited. Here we report the development of a transformation system that enables genetic modification of O. rhinotracheale. The system is based on a cryptic plasmid, pOR1, that was derived from an O. rhinotracheale strain of serotype K. Sequencing indicated that the plasmid consisted of 14,787 nucleotides. Sequence analysis revealed one replication origin and several rep genes that control plasmid replication and copy number, respectively. In addition, pOR1 contains genes with similarity to a heavy-metal-transporting ATPase, a TonB-linked siderophore receptor, and a laccase. Reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that these genes were transcribed. Other putative open reading frames exhibited similarities with a virulence-associated protein in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and a number of genes coding for proteins with unknown function. An Escherichia coli-O. rhinotracheale shuttle plasmid (pOREC1) was constructed by cloning the replication origin and rep genes from pOR1 and the cfxA gene from Bacteroides vulgatus, which codes for resistance to the antibiotic cefoxitin, into plasmid pGEM7 by using E. coli as a host. pOREC1 was electroporated into O. rhinotracheale and yielded cefoxitin-resistant transformants. The pOREC1 isolated from these transformants was reintroduced into E. coli, demonstrating that pOREC1 acts as an independent replicon in both E. coli and O. rhinotracheale, fulfilling the criteria for a shuttle plasmid that can be used for transformation, targeted mutagenesis, and the construction of defined attenuated vaccine strains. PMID:15466524

  6. Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Mikio; Iverson, Tina M.

    2010-01-28

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from inclusion bodies by denaturation in urea followed by refolding in buffered LDAO on a size-exclusion column. PorB has been crystallized in three different crystal forms: C222, R32 and P6{sub 3}. The C222 crystal form may contain either one or two PorB monomers in the asymmetric unit, while both the R32 and P6{sub 3} crystal forms contained one PorB monomer in the asymmetric unit. Of the three, the P6{sub 3} crystal form had the best diffraction quality, yielding data extending to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution.

  7. Application of POR-Tveks to the radiochemical recovery of yttrium-90

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimova, A.M.; Kvasnitskii, I.B.

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe a method for the radiochemical analysis of fish bones for the accumulation of strontium 90 and yttrium 90 from power plant contamination of surface waters which involves labelling the sample with isotopes and subsequent adsorption of the yttrium component with the use of POR-Tveks, an adsorbent based on a copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene with heteroradical phosphine oxide. The yield of yttrium is determined from the mass of the oxide and from the half-life of the yttrium isotope.

  8. Antigenic topology of chlamydial PorB protein and identification of targets for immune neutralization of infectivity.

    PubMed

    Kawa, Diane E; Stephens, Richard S

    2002-05-15

    The outer membrane protein PorB is a conserved chlamydial protein that functions as a porin and is capable of eliciting neutralizing Abs. A topological antigenic map was developed using overlapping synthetic peptides representing the Chlamydia trachomatis PorB sequence and polyclonal immune sera. To identify which antigenic determinants were surface accessible, monospecific antisera were raised to the PorB peptides and were used in dot-blot and ELISA-based absorption studies with viable chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs). The ability of the surface-accessible antigenic determinants to direct neutralizing Ab responses was investigated using standardized in vitro neutralization assays. Four major antigenic clusters corresponding to Phe(34)-Leu(59) (B1-2 and B1-3), Asp(112) -Glu(145) (B2-3 and B2-4), Gly(179)-Ala(225) (B3-2 to B3-4), and Val(261)-Asn(305) (B4-4 to B5-2) were identified. Collectively, the EB absorption and dot-blot assays established that the immunoreactive PorB Ags were exposed on the surface of chlamydial EBs. Peptide-specific antisera raised to the surface-accessible Ags neutralized chlamydial infectivity and demonstrated cross-reactivity to synthetic peptides representing analogous C. pneumoniae PorB sequences. Furthermore, neutralization of chlamydial infectivity by C. trachomatis PorB antisera was inhibited by synthetic peptides representing the surface-exposed PorB antigenic determinants. These findings demonstrate that PorB Ags may be useful for development of chlamydial vaccines. PMID:11994474

  9. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of ME1111, a New Topical Agent for Onychomycosis, against Clinical Isolates of Dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Isham, N.; Long, L.

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of onychomycosis has improved considerably over the past several decades following the introduction of the oral antifungals terbinafine and itraconazole. However, these oral agents suffer from certain disadvantages, including drug interactions and potential liver toxicity. Thus, there is a need for new topical agents that are effective against onychomycosis. ME1111 is a novel selective inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) of dermatophyte species, whose small molecular weight enhances its ability to penetrate the nail plate. In this study, we determined the antifungal activity of ME1111 against dermatophyte strains, most of which are known to cause nail infections, as measured by the MIC (n = 400) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) (n = 300). Additionally, we examined the potential for resistance development in dermatophytes (n = 4) following repeated exposure to ME1111. Our data show that the MIC90 of ME1111 against dermatophyte strains was 0.25 μg/ml, which was equivalent to that of the comparators amorolfine and ciclopirox (0.25 and 0.5 μg/ml, respectively). ME1111 was fungicidal at clinically achievable concentrations against dermatophytes, and its MFC90s against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were 8 μg/ml, comparable to those of ciclopirox. Furthermore, ME1111, as well as ciclopirox, did not induce resistance in 4 dermatophytes tested. Our studies show that ME1111 possesses potent antifungal activity and suggest that it has low potential for the development of resistance in dermatophytes. PMID:26055386

  10. Antifungal activity of Eugenia umbelliflora against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Machado, Karina E; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Cruz, Rosana C B; Meyre-Silva, Christiane; Cruz, Alexandre Bella

    2009-09-01

    Antifungal activities of Eugenia umbelliflora Berg. (Myrtaceae) were tested in vitro against a panel of standard and clinical isolates of human fungal pathogens (dermatophytes and opportunistic saprobes). Methanol extracts of leaves and fruits of E. umbelliflora were separately prepared and partitioned, to yield dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and aqueous fractions (Aq). Three compounds (1-3) were obtained from the DCM extract using chromatographic procedures. Antifungal assays were performed using agar dilution techniques. Both extracts (fruits and leaves), their DCM and EtOAc fractions, and compound 2 (betulin and betulinic acid) presented selective antifungal activity against dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes), with MIC values between 200 and 1000 microg/mL, and interestingly, inhibited 4/5 species with MIC values of < or = 500 microg/mL. The aqueous fractions of fruits and leaves, and compounds 1 (alpha, beta amyrin) and 3 (taraxerol) were inactive up to the maximum concentrations tested (1000 microg/mL). PMID:19831024

  11. Antifungal Activity of Maytenin and Pristimerin

    PubMed Central

    Gullo, Fernanda P.; Sardi, Janaina C. O.; Santos, Vânia A. F. F. M.; Sangalli-Leite, Fernanda; Pitangui, Nayla S.; Rossi, Suélen A.; de Paula e Silva, Ana C. A.; Soares, Luciana A.; Silva, Julhiany F.; Oliveira, Haroldo C.; Furlan, Maysa; Silva, Dulce H. S.; Bolzani, Vanderlan S.; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José S.; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa

    2012-01-01

    Fungal infections in humans have increased alarmingly in recent years, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Among the infections systemic candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, and histoplasmosis mortality are more prevalent and more severe in humans. The current high incidence of dermatophytosis is in humans, especially as the main etiologic agents Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Molecules pristimerin and maytenin obtained from the plant Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae) are known to show various pharmacological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the spectrum of antifungal activity of maytenin and pristimerin and their cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes (NOK cells of the oral mucosa). It was concluded that the best spectrum of antifungal activity has been shown to maytenin with MIC varying from 0.12 to 125 mg/L, although it is also active with pristimerin MIC ranging between 0.12 and 250 mg/L. Regarding the toxicity, both showed to have high IC50. The SI showed high pristimerin against some species of fungi, but SI maytenin was above 1.0 for all fungi tested, showing a selective action of fungi. However, when comparing the two substances, maytenin also showed better results. The two molecules can be a possible prototype with a broad spectrum of action for the development of new antifungal agents. PMID:22675379

  12. Development and evaluation of ultra-small nanostructured lipid carriers: novel topical delivery system for athlete's foot.

    PubMed

    Singh, Samipta; Singh, Mahendra; Tripathi, Chandra Bhushan; Arya, Malti; Saraf, Shubhini A

    2016-02-01

    Athlete's foot is a fungal infection of the foot which causes dry, itchy, flaky condition of the skin caused by Trichophyton species. In this study, the potential of ultra-small nanostructured lipid carrier (usNLC)-based topical gel of miconazole nitrate for the treatment of athlete's foot was evaluated. Nanostructure lipid carriers (NLCs) prepared by melt emulsification and sonication technique were characterized for particle size, drug entrapment, zeta potential and drug release. The optimized usNLC revealed particle size 53.79 nm, entrapment efficiency 86.77%, zeta potential -12.9 mV and polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.27. The drug release studies of usNLC showed initial fast release followed by sustained release with 91.99% drug released in 24 h. Optimized usNLCs were incorporated into carbopol-934 gel and evaluated for pH (6.8), viscosity (36,400 mPa s) and texture analysis. Antifungal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes exhibited wider zone of inhibition, 6.6 ± 1.5 mm for optimized usNLC3 gel viz-à-viz marketed gel formulation (3.7 ± 1.2 mm). Hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) irritation test confirmed optimized usNLC gel to be non-irritant to chorioallantoic membrane. Improved dermal delivery of miconazole by usNLC gel could be achieved for treatment of athlete's foot. PMID:26542152

  13. Antifungal and cytotoxic activities of Nannorrhops ritchiana roots extract.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Rehana; Mukhtar, Farah; Khan, Abida

    2014-01-01

    This atudy was designed to evaluate the antifungal and cytotoxic activities of the Nannorrhops ritchiana (Mazari Palm) 80% methanol extract (NR-M) and its four crude extracts i.e., petroleum ether (NR-A), dichloromethane (NR-B), ethyl acetate (NR-C) and butanol (NR-D). The antifungal activity was determined by agar tube dilution method against nine fungal strains; Aspergillus flavus, Trichophyton longifusis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Aspergillus flavus and Microsporum canis were susceptible to the extracts with percentage inhibition of (70-80%). Extracts exhibited significant and good antifungal activity against various fungal strains. The results were deduced by comparing with those for miconazole, amphotericin B and ketoconazole as standard drugs. The fractions of methanolic extract were assayed for their brine shrimp cytotoxic activity. They exhibited low toxicity with LC50 values ranging from 285.7 to 4350.75 μg/mL at the concentration of obtained results warrant follow up through bioassay guided isolation of the active principles, future antiinfectious research. PMID:25362807

  14. Antifungal Effect of Non-Woven Textiles Containing Polyhexamethylene Biguanide with Sophorolipid: A Potential Method for Tinea Pedis Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Sanada, Hiromi; Nakagami, Gojiro; Takehara, Kimie; Goto, Taichi; Ishii, Nanase; Yoshida, Satoshi; Ryu, Mizuyuki; Tsunemi, Yuichiro

    2014-01-01

    Tinea pedis is a preventable skin disease common in elderly or diabetic patients. Daily foot washing is effective for prevention, but can be difficult for many patients. Additionally, conventional methods cannot eliminate fungi within the stratum corneum, a common site for fungal invasion. This study investigates the antifungal effects, cytotoxicity, permeability, and efficacy of non-woven textiles containing polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) mixed with sophorolipid. Permeability of PHMB with varying concentrations of sophorolipid was assessed via a cultured skin model. Stratum corneum PHMB concentration was quantified by polyvinylsulphuric acid potassium salt titration and cytotoxicity was assayed via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Antifungal effects were evaluated via a new cultured skin/Trichophyton mentagrophytes model, with varying PHMB exposure duration. Clinically-isolated Trichophyton were applied to the feet of four healthy volunteers and then immediately treated with the following methods: washing with soap, a non-woven textile with PHMB, the textile without PHMB, or without washing. Fungal colony forming units (CFUs) were evaluated after one of these treatments were performed. Sophorolipid with various concentrations significantly facilitated PHMB permeation into the stratum corneum, which was not in a dose-dependent manner. Significant PHMB antifungal effects were achieved at 30 min, with low cytotoxicity. Textiles containing PHMB significantly reduced CFU of fungi in healthy volunteers to levels comparable to soap washing. Our results indicate the utility of this product for tinea pedis prevention in clinical settings. PMID:27429269

  15. Poloxamer-hydroxyethyl cellulose-α-cyclodextrin supramolecular gels for sustained release of griseofulvin.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Xelhua; Pérez-Casas, Silvia; Llovo, José; Concheiro, Angel; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2016-03-16

    Supramolecular gels of poloxamer-hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC)-α-cyclodextrin (αCD) were developed aiming to obtain synergisms regarding solubilization and sustained release of griseofulvin for topical application. The effects of αCD concentration (0-10%w/w) on the phase behavior of aqueous dispersions of Pluronic(®) P123 (14%w/w) mixed with HEC (2%w/w) were evaluated at 4, 20 and 37°C. The cooperative effects of the inclusion complex formation between poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) blocks and HEC with αCD prevented phase separation and led to supramolecular networks that solubilize the antifungal drug. Rheological and bioadhesive properties of gels with and without griseofulvin could be easily tuned modulating the polymers proportions. Supramolecular gels underwent sol-gel transition at lower temperature than P123 solely dispersions and enabled drug sustained release for at least three weeks. All gels demonstrated good biocompatibility in the HET-CAM test. Furthermore, the drug-loaded gels showed activity against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes and thus may be useful for the treatment of tinea capitis and other cutaneous fungal infections. PMID:26795192

  16. A 10-Year Study of Dermatophytoses in Isfahan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Chadeganipour, Mostafa; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Shadzi, Shahla

    2016-03-01

    Dermatophyte infections are very common worldwide and their epidemiological characteristics vary according to the geographical region and have altered in the last decades. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the diversity of causative agents of dermatophytoses and describe the epidemiological condition of infection in Isfahan, Iran, between 2003 and 2012. Specimens were collected from hair, nail, and skin and were examined by conventional methods such as direct microscopy, culture on sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide (Mycosel agar) and sabouraud glucose agar, Trichophyton agars, growth on rice grains, urease test, and hair perforation test. Of 13,469 clinically suspected cases, 11.5% were affected with dermatophytoses. Tinea capitis was the most frequent form of infection (52.7%), followed by tinea corporis (24%), tinea pedis (8.9%). Trichophyton verrucosum was the most prevalent causative agent (40.6%), followed by T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (17.6%), Epidermophyton floccosum (13%), T. violaceum (12%), T. rubrum (4.1%). Age range of patients was between 1 and 80 years. Housewives were the most patients in our study. The study emphasizes importance of epidemiological surveys of dermatophyte species for the better management of infection. PMID:25902908

  17. Application of cosmetic nail varnish does not affect the antifungal efficacy of amorolfine 5% nail lacquer in the treatment of distal subungual toenail onychomycosis: results of a randomised active-controlled study and in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Sigurgeirsson, B; Ghannoum, M A; Osman-Ponchet, H; Kerrouche, N; Sidou, F

    2016-05-01

    As onychomycosis is unsightly, this study clinically evaluated whether the antifungal efficacy of amorolfine 5% nail lacquer (NL) was affected by a masking, natural-coloured, cosmetic nail varnish applied 24 h later; in vitro investigations were also performed. Subjects with mild-to-moderate distal subungual toenail onychomycosis were randomised to receive amorolfine 5% NL once weekly with or without cosmetic nail varnish applied 24 h later. After 12-week treatment, antifungal activity of affected toenail clippings was assessed by measurement of zones of inhibition (ZOIs) on Trichophyton mentagrophytes seeded agar plates. Mean diameters were 53.5 mm for the amorolfine 5% NL-alone group (n = 23) and 53.6 mm for amorolfine 5% NL plus cosmetic nail varnish group (n = 25). Also, mycological cultures of subungual debris at week 12 were negative for all subjects in both groups. Most subjects (88%) reported that cosmetic nail varnish masked their infected toenails. Additionally, cadaver human nails coated in vitro with or without cosmetic nail varnish 10 min or 24 h post amorolfine NL application all gave ZOIs on Trichophyton rubrum agar plates representing potent antifungal activity. In conclusion, cosmetic nail varnish applied post amorolfine had no effect on the subungual antifungal activity of amorolfine 5% NL or its penetration through toenails. PMID:26867498

  18. Chemical composition and biological assays of essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Maxia, A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

    2010-11-01

    Aerial parts of wild Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta growing spontaneously on the Mediterranean coast (Sardinia Island, Italy) and on the Atlantic coast (Portugal) were used as a matrix for the supercritical extraction of volatile oil with CO(2). The collected extracts were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods and their compositions were compared with that of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation, but the differences were not relevant. A strong chemical variability was observed in the essential oils depending on the origin of the samples. The results showed the presence of two chemotypes of C. nepeta. In all Italian samples, pulegone, piperitenone oxide and piperitenone were the main components (64.4-39.9%; 2.5-19.1%; 6.4-7.7%); conversely, the oil extracted from Portuguese C. nepeta is predominantly composed of isomenthone (35.8-51.3%), 1,8-cineole (21.1-21.4%) and trans-isopulegone (7.8-6.0%). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guillermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The Italian oil, rich in pulegone, exhibited significant antifungal activity against Aspergillus and dermatophyte strains, with MIC values of 0.32-1.25 µL mL(-1). PMID:20981614

  19. Antimicrobial activity of iodoquinol 1%-hydrocortisone acetate 2% gel against ciclopirox and clotrimazole.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Bruce P; Mitchell, Calvin M

    2008-10-01

    Commercially available topical formulations consisting of iodoquinol 1%-hydrocortisone acetate 2%, ciclopirox 0.77%, and clotrimazole 1%-betamethasone dipropionate 0.5% were assessed for their antimicrobial activity against cultures of Micrococcus luteus, Propionibacterium acnes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Corynebacterium aquaticum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Malassezia furfur, Microsporum canis, Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum, or Epidermophyton floccosum. At 1 and 5 minutes following inoculation into suspensions of each product, aliquots were removed, serially diluted, and plated onto appropriate agar to determine the log reduction in colony-forming units (CFUs) for each organism. Iodoquinol 1% produced the broadest and greatest antimicrobial activity as measured by a 3-log reduction of CFU, active against all microbes tested following incubation times of 1 or 5 minutes, except M luteus. By contrast, ciclopirox 0.77% and clotrimazole 1% showed activity against P aeruginosa and T rubrum, with ciclopirox also killing M luteus, P acnes, M canis, C albicans, and E floccosum at 5 minutes. Iodoquinol 1%-hydrocortisone acetate 2% also was the only product that showed effective antibacterial reduction of MRSA at 1 minute. PMID:19055171

  20. Stepwise design, synthesis, and in vitro antifungal screening of (Z)-substituted-propenoic acid derivatives with potent broad-spectrum antifungal activity

    PubMed Central

    Khedr, Mohammed A

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are a main reason for the high mortality rate worldwide. It is a challenge to design selective antifungal agents with broad-spectrum activity. Lanosterol 14α-demethylase is an attractive target in the design of antifungal agents. Seven compounds were selected from a number of designed compounds using a rational docking study. These compounds were synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal activity. In silico study results showed the high binding affinity to lanosterol 14α-demethylase (−24.49 and −25.83 kcal/mol) for compounds V and VII, respectively; these values were greater than those for miconazole (−18.19 kcal/mol) and fluconazole (−16.08 kcal/mol). Compound V emerged as the most potent antifungal agent among all compounds with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 7.01, 7.59, 7.25, 31.6, and 41.6 µg/mL against Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, respectively. The antifungal activity for most of the synthesized compounds was more potent than that of miconazole and fluconazole. PMID:26309398

  1. The association of fractional CO2 laser 10.600nm and photodynamic therapy in the treatment of onychomycosis*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Guilherme Bueno; Antonio, João Roberto; Antonio, Carlos Roberto; Tomé, Fernanda Alves

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nails caused in most cases by dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Despite numerous available antifungal drugs for therapy of this infection, the cure rate is low, with high rates of relapse after treatment and side effects. OBJECTIVES To present a new option for the treatment of onychomycosis, in search of a more effective and rapid method than conventional ones. METHODS Patients underwent two sessions of CO2 fractional laser 10.600nm associated with photodynamic therapy. Mycological and digital photography were performed before and after the treatment. RESULTS McNemar test with continuity correction and degrees of freedom = 1: for clinical cure rate, 13.06, with p=0.00005; for mycological cure, 17.05, with p=0.00005; 72% felt fully satisfied with the procedure. CONCLUSIONS The use of fractional CO2 laser 10.600nm associated with photodynamic therapy can be effective in the treatment of onychomycosis, decreasing the risk of systemic lesions that may be triggered with prolonged use of oral antifungals. PMID:26375214

  2. In vitro antifungal activity of ME1111, a new topical agent for onychomycosis, against clinical isolates of dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Ghannoum, M; Isham, N; Long, L

    2015-09-01

    The treatment of onychomycosis has improved considerably over the past several decades following the introduction of the oral antifungals terbinafine and itraconazole. However, these oral agents suffer from certain disadvantages, including drug interactions and potential liver toxicity. Thus, there is a need for new topical agents that are effective against onychomycosis. ME1111 is a novel selective inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) of dermatophyte species, whose small molecular weight enhances its ability to penetrate the nail plate. In this study, we determined the antifungal activity of ME1111 against dermatophyte strains, most of which are known to cause nail infections, as measured by the MIC (n = 400) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) (n = 300). Additionally, we examined the potential for resistance development in dermatophytes (n = 4) following repeated exposure to ME1111. Our data show that the MIC90 of ME1111 against dermatophyte strains was 0.25 μg/ml, which was equivalent to that of the comparators amorolfine and ciclopirox (0.25 and 0.5 μg/ml, respectively). ME1111 was fungicidal at clinically achievable concentrations against dermatophytes, and its MFC90s against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were 8 μg/ml, comparable to those of ciclopirox. Furthermore, ME1111, as well as ciclopirox, did not induce resistance in 4 dermatophytes tested. Our studies show that ME1111 possesses potent antifungal activity and suggest that it has low potential for the development of resistance in dermatophytes. PMID:26055386

  3. Distinct characteristics of Scytalidium dimidiatum and non-dermatophyte onychomycosis as compared with dermatophyte onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Bunyaratavej, Sumanas; Prasertworonun, Nuntida; Leeyaphan, Charussri; Chaiwanon, Onjuta; Muanprasat, Chanai; Matthapan, Lalita

    2015-03-01

    Studies of demographic data, predisposing factors and clinical manifestations of non-dermatophyte mold (NDM) infection particularly in Scytalidium spp. have been limited. This study aimed to compare these data between dermatophytes (DMP) and NDM onychomycosis with statistical analysis. This was a retrospective chart review of outpatients with onychomycosis in the Nail Clinic of Department of Dermatology between January 2011 and December 2013. A total of 237 patients who had presented with onychomycosis were included. One hundred and eighty patients (75.9%) were infected with DMP: Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 46.8%; and Trichophyton rubrum, 28.3%. Of patients who had NDM onychomycosis, 17.3% were Scytalidium dimidiatum and 6.8% were Fusarium spp. Comparing the DMP and NDM groups, family history of superficial fungal infection was significantly demonstrated in the DMP group. Approximately 50% of patients in both groups had feet infections. However, no patients with NDM onychomycosis had fungal glabrous skin infection at other sites beyond the feet that was statistically different from cases with DMP onychomycosis. In conclusion, The distinct characteristic of patients with NDM onychomycosis was absence of fungal glabrous skin infection in areas other than the feet. This was statistically different from DMP. PMID:25639524

  4. Fungal infection of the feet in soccer players and non-athlete individuals.

    PubMed

    Purim, Kátia Sheylla Malta; Bordignon, Gisele Pesquero Fernandes; Queiroz-Telles, Flávio de

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of mycoses affecting the feet of soccer players and to compare this results with those in non-athlete individuals of the same age and sex. Initial evaluation consisted of a dermatological examination of the foot in 22 Chinese athletes, 83 Brazilian athletes and 24 Brazilian non-athletes. Scales of plantar skin, interdigital and subungual areas of the foot were collected for mycological examination (direct and culture). Nail clippings were obtained for histopathologic analysis. Tinea pedis was diagnosed more frequently among the non-athlete individuals. None of the Chinese athletes had tinea pedis alone. However, in this group onychomycosis was frequently higher when compared to the other groups. The fungal microbiota comprised Trichophyton rubrum (40%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (36.4%) and Candida spp (20%). Candida spp was isolated only from Brazilian athletes. Results obtained with KOH wet mounts agreed with the results obtained in culture and with histopathologic examinations (50.5% vs 40.9%). The frequency of tinea pedis among soccer players was lower than the other groups in this study, possibly due to health education and professional feet care. PMID:15813681

  5. In vitro antifungal activities of luliconazole, a new topical imidazole.

    PubMed

    Koga, Hiroyasu; Nanjoh, Yasuko; Makimura, Koichi; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2009-01-01

    Luliconazole is a topical antifungal drug newly developed in Japan. The present study compares the in vitro antifungal activity of luliconazole against clinically important dermatomycotic fungi with that of other representative antifungal drugs. The reference drugs chosen were five classes of nine topical agents, i.e., allylamine (terbinafine), thiocarbamate (liranaftate), benzylamine (butenafine), morpholine (amorolfine), and azole (ketoconazole, clotrimazole, neticonazole, miconazole and bifonazole). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of luliconazole and the reference drugs against Trichophyton spp. (T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and T. tonsurans) and Candida albicans were measured by the standardized broth microdilution method. Luliconazole demonstrated greater potency against Trichophyton spp. (MIC range:

  6. Dermatophytosis in zoo macropods: a questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Katie Alyce; Vogelnest, Linda Jean; Vogelnest, Larry

    2013-09-01

    Limited published data are available on dermatophytosis in zoo macropods, despite anecdotal reports of disease occurrence and recurrent mob outbreaks. The aim of this questionnaire study was to analyze data from Australian and international zoos to evaluate estimated disease prevalence in zoos housing macropods, affected macropod species, causative organisms, predisposing factors, clinical presentations, diagnostics, treatments, and disease risk management. Two questionnaires (initial detailed and subsequent brief) were distributed via email to zoo veterinarians, with an estimated response rate of 23%. The overall estimated disease prevalence from responding zoos was 28%, with 73% of responding Australian zoos and 14% of responding non-Australian zoos reporting disease. The first cases of confirmed and suspected dermatophytosis in several macropod species and in association with Trichophyton verrucosum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. nodulare are reported, with young red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) appearing predisposed. Diagnosis was most commonly based on fungal culture or presumptively on typical clinical signs of minimally/nonpruritic alopecia, crusting, and scaling distributed most frequently on the tail, pinnae, and hind limbs. Both disease resolution without treatment and resolution after an average of 1 to 2 mo of treatment were reported. PMID:24063082

  7. Identification of Dermatophyte Species after Implementation of the In-House MALDI-TOF MS Database

    PubMed Central

    Calderaro, Adriana; Motta, Federica; Montecchini, Sara; Gorrini, Chiara; Piccolo, Giovanna; Piergianni, Maddalena; Buttrini, Mirko; Medici, Maria Cristina; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Chezzi, Carlo; De Conto, Flora

    2014-01-01

    Despite that matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful tool in the clinical microbiology setting, few studies have till now focused on MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of dermatophytes. In this study, we analyze dermatophytes strains isolated from clinical samples by MALDI-TOF MS to supplement the reference database available in our laboratory. Twenty four dermatophytes (13 reference strains and 11 field isolated strains), identified by both conventional and molecular standard procedures, were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS, and the spectra obtained were used to supplement the available database, limited to a few species. To verify the robustness of the implemented database, 64 clinical isolates other than those used for the implementation were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The implementation allowed the identification of the species not included in the original database, reinforced the identification of the species already present and correctly identified those within the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex previously classified as Trichophyton. tonsurans by MALDI-TOF MS. The dendrogram obtained by analyzing the proteic profiles of the different species of dermatophytes reflected their taxonomy, showing moreover, in some cases, a different clusterization between the spectra already present in the database and those newly added. In this study, MALDI-TOF MS proved to be a useful tool suitable for the identification of dermatophytes for diagnostic purpose. PMID:25216335

  8. Melanogenesis in dermatophyte species in vitro and during infection

    PubMed Central

    Pornsuwan, Soraya; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Dankai, Wiyada; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch

    2011-01-01

    Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi that are the most common cause of fungal skin infections worldwide. Melanin has been isolated from several important human fungal pathogens, and the polymeric pigment is now recognized as an important virulence determinant. This study investigated whether dermatophytes, including Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum, produce melanin or melanin-like compounds in vitro and during infection. Digestion of the pigmented microconidia and macroconidia of dermatophytes with proteolytic enzymes, denaturant and hot concentrated acid yielded dark particles that retained the size and shape of the original fungal cells. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy revealed that particles derived from pigmented conidia contained a stable free radical signal, consistent with the pigments being a melanin. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated reactivity of a melanin-binding mAb with the pigmented conidia and hyphae, as well as the isolate particles. Laccase, an enzyme involved in melanization, was detected in the dermatophytes by an agar plate assay using 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) as the substrate. Skin scrapings from patients with dermatophytoses contained septate hyphae and arthrospores that were reactive with the melanin-binding mAb. These findings indicate that dermatophytes can produce melanin or melanin-like compounds in vitro and during infection. Based on what is known about the function of melanin as a virulence factor of other pathogenic fungi, this pigment may have a similar role in the pathogenesis of dermatophytic diseases. PMID:21565930

  9. Epidemiological and mycological data of onychomycosis in Goiania, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, L K H; Fernandes, O F L; Passos, X S; Costa, C R; Lemos, J A; Silva, M R R

    2010-01-01

    Onychomycosis defined as fungal infection of the nail represents more than 50% of all onychopathies. Epidemiological studies have shown that this mycosis is worldwide in occurrence, but with geographical variation in distribution. The direct microscopy and culture of the nail samples were performed to identify the causative agent. Out of 2273 patients with nail infection examined between January 2000 and December 2004 in Goiania, state of Goias, Brazil, diagnosis of onychomycosis was confirmed in 1282 cases, with dermatophytes and Candida species being the most common aetiological agents isolated. Dermatophyte onychomycosis was more common in toenails than in fingernails, while onychomycosis caused by yeast had a similar frequency in both toenails and fingernails. Among the species identified, Candida albicans was responsible for 492 cases (38.4%) of onychomycosis, Trichophyton rubrum was found in 327 cases (25.6%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes in 258 cases (20.1%). Other fungi isolated from nail infections included Aspergillus sp., Trichosporon sp., Geotrichum sp. and Fusarium sp. In our study, yeast of the genus Candida were the dominant cause of onychomycosis in women and dermatophytes were the principal cause of this condition in men. PMID:19207842

  10. Multiple active site residues are important for photochemical efficiency in the light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR).

    PubMed

    Menon, Binuraj R K; Hardman, Samantha J O; Scrutton, Nigel S; Heyes, Derren J

    2016-08-01

    Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the light-driven reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), an essential, regulatory step in chlorophyll biosynthesis. The unique requirement of the enzyme for light has provided the opportunity to investigate how light energy can be harnessed to power biological catalysis and enzyme dynamics. Excited state interactions between the Pchlide molecule and the protein are known to drive the subsequent reaction chemistry. However, the structural features of POR and active site residues that are important for photochemistry and catalysis are currently unknown, because there is no crystal structure for POR. Here, we have used static and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements of a number of active site variants to study the role of a number of residues, which are located in the proposed NADPH/Pchlide binding site based on previous homology models, in the reaction mechanism of POR. Our findings, which are interpreted in the context of a new improved structural model, have identified several residues that are predicted to interact with the coenzyme or substrate. Several of the POR variants have a profound effect on the photochemistry, suggesting that multiple residues are important in stabilizing the excited state required for catalysis. Our work offers insight into how the POR active site geometry is finely tuned by multiple active site residues to support enzyme-mediated photochemistry and reduction of Pchlide, both of which are crucial to the existence of life on Earth. PMID:27285815

  11. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  12. Effect of SPM-based cleaning POR on EUV mask performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.

    2011-11-01

    EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning POR and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning POR.

  13. Methodology for obtaining stakeholder assessments of obesity policy options in the PorGrow project.

    PubMed

    Stirling, A; Lobstein, T; Millstone, E

    2007-05-01

    The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project (PorGrow) study provided a unique opportunity to develop a large-scale application of a semi-quantitative technique for exploring interviewees' views on options to tackle obesity, using multi-criteria mapping. This 'heuristic' approach utilizes the advantages of a structured interviews framework by predefining a set of options for appraisal, while leaving interviewees free to select their own criteria for making their judgements. Additional information can be gleaned from the interview transcripts and related materials to set the appraisals in their policy context, and allowing interviewees to express their views on the options presented and their own appraisals. The PorGrow study team agreed a predefined set of 20 options for appraisal, and interviewed sets of stakeholders representing more than 20 aspects of policy development in each of the nine participating countries. The details of the methodology adopted are set out in this paper. PMID:17371304

  14. Effects of heme precursors on CYP1A2 and POR expression in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda system☆

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huiyuan; Ma, Jun; Liu, Nian; Wang, Shoulin

    2010-01-01

    Objective CYP1A2 and NADPH-CYP450 oxidoreductase (POR) were expressed in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda (sf9) system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of heme precursors on the expression of CYP1A2 and POR. Methods The heme precursors [δ-Aminolaevulinic Acid (5-ALA), Fe3+ and hemin] were introduced into the system to evaluate their effects on the expression of CYP1A2, POR and their co-expression. All the proteins were identified using immunoblotting, CO-difference spectroscopy, or cytochrome c assay. Results In the present study, functional CYP1A2 and POR were successfully expressed in the baculovirus/sf9 system, and both of them showed high activities. Co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe3+ significantly improved expression of CYP1A2 by about 50% compared with the addition of 5-ALA, Fe3+ or hemin alone. Either co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe3+ or addition of 5-ALA or Fe3+ alone improved the POR expression level 2 fold and its activity 7-10 fold compared with control (no addition). However, unlike CYP1A2, there was no difference between the co-addition and addition of these heme precursors alone. Different ratios of BvCYP1A2 to BvPOR also affected the co-expression of CYP1A2 and POR, with a 3:1 ratio of BvCYP1A2 / BvPOR significantly increasing their co-expression. Surprisingly, the addition of 0.1 mM 5-ALA or Fe3+ alone, but not their co-addition, could significantly improve the CYP1A2 and POR co-expression (P < 0.05). Conclusion 5-ALA and Fe3+ increased the expression of CYP1A2 and POR in a baculovirus/sf9 system, but the pattern of their expression was different between their expression alone and co-expression. PMID:23554636

  15. Characterization of Antifungal Activity and Nail Penetration of ME1111, a New Antifungal Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Yuji; Takei-Masuda, Naomi; Kubota, Natsuki; Takahata, Sho; Ohyama, Makoto; Kaneda, Kaori; Iida, Maiko; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2016-02-01

    Fungal nail infection (onychomycosis) is a prevalent disease in many areas of the world, with a high incidence approaching 23%. Available antifungals to treat the disease suffer from a number of disadvantages, necessitating the discovery of new efficacious and safe antifungals. Here, we evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity and nail penetration ability of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, along with comparator drugs, including ciclopirox, amorolfine, terbinafine, and itraconazole. ME1111 showed potent antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (the major etiologic agents of onychomycosis) strains isolated in Japan and reference fungal strains with an MIC range of 0.12 to 0.5 mg/liter and an MIC50 and MIC90 of 0.5 mg/liter for both. Importantly, none of the tested isolates showed an elevated ME1111 MIC. Moreover, the antifungal activity of ME1111 was minimally affected by 5% wool keratin powder in comparison to the other antifungals tested. The ME1111 solution was able to penetrate human nails and inhibit fungal growth in a dose-dependent manner according to the TurChub assay. In contrast, 8% ciclopirox and 5% amorolfine nail lacquers showed no activity under the same conditions. ME1111 demonstrated approximately 60-fold-greater selectivity in inhibition of Trichophyton spp. than of human cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that ME1111 possesses potent antidermatophyte activity, maintains this activity in the presence of keratin, and possesses excellent human nail permeability. These results suggest that ME1111 is a promising topical medication for the treatment of onychomycosis and therefore warrants further clinical evaluation. PMID:26643333

  16. Antifungal susceptibility and virulence factors of clinically isolated dermatophytes in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Afshari, Mohammad Ali; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Dermatophytes possess a wide array of virulence factors and various antifungal susceptibility patterns which influence their pathogenesis in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate antifungal susceptibility and keratinase and proteinase activity of 49 dermatophyte strains from the genera Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton which were isolated from human cases of dermatophytosis. Materials and Methods: Forty-nine dermatophyte strains isolated from clinical samples were cultured on general and specific culture media. Keratinase and proteinase activity was screened on solid mineral media and confirmed in liquid cultures. Drug susceptibility toward azoles (fluconazole, ketoconazole and itraconazole), griseofulvin and terbinafine was evaluated using disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using microbroth dilution assay according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Our results indicated that clinically isolated dermatophytes from 7 major species produced keratinase and proteinase at different extents. The mean keratinase and proteinase activity was reported as 6.69 ± 0.31 (U/ml) and 2.10 ± 0.22 (U/ml) respectively. Disk diffusion and microbroth dilution (MIC) results of antifungal susceptibility testing showed that ketoconazole was the most effective drug against Epidermophyton floccosum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, itraconazole against T. rubrum and E. floccosum, and griseofulvin and terbinafine against Trichophyton verrucosum. Our results showed that all dermatophyte isolates were resistant to fluconazole. Overall, ketoconazole and itraconazole were the most effective drugs for all dermatophyte species tested. Conclusion: Our results showed that antifungal susceptibility testing is an urgent need to select drugs of choice for treatment of different types of dermatophytosis and further indicated the

  17. Mycological examinations on the fungal flora of the chicken comb.

    PubMed

    Gründer, S; Mayser, P; Redmann, T; Kaleta, E F

    2005-03-01

    A total of 500 combs of adult chickens from two different locations in Germany (Hessen and Schleswig-Holstein) were clinically and mycologically examined. The chickens came from three battery cages (n = 79), one voliere system (n=32), six flocks maintained on deep litter (n = 69) and 12 flocks kept on free outdoor range (n=320). Twenty-two of the 500 chicken combs (4.4%) were found to have clinical signs: only non-specific lesions neither typical of mycosis nor of avian pox such as desquamation with crust formation, yellow to brown or black dyschromic changes, alopecia in the surrounding area and moist inflammation. Only seven of the 22 clinically altered combs showed a positive mycological result; the non-pathogenic and geophilic Trichophyton terrestre in one case and non-pathogenic yeast in six cases. The following fungi were seen in the different housing systems: 13 dermatophytes (2.6% of 500 samples): 12 x T. terrestre, 1 x Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 11 isolates of Chrysosporium georgiae (2.2% of 500 samples) and 149 isolates of yeasts (29.8%): Malassezia sympodialis: n = 52, Kloeckera apiculata: n = 33, Trichosporon capitatum (syn. Geotrichum capitatum): n = 23, Trichosporon cutaneum/Trichosporon mucoides: n = 12, Trichosporon inkin (syn. Sarcinosporon inkin): n = 8 and Candida spp.: n = 21, including pathogenic or possibly pathogenic species: Candida albicans: n = 3, Candida famata: n = 4, Candida guilliermondii: n = 3, Candida lipolytica: n = 3, Candida dattila: n = 2 and one isolate each of Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida aaseri, Candida catenulata sive brumpti, Candida fructus and Candida kefyr sive pseudotropicalis. There is no stringent correlation between the clinical symptoms diagnosed on the chicken combs and the species of yeasts isolated. The causative agent of favus in chickens, Trichophyton gallinae, and the saprophytic yeast in pigeons, Cr. neoformans were not isolated. The most frequently isolated yeasts M. sympodialis and

  18. Surveillance of dermatophytosis in northeast of Iran (Mashhad) and review of published studies.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Ali; Fata, Abdolmajid; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Shokri, Hojjatollah

    2013-10-01

    Dermatophytoses are considered to be one of the major public health problems in the world and are among the most commonly diagnosed skin diseases in Iran. In spite of improved personal hygiene and living environment, dermatophytosis continues to spread and persist. To determine the prevalence of dermatophytosis and their etiologic agents in Mashhad (Iran), five hundred and sixty patients suspected to have fungal infection were studied. Subjects who participated in this study were 330 males and 230 females ranged in age from 4 months to 70 years with a mean age of about 25.5 years. Clinical materials including skin scraping, hair and scalp sample, nail clipping and subungual debris were collected. All of the specimens were assessed by direct examination and culture. Of 560 patients, 166 (29.6 %) had dermatophytosis. The types of tinea according to anatomical areas were as follows: tinea corporis (33.1 %), tinea capitis (32.5 %), tinea manuum (17.5 %), tinea cruris (10.2 %), tinea pedis (5.4 %), tinea unguium (0.6 %) and tinea barbae (0.6 %). Trichophyton verrucosum was the most prevalent species followed by Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The prevalence of dermatophytosis in males was higher than in females. Based on a review of published studies from different parts of Iran, there are regional differences in the incidence of dermatophytosis. Epidermophyton floccosum has been the most prevalent species, and Microsporum canis has been isolated less than from the other countries. PMID:23943426

  19. Geometry sensing through POR1 regulates Rac1 activity controlling early osteoblast differentiation in response to nanofiber diameter.

    PubMed

    Higgins, A M; Banik, B L; Brown, J L

    2015-02-01

    Bone grafting procedures in the United States rely heavily upon autografts and allografts, which are donor-dependent, cause donor site pain, and can transmit disease. Synthetic bone grafts can reduce these risks; however, synthetics lack the bone differentiating (osteoinductive) abilities of auto- and allografts. Achieving innate osteoinductive properties of synthetics through surface modifications is currently under investigation. This study focuses on nanofibers, with emphasis on how fiber diameter and the potential curvature sensor POR1 affect the activation of the signaling molecules Rac1 and Arf1, and leading to expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteoinductive marker. Diameters of 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μm were compared against a flat control. The highest level of Rac1 activation was achieved on the smallest fibers (0.1 μm), a trend that was lost in POR1 knockdowns. This supports the hypothesis that on small nanofibers, POR1 favorably binds to highly curved cell membranes, which allows Rac1 to subsequently dissociate and activate. When the curvature is insufficient to bind POR1, POR1 binds to inactive Rac1 and competitively inhibits its activation. Arf1 activation followed an opposite trend, with the largest nanofibers exhibiting the highest activity. This trend reinforces the known interaction between Rac1 and Arf1 through the GIT-PIX complex, an Arf1 GAP and Rac1 GEF, respectively. Large, (1.0 μm), nanofibers demonstrated the highest ALP activity, indicating that ALP expression is inversely dependent on Rac1 activation. Knockdown of POR1 resulted in increased ALP activity across the substrates but without regard to the curvature sensing trend seen previously. Thus, POR1 senses curvature and increases Rac1 activity, which negatively regulates bone differentiation. PMID:25539497

  20. Substrate-specific modulation of CYP3A4 activity by genetic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR)

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vishal; Choi, Ji Ha; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Miller, Walter L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives CYP3A4 receives electrons from P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to metabolize about 50% of clinically used drugs. There is substantial inter-individual variation in CYP3A4 catalytic activity that is not explained by CYP3A4 genetic variants. CYP3A4 is flexible and distensible, permitting it to accommodate substrates varying in shape and size. To elucidate mechanisms of variability in CYP3A4 catalysis, we examined the effects of genetic variants of POR, and explored the possibility that substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4 differentially affect the ability of POR variants to support catalysis. Methods We expressed human CYP3A4 and four POR variants (Q153R, A287P, R457H, A503V) in bacteria, reconstituted them in vitro and measured the Michaelis constant and maximum velocity with testosterone, midazolam, quinidine and erythromycin as substrates. Results POR A287P and R457H had low activity with all substrates; Q153R had 76–94% of wild type (WT) activity with midazolam and erythromycin, but 129–150% activity with testosterone and quinidine. The A503V polymorphism reduced CYP3A4 activity to 61–77% of wild type with testosterone and midazolam, but had nearly wild type activity with quinidine and erythromycin. Conclusion POR variants affect CYP3A4 activities. The impact of a POR variant on catalysis by CYP3A4 is substrate-specific, probably due to substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4. PMID:20697309

  1. Intermitência alfvênica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.

    2003-08-01

    Dados medidos no vento solar rápido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetário são dominados por flutuações Alfvênicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correlação entre as variações do campo magnético e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuações exibem muitas características esperadas em turbulência magneto-hidrodinâmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitência e espectros contínuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsáveis pela evolução de turbulência Alfvênica intermitente não são completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos é usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvênicos, modelados pela equação Schrödinger não-linear derivativa e pela equação Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caóticos à medida em que parâmetros do plasma são variados. Pequenas perturbações no parâmetro de dissipação podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime periódico, ou fracamente caótico, para um regime fortemente caótico. As séries temporais das flutuações do campo magnético nos regimes fortemente caóticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caóticas são interrompidas por fortes estouros caóticos. É mostrado que o regime fortemente caótico é atingido quando as soluções periódicas ou fracamente caóticas globalmente estáveis interagem com soluções do sistema que são fortemente caóticas, mas globalmente instáveis. Estas soluções globalmente instáveis são conjuntos caóticos não-atrativos conhecidos como selas caóticas, e são responsáveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caóticas têm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provável que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulência intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

  2. Fabrication of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers for gas microsensors and nanosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V. Korusenko, P. M.; Nesov, S. N.; Povoroznyuk, S. N.; Roslikov, V. E.; Kurdyukova, E. A.; Sten'kin, Yu. A.; Shelyagin, R. V.; Knyazev, E. V.; Kan, V. E.; Ponomareva, I. V.

    2011-05-15

    Two-phase nanocomposite layers based on porous silicon and nonstoichiometric tin oxide were fabricated by various methods. The structure, as well as elemental and phase composition, of the obtained nanocomposites were studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results obtained confirm the formation of nanocomposite layers with a thickness as large as 2 {mu}m thick and SnO{sub x} stoichiometry coefficients x = 1.0-2.0. Significant tin diffusion into the porous silicon matrix with D{sub eff} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} was observed upon annealing at 770 K. Test sensor structures based on por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers grown by magnetron deposition showed fairly high stability of properties and sensitivity to NO{sub 2}.

  3. Recovery of naphthalene during evaporative concentration. [Tenax; XAD-2; POR-Q, XE-340

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.E.; Guerin, M.R.

    1980-10-01

    The analysis of trace organics usually requires concentrating organic extracts to small volumes prior to instrumental analysis. The use of a concentration apparatus employing a nitrogen blanket and reduced pressure is desirable because the inert atmosphere and low temperature help to ensure stable composition. Unfortunately, diaromatic compounds such as the naphthalenes and biphenyls are frequently almost completely lost during the concentration step. Even under carefully controlled conditions only 26 +- 11% of the naphthalene is recovered. By placing a sorbent either in or downstream of the evaporation concentration flask, recovery of diaromatic compounds can be improved significantly. In this investigation, the following sorbents, Tenax, XAD-2, POR-Q, and XE-340 were tested. Recoveries with and without the use of sorbents, effects of solute concentration, purge time after solvent removal, and type of solvent used are reported here.

  4. Using the PORS Problems to Examine Evolutionary Optimization of Multiscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, Zachary; Molian, Vaelan; Bryden, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all systems of practical interest are composed of parts assembled across multiple scales. For example, an agrodynamic system is composed of flora and fauna on one scale; soil types, slope, and water runoff on another scale; and management practice and yield on another scale. Or consider an advanced coal-fired power plant: combustion and pollutant formation occurs on one scale, the plant components on another scale, and the overall performance of the power system is measured on another. In spite of this, there are few practical tools for the optimization of multiscale systems. This paper examines multiscale optimization of systems composed of discrete elements using the plus-one-recall-store (PORS) problem as a test case or study problem for multiscale systems. From this study, it is found that by recognizing the constraints and patterns present in discrete multiscale systems, the solution time can be significantly reduced and much more complex problems can be optimized.

  5. Display of a PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis on the bacteriophage T4 capsid surface.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, J; Abu-Shilbayeh, L; Rao, V B

    1997-01-01

    The exterior of bacteriophage T4 capsid is coated with two outer capsid proteins, Hoc (highly antigenic outer capsid protein; molecular mass, 40 kDa) and Soc (small outer capsid protein; molecular mass, 9 kDa), at symmetrical positions on the icosahedron (160 copies of Hoc and 960 copies of Soc per capsid particle). Both these proteins are nonessential for phage infectivity and viability and assemble onto the capsid surface after completion of capsid assembly. We developed a phage display system which allowed in-frame fusions of foreign DNA at a unique cloning site in the 5' end of hoc or soc. A DNA fragment corresponding to the 36-amino-acid PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis was cloned into the display vectors to generate fusions at the N terminus of Hoc or Soc. The PorA-Hoc and PorA-Soc fusion proteins retained the ability to bind to the capsid surface, and the bound peptide was displayed in an accessible form as shown by its reactivity with specific monoclonal antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. By employing T4 genetic strategies, we show that more than one subtype-specific PorA peptide can be displayed on the capsid surface and that the peptide can also be displayed on a DNA-free empty capsid. Both the PorA-Hoc and PorA-Soc recombinant phages are highly immunogenic in mice and elicit strong antipeptide antibody titers even with a weak adjuvant such as Alhydrogel or no adjuvant at all. The data suggest that the phage T4 hoc-soc system is an attractive system for display of peptides on an icosahedral capsid surface and may emerge as a powerful system for construction of the next generation multicomponent vaccines. PMID:9353063

  6. Rescue of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por) mouse mutants reveals functions in vasculogenesis, brain and limb patterning linked to retinoic acid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Vanessa; Otto, Diana M E; Dickmann, Leslie; Schmidt, Katy; Schuhbaur, Brigitte; Henderson, Colin; Blomhoff, Rune; Wolf, C Roland; Tickle, Cheryll; Dollé, Pascal

    2007-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) acts as an electron donor for all cytochrome P450 enzymes. Knockout mouse Por(-/-) mutants, which are early embryonic (E9.5) lethal, have been found to have overall elevated retinoic acid (RA) levels, leading to the idea that POR early developmental function is mainly linked to the activity of the CYP26 RA-metabolizing enzymes (Otto et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 23, 6103-6116). By crossing Por mutants with a RA-reporter lacZ transgene, we show that Por(-/-) embryos exhibit both elevated and ectopic RA signaling activity e.g. in cephalic and caudal tissues. Two strategies were used to functionally demonstrate that decreasing retinoid levels can reverse Por(-/-) phenotypic defects, (i) by culturing Por(-/-) embryos in defined serum-free medium, and (ii) by generating compound mutants defective in RA synthesis due to haploinsufficiency of the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Raldh2) gene. Both approaches clearly improved the Por(-/-) early phenotype, the latter allowing mutants to be recovered up until E13.5. Abnormal brain patterning, with posteriorization of hindbrain cell fates and defective mid- and forebrain development and vascular defects were rescued in E9.5 Por(-/-) embryos. E13.5 Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) embryos exhibited abdominal/caudal and limb defects that strikingly phenocopy those of Cyp26a1(-/-) and Cyp26b1(-/-) mutants, respectively. Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) limb buds were truncated and proximalized and the anterior-posterior patterning system was not established. Thus, POR function is indispensable for the proper regulation of RA levels and tissue distribution not only during early embryonic development but also in later morphogenesis and molecular patterning of the brain, abdominal/caudal region and limbs. PMID:17126317

  7. Functional POR A503V is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xue; Ma, Gaoxiang; Li, Shushu; Wang, Meilin; Liu, Nian; Ma, Lan; Zhang, Zhan; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) plays important roles in the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous sterol hormones. However, few studies have explored the association between POR variants and the risk of bladder cancer. In this study, we first sequenced all 16 POR exons among 50 randomly selected controls, and found three variants, rs1135612, rs1057868 (A503V) and rs2228104, which were then assessed the relation to risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study of 1,050 bladder cancer cases and 1,404 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. People with A503V TT genotype have a decreased risk of bladder cancer in a recessive model (TT vs. CC/CT, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57–0.93), which was more pronounced among elderly male, non-smoking, subjects. Especially, A503V TT genotype showed a protective effect in the invasive tumor stage. Functional analysis revealed that A503V activity decreased in cytochrome c reduction (50.5 units/mg vs. 135.4 units/mg), mitomycin C clearance (38.3% vs. 96.8%), and mitomycin C-induced colony formation (78.0 vs 34.3 colonies per dish). The results suggested that POR A503V might decrease the risk of bladder cancer by reducing its metabolic activity, and should be a potential biomarker for predicting the susceptibility to human bladder cancer. PMID:26123203

  8. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  9. [Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD, students at Budapest and Prague Faculties of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Mydlík, M; Derzsiová, K

    2010-11-01

    Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD were contemporaries, both born in 1899, one in Zvolen, the other in Dombovar, at the time of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Prof. Por attended the Faculty of Medicine in Budapest from 1918 to 1920, and Prof. Klopstock studied at the same place between 1917 and 1919. From 1920 until graduation on 6th February 1926, Prof. Por continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Prof. Klopstock had to interrupt his studies in Budapest due to pulmonary tuberculosis; he received treatment at Tatranske Matliare where he befriended Franz Kafka. Later, upon Kafka's encouragement, he changed institutions and continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, where he graduated the first great go. It is very likely that, during their studies in Budapest and Prague, both professors met repeatedly, even though their life paths later separated. Following his graduation, Prof. Por practiced as an internist in Prague, later in Slovakia, and from 1945 in Kosice. In 1961, he was awarded the title of university professor of internal medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, where he practiced until his death in 1980. Prof. Klopstock continued his studies in Kiel and Berlin. After his graduation in 1933, he practiced in Berlin as a surgeon and in 1938 left for USA. In 1962, he was awarded the title of university professor of pulmonary surgery in NewYork, where he died in 1972. PMID:21250499

  10. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  11. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  12. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  13. Quels agents incriminés dans les mycoses du pied ? Enquête auprès des diabétiques consultant au CHU Mohammed VI de Marrakech

    PubMed Central

    Chegour, Hakima; El Ansari, Nawal; El Mghari, Ghizlane; Tali, Abdelali; Zoughaghi, Laila; Sebbani, Majda; Amine, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Les infections mycosiques du pied constituent un motif fréquent de consultation chez les diabétiques, le diabète constituant à la fois un facteur favorisant et aggravant les lésions cutanéomuqueuses. L'objectif de ce travail était d'identifier la flore mycologique locale responsable des lésions du pied chez le diabétique et déterminer les facteurs favorisant la survenue de mycoses. Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale intéressant des diabétiques suivis en consultation; un prélèvement mycologique, avec examen direct et culture, a été réalisé devant toute suspicion clinique de lésion mycosique. Quatre-vingt-deux patients ont été inclus. L'hémoglobine glycosylée moyenne a été de9,2% ± 2,23. Un intertrigo inter orteil a été noté dans 90,2% des cas; l'examen mycologique était positif dans 64,8% des cas, avec 18 cas de Trichophyton rubrum et 11 cas de Candida albicans. Une atteinte unguéale a été suspectée chez 65,9% patients; la culture a mis en évidence un Trichosporon pathogène chez sept patients, un Candida albicansdans six cas, un Trichophyton rubrum dans quatre cas, avec trois cas de Trichophyton mentagrophytes et deux cas de Scytalidium dimidiatum. L’étude analytique, après confirmation mycologique, en fonction des principales caractéristiques des patients a montré que l'atteinte mycosique du pied est significativement corrélée au déséquilibre glycémique. Ce travail a montré la prédominance du Trichophyton rubrum dans les lésions d'intertrigo inter orteil et du Trichosporon dans les onychomycoses, avec une prédominance globale plus globale plus élevée du TR. PMID:25170372

  14. Investigation of In Vitro Activity of Five Antifungal Drugs against Dermatophytes Species Isolated from Clinical Samples Using the E-Test Method

    PubMed Central

    Aktas, Ayse Esin; Yigit, Nimet; Aktas, Akin; Gozubuyuk, Sultan Gamze

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Dermatomycosis is an infection with fungi related to the skin: glabrous skin, hair and/or nails. Oral treatment of fungal infections in dermatology has become a preferred modality for the management of these very common conditions. Although there are increasing numbers of antifungals available for treatment of dermatophytes, some cases and relapses have been unresponsive to treatment. The determination of fungus in-vitro antifungal susceptibility has been reported to be important for the ability to eradicate dermatophytes. It is necessary to perform antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes. E-test (AB Biodisk, Sweden) is a rapid, easy-to-perform in-vitro antifungal susceptibility test. The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of the different species of dermatophyte strains isolated clinical specimens to five antifungal agents using the E-test method. Materials and Methods: A total of 66 specimens were collected from the nails, feet, inguinal region, trunk and hands. These strains tested MIC endpoints of E-test for amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, caspofungin, and ketoconazole were read after 72, and 96 hours incubation for each strain on RPMI 1640 agar. Results: The dermatophytes tested included Trichophyton rubrum 43 (65.1%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes 7 (10.7%), Microsporum canis 5 (7.6%), Trichophyton tonsurans 5 (7.6%), Epidermophyton floccosum 4 (6.0%) and Trichophyton violaceum 2 (3.0%). The most active agent against all dermatophytes species was caspofungin with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) range (μg/mL−1) (0.02–3, 0.032–4, 0.125–0.50, 0.032–2, 0.25–0.50, 0.125–0.50) and it raconazole with an MIC range (μg/mL−1) (0.038–1.5, 0.094–1.5, 1–32, 0.016–0.50, 0.25–0.50, 0.125–0.50). The least active agent was fluconazole with an MIC range (μg/mL−1) (0, 19–48, 2–256, 2–8, 256, 256, 8–24). Conclusion: E-test seems to be an alternative method to MIC

  15. Epitope specificity of murine and human bactericidal antibodies against PorA P1.7,16 induced with experimental meningococcal group B vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rouppe van der Voort, E M; Kuipers, B; Brugghe, H F; van Unen, L M; Timmermans, H A; Hoogerhout, P; Poolman, J T

    1997-03-01

    Synthetic peptides derived from the predicted loops 1 and 4 of meningococcal PorA, sero-subtype P1.7,16, were used to study the epitope specificity of murine and human PorA P1.7,16 bactericidal antibodies. The predicted loops 1 and 4 are surface exposed and carry in their apices the sero-subtype epitopes P1.7 (loop 1) or P1.16 (loop 4), respectively. Peptides were synthesized as mono- and multimeric peptides. Murine monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were induced with meningococcal whole cell preparations. Polyclonal antibodies were evoked in volunteers after one immunization with 50 micrograms or 100 micrograms protein of a hexavalent meningococcal PorA vesicle vaccine. The induction of PorA antibodies was determined in ELISA using purified PorA P1.7,16. The epitope specificity of anti-PorA antibodies for both murine and human antibodies could be demonstrated by direct peptide ELISA using overlapping multimeric peptides almost spanning the entire loops 1 or 4 of the protein. The capacity of peptides to inhibit the bactericidal activity of murine and human antibodies was investigated using meningococcal strain H44/76 (B:15:P1.7,16) as a target strain. Bactericidal activities could be inhibited with both monomeric and multimeric peptides derived from epitopes P1.7 and P1.16. PMID:9093834

  16. Targeting of Neisserial PorB to the mitochondrial outer membrane: an insight on the evolution of β-barrel protein assembly machines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jhih-Hang; Davies, John K; Lithgow, Trevor; Strugnell, Richard A; Gabriel, Kipros

    2011-11-01

    Mitochondria originated from Gram-negative bacteria through endosymbiosis. In modern day mitochondria, the Sorting and Assembly Machinery (SAM) is responsible for eukaryotic β-barrel protein assembly in the mitochondrial outer membrane. The SAM is the functional equivalent of the β-barrel assembly machinery found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. In this study we examined the import pathway of a pathogenic bacterial protein, PorB, which is targeted from pathogenic Neisseria to the host mitochondria. We have developed a new method for measurement of PorB assembly into mitochondria that relies on the mobility shift exhibited by bacterial β-barrel proteins once folded and separated under semi-native electrophoretic conditions. We show that PorB is targeted to the outer mitochondrial membrane with a dependence on the intermembrane space shuttling chaperones and the core component of the SAM, Sam50, which is a functional homologue of BamA that is required for PorB assembly in bacteria. The peripheral subunits of the SAM, Sam35 and Sam37, which are essential for eukaryotic β-barrel protein assembly but do not have distinguishable functional homologues in bacteria, are not required for PorB assembly in eukaryotes. This shows that PorB uses an evolutionary conserved 'bacterial like' mechanism to infiltrate the host mitochondrial outer membrane. PMID:22032638

  17. DISTRIBUTION OF DERMATOPHYTES FROM SOILS OF URBAN AND RURAL AREAS OF CITIES OF PARAIBA STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, Zélia Braz Vieira da Silva; de Oliveira, Aurylene Carlos; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Pontes, Luiz Renato de Araújo; dos Santos, Jozemar Pereira

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The dermatophytes, keratinophilic fungi, represent important microorganisms of the soil microbiota, where there are cosmopolitan species and others with restricted geographic distribution. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge about the presence of dermatophytes in soils of urban (empty lots, schools, slums, squares, beaches and homes) and rural areas and about the evolution of their prevalence in soils of varying pH in cities of the four mesoregions of Paraiba State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from 31 cities of Paraiba State. Of 212 samples, 62% showed fungal growth, particularly those from the Mata Paraibana mesoregion (43.5%), which has a tropical climate, hot and humid. Soil pH varied from 4.65 to 9.06, with 71% of the growth of dermatophytes occurring at alkaline pH (7.02 - 9.06) (ρ = 0.000). Of 131 strains isolated, 57.3% were geophilic species, particularly Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) and Mycrosporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum and T. ajelloi were isolated for the first time in Paraiba State. The zoophilic species identified were T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3 %) and T. verrucosum (7.6 %), and T. tonsurans was isolated as an anthropophilic species. The soils of urban areas including empty lots, schools, slums and squares of cities in the mesoregions of Paraiba State were found to be the most suitable reservoirs for almost all dermatophytes; their growth may have been influenced by environmental factors, soils with residues of human and/or animal keratin and alkaline pH. PMID:24213189

  18. Distribution of dermatophytes from soils of urban and rural areas of cities of Paraiba State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Zélia Braz Vieira da Silva; Oliveira, Aurylene Carlos de; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Pontes, Luiz Renato de Araújo; Santos, Jozemar Pereira dos

    2013-01-01

    The dermatophytes, keratinophilic fungi, represent important microorganisms of the soil microbiota, where there are cosmopolitan species and others with restricted geographic distribution. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge about the presence of dermatophytes in soils of urban (empty lots, schools, slums, squares, beaches and homes) and rural areas and about the evolution of their prevalence in soils of varying pH in cities of the four mesoregions of Paraiba State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from 31 cities of Paraiba State. Of 212 samples, 62% showed fungal growth, particularly those from the Mata Paraibana mesoregion (43.5%), which has a tropical climate, hot and humid. Soil pH varied from 4.65 to 9.06, with 71% of the growth of dermatophytes occurring at alkaline pH (7.02 - 9.06) (ρ = 0.000). Of 131 strains isolated, 57.3% were geophilic species, particularly Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) and Mycrosporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum and T. ajelloi were isolated for the first time in Paraiba State. The zoophilic species identified were T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3 %) and T. verrucosum (7.6 %), and T. tonsurans was isolated as an anthropophilic species. The soils of urban areas including empty lots, schools, slums and squares of cities in the mesoregions of Paraiba State were found to be the most suitable reservoirs for almost all dermatophytes; their growth may have been influenced by environmental factors, soils with residues of human and/or animal keratin and alkaline pH. PMID:24213189

  19. [Structural and biochemical characteristics of pathogenic fungus: cell walls, lipids and dimorphism, and action modes of antifungal agents].

    PubMed

    Kitajma, Y

    2000-01-01

    Cell walls (0.1-0.5 microm in thickness) of dermatophytes, at least Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Epidermophyton floccosum, are built of microfibrils (20 nm in diameter) and matrix embedding the fibrils. These fibrils are composed of chitin (70-80%) and a small amount of glucans, and the matrix is composed of beta-1-3, beta1-6 glucan, glucomannan, galactomannan and peptides. Another characteristic structure is the outermost layer (20-50 nm in thickness) of the cell wall, which consists of hydrophobic protein rodlets. Lipids are thought to play important roles in the regulation of dimorphism and virulence in pathogenic fungus. Generally, the ratio of phospholipid/ergosterol is less than 1 in yeast form and 2-20 in mycelial form cells in Candida albicans and Sporothrix schenckii. During the transition from yeast to mycelial forms, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine are reduced, whereas phosphatidylcholine increases. Phospho-lipase D is activated on this transition. Phospholipase B is now known to be a virulence factor in C. albicans. Polyene antifungal agents bind to ergosterol in membrane to form complexes, which generate pores and destroy the structures and functions of membrane. Azole antifungal agents inhibit the synthesis of ergosterol leading to deficiency in ergosterol content in membrane, and impair the function of membranes in fungal cells. We show the effects of polyenes on the ultrastructure of fungal plasma membrane and impairment of ionomycin-induced calcium influx in T. mentagrophytes, so that we can compare the differences in mode of actions between these two groups of agents. PMID:11064317

  20. Therapeutic Efficacy of Topically Applied KP-103 against Experimental Tinea Unguium in Guinea Pigs in Comparison with Amorolfine and Terbinafine

    PubMed Central

    Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Yokoo, Mamoru; Senda, Hisato; Kakehi, Kazuaki

    2002-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of KP-103, a novel topical triazole, in a guinea pig tinea unguium model was investigated. Experimental tinea unguium and tinea pedis were produced by inoculation of Trichophyton mentagrophytes SM-110 between the toes of the hind paw of guinea pigs. One percent solution (0.1 ml) of KP-103, amorolfine, or terbinafine was topically applied to the nails and whole sole of an infected foot once daily for 30 consecutive days, and terbinafine was also orally administered at a daily dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight for 30 consecutive days, starting on day 60 postinfection. The fungal burdens of nails and plantar skin were assessed using a new method, which makes it possible to recover infecting fungi by removing a carryover of the drug remaining in the treated tissues into the culture medium. Topically applied KP-103 inhibited the development of nail collapse, significantly reduced the fungal burden of the nails, and sterilized the infected plantar skin. On the other hand, topical amorolfine and topical or oral terbinafine were ineffective for tinea unguium, although these drugs eradicated or reduced the fungal burden of plantar skin. The in vitro activities of amorolfine and terbinafine against T. mentagrophytes SM-110 were 8- and 32-fold, respectively, decreased by the addition of 5% keratin to Sabouraud dextrose broth medium. In contrast, the activity of KP-103 was not affected by keratin because its keratin affinity is lower than those of the reference drugs, suggesting that KP-103 largely exists in the nails as an active form that was not bound to keratin and diffuses in the nail without being trapped by keratin. The effectiveness of KP-103 against tinea unguium is probably due to its favorable pharmacokinetic properties in the nails together with its potent antifungal activity. PMID:12435679

  1. Efficacy testing of antimycotic prophylactics in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Treiber, A; Pittermann, W; Schuppe, H C

    2001-12-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes is both zoophilic and a common causative organism in human dermatomycosis. Therefore this dermatophyte is widely used for experimental efficacy testing of antimycotic agents and their active ingredients. The use of the guinea pig as an animal model for dermatomycosis is based on the predisposition of this species to spontaneous dermal fungal infections. A previously described guinea pig model was modified according to the results of pilot experiments. The modification consists of 1) evaluation of the infectious activity of the primary mycotic tissue cultures obtained from patients and 2) the efficacy testing itself with treatment of the infected skin area including the continuous clinical observation for 28 days. At first the required duration of cultivation and the number of spores for a reproducible infection of all animals were determined. The following efficacy test consisted of four groups with ten animals each. Group I (control of infection) remained without further treatment after experimental infections, groups II-IV received a single treatment by spraying at the day of infection with isopropanol (70%) (negative control), water (mechanic control) and the antimycotic agent (treated group), respectively. After 28 days under continuous examination, clinical symptoms (scabs; reddening, scaliness) were statistically analyzed. The model takes into account the duration and severity of infection in order to evaluate the differences between the four groups. The experimental protocol presented allows the efficacy of antimycotic agents to be demonstrated by means of statistical analyses. As an example the results of a successful prophylactic treatment against T. mentagrophytes with the antimycotic prophylactic Laudamonium (1%) are presented. PMID:11833296

  2. [Investigation of the agents and risk factors of dermatophytosis: a hospital-based study].

    PubMed

    Gürcan, Saban; Tikveşli, Melek; Eskiocak, Muzaffer; Kiliç, Haluk; Otkun, Metin

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were the detection of distribution of dermatophyte species isolated from the clinical samples of patients with dermatophytosis and the evaluation of risk factors for the development of dermatophytosis. A total of 441 skin, nail and scalp/hair specimens obtained from 301 patients (151 were male; age range 2 months-80 years, median 42 years) and 884 foot and hand skin and nail specimens obtained from 221 control subjects (110 were male; age range 5-75 years, median 36 years) were included to the study between the period of January to December 2005. All the samples have been evaluated by direct microscopic (DM) examination and by culture. A total of 121 (40.2%) patients yielded positivity for dermatophytes, of them 63 were positive by both DM and culture methods, seven were only culture positive, and 51 were only DM positive. Nine (9.8%) of 92 culture positive samples from 70 patients were found negative in DM, while 85 (50.6%) of 168 DM positive samples from 114 patients were negative in culture. 23.5% (12/51) of DM positive but culture negative patients were given antifungal therapy previously. The most prominent species isolated from the cultures were Trichophyton rubrum with a rate of 68.4% (63/92), followed by T. mentagrophytes (18.4%); T. violaceum (3.3%); T. verrucosum, T. tonsurans and Epidermophyton floccosum (2.2% for each); T. schoenleini, Microsporum canis and Trichophyton sp. (1.1% for each). Of the patient samples whose cultures were positive, 45% were from the foot skin. The presence rate of dermatophytes in controls was found as 3.2% (7/221); T. rubrum was isolated from the foot skin of five and T. mentagrophytes was isolated in toenail of two control subjects. About 42% of the samples belonged to the patients who admitted to hospital between December to February period. The evaluation of the risk factors revealed that presence of trauma, pet contact, ritual cleansing and diabetes mellitus had no effect on the development of

  3. Detection and characterization of zoonotic dermatophytes from dogs and cats in and around Kolkata

    PubMed Central

    Murmu, S.; Debnath, C.; Pramanik, A. K.; Mitra, T.; Jana, S.; Dey, S.; Banerjee, S.; Batabyal, K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The ringworms of pet dogs, cats, and stray animals (dogs, cats, and other animals) could be a potential source of zoonotic infections causing a serious public health problem in the busy city Kolkata. The pet owners are more susceptible to get this infection from their pets, because of the close contact with them as dermatophytosis is very much prevalent in those pets. So, this study was aimed to check the prevalence of dermatophytosis in dogs, cats, and in pet owners. Materials and Methods: A total of 362 clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis from dogs (123 in number), cats (202 in number), and human beings (37 in number) were collected and studied from in and around Kolkata to detect the presence of significant dermatophytes. Direct microscopy and cultural examination of the isolates were performed following standard methodology. Identification and characterization of the isolates were done by different biochemical tests. Results: Samples (n=285) having significant dermatophytic fungal infections were found to be of highest number in cats (158, 55.5%) than in dogs (108, 37.8%) and humans (19, 6.7%), respectively. The incidence of Microsporum canis (60.0%) was the highest from affecting dogs, cats, and human beings in comparison to Microsporum gypseum (22.5%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (15.8%) and Trichophyton rubrum (1.7%). Detection of T. rubrum was only from human cases in this study, whereas the presence of rest three were slightly higher in cats than that of the dogs and humans in this present study. The incidences were higher in young animals and in humans of the age group of 21-30 years, during the rainy season (from April to August) and also in in-contact human beings. Conclusion: M. canis was the most commonly pathogen among all causing dermatophytosis in animals and also in the pet owners. M. gypseum and T. mentagrophytes were other pathogens associated with these infections. These infections were more prevalent in the rainy seasons and in

  4. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  5. Econazole Nitrate Foam 1% Improves the Itch of Tinea Pedis.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Alan B; Raymond, Isabelle

    2016-09-01

    Econazole nitrate topical foam, 1%, is indicated for the treatment of interdigital tinea pedis caused by Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum in patients 12 years of age and older. The symptom of itch or pruritus was evaluated in two randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, vehicle-controlled, multicenter Phase III studies in which econazole foam was compared with foam vehicle in subjects with interdigital tinea pedis. A thin, uniform layer of study treatment was applied once daily to all clinically affected interdigital regions of both feet for four weeks. At baseline, at least 69% of all subjects had moderate to severe itch. Throughout the duration of both studies, numerically econazole foam was numerically superior to vehicle in achieving absence of itch. After the cessation of treatment, from day 29, itching continues to improve until day 43 in the active treatment group, whereas there is no evident continued improvement within the vehicle foam groups. At day 43, in the active treatment groups, 83% in Study 1 and 71% in Study 2 achieved complete absence of itching. Using less stringent criteria, for the econazole nitrate foam arm, achieving no itch or mild itch (0 or 1), in Study 1, 95% and 86.8% in Study 2 achieved this outcome. Tolerability of the products was excellent with few treatment-related adverse events. In summary, econazole foam decreased the burden of itch as early as day 8 in patients with interdigital tinea pedis, and this improvement continued after cessation of treatment.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(9):1111-1114. PMID:27602974

  6. Antifungal agents for onychomycosis: new treatment strategies to improve safety.

    PubMed

    Zane, Lee T; Chanda, Sanjay; Coronado, Dina; Del Rosso, James

    2016-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a common and difficult-to-treat fungal infection of the nail unit that gradually leads to dystrophic changes of the nail plate and nail bed. If untreated, infection progresses and may lead to discomfort, reduced quality of life, and risk of complications in patients with comorbid conditions (eg, diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus, peripheral vascular disease). Onychomycosis treatments are designed to eradicate causative pathogens (most commonly Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes), restore healthy nails, and prevent recurrence or spread of infection. Given the deep-seated nature of most cases of onychomycosis, an effective antifungal agent needs to achieve and maintain sufficient drug concentrations throughout the nail unit for the duration of healthy nail in-growth. Oral antifungal drugs are the most effective available therapy and are generally well tolerated, but may be limited by safety concerns and the potential for drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Thus, treating physicians and pharmacists must be cognizant of a patient's current medications; indeed, it may not be feasible to treat onychomycosis in patients with diabetes, heart disease, or depression because of the risk for DDIs. Current topical therapy is not associated with risk of DDIs. Tavaborole and efinaconazole, two recently approved topical agents, have demonstrated good nail penetration and high negative culture rates in clinical trials of patients with onychomycosis. This article provides the treating physician and pharmacist with information on the safety and effectiveness of current oral (allylamine, azole) and topical (ciclopirox, efinaconazole, tavaborole) treatment to aid in making informed treatment decisions based on the unique characteristics (medication history, comorbidities, nature of onychomycosis) of each patient. PMID:27136621

  7. Quantification of dermatophyte viability for evaluation of antifungal effect by quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Tomoyuki; Tomoyuki, Iwanaga; Anzawa, Kazushi; Kazushi, Anzawa; Mochizuki, Takashi; Takashi, Mochizuki

    2014-06-01

    Dermatophytosis is a common disease caused by dermatophyte fungi such as Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. A method of quantifying fungal viability in the lesions of dermatophytosis is indispensable for understanding the therapeutic process and outcome; however, no such method has yet been developed. The aim of this study was to develop a method for quantifying dermatophyte viability by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and D1/D2 regions, including each of rRNA and rDNA, were chosen as the targets, and dermatophyte-specific primer pairs were designed corresponding to ITS and D1/D2 regions. The amounts of target RNA and DNA after heat or antifungal treatment were measured by qPCR and compared with colony-forming unit (CFU) counts. RNA and DNA could extract from dermatophytes by mechanical pulverization of conidia using a Multi-Beads Shocker cell disruptor. Our method was sufficiently sensitive to detect 10 copies by qPCR using both ITS and D1/D2 primer pairs. The most sensitive target was ITS-cDNA after heat or antifungal treatment, and essentially consistent with CFU counts. On the other hands, ITS-DNA and D1/D2-DNA were not decreased soon after heat or antifungal treatment, but those were decreased significantly and reflected the CFU counts after 48 h of antifungal treatment. We conclude that ITS-cDNA is useful mainly for quantifying dermatophyte viability at early responses, but ITS-DNA and D1/D2-DNA are also available for evaluation, which does not need an early response. PMID:24760383

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial and anticonvulsant activities of some new 3-[2- (5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl/4-carbethoxymethylthiazol-2-yl) imino-4-thiazolidinon-5-ylidene]-5-substituted/nonsubstituted 1H-indole-2-ones and investigation of their structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Altintaş, Handan; Ateş, Oznur; Uyde-Doğan, B Sönmez; Alp, F Ilkay; Kaleli, Deniz; Ozdemir, Osman; Birteksöz, Seher; Otük, Gülten; Atana, Dilek; Uzun, Meltem

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, 20 new compounds having 3-[2-(5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl) imino-4-thiazolidinon-5-ylidene]-5-substituted/nonsubstituted 1H-indole-2-one (I-XII) and 3-[2-(4-carbethoxymethylthiazol-2-yl)imino-4-thiazoldinon-5-ylidenel-5-substituted/nonsubstituted IH-indole-2-one (XIII-XX) systems were synthesized. The structures were confirmed by spectral methods (UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 13C-DEPT (135), electron impact mass spectrometry) and elemental analysis. All compounds were tested for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 4352, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 1539, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 14153, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Microsporum gypseum (NCPF-580), Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum and some of them were found to be active. Especially, compound I was more active than cefuroxime sodium (CAS 56238-63-2) which was used as a standard, and the activity of compound XII was close to that of cefuroxime sodium against Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228. Primary screening for antituberculous activity was conducted at 6.25 microg/ml against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv in BACTEC 12B medium using the BACTEC 460 radiometric system. The anticonvulsant activities of selected prototoype compounds (I, IV-VI, VIII, XI, XIII, XVI-XVIII) administered at doses of 50-200 mg/kg (i.p.) were evaluated using the pentetrazol test (PTZ) in mice. PMID:16618017

  9. Antiproliferative effect and characterization of a novel antifungal peptide derived from human Chromogranin A

    PubMed Central

    LI, RUI-FANG; LU, YA-LI; LU, YAN-BO; ZHANG, HUI-RU; HUANG, LIANG; YIN, YANLI; ZHANG, LIN; LIU, SHUAI; LU, ZHIFANG; SUN, YANAN

    2015-01-01

    CGA-N46 is a novel antifungal peptide derived from the N-terminus of human Chromogranin A, corresponding to the 31st to 76th amino acids. Further research on its activities and characteristics may be helpful for the application of CGA-N46 in medical or other situations. In the present study, the antifungal spectrum and physicochemical characteristics of CGA-N46 were investigated using an antifungal assay, its antiproliferative effects on cancer and normal cells were assessed using MTT assay and its combinatorial effect with other antibiotics was analyzed using checkerboard analysis. The results showed that CGA-N46 exhibited antifungal activity against the tested Candidas (C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, C. tropicalis and C. albicans) at a concentration of <0.8 mM, but had no effect on the growth of filamentous fungi or other types of fungi (Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium moniliforme, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes), even at a concentration of 3.2 mM. CGA-N46 had an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells and a reversible effect on the growth of normal primary chicken embryo fibroblast cells, but no hemolytic activity on human erythrocytes at the minimum inhibitory concentration of CGA-N46 against yeasts. The antifungal activity of CGA-N46 was stable at a temperature <40°C or within a broad pH range (pH 5.0–7.0). Its antifungal activity was enhanced when the peptide was used in combination with fluconazole and terbinafine. The present results indicate that CGA-N46 is a safe, physicochemically stable, antifungal peptide with anticancer cell activity that exhibits an additive effect with conventional antibiotics. PMID:26668630

  10. Derivatives of phosphate Schiff base transition metal complexes: synthesis, studies and biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Wahab, Z. H. Abd; El-Sarrag, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    We report the synthesis and structural characterization of series of tetra- and hexacoordinate metal chelate complexes of phosphate Schiff base ligands having the general composition LMX n·H 2O and L 2MX n (L=phosphate Schiff base ligand; M=Ag +, Mn 2+, Cu 2+, Zn 2+, Cd 2+, Hg 2+, or Fe 3+ and X=NO 3-, Br - or Cl -). The structure of the prepared compounds was investigated using elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 31P NMR, UV-vis, mass spectra, solid reflectance, magnetic susceptibility and conductance measurements as well as conductometric titration. In all the complexes studied, the ligands act as a chelate ligand with coordination involving the phosphateO-atom and the azomethineN-atom. IR, solid reflectance spectra and magnetic moment measurement are used to infer the structure and to illustrate the coordination capacity of ligand. IR spectra show the presence of coordinated nitrate and water molecule, the magnetic moments of all complexes show normal magnetic behavior and the electronic spectra of the metal complexes indicate a tetra- and octahedral structure for Mn 2+, octahedral structure of Fe 3+ and both square-planar and distorted octahedral structure for Cu 2+ complexes. Antimicrobial activity of the ligands and their complexes were tested using the disc diffusion method and the chosen strains include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aereuguinosa, Klebsiella penumoniae, Escherichia coli, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophyte and Trichophyton rubrum. Some known antibiotics are included for the sake of comparison and the chosen antibiotic are Amikacin, Doxycllin, Augmantin, Sulperazon, Unasyn, Septrin, Cefobid, Ampicillin, Nitrofurantion, Traivid and Erythromycin.

  11. Determining the Pathogenic Potential of Non-sporulating Molds Isolated from Cutaneous Specimens.

    PubMed

    Jeyaprakasam, Nantha Kumar; Razak, Mohd Fuat Abdul; Ahmad, Noor Azimah Binti; Santhanam, Jacinta

    2016-06-01

    Although non-sporulating molds (NSM) are frequently isolated from patients and have been recognized as agents of pulmonary disease, their clinical significance in cutaneous specimens is relatively unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to identify NSM and to determine the keratinolytic activity of isolates from cutaneous sites. NSM isolates from clinical specimens such as skin, nail, and body fluids were identified based on their ribosomal DNA sequences. Of 17 NSM isolates (7 Ascomycota, 10 Basidiomycota), eleven were identified to species level while five were identified to the genus level. These include Schizophyllum commune, a known human pathogen, Phoma multirostrata, a plant pathogen, and Perenniporia tephropora, a saprophyte. To determine fungal pathogenicity, keratinolytic activity, a major virulence factor, was evaluated ex vivo using human nail samples by measuring dye release from keratin azure, for NSM along with pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Fusarium spp.) and nonpathogenic (endophyte) fungi for comparison. This study showed that pathogenic fungi had the highest keratinolytic activity (7.13 ± 0.552 keratinase units) while the nonpathogenic endophytes had the lowest activity (2.37 ± 0.262 keratinase units). Keratinolytic activity of two Ascomycota NSM (Guignardia mangiferae and Hypoxylon sp.) and one Basidiomycota NSM (Fomitopsis cf. meliae) was equivalent to that of pathogenic fungi, while Xylaria feejeensis showed significantly higher activity (p < 0.05) than nonpathogenic endophytes. These results indicate that the pathogenic ability of NSM is species dependent; clinical isolates, especially more frequently isolated species, may be involved in disease etiology. PMID:26847667

  12. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity in UK infants of a novel meningococcal vesicle vaccine containing multiple class 1 (PorA) outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, K; Morris, R; Rümke, H; Fox, A; Borrow, R; Begg, N; Richmond, P; Poolman, J

    1999-06-01

    The development of effective vaccines against serogroup B meningococci is of great public health importance. We assessed a novel genetically engineered vaccine containing six meningococcal class 1 (PorA) outer membrane proteins representing 80% of prevalent strains in the UK. 103 infants were given the meningococcal vaccine at ages 2, 3 and 4 months with routine infant immunisations, with a fourth dose at 12-18 months. The vaccine was well tolerated. Three doses evoked good immune responses to two of six meningococcal strains expressing PorA proteins contained in the vaccine. Following a fourth dose, larger bactericidal responses to all six strains were observed, suggesting that the initial course had primed memory lymphocytes and revaccination stimulated a booster response. This hexavalent PorA meningococcal vaccine was safe and evoked encouraging immune responses in infants. Vaccines of this type warrant further development and evaluation. PMID:10418910

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of PorM, a subunit of the Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system.

    PubMed

    Stathopulos, Julien; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Roussel, Alain; Leone, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PorM is a membrane protein involved in the assembly of the type IX secretion system (T9SS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major bacterial pathogen responsible for periodontal disease in humans. The periplasmic domain of PorM was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. A fragment of the purified protein was obtained by limited proteolysis. Crystals of this fragment belonged to the tetragonal space group P4(3)2(1)2. Native and MAD data sets were recorded to 2.85 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:25615973

  14. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    Mould materials for injection moulding of polymers and polymer-matrix composites represent a relevant industrial economic sector due to the large quantity of pieces and components processed. The material selection for mould manufacturing, its composition and heat treatment, the hardening procedures and machining and finishing processes determine the service performance and life of the mould. In the first part of the present study, the relationship between the hardness and microstructure and the wear resistance of mould steels from large blocks has been studied by pin-on-disc tests, studying the main wear mechanisms. In order to determine the surface damage on mould steels under real injection conditions, different commercial steels have been studied by measuring the variation of surface roughness with the number of injected pieces with different reinforcement percentages and different mould geometries, by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was important to determine the variation of surface roughness of the moulded pieces with the number of injection operations. The materials used were polybutyleneterephthalate pure and reinforced with either 20% or 50% glass fibre. For the different mould designs, the evolution of the glass fibre orientation with injection flow has been determined by image analysis and related to roughness changes and surface damage, both of the composite parts and of the mould steel surface. Finally, the abrasion resistance of the composite parts has been studied by scratch tests as a function of the number of injected parts and of the scratch direction with respect to injection flow and glass fibre orientation. Los materiales para moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos representan un sector economicamente muy relevante debido al gran aumento del numero de componentes fabricados a partir de materiales polimericos obtenidos mediante moldeo por inyeccion. La seleccion del material para la

  15. Adult Student Retention and Achievement with Language-Based Modular Materials. POR FIN: Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bexar County School Board, San Antonio, TX.

    The goal of the POR FIN research design was to develop a language-based curriculum emphasizing the audiolingual approach and integrating academic and social-functioning subject matter. The modular curriculum is designed so that each lesson is independent and complete in itself, and provides a high degree of motivation, retention, and achievement…

  16. P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C–H functionalization of biaryl derivatives to synthesize chiral phosphorous ligands

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rong-Bin; Wang, Hong-Li; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Heng; Ma, Yan-Na

    2014-01-01

    Summary Chiral phosphorus ligands have been widely used in transition metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions. Herein, we report a new synthesis approach of chiral biaryls containing a phosphorus moiety using P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C–H activation; the functionalized products are produced with good enantioselectivity. PMID:25246966

  17. El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

    "El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the attitudes…

  18. Informe a la nación indica que los índices de muertes por cáncer siguen bajando

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices de mortalidad por todos los cánceres combinados para hombres, mujeres y niños siguieron bajando en Estados Unidos entre 2004 y 2008, según el Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer de 1975 a 2008. El índice general de diagnóstico

  19. Community-based education in nutrition and cancer: the Por La Vida Cuidándome curriculum.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Rock, C L; McNicholas, L J; Senn, K L; Moreno, C

    2000-01-01

    The Por La Vida (PLV) intervention model relies on community lay health advisors trained to conduct education sessions among members of their existing social networks. PLV Cuidándome was funded by the NCI to develop, implement, and evaluate the PLV model with respect to nutrition and cancer prevention, as well as early detection of breast and cervical cancers. The target population is the Latino community, for which substantial barriers to health care access exist. This article presents the curriculum that guides the sessions and describes its development, which was based on semi-structured interviews with Latina lay-health community workers to explore relevant attitudes and behaviors. Also key to the process was the work of the educational materials committee, whose members offered community representation as well as expertise in nutritional sciences, educational technologies, and community-based health promotion interventions and research. The 12-session curriculum's goal was to increase both the variety and the quality of fruits and/or vegetables consumed. It included information about consumption of fiber and fat in the importance of balance between energy intake and physical activity. The program has been well received. An ongoing study examines how it enhances nutrition and cancer prevention. PMID:11019766

  20. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Docking of Certain Sulfones as Potential Nonazole Antifungal Agents.

    PubMed

    Fares, Mohamed; Said, Mohamed A; Alsherbiny, Muhammad A; Eladwy, Radwa A; Almahli, Hadia; Abdel-Aziz, Marwa M; Ghabbour, Hazem A; Eldehna, Wagdy M; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A

    2016-01-01

    We reported herein the synthesis, antifungal activity, docking and in silico ADME prediction studies of four novel series of sulfones 6a-f, 8a-c, 10a-f and 12a-c. All the newly synthesized sulfones were tested against four strains of Candida (including fluconazole-resistant Candida), two strains of Aspergillus, two dermatophytic fungi (Trichophytons mentagrophyte and Microsporum canis) and Syncephalastrum sp. with fluconazole as a reference drug. In general, compounds 8a and 10b showed selective and potent anticandidal activity (MIC: 0.19-0.81 µM) relative to fluconazole (MIC = 1.00 µM). Furthermore, 10e and 12a elicited a remarkable and selective antifungal activity against Aspergillus sp. and the dermatophytic fungi (MIC: 0.16-0.79 µM) relative to fluconazole (MIC: 2-2.6 µM). Moreover, the docking results of the sulfones 6a, 8a, 10a and 10b at the active site of CYT P450 14α-sterol demethylase showed a comparable binding interaction (interaction Energy = -34.87 to -42.43 kcal/mol) with that of fluconazole (IE = -40.37 kcal/mol). PMID:26805791

  1. Therapeutic switching: from antidermatophytic essential oils to new leishmanicidal products

    PubMed Central

    Houël, Emeline; Gonzalez, German; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Odonne, Guillaume; Eparvier, Véronique; Deharo, Eric; Stien, Didier

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether the antidermatophytic activity of essential oils (EOs) can be used as an indicator for the discovery of active natural products against Leishmania amazonensis. The aerial parts of seven plants were hydrodistilled. Using broth microdilution techniques, the obtained EOs were tested against three strains of dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis). To compare the EOs antifungal and antiparasitic effects, the EOs activities against axenic amastigotes of L. amazonensis were concurrently evaluated. For the most promising EOs, their antileishmanial activities against parasites infecting peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice were measured. The most interesting antifungal candidates were the EOs from Cymbopogon citratus, Otacanthus azureus and Protium heptaphyllum, whereas O. azureus, Piper hispidum and P. heptaphyllum EOs exhibited the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against axenic amastigotes, thus revealing a certain correspondence between both activities. The P. hispidum EO was identified as the most promising product in the results from the infected macrophages model (IC50: 4.7 µg/mL, safety index: 8). The most abundant compounds found in this EO were sesquiterpenes, notably curzerene and furanodiene. Eventually, the evaluation of the antidermatophytic activity of EOs appears to be an efficient method for identifying new potential drugs for the treatment of L. amazonensis. PMID:25742270

  2. Antiinflammatory, Diuretic and Antimicrobial Activities of Rungia pectinata Linn. and Rungia repens Nees

    PubMed Central

    Swain, S. R.; Sinha, B. N.; Murthy, P. N.

    2008-01-01

    The hydroalcoholic extracts prepared from leaves of Rungia pectinata and Rungia repens were investigated for antiinflammatory and diuretic activity in wistar rats. The results obtained were compared with that of standard drug aspirin and frusemide for their antiinflammatory and diuretic activity respectively. The acute toxicity study was also carried out using adult swiss albino mice of either sex which indicates the safety of the extracts even at a dose of 4000 mg/kg. R. pectinata showed better anti-inflammatory activity than R. repens. In the present study, it was demonstrated that hydroalcoholic extracts of both R. repens and R. pectinata produce diuretic effect by increasing the excretion of Na+, K+ and Cl−. Results showed that R. repens is most effective in increasing urinary electrolyte concentration of Na+ and K+ ions. The antimicrobial potency of the aerial parts of Rungia pectinata and Rungia repens have been studied using the petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, acetone and ethanol extract against a wide number of bacteria and fungi by disc diffusion method. The ethanol extract at a concentration of 30 to 60 μg/disc showed significant activity against the bacteria and fungus investigated. All the extracts of R. pectinata and R. repens have got moderate action but chloroform and acetone extracts of R. repens and ethanol extract of R. pectinata have got significant activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. PMID:21394276

  3. Equine Dermatophytosis: A Survey of Its Occurrence and Species Distribution among Horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kazeem, Haruna M.; Kwanashie, Clara N.; Mshelia, Wayuta P.; Edeh, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the occurrence and species distribution of dermatophyte from cutaneous skin lesions of horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 102 skin scrapings were collected from 102 horses with skin lesions. Mycological studies were carried out using conventional techniques. Dermatophytes were isolated from 18 (17.6%) of the 102 samples collected. The 18 dermatophytes were distributed into 10 different species belonging to Microsporum (n = 5) and Trichophyton (n = 5) genera. T. verrucosum (n = 4) was the most predominant species isolated followed by M. equinum (n = 3), T. vanbreuseghemii (n = 2), M. gypseum (n = 2), and M. canis (n = 2). Others include M. fulvum (n = 2), T. mentagrophytes (n = 1), T. equinum (n = 1), T. soudanense (n = 1), and M. gallinae (n = 1). The present study reveals the occurrence of dermatophytes in cutaneous skin lesions of horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria. In addition for the first time in this environment the anthropophilic dermatophyte T. soudanense was isolated from horses. These findings have great economic, veterinary, and public health significance as they relate to the cost of treatment and dissemination of zoonotic dermatophytes. PMID:27340592

  4. A homozygous CARD9 mutation in a Brazilian patient with deep dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Grumach, Anete S; de Queiroz-Telles, Flavio; Migaud, Mélanie; Lanternier, Fanny; Filho, Nelson Rosario; Palma, Sandra M U; Constantino-Silva, Rosemeire Navickas; Casanova, Jean Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2015-07-01

    Deep dermatophytosis has been described in HIV and immunosuppressed patients. Recently, CARD9 (caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9) deficiency has been reported in individuals with deep dermatophytosis previously classified as "immunocompetent". We report a 24-year-old Brazilian male patient with deep dermatophytosis born to an apparently non-consanguineous family. The symptoms started with oral candidiasis when he was 3 years old, persistent although treated. At 11 years old, well delimited, desquamative and pruriginous skin lesions appeared in the mandibular area; ketoconazole and itraconazole were introduced and maintained for 5 years. At 12 years of age, the lesions, which initially affected the face, started to spread to thoracic and back of the body (15 cm of diameter) and became ulcerative, secretive and painful. Terbinafine was introduced without any improvement. Trichophyton mentagrophytes was isolated from the skin lesions. A novel homozygous mutation in CARD9 (R101L) was identified in the patient, resulting in impaired neutrophil fungal killing. Both parents, one brother (with persistent superficial but not deep dermatophytosis) and one sister were heterozygous for this mutation, while another brother was found to be homozygous for the CARD9 wild-type allele. This is the first report of CARD9 deficiency in Latin America. PMID:26044242

  5. Gunacin, a new quinone antibiotic from Ustilago sp.

    PubMed

    Werner, R G; Appel, K R; Merk, W M

    1979-11-01

    In a screening program for antibiotics which were antagonized by cysteine, a strain, which was characterized as Ustilago sp., was found to produce a new quinone antibiotic, gunacin. The molecular weight M+ = 348.084 determined by mass spectroscopy, corresponds to a molecular formula of C17H16O8. Further spectroscopic data prove that gunacin is a new antibiotic. The antibiotic possesses a good inhibitory effect against mycoplasmas and Gram-positive bacteria including multi-resistant strains. It also possesses a weak activity against Gram-negative bacteria with the exception of Proteus vulgaris, which is more strongly inhibited. The main activity against fungi is found against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Gunacin shows an inhibition of the DNA synthesis in vivo, is antagonized by mercapto compounds and possesses an acute toxicity of LD50 = 16 mg/kg i.p. and LD50 = 12 mg/kg i.v. in mice. Against HeLa-cell the antibiotic shows an ED50 = 12.11 microgram/ml. Thirty five microgram/ml of gunacin induces 1,063 interferon units. PMID:528380

  6. Therapeutic switching: from antidermatophytic essential oils to new leishmanicidal products.

    PubMed

    Houël, Emeline; Gonzalez, German; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Odonne, Guillaume; Eparvier, Véronique; Deharo, Eric; Stien, Didier

    2015-02-01

    This study examined whether the antidermatophytic activity of essential oils (EOs) can be used as an indicator for the discovery of active natural products against Leishmania amazonensis. The aerial parts of seven plants were hydrodistilled. Using broth microdilution techniques, the obtained EOs were tested against three strains of dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis). To compare the EOs antifungal and antiparasitic effects, the EOs activities against axenic amastigotes of L. amazonensis were concurrently evaluated. For the most promising EOs, their antileishmanial activities against parasites infecting peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice were measured. The most interesting antifungal candidates were the EOs from Cymbopogon citratus, Otacanthus azureus and Protium heptaphyllum, whereas O. azureus, Piper hispidum and P. heptaphyllum EOs exhibited the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against axenic amastigotes, thus revealing a certain correspondence between both activities. The P. hispidum EO was identified as the most promising product in the results from the infected macrophages model (IC50: 4.7 µg/mL, safety index: 8). The most abundant compounds found in this EO were sesquiterpenes, notably curzerene and furanodiene. Eventually, the evaluation of the antidermatophytic activity of EOs appears to be an efficient method for identifying new potential drugs for the treatment of L. amazonensis. PMID:25742270

  7. Antidermatophytic activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia.

    PubMed

    Endo, E H; Costa, G M; Nakamura, T U; Nakamura, C V; Dias Filho, B P

    2015-12-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia are used in folk medicine for the treatment of disease, including infectious diseases and skin disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from R. officinalis and T. riparia against strains of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum. Hydroalcoholic extracts prepared with dried leaves from R. officinalis, Psidium guajava and T. riparia were assayed against dermatophyte species by the microdilution technique and by microscopy. R. officinalis and T. riparia were the most active against dermatophytes, as determined from the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and were investigated further. Fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate inhibition of hyphal growth by the two extracts, and showed a strong inhibition and an irregular growth pattern. Both extracts showed good action against dermatophytes, inhibiting fungal growth and causing alterations in their hyphae. Therefore, R. officinalis and T. riparia are potential sources of new compounds for the development of antifungal drugs. PMID:26603099

  8. The Dog Mite, Demodex canis: Prevalence, Fungal Co-Infection, Reactions to Light, and Hair Follicle Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p < 0.05). Most of the lesions were discovered on the backs of the infected animals, where the infection rate was 52.1% (38/73) (P < 0.05). The epidemiologic analysis of infection based on landscape area factor, found that employing a map-overlapping method showed a higher infection rate in the eastern distribution of Taiwan's northern area than other areas. Isolation tests for Microsporum canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3. PMID:21867442

  9. Spectral Studies and Bactericidal, Fungicidal, Insecticidal and Parasitological Activities of Organotin(IV) Complexes of Thio Schiff Bases Having no Donor Atoms

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Savita

    1995-01-01

    Twelve new organotin(IV) complexes of the type RnSnLm [where n = 3, m = 1, R = CH3 or C6H5; n = 2, m = 2, R = C6H5 or C4H9 ; L = anion of Schiff bases derived from the condensation of 2-amino-5-(o-anisyl)-l,3,4-thiadiazole with salicylaldehyde (HL-1), 2- hydroxynaphthaldehyde (HL-2) and 2-hydroxyacetophenone (HL-3)] have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductances, electronic, infrared, far-infrared, 1H NMR and 119Sn Mössbauer spectral studies. Thermal studies of two complexes, viz., Ph3Sn (L-1) and Ph2Sn(L-2)2 have been carried out in the temperature range 25-1000∘C using TG, DTG and DTA techniques. All these complexes decompose gradually with the formation of SnO2 as an end product. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the Schiff bases and their complexes has also been determined against Streptococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus Penicillin resistance (2500 units), Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Sporotrichum schenckii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Aspergillus fumigatus. The Schiff bases (HL-1), (HL-2) and the organotin(IV) compounds have also been tested against various important herbicidal, fungicidal, insecticidal species and also for parasitological activity against freeliving nematode. PMID:18472781

  10. Cutaneous bacterial species from Lithobates catesbeianus can inhibit pathogenic dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Antje; Hernandez, Trang

    2015-04-01

    Antibiotics are being successfully used to fight many infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. However, new infectious diseases are continuously being identified, and some known pathogens are becoming resistant against known antibiotics. Furthermore, many antifungals are causing serious side effects in long-term treatments of patients, and many skin infections caused by dermatophytes are difficult to cure. The beneficial roles of resident cutaneous microbiota to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms have been shown for many vertebrate species. Microbial symbionts on the amphibian skin for example can be a source of powerful antimicrobial metabolites that can protect amphibians against diseases, such as chytridiomycosis, caused by a fungal pathogen. In this research, we investigated whether cutaneous bacterial species isolated from Lithobates catesbeianus (North American bullfrog), an invasive amphibian species that is resistant to chytridiomycosis, produce secondary metabolites that can be used to inhibit the growth of three species of dermatophytes (Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes) which are known to cause topical or subdermal skin infections in humans. Strongly anti-dermatophyte bacterial species that belonged to the Bacillaceae, Streptomycetaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Xanthomonadaceae, Aeromonadaceae, and Enterobacteriaceae were identified. This research has provided evidence of the presence of cutaneous anti-dermatophyte bacteria from L. catesbeianus which might provide a basis for health care providers to experiment with new antifungals in the future. PMID:25431089

  11. Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi in indoor dust of houses and hospitals.

    PubMed

    Singh, I; Mishra, A; Kushwaha, Rks

    2009-01-01

    Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi were isolated from indoor dust samples of 46 hospitals and 47 houses in Kanpur. A total of 19 fungi represented by 11 genera were isolated by the hair-baiting technique from 230 and 235 samples from hospitals and houses respectively. The isolated fungi are Acremonium implicatum (Indian Type Culture Collection) ITCC 5266, A. strictum (Germplasm Centre for Keratinophilic Fungi) GPCK 1137, Aphanoascus fulvescens GPCK 1081, Arthroderma simii GPCK 1275, Chrysosporium queenslandicum ITCC 5270, C. indicum ITCC 5269, C. pannicola GPCK 1022, C. tropicum GPCK 1269, Ctenomyces serratus ITCC 5267, Gymnoascus reessii ITCC 5265, Malbranchea fulva GPCK 1075, Malbranchea pulchella ITCC 5268, Micosporum gypseum GPCK 1038 , Microsporum cookei GPCK 2001, M. fulvum GPCK 2002, Paecilomyces lilacinum GPCK 1080, Penicillium expansum GPCK 1082, Trichophyton mentagrophytes GPCK 2003 and T. terrestre GPCK 2004. In hospitals, the minimum frequency was of Ctenomyces serratus ITCC 5267 while the maximum frequency was of Arthroderma simii GPCK 1275. In houses, Chrysosporium queenslandicum ITCC 5270 and C. tropicum GPCK 1269 were with minimum and maximum frequencies respectively. This makes the first report of these fungi with keratinolytic ability in the indoor dust of hospitals and houses. PMID:19584506

  12. Biological activities of selected basidiomycetes from Yemen.

    PubMed

    Al-Fatimi, M; Schröder, G; Kreisel, H; Lindequist, U

    2013-03-01

    In a previous paper we demonstrated the results of biological screening of Yemeni basidiomycetes. The present study was aimed to investigate the antimicrobial and the antioxidant activity of further basidiomycetes collected in Yemen. Dichloromethane, methanol and aqueous extracts of the fruiting bodies of 25 species were screened in vitro for their antibacterial activities against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphyloccocus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus flavus) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), against six human fungal pathogens (Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Aspergillus fumigatus, Mucor sp., Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and against one non human pathogenic fungus (Candida maltosa). The results indicated that 75 extracts exhibited activity against one or more of the bacteria. The methanol extracts of Agaricus cf. bernardii, Agrocybe pediades, Chlorophyllum molybdites, Coriolopsis polyzona, Ganoderma xylonoides, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Trametes lactinea and Trametes cingulata showed activity against all tested bacteria. The highest antibacterial activity was exhibited by methanol extracts from Chlorophyllum molybdites, Ganoderma xylonoides and Trametes cingulata and Agaricus cf. bernardii, Agrocybe pediades, Coriolopsis polyzona, Pycnoporus sanguineus and Trametes lactinea. The methanol extracts of Chlorophyllum molybdites, Ganoderma xylonoides and Pycnoporus sanguineus showed considerable antifungal activities against the tested fungal strains. Strong antioxidative effects employing the DPPH assay were exhibited by methanol extracts from Chlorophyllum molybdites, Ganoderma xylonoides, Hexagonia velutina, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Trametes lactinea and Trametes cingulata. Our previous and presented studies about 48 basidiomycetes collected in Yemen provide evidence that basidiomycetes from the Arabic region so far should attract more attention as potential source for new biologically active

  13. In Vitro Activity of Twenty Commercially Available, Plant-Derived Essential Oils against Selected Dermatophyte Species.

    PubMed

    Nardoni, Simona; Giovanelli, Silvia; Pistelli, Luisa; Mugnaini, Linda; Profili, Greta; Pisseri, Francesca; Mancianti, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    The in vitro activity of twenty chemically defined essential oils (EOs) obtained from Boswellia sacra, Citrus bergamia, C. limon, C. medica, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Eucalyptus globulus, Foeniculum vulgare, Helichrysum italicum, Illicium verum, Litsea cubeba, Mentha spicata, Myrtus communis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, O. vulgare, Pelargonium graveolens, Rosmarinus officinalis, Santalum album, Satureja montana, and Thymus serpyllum was assayed against clinical animal isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. erinacei, T. terrestre and Microsporum gypseum, main causative agents of zoonotic and/or environmental dermatophytoses in humans. Single main components present in high amounts in such EOs were also tested. Different dermatophyte species showed remarkable differences in sensitivity. In general, more effective EOs were T. serpyllum (MIC range 0.025%-0.25%), O. vulgare (MIC range 0.025%-0.5%) and L. cubeba (MIC range 0.025%-1.5%). F. vulgare showed a moderate efficacy against geophilic species such as M gypseum and T terrestre. Among single main components tested, neral was the most active (MIC and MFC values 5 0.25%). The results of the present study seem to be promising for an in vivo use of some assayed EOs. PMID:26434145

  14. Preparation, characterization and antimicrobial applications of Zn-Fe LDH against MRSA.

    PubMed

    Moaty, S A Abdel; Farghali, A A; Khaled, Rehab

    2016-11-01

    Facile and simple processes to get Zn-Fe layered double hydroxide (LDH) with nitrate as the interlayer anion are reported. The method of co-precipitation produced high crystallinity LDH that is marked by XRD, SEM, TEM and FT-IR. Results showed that 99.8% of Cd(+2) removals were at pH11 and 4h. To get the adsorption isotherms, the concentration of metal ions extending from 6 to 18mg/L was utilized. Results supported the Langmuir adsorption model. In contrary, the adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics. Interestingly, the prepared LDH shows durable antimicrobial activities against Gram-negative (Proteous vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and MRSA) and fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Geotricumcandidum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Zn-Fe LDH varied from 0.49 to 15.60μg/mL according to the types of microorganisms. The prepared LDH achieved 90% at pH8.50 which is the pH of wastewater and at the same time exhibited durable antimicrobial activities against MRSA, Gram-negative, Gram-positive and fungi. Results have significant implications in the field of bioremediation of water with little cost, simple operation, high productivity and easiness of the equipment. PMID:27524011

  15. Ethnoveterinary study for antidermatophytic activity of Piper betle, Alpinia galanga and Allium ascalonicum extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Trakranrungsie, N; Chatchawanchonteera, A; Khunkitti, W

    2008-02-01

    Crude ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves (Piperaceae), Alpinia galanga rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) and Allium ascalonicum bulbs (Liliaceae) were tested against selected zoonotic dermatophytes (Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophyte) and the yeast-like Candida albicans. A broth dilution method was employed to determine the inhibitory effect of the extracts and compared to those of ketoconazole and griseofulvin. All extracts suppressed the growth of the fungi in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the extracts tested, P. betle exhibited more effective antifungal properties with average IC(50) values ranging from 110.44 to 119.00 microg/ml. Subsequently, 10% Piper betle (Pb) cream was formulated, subjected to physical and microbial limit test and evaluated for antifungal effect. The disc diffusion assay revealed comparable zones of inhibition between discs of Pb cream containing 80 microg P. betle extract and 80 microg ketoconazole against tested fungi at 96 h after incubation. Thereafter, the inhibitory effect of Pb cream markedly decreased and completely lost effectiveness by day 7. In summary, the results supported the traditional wisdom of herbal remedy use and suggested a potential value-addition to agricultural products. It was suggested that the Pb cream has potential therapeutic value for treatment of dermatophytosis. However, clinical testing as well as improving the Pb cream formulation with greater efficacy and duration of action would be of interest and awaits further investigation. PMID:17482221

  16. Topical Treatment of Dermatophytic Lesion on Mice (Mus musculus) Model.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bindu; Kumar, Padma; Joshi, Suresh Chandra

    2011-06-01

    Antidermatophytic potential of three weed plants viz. Tridax procumbens L., Capparis decidua (forsk) Edgew and Lantana camara L. were explored and experimentally induced dermatophytic lesion was topically treated in mice. Microbroth dilution method was carried out for determination of MIC and MFC of different extracts of selected plants. In animal studies, mice were experimentally inoculated with Trichophyton mentagrophytes and infected animals were topically treated with 5 mg/g terbinafine and two concentrations, i.e., 5 and 10 mg/g of test extract ointment. Complete recovery from the infection was observed on 12th day of treatment for reference drug terbinafine (5 mg/g) and 10 mg/g concentration of test extract ointment whereas 5 mg/g concentration of test extract ointment showed complete cure on 16th day of treatment. Fungal burden was also calculated by culturing skin scrapings from infected animals of different groups. Test extract ointment successfully treated induced dermatophytosis in mice without any disease recurrence incidences, thereby indicating efficacy of test extract as an excellent topical antifungal agent for the cure of dermatophytosis. PMID:22654168

  17. Sphingosines: antimicrobial barriers of the skin.

    PubMed

    Bibel, D J; Aly, R; Shah, S; Shinefield, H R

    1993-12-01

    Among the factors that control the survival of microorganisms on human stratum corneum are skin lipids, including sphingosines. Because the antibacterial spectrum of sphinganine resembles that of cell wall antibiotics, electron microscopy of sphinganine-treated and untreated S. aureus was performed; the lipid induced multiple lesions of cell wall, membrane evaginations and loss of ribosomes. However, comparisons of minimal inhibitory concentration of sphinganine for coccal forms and L-forms of S. aureus, which lack cell walls, and of the respective dose-related reductions in colony-forming units demonstrated both the susceptibility of L-forms and their superior resistance. Therefore, cell wall lesions are sequelae of a probable membrane reaction. Candida albicans was susceptible to sphinganine, sphingosine, dimethylsphingosine, and to a lesser degree, stearylamine. Liquid assays of these lipids against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans and Epidermatophyton floccosum established their high susceptibility to sphingosine and stearylamine. Sphinganine was the least effective, perhaps due to the presence of L isomers; T. tonsurans was the most sensitive. These four lipids were found to be fungistatic, preventing germination and retarding thalli. Antifungal efficacy was confirmed in vitro on stratum corneum. PMID:7906449

  18. Epidermal cell proliferation in guinea pigs with experimental dermatophytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tagami, H.

    1985-08-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the self-healing process of experimental dermatophytosis produced in guinea pigs by an occlusive method with Trichophyton mentagrophytes, epidermal proliferative activity was evaluated by the in vivo tritiated thymidine-labeling technique performed at various intervals after the first and second infections. Determination of labeling indices disclosed that an increased epidermal proliferation correlated well with the severity of inflammatory changes, i.e., a peak activity was noted after 10 days in primary infection and at 2 days in reinfection, respectively, and was followed by subsequent spontaneous lesion clearance after 10 days. Application of a heat-killed spore suspension produced inflammatory changes with enhanced epidermopoiesis, similar to those induced by reinoculation of living spores, only in immune animals. The present results indicate that the dermatitic changes occurring in experimental dermatophytosis increase epidermopoiesis which facilitates elimination of the fungus from the stratum corneum and that host immune activity, particularly contact sensitivity to fungal antigen, exerts a crucial role to induce these changes.

  19. Prenylated benzophenones from Triadenum japonicum.

    PubMed

    Oya, Atsushi; Tanaka, Naonobu; Kusama, Taishi; Kim, Sang-Yong; Hayashi, Shigeki; Kojoma, Mareshige; Hishida, Atsuyuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Sakai, Kanae; Gonoi, Tohru; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

    2015-02-27

    Six new prenylated benzophenones, (-)-nemorosonol (1) and trijapins A-E (2-6), were isolated from the aerial parts of Triadenum japonicum. (-)-Nemorosonol (1) and trijapins A-C (2-4) have a common tricyclo[4.3.1.0(3,7)]decane skeleton, while 1 is an enantiomer of (+)-nemorosonol previously isolated from Clusia nemorosa. The absolute configuration of (-)-nemorosonol (1) was assigned by ECD spectroscopy. Trijapins A-C (2-4) are analogues of 1 possessing an additional tetrahydrofuran ring. Trijapins D (5) and E (6) are prenylated benzophenones with a 1,2-dioxane moiety and a hydroperoxy group, respectively. (-)-Nemorosonol (1) exhibited antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (MIC, 8 μg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC, 16 μg/mL), Bacillus subtilis (MIC, 16 μg/mL), Micrococcus luteus (MIC, 32 μg/mL), Aspergillus niger (IC50, 16 μg/mL), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (IC50, 8 μg/mL), and Candida albicans (IC50, 32 μg/mL), while trijapin D (5) showed antimicrobial activity against C. albicans (IC50, 8 μg/mL). PMID:25602977

  20. Genetic and Phenotypic analyses of Calcineurin A subunit in Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii.

    PubMed

    Alshahni, Mohamed Mahdi; Shimizu, Kiminori; Yoshimoto, Maki; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Arai, Toshiro; Makimura, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Calcineurin is a serine/threonine protein phosphatase that consists of catalytic (calcineurin A) and regulatory (calcineurin B) subunits. The conserved protein plays important roles in various biological processes. Drug combination of fluconazole and the calcineurin inhibitor (FK506) showed synergistic effects against dermatophytes. In the current study, we identified the calcineurin A homologous gene (TmcanA) in the dermatophyte Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii (anamorph: Trichophyton mentagrophytes). Knockdown mutants were produced from A. vanbreuseghemii, resulting in a defection in growth properties in accordance with dose of the suppressing reagent. The TmcanA gene restored the ability of calcineurin A-deficient Cryptococcus neoformans strain to grow at elevated temperatures. Repression of TmcanA at 37°C resulted in severely stunted growth, suggesting that this protein plays a role in tolerance to elevated temperatures. In addition, TMCANA showed an interaction with high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signalling pathway by governing the secretion of a secondary metabolite. Moreover, expression of the hydrophobin A gene (TmHF) decreased significantly under the TmcanA-repressive condition, suggesting that TMCANA is involved in its regulation. In conclusion, calcineurin A is a multifunctional gene that is involved in the regulation of several biological processes and therefore is worth being considered as a drug target for treatment of dermatophytoses. PMID:26483437

  1. Synthesis, molecular docking and evaluation of antifungal activity of Ni(II),Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes of porphyrin core macromolecular ligand.

    PubMed

    Singh, Urvashi; Malla, Ali Mohammad; Bhat, Imtiyaz Ahmad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Bukhari, Mohd Nadeem; Bhat, Sneha; Anayutullah, Syed; Hashmi, Athar Adil

    2016-04-01

    Porphyrin core dendrimeric ligand (L) was synthesized by Rothemund synthetic route in which p-hydroxy benzaldehyde and pyrrole were fused together. The prepared ligand was complexed with Ni(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) ions, separately. Both the ligand and its complexes were characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic studies (FT-IR, UV-Vis, (1)HNMR). Square planar geometries were proposed for Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) ions in cobalt, Nickel and copper complexes, respectively on the basis of UV-Vis spectroscopic data. The ligand and its complex were screened on Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), Aspergillus fumigatus (ATCC 1022), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (ATCC 9533) and Pencillium marneffei by determining MICs and inhibition zones. The activity of the ligand and its complexes was found to be in the order: CuL ˃ CoL ≈ NiL ˃ L. Detection of DNA damage at the level of the individual eukaryotic cell was observed by commet assay. Molecular docking technique was used to understand the ligand-DNA interactions. From docking experiment, we conclude that copper complex interacts more strongly than rest two. PMID:26911647

  2. Transcriptomics Analysis of Candida albicans Treated with Huanglian Jiedu Decoction Using RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qianqian; Gao, Lei; Tao, Maocan; Chen, Zhe; Yang, Xiaohong; Cao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is the major invasive fungal pathogen of humans, causing diseases ranging from superficial mucosal infections to disseminated, systemic infections that are often life-threatening. Resistance of C. albicans to antifungal agents and limited antifungal agents has potentially serious implications for management of infections. As a famous multiherb prescription in China, Huanglian Jiedu Decoction (HLJJD, Orengedokuto in Japan) is efficient against Trichophyton mentagrophytes and C. albicans. But the antifungal mechanism of HLJDD remains unclear. In this study, by using RNA-seq technique, we performed a transcriptomics analysis of gene expression changes for C. albicans under the treatment of HLJDD. A total of 6057 predicted protein-encoding genes were identified. By gene expression analysis, we obtained a total of 735 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 700 upregulated genes and 35 downregulated genes. Genes encoding multidrug transporters such as ABC transporter and MFS transporter were identified to be significantly upregulated. Meanwhile, by pathway enrichment analysis, we identified 26 significant pathways, in which pathways of DNA replication and transporter activity were mainly involved. These results might provide insights for the inhibition mechanism of HLJDD against C. albicans. PMID:27143984

  3. An outbreak of Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii dermatophytosis at a veterinary school associated with an infected horse.

    PubMed

    Chollet, Annemay; Wespi, Bettina; Roosje, Petra; Unger, Lucia; Venner, Monica; Goepfert, Christine; Monod, Michel

    2015-04-01

    We report a case of an outbreak of inflammatory dermatophytoses caused by Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii (formally Trichophyton mentagrophytes pro parte) that involved an infected horse, the owner and at least 20 students, staff and stablemen at a veterinary school in Bern (Switzerland) that presented highly inflammatory dermatitis of the body and the face. Transmission from human to human was also recorded as one patient was the partner of an infected person. Both the phenotypic characteristics and ITS sequence of the dermatophytes isolated from the horse and patients were identical, consistent with the conclusion that the fungus originated from the horse. Three infected persons had not been in direct contact with the horse. Although direct transmission from human to human cannot be ruled out, fomites were most likely the source of infection for these three patients. Inspection of the literature at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century revealed that this dermatophyte was frequently transmitted from horses to humans in contact with horses (stablemen, coachmen, carters and artillery soldiers). The rarity of the present case report at the present time is likely related to the transformation of civilisation from the nineteenth century to nowadays in Europe with the change of horse husbandry. In addition, the inadequate immune response of the horse and the high number of people in contact with it at the equine clinic may explain the exceptional aspect of this case report. PMID:25676308

  4. Identification of Dermatophilus congolensis from lower leg dermatitis of cattle in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Tresamol, P V; Saseendranath, M R; Subramanian, H; Pillai, U N; Mini, M; Ajithkumar, S

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify the aetiological agents associated with a particular type of lower leg dermatitis, locally called pododermatitis, among dairy cattle in Kerala. Skin scabs and scrapings were collected aseptically from 82 naturally occurring cases of lower leg dermatitis in cattle and were subjected to direct microscopical examination and bacterial and fungal culture. Microscopical examination of the skin scrapings with 10% potassium hydroxide revealed fungal spores in hair shafts from only two samples and did not reveal the presence of mites or other parasites. Fungal culture yielded dermatophytes from only five samples; these were identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes in two cases, T verrucosum in one case, Epidermophyton floccosum in one case and Microsporum nanum in one case. Microscopical examination of Giemsa- and Gram-stained smears of the scab material from the lesions from 72 cases revealed characteristic Gram-positive septate branching filaments with multiple rows of spherical to ovoid cocci, with a typical 'tram-track' appearance suggestive of Dermatophilus congolensis. Culture of the scab materials on sheep blood agar in the presence of 10% carbon dioxide yielded typical beta haemolytic colonies of D. congolensis from 75 samples. The isolates were further confirmed by the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the colonies, and biochemical test results. This study confirmed the presence of dermatophilosis caused by D. congolensis in cattle in Kerala. PMID:27044156

  5. Salicylanilide N-monosubstituted carbamates: Synthesis and in vitro antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Krátký, Martin; Vinšová, Jarmila

    2016-03-15

    The research of innovative antimicrobial agents represents a cutting edge topic. Hence, we synthesized and characterised novel salicylanilide N-monosubstituted carbamates. Twenty compounds were evaluated in vitro against eight bacterial strains and eight fungal species. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were found to be ⩽0.49μM. Genus Staphylococcus, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and fungus Trichophyton mentagrophytes showed uniformly the highest rate of susceptibility, whilst Gram-negative bacteria and most of the fungi were less susceptible. A wide range of carbamates provided comparable or superior in vitro antimicrobial activity in comparison to established drugs. Interestingly, extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae was inhibited with MICs starting from 31.25μM. With respect to Staphylococci, 2-[(4-bromophenyl)carbamoyl]-4-chlorophenyl phenylcarbamate exhibited the lowest MIC values (⩽0.98μM). 2-[(4-Bromophenyl)carbamoyl]-4-chlorophenyl benzylcarbamate showed the widest spectrum of antifungal action. The results indicate that some salicylanilide carbamates can be considered to be promising candidates for future investigation. PMID:26879856

  6. Activity of TDT 067 (Terbinafine in Transfersome) against Agents of Onychomycosis, as Determined by Minimum Inhibitory and Fungicidal Concentrations▿

    PubMed Central

    Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Isham, Nancy; Herbert, Jacqueline; Henry, William; Yurdakul, Sam

    2011-01-01

    TDT 067 is a novel carrier-based dosage form (liquid spray) of 15 mg/ml of terbinafine in Transfersome that has been developed to deliver terbinafine to the nail bed to treat onychomycosis. In this study, we report the in vitro activities of TDT 067 against dermatophytes, compared with those of the Transfersome vehicle, naked terbinafine, and commercially available terbinafine (1%) spray. The MICs of TDT 067 and comparators against 25 clinical strains each of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum were determined according to the CLSI M38–A2 susceptibility method (2008). Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) were determined by subculturing visibly clear wells from the MIC microtiter plates. TDT 067 demonstrated potent activity against the dermatophyte strains tested, with an MIC range of 0.00003 to 0.015 μg/ml. Overall, TDT 067 MIC50 values (defined as the lowest concentrations to inhibit 50% of the strains tested) were 8-fold and 60-fold lower than those of naked terbinafine and terbinafine spray, respectively. The Transfersome vehicle showed minimal inhibitory activity. TDT 067 demonstrated lower MFC values for T. rubrum and E. floccosum than naked terbinafine and terbinafine spray. TDT 067 has more potent antifungal activity against dermatophytes that cause nail infection than conventional terbinafine preparations. The Transfersome vehicle appears to potentiate the antifungal activity of terbinafine. Clinical investigation of TDT 067 for the topical treatment of onychomycosis is warranted. PMID:21411586

  7. [A study on effectiveness of treatment and prevention of relapse using topical administration of terbinafine in a guinea pig model for tinea pedis].

    PubMed

    Uchida, K; Kudoh, M; Yamaguchi, H

    1994-10-01

    The effectiveness of topical terbinafine (TBF) to tinea pedis was evaluated an animal model in which guinea pigs were experimentally infected through their planta pedis with Trichophyton mentagrophytes, then a 1% TBF or butenafine (BTF) cream was administered topically once daily for 4 consecutive weeks. The therapeutic efficacy was assessed on the basis of recovery of fungal cultures from the planta pedis. The cured guinea pigs were reared in a clean environment that protected the animals from reinfection. The dermal tissues were cultured 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-treatment to examine for relapse of tinea. Complete cure was achieved after 4 weeks of administration of TBF or BTF cream. In animals receiving 4 weeks of treatment with TBF, relapse was not observed up to 8 weeks after the termination of treatment. In animals treated with BTF for 4 weeks, while no relapse occurred 4 weeks after cessation of the treatment, relapse was detected in 2 out of 10 feet at 8 weeks after the termination of treatment. These results suggest that topical TBF is effective in curing the infection and in preventing relapse in a guinea pig model of tinea pedis. PMID:7807700

  8. Short-Term Therapy with Luliconazole, a Novel Topical Antifungal Imidazole, in Guinea Pig Models of Tinea Corporis and Tinea Pedis

    PubMed Central

    Nanjoh, Yasuko; Kaneda, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2012-01-01

    Luliconazole is a novel topical antifungal imidazole with broad-spectrum and potent antifungal activity. The drug is under clinical development in the United States for management of dermatophytosis with a short-term treatment regimen. The present study was undertaken to investigate the clinical benefit of short-term therapy with luliconazole cream in guinea pig models of tinea corporis and tinea pedis induced with Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The dose-dependent therapeutic efficacy of topical luliconazole cream (0.02 to 1%), measured by macroscopic improvement of skin lesions and by fungal eradication as determined by a culture assay, was demonstrated using a tinea corporis model. The improvement in skin lesions seen with luliconazole cream was observed even at a concentration of 0.02%, and its efficacy at 0.1% was equal to that of 1% bifonazole cream. The efficacy of short-term therapy with 1% luliconazole cream, which is used for clinical management, was investigated using the tinea corporis model (4- and 8-day treatment regimens) and the tinea pedis model (7- and 14-day treatment regimens). The 1% luliconazole cream completely eradicated the fungus in half or less of the treatment time required for 1% terbinafine cream and 1% bifonazole cream, as determined by a culture assay for both models. These results clearly indicate that 1% luliconazole cream is sufficiently potent for short-term treatment for dermatophytosis compared to existing drugs. Luliconazole is expected to be useful in the clinical management of dermatophytosis. PMID:22391525

  9. Detection of nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes in Xylaria sp. BCC1067 and cloning of XyNRPSA.

    PubMed

    Paungmoung, Porntip; Punya, Jantira; Pongpattanakitshote, Somchai; Jeamton, Wattana; Vichisoonthonkul, Taweerat; Bhumiratana, Sakarindr; Tanticharoen, Morakot; Linne, Uwe; Marahiel, Mohamed A; Cheevadhanarak, Supapon

    2007-09-01

    Nonribosomal peptides, synthesized by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS), are an important group of diverse bioactive fungal metabolites. Xylaria sp. BCC1067, which is known to produce a variety of biologically active metabolites, was studied for gene encoding NRPS by two different PCR-based methods and seven different NRPS fragments were obtained. In addition, screening a genomic library with an amplified NRPS fragment as a probe identified a putative NRPS gene named XyNRPSA. The functionality of XyNRPSA for the production of a corresponding metabolite was probed by gene insertion inactivation. Comparing the disrupting metabolite profile with that of the wild type led to the identification of a speculated metabolite. The crude extract of Xylaria sp. BCC1067 also exhibits antifungal activity against the human pathogens Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. However, the evaluation of biological activity of the XyNRPSA product suggests that it is neither a compound with antifungal activity nor a siderophore. In the vicinity of XyNRPSA, a second gene (named XyPtB) was identified. Its localization and homology to orfB of the ergot alkaloid biosynthetic gene cluster suggests that XyPtB may be involved in XyNRPSA product biosynthesis. PMID:17623029

  10. Relationship among Short and Long Term of Hypoinsulinemia-Hyperglycemia, Dermatophytosis, and Immunobiology of Mononuclear Phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fraga-Silva, Thais F. C.; Marchetti, Camila M.; Mimura, Luiza A. N.; Locachevic, Gisele A.; Golim, Márjorie A.; Venturini, James; Arruda, Maria S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are fungi responsible for causing superficial infections. In patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), dermatophytosis is usually more severe and recurrent. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the influence of short and long term hypoinsulinemia-hyperglycemia (HH) during experimental infection by Trichophyton mentagrophytes as well as alterations in the mononuclear phagocytes. Our results showed two distinct profiles of fungal outcome and immune response. Short term HH induced a discrete impaired proinflammatory response by peritoneal adherent cells (PAC) and a delayed fungal clearance. Moreover, long term HH mice showed low and persistent fungal load and a marked reduction in the production of TNF-α by PAC. Furthermore, while the inoculation of TM in non-HH mice triggered high influx of Gr1+ monocytes into the peripheral blood, long term HH mice showed low percentage of these cells. Thus, our results demonstrate that the time of exposure of HH interferes with the TM infection outcome as well as the immunobiology of mononuclear phagocytes, including fresh monocyte recruitment from bone marrow and PAC activity. PMID:26538824

  11. Equine Dermatophytosis: A Survey of Its Occurrence and Species Distribution among Horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Magdalene N; Kazeem, Haruna M; Kwanashie, Clara N; Maurice, Nanven A; Ngbede, Emmanuel O; Adamu, Helen N; Mshelia, Wayuta P; Edeh, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the occurrence and species distribution of dermatophyte from cutaneous skin lesions of horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 102 skin scrapings were collected from 102 horses with skin lesions. Mycological studies were carried out using conventional techniques. Dermatophytes were isolated from 18 (17.6%) of the 102 samples collected. The 18 dermatophytes were distributed into 10 different species belonging to Microsporum (n = 5) and Trichophyton (n = 5) genera. T. verrucosum (n = 4) was the most predominant species isolated followed by M. equinum (n = 3), T. vanbreuseghemii (n = 2), M. gypseum (n = 2), and M. canis (n = 2). Others include M. fulvum (n = 2), T. mentagrophytes (n = 1), T. equinum (n = 1), T. soudanense (n = 1), and M. gallinae (n = 1). The present study reveals the occurrence of dermatophytes in cutaneous skin lesions of horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria. In addition for the first time in this environment the anthropophilic dermatophyte T. soudanense was isolated from horses. These findings have great economic, veterinary, and public health significance as they relate to the cost of treatment and dissemination of zoonotic dermatophytes. PMID:27340592

  12. Ultraviolet C inactivation of dermatophytes: implications for treatment of onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Dai, T.; Tegos, G.P.; Rolz-Cruz, G.; Cumbie, W.E.; Hamblin, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Onychomycosis responds to systemic antifungals and sometimes to topical lacquers, but alternative treatments are desirable. Topical application of germicidal ultraviolet (UV) C radiation may be an acceptable and effective therapy for infected nails. Objectives To test the ability of UVC to inactivate dermatophyte suspensions in vitro and to sterilize a novel ex vivo model of nail infection. Methods Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum canis suspensions were irradiated with UVC (254 nm) at a radiant exposure of 120 mJ cm−2 and surviving colony-forming units quantified. T. rubrum infecting porcine hoof slices and human toenail clippings was irradiated with UVC at radiant exposures of 36–864 J cm−2. Results In vitro studies showed that 3–5 logs of cell inactivation in dermatophyte suspensions were produced with 120 mJ cm−2 UVC irradiation. Depending on factors such as the thickness and infectious burden of the ex vivo cultures, the radiant exposure of UVC needed for complete sterilization was usually in the order of tens to hundreds of J cm−2. Resistance of T. rubrum to UVC irradiation did not increase after five cycles of subtotal inactivation in vitro. Conclusions UVC irradiation may be a less invasive treatment option for onychomycosis, when the appropriate consideration is given to safety. PMID:18410410

  13. In Vitro Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antibiofilm, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Properties of Isosteviol Isolated from Endangered Medicinal Plant Pittosporum tetraspermum

    PubMed Central

    Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Rejiniemon, Thankappan Sarasam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vitro antibacterial, antifungal, antibiofilm, antioxidant, and anticancer properties of isosteviol isolated from endangered medicinal plant Pittosporum tetraspermum. Pure compound was obtained and characterized by column chromatography followed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, and mass spectral analysis. The antimicrobial activities of the compound were assessed by the broth microdilution method and the antioxidant properties were determined using reducing ability assay, DPPH scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and superoxide radical scavenging assay. Anticancer study was evaluated by following MTT assay. Column purification and spectrocopical analysis lead to identifying isosteviol from the crude ethyl acetate extract. The compound exhibited significant activity against bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis (125 µg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (125 µg/mL), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (62.5 µg/mL). The MIC of the compound against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes was 62.5, 125, and 500 µg/mL, respectively. The compound showed comparatively better antibiofilm activity against E. coli, S. typhi, and P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, it exhibited good antioxidant properties. Anticancer properties of the compound against Vero and MCF7 cell lines were its advantage. Novel isosteviol would be useful to reduce the infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms or slow the progress of various oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:26101532

  14. Heat stable antimicrobial activity of Allium ascalonicum against bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Amin, M; Kapadnis, B P

    2005-08-01

    To study antimicrobial activity of shallot in comparison with that of garlic and onion against 23 strains of fungi and bacteria, water extracts of garlic, shallot and onion bulbs were prepared. Each extract was studied in different forms for their antimicrobial activity viz., fresh extract, dry extract and autoclaved extract. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal lethal concentrations of these extracts were determined against all organisms by broth dilution susceptibility test. Fresh extract of garlic showed greater antimicrobial activity as compared to similar extracts of onion and shallot. However, dried and autoclaved extracts of shallot showed more activity than similar extracts of onion and garlic. Fungi were more sensitive to shallot extract than bacteria. Amongst bacteria, B. cereus was most sensitive (MIC=5 mg ml(-1)). The lowest minimum bactericidal concentration of shallot extract amongst bacteria tested was 5 mg ml(-1) for B. cereus. Amongst fungi, Aureobasidium pullulans and Microsporum gypseum were most sensitive (MIC= 0.15 mg ml(-1)). The lowest minimum lethal concentration was 2.5 mg ml(-1) for Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. It was therefore, expected that the antimicrobial principle of shallot was different than the antimicrobial compounds of onion and garlic. In addition, the antimicrobial component of the shallot extract was stable at 121 degrees C. PMID:16121720

  15. Biodiversity of Keratinophilic Fungal Flora in University Campus, Jaipur, India

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Neetu; Sharma, Meenakshi

    2012-01-01

    Background Soil is well known to support the transient or ongoing existence of keratinophilic fungi and potential source of infection for human and animals Methods: Samples were collected from 67 sites of university campus like PG study centers, playgrounds, gardens, hostels, administrative blocks, library, bank, canteen and road side for the estimation of keratinophilic fungi using the hair baiting technique. Results: Totally, 192 isolates belonging to 14 genera and 21 species were reported. Soil pH range varies from 6.5 to 9.0 pH. Most of the fungi isolated from neutral to slightly alkaline soil. Chrysosporium tropicum (20.83%) was the most predominant fungi reported from all sites. Trichophyton mentagrophytes (15.10%) was the second most commonly reported fungi. Chrysosporium indicum (11.45%), T. simii (9.37%), C.evolceanui (8.83%) T. terrestre (4.68%) and Cephaliophora irregularies (4.68%) were frequently reported. Microsporum audouinii, Paceliomyces sp., Cladosporium sp. and Sporothrix schenckii were isolated for the first time from Jaipur. Conclusion: Road sides were found most suitable for the occurrence of all most all keratinophilic fungi. Higher incidence of keratinophilic fungi was found in hostel sides followed by road sides, PG study centers and play grounds. PMID:23304673

  16. In vitro activity of aminosterols against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Oumar; Alhanout, Kamel; L'Ollivier, Coralie; Brunel, Jean-Michel; Thera, Mahamadou A; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Piarroux, Renaud; Ranque, Stéphane

    2013-04-01

    We recently reported that aminosterols are fungicidal due to their disrupting the outer membranes of yeasts and that they have a significant in vitro activity against various mould species. Yet, their activity against dermatophytes had never been tested. This study's objective was to evaluate the in vitro activity of squalamine and a synthetic aminosterol derivative (ASD) against various dermatophytes. Susceptibility testing of squalamine, ASD, terbinafine, and griseofulvin was performed, in triplicate, in accord with the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute's M38-A2 procedure, using an 80% growth inhibition endpoint. The studies included the following dermatophytes: Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. soudanense, Microsporum canis, M. audouinii, M. persicolor; M. cookie and M. gypseum. Squalamine and ASD showed significant in vitro activity against these dermatophytes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 4-16 mg/l and from 2-8 mg/l for squalamine and ASD, respectively. These findings support further clinical studies of aminosterols activity against superficial dermatophyte infections. PMID:22998181

  17. Mycoflora of the Interdigital Spaces Among Girl Students in Ahvaz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zarrin, Majid; Babadi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fungi have been extensively isolated and investigated from skin in various parts of the world. Determining the mycoflora of normal people is important when the role of skin is considered as a reservoir for microorganisms. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the incidence of fungal flora on interdigital spaces of the human foot. Patients and Methods: Samples were collected from interdigital spaces of 865 girl students who lived in the dormitories of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. A part of the sample was digested with 20% KOH and screened by a light microscope for fungal elements. Another part of the sample was cultured on Sabouraud glucose agar (SGA) and SGA containing 0.05 mg/mL chloramphenicol and 0.5 mg/mL cycloheximide. The fungal colonies were identified based on morphological and microscopic characteristics and biochemical tests. Results: In the current study, out of the 865 samples, 616 (71. 2%) were positive in direct examination or culture. Of these, 267 samples (30. 9%) were positive in direct examination. The most common fungal isolates in direct test were yeast (29. 4%), followed by conidia (0. 92%), melanised hypha (0. 35%) and non-septated hyphae (0. 23%). Trichophyton mentagrophytes was isolated in one of the specimens. Conclusions The present study demonstrated the incidence of fungal flora on interdigital spaces of human foot. The current study results showed that fungi can survive on surfaces of skin without showing the sign of infection. PMID:25632325

  18. Transcriptomics Analysis of Candida albicans Treated with Huanglian Jiedu Decoction Using RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qianqian; Gao, Lei; Tao, Maocan; Chen, Zhe; Yang, Xiaohong; Cao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is the major invasive fungal pathogen of humans, causing diseases ranging from superficial mucosal infections to disseminated, systemic infections that are often life-threatening. Resistance of C. albicans to antifungal agents and limited antifungal agents has potentially serious implications for management of infections. As a famous multiherb prescription in China, Huanglian Jiedu Decoction (HLJJD, Orengedokuto in Japan) is efficient against Trichophyton mentagrophytes and C. albicans. But the antifungal mechanism of HLJDD remains unclear. In this study, by using RNA-seq technique, we performed a transcriptomics analysis of gene expression changes for C. albicans under the treatment of HLJDD. A total of 6057 predicted protein-encoding genes were identified. By gene expression analysis, we obtained a total of 735 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 700 upregulated genes and 35 downregulated genes. Genes encoding multidrug transporters such as ABC transporter and MFS transporter were identified to be significantly upregulated. Meanwhile, by pathway enrichment analysis, we identified 26 significant pathways, in which pathways of DNA replication and transporter activity were mainly involved. These results might provide insights for the inhibition mechanism of HLJDD against C. albicans. PMID:27143984

  19. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  20. Study of the interaction mechanisms between absorbed NO{sub 2} and por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V.; Kan, V. E. Makushenko, R. K.; Biryukov, M. Yu.; Ivlev, K. E.; Roslikov, V. E.

    2013-10-15

    The interaction mechanisms between NO{sub 2} molecules and the surface of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposites obtained by magnetron deposition and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance methods. The observed increase in the free carrier concentration in the por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers is explained by a change in the charge state of P{sub b} centers due to the formation of neutral 'surface defect-adsorbed NO{sub 2} molecule' complexes with free carrier generation in the crystallite bulk. In the nanocomposite layers grown by the CVD method, the increase in the free hole concentration during NO{sub 2} adsorption is much less pronounced in comparison with the composite grown by magnetron deposition, which is caused by the competing interaction channel of NO{sub 2} molecules with electrically neutral P{sub b} centers.

  1. Binding of Complement Factor H to PorB3 and NspA Enhances Resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to Anti-Factor H Binding Protein Bactericidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Giuntini, Serena; Pajon, Rolando; Ram, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Among 25 serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis clinical isolates, we identified four (16%) with high factor H binding protein (FHbp) expression that were resistant to complement-mediated bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with recombinant FHbp vaccines. Two of the four isolates had evidence of human FH-dependent complement downregulation independent of FHbp. Since alternative complement pathway recruitment is critical for anti-FHbp bactericidal activity, we hypothesized that in these two isolates binding of FH to ligands other than FHbp contributes to anti-FHbp bactericidal resistance. Knocking out NspA, a known meningococcal FH ligand, converted both resistant isolates to anti-FHbp susceptible isolates. The addition of a nonbactericidal anti-NspA monoclonal antibody to the bactericidal reaction also increased anti-FHbp bactericidal activity. To identify a role for FH ligands other than NspA or FHbp in resistance, we created double NspA/FHbp knockout mutants. Mutants from both resistant isolates bound 10-fold more recombinant human FH domains 6 and 7 fused to Fc than double knockout mutants prepared from two sensitive meningococcal isolates. In light of recent studies showing functional FH-PorB2 interactions, we hypothesized that PorB3 from the resistant isolates recruited FH. Allelic exchange of porB3 from a resistant isolate to a sensitive isolate increased resistance of the sensitive isolate to anti-FHbp bactericidal activity (and vice versa). Thus, some PorB3 variants functionally bind human FH, which in the presence of NspA enhances anti-FHbp resistance. Combining anti-NspA antibodies with anti-FHbp antibodies can overcome resistance. Meningococcal vaccines that target both NspA and FHbp are likely to confer greater protection than either antigen alone. PMID:25644002

  2. Los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón siguen en descenso y contribuyen a la continua reducc

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  3. La doctora Amelie Ramírez y la investigación de desigualdades de salud por cáncer en la comunidad la

    Cancer.gov

    La doctora Ramírez es la investigadora principal de Redes en Acción, un centro del programa de redes comunitarias subvencionado por el NCI que se propone reducir la incidencia del cáncer en la comunidad latina a través de una red nacional de grupos comunitarios, investigadores, agencias de salud gubernamentales y la población en general.

  4. Adjuvant Effects Elicited by Novel Oligosaccharide Variants of Detoxified Meningococcal Lipopolysaccharides on Neisseria meningitidis Recombinant PorA Protein: A Comparison in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Ojas H.; Norheim, Gunnstein; Hoe, J . Claire; Rollier, Christine S.; Nagaputra, Jerry C.; Makepeace, Katherine; Saleem, Muhammad; Chan, Hannah; Ferguson, David J. P.; Jones, Claire; Sadarangani, Manish; Hood, Derek W.; Feavers, Ian; Derrick, Jeremy P.; Pollard, Andrew J.; Moxon, E . Richard

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has adjuvant properties that can be exploited to assist vaccine immunogenicity. The modified penta-acylated LPS retains the adjuvant properties of hexa-acylated LPS but has a reduced toxicity profile. In this study we investigated whether two modified glycoform structures (LgtE and IcsB) of detoxified penta-acylated LPS exhibited differential adjuvant properties when formulated as native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs) as compared to the previously described LgtB variant. Detoxified penta-acylated LPS was obtained by disruption of the lpxL1 gene (LpxL1 LPS), and three different glycoforms were obtained by disruption of the lgtB, lgtE or icsB genes respectively. Mice (mus musculus) were immunized with a recombinant PorA P1.7-2,4 (rPorA) protein co-administered with different nOMVs (containing a different PorA serosubtype P1.7,16), each of which expressed one of the three penta-acylated LPS glycoforms. All nOMVs induced IgG responses against the rPorA, but the nOMVs containing the penta-acylated LgtB-LpxL1 LPS glycoform induced significantly greater bactericidal activity compared to the other nOMVs or when the adjuvant was Alhydrogel. Compared to LgtE or IcsB LPS glycoforms, these data support the use of nOMVs containing detoxified, modified LgtB-LpxL1 LPS as a potential adjuvant for future meningococcal protein vaccines. PMID:25545241

  5. Binding of complement factor H to PorB3 and NspA enhances resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to anti-factor H binding protein bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Serena; Pajon, Rolando; Ram, Sanjay; Granoff, Dan M

    2015-04-01

    Among 25 serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis clinical isolates, we identified four (16%) with high factor H binding protein (FHbp) expression that were resistant to complement-mediated bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with recombinant FHbp vaccines. Two of the four isolates had evidence of human FH-dependent complement downregulation independent of FHbp. Since alternative complement pathway recruitment is critical for anti-FHbp bactericidal activity, we hypothesized that in these two isolates binding of FH to ligands other than FHbp contributes to anti-FHbp bactericidal resistance. Knocking out NspA, a known meningococcal FH ligand, converted both resistant isolates to anti-FHbp susceptible isolates. The addition of a nonbactericidal anti-NspA monoclonal antibody to the bactericidal reaction also increased anti-FHbp bactericidal activity. To identify a role for FH ligands other than NspA or FHbp in resistance, we created double NspA/FHbp knockout mutants. Mutants from both resistant isolates bound 10-fold more recombinant human FH domains 6 and 7 fused to Fc than double knockout mutants prepared from two sensitive meningococcal isolates. In light of recent studies showing functional FH-PorB2 interactions, we hypothesized that PorB3 from the resistant isolates recruited FH. Allelic exchange of porB3 from a resistant isolate to a sensitive isolate increased resistance of the sensitive isolate to anti-FHbp bactericidal activity (and vice versa). Thus, some PorB3 variants functionally bind human FH, which in the presence of NspA enhances anti-FHbp resistance. Combining anti-NspA antibodies with anti-FHbp antibodies can overcome resistance. Meningococcal vaccines that target both NspA and FHbp are likely to confer greater protection than either antigen alone. PMID:25644002

  6. Corynebacterium jeikeium jk0268 Constitutes for the 40 Amino Acid Long PorACj, Which Forms a Homooligomeric and Anion-Selective Cell Wall Channel

    PubMed Central

    Norouzy, Amir; Schulz, Robert; Nau, Werner M.; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Tauch, Andreas; Benz, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium jeikeium, a resident of human skin, is often associated with multidrug resistant nosocomial infections in immunodepressed patients. C. jeikeium K411 belongs to mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes, the mycolata and contains a channel-forming protein as judged from reconstitution experiments with artificial lipid bilayer experiments. The channel-forming protein was present in detergent treated cell walls and in extracts of whole cells using organic solvents. A gene coding for a 40 amino acid long polypeptide possibly responsible for the pore-forming activity was identified in the known genome of C. jeikeium by its similar chromosomal localization to known porH and porA genes of other Corynebacterium strains. The gene jk0268 was expressed in a porin deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strain. For purification temporarily histidine-tailed or with a GST-tag at the N-terminus, the homogeneous protein caused channel-forming activity with an average conductance of 1.25 nS in 1M KCl identical to the channels formed by the detergent extracts. Zero-current membrane potential measurements of the voltage dependent channel implied selectivity for anions. This preference is according to single-channel analysis caused by some excess of cationic charges located in the channel lumen formed by oligomeric alpha-helical wheels. The channel has a suggested diameter of 1.4 nm as judged from the permeability of different sized hydrated anions using the Renkin correction factor. Surprisingly, the genome of C. jeikeium contained only one gene coding for a cell wall channel of the PorA/PorH type found in other Corynebacterium species. The possible evolutionary relationship between the heterooligomeric channels formed by certain Corynebacterium strains and the homooligomeric pore of C. jeikeium is discussed. PMID:24116064

  7. Obtención de la curva de luz en la ocultación de 35 Sgr por Júpiter el 6 de marzo de 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.

    La ocultación de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr por Júpiter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso por el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar parámetros físicos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atmósfera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presión) Para lograr ésto se programó la cámara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 imágenes por segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 imágenes de la inmersión y otras tantas de la emersión. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturación del CCD ya que la observación se realizó de día. En este momento las imágenes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reducción.

  8. Immunogenicity studies with a genetically engineered hexavalent PorA and a wild-type meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine in infant cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rouppe van der Voort, E; Schuller, M; Holst, J; de Vries, P; van der Ley, P; van den Dobbelsteen, G; Poolman, J

    2000-01-31

    The immunogenicity of two meningococcal outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines, namely the Norwegian wild-type OMV vaccine and the Dutch hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine, were examined in infant cynomolgus monkeys. For the first time, a wild-type- and a recombinant OMV vaccine were compared. Furthermore, the induction of memory and the persistence of circulating antibodies were measured. The Norwegian vaccine contained all four classes of major outer membrane proteins (OMP) and wild-type L3/L8 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The Dutch vaccine consisted for 90% of class 1 OMPs, had low expression of class 4 and 5 OMP, and GalE LPS. Three infant monkeys were immunised with a human dose at the age of 1.5, 2.5 and 4.5 months. Two monkeys of each group received a fourth dose at the age of 11 months. In ELISA, both OMV vaccines were immunogenic and induced booster responses, particularly after the fourth immunisation. The Norwegian vaccine mostly induced sero-subtype P1.7,16 specific serum bactericidal antibodies (SBA), although some other SBA were induced as well. The antibody responses against P1.7,16, induced by the Norwegian vaccine, were generally higher than for the Dutch vaccine. However, the Dutch vaccine induced PorA specific SBA against all six sero-subtypes included in the vaccine showing differences in the magnitude of SBA responses to the various PorAs. PMID:10618530

  9. Astronomy in the Classroom: Why? (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Clase: ¿Por Qué?) Astronomia na Sala de Aula: Por Quê?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daros Gama, Leandro; Bagdonas Henrique, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    There are many discussions about the relevance of the topics covered in classes. One subject in particular is the focus of this essay: astronomy. In what sense and to what extent it would be worth to teach it in science or other kind of classes? In this paper we discuss some aspects of the advantages of dealing with this area of knowledge in schools, taking into account the epistemological and axiological dimensions of astronomy, in light of the vision of science as an intelligent dialogue with the world (Bachelard), in addition to the "problematization" knowledge of Paulo Freire. We propose that in fact the Astronomy does not need to be seen as just a new set of contents to be taught, but appears as a set of motivational contents for historical-philosophical discussions, and permit the discussion of concepts of other disciplines. Numerosas discusiones se están llevando a cabo acerca de la pertinencia de los temas tradicionalmente tratados en las clases. Uno de los temas, en particular, es el foco de este ensayo: la astronomía. ¿En qué sentido y en qué medida sería conveniente tratarla en clase, ya sea en clases de ciencias naturales, específicamente en las de astronomía o asignaturas afines? Elaboramos en este artículo algunos aspectos de las ventajas de tratar esta área del conocimiento en las escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones epistemológica y axiológica de la astronomía, a la luz de la visión de la ciencia como un diálogo inteligente con el mundo (Bachelard), además de la propuesta del conocimiento "problematizador" de Paulo Freire. Proponemos que en realidad la astronomía no tiene por qué ser vista sólo como un nuevo conjunto de contenidos que se enseñan, sino que aparece como un conjunto de temas de motivación para el debate histórico-filosófico y para permitir la discusión de los conceptos típicos de otras disciplinas. Muitas discussões vêm acontecendo sobre a relevância dos temas abordados em sala de aula. Um tema, em

  10. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

  11. [Ag20 {S2 P(OR)2 }12 ]: A Superatom Complex with a Chiral Metallic Core and High Potential for Isomerism.

    PubMed

    Dhayal, Rajendra S; Lin, Yan-Ru; Liao, Jian-Hong; Chen, Yuan-Jang; Liu, Yu-Chiao; Chiang, Ming-Hsi; Kahlal, Samia; Saillard, Jean-Yves; Liu, C W

    2016-07-11

    The synthesis and structural determination of a silver nanocluster [Ag20 {S2 P(OiPr)2 }12 ] (2), which contains an intrinsic chiral metallic core, is produced by reduction of one silver ion from the eight-electron superatom complex [Ag21 {S2 P(OiPr)2 }12 ](PF6 ) (1) by borohydrides. Single-crystal X-ray analysis displays an Ag20 core of pseudo C3 symmetry comprising a silver-centered Ag13 icosahedron capped by seven silver atoms. Its n-propyl derivative, [Ag20 {S2 P(OnPr)2 }12 ] (3), can also be prepared by the treatment of silver(I) salts and dithiophosphates in a stoichiometric ratio in the presence of excess amount of [BH4 ](-) . Crystal structure analyses reveal that the capping silver-atom positions relative to their icosahedral core are distinctly different in 2 and 3 and generate isomeric, chiral Ag20 cores. Both Ag20 clusters display an emission maximum in the near IR region. DFT calculations are consistent with a description within the superatom model of an 8-electron [Ag13 ](5+) core protected by a [Ag7 {S2 P(OR)2 }12 ](5-) external shell. Two additional structural variations are predicted by DFT, showing the potential for isomerism in such [Ag20 {S2 P(OR)2 }12 ] species. PMID:27189869

  12. A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorrhyncha) from coffee shrubs and poró and laurel trees in shaded coffee plantations, in Turrialba, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rojas, L; Godoy, C; Hanson, P; Hilje, L

    2001-01-01

    A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorryncha) was conducted in coffee plantations with no shade (C), and in those with shade of either poró (Erythrina poeppigiana) (CP) or poró plus laurel (Cordia alliodora) (CPL), in Turrialba, Costa Rica. A total of 130 species in ten families were collected, dominated by Cicadellidae (82 species). Species richness was highest in the CP system (88), followed by CPL (74) and C systems (60). Five most common species for all systems were Fusigonalia lativittata, Hebralebra nicaraguensis, Neocoelidia sp., Oliarus sp. and Clastoptera sp. Diversification of the coffee agroecosystem favors some species while limiting others, and have no effect on the majority of species. Thus, only F. lativittata, Neocoelidia sp. and Scaphytopius ca. latidens were well represented in all systems, but were more abundant in coffee shrubs. Additionally, the following were the dominant species in each system: Graphocephala sp. 1 (C), F. lativittata (CP) and H. nicaraguensis (CPL). Four species abundant on laurel trees, including H. nicaraguensis, appeared almost exclusively on these tree species. Species similarity was highest on the CP and CPL systems (51% of the species in common), followed by the C and CP (39%) and the C and CPL systems (38%). These findings show that even disturbed systems can harbor many insect species, so that they deserve attention from conservation advocates and biologists. PMID:12189787

  13. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Mexican tarragon (Tagetes lucida).

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Avila, J Guillermo; Martínez, Andrés; Serrato, Blanca; Calderón-Mugica, José C; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael

    2006-05-17

    Mexican tarragon (Tagetes lucida Cv. Asteraceae: Campanulatae) is an important, nutritious plant and an effective herbal medicine. Seven coumarins, 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin (4), umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin) (5), scoparone (6,7-dimethoxycoumarin) (7), esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin) (11), 6-hydroxy-7-methoxycoumarin (12), herniarin (7-methoxycoumarin) (13), and scopoletin (6-methoxy-7-hydroxycoumarin) (14), and three flavonoids, patuletin (18), quercetin (19), and quercetagetin (20), were isolated from CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts from aerial parts of T. lucida. In addition, 6,7-diacetoxy coumarin (15), 6-methoxy-7-acetylcoumarin (16), and 6-acetoxy-7-methoxycoumarin (17) derivatives were synthesized. 8-Methoxypsoralen (1), 8-acetyl-7-hydroxycoumarin (2), 7,8-dihydroxy-6-meth-oxycoumarin (3), 6,7-dimethoxy-4-methylcoumarin (6), 5,7-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (8), 4-hydroxycoumarin (9), 4-hydroxy-6,7-dimethylcoumarin (10), naringenin (21), glycoside-7-rhamnonaringin (22), and rutin (23) were commercially obtained (Sigma-Aldrich). All of these compounds and extracts (M1 and M2) were assayed against bacteria and fungi. The antibacterial activity was determined on Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella sp., Shigella boydii, Shigella sp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter agglomerans, Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterolitica, Vibrio cholerae (three El Tor strains, CDC-V12, clinic case, and INDRE-206, were obtained from contaminated water), and V. cholerae (NO-O1). The evaluated fungi were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium notatum, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium sporotrichum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The most active compounds against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria were the dihydroxylated coumarins 3 and 4. In addition, 2-4, 6, 7, and 11 showed an interesting activity against V. cholerae, a key bacterium in the contaminated

  14. Seasonal 4-year investigation into the role of the alpine marmot (Marmota marmota) as a carrier of zoophilic dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Gallo, M G; Lanfranchi, P; Poglayen, G; Calderola, S; Menzano, A; Ferroglio, E; Peano, A

    2005-06-01

    Two hundred and six samples of alpine marmot (Mamota marmota) hair (148 from adults and 58 from young subjects), 102 soil samples from the entrances to the burrows of the above individuals and 20 control specimens (obtained from adjoining areas away from the burrow systems where the rodents are not usually present) were examined from May 1994 to September 1997. Seventy-five isolates belonging to six species of dermatophytes were found in 69 of the 206 hair samples examined (33.5%). Two species were zoophilic, Microsporum canis (7.8%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (11.2.%), and four geophilic, Microsporum cookei (2%), M. gypseum (5.8%), Trichophyton ajelloi (3.9%) and T. terrestre (5.8%). The prevalence of each species in the hair samples did not change significantly according to year, season (chi-squared test [limit significance: P <0.05] gives no significant values [P>0.05] both in year and in season comparison) or age/sex (adult versus juvenile: P=0.1; male versus female: P=0.8) of the marmot. Twenty-three of the 102 soil samples (22.5%) were positive for dermatophytes found in the hair of marmots from the same burrow systems. Five of the 20 control soil samples (25%) were positive for dermatophytes. One isolate of M. gypseum, three of T. terrestre and one of T. mentagrophytes were obtained. Compared with other free-ranging rodent hosts studied in Europe, this mycoflora is characterized by the presence and relatively high prevalence of M. canis, frequently reported in symptomatic and asymptomatic cats, dogs and fur animals. M. canis has not been isolated in other rodents in the wild. However, it has recently been reported in asymptomatic foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from northern Italy. The close link between V vulpes and M. marmota, with the former representing the most important mammal predator of the latter in the Alps (only a fraction of the predator's attacks result in the death of the rodent) may have favoured the adaptation of M. canis to this rodent host. The

  15. [Superficial mycoses: casuistry of the Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel", Caracas, Venezuela (2001-2014)].

    PubMed

    Capote, Ana María; Ferrara, Giuseppe; Panizo, María Mercedes; García, Nataly; Alarcón, Víctor; Reviakina, Vera; Dolande, Maribel

    2016-03-01

    The superficial mycoses are very common infectious diseases and therefore are a frequent reason for medical consultation. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic frequency of superficial mycoses in the Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" during 14 years (2001-2014). A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed to review the mycological records of patients with presumptive diagnosis of superficial mycosis. Nails, hairs and epidermal scales were the processed samples. The identification of fungi was performed by macro and microscopic observation of colonies and biochemical and physiological tests, as required of the isolated agent. For the investigation of Malassezia spp. only direct examination was performed. Of the 3 228 samples processed, 1 098 (34%) were positive and their distribution according to the etiological agent was: dermatophytes 79.5%; 10.9% yeasts; non-dermatophytes fungi 5.1% and 4.5% Malassezia spp. The most frequently isolated dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum Complex (70.1%), followed by T mentagrophytes complex (15.1%), Microsporum canis (9.4%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (4%). The most frequent ringworms Were: Tinea unguium (66.8%), followed by Tineapedis (16.4%) and Tinea capitis (8.1%). Candida parapsilosis complex (37.5%) was the most frequently isolated yeast and Fusarium spp. (53.6%) was the most isolated among non-dermatophyte fungi, followed by Aspergillus spp. (19.6%) and Acremonium spp. (10.7%). The identification of the etiological agent is essential to guide appropriate treatment. This study constitutes an important contribution to the knowledge of the epidemiology of superficial mycoses in our country. PMID:27382801

  16. Clinico-microbiological study of dermatophytosis in a tertiary-care hospital in North Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Noronha, Tonita M.; Tophakhane, Raghavendra S.; Nadiger, Shobha

    2016-01-01

    Context: The dermatophytoses constitute a group of superficial fungal infections of keratinized tissues, namely, the epidermis, hair, and nails. The distribution and frequency of dermatophytosis and their etiologic agents vary according to the geographic region studied, the socio-economic level of the population, the time of study, the climatic variations, the presence of domestic animals, and age. Aims: The present study was undertaken to assess the clinical profile of dermatophytic infections and to identify the causative fungal species in the various clinical presentations. Settings and Design: This was a hospital-based observational study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis attending the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital were included in the study. History was taken, general physical and cutaneous examination was done and details of skin lesions noted. Direct microscopy in 10% KOH (40% KOH for nail) and fungal culture on SDA with 0.05% chloramphenicol and 0.5% cycloheximide was done in every case. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 17.0 software. Chi-square test and contingency coefficient test were used as significant tests for analysis. Results: Out of 150 patients studied, majority belonged to the age group of 21–30 years (22.7%). Male-to-female ratio was 1.63:1. Tinea corporis (24.7%) was the most common clinical type observed. The overall positivity by culture was 40% and by direct microscopy was 59.3%. Trichophyton mentagrophytes was the predominant species isolated (48.3%). Conclusions: The present study reveals the changing trend in the prevalence of dermatophyte species in this part of Karnataka. PMID:27559499

  17. Isolation, Identification, and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Dermatophytes from Clinical Samples at Sohag University Hospital in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Mona Fattouh Mohamed; El-din, Asmaa Nasr; El-Hamd, Mohammed Abu

    2016-01-01

    Aim The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and explore the in-vitro antifungal susceptibility pattern of dermatophytes isolated from clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis (tinea infections) attending the Dermatology Outpatient Clinic. Methods This study was conducted at Sohag University Hospital from December 2014 to December 2015. Clinical samples (e.g., skin scrapings and hair stumps) were collected under aseptic precautions. The identification of dermatophytes was performed through microscopic examination using 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) with 40% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) mounts and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and on Dermasel agar base media, both supplemented with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide. All dermatophytes isolates were subjected to antifungal susceptibility testing using the agar-based disk diffusion (ABDD) method against Clotrimazole, Miconazole, Fluconazole, and Griseofulvin. Data were analyzed via SPSS 16, using Chi square and a screening test (cross-tabulation method). Results A total of 110 patients of dermatophytosis were studied. The patients were clinically diagnosed and mycologically confirmed as having tinea capitis (49), tinea corporis (30), tinea pedis (16), tinea cruris (9), or tinea barbae (6). The dermatophytes isolates belonged to 4 species: Microsporum canis 58 (52.7%), Microsporum gypseum 23 (20.9%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes 18 (16.4%), and Microsporum audouinii 11 (10%). The most effective antifungal drugs tested were Clotrimazole, followed by Miconazole (95.5% and 84.5% of isolates were susceptible, respectively). Conclusion Every patient with a tinea infection should be properly studied for a mycological examination and should be treated accordingly. Dermasel agar is more useful as an identification medium in the isolation of dermatophytes. The ABDD method appears to be a simple, cost-effective, and promising method for the evaluation of antifungal susceptibility of dermatophytes. PMID

  18. Fungicidal activity of AKWATON and in vitro assessment of its toxic effects on animal cells.

    PubMed

    Oulé, Mathias Kégnon; Staines, Kenton; Lightly, Tasia; Roberts, Loren; Traoré, Yannick Léandre; Dickman, Michael; Bernier, Anne-Marie; Diop, Lamine

    2015-01-01

    Acquired superficial fungal infections are among the most common infections. It is necessary to create new effective and non-toxic disinfectants. AKWATON is a new disinfectant of the polymeric guanidine family. Its fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes and its in vitro toxicity assessment were determined in this study. The MIC, minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and time required for its fungicidal activity at the MFC were evaluated using the official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, with modifications as recommended by the Canadian General Standards Board. The toxic effects of AKWATON and of four commercial disinfectants were evaluated on rat pancreatic (C2C12) and muscle (RnM5F) cells, using the trypan blue and MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] methods. The MIC, MFC and time required for the fungicidal activity of AKWATON at the MFC were 0.025 % (w/v), 0.045 % (w/v) and 2.5 min, respectively. Cell cultures and the different tests carried out showed that the AKWATON-based disinfectant killed fewer cells than the commercial disinfectants, sparing 80 % of C2C12 cells and 65 % of RnM5F cells, whilst some of the well-known disinfectants currently on the market killed 85-100 % of cells. This study demonstrates that AKWATON has great potential as an odourless, colourless, non-corrosive and safe disinfectant for use in hospitals, the agriculture industry, farming and household facilities. PMID:25411261

  19. Essential oil of Azorella cryptantha collected in two different locations from San Juan Province, Argentina: chemical variability and anti-insect and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    López, Sandra; Lima, Beatriz; Aragón, Liliana; Espinar, Luis Ariza; Tapia, Alejandro; Zacchino, Susana; Zygadlo, Julio; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; López, María Liza

    2012-08-01

    The essential oils (EOs) of two populations of Azorella cryptantha (Clos) Reiche, a native species from San Juan Province, were obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The compounds identified amounted to 92.3 and 88.7% of the total oil composition for A. cryptantha from Bauchaceta (Ac-BAU) and Agua Negra (Ac-AN), respectively. The EO composition for the two populations was similar, although with differences in the identity and content of the main compounds and also in the identity of minor components. The main compounds of the Ac-BAU EO were α-pinene, α-thujene, sabinene, δ-cadinene, δ-cadinol, trans-β-guaiene, and τ-muurolol, while α-pinene, α-thujene, β-pinene, γ-cadinene, τ-cadinol, δ-cadinene, τ-muurolol, and a not identified compound were the main constituents of the Ac-AN EO, which also contained 3.0% of oxygenated monoterpenes. The repellent activity on Triatoma infestans nymphs was 100 and 92% for the Ac-AN and Ac-BAU EOs, respectively. Regarding the toxic effects on Ceratitis capitata, the EOs were very active with LD(50) values lower than 11 μg/fly. The dermatophytes Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, and T. mentagrophytes and the bacterial strains Escherichia coli LM(1), E. coli LM(2), and Yersinia enterocolitica PI were more sensitive toward the Ac-AN EO (MIC 125 μg/ml) than toward the Ac-BAU EO. This is the first report on the composition of A. cryptantha EO and its anti-insect and antimicrobial properties. PMID:22899606

  20. Detection of seasonal asymptomatic dermatophytes in Van cats

    PubMed Central

    Ilhan, Ziya; Karaca, Mehmet; Ekin, Ismail Hakki; Solmaz, Hasan; Akkan, Hasan Altan; Tutuncu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The Van cat is a domestic landrace found in the Van province of eastern Turkey. In this study, we aimed to determine the seasonal carriage of dermatophytes in Van cats without clinical lesions. A total of 264 hair specimens were collected from clinically healthy cats in and around the Van Province. Of these samples, 30.3% were obtained in spring, 30.6% in summer, 16.6% in autumn, and 22.3% in winter; 45.1% of samples were from male cats and the rest from female ones. Of the studied cats, 118 were younger than 1 year, 78 were 1–3 years old, and 68 were older than 3 years. The specimens were subjected to direct microscopic examination with 15% potassium hydroxide and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and dermatophyte test medium supplemented with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol. Dermatophyte identification was carried out based on macroscopic and microscopic colony morphology, urease activities, in vitro hair perforation test, growth at 37 °C, and pigmentation on corn meal agar. Dermatophytes were isolated from 19 (7.1%) of the 264 specimens examined. The most frequently isolated fungi were Trichophyton terrestre (4.1%), followed by Microsporum gypseum (1.1%), M. nanum (1.1%), and T. mentagrophytes (0.7%), and these fungi may represent a health risk for humans in contact with clinically healthy Van cats. M. canis was not isolated from any of the specimens. Our results show no significant (p > 0.05) association between carriage of dermatophytes and the gender of cats. The carriage rate of dermatophytes was high in spring and winter, and the only possible risk factor for infection was age of the animal. PMID:26887249

  1. Ecology of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi in swimming pools and polluted and unpolluted streams.

    PubMed

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Khaleel, Tayseer Kh M; Jamous, Rana M

    2002-01-01

    The biodiversity and richness of keratinophilic fungal communities including dermatophytes were assessed in three stream sites and three swimming pools in the Nablus district in Palestine, using hair baiting (HBT) and surface dilution plate (SDP) techniques, over 8- and 6-month periods, respectively. The effect of wastewater effluent and selected ecological factors on these fungi in relation to species diversity and population densities were also considered. Fifty keratinophilic fungal species were recovered from the aquatic habitats studied, of which 42 were recovered from stream sites and 22 from swimming pools. Of these fungi 6 were either dermatophytes (Microsporum gypseum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes) or dermatophyte related species (Chrysosporium merdarium, Ch. tropicum, Ch. keratinophilum and T. terrestre). The most frequently isolated species in the three pools were Acremonium strictum and Cladosporium cladosporioides, using Sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA). The most abundant species were Acr. strictum, and Aspergillus flavus. However, only 4 species were isolated using the SDA medium amended with 5-flurocytosine (5-FC). The most frequent and abundant species in the three stream sites using SDA medium were Geotricum candidum, and Penicillium chrysogenum. The most frequent species in the three sites using the 5-FC medium, was Paecilomyces lilacinus. Using HBT, the most abundant and frequent species in the three stream sites were G. candidum, and Pa. lilacinus, on SDA medium, and Pa. lilacinus, and Gliocladium nigrovirens on the 5-FC medium. The 5-FC medium was more suitable for the isolation of dermatophytes and closely related species than the SDA medium; 6 were recovered on 5-FC, whereas only one on the SDA medium. Variation in the levels of keratinophilic fungal populations from the three stream sites sampled 5 times over an 8-month period, followed comparable fluctuation patterns. Wastewater affected fungal population densities with the highest

  2. Detection of seasonal asymptomatic dermatophytes in Van cats.

    PubMed

    Ilhan, Ziya; Karaca, Mehmet; Ekin, Ismail Hakki; Solmaz, Hasan; Akkan, Hasan Altan; Tutuncu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The Van cat is a domestic landrace found in the Van province of eastern Turkey. In this study, we aimed to determine the seasonal carriage of dermatophytes in Van cats without clinical lesions. A total of 264 hair specimens were collected from clinically healthy cats in and around the Van Province. Of these samples, 30.3% were obtained in spring, 30.6% in summer, 16.6% in autumn, and 22.3% in winter; 45.1% of samples were from male cats and the rest from female ones. Of the studied cats, 118 were younger than 1 year, 78 were 1-3 years old, and 68 were older than 3 years. The specimens were subjected to direct microscopic examination with 15% potassium hydroxide and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and dermatophyte test medium supplemented with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol. Dermatophyte identification was carried out based on macroscopic and microscopic colony morphology, urease activities, in vitro hair perforation test, growth at 37°C, and pigmentation on corn meal agar. Dermatophytes were isolated from 19 (7.1%) of the 264 specimens examined. The most frequently isolated fungi were Trichophyton terrestre (4.1%), followed by Microsporum gypseum (1.1%), M. nanum (1.1%), and T. mentagrophytes (0.7%), and these fungi may represent a health risk for humans in contact with clinically healthy Van cats. M. canis was not isolated from any of the specimens. Our results show no significant (p>0.05) association between carriage of dermatophytes and the gender of cats. The carriage rate of dermatophytes was high in spring and winter, and the only possible risk factor for infection was age of the animal. PMID:26887249

  3. Ability of hydroxypropyl chitosan nail lacquer to protect against dermatophyte nail infection.

    PubMed

    Ghannoum, M A; Long, L; Isham, N; Bulgheroni, A; Setaro, M; Caserini, M; Palmieri, R; Mailland, F

    2015-04-01

    The development of a topical agent that would strengthen the nail, improve the natural barrier, and provide better drug penetration to the nail bed is needed. In this study, we examined the effects of a hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH)-based nail solution using a bovine hoof model. Following application of the nail solution, changes in the hardness of the hoof samples were measured using the Vickers method. Tensile and flexural strengths were tested by stretching or punching the samples, respectively. The ultrastructure was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and samples stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain were used to determine the fungal penetration depth. The comparators included 40% urea and 70% isopropyl alcohol solutions. The HPCH nail solution increased hoof sample hardness in comparison to the untreated control sample (mean, 22.3 versus 19.4 Vickers pyramid number [HV]). Similarly, the HPCH solution increased the tensile strength (mean, 33.07 versus 28.42 MPa) and flexural strength (mean, 183.79 versus 181.20 MPa) compared to the untreated control. In contrast, the comparators had adverse effects on hardness and strength. SEM showed that the HPCH solution reduced the area of sample crumbling following abrasion compared to the untreated control (7,418 versus 17,843 pixels), and the PAS-stained images showed that the HPCH solution reduced penetration of the dermatophyte hyphae (e.g., penetration by Trichophyton mentagrophytes was <25 μm at day 9 versus 275 μm in the untreated control). Unlike chemicals normally used in cosmetic treatments, repeated application of the HPCH nail solution may help prevent the establishment of new or recurring fungal nail infection. PMID:25547349

  4. VT-1161 dosed once daily or once weekly exhibits potent efficacy in treatment of dermatophytosis in a guinea pig model.

    PubMed

    Garvey, E P; Hoekstra, W J; Moore, W R; Schotzinger, R J; Long, L; Ghannoum, M A

    2015-04-01

    Current therapies used to treat dermatophytoses such as onychomycosis are effective but display room for improvement in efficacy, safety, and convenience of dosing. We report here that the investigational agent VT-1161 displays potent in vitro antifungal activity against dermatophytes, with MIC values in the range of ≤0.016 to 0.5 μg/ml. In pharmacokinetic studies supporting testing in a guinea pig model of dermatophytosis, VT-1161 plasma concentrations following single oral doses were dose proportional and persisted at or above the MIC values for at least 48 h, indicating potential in vivo efficacy with once-daily and possibly once-weekly dosing. Subsequently, in a guinea pig dermatophytosis model utilizing Trichophyton mentagrophytes and at oral doses of 5, 10, or 25 mg/kg of body weight once daily or 70 mg/kg once weekly, VT-1161 was statistically superior to untreated controls in fungal burden reduction (P < 0.001) and improvement in clinical scores (P < 0.001). The efficacy profile of VT-1161 was equivalent to those for doses and regimens of itraconazole and terbinafine except that VT-1161 was superior to itraconazole when each drug was dosed once weekly (P < 0.05). VT-1161 was distributed into skin and hair, with plasma and tissue concentrations in all treatment and regimen groups ranging from 0.8 to 40 μg/ml (or μg/g), at or above the MIC against the isolate used in the model (0.5 μg/ml). These data strongly support the clinical development of VT-1161 for the oral treatment of onychomycosis using either once-daily or once-weekly dosing regimens. PMID:25605358

  5. Advances in Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and Public Health: Fungal Occurrence in the Hair and Skin of Symptomatic Pets in Turin, Italy.

    PubMed

    Allizond, Valeria; Tullio, Vivian; Cuffini, Anna Maria; Roana, Janira; Scalas, Daniela; Marra, Elisa Simona; Piersigilli, Giorgia; Merlino, Chiara; Mandras, Narcisa; Banche, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals, often asymptomatic reservoir of fungi, can be important sources of infection in humans, due to the close contact with their owners. The present study was aimed to assess the occurrence of dermatophytes and other fungi isolated from pet dermatological lesions in Turin, Italy. Dermatological specimens were examined for fungal elements by direct microscopy and cultured to detect dermatophytes, other filamentous fungi and yeasts: 247 pets (118 cats, 111 dogs and 18 dwarf rabbits) were positive for fungal detection in culture. Microsporum canis was the most frequent dermatophyte in cats and dogs, whereas Trichophyton mentagrophytes was the most common in rabbits. Among the other fungi, for all examined pets, dematiaceous fungi were the most isolated, followed by Mucorales, penicilli, yeasts and yeast-like fungi, and aspergilli. No gender predisposition was detected for dermatophyte growth; on the contrary, for the other fungi male cats were more susceptible than female. The highest fungal occurrence was recorded in <1-year-old cats for dermatophytes, and in <5-year-old cats and dogs for the other fungi. Autumn was the period associated with a relevant incidence of fungal infection. Finally, fungi were more frequent in non pure-breed cats and in pure-breed dogs. These data underline the importance to timely inform pet owners about the potential health risk of infection caused not only by dermatophytes but also by non-dermatophyte fungi, routinely considered to be contaminants or harmless colonizers, since their role as source of zoonotic infections is not to be excluded. PMID:26563306

  6. Antimicrobial activity of sesquiterpene lactones isolated from traditional medicinal plant, Costus speciosus (Koen ex.Retz.) Sm

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Costus speciosus (Koen ex.Retz.) Sm (Costaceae) is an Indian ornamental plant which has long been used medicinally in traditional systems of medicine. The plant has been found to possess diverse pharmacological activities. Rhizomes are used to treat pneumonia, rheumatism, dropsy, urinary diseases, jaundice, skin diseases and leaves are usedto treat mental disorders. Method Antibacterial and antifungal activities were tested using Disc diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Column chromatography was used to isolate compounds from hexane extract. X-ray crystallography technique and GC-MS analysis were used to identify the compounds Results Antibacterial and antifungal activities were observed in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. Hexane extract of C.speciosus showed good activity against tested fungi also. Two sesquiterpenoid compounds were isolated (costunolide and eremanthin) from the hexane extract. Both the compounds did not inhibit the growth of tested bacteria. But, both the compounds inhibited the tested fungi. The compound costunolide showed significant antifungal activity. The MIC values of costunolide were; 62.5 μg/ml against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 62. μg/ml against T. simii, 31.25 μg/ml against T. rubrum 296, 62.5 μg/ml against T. rubrum 57, 125 μg/ml against Epidermophyton floccosum, 250 μg/ml against Scopulariopsis sp, 250 μg/ml against Aspergillus niger, 125 μg/ml against Curvulari lunata, 250 μg/ml against Magnaporthe grisea. Conclusion Hexane extract showed promising antibacterial and antifungal activity. The isolated compound costunolide showed good antifungal activity. PMID:22397713

  7. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and extracts of Cordia curassavica (Boraginaceae).

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Tzasna; Canales, Margarita; Teran, Barbara; Avila, Olivia; Duran, Angel; Garcia, Ana Maria; Hernandez, Hector; Angeles-Lopez, Omar; Fernandez-Araiza, Mario; Avila, Guillermo

    2007-04-20

    In traditional Mexican medicine Cordia curassavica (Jacq) Roemer & Schultes is used to treat gastrointestinal, respiratory and dermatological disorders in Zapotitlán de las Salinas, Puebla (México). The aim of this work was to investigate antimicrobial activity of the essential oil, obtained by using Clevenger distillation apparatus, and hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from aerial parts of Cordia curassavica. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against 13 bacteria and five fungal strains. The oil and extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and five fungal strains. Sarcina lutea and Vibrio cholerae were the strains more sensitive to the essential oil effect (MIC=62 microg/mL) and Vibrio cholerae for the hexane extract (MIC=125 microg/mL). Rhyzoctonia solani was the strain more sensitive to the essential oil effect (IC(50)=180 microg/mL) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes for the hexane extract (IC(50)=230 microg/mL). The essential oil was examined by GC and GC-MS. A total 11 constituents representing 96.28% of the essential oil were identified: 4-methyl,4-ethenyl-3-(1-methyl ethenyl)-1-(1-methyl methanol)cyclohexane (37.34%), beta-eudesmol (19.21%), spathulenol (11.25%) and cadina 4(5), 10(14) diene (7.93%) were found to be the major components. The present study tends to confirm the use in the folk medicine of Cordia curassavica in gastrointestinal, respiratory and dermatological diseases. PMID:17140754

  8. 21-year retrospective study of the prevalence of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis in patients suspected of superficial mycoses

    PubMed Central

    Macura, Anna B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In the genus Scopulariopsis, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis is the most common aetiological agent of infections in humans. It usually affects nails and is one of the commonest moulds associated with onychomycoses. Other forms of infections (skin, subcutaneous, deep tissues, and disseminated infections) have also been described. Aim To examine the prevalence of S. brevicaulis in clinical materials obtained from patients suspected of keratinized tissues mycoses. Material and methods The analysis of the prevalence of S. brevicaulis in clinical specimens was based on mycological test's results carried out for patients who were referred with a suspicion of superficial mycoses to the Department of Mycology, Chair of Microbiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College from 1992 till 2012. Results In the years 1992–2012 16,815 clinical samples (nail scrapings, nail swabs, skin scrapings, skin swabs, hair) were collected. Pathogenic fungi were detected in 7193 samples and S. brevicaulis was present in 255 (3.5%). The prevalence of S. brevicaulis in males and females was comparable. The species was most often isolated from toenails (80%), both from males and females. In the analysed period we observed a decrease in the prevalence of S. brevicaulis. In most cases (60%) S. brevicaulis occurred alone in 40% of S. brevicaulis positive cultures, other fungi were also isolated. The fungi most frequently isolated with S. brevicaulis were Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Penicillium sp., Candida sp., and Aspergillus sp. Conclusions Scopulariopsis brevicaulis is not a common cause of superficial fungal infections of keratinized tissues, but is a typical mould associated with toenail onychomycosis. A proper identification of this species in onychomycoses is essential for the implementation of effective antifungal therapy. PMID:26161060

  9. VT-1161 Dosed Once Daily or Once Weekly Exhibits Potent Efficacy in Treatment of Dermatophytosis in a Guinea Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, W. J.; Moore, W. R.; Schotzinger, R. J.; Long, L.

    2015-01-01

    Current therapies used to treat dermatophytoses such as onychomycosis are effective but display room for improvement in efficacy, safety, and convenience of dosing. We report here that the investigational agent VT-1161 displays potent in vitro antifungal activity against dermatophytes, with MIC values in the range of ≤0.016 to 0.5 μg/ml. In pharmacokinetic studies supporting testing in a guinea pig model of dermatophytosis, VT-1161 plasma concentrations following single oral doses were dose proportional and persisted at or above the MIC values for at least 48 h, indicating potential in vivo efficacy with once-daily and possibly once-weekly dosing. Subsequently, in a guinea pig dermatophytosis model utilizing Trichophyton mentagrophytes and at oral doses of 5, 10, or 25 mg/kg of body weight once daily or 70 mg/kg once weekly, VT-1161 was statistically superior to untreated controls in fungal burden reduction (P < 0.001) and improvement in clinical scores (P < 0.001). The efficacy profile of VT-1161 was equivalent to those for doses and regimens of itraconazole and terbinafine except that VT-1161 was superior to itraconazole when each drug was dosed once weekly (P < 0.05). VT-1161 was distributed into skin and hair, with plasma and tissue concentrations in all treatment and regimen groups ranging from 0.8 to 40 μg/ml (or μg/g), at or above the MIC against the isolate used in the model (0.5 μg/ml). These data strongly support the clinical development of VT-1161 for the oral treatment of onychomycosis using either once-daily or once-weekly dosing regimens. PMID:25605358

  10. Fungal Contamination of Indoor Public Swimming Pools, Ahwaz, South-west of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, A; Amirrajab, N

    2010-01-01

    Background: Using public swimming pools during different seasons and poor health behavior could be responsible in transmission of fungal disease through pool water and its environment. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate fungal agents of indoor public swimming pools of Ahwaz, capital city of Khouzestan Province, south-west of Iran. Methods: Ten indoor swimming pools of Ahwaz were investigated during two seasons for 6 months. Water specimens were collected by pump and environment samples including shower-bath area, margin of pool walls, dressing rooms, and slippers, by sterile carpet pieces. All specimens were cultured in SC and SCC culture media and fungal agents identification were based on macroscopic, microscopic characteristic and complement tests when it was necessary. Data analyzing was performed using SPSS version 13 for descriptive analyzing. Results: A total of 593 samples were collected from different parts of pools. Interestingly in 13 samples from environmental places, dermatophytes were isolated as follows: Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum and Epidermophyton floccosum 5, 4, 3 and 1 cases respectively. Ten cases of dermatophytes were isolated from floor of dressing area. Three hundred seventy two saprophytic fungi species and 32 yeasts were recovered from water and environment surfaces samples. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Mucor were the most common isolated saprophytic fungi. Conclusion: Existence of saprophytic fungi and yeast in pools water seems to be an indicator of their resistance to detergent agents. In addition, yeast water contamination could be from swimmers. Dermatophytes isolation from pools environment areas and foot washing sink, reveals the importance of public swimming pools in disease transmission. Because dressing places are being used by all of the swimmers, take care of hygienic discipline in these places should be noted by health policy markers. PMID:23113031

  11. Isolation, structure, and biological activity of Phaeofungin, a cyclic lipodepsipeptide from a Phaeosphaeria sp. Using the Genome-Wide Candida albicans Fitness Test.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sheo B; Ondeyka, John; Harris, Guy; Herath, Kithsiri; Zink, Deborah; Vicente, Francisca; Bills, Gerald; Collado, Javier; Platas, Gonzalo; González del Val, Antonio; Martin, Jesus; Reyes, Fernando; Wang, Hao; Kahn, Jennifer Nielsen; Galuska, Stefan; Giacobbe, Robert; Abruzzo, George; Roemer, Terry; Xu, Deming

    2013-03-22

    Phaeofungin (1), a new cyclic depsipeptide isolated from Phaeosphaeria sp., was discovered by application of reverse genetics technology, using the Candida albicans fitness test (CaFT). Phaeofungin is comprised of seven amino acids and a β,γ-dihydroxy-γ-methylhexadecanoic acid arranged in a 25-membered cyclic depsipeptide. Five of the amino acids were assigned with d-configurations. The structure was elucidated by 2D-NMR and HRMS-MS analysis of the natural product and its hydrolyzed linear peptide. The absolute configuration of the amino acids was determined by Marfey's method by complete and partial hydrolysis of 1. The CaFT profile of the phaeofungin-containing extract overlapped with that of phomafungin (3), another structurally different cyclic lipodepsipeptide isolated from a Phoma sp. using the same approach. Comparative biological characterization further demonstrated that these two fungal lipodepsipeptides are functionally distinct. While phomafungin was potentiated by cyclosporin A (an inhibitor of the calcineurin pathway), phaeofungin was synergized with aureobasidin A (2) (an inhibitor of the sphingolipid biosynthesis) and to some extent caspofungin (an inhibitor of glucan synthase). Furthermore, phaeofungin caused ATP release in wild-type C. albicans strains but phomafungin did not. It showed modest antifungal activity against C. albicans (MIC 16-32 μg/mL) and better activity against Aspergillus fumigatus (MIC 8-16 μg/mL) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (MIC 4 μg/mL). The linear peptide was inactive, suggesting that the macrocyclic depsipeptide ring is essential for target engagement and antifungal activity. PMID:23259972

  12. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  13. A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(por)(O)(OAc) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam

    2012-06-01

    Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(por) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu4NHSO5), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu4NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols = CH3OH, C2H5OH, i-C3H7OH, t-C4H9OH) in CH2Cl2, were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C4H9OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO5- to O2 and HSO4-, through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.

  14. Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

    Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

  15. La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  16. Aquisição fonológica do português brasileiro por crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e surdas usuárias de implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisição fonológica do Português Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crianças surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito à Libras. Para a avaliação do sistema fonológico das crianças em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomeação, do ABFW – Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e a criança surda usuária de IC com acesso irrestrito à Libras apresentaram processo de aquisição fonológica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa etária. Considera-se que a aquisição precoce e o acesso irrestrito à Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crianças no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

  17. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el

  18. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of thiophene-based guanylhydrazones (iminoguanidines) efficient against panel of voriconazole-resistant fungal isolates.

    PubMed

    Ajdačić, Vladimir; Senerovic, Lidija; Vranić, Marija; Pekmezovic, Marina; Arsic-Arsnijevic, Valentina; Veselinovic, Aleksandar; Veselinovic, Jovana; Šolaja, Bogdan A; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Opsenica, Igor M

    2016-03-15

    A series of new thiophene-based guanylhydrazones (iminoguanidines) were synthesized in high yields using a straightforward two-step procedure. The antifungal activity of compounds was evaluated against a wide range of medicaly important fungal strains including yeasts, molds, and dermatophytes in comparison to clinically used drug voriconazole. Cytotoxic properties of compounds were also determined using human lung fibroblast cell line and hemolysis assay. All guanylhydrazones showed significant activity against broad spectrum of clinically important species of Candida spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium oxysporum, Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, which was in some cases comparable or better than activity of voriconazole. More importantly, compounds 10, 11, 13, 14, 18 and 21 exhibited excellent activity against voriconazole-resistant Candida albicans CA5 with very low minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values <2 μg mL(-1). Derivative 14, bearing bromine on the phenyl ring, was the most effective compound with MICs ranging from 0.25 to 6.25 μg mL(-1). However, bis-guanylhydrazone 18 showed better selectivity in terms of therapeutic index values. In vivo embryotoxicity on zebrafish (Danio rerio) showed improved toxicity profile of 11, 14 and 18 in comparison to that of voriconazole. Most guanylhydrazones also inhibited C. albicans yeast to hyphal transition, essential for its biofilm formation, while 11 and 18 were able to disperse preformed Candida biofilms. All guanylhydrazones showed the equal potential to interact with genomic DNA of C. albicans in vitro, thus indicating a possible mechanism of their action, as well as possible mechanism of observed cytotoxic effects. Tested compounds did not have significant hemolytic effect and caused low liposome leakage, which excluded the cell membrane as a primary target. On the basis of computational docking experiments using both human and cytochrome P450 from Candida it was concluded that the

  20. In vitro and in vivo antidermatophytic activity of the dichloromethane-methanol (1:1 v/v) extract from the stem bark of Polyscias fulva Hiern (Araliaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During the last decades, the number of people suffering from dermatophytoses has seriously increased, mainly due to the development of resistant strains of microorganisms to a range of formally efficient antibiotics. Polyscias fulva, a medium size tree which grows in the West Region of Cameroon is traditionally used for local application against dermatoses and orally against venereal infections. The dichloromethane-methanol (1:1 v/v) extract from the stem bark of Polyscias fulva was evaluated for its in vitro and in vivo antifungal activities. Methods The plant extract was prepared by maceration of its stem bark powder in CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v). The extract obtained was successively partitioned in hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Phytochemical screening was performed using standard methods. In vitro antidermatophytic activity was assayed by the well diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The degree of dermal irritation of the crude extract was determined in guinea pigs using the occluded dermal irritation test method. The in vivo antidermatophytic activity of the extract-oil formulation (1.25, 2.5 and 5% w/w concentrations) was evaluated using Trichophyton mentagrophytes-induced dermatophytosis in a guinea pigs model. Results Phytochemical screening indicated that, the crude extract, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and residue fractions contain in general saponins, tannins, alkaloids, anthraquinones and phenols while the hexane fraction contains only alkaloids. The ethyl-acetate, n-butanol and residue fractions displayed higher antifungal activities (MIC = 0.125-0.5 mg.mL-1) against eight dermatophytes as compared to the crude extract (MIC = 0.5-1 mg.mL-1). This latter appeared to have slight perceptible erythema effects on guinea pigs as the primary irritation index (PII) was calculated to be 0.54. In vivo, the antidermatophytic activities of the extract-oil formulations were dose-dependent. Griseofulvin-oil 5% at 0.01 g/kg and formulated extract-oil (5

  1. Antidermatophytic and Toxicological Evaluations of Dichloromethane-Methanol Extract, Fractions and Compounds Isolated from Coula edulis

    PubMed Central

    Tamokou, Jean De Dieu; Kuiate, Jules Roger; Gatsing, Donatien; Efouet, Alango Pépin Nken; Njouendou, Abdel Jélil

    2011-01-01

    Background: Coula edulis Bail (Olacaceae), is an evergreen tree growing to a height of 25. This study aimed at evaluating the antidermatophytic and toxicological properties of the stem bark of C. edulis extract as well as fractions and compounds isolated from it. Methods: The plant extract was prepared by maceration in CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v). The fractionation of this extract was done by silica gel column chromatography. Antidermatophytic activities were assayed using agar dilution method. The acute and sub-acute toxicities of oral administrations of the extract were studied in rodents. Results: The crude extract of C. edulis displayed antidermatophytic activity against the tested microorganisms with highest activity against Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The fractionation enhanced the antidermatophytic activity in fraction F3 (MIC=0.62-1.25 mg/ml) compared to the crude extract (MIC=1.25-5 mg/ml). Further fractionation and purification of the fractions F2 and F3 gave respectively 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside of sitosterol (MIC=0.20-0.40 mg/ml) and a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and n-hexadecanoid acid (MIC=0.80 mg/ml). The median lethal doses (LD50) of the crude extract were 16.8 and 19.6 g/kg body weight (BW) in male and female mice, respectively. At 200 mg/kg BW, there was a decrease in body weight gain, food and water consumptions. Gross anatomical analysis revealed white vesicles on the liver of the rats treated with the extract at 200 mg/kg BW. This dose also induced significant (P<0.05) changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in rats after 28 days of treatment. Conclusion: These data suggest that the CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v) extract of C. edulis stem bark possesses antidermatophytic properties. They also show that at high doses (≥ 200 mg/kg BW), the extract has significant hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic activities. PMID:23357938

  2. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, Sequence Type (ST), and Genomic Presence of IS1301 in Group B Meningococcal ST269 Clonal Complex Isolates from England and Wales▿

    PubMed Central

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J.; Kaczmarski, Edward B.; Guiver, Malcolm; Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Vallely, Pamela J.; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Tang, Christoph M.; Borrow, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Highly effective glycoconjugate vaccines exist against four of the five major pathogenic groups of meningococci: A, C, W-135, and Y. An equivalent vaccine against group B meningococci (menB) has remained elusive due to the poorly immunogenic capsular polysaccharide. A promising alternative, the investigational recombinant menB (rMenB)- outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine, contains fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), NadA, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for 90% of meningococcal disease in England and Wales, where the multilocus sequence type (ST) 269 (ST269) clonal complex (cc269) has recently expanded to account for a third of menB cases. To assess the potential cc269 coverage of the rMenB-OMV vaccine, English and Welsh cc269 isolates from the past decade were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, and NadA. All of the isolates harbored fHbp and nhba alleles, while 98% of the cc269 isolates were devoid of nadA. Subvariant profiling of fHbp, nhba, and porA against STs revealed the presence of two broadly distinct and well-defined clusters of isolates, centered around ST269 and ST275, respectively. An additional molecular marker, insertion sequence IS1301, was found to be present in 100% and <2% of isolates of the respective clusters. On the basis of the genetic data, the potential rMenB-OMV coverage of cc269 in England and Wales is high (up to 100%) within both clusters. Expression studies and serum bactericidal antibody assays will serve to enhance predictions of coverage and will augment ongoing studies regarding the significance of IS1301 within the ST269 cluster. PMID:19759227

  3. Characterization of invasive Neisseria meningitidis from Atlantic Canada, 2009 to 2013: With special reference to the nonpolysaccharide vaccine targets (PorA, factor H binding protein, Neisseria heparin-binding antigen and Neisseria adhesin A)

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond SW; Law, Dennis KS; Gad, Rita R; Mailman, Tim; German, Gregory; Needle, Robert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) has always been a major cause of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Canada. With the successful implementation of a meningitis C conjugate vaccine, the majority of IMD in Canada is now caused by MenB. OBJECTIVE: To investigate IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada from 2009 to 2013. Data were analyzed to determine the potential coverage of the newly licensed MenB vaccine. METHODS: Serogroup, serotype and serosubtype antigens were determined from IMD case isolates. Clonal analysis was performed using multilocus sequence typing. The protein-based vaccine antigen genes were sequenced and the predicted peptides were investigated. RESULTS: The majority of the IMD isolates were MenB (82.5%, 33 of 40) and, in particular, sequence type (ST)-154 B:4:P1.4 was responsible for 47.5% (19 of 40) of all IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada. Isolates of this clone expressed the PorA antigen P1.4 and possessed the nhba genes encoding for Neisseria heparin-binding antigen peptide 2, which together matched exactly with two of the four components of the new four-component meningococcal B vaccine. Nineteen MenB isolates had two antigenic matches, another five MenB and one meningitis Y isolate had one antigenic match. This provided 75.8% (25 of 33) potential coverage for MenB, or a 62.5% (25 of 40) overall potential coverage for IMD. CONCLUSION: From 2009 to 2013, IMD in Atlantic Canada was mainly caused by MenB and, in particular, the B:4:P1.4 ST-154 clone, which accounted for 47.5% of all IMD case isolates. The new four-component meningococcal B vaccine appeared to offer adequate coverage against MenB in Atlantic Canada. PMID:26744586

  4. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, and Sequence Type in Group B Meningococcal Case Isolates Collected in England and Wales during January 2008 and Potential Coverage of an Investigational Group B Meningococcal Vaccine▿

    PubMed Central

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J.; Kaczmarski, Edward B.; Guiver, Malcolm; Vallely, Pamela J.; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Borrow, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Invasive disease caused by meningococcal capsular groups A, C, W-135, and Y is now preventable by means of glycoconjugate vaccines that target their respective polysaccharide capsules. The capsule of group B meningococci (MenB) is poorly immunogenic and may induce autoimmunity. Vaccines based on the major immunodominant surface porin, PorA, are effective against clonal epidemics but, thus far, have a limited scope of coverage against the wider MenB population at large. In an alternative approach, the first-generation, investigational, recombinant MenB (rMenB) plus outer membrane vesicle (OMV) (rMenB-OMV) vaccine contains a number of relatively conserved surface proteins, fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), and NadA, alongside PorA P1.4-containing OMVs from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for approximately 90% of cases of meningococcal disease in England and Wales. To assess potential rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage of pathogenic MenB isolates within this region, all English and Welsh MenB case isolates from January 2008 (n = 87) were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, NadA, and PorA. Alleles for fHbp, nhba, and porA were identified in all of the isolates, of which 22% were also found to harbor nadA alleles. On the basis of genotypic data and predicted immunological cross-reactivity, the potential level of rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage in England and Wales ranges from 66% to 100%. PMID:20375242

  5. Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility in Barcelona: penA, ponA, mtrR, and porB mutations and NG-MAST sequence types associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Serra-Pladevall, J; Barberá, M J; Rodriguez, S; Bartolomé-Comas, R; Roig, G; Juvé, R; Andreu, A

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in our area, to analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in cephalosporins resistance, and to undertake molecular typing of our NG strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the Etest. The genes penA, mtrR, penB, and ponA were studied. Molecular typing was performed by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing. Of 329 strains analyzed in 2013, none showed high-level cephalosporin resistance, but 8.2 % had resistance to cefixime [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 0.125 μg/mL] and 0.6 % to ceftriaxone (MIC > 0.125 μg/mL). Azithromycin resistance was documented in 4.3 % and ciprofloxacin resistance in 49.2 %. Among 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 58.3 % showed the penA mosaic pattern XXXIV, 98 % a Leu → Pro substitution at position 421 of the ponA gene, 100 % amino acid changes at positions 101 and 102 of the PorB1b porin, and 87.5 % of strains an adenine deletion in the promoter region of the MtrC-D-E efflux pump. A significant difference between strains with and without decreased cephalosporin susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) was observed for these four genes. Of the 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 43.8 % belonged to the genogroup G1407 and 27.1 % belonged to the genogroup G2400. A significant association of G1407 with decreased susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) and G2992 with susceptibility was found, and also between G1407 and mosaic pattern XXXIV and between G2400 and A501T substitution in penA. The NG resistance rate in our area is higher than the median of Europe. We have detected the emergence of G2400, which may be a source of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27255221

  6. Eficacia de la detección sistemática de la gripe en las fronteras en los viajeros que llegan por vía aérea*

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Patricia C.; Jennings, Lance C.; Duncan, Alasdair R.; Brunton, Cheryl R.; Baker, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Se midieron los síntomas y la prevalencia de la gripe (también llamada influenza), así como la eficacia del mecanismo de detección sistemática basado en los síntomas y la temperatura para diagnosticar la gripe en viajeros internacionales que llegaban por vía aérea. Métodos. El presente estudio transversal recopiló datos de viajeros que llegaron al aeropuerto internacional de Christchurch (Nueva Zelandia) en el invierno del 2008 mediante un cuestionario de salud, medición de la temperatura y toma de muestras de las vías respiratorias. Resultados. De los viajeros, 15 976 (68%) entregaron los formularios completos. De ellos, 17% notificaron al menos un síntoma de gripe; los síntomas más comunes fueron rinorrea o congestión nasal (10%) y tos (8%). Se tomaron muestras de las vías respiratorias de 3 769 viajeros. La prevalencia estimada de la gripe fue de 1,1% (4% en las personas sintomáticas, 0,2% en las asintomáticas). La sensibilidad de los criterios de detección varió de 84% para “cualquier síntoma” a 3% para la fiebre de 37,8 °C o mayor. El valor predictivo positivo fue bajo para todos los criterios. Conclusiones. El método de detección sistemática en las fronteras mediante la autonotificación de síntomas y la toma de la temperatura presenta limitaciones para impedir que una gripe pandémica entre en un país. Basarse en criterios como “cualquier síntoma” o la tos haría que se investigara a varias personas no infectadas, mientras que algunas personas infectadas pasarían inadvertidas. Si se usaran criterios más específicos como la fiebre, la mayoría de las personas infectadas entrarían en el país a pesar del mecanismo de detección.

  7. New halide-centered discrete Ag(I)(8) cubic clusters containing diselenophosphate ligands, [Ag(8)(X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)](PF(6)) (X = Cl, Br; R = Et, Pr, (i)Pr): syntheses, structures, and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Liu, C W; Haia, Hsien-Chung; Hung, Chiu-Mine; Santra, Bidyut Kumar; Liaw, Ben-Jie; Lin, Zhenyang; Wang, Ju-Chun

    2004-07-12

    Six clusters Ag(8)(micro(8)-X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)(PF(6)) (R = Et, X = Cl, 1a, X = Br, 1b; R = Pr, X = Cl, 2a, X = Br, 2b; R = (i)Pr, X = Cl, 3a, X = Br, 3b) were isolated from the reaction of [Ag(CH(3)CN)(4)](PF(6)), NH(4)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)], and Bu(4)NX in a molar ratio of 4:3:1 in CH(2)X(2). Positive FAB mass spectra show m/z peaks at 2573.2 for 1a, 2617.3 for 1b, 2740.9 for 2a, 2786.9 for 2b, 2742.3 for 3a, and 2787.0 for 3b due to respective molecular cation, (M - PF(6))(+). (31)P NMR spectra of 1a-3b display a singlet at delta 82.3, 81.5, 82.9, 81.7, 76.3, and 75.8 ppm with a set of satellites (J(PSe) = 661, 664, 652, 652, 656, and 656 Hz, respectively). The X-ray structure (1a-2b) consists of a discrete cationic cluster in which eight silver ions are linked by six diselenophosphate ligands and a central micro(8)-Cl or micro(8)-Br ion with a noncoordinating PF(6)(-) anion. The shape of the molecule is a halide-centered distorted Ag(8) cubic cluster. The dsep ligand exhibits a tetrametallic tetraconnective (micro(2), micro(2)) coordination pattern, and each caps on a square face of the cube. Each silver atom of the cube is coordinated by three selenium atoms and the central chloride or bromide ion. Additionally, molecular orbital calculations at the B3LYP level of the density functional theory have been carried out to study the Ag-micro(8)-X (X = Cl, Br) interactions for cluster cations [Ag(8)(micro(8)-X)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)](+). Calculations show very weak bonding interactions exist between micro(8)-X and Ag atoms of the cube. PMID:15236560

  8. Novel chloride-centered discrete CuI8 cubic clusters containing diselenophosphate ligands. Syntheses and structures of [Cu8(mu8-Cl)[Se2P(OR)2](6)](PF6) (R = Et, Pr, iPr)1.

    PubMed

    Liu, C W; Hung, Chiu-Mine; Santra, Bidyut Kumar; Chen, Hsiu-Chih; Hsueh, Hsin-Hsueh; Wang, Ju-Chung

    2003-05-19

    Three clusters 1-3, Cu(8)(mu8-Cl)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)](6)(PF(6)) (R= Et, Pr, (i)Pr), were synthesized in high yield from the reaction of [Cu(CH(3)CN)(4)](PF(6)), NH(4)[Se(2)P(OR)(2)], and Bu(4)NCl in a molar ratio of 4:3:1 in diethyl ether. FAB mass spectra show m/z peaks at 2218.10 for 1, 2386.10 for 2, and 2387.34 for 3 which are due to molecular cations, [1-PF(6)]+, [2-PF(6)]+, and [3-PF(6)]+, respectively. (31)P NMR spectra of 1-3 display a singlet at delta 76.48, 76.73, and 69.32 ppm with satellites (J(PSe) = 652, 653, and 648 Hz), respectively. The (77)Se NMR spectra of 1-3 exhibit a doublet peak at -21.7, -16.42, and 2.3 ppm, respectively (J(SeP) = 652 Hz for 1, 653 Hz for 2, and 648 Hz for 3). The X-ray structure (1-3) consists of a discrete cationic cluster in which eight copper ions are linked by six diselenophosphate ligands and a central mu8-Cl ion with a noncoordinating PF(6)(-) anion. The shape of the molecule is a chloride-centered distorted Cu(8) cube in clusters 1 and 2 and a near perfect Cu(8) cube for cluster 3. The dsep ligand exhibits a tetrametallic tetraconnective (mu2, mu2)) coordination pattern, and each occupies a square face of the cube. Each copper atom of the cube is coordinated by three selenium atoms with a strong interaction with the central chloride ion. The observed Cu-Cl distances lie in the range 2.649-2.878 A. PMID:12739962

  9. On the Use of "Por" Plus Agent with "Se" Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Mello, George

    1978-01-01

    Two explanations for the role of "se" in such constructions as "Se construyen casas" are given by grammarians; one states that it is a passive interpretation ("Houses are built"), the other advocates an impersonal interpretation ("One builds houses"). Different views are presented and analyzed. (Author/NCR)

  10. Por los Ninos (For the Children): Education of Undocumented Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Elena R.; Team, Linda B.

    Published as a special project of Texas IMPACT and the Texas Conference of Churches, this booklet outlines legal aspects of the education of undocumented children, lists moral and practical reasons for educating them, provides reasons for changing the Texas law which prohibits use of state funds for education of children who are not legally…

  11. POR FIN (Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    A project was undertaken in San Antonio, Texas, to develop a recruitment approach which would be more effective than the traditional mass media approach in recruiting hard-core undereducated individuals into adult education classes. An experiment was designed to test a recruiting method which would employ a personal, face-to-face interview…

  12. [The right to avoid pregnancy] [POR, ENG translation included].

    PubMed

    1981-01-21

    Signs are finally appearing in Brazil that despite the government's hesitations and the hostility of the Catholic Church the decade of the 1980s shall bring effective changes intended to restrain population growth. Now, 4 years after its inclusion in the social program of the Geisel administration in 1977, family planning will become a reality. It is certainly about time, for at the present rate of growth the Brazilian population increases by about 6 persons per minute--about 3 million a year. At this pace, only a large scale State intervention that provides the population with information, assistance and free access to contraception may decisively reverse the trend. Figueiredo's government has decided that family planning should be introduced slowly, gradually and subtly, thus avoiding specific programs and publicity campaigns through the mass communication vehicles. In an effort to get around sharper criticism from the Church and the opposition, the government intends to mobilize catholic laypersons, priests, and nuns and, if possible, bishops in a national attempt to disseminate information on natural methods of birth control. As a 1st step, the Ministry of Health will widely distribute information on human reproduction and fecundity along with explanations of artificial contraceptive methods. Subject to the couple's decision and under medical indications, the free supply of contraceptive means to low income families shall be ensured by the government. The government will also allow sterilization. Despite its cautious approach, in actuality the government's program will in many places and circumstances be a massive inducement to contraceptive use. PMID:12337558

  13. La busqueda textual por computadora (Textual Search by Computer)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ned J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of the computer program EDIT for textual searches to locate a certain programmed word or word root. In the examples explained here, the vocabulary search is performed on poetry and allows examination of the metaphorical and conceptual poetic atmosphere achieved through word use. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  14. Biopesticides from plants: Calceolaria integrifolia s.l.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Salazar, Juan R; Ariza-Castolo, Armando; Yamaguchi, Lydia; Avila, José G; Aqueveque, Pedro; Kubo, Isao; Alarcón, Julio

    2014-07-01

    . Additionally, bactericidal and fungicidal activity were determined. Dunnione mixed with gallic acid was the most active fungistatic and fungicidal combination encountered. Several compounds as isorhamnetin, combined with ferulic and gallic acid quickly reduced cell viability, but cell viability was recovered quickly and did not differ from that of the control. The effect of these mixtures on cultures of Aspergillus niger, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium sporotrichum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, was sublethal. However, when fungistatic isorhamnetin and dunnione were combined with sublethal amounts of both ferulic and gallic acid, respectively, strong fungicidal activity against theses strains was observed. Thus, dunnione combined with gallic acid completely restricted the recovery of cell viability. This apparent synergistic effect was probably due to the blockade of the recovery process from induced-stress. The same series of phenolics (iridoids, flavonoids, naphthoquinones and phenylpropanoids) were also tested against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Enterobacter agglomerans, and Salmonella typhi, and against the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Sarcinia lutea, and Staphylococcus aureus and their effects compared with those that of kanamycin. Mixtures of isorhamnetin/dunnione/kaempferol/ferulic/gallic acid in various combinations were found to have the most potent bactericidal and fungicidal activity with MFC between 10 and 50 μg/ml. Quercetin was found to be the most potent fungistatic single compound with an MIC of 15 µg/ml. A time-kill curve study showed that quercetin was fungicidal against fungi assayed at any growth stage. This antifungal activity was slightly enhanced by combination with gallic acid. The primary antifungal action of the mixtures assayed likely comes from their ability to act as nonionic surfactants that disrupt the function of native membrane-associated proteins. Hence, the antifungal activity of

  15. Síndrome del Outlet Torácico: ¿Una Patología Siempre Quirúrgica? Análisis de una Serie de 31 Cirugías Realizadas por Vía Supraclavicular Serie clínica

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, Álvaro; Páez, Miguel Domínguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de outlet torácico es una compresión del plexo braquial que suscita polémica. Se clasifica en Outlet Torácico Verdadero o neurogénico (OTV) y Outlet Torácico Disputado o no neurogénico (OTD). El primero presenta síntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo sólo síntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirugías. Métodos: Se analizaron las cirugías de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagnósticos de outlet torácico cuyo período de seguimiento post-operatorio mínimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de síntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificación, resultado de los estudios neurofisiológicos y de imágenes, resultado de la cirugía, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirugías realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 años, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 años de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiológicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenológicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV presentó una alteración anatómica relacionada con la sintomatología, hecho observado sólo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeoró. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron más frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusión: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirugía, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporción mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patología. PMID:25165614

  16. A Comparison Between PSRK and GERG-2004 Equation of State for Simulation of Non-Isothermal Compressible Natural Gases Mixed with Hydrogen in Pipelines / Porównanie równań stanu opracowanych według metody PSRK oraz GERG-2004 wykorzystanych do symulacji zachowania ściśliwych mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach, w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uilhoorn, Frits E.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the GERG-2004 equation of state based on a multi-fluid approximation explicit in the reduced Helmholtz energy is compared with the predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong group contribution method. In the analysis, both equations of state are compared by simulating a non-isothermal transient flow of natural gas and mixed hydrogen-natural gas in pipelines. Besides the flow conditions also linepack-energy and energy consumption of the compressor station are computed. The gas flow is described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A pipeline section of the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline on Polish territory has been selected for the case study. W artykule dokonano porównania wyników uzyskanych przy wykorzystaniu równania stanu GERG- 2004 opartego na jawnym przybliżeniu wyników dla wielu cieczy w oparciu o zredukowaną energię Helmhotza oraz wyników uzyskanych w oparciu o metodę Soave-Redlich Kwonga. Obydwa równania stanu porównano poprzez przeprowadzenie symulacji stanów przejściowych przepływów gazu ziemnego oraz mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych. Oprócz warunków przepływu, określono energię w napełnionym układzie oraz zużycie energii przez stację kompresora. Przepływ gazu opisano zbiorem równań różniczkowych cząstkowych, wyprowadzonych w oparciu o prawa zachowania masy, pędu i energii. Jako studium przypadku wybrano fragment rurociągu jamalskiego (Yamal- Europa) przebiegającego przez terytorium Polski.

  17. 21 CFR 520.1100 - Griseofulvin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...—(i) Amount and indications for use—(A) For equine ringworm infection caused by Trichophyton equinum...; yearlings, 1.25 to 2.5 grams; and foals, 1.25 grams. (B) For treating ringworm infection caused by...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1100 - Griseofulvin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...—(i) Amount and indications for use—(A) For equine ringworm infection caused by Trichophyton equinum...; yearlings, 1.25 to 2.5 grams; and foals, 1.25 grams. (B) For treating ringworm infection caused by...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1100 - Griseofulvin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...—(i) Amount and indications for use—(A) For equine ringworm infection caused by Trichophyton equinum...; yearlings, 1.25 to 2.5 grams; and foals, 1.25 grams. (B) For treating ringworm infection caused by...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1100 - Griseofulvin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...—(i) Amount and indications for use—(A) For equine ringworm infection caused by Trichophyton equinum...; yearlings, 1.25 to 2.5 grams; and foals, 1.25 grams. (B) For treating ringworm infection caused by...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1100 - Griseofulvin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...—(i) Amount and indications for use—(A) For equine ringworm infection caused by Trichophyton equinum...; yearlings, 1.25 to 2.5 grams; and foals, 1.25 grams. (B) For treating ringworm infection caused by...

  2. Antifungal activity of fruit pulp extract from Bromelia pinguin.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Hernández, I L; Chávez-Velázquez, J A; Uribe-Beltrán, M J; Ríos-Morgan, A; Delgado-Vargas, F

    2002-08-01

    The methanol extract of the fruit pulp of Bromelia pinguin was evaluated for its antifungal activity. The extract showed a significant activity against some Trichophyton strains, although Candida strains were generally insensitive. PMID:12165338

  3. Fungal Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fungal Skin Infections Overview of Fungal Skin Infections Candidiasis Overview of Dermatophytoses (Ringworm, Tinea) Athlete's Foot Jock ... are caused by yeasts (such as Candida —see Candidiasis ) or dermatophytes, such as Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton ( ...

  4. See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo por Internet: Ideas por padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeanette

    Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many…

  5. Verification and validation interim report for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This Verification and Validation (V/V) interim report summarizes to date the results of the V/V tasks performed in each of the following life cycle phases: concept, requirements, design, implementation, test, installation and checkout, and operation and maintenance. At the end of the installation and checkout phase, the V/V final report will be issued. This interim report contains or references the following for each phase: Description of V/V tasks performed; Summary of task results; Summary of anomalies and resolution; Assessment of system quality; Recommendations.

  6. [Tropical and travel-related dermatomycoses: Part 1: Dermatophytoses].

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Reinel, D; Krüger, C; Grob, H; Mugisha, P; Süß, A; Mayser, P

    2015-06-01

    Today, tropical and travel-related dermatomycoses must be increasingly anticipated to present in dermatological offices and clinics. Skin infections due to dermatophytes or other fungi may occur after a journey in countries with a high prevalence for the respective causative fungal pathogen, e.g., tinea corporis due to Trichophyton soudanense. Otherwise, more frequently, single infections and even localized outbreaks due to "exotic" or "imported" pathogens of dermatophytoses occur. These epidemics are observed in childcare facilities in Germany and in other European countries. Source of infection are immigrants from Africa and sometimes from Asian countries. Furthermore, African children, and sometimes also adults, are often only asymptomatic carriers of such anthropophilic dermatophytes. Outbreaks of dermatophyte infections with one and more affected children and also adult staff and teachers due to Trichophyton violaceum or Microsporum audouinii in kindergartens and schools are not a rarity these days. Further tropical and travel-associated dermatophytes are Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton schoenleinii, and Trichophyton concentricum. Tinea capitis should be treated in a species-specific manner. Griseofulvin is the treatment of choice for infections due to Microsporum species. In contrast, tinea capitis due to Trichophyton species has to be treated by terbinafine, however, because the agent is not approved for children in Germany, only after receiving written consent of parents. Alternatives are fluconazole and itraconazole. Onset and aggravation of tinea pedis during travel has its origin in a preexisting neglected fungal infection of the feet. In the tropics, exacerbations and secondary bacterial complications of tinea pedis develop under distinctly promoting conditions. PMID:25868571

  7. The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Geoffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)

  8. Phantom of RAMSES (POR): A new Milgromian dynamicsN-body code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüghausen, Fabian; Famaey, Benoit; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    Since its first formulation in 1983, Milgromian dynamics (MOND) has been very successful in predicting the gravitational potential of galaxies from the distribution of baryons alone, including general scaling relations and detailed rotation curves of large statistical samples of individual galaxies covering a large range of masses and sizes. Most predictions however rely on static models, and only a handful of N-body codes have been developed over the years to investigate the consequences of the Milgromian framework for the dynamics of complex evolving dynamical systems. In this work, we present a new Milgromian N-body code, which is a customized version of the RAMSES code (Teyssier 2002) and thus comes with all its features: it includes particles and gas dynamics, and importantly allows for high spatial resolution of complex systems due to the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique. It further allows the direct comparison between Milgromian simulations and standard Newtonian simulations with dark matter particles. We provide basic tests of this customized code and demonstrate its performance by presenting N-body computations of dark-matter-free spherical equilibrium models as well as dark-matter-free disk galaxies in Milgromian dynamics.

  9. Abuso sexual por parte de los empleados del colegio (Sexual Misconduct by School Employees). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goorian, Brad

    This digest in Spanish defines sexual misconduct and offers guidelines that school boards and administrators can initiate to protect students from unwanted sexual behavior. The law recognizes two types of sexual misconduct: quid pro quo, when a school employee grants a student a favor in exchange for sexual gratification, and hostile environment,…

  10. Looking for a Job: Step by Step = Buscando Trabajo: Paso por Paso.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patricia

    This bilingual document provides guidelines and learning activities to assist migrant workers in looking for a job. The document covers the following areas: (1) a checklist providing an overview of job search skills; (2) developing a fact sheet of personal information; (3) listing good work qualities; (4) identifying references and securing…

  11. Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Teaching the Spanish Prepositions "Por" and "Para"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    L2 prepositions are traditionally taught in a non-explanatory manner by having students learn each use individually. This study examines the effectiveness of an alternative explanatory approach based on cognitive linguistics, which considers the multiple uses of a preposition as related. Consequently, learners can be shown a general schema that…

  12. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  13. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all…

  14. Neuropatía periférica inducida por quimioterapia

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre un efecto secundario de la quimioterapia que causa dolor y malestar en las manos y los pies. También incluye información sobre los esfuerzos para mejorar las opciones de detección, tratamiento y prevención.

  15. Ensenando El Espanol por Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual…

  16. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.…

  17. Producao d Dijatos por Dupla Troca de Pomeron Exclusiva no Experimento D0

    SciTech Connect

    Murilo Santana Rangel

    2008-01-01

    The first search for exclusive diffractive dijet production with invariant mass ≳ 100 GeV in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is performed. The set of data used is the Run IIa, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 pb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV taken with the D0 detector. At 95% CL, an upper limit for the ratio between the number of diffractive exclusive events and the number of non diffractive events is set to be 7.5 x 10-6, excluding two of the three models proposed to explain this production.

  18. The PorGrow project: overall cross-national results, comparisons and implications.

    PubMed

    Millstone, E; Lobstein, T

    2007-05-01

    European policymakers need more information on policy responses to obesity that stakeholders judge effective and acceptable. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project gathered such intelligence by interviewing key stakeholder groups in nine countries. Interviews used an innovative multi-criteria mapping (MCM) methodology that gathers quantitative and qualitative information on the stakeholders' perceptions and judgements. Aggregating across all participants, a comprehensive portfolio of policy measures, integrated into a coherent programme, would be well-supported by broad coalitions of stakeholders. Those portfolios should include measures (i) to provide improved educations in schools and to the general adult population; (ii) measures to improve access to and incentives for physical activity; (iii) measures to improve information about both foods and physical activity and (iv) changes to the supply of and demand for foodstuffs. There was little support for fiscal measures and technological 'fixes'; they were judged ineffective and unacceptable. Significant differences were found across European regions, and across different stakeholder perspectives, but not across genders. There is a strong case for improved monitoring of body mass index levels, dietary habits and physical activity. An MCM study can effectively cover several countries, rather than being confined to just one, and generate both national and cross-national policy analyses and proposals. PMID:17371305

  19. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate…

  20. "Por Los Ojos De Madres": Latina Mothers' Understandings of College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Laura Jean; Martinez, Melissa Ann; Sáenz, Victor B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, data from six focus groups with 30 Latina mothers in South Texas were analyzed utilizing a "funds of knowledge" approach to uncover their understandings of college readiness and their role in ensuring their children are college ready. Findings indicate that Latina mothers perceived college readiness in a holistic fashion,…

  1. Master equipment list 500 CFM portable exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    KRISKOVICH, J.R.

    1999-07-08

    The Master Equipment List (MEL) lists all the major components of the 500 cfm exhauster PORO5. The purpose of this Master Equipment List is to provide basic information and references to other documents for the listed components.

  2. PREJUICIO Y DISTANCIA SOCIAL HACIA PERSONAS HOMOSEXUALES POR PARTE DE JÓVENES UNIVERSITARIOS

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Rodríguez, María del C.; Squiabro, José Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con el propósito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utilizó una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente más prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron más prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a través del currículo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

  3. Renovando la Esperanza por una Educacion sin Exclusiones (Rekindling the Hope for an Education without Exclusion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this issue, written in Spanish, focus on the following: current status and outlook of youth and adult education; opening statement of the 50th anniversary commemoration; regional framework for the education of youth and adults in Latin America and the Caribbean; interculturalism and the education of youth and adults; participation of…

  4. El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  5. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli patógenas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli patógenas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en niños menores de 5 años en América Latina, África y Asia y están asociadas a alta mortalidad en niños en las comunidades más pobres de África y el Sudeste Asiático. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli patógenas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros países de América Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detección de estos patógenos en los laboratorios clínicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detección de E. coli patógenas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxigénica la cepa más frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en niños menores de 5 años. Otros patógenos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropatógena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisión de estos patógenos y a la infección del huésped susceptible. Más estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisión, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevención de estos patógenos que afectan la población pediátrica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  6. Dermatophytes isolated from the mosques in Tokat, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yenişehirli, Gülgün; Karat, Erhan; Bulut, Yunus; Savcı, Unsal

    2012-10-01

    Dermatophytes are a group of fungi that invade keratinized tissues such as the skin, hair and nails. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of the potential causative agents of dermatophytosis in the mosque area in Tokat, Turkey. Thirty mosques were included in the study. A total of two hundred samples were collected from various parts of carpets and slippers in the mosques. Positive cultures were obtained in 144 samples (113 from carpets, 31 from slippers). Among the species isolated, Epidermophyton floccosum (n = 114) (79.2 %) was the most frequent, followed by Trichophyton mentographytes (n = 13) (9 %), Trichophyton tonsurans (n = 9) (6.3 %), Trichophyton rubrum (n = 5) (3.5 %), and Trichophyton verrucosum (n = 3) (2 %). Contamination of carpets and slippers with dermatophytes may act as a reservoir for transmission of these fungi. Educational health programs, appropriate treatment, and management of disease may provide to control of the spread of fungal organisms. PMID:22576940

  7. Multiple medical problems following agent orange exposure.

    PubMed

    Ambrus, J L; Islam, A; Akhter, S; Dembinski, W; Kulaylat, M; Ambrus, C M

    2004-01-01

    A patient exposed to agent orange and a gunshot wound during the Vietnam War has developed multiple medical problems including nocardiosis, onychomycosis (Trichophyton rubrum), multiple thromboembolic episodes, hemochromatosis, diabetes mellitus type 2, diabetic neuropathy, activated protein C resistance (without Leyden V 1st mutation), degree A-V block, lung cancer (metastatic adenocarcinoma), carpal tunnel syndrome and arthritis. PMID:18084883

  8. Isolation of dermatophytes in wild felids from screening centers

    PubMed Central

    Albano, Ana Paula N.; da Silva Nascente, Patrícia; Meirelles Leite, Alice T.; Xavier, Melissa O.; Santin, Rosema; Mattei, Antonella Souza; Humberg, Roberta M.P.; Coimbra, Marco Antonio A.; Minello, Luiz Fernando; Meireles, Mario C.A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was detect the presence of dermatophyte fungi on wild felids from screening centers. Samples were taken from 30 animals, assembled in two groups: “free-ranging” and “transitory captivity”. The dermatophytes (Trichophyton genus), isolated from two felids (6.6%), both of the group “free-ranging”. PMID:24159301

  9. Recovery of medically important microorganisms from Apollo astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiological samples were obtained from the crewmembers of the Apollo 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17 spaceflights. These specimens were analyzed for the presence of medically important microorganisms with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Tricophyton mentagrophytes, Tricophyton rubrum, and Candida albicans being discussed in detail. Preflight isolation of crewmembers was found to coincide with a complete absence of inflight disease events and is recommended for future spaceflights. No autoinfection response (microbial shock) occurred after any of the reported spaceflights.

  10. Que hay de nuevo acerca de la inmersion? Un Breve Recorrido por sus Fundamentos y por las Investigaciones Actuales (What's New in Immersion? A Brief Overview of Its Bases and Present-Day Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Josu

    This discussion briefly surveys the development of the immersion method of second language teaching, outlining the central program strategies and characteristics using Curtain's and Pesola's descriptions. An overview of recent research focuses on error correction and feedback studies as an example of pedagogical-methodological evolution in this…

  11. Haciendo que los colegios se hagan responsables por el logro (Holding Schools Accountable for Achievement). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    This digest in Spanish describes the key features of current accountability systems and explores their implications for administrators. It discusses various aspects of accountability systems, such as rigorous content standards and the alignment of professional development with standards and test results, and how these elements work together to…

  12. Medida da razao de ramificacao do Decaimento D+ {right arrow}K- K+ K+ duplamente suprimido por cabibbo

    SciTech Connect

    da Silva Carvalho, H.

    1997-11-01

    In this thesis, we performed a study for the decay D{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup +} and D{sub s}{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup +}, using the data collected by the E791, a hadroproduction of charm experiment at Fermilab. The D{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup +} decay is doubly Cabibbo suppressed while the D{sub s}{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup +} decay is singly Cabibbo suppressed. We found 11.6{+-}3.9 events in the D{sup +} mass region and 8.9{+-}3.3 in the D{sub s}{sup +} mass region. The D{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup +} branching ratio is measured to be (3.7{+-}1.3{+-}0.6)x10{sup -4} while the D{sub s}{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup +} branching ratio relative to D{sub s}{sup +}{yields}{phi}{pi}{sup +} is measured to be (4.2{+-}1.5{+-}0.6)x10{sup -2}.

  13. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  14. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide…

  15. Evaluacion de que consister y por que se lleva acabo? (Evaluation: What Does it Consist of, and for What Purpose?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    A guide is presented for the evaluation of the bilingual programs in the Austin, Texas, Independent School District. The reasons for an evaluation and a definition of program objectives and evaluation instruments are given. The program components, objectives and evaluation instruments for each grade level (K-4) are listed. The components involved…

  16. Como ayudar a los padres a prevenir el envenenamiento por plomo (Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. This Spanish-language Digest summarizes some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies…

  17. Monitoreo óptico de eta-Carina durante el pasaje por el periastro en 2014.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Lajús, E.; Salerno, N. E.; Scalia, M. C.; Ramos, X. S.; Giudici, F. N.; Gamen, R. C.

    2015-08-01

    We present the H light curves resulting from the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons of Car as well as its spectral evolution, including the latest ``event'' occurred in mid-2014. The direct CCD observations were made with the telescope ``VS Niemela'' the Observatory of La Plata, and spectroscopic observations were made with the telescope ``J. Sahade'' of Casleo, Argentina.

  18. Disponibilidade de nutrientes na fitomassa produzida por cultivares de milho (Zea mays L.) de diferentes niveis tecnologicos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Macronutrient uptake, accumulation, and exportation can be affected by corn genetic selection. The objectives of this study were to quantify macronutrient extraction and to evaluate C/P and C/N ratio. The experiment was established at Rolândia County, Paraná State. Ten corn varieties divided into pa...

  19. Distribución superficial de impactos en Iapetus originada por el remanente de una colisión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppetti, F. A.; Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.

    2015-08-01

    By means of Circular Restricted Three Body Problem Saturn--Iapetus, we analize potential impact distributions on the surface of Iapetus, originated from considering a low-energy population generated as remnants of a collisional event occurred in the past on the surface of this satellite. The results are analized in order to offer a new approach to explain the origin of the albedo dichotomy observed on Iapetus.

  20. Antifungal activity and composition of essential oils of Conyza canadensis herbs and roots.

    PubMed

    Veres, Katalin; Csupor-Löffler, Boglárka; Lázár, Andrea; Hohmann, Judit

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils from herbs and roots of Conyza canadensis (horseweed), collected in Hungary, were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical compositions of the oils were analysed by combination of GC and GC/MS. The major constituent of the oil obtained from the aerial parts of horseweed was limonene (78%), while the main component of root oil was 2Z,8Z-matricaria ester. The antimicrobial activities of the oils were tested on Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes), Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria, reference fungal strains, and fungal strains isolated from patients (Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichophyton, Rhodotorula, and Aspergillus) by agar disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. None of the oils showed any activity against the tested bacterial strains, but exhibited moderate-to-strong activity against all fungi with the only exception of A. fumigatus. The highest zone of inhibition was observed in case of Cryptococcus neoformans and Trichophyton interdigitalis. PMID:23049473

  1. Antifungal Activity and Composition of Essential Oils of Conyza canadensis Herbs and Roots

    PubMed Central

    Veres, Katalin; Csupor-Löffler, Boglárka; Lázár, Andrea; Hohmann, Judit

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils from herbs and roots of Conyza canadensis (horseweed), collected in Hungary, were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical compositions of the oils were analysed by combination of GC and GC/MS. The major constituent of the oil obtained from the aerial parts of horseweed was limonene (78%), while the main component of root oil was 2Z,8Z-matricaria ester. The antimicrobial activities of the oils were tested on Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes), Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria, reference fungal strains, and fungal strains isolated from patients (Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichophyton, Rhodotorula, and Aspergillus) by agar disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. None of the oils showed any activity against the tested bacterial strains, but exhibited moderate-to-strong activity against all fungi with the only exception of A. fumigatus. The highest zone of inhibition was observed in case of Cryptococcus neoformans and Trichophyton interdigitalis PMID:23049473

  2. Prenylated flavonoids from the roots of Desmodium caudatum and evaluation of their antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hisako; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Shibatav, Hirofumi; Takaishi, Yoshihisa

    2012-11-01

    Two new prenylated flavonoids (1, 4) and two new prenylated C-methyl-flavonoids (6, 7), together with four known flavonoids (2, 3, 5, 8), were isolated from the roots of Desmodium caudatum. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D-, 2D-NMR and MS. The antifungal activities of five compounds (1, 2, 4, 6, 8) as well as nine flavonoids (9-17) previously isolated from this plant against Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Rhizopus sp., and Trichophyton sp. were evaluated. Compound 6 showed potent antifungal activity against Trichophyton sp. with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 1.95 µg/mL. PMID:23059627

  3. Antifungal activity of violacein purified from a novel strain of Chromobacterium sp. NIIST (MTCC 5522).

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Anju; Sasidharan, Nishanth Kumar; Amma, Dileepkumar Bhaskaran Nair Saraswathy; Vasu, Radhakrishnan Kokkuvayil; Nataraja, Anupama Vijaya; Bhaskaran, Krishnakumar

    2015-10-01

    A novel strain of Chromobacterium sp. NIIST (MTCC 5522) producing high level of purple blue bioactive compound violacein was isolated from clay mine acidic sediment. During 24 h aerobic incubation in modified Luria Bertani medium, around 0.6 g crude violacein was produced per gram of dry weight biomass. An inexpensive method for preparing crystalline, pure violacein from crude pigment was developed (12.8 mg violacein/L) and the pure compound was characterized by different spectrometric methods. The violacein prepared was found effective against a number of plant and human pathogenic fungi and yeast species such as Cryptococcus gastricus, Trichophyton rubrum, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium expansum, and Candida albicans. The best activity was recorded against Trichophyton rubrum (2 -g/ml), a human pathogen responsible for causing athlete-s foot infection. This is the first report of antifungal activity of purified violacein against pathogenic fungi and yeast. PMID:26428920

  4. [Dermatomycoses due to dermatophytes].

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E

    2016-03-01

    Dermatophytoses are frequent skin diseases. They are caused by anthropophilic, zoophilic or geophilic agents from the Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton genus. The clinical aspects distinguish diverse tinea on the scalp, distinct tinea of glabrous skin corresponding to lesions on the body, face, large folds as well as on palms and soles. Nails are also affected by dermatophytes. According to the involved area, the antifungal treatments are adapted to the nature and location of the fungus. PMID:27311247

  5. Prevalence of Tinea Capitis among School Children in Nok Community of Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dogo, Josephine; Afegbua, Seniyat Larai; Dung, Edward Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of tinea capitis, an infection of the scalp by dermatophytes, has increased in children worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factor of tinea capitis among school children in Nok community of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 100 children were screened and 45% were diagnosed to have tinea capitis after fungal culture and microscopy. The prevalence of tinea capitis among girls was higher (51.4%) than that among boys (41.5%) but not significantly different (p = 0.402). The prevalence with respect to age was lower for the age group 5-10 years (42.6%) than that of 11-15 years (50%) but was not significantly different (p = 0.524). Trichophyton rubrum (28.8%) and Microsporum canis (22.7%) were the most prevalent dermatophytes isolated and the least were Trichophyton verrucosum (4.5%) and Trichophyton tonsurans (4.5%). There were 73.3% single infection while 26.7% had 2-4 dermatophytes of the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. The predisposing factors with statistically significant association with tinea capitis were number of children in the family (p = 0.02) and sharing of the same bed (p = 0.002). This indicates the high tendencies of spread of tinea capitis through human-to-human mode of transmission and possible animal contact. Community health education on the cause, mode of transmission, prevention, and prompt treatment of tinea capitis is recommended. PMID:27471603

  6. Prevalence of Tinea Capitis among School Children in Nok Community of Kaduna State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dogo, Josephine; Dung, Edward Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of tinea capitis, an infection of the scalp by dermatophytes, has increased in children worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factor of tinea capitis among school children in Nok community of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 100 children were screened and 45% were diagnosed to have tinea capitis after fungal culture and microscopy. The prevalence of tinea capitis among girls was higher (51.4%) than that among boys (41.5%) but not significantly different (p = 0.402). The prevalence with respect to age was lower for the age group 5–10 years (42.6%) than that of 11–15 years (50%) but was not significantly different (p = 0.524). Trichophyton rubrum (28.8%) and Microsporum canis (22.7%) were the most prevalent dermatophytes isolated and the least were Trichophyton verrucosum (4.5%) and Trichophyton tonsurans (4.5%). There were 73.3% single infection while 26.7% had 2–4 dermatophytes of the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. The predisposing factors with statistically significant association with tinea capitis were number of children in the family (p = 0.02) and sharing of the same bed (p = 0.002). This indicates the high tendencies of spread of tinea capitis through human-to-human mode of transmission and possible animal contact. Community health education on the cause, mode of transmission, prevention, and prompt treatment of tinea capitis is recommended. PMID:27471603

  7. Impetigo-like tinea faciei around the nostrils caused by Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii identified using polymerase chain reaction-based sequencing of crusts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Daoxian; Ran, Yuping; Li, Conghui; Dai, Yaling; Lama, Jebina

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii (a teleomorph of Trichophyton interdigitale) infection around the nostrils in a 3-year-old girl. The culture was negative, so the pathogenic agent was identified using polymerase chain reaction-based sequencing of the crusts taken from the lesion on the nostril. Treatment with oral itraconazole and topical 1% naftifine/0.25% ketoconazole cream after a topical wash with ketoconazole shampoo was effective. PMID:23278484

  8. In vitro evaluation of the antifungal efficacy of poloxamer 407-based formulations in an infected nail plate model.

    PubMed

    Täuber, Anja; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2016-05-30

    The in vitro efficacy of poloxamer 407-based formulations with antifungal ciclopirox olamine has been analysed in an infected nail plate model. As artificial nail plates, keratin films made of human hair keratin and slices from bovine hooves have been utilised. Several poloxamer 407-based formulations with 1 % active ingredient indicated complete growth inhibition of the dermatophyte fungus Trichophyton rubrum after 6days of incubation. PMID:26992819

  9. Antifungal cobalt(II), copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II) complexes of furanyl-,thiophenyl-, pyrrolyl-, salicylyl- and pyridyl-derived cephalexins.

    PubMed

    Chohan, Zahid H; Pervez, Humayun; Khan, Khalid M; Rauf, A; Maharvi, Ghulam M; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2004-02-01

    Some novel cephalexin-derived furanyl, thiophenyl, pyrrolyl, salicylyl and pyridyl Schiff's bases and their cobalt (II), copper (II), nickel (II) and zinc (II) complexes have been synthesized and studied for their antifungal properties against Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glaberata. The presence of metal ions in the investigated Schiff's base complexes reported here lead to significant antifungal activity, whereas the parent ligands were generally less active. PMID:15202498

  10. Organization and Evolutionary Trajectory of the Mating Type (MAT) Locus in Dermatophyte and Dimorphic Fungal Pathogens▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjun; Metin, Banu; White, Theodore C.; Heitman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in fungi is governed by a specialized genomic region, the mating type (MAT) locus, whose gene identity, organization, and complexity are diverse. We identified the MAT locus of five dermatophyte fungal pathogens (Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton equinum, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton tonsurans) and a dimorphic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and performed phylogenetic analyses. The identified MAT locus idiomorphs of M. gypseum control cell type identity in mating assays, and recombinant progeny were produced. Virulence tests in Galleria mellonella larvae suggest the two mating types of M. gypseum may have equivalent virulence. Synteny analysis revealed common features of the MAT locus shared among these five dermatophytes: namely, a small size (∼3 kb) and a novel gene arrangement. The SLA2, COX13, and APN2 genes, which flank the MAT locus in other Ascomycota are instead linked on one side of the dermatophyte MAT locus. In addition, the transcriptional orientations of the APN2 and COX13 genes are reversed compared to the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, and Coccidioides posadasii. A putative transposable element, pogo, was found to have inserted in the MAT1-2 idiomorph of one P. brasiliensis strain but not others. In conclusion, the evolution of the MAT locus of the dermatophytes and dimorphic fungi from the last common ancestor has been punctuated by both gene acquisition and expansion, and asymmetric gene loss. These studies further support a foundation to develop molecular and genetic tools for dermatophyte and dimorphic human fungal pathogens. PMID:19880755

  11. DNA Microarray Based on Arrayed-Primer Extension Technique for Identification of Pathogenic Fungi Responsible for Invasive and Superficial Mycoses▿

    PubMed Central

    Campa, Daniele; Tavanti, Arianna; Gemignani, Federica; Mogavero, Crocifissa S.; Bellini, Ilaria; Bottari, Fabio; Barale, Roberto; Landi, Stefano; Senesi, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    An oligonucleotide microarray based on the arrayed-primer extension (APEX) technique has been developed to simultaneously identify pathogenic fungi frequently isolated from invasive and superficial infections. Species-specific oligonucleotide probes complementary to the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) region were designed for 24 species belonging to 10 genera, including Candida species (Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida famata, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida kefyr, Candida krusei, Candida guilliermondii, Candida lusitaniae, Candida metapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida pulcherrima), Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus species (Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus), Trichophyton species (Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton tonsurans), Trichosporon cutaneum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Fusarium solani, Microsporum canis, Penicillium marneffei, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The microarray was tested for its specificity with a panel of reference and blinded clinical isolates. The APEX technique was proven to be highly discriminative, leading to unequivocal identification of each species, including the highly related ones C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. Because of the satisfactory basic performance traits obtained, such as reproducibility, specificity, and unambiguous interpretation of the results, this new system represents a reliable method of potential use in clinical laboratories for parallel one-shot detection and identification of the most common pathogenic fungi. PMID:18160452

  12. Identification of Dermatophytes by an Oligonucleotide Array▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hsin Chieh; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Hsu, Mark Ming-Long; Barton, Richard; Chang, Tsung Chain

    2007-01-01

    Species of dermatophytes are classified into three anamorphic (asexual) genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Conventional methods used to identify dermatophytes are often lengthy and may be inconclusive because of atypical microscopic or colony morphology. Based on the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) and ITS-2 sequences of the rRNA genes, an oligonucleotide array was developed to identify 17 dermatophyte species. The method consisted of PCR amplification of the ITS regions using universal primers, followed by hybridization of the digoxigenin-labeled PCR products to an array of oligonucleotides (17- to 30-mers) immobilized on a nylon membrane. Of 198 dermatophyte strains and 90 nontarget strains tested, the sensitivity and specificity of the array were 99.5% and 97.8%, respectively. The only strain not identified (Microsporum audouinii LMA 597) was found to have a nucleotide insertion at the ITS-2 region where the probe was designed. Two nontarget strains, Microsporum equinum LMA 40396666 and Trichophyton gourvilii var. intermedium CBS 170.65, were misidentified as Microsporum canis and Trichophyton soudanense, respectively. Sequence analysis of the ITS regions revealed that the two misidentified strains displayed high sequence homology with the probes designed for M. canis and T. soudanense, respectively. The present method can be used as a reliable alternative to conventional identification methods and can be completed with isolated colonies within 24 h. PMID:17687010

  13. Antifungal activity in triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Actinopyga lecanora.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Chaturvedi, Ashok Kumar; Shukla, Praveen Kumar; Lakshmi, Vijai

    2007-08-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of methanol extract of sea cucumber Actinopyga lecanora led to the isolation of a new triterpene glycoside (1), along with two known glycosides holothurin B (3) and holothurin A (4). The structure has been elucidated on the basis of extensive 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis. The saponin (3) showed in vitro antifungal activity against all the twenty fungal test isolates including ATCC strain and was found to be most effective against Trychophyton mentagrophytes and Sporothrix schenckii, MIC range of 1.56 microg/ml. PMID:17587569

  14. Wide-spectrum activity of a silver-impregnated fabric.

    PubMed

    Gerba, Charles P; Sifuentes, Laura Y; Lopez, Gerardo U; Abd-Elmaksoud, Sherif; Calabrese, Jesse; Tanner, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    Fabrics, such as clothing, drapes, pillowcases, and bedsheets are potential sources of pathogenic bacteria and viruses. We found fabrics (ie, professional clothing, pillowcases, and lab coats) treated with a silver-impregnated material to be effective in significantly reducing a wide spectrum of ordinary and drug-resistant microorganisms, including Salmonella, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Propionibacterium acnes, Trichphyton mentagrophytes, and norovirus. Fabrics impregnated with antimicrobial agents help provide an additional barrier to the transport or reservoir of pathogens in health care environments. PMID:26827093

  15. Antimycotic effectiveness against dermatophytes: comparison of two in vitro tests.

    PubMed

    Galuppi, Roberta; Gambarara, Alessandra; Bonoli, Cristina; Ostanello, Fabio; Tampieri, Maria Paola

    2010-06-01

    Seven antimycotic drugs (econazole, enilconazole, fluconazole, griseofulvin, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and miconazole) were tested against 36 dermatophyte strains (19 M. canis, 7 T. mentagrophytes, 5 M. gypseum, 2 M. cookei, 1 T. rubrum, 1 T. ajelloi, and 1 T. terrestre) isolated from animals, humans, and the environment. Two in vitro methods were compared: a micro-dilution test based on the CLSI M38-A method, and a disk-diffusion test. Fluconazole was not effective in vitro against the dermatophytes. Econazole and enilconazole were the most effective. Thirteen strains were griseofulvin-resistant. The correlation between the two methods was statistically significant for enilconazole, griseofulvin, itraconazole, and miconazole. PMID:20490661

  16. Antimicrobial activity of Hymenaea martiana towards dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Ana Cristina Machado; Kato, Lucilia; da Silva, Cleuza Conceição; Cidade, Amanda Feitosa; de Oliveira, Cecilia Maria Alves; Silva, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues

    2010-11-01

    The biological activity of crude extract and fractions of Hymenaea martiana was evaluated against a panel of human pathogenic fungi. The crude extracts and hydroalcoholic fractions (E) showed a high activity against Cryptococcus neoformans species complex isolates with MICs between 2 and 64 μg ml(-1). The methanolic (C) and butanolic (D) fractions were the most active against Trichopyton rubrum, Trichopyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis with MICs between 8 and 256 μg ml(-1). None of the extracts was active against the yeast Malassezia furfur, Malassezia obtusa and Malassezia sympodialis. PMID:19563478

  17. Efectos de Campos Magnéticos en las Tasas de Consumo de Madera por Coptotermes formosanus, la Termita Subterránea de Formosa.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty groups of 500 workers and 50 soldiers of Coptotermes formosanus were maintained in costume designed containers and fed with a piece of red oak wood (Quercus rubra). Twenty of these groups were exposed to permanent magnets with a flux of 800 G. Another 20 groups were exposed to a permanent mag...

  18. Realidades Suburbanas: Latinos en el Condado de Dakota. Una Investigacion Dirigida por HACER = Suburban Realities: Latinos in Dakota County. A Study Conducted by HACER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HACER: Hispanic Advocacy and Community Empowerment through Research, Minneapolis, MN.

    A research project was conducted between April and December of 1998 to learn about the experiences of the sizable numbers of Latinos who live in Dakota County (Minnesota). This diverse group was studied through examining existing demographic information, conducting interviews with 45 Latino and Anglo individuals, and conducting several focus…

  19. Effect of por-SiC buffer layer on the parameters of thin Er2O3 layers on silicon carbide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacherikov, Yu Yu; Konakova, R. V.; Okhrimenko, O. B.; Berezovska, N. I.; Kapitanchuk, L. M.; Svetlichnyi, A. M.; Svetlichnaya, L. A.

    2015-04-01

    Using optical absorption and Auger spectrometry techniques, we studied the effect of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the properties of erbium oxide films deposited onto a porous silicon carbide buffer layer formed on 4H-SiC substrates. An analysis of atomic composition of the films under investigation as a function of RTA duration was performed. It is shown that phase composition of erbium oxide films on silicon carbide substrates with a porous SiC layer can be changed by varying RTA duration.

  20. Escucheme Por Favor/Please Listen to Me: An Analysis of the Perceptions of Latino Students and Teachers in a High School Multilingual Teacher Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacio, Peter Vincent

    2010-01-01

    This case study used photo elicitation interviewing (PEI) to analyze perceptions of Latino students and their teachers in a multilanguage high school academy. It examined student involvement in school, dropout rate, and pursuit of a college education. Ten academy teachers and 10 Latino senior students were interviewed. Observations obtained…