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Sample records for porcine brain correlation

  1. Brain microabscesses in a porcine model of Staphylococcus aureus sepsis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus often leads to brain microabscesses in humans. Animal models of haematogenous brain abscesses would be useful to study this condition in detail. Recently, we developed a model of S. aureus sepsis in pigs and here we report that brain microabscesses develop in pigs with such induced S. aureus sepsis. Twelve pigs were divided into three groups. Nine pigs received an intravenous inoculation of S. aureus once at time 0 h (group 1) or twice at time 0 h and 12 h (groups 2 and 3). In each group the fourth pig served as control. The pigs were euthanized at time 12 h (Group 1), 24 h (Group 2) and 48 h (Group 3) after the first inoculation. The brains were collected and examined histopathologically. Results All inoculated pigs developed sepsis and seven out of nine pigs developed brain microabscesses. The microabscesses contained S. aureus and were located in the prosencephalon and mesencephalon. Chorioditis and meningitis occurred from 12 h after inoculation. Conclusions Pigs with experimental S. aureus sepsis often develop brain microabscesses. The porcine brain pathology mirrors the findings in human sepsis patients. We therefore suggest the pig as a useful animal model of the development of brain microabscesses caused by S. aureus sepsis. PMID:24176029

  2. Optical changes of porcine brain tissue after thermal coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzmaier, Hans-Joachim; Goldbach, Thomas; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.; Ulrich, Frank; Bettag, Martin; Kahn, Thomas; Kaufmann, Raimund

    1995-05-01

    Porcine brain tissue is a model for human brain structures in laser induced thermo-therapy. However, its optical properties including possible heat-related changes were basically unknown so far. To simulate laser coagulation, 12 specimens (6 grey and 6 white matter) were heated in a saline bath (80°C, 2 hours) and compared to 11 untreated samples (5 grey and 6 white matter). The optical constants were obtained from transmission (total and collimated) and reflection (diffuse) measurements using the inverse Monte-Carlo method. The absorption coefficient ((mu) a) of untreated grey substance decreased from 0.35 +/- 0.06/mm (340 nm) to 0.03 +/- 0.02/mm (800 nm). The scattering coefficient ((mu) s) varied between 20.42 +/- 3.65/mm (340 nm) and 6.85 +/- 2.07/mm (800 nm). The anisotropy factor (g) increased from 0.848 +/- 0.013 (340 nm) to 0.889 +/- 0.009 (800 nm). Coagulation increased (mu) a up to a factor of 2 (340-540 nm; p < 0.05), and (mu) s by a factor up to 3 (340-800 nm, all data p < 0.001) while g was decreased up to 18% (340-560 nm; p < 0.05). White substance exhibited a (mu) a between 0.24 +/- 0.07/mm (340 nm) and 0.04 +/- 0.02/mm (800 nm) while (mu) s varied between 26.72 +/- 9.10/mm (340 nm) and 21.78 +/- 3.88/mm (800 nm). The g-value increased from 0.561 +/- 0.180 (340 nm) to 0.834 +/- 0.068 (800 nm). Coagulation increased (mu) a by a factor up to 2 (340-800 nm; all data p < 0.05) while (mu) s and g remained unchanged. Thermal denaturation changes the absorption and scattering properties of porcine brain significantly.

  3. Porcine brain natriuretic peptide receptor in bovine adrenal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, K.; Hashiguchi, T.; Ohashi, M.; Takayanagi, R.; Haji, M.; Matsuo, H.; Nawata, H.

    1989-01-01

    The action of porcine brain natriuretic peptide (pBNP) on the steroidogenesis was investigated in cultured bovine adrenocortical cells. Porcine BNP induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of both ACTH- and A II-stimulated aldosterone secretion. 10/sup /minus/8/M and 10/sup /minus/7/M pBNP also significantly inhibited ACTH-stimulated cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretions. Binding studies of (/sup 125/I)-pBNP to bovine adrenocortical membrane fractions showed that adrenal cortex had high-affinity and low-capacity pBNP binding sites, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 1.70 x 10/sup /minus/10/M and a maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of 19.9 fmol/mg protein. Finally, the 135 Kd radioactive band was specially visualized in the affinity labeling of bovine adrenal cortex with disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS). These results suggest that pBNP may have receptor-mediated suppressive actions on bovine adrenal steroidogenesis, similar to that in atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP).

  4. Experimental research of mechanical behavior of porcine brain tissue under rotational shear stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Kan; Wang, Mingyu; Gao, Changqing; Ma, Chao

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate mechanical behavior of porcine brain tissue with a series of rotational shear stress control experiments. To this end, several experiments including stress sweep tests, frequency sweep tests and quasi-static creep tests were designed and conducted with a standard rheometer (HAAKE RheoStress6000). The effects of the loading stress rates to mechanical properties of brain tissue were also studied in stress sweep tests. The results of stress sweep tests performed on the same brain showed that brain tissue had an obvious regional inhomogeneity and the mechanical damage occurred at the rotational shear stress of 10-15Pa. The experimental data from three different loading stress rates demonstrated that the mechanical behavior of porcine brain tissue was loading stress rate dependent. With the decrease of loading stress rate, a stiffer mechanical characteristic of brain tissue was observed and the occurrence of mechanical damage can be delayed to a higher stress. From the results of frequency sweep tests we found that brain tissue had almost completely elastic properties at high frequency area. The nonlinear creep response under the rotational shear stress of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9Pa was shown in results of creep tests. A new nonlinear viscoelastic solid model was proposed for creep tests and matched well with the test data. Considering the regional differences, loading stress rates and test conditions effects, loss tangent tan δ in porcine brain tissue showed a high uniformity of 0.25-0.45. PMID:26735181

  5. Fucosyl-GM1a, an endoglycoceramidase-resistant ganglioside of porcine brain.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Monjusho, Hatsumi; Inagaki, Masanori; Hama, Yoichiro; Yamaguchi, Kuniko; Sakaguchi, Keishi; Iwamori, Masao; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    The use of bovine brain has been prohibited in many countries because of the world-wide prevalence of mad cow disease, and thus porcine brain is expected to be a new source for the preparation of gangliosides. Here, we report the presence of a ganglioside in porcine brain which is strongly resistant to hydrolysis by endoglycoceramidase, an enzyme capable of cleaving the glycosidic linkage between oligosaccharides and ceramides of various glycosphingolipids. Five major gangliosides (designated PBG-1, 2, 3, 4, 5) were extracted from porcine brain by Folch's partition, followed by mild alkaline hydrolysis and PBA column chromatography. We found that PBG-2, but not the others, was strongly resistant to hydrolysis by the enzyme. After the purification of PBG-2 with Q-Sepharose, Silica gel 60 and Prosep-PB chromatographies, the structure of PBG-2 was determined by GC, GC-MS, FAB-MS and NMR spectroscopy as Fucalpha1-2Galbeta1-3GalNAcbeta1-4(NeuAcalpha2-3)Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1-1'Cer (fucosyl-GM1a). The ceramide was mainly composed of C18:0 and C20:0 fatty acids and d18:1 and d20:1 sphingoid bases. The apparent kcat/Km for fucosyl-GM1a was found to be 30 times lower than that for GM1a, indicating that terminal fucosylation makes GM1a resistant to hydrolysis by the enzyme. This report indicates the usefulness of endoglycoceramidase to prepare fucosyl-GM1a from porcine brain. PMID:17167042

  6. A Triple Culture Model of the Blood-Brain Barrier Using Porcine Brain Endothelial cells, Astrocytes and Pericytes

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Burkhart, Annette; Moos, Torben

    2015-01-01

    In vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models based on primary brain endothelial cells (BECs) cultured as monoculture or in co-culture with primary astrocytes and pericytes are useful for studying many properties of the BBB. The BECs retain their expression of tight junction proteins and efflux transporters leading to high trans-endothelial electric resistance (TEER) and low passive paracellular permeability. The BECs, astrocytes and pericytes are often isolated from small rodents. Larger species as cows and pigs however, reveal a higher yield, are readily available and have a closer resemblance to humans, which make them favorable high-throughput sources for cellular isolation. The aim of the present study has been to determine if the preferable combination of purely porcine cells isolated from the 6 months old domestic pigs, i.e. porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs) in co-culture with porcine astrocytes and pericytes, would compare with PBECs co-cultured with astrocytes and pericytes isolated from newborn rats with respect to TEER value and low passive permeability. The astrocytes and pericytes were grown both as contact and non-contact co-cultures as well as in triple culture to examine their effects on the PBECs for barrier formation as revealed by TEER, passive permeability, and expression patterns of tight junction proteins, efflux transporters and the transferrin receptor. This syngenic porcine in vitro BBB model is comparable to triple cultures using PBECs, rat astrocytes and rat pericytes with respect to TEER formation, low passive permeability, and expression of hallmark proteins signifying the brain endothelium (tight junction proteins claudin 5 and occludin, the efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (PgP) and breast cancer related protein (BCRP), and the transferrin receptor). PMID:26241648

  7. Metabolic correlates of hominid brain evolution.

    PubMed

    Leonard, William R; Robertson, Marcia L; Snodgrass, J Josh; Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2003-09-01

    Large brain sizes in humans have important metabolic consequences as humans expend a relatively larger proportion of their resting energy budget on brain metabolism than other primates or non-primate mammals. The high costs of large human brains are supported, in part, by diets that are relatively rich in energy and other nutrients. Among living primates, the relative proportion of metabolic energy allocated to the brain is positively correlated with dietary quality. Humans fall at the positive end of this relationship, having both a very high quality diet and a large brain size. Greater encephalization also appears to have consequences for aspects of body composition. Comparative primate data indicate that humans are 'under-muscled', having relatively lower levels of skeletal muscle than other primate species of similar size. Conversely, levels of body fatness are relatively high in humans, particularly in infancy. These greater levels of body fatness and reduced levels of muscle mass allow human infants to accommodate the growth of their large brains in two important ways: (1) by having a ready supply of stored energy to 'feed the brain', when intake is limited and (2) by reducing the total energy costs of the rest of the body. Paleontological evidence indicates that the rapid brain evolution observed with the emergence of Homo erectus at approximately 1.8 million years ago was likely associated with important changes in diet and body composition. PMID:14527625

  8. Study of follitropin receptors in testis using a homologous system. Binding of porcine follitropin to plasma membranes from immature porcine testis and correlation with adenylate cyclase stimulation.

    PubMed

    Maghuin-Rogister, G; Closset, J; Combarnous, Y; Hennen, G; Dechenne, C; Ketelslegers, J M

    1978-05-01

    The properties of follitropin receptors in immature porcine testis were determined using highly purified porcine follitropin. 1. The characteristics of follitropin binding to a subcellular fraction rich in plasma membranes were studied using a 125I-labelled follitropin with high specific activity (75-100 Ci/g) and high binding activity. The binding is dependent on time, temperature and pH. It is specific to follitropin as demonstrated by the very low binding activity of the follitropin alpha and beta subunits and of the other glycoprotein hormones. Scatchard analysis of binding data indicated an equilibrium association constant of 2 x 10(10) M-1 and a concentration of high affinity binding sites of 500 fmol/mg membrane proteins. 2. A sensitive radio-ligand receptor assay was developed. Fifty percent inhibition of binding was obtained with as little as 2 ng of porcine follitropin. Ovine and bovine follitropins and pregnant mare serum gonadotropin gave binding inhibition curves parallel to that given by porcine follitropin. With equine and human follitropin, significantly different slopes were recorded. 3. Kinetics of dissociation of labelled follitropin from its testis receptors showed the presence of at least two compartments with fast and slow dissociation rate constants. The ratio between the sizes of the slow and fast compartments appeared dependent upon preincubation time. 4. A temporal correlation was observed between binding of follitropin to testis receptors and activation of membrane bound adenylate cyclase. PMID:207514

  9. Profile analysis of hepatic porcine and murine brain tissue slices obtained with a vibratome.

    PubMed

    Mattei, G; Cristiani, I; Magliaro, C; Ahluwalia, A

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at characterizing soft tissue slices using a vibratome. In particular, the effect of two sectioning parameters (i.e., step size and sectioning speed) on resultant slice thickness was investigated for fresh porcine liver as well as for paraformaldehyde-fixed (PFA-fixed) and fresh murine brain. A simple framework for embedding, sectioning and imaging the slices was established to derive their thickness, which was evaluated through a purposely developed graphical user interface. Sectioning speed and step size had little effect on the thickness of fresh liver slices. Conversely, the thickness of PFA-fixed murine brain slices was found to be dependent on the step size, but not on the sectioning speed. In view of these results, fresh brain tissue was sliced varying the step size only, which was found to have a significant effect on resultant slice thickness. Although precision-cut slices (i.e., with regular thickness) were obtained for all the tissues, slice accuracy (defined as the match between the nominal step size chosen and the actual slice thickness obtained) was found to increase with tissue stiffness from fresh liver to PFA-fixed brain. This quantitative investigation can be very helpful for establishing the most suitable slicing setup for a given tissue. PMID:25945319

  10. Profile analysis of hepatic porcine and murine brain tissue slices obtained with a vibratome

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, G; Cristiani, I; Magliaro, C

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at characterizing soft tissue slices using a vibratome. In particular, the effect of two sectioning parameters (i.e., step size and sectioning speed) on resultant slice thickness was investigated for fresh porcine liver as well as for paraformaldehyde-fixed (PFA-fixed) and fresh murine brain. A simple framework for embedding, sectioning and imaging the slices was established to derive their thickness, which was evaluated through a purposely developed graphical user interface. Sectioning speed and step size had little effect on the thickness of fresh liver slices. Conversely, the thickness of PFA-fixed murine brain slices was found to be dependent on the step size, but not on the sectioning speed. In view of these results, fresh brain tissue was sliced varying the step size only, which was found to have a significant effect on resultant slice thickness. Although precision-cut slices (i.e., with regular thickness) were obtained for all the tissues, slice accuracy (defined as the match between the nominal step size chosen and the actual slice thickness obtained) was found to increase with tissue stiffness from fresh liver to PFA-fixed brain. This quantitative investigation can be very helpful for establishing the most suitable slicing setup for a given tissue. PMID:25945319

  11. A Porcine Model of Traumatic Brain Injury via Head Rotational Acceleration.

    PubMed

    Cullen, D Kacy; Harris, James P; Browne, Kevin D; Wolf, John A; Duda, John E; Meaney, David F; Margulies, Susan S; Smith, Douglas H

    2016-01-01

    Unique from other brain disorders, traumatic brain injury (TBI) generally results from a discrete biomechanical event that induces rapid head movement. The large size and high organization of the human brain makes it particularly vulnerable to traumatic injury from rotational accelerations that can cause dynamic deformation of the brain tissue. Therefore, replicating the injury biomechanics of human TBI in animal models presents a substantial challenge, particularly with regard to addressing brain size and injury parameters. Here we present the historical development and use of a porcine model of head rotational acceleration. By scaling up the rotational forces to account for difference in brain mass between swine and humans, this model has been shown to produce the same tissue deformations and identical neuropathologies found in human TBI. The parameters of scaled rapid angular accelerations applied for the model reproduce inertial forces generated when the human head suddenly accelerates or decelerates in falls, collisions, or blunt impacts. The model uses custom-built linkage assemblies and a powerful linear actuator designed to produce purely impulsive non-impact head rotation in different angular planes at controlled rotational acceleration levels. Through a range of head rotational kinematics, this model can produce functional and neuropathological changes across the spectrum from concussion to severe TBI. Notably, however, the model is very difficult to employ, requiring a highly skilled team for medical management, biomechanics, neurological recovery, and specialized outcome measures including neuromonitoring, neurophysiology, neuroimaging, and neuropathology. Nonetheless, while challenging, this clinically relevant model has proven valuable for identifying mechanisms of acute and progressive neuropathologies as well as for the evaluation of noninvasive diagnostic techniques and potential neuroprotective treatments following TBI. PMID:27604725

  12. Correlates of Protection Following Vaccination with Inactivated Porcine Circovirus 2 Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Cinzia; Martinelli, Nicola; Lelli, Davide; Amadori, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with a number of diseases and syndromes, collectively referred to as porcine circovirus-associated disease. The main objective of this study was to define some in vitro correlates of protection after injection of inactivated PCV2 vaccines with a defined antigen mass. Twelve pigs were vaccinated with three different doses of inactivated, whole-virus antigen (211-844 ng), while four animals were injected with a commercial vaccine (positive control) and four other pigs were mock-vaccinated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) in the same oil emulsion. Four weeks later, they were intranasally challenged with 2 × 10(5) TCID50 of a PCV2a strain. Antibody was measured in blood and oral fluids by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a neutralization assay. PCV2 was quantified in serum by real-time polymerase chain reaction for ORF2 gene. PCV2-specific cell-mediated responses were investigated by an IFN-γ release assay in whole blood, IFN-γ ELISPOT, and lymphocyte proliferation (Ki-67 and BrDU assays). All the vaccines under study but mock provided complete or incomplete protection from PCV2 infection in terms of post-challenge viremia. Serum antibody titers (ELISA and neutralizing) after vaccination were not correlated with protection, as opposed to the early neutralizing antibody levels of vaccinated pigs at day 7 after infection. Cell-mediated immune parameters showed a good correlation with vaccine efficacy. In particular, the IFN-γ release assay at 3 weeks after vaccination was an effective marker for predicting protection. All control pigs always tested negative in assays of cell-mediated immunity. Our results outline in vitro testing procedures toward reduced animal usage in the control of PCV2 vaccine batches. PMID:26401584

  13. Epidemiologic Investigation of Immune-Mediated Polyradiculoneuropathy among Abattoir Workers Exposed to Porcine Brain

    PubMed Central

    Holzbauer, Stacy M.; DeVries, Aaron S.; Sejvar, James J.; Lees, Christine H.; Adjemian, Jennifer; McQuiston, Jennifer H.; Medus, Carlota; Lexau, Catherine A.; Harris, Julie R.; Recuenco, Sergio E.; Belay, Ermias D.; Howell, James F.; Buss, Bryan F.; Hornig, Mady; Gibbins, John D.; Brueck, Scott E.; Smith, Kirk E.; Danila, Richard N.; Lipkin, W. Ian; Lachance, Daniel H.; Dyck, P. James. B.; Lynfield, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    .001). Discussion This novel polyradiculoneuropathy was associated with removing porcine brains with compressed air. An autoimmune mechanism is supported by higher levels of IFNγ in cases than in controls consistent with other immune mediated illnesses occurring in association with neural tissue exposure. Abattoirs should not use compressed air to remove brains and should avoid procedures that aerosolize CNS tissue. This outbreak highlights the potential for respiratory or mucosal exposure to cause an immune-mediated illness in an occupational setting. PMID:20333310

  14. In vitro porcine brain tubulin assembly inhibition by water extract from a Chinese medicinal herb, Tripterygium hypoglaucum Hutch

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zi-Qin; Cao, Neng; Song, Zhong- Kui; Wang, Xu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Tripterygium hyp-oglaucum Hutch (THH) on the assembly and disassembly process of tubulin and its possible mode of action. METHODS: In vitro porcine brain tubulin assembly assay was employed to analyze the inhibitory effects of THH at different concentrations (0.05 μg/L, 0.07 μg/L, 0.09 μg/L). Colchicine (0.0025 mmol/L, 0.0050 mmol/L, 0.0075 mmol/L) was used as a positive control. RESULTS: THH could significantly inhibit the assembly of isolated porcine brain tubulin at all tested concentrations. CONCLUSION: THH is capable of inducing aneuploidy in mammals via tubulin polymerization inhibition pathway and may pose a genetic risk to human beings. PMID:16534859

  15. A comparison of the techniques of PIXE, PIGE and INAA by reference to the elemental analysis of porcine brain samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedman, J. D.; Spyrou, N. M.

    1994-12-01

    The trace element concentrations in porcine brain samples as determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) analysis are compared. The matrix composition was determined by Rutherford backscattering (RBS). Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe and Cd were determined by PIXE analysis Na, K, Sc, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Br, Rb, and Cs by INAA and Na, Mg and Fe by PIGE analysis. The bulk elements C, N, O, Na Cl and S were found by RBS analysis. Elemental concentrations are obtained using the comparator method of analysis rather than an absolute method, the validity which is examined by comparing the elemental concentrations obtained in porcine brain using two separate certified reference materials.

  16. Elevated plasma-soluble CD16 levels in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-infected pigs: correlation with ADAM17-mediated shedding.

    PubMed

    Gu, Weihong; Guo, Longjun; Li, Ren; Niu, Junwei; Luo, Xiaolei; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Yunfei; Tian, Zhijun; Feng, Li; Wang, Yue

    2016-03-01

    Soluble CD16 (sCD16) is closely correlated with chronic diseases in humans. Here, plasma sCD16 levels in pigs were increased by infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) but not with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, porcine circovirus type 2 and pseudorabies virus. Of interest, PRRSV attached to blood neutrophils and reduced surface CD16 expression on neutrophils. In vitro data confirmed that PRRSV caused CD16 shedding in neutrophils. Further analyses revealed that ADAM17 was involved in porcine CD16 shedding. Thus, our findings suggest that increase in sCD16 levels may be an indicator of PRRSV infection. PMID:26653711

  17. Structural brain correlates of human sleep oscillations.

    PubMed

    Saletin, Jared M; van der Helm, Els; Walker, Matthew P

    2013-12-01

    Sleep is strongly conserved within species, yet marked and perplexing inter-individual differences in sleep physiology are observed. Combining EEG sleep recordings and high-resolution structural brain imaging, here we demonstrate that the morphology of the human brain offers one explanatory factor of such inter-individual variability. Gray matter volume in interoceptive and exteroceptive cortices correlated with the expression of slower NREM sleep spindle frequencies, supporting their proposed role in sleep protection against conscious perception. Conversely, and consistent with an involvement in declarative memory processing, gray matter volume in bilateral hippocampus was associated with faster NREM sleep spindle frequencies. In contrast to spindles, gray matter volume in the homeostatic sleep-regulating center of the basal forebrain/hypothalamus, together with the medial prefrontal cortex, accounted for individual differences in NREM slow wave oscillations. Together, such findings indicate that the qualitative and quantitative expression of human sleep physiology is significantly related to anatomically specific differences in macroscopic brain structure. PMID:23770411

  18. Structural Brain Correlates of Human Sleep Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Saletin, Jared M.; van der Helm, Els; Walker, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is strongly conserved within species, yet marked and perplexing inter-individual differences in sleep physiology are observed. Combining EEG sleep recordings and high-resolution structural brain imaging, here we demonstrate that the morphology of the human brain offers one explanatory factor of such inter-individual variability. Grey matter volume in interoceptive and exteroceptive cortices correlated with the expression of slower NREM sleep spindle frequencies, supporting their proposed role in sleep protection against conscious perception. Conversely, and consistent with an involvement in declarative memory processing, grey matter volume in bilateral hippocampus was associated with faster NREM sleep spindle frequencies. In contrast to spindles, grey matter volume in the homeostatic sleep-regulating center of the basal forebrain/hypothalamus, together with the medial prefrontal cortex, accounted for individual differences in NREM slow wave oscillations. Together, such findings indicate that the qualitative and quantitative expression of human sleep physiology is significantly related to anatomically specific differences in macroscopic brain structure. PMID:23770411

  19. Centrally truncated and stabilized porcine neuropeptide Y analogs: design, synthesis, and mouse brain receptor binding.

    PubMed Central

    Krstenansky, J L; Owen, T J; Buck, S H; Hagaman, K A; McLean, L R

    1989-01-01

    Porcine neuropeptide Y (pNPY) has been proposed to form an intramolecularly stabilized structure characterized by N- and C-terminal helical regions arranged antiparallel due to a central turn region. Analogs based on this structural model that have the central turn region and various amounts of the helical regions removed, yet retain the N and C termini in a similar spatial orientation were designed. The gap formed by removal of the central residues (residues 8-17 or 7-20) was spanned with a single 8-aminooctanoic acid residue (Aoc) and the structure was further stabilized by the introduction of a disulfide bridge. [D-Cys7,Aoc8-17,Cys20]pNPY and [Cys5,Aoc7-20,D-Cys24]pNPY were synthesized and found to have receptor binding affinities of 2.3 nM and 150 nM, respectively, in mouse brain membranes (pNPY affinity is 3.6 nM in this assay). It is proposed that the central region (residues 7-17) of pNPY serves a structural role in the peptide and is not involved in direct receptor interaction. PMID:2543973

  20. Metabolic brain imaging correlated with clinical features of brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Alavi, J.; Alavi, A.; Dann, R.; Kushner, M.; Chawluk, J.; Powlis, W.; Reivich, M.

    1985-05-01

    Nineteen adults with brain tumors have been studied with positron emission tomography utilizing FDG. Fourteen had biopsy proven cerebral malignant glioma, one each had meningioma, hemangiopericytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), two had unbiopsied lesions, and one patient had an area of biopsy proven radiation necrosis. Three different patterns of glucose metabolism are observed: marked increase in metabolism at the site of the known tumor in (10 high grade gliomas and the PNET), lower than normal metabolism at the tumor (in 1 grade II glioma, 3 grade III gliomas, 2 unbiopsied low density nonenhancing lesions, and the meningioma), no abnormality (1 enhancing glioma, the hemangiopericytoma and the radiation necrosis.) The metabolic rate of the tumor or the surrounding brain did not appear to be correlated with the history of previous irradiation or chemotherapy. Decreased metabolism was frequently observed in the rest of the affected hemisphere and in the contralateral cerebellum. Tumors of high grade or with enhancing CT characteristics were more likely to show increased metabolism. Among the patients with proven gliomas, survival after PETT scan tended to be longer for those with low metabolic activity tumors than for those with highly active tumors. The authors conclude that PETT may help to predict the malignant potential of tumors, and may add useful clinical information to the CT scan.

  1. Direct Visualization of the Lateral Structure of Porcine Brain Cerebrosides/POPC Mixtures in Presence and Absence of Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Fidorra, Matthias; Heimburg, Thomas; Bagatolli, Luis A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We studied the thermal behavior of membranes composed of mixtures of natural cerebrosides (from porcine brain) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) with and without cholesterol, using differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and confocal/multiphoton fluorescence microscopy. The POPC/cerebroside mixture display solid ordered/liquid disordered phase coexistence in a broad range of compositions and temperatures in agreement with previous results reported for POPC/(bovine brain)cerebrosides. The observed phase coexistence scenario consists of elongated, micrometer-sized cerebroside-rich solid ordered domains that span the bilayer, embedded in a POPC-rich liquid disordered phase. The data obtained from differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was in line with that obtained in the microscopy experiments for the binary mixture, except at very high cerebroside molar fractions (0.8–0.9) were some differences are observed. Cholesterol incorporation exerts strong changes on the lateral organization of POPC/porcine brain cerebroside membranes. At intermediate cholesterol concentrations (10–25 mol %) the solid ordered/liquid disordered phase coexistence scenario gradually transform to a solid ordered/liquid ordered one. Above 25 mol % of cholesterol two distinct regions with liquid ordered phase character are visualized in the membrane until a single liquid ordered phase forms at 40 mol % cholesterol. The observed cholesterol effect largely differs from that reported for POPC/porcine brain ceramide, reflecting the impact of the sphingolipids polar headgroup on the membrane lateral organization. PMID:19580752

  2. Presence of atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) genomes in newborn piglets correlates with congenital tremor

    PubMed Central

    Postel, Alexander; Hansmann, Florian; Baechlein, Christine; Fischer, Nicole; Alawi, Malik; Grundhoff, Adam; Derking, Sarah; Tenhündfeld, Jörg; Pfankuche, Vanessa Maria; Herder, Vanessa; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Wendt, Michael; Becher, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Pestiviruses are highly variable RNA viruses belonging to the continuously growing family Flaviviridae. A genetically very distinct pestivirus was recently discovered in the USA, designated atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Here, a screening of 369 sera from apparently healthy adult pigs demonstrated the existence of APPV in Germany with an estimated individual prevalence of 2.4% and ~10% at farm level. Additionally, APPV genomes were detected in newborn piglets affected by congenital tremor (CT), but genomes were absent in unaffected piglets. High loads of genomes were identified in glandular epithelial cells, follicular centers of lymphoid organs, the inner granular cell layer of the cerebellum, as well as in the trigeminal and spinal ganglia. Retrospective analysis of cerebellum samples from 2007 demonstrated that APPV can be found in piglets with CT of unsolved aetiology. Determination of the first European APPV complete polyprotein coding sequence revealed 88.2% nucleotide identity to the APPV sequence from the USA. APPV sequences derived from different regions in Germany demonstrated to be highly variable. Taken together, the results of this study strongly suggest that the presence of APPV genomes in newborn piglets correlates with CT, while no association with clinical disease could be observed in viremic adult pigs. PMID:27292119

  3. Presence of atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) genomes in newborn piglets correlates with congenital tremor.

    PubMed

    Postel, Alexander; Hansmann, Florian; Baechlein, Christine; Fischer, Nicole; Alawi, Malik; Grundhoff, Adam; Derking, Sarah; Tenhündfeld, Jörg; Pfankuche, Vanessa Maria; Herder, Vanessa; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Wendt, Michael; Becher, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Pestiviruses are highly variable RNA viruses belonging to the continuously growing family Flaviviridae. A genetically very distinct pestivirus was recently discovered in the USA, designated atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Here, a screening of 369 sera from apparently healthy adult pigs demonstrated the existence of APPV in Germany with an estimated individual prevalence of 2.4% and ~10% at farm level. Additionally, APPV genomes were detected in newborn piglets affected by congenital tremor (CT), but genomes were absent in unaffected piglets. High loads of genomes were identified in glandular epithelial cells, follicular centers of lymphoid organs, the inner granular cell layer of the cerebellum, as well as in the trigeminal and spinal ganglia. Retrospective analysis of cerebellum samples from 2007 demonstrated that APPV can be found in piglets with CT of unsolved aetiology. Determination of the first European APPV complete polyprotein coding sequence revealed 88.2% nucleotide identity to the APPV sequence from the USA. APPV sequences derived from different regions in Germany demonstrated to be highly variable. Taken together, the results of this study strongly suggest that the presence of APPV genomes in newborn piglets correlates with CT, while no association with clinical disease could be observed in viremic adult pigs. PMID:27292119

  4. Correlation of discoloration and biomechanical properties in porcine sclera induced by genipin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tai-Xiang; Luo, Xin; Gu, Yu-Wei; Yang, Bin; Wang, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    AIM To study the feasibility of using the discoloration to evaluate the biomechanical properties after treating with genipin. METHODS Porcine cadaver eyes were treated for 30min with 1.0% (by w/v) genipin. Untreated samples were used as controls. After treatment, scleral strips of 4.0×10.0-mm2 were cut. The denaturation temperature (Td) measurement and stress-strain test were performed after taking photograph to analyze the color. RESULTS Within 24h after treating with genipin, the sclera exhibited a bluish color which became deeper with time. And the denaturation temperature also was increased gradually. Compared with untreated groups, at 1, 6, 12, 24 and 36h after treatment, the ultimate stress were increased by 56%, 153%, 173%, 225% and 211% respectively. The Young's modulus at 10% strain also increased by 170%, 246%, 264%, 389% and 288% respectively. There were strong correlation between the discoloration and the biomechanical properties (ΔE-Ultimate stress: R2=0.892, P=0.00; ΔE-Young's modulus: R2=0.602, P=0.00). CONCLUSION Genipin could be used to strengthen collagen gradually in a relatively short time span. And the biomechanical properties could be reliably evaluated via simple visible discoloration. PMID:25161931

  5. Growth and lability of Chaetopterus oocyte mitotic spindles isolated in the presence of porcine brain tubulin.

    PubMed

    Inoué, S; Borisy, G G; Kiehart, D P

    1974-07-01

    Purified tubulin solutions stabilized and augmented the birefringence (BR) of isolated Chaetopterus spindles. Tubulin was extracted from pig brain tissue in cold PEG buffer (0.1 M piperazine-N-N'-bis[2-ethane sulfonic acid], 1 mM ethylene bis-[oxyethylenenitrilo]tetraacetate, [EGTA], 2.5 mM guanosine triphosphate, [GTP], pH 6.94, at 25 degrees C), and purified by two cycles of a reversible, temperature-dependent assembly-disassembly procedure. The spindle BR of the meiotic metaphase-arrested oocytes of Chaetopterus decreased linearly at a rate of 1.5 nm/min when perfused with PEG buffer without tubulin. In this hypotonic, calcium-chelating solution, the cell lysed within 1.5 min, and after a brief, transient rise, the BR disappeared in ca. 4 min from the time of buffer application. Cells perfused with tubulin in PEG buffer also showed BR decay at the same rate until cell lysis. Immediately upon cell lysis the spindle BR increased, initially at ca. 2.3 nm/min and then more slowly until the BR attained or exceeded intact cell values. Spindle and asters grew considerably larger than those in intact cells. From the kinetics of the transient BR increase after lysis, we infer that, initially, Chaetopterus cytoplasmic tubulin contributes to increased BR; further augmentation required added pig brain tubulin and most probably reflects the addition and incorporation of heterologous porcine tubulin into the spindle and asters. Isolated, augmented spindles depolymerized rapidly at 6 degrees C. Upon return to 23 degrees C, spindle BR returned slowly in tubulin-PEG. The BR of the isolates also decayed in solutions containing calcium ions 2.5 mM in excess of the EGTA. However, the isolates did not respond, or responded very slowly, to 1 mM colchicine or Colcemid and to dilution of tubulin with PEG solution. Microinjection into Chaetopterus oocytes of tubulin-PEG, but not PEG alone, enhanced spindle and aster BR which reversibly disappeared upon chilling the cell. PMID:4407048

  6. Pericytes support neutrophil transmigration via interleukin-8 across a porcine co-culture model of the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Christian; Pieloch, Paulina; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2013-08-01

    Transmigration of neutrophils across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to an inflamed brain tissue is an important process during neuronal inflammation. The process of neutrophil activation as well as their way of rolling along the endothelium and their transmigration is quite well understood. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the fate of neutrophils after they have transmigrated through the endothelium. The role of the other cells of the neurovascular unit in this process is also poorly understood. Here we studied the potential of pericytes to chemo-attract neutrophils under inflammatory conditions. Quantitative real time PCR, western blot analysis, and a chemotaxis assay showed that pericytes are able to chemo-attract neutrophils by interleukin-8 (IL-8) after stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), or interleukin-1beta (IL-1β). Then, a co-culture model consisting of primary porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (PBCECs) and primary porcine brain capillary pericytes (PBCPs) was used to analyze neutrophil transmigration across the BBB. As a model for inflammation, LPS was used and the effects of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) were analyzed. In general, all stimulants apart from IFN-γ were able to increase transendothelial neutrophil migration. This effect was significantly reduced by a specific inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2 and -9. MMP-2/-9 secretion is expected to decrease adhesion to pericytes and thus support the transmigration of neutrophils. Additionally, in an adhesion experiment, we showed that MMP-2/-9 inhibition significantly enhances the adhesion of neutrophils to pericytes. PMID:23769734

  7. Correlating attachment behavior with cell properties for eight Porcine Escherichia coli Isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we investigate how growth stage and depositional environment affect variability of cell properties and transport behavior of eight porcine E. coli isolates. We compared the surface properties and transport behavior for cells harvested at two different growth stages (exponential and sta...

  8. Correlating Transport Behavior with Cell Properties for Eight Porcine Escherichia coli Isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we investigate how growth stage and depositional environment affect variability of cell properties and transport behavior of eight porcine E. coli isolates. We compared the surface properties and transport behavior for cells harvested at two different growth stages (exponential and sta...

  9. Establishment of a simplified in vitro porcine blood–brain barrier model with high transendothelial electrical resistance

    PubMed Central

    Patabendige, Adjanie; Skinner, Robert A.; Abbott, N. Joan

    2013-01-01

    Good in vitro blood–brain barrier (BBB) models that mimic the in vivo BBB phenotype are essential for studies on BBB functionality and for initial screening in drug discovery programmes, as many potential therapeutic drug candidates have poor BBB permeation. Difficulties associated with the availability of human brain tissue, coupled with the time and cost associated with using animals for this kind of research have led to the development of non-human cell culture models. However, most BBB models display a low transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER), which is a measure of the tightness of the BBB. To address these issues we have established and optimised a robust, simple to use in vitro BBB model using porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs). The PBEC model gives high TEER without the need for co-culture with astrocytes (up to 1300 Ω cm2 with a mean TEER of ∼800 Ω cm2) with well organised tight junctions as shown by immunostaining for occludin and claudin-5. Functional assays confirmed the presence of high levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and presence of the efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1). Presence of the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) was confirmed by TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay. Real-time RT-PCR assays for BCRP, occludin and claudin-5 demonstrated no significant differences between batches of PBECs, and also between primary and passage 1 PBECs. A permeability screen of 10 compounds demonstrated the usefulness of the model as a tool for drug permeability studies. Qualitative and quantitative results from this study confirm that this in vitro porcine BBB model is reliable and robust; it is also simpler to generate than most other BBB models. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Electrical Synapses. PMID:22789905

  10. Genetic correlates of the evolving primate brain

    PubMed Central

    Vallender, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    The tremendous shifts in the size, structure, and function of the brain during primate evolution are ultimately caused by changes at the genetic level. Understanding what these changes are and how they effect the phenotypic changes observed lies at the heart of understanding evolutionary change. This chapter focuses on understanding the genetic basis of primate brain evolution, considering the substrates and mechanisms through which genetic change occurs. It also discusses the implications that our current understandings and tools have for what we have already discovered and where our studies will head in the future. While genetic and genomic studies have identified many regions undergoing positive selection during primate evolution, the findings are certainly not exhaustive and functional relevance remains to be confirmed. Nevertheless, a strong foundation has been built upon which future studies will emerge. PMID:22230621

  11. Temporal Lobe Cortical Thickness Correlations Differentiate the Migraine Brain from the Healthy Brain

    PubMed Central

    Schwedt, Todd J.; Berisha, Visar; Chong, Catherine D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Interregional cortical thickness correlations reflect underlying brain structural connectivity and functional connectivity. A few prior studies have shown that migraine is associated with atypical cortical brain structure and atypical functional connectivity amongst cortical regions that participate in sensory processing. However, the specific brain regions that most accurately differentiate the migraine brain from the healthy brain have yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to identify the brain regions that comprised interregional cortical thickness correlations that most differed between migraineurs and healthy controls. Methods This was a cross-sectional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigation of 64 adults with migraine and 39 healthy control subjects recruited from tertiary-care medical centers and their surrounding communities. All subjects underwent structural brain MRI imaging on a 3T scanner. Cortical thickness was determined for 70 brain regions that cover the cerebral cortex and cortical thickness correlations amongst these regions were calculated. Cortical thickness correlations that best differentiated groups of six migraineurs from controls and vice versa were identified. Results A model containing 15 interregional cortical thickness correlations differentiated groups of migraineurs from healthy controls with high accuracy. The right temporal pole was involved in 13 of the 15 interregional correlations while the right middle temporal cortex was involved in the other two. Conclusions A model consisting of 15 interregional cortical thickness correlations accurately differentiates the brains of small groups of migraineurs from those of healthy controls. Correlations with the right temporal pole were highly represented in this classifier, suggesting that this region plays an important role in migraine pathophysiology. PMID:25679805

  12. Aggression after Traumatic Brain Injury: Prevalence & Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Vani; Rosenberg, Paul; Bertrand, Melaine; Salehinia, Saeed; Spiro, Jennifer; Vaishnavi, Sandeep; Rastogi, Pramit; Noll, Kathy; Schretlen, David J; Brandt, Jason; Cornwell, Edward; Makley, Michael; Miles, Quincy Samus

    2010-01-01

    Aggression after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common but not well defined. Sixty-seven participants with first-time TBI were seen within three months of injury and evaluated for aggression. The prevalence of aggression was found to be 28.4% and to be predominantly verbal aggression. Post-TBI aggression was associated with new-onset major depression (p=0.02), poorer social functioning (p=0.04), and increased dependency on activities of daily living (p=0.03), but not with a history of substance abuse or adult/childhood behavioral problems. Implications of the study include early screening for aggression, evaluation for depression, and consideration of psychosocial support in aggressive patients. PMID:19996251

  13. Functional brain correlates of heterosexual paedophilia.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Boris; Paul, Thomas; Gizewski, Elke; Forsting, Michael; Leygraf, Norbert; Schedlowski, Manfred; Kruger, Tillmann H C

    2008-05-15

    Although the neuronal mechanisms underlying normal sexual motivation and function have recently been examined, the alterations in brain function in deviant sexual behaviours such as paedophilia are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to identify paedophilia-specific functional networks implicated in sexual arousal. Therefore a consecutive sample of eight paedophile forensic inpatients, exclusively attracted to females, and 12 healthy age-matched heterosexual control participants from a comparable socioeconomic stratum participated in a visual sexual stimulation procedure during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The visual stimuli were sexually stimulating photographs and emotionally neutral photographs. Immediately after the imaging session subjective responses pertaining to sexual desire were recorded. Principally, the brain response of heterosexual paedophiles to heteropaedophilic stimuli was comparable to that of heterosexual males to heterosexual stimuli, including different limbic structures (amygdala, cingulate gyrus, and hippocampus), the substantia nigra, caudate nucleus, as well as the anterior cingulate cortex, different thalamic nuclei, and associative cortices. However, responses to visual sexual stimulation were found in the orbitofrontal cortex in healthy heterosexual males, but not in paedophiles, in whom abnormal activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was observed. Thus, in line with clinical observations and neuropsychological studies, it seems that central processing of sexual stimuli in heterosexual paedophiles may be altered by a disturbance in the prefrontal networks, which, as has already been hypothesized, may be associated with stimulus-controlled behaviours, such as sexual compulsive behaviours. Moreover, these findings may suggest a dysfunction (in the functional and effective connectivity) at the cognitive stage of sexual arousal processing. PMID:18358744

  14. Correlated gene expression supports synchronous activity in brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Richiardi, Jonas; Altmann, Andre; Milazzo, Anna-Clare; Chang, Catie; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J.; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Lemaître, Hervé; Mann, Karl F.; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W.; Smolka, Michael N.; Spanagel, Rainer; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Hawrylycz, Mike; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Greicius, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    During rest, brain activity is synchronized between different regions widely distributed throughout the brain, forming functional networks. However, the molecular mechanisms supporting functional connectivity remain undefined. We show that functional brain networks defined with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging can be recapitulated by using measures of correlated gene expression in a post mortem brain tissue data set. The set of 136 genes we identify is significantly enriched for ion channels. Polymorphisms in this set of genes significantly affect resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of healthy adolescents. Expression levels of these genes are also significantly associated with axonal connectivity in the mouse. The results provide convergent, multimodal evidence that resting-state functional networks correlate with the orchestrated activity of dozens of genes linked to ion channel activity and synaptic function. PMID:26068849

  15. Using brain stimulation to disentangle neural correlates of conscious vision

    PubMed Central

    de Graaf, Tom A.; Sack, Alexander T.

    2014-01-01

    Research into the neural correlates of consciousness (NCCs) has blossomed, due to the advent of new and increasingly sophisticated brain research tools. Neuroimaging has uncovered a variety of brain processes that relate to conscious perception, obtained in a range of experimental paradigms. But methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging or electroencephalography do not always afford inference on the functional role these brain processes play in conscious vision. Such empirical NCCs could reflect neural prerequisites, neural consequences, or neural substrates of a conscious experience. Here, we take a closer look at the use of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques in this context. We discuss and review how NIBS methodology can enlighten our understanding of brain mechanisms underlying conscious vision by disentangling the empirical NCCs. PMID:25295015

  16. Quantitative correlation between light depolarization and transport albedo of various porcine tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alali, Sanaz; Ahmad, Manzoor; Kim, Anthony; Vurgun, Nasit; Wood, Michael F. G.; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2012-04-01

    We present a quantitative study of depolarization in biological tissues and correlate it with measured optical properties (reduced scattering and absorption coefficients). Polarized light imaging was used to examine optically thick samples of both isotropic (liver, kidney cortex, and brain) and anisotropic (cardiac muscle, loin muscle, and tendon) pig tissues in transmission and reflection geometries. Depolarization (total, linear, and circular), as derived from polar decomposition of the measured tissue Mueller matrix, was shown to be related to the measured optical properties. We observed that depolarization increases with the transport albedo for isotropic and anisotropic tissues, independent of measurement geometry. For anisotropic tissues, depolarization was higher compared to isotropic tissues of similar transport albedo, indicating birefringence-caused depolarization effects. For tissues with large transport albedos (greater than ~0.97), backscattering geometry was preferred over transmission due to its greater retention of light polarization; this was not the case for tissues with lower transport albedo. Preferential preservation of linearly polarized light over circularly polarized light was seen in all tissue types and all measurement geometries, implying the dominance of Rayleigh-like scattering. The tabulated polarization properties of different tissue types and their links to bulk optical properties should prove useful in future polarimetric tissue characterization and imaging studies.

  17. Clinical Correlation between Perverted Nystagmus and Brain MRI Abnormal Findings

    PubMed Central

    Han, Won-Gue; Yoon, Hee-Chul; Kim, Tae-Min; Rah, Yoon Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives To analyze the clinical correlation between perverted nystagmus and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormal findings and to evaluate whether perverted nystagmus is clinically significant results of brain abnormal lesions or not. Subjects and Methods We performed medical charts review from January 2008 to July 2014, retrospectively. Patients who were suspected central originated vertigo at Frenzel goggles test were included among patients who visited our hospital. To investigate the correlation with nystagmus suspected central originated vertigo and brain MRI abnormal findings, we confirmed whether performing brain MRI or not. Then we exclude that patients not performed brain MRI. Results The number of patients with perverted nystagmus was 15, upbeating was 1 and down-beating was 14. Among these patients, 5 patients have brain MRI abnormal findings. However, 2 patients with MRI abnormal findings were not associated correctly with perverted nystagmus and only 3 patients with perverted nystagmus were considered central originated vertigo and further evaluation and treatment was performed by the department of neurology. Conclusions Perverted nystagmus was considered to the abnormalities at brain lesions, especially cerebellum, but neurologic symptoms and further evaluation were needed for exact diagnosis of central originated vertigo. PMID:27626081

  18. Resuscitation with Valproic Acid Alters Inflammatory Genes in a Porcine Model of Combined Traumatic Brain Injury and Hemorrhagic Shock.

    PubMed

    Bambakidis, Ted; Dekker, Simone E; Sillesen, Martin; Liu, Baoling; Johnson, Craig N; Jin, Guang; de Vries, Helga E; Li, Yongqing; Alam, Hasan B

    2016-08-15

    Traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock (TBI+HS) elicit a complex inflammatory response that contributes to secondary brain injury. There is currently no proven pharmacologic treatment for TBI+HS, but modulation of the epigenome has been shown to be a promising strategy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, modulates the expression of cerebral inflammatory gene profiles in a large animal model of TBI+HS. Ten Yorkshire swine were subjected to computer-controlled TBI+HS (40% blood volume). After 2 h of shock, animals were resuscitated with Hextend (HEX) or HEX+VPA (300 mg/kg, n = 5/group). Six hours after resuscitation, brains were harvested, RNA was isolated, and gene expression profiles were measured using a porcine microarray. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis® (IPA), gene ontology (GO), Parametric Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (PGSEA), and DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery) were used for pathway analysis. Key microarray findings were verified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). IPA analysis revealed that VPA significantly down-regulated the complement system (p < 0.001), natural killer cell communication (p < 0.001), and dendritic cell maturation (p < 0.001). DAVID analysis indicated that a cluster of inflammatory pathways held the highest rank and gene enrichment score. Real-time PCR data confirmed that VPA significantly down-expressed genes that ultimately regulate nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB)-mediated production of cytokines, such as TYROBP, TREM2, CCR1, and IL-1β. This high-throughput analysis of cerebral gene expression shows that addition of VPA to the resuscitation protocol significantly modulates the expression of inflammatory pathways in a clinically realistic model of TBI+HS. PMID:26905959

  19. Porcine gonadogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five images submitted for teaching purposes related to porcine gonadogenesis (2), porcine fetal testicular development (2), and porcine fetal ovarian development. Key words include: Egg cell nests, Embryo, GATA4, Genital ridge, Gonad, Leydig cell, Mesonephros, MIS, Ovary, P450c17, Porcine, Sertoli ...

  20. Cognitive Abilities Independent of IQ Correlate with Regional Brain Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Jung, Rex E.; Colom, Roberto; Haier, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence relating psychometric measures of general intelligence and reasoning to regional brain structure and function assessed with a variety of neuroimaging techniques. Cognitive dimensions independent of general intelligence can also be identified psychometrically and studied for any neuroanatomical correlates. Here we…

  1. Correlation between subacute sensorimotor deficits and brain water content after surgical brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    McBride, Devin W; Wang, Yuechun; Sherchan, Prativa; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2015-09-01

    Brain edema is a major contributor to poor outcome and reduced quality of life after surgical brain injury (SBI). Although SBI pathophysiology is well-known, the correlation between cerebral edema and neurological deficits has not been thoroughly examined in the rat model of SBI. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between brain edema and deficits in standard sensorimotor neurobehavior tests for rats subjected to SBI. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either sham surgery or surgical brain injury via partial frontal lobectomy. All animals were tested for neurological deficits 24 post-SBI and fourteen were also tested 72 h after surgery using seven common behavior tests: modified Garcia neuroscore (Neuroscore), beam walking, corner turn test, forelimb placement test, adhesive removal test, beam balance test, and foot fault test. After assessing the functional outcome, animals were euthanized for brain water content measurement. Surgical brain injury resulted in significantly elevated frontal lobe brain water content 24 and 72 h after surgery compared to that of sham animals. In all behavior tests, significance was observed between sham and SBI animals. However, a correlation between brain water content and functional outcome was observed for all tests except Neuroscore. The selection of behavior tests is critical to determine the effectiveness of therapeutics. Based on this study's results, we recommend using beam walking, the corner turn test, the beam balance test, and the foot fault test since correlations with brain water content were observed at both 24 and 72 h post-SBI. PMID:25975171

  2. Towards a comprehensive understanding of brain machinery by correlative microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allegra Mascaro, Anna Letizia; Silvestri, Ludovico; Sacconi, Leonardo; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2015-06-01

    Unraveling the complexity of brain structure and function is the biggest challenge of contemporary science. Due to their flexibility, optical techniques are the key to exploring this intricate network. However, a single imaging technique can reveal only a small part of this machinery due to its inherent multilevel organization. To obtain a more comprehensive view of brain functionality, complementary approaches have been combined. For instance, brain activity was monitored simultaneously on different spatiotemporal scales with functional magnetic resonance imaging and calcium imaging. On the other hand, dynamic information on the structural plasticity of neuronal networks has been contextualized in a wider framework combining two-photon and light-sheet microscopy. Finally, synaptic features have been revealed on previously in vivo imaged samples by correlative light-electron microscopy. Although these approaches have revealed important features of brain machinery, they provided small bridges between specific spatiotemporal scales, lacking an omni-comprehensive view. In this perspective, we briefly review the state of the art of correlative techniques and propose a wider methodological framework fusing multiple levels of brain investigation.

  3. BRAIN NETWORKS. Correlated gene expression supports synchronous activity in brain networks.

    PubMed

    Richiardi, Jonas; Altmann, Andre; Milazzo, Anna-Clare; Chang, Catie; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Lemaître, Hervé; Mann, Karl F; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W; Smolka, Michael N; Spanagel, Rainer; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Hawrylycz, Mike; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Greicius, Michael D

    2015-06-12

    During rest, brain activity is synchronized between different regions widely distributed throughout the brain, forming functional networks. However, the molecular mechanisms supporting functional connectivity remain undefined. We show that functional brain networks defined with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging can be recapitulated by using measures of correlated gene expression in a post mortem brain tissue data set. The set of 136 genes we identify is significantly enriched for ion channels. Polymorphisms in this set of genes significantly affect resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of healthy adolescents. Expression levels of these genes are also significantly associated with axonal connectivity in the mouse. The results provide convergent, multimodal evidence that resting-state functional networks correlate with the orchestrated activity of dozens of genes linked to ion channel activity and synaptic function. PMID:26068849

  4. Brain structure and function correlates of cognitive subtypes in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Daniel; Walton, Esther; Naylor, Melissa; Roessner, Veit; Lim, Kelvin O; Charles Schulz, S; Gollub, Randy L; Calhoun, Vince D; Sponheim, Scott R; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2015-10-30

    Stable neuropsychological deficits may provide a reliable basis for identifying etiological subtypes of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to identify clusters of individuals with schizophrenia based on dimensions of neuropsychological performance, and to characterize their neural correlates. We acquired neuropsychological data as well as structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging from 129 patients with schizophrenia and 165 healthy controls. We derived eight cognitive dimensions and subsequently applied a cluster analysis to identify possible schizophrenia subtypes. Analyses suggested the following four cognitive clusters of schizophrenia: (1) Diminished Verbal Fluency, (2) Diminished Verbal Memory and Poor Motor Control, (3) Diminished Face Memory and Slowed Processing, and (4) Diminished Intellectual Function. The clusters were characterized by a specific pattern of structural brain changes in areas such as Wernicke's area, lingual gyrus and occipital face area, and hippocampus as well as differences in working memory-elicited neural activity in several fronto-parietal brain regions. Separable measures of cognitive function appear to provide a method for deriving cognitive subtypes meaningfully related to brain structure and function. Because the present study identified brain-based neural correlates of the cognitive clusters, the proposed groups of individuals with schizophrenia have some external validity. PMID:26341950

  5. Testing Group Differences in Brain Functional Connectivity: Using Correlations or Partial Correlations?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junghi; Wozniak, Jeffrey R.; Mueller, Bryon A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging allows one to study brain functional connectivity, partly motivated by evidence that patients with complex disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, may have altered functional brain connectivity patterns as compared with healthy subjects. A functional connectivity network describes statistical associations of the neural activities among distinct and distant brain regions. Recently, there is a major interest in group-level functional network analysis; however, there is a relative lack of studies on statistical inference, such as significance testing for group comparisons. In particular, it is still debatable which statistic should be used to measure pairwise associations as the connectivity weights. Many functional connectivity studies have used either (full or marginal) correlations or partial correlations for pairwise associations. This article investigates the performance of using either correlations or partial correlations for testing group differences in brain connectivity, and how sparsity levels and topological structures of the connectivity would influence statistical power to detect group differences. Our results suggest that, in general, testing group differences in networks deviates from estimating networks. For example, high regularization in both covariance matrices and precision matrices may lead to higher statistical power; in particular, optimally selected regularization (e.g., by cross-validation or even at the true sparsity level) on the precision matrices with small estimation errors may have low power. Most importantly, and perhaps surprisingly, using either correlations or partial correlations may give very different testing results, depending on which of the covariance matrices and the precision matrices are sparse. Specifically, if the precision matrices are sparse, presumably and arguably a reasonable assumption, then using correlations often yields much higher powered and more

  6. Transient correlation between viremia levels and IL-10 expression in pigs subclinically infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2).

    PubMed

    Darwich, L; Segalés, J; Resendes, A; Balasch, M; Plana-Durán, J; Mateu, E

    2008-04-01

    Immunological impairment by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection is well documented in pigs suffering from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. Nonetheless, little is known about immune status of pigs that remain PCV2 subclinically infected. Thus, seven pigs successfully infected in an experimental inoculation and without developing disease and nine control non-inoculated pigs were examined. Serological, virological and immunological determinations were done throughout ten weeks post-infection (PI). At week 3 PI, inoculated animals presented the peak of viremia and produced higher levels of IL-10 than the controls; correlation between viral load and IL-10 amounts was observed (p<0.05). Also, the ratio IgM/IgG suffered a shift skewing IgM production towards an IgG response. By 10 weeks PI, levels of IL-10 disappeared and the viremia decreased. In summary, subclinically PCV2-infected pigs developed a transient PCV2-specific IL-10 response during the viremic phase of infection which coincided with the inversion of the IgM/IgG ratio. PMID:17592737

  7. Brain activity correlates with emotional perception induced by dynamic avatars.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Hagar; Christensen, Andrea; Flash, Tamar; Giese, Martin A; Malach, Rafael

    2015-11-15

    An accurate judgment of the emotional state of others is a prerequisite for successful social interaction and hence survival. Thus, it is not surprising that we are highly skilled at recognizing the emotions of others. Here we aimed to examine the neuronal correlates of emotion recognition from gait. To this end we created highly controlled dynamic body-movement stimuli based on real human motion-capture data (Roether et al., 2009). These animated avatars displayed gait in four emotional (happy, angry, fearful, and sad) and speed-matched neutral styles. For each emotional gait and its equivalent neutral gait, avatars were displayed at five morphing levels between the two. Subjects underwent fMRI scanning while classifying the emotions and the emotional intensity levels expressed by the avatars. Our results revealed robust brain selectivity to emotional compared to neutral gait stimuli in brain regions which are involved in emotion and biological motion processing, such as the extrastriate body area (EBA), fusiform body area (FBA), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and the amygdala (AMG). Brain activity in the amygdala reflected emotional awareness: for visually identical stimuli it showed amplified stronger response when the stimulus was perceived as emotional. Notably, in avatars gradually morphed along an emotional expression axis there was a parametric correlation between amygdala activity and emotional intensity. This study extends the mapping of emotional decoding in the human brain to the domain of highly controlled dynamic biological motion. Our results highlight an extensive level of brain processing of emotional information related to body language, which relies mostly on body kinematics. PMID:26220746

  8. Does Variability in Cognitive Performance Correlate with Frontal Brain Volume?

    PubMed Central

    Lövdén, Martin; Schmiedek, Florian; Kennedy, Kristen M.; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Lindenberger, Ulman; Raz, Naftali

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the neural correlates of within-person variability in cognitive performance. We investigated associations between regional brain volumes and trial-to-trial, block-to-block, and day-to-day variability in choice-reaction time, and episodic and working memory accuracy. Healthy younger (n = 25) and older (n = 18) adults underwent 101 daily assessments of cognitive performance, and their regional brain volumes were measured manually on magnetic resonance images. Results showed that smaller prefrontal white matter volumes were associated with higher block-to-block variability in choice-reaction time performance, with a stronger association observed among older adults. Smaller volumes of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex covaried with higher block-to-block variability in episodic memory (number-word pair) performance. This association was stronger for younger adults. The observed associations between variability and brain volume were not due to individual differences in mean performance. Trial-to-trial and day-to-day variability in cognitive performance were unrelated to regional brain volume. We thus report novel findings demonstrating that block-by-block variability in cognitive performance is associated with integrity of the prefrontal regions and that between-person differences in different measures of variability of cognitive performance reflect different age-related constellations of behavioral and neural antecedents. PMID:23000256

  9. Brain structural correlates of complex sentence comprehension in children

    PubMed Central

    Fengler, Anja; Meyer, Lars; Friederici, Angela D.

    2015-01-01

    Prior structural imaging studies found initial evidence for the link between structural gray matter changes and the development of language performance in children. However, previous studies generally only focused on sentence comprehension. Therefore, little is known about the relationship between structural properties of brain regions relevant to sentence processing and more specific cognitive abilities underlying complex sentence comprehension. In this study, whole-brain magnetic resonance images from 59 children between 5 and 8 years were assessed. Scores on a standardized sentence comprehension test determined grammatical proficiency of our participants. A confirmatory factory analysis corroborated a grammar-relevant and a verbal working memory-relevant factor underlying the measured performance. Voxel-based morphometry of gray matter revealed that while children's ability to assign thematic roles is positively correlated with gray matter probability (GMP) in the left inferior temporal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus, verbal working memory-related performance is positively correlated with GMP in the left parietal operculum extending into the posterior superior temporal gyrus. Since these areas are known to be differentially engaged in adults’ complex sentence processing, our data suggest a specific correspondence between children's GMP in language-relevant brain regions and differential cognitive abilities that guide their sentence comprehension. PMID:26468613

  10. Structural Brain Correlates Associated with Professional Handball Playing

    PubMed Central

    Hänggi, Jürgen; Langer, Nicolas; Lutz, Kai; Birrer, Karin; Mérillat, Susan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no doubt that good bimanual performance is very important for skilled handball playing. The control of the non-dominant hand is especially demanding since efficient catching and throwing needs both hands. Methodology/Hypotheses We investigated training-induced structural neuroplasticity in professional handball players using several structural neuroimaging techniques and analytic approaches and also provide a review of the literature about sport-induced structural neuroplastic alterations. Structural brain adaptations were expected in regions relevant for motor and somatosensory processing such as the grey matter (GM) of the primary/secondary motor (MI/supplementary motor area, SMA) and somatosensory cortex (SI/SII), basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum and in the white matter (WM) of the corticospinal tract (CST) and corpus callosum, stronger in brain regions controlling the non-dominant left hand. Results Increased GM volume in handball players compared with control subjects were found in the right MI/SI, bilateral SMA/cingulate motor area, and left intraparietal sulcus. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial diffusivity were increased within the right CST in handball players compared with control women. Age of handball training commencement correlated inversely with GM volume in the right and left MI/SI and years of handball training experience correlated inversely with radial diffusivity in the right CST. Subcortical structures tended to be larger in handball players. The anatomical measures of the brain regions associated with handball playing were positively correlated in handball players, but not interrelated in control women. Discussion/Conclusion Training-induced structural alterations were found in the somatosensory-motor network of handball players, more pronounced in the right hemisphere controlling the non-dominant left hand. Correlations between handball training-related measures and anatomical differences suggest neuroplastic

  11. Correlation between astrocyte activity and recovery from blood-brain barrier breakdown caused by brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ikeshima-Kataoka, Hiroko; Yasui, Masato

    2016-08-17

    Glial activation is associated with cell proliferation and upregulation of astrocyte marker expression following traumatic injury in the brain. However, the biological significance of these processes remains unclear. In the present study, astrocyte activation was investigated in a murine brain injury model. Brain injury induces blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and immunoglobulin G (IgG) leak into the brain parenchyma. The recovery of BBB breakdown was evaluated by analyzing immunofluorescent staining with mouse IgG antibody. IgG leakage was greatest at 1 day after stab wound injury and decreased thereafter, and almost diminished after 7 days. Bromodeoxy uridine incorporation was used, and astrocyte proliferation rates were examined by coimmunostaining with anti-bromodeoxy uridine and anti-glial fibrillary acid protein antibodies. Consistent with IgG leakage assays, astrocyte activation was the highest at day 3 and decreased after 7 days. Moreover, in reverse transcriptase-quantitative-PCR experiments, genes associated with BBB integrity were downregulated immediately after BBB breakdown and recovered to basal expression levels within 7 days. These data indicated that astrocyte activation correlated with BBB recovery from breakdown following brain injury. PMID:27362437

  12. Flow distributions and spatial correlations in human brain capillary networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorthois, Sylvie; Peyrounette, Myriam; Larue, Anne; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2015-11-01

    The vascular system of the human brain cortex is composed of a space filling mesh-like capillary network connected upstream and downstream to branched quasi-fractal arterioles and venules. The distribution of blood flow rates in these networks may affect the efficiency of oxygen transfer processes. Here, we investigate the distribution and correlation properties of blood flow velocities from numerical simulations in large 3D human intra-cortical vascular network (10000 segments) obtained from an anatomical database. In each segment, flow is solved from a 1D non-linear model taking account of the complex rheological properties of blood flow in microcirculation to deduce blood pressure, blood flow and red blood cell volume fraction distributions throughout the network. The network structural complexity is found to impart broad and spatially correlated Lagrangian velocity distributions, leading to power law transit time distributions. The origins of this behavior (existence of velocity correlations in capillary networks, influence of the coupling with the feeding arterioles and draining veins, topological disorder, complex blood rheology) are studied by comparison with results obtained in various model capillary networks of controlled disorder. ERC BrainMicroFlow GA615102, ERC ReactiveFronts GA648377.

  13. Messages from the Brain Connectivity Regarding Neural Correlates of Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Seung-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Consciousness has become a legitimate theme of neuroscientific discourse over the last two decades. Neuroscientific investigation seeking neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) has ranged from the neuronal level to the system level. Regarding system level studies, there is a large body of evidence supporting the idea that functional connectivity studies can help in examining NCC. Functional connectivity studies have suggested the involvement of the thalamo-cortical, frontoparietal, and other cortico-cortical connectivity under anesthetic-induced unconsciousness and in disorders of consciousness. Likewise, effective connectivity has been used to investigate the causal interactions among elements of functional connectivity in various consciousness states, and provided a deeper understanding of NCC. Moreover, as an extended version of connectivity studies, complex network methods have also been used for studies on NCC. In this review, we focused on the aspect of the brain system level of NCC including functional and effective connectivity networks from methodological perspectives. In addition, as for states of consciousness, anesthetic-induced unconsciousness and disorders of consciousness are the main subjects. This review discusses what we have learned from recent studies about the exploration of human brain connectivity on consciousness and its neural correlates. PMID:23055789

  14. Brain Structural Correlates of Emotion Recognition in Psychopaths

    PubMed Central

    Batalla, Iolanda; Kosson, David; Menchón, José M; Pifarré, Josep; Bosque, Javier; Cardoner, Narcís; Soriano-Mas, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with psychopathy present deficits in the recognition of facial emotional expressions. However, the nature and extent of these alterations are not fully understood. Furthermore, available data on the functional neural correlates of emotional face recognition deficits in adult psychopaths have provided mixed results. In this context, emotional face morphing tasks may be suitable for clarifying mild and emotion-specific impairments in psychopaths. Likewise, studies exploring corresponding anatomical correlates may be useful for disentangling available neurofunctional evidence based on the alleged neurodevelopmental roots of psychopathic traits. We used Voxel-Based Morphometry and a morphed emotional face expression recognition task to evaluate the relationship between regional gray matter (GM) volumes and facial emotion recognition deficits in male psychopaths. In comparison to male healthy controls, psychopaths showed deficits in the recognition of sad, happy and fear emotional expressions. In subsequent brain imaging analyses psychopaths with better recognition of facial emotional expressions showed higher volume in the prefrontal cortex (orbitofrontal, inferior frontal and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices), somatosensory cortex, anterior insula, cingulate cortex and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum. Amygdala and temporal lobe volumes contributed to better emotional face recognition in controls only. These findings provide evidence suggesting that variability in brain morphometry plays a role in accounting for psychopaths’ impaired ability to recognize emotional face expressions, and may have implications for comprehensively characterizing the empathy and social cognition dysfunctions typically observed in this population of subjects. PMID:27175777

  15. Brain Structural Correlates of Emotion Recognition in Psychopaths.

    PubMed

    Pera-Guardiola, Vanessa; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Batalla, Iolanda; Kosson, David; Menchón, José M; Pifarré, Josep; Bosque, Javier; Cardoner, Narcís; Soriano-Mas, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with psychopathy present deficits in the recognition of facial emotional expressions. However, the nature and extent of these alterations are not fully understood. Furthermore, available data on the functional neural correlates of emotional face recognition deficits in adult psychopaths have provided mixed results. In this context, emotional face morphing tasks may be suitable for clarifying mild and emotion-specific impairments in psychopaths. Likewise, studies exploring corresponding anatomical correlates may be useful for disentangling available neurofunctional evidence based on the alleged neurodevelopmental roots of psychopathic traits. We used Voxel-Based Morphometry and a morphed emotional face expression recognition task to evaluate the relationship between regional gray matter (GM) volumes and facial emotion recognition deficits in male psychopaths. In comparison to male healthy controls, psychopaths showed deficits in the recognition of sad, happy and fear emotional expressions. In subsequent brain imaging analyses psychopaths with better recognition of facial emotional expressions showed higher volume in the prefrontal cortex (orbitofrontal, inferior frontal and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices), somatosensory cortex, anterior insula, cingulate cortex and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum. Amygdala and temporal lobe volumes contributed to better emotional face recognition in controls only. These findings provide evidence suggesting that variability in brain morphometry plays a role in accounting for psychopaths' impaired ability to recognize emotional face expressions, and may have implications for comprehensively characterizing the empathy and social cognition dysfunctions typically observed in this population of subjects. PMID:27175777

  16. Porcine Head Response to Blast

    PubMed Central

    Shridharani, Jay K.; Wood, Garrett W.; Panzer, Matthew B.; Capehart, Bruce P.; Nyein, Michelle K.; Radovitzky, Raul A.; Bass, Cameron R. ‘Dale’

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300–2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2 = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are

  17. Comparison of native porcine skin and a dermal substitute using tensiometry and digital image speckle correlation.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Jason R; Phillips, Brett T; Conkling, Nicole; Fourman, Mitchell; Melendez, Mark M; Bhatnagar, Divya; Simon, Marcia; Rafailovich, Miriam; Dagum, Alexander B

    2012-10-01

    Dermal substitutes are currently used in plastic surgery to cover various soft tissue defects caused by trauma, burns, or ablative cancer surgery. Little information is available on the biomechanical properties of these dermal substitutes after adequate incorporation as compared to normal skin. Determining parameters such as tensile strength in these skin substitutes will help us further understand their wound healing properties and potential in developing artificial tissue constructs. We hypothesize that a dermal substitute has a lower stress-strain curve and altered stress-induced deformation quantified with tensiometry and digital image speckle correlation (DISC) analysis. Two separate 5×10-cm full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsum of 3 female swine. Fibrin glue was applied before either a full-thickness skin graft (FTSG) or application of artificial dermal matrix. On day 42, cultured autologous keratinocytes were applied as a cell sheet to the wound covered with Integra. On day 56, the wounds were fully excised and fresh tissue specimens, including normal skin, were stored in a physiological solution and prepared for analysis. Rectangular samples were excised from the center of each specimen measuring 4×4×30 mm. Using a tensiometer and DISC analysis, we evaluated the tensile strength of 3 different groups of skin, namely, normal, FTSG, and Integra. There is a significant difference between the Integra specimen when compared to normal skin and FTSG. We found a minimal difference in the stress-strain curves of the latter two. Integra alone shows plastic deformation with continued stretching before ultimate midline fracture. There is significant change between the Young's moduli of the normal skin and the Integra, whereas there is little difference between the FTSG and the normal skin; DISC confirms this analysis. The normal skin and FTSG show a convergence of vectors to a linear plane, whereas Integra shows very little organization. Using 2 different

  18. Correlation of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Parameters in the Canine Brain

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Dalun; Calabrese, Evan; White, Leonard E; Wei, Peter; Chen, Steven; Platt, Simon R

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the degree to which ex vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters correlate to one another in white matter regions on very high resolution MR scans. Specifically, we hypothesized that radial diffusivity (RD) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) would correlate more closely than either would correlate with fractional anisotropy (FA). We performed post mortem DTI imaging on three canine brains on a 7 T MR scanner (TR = 100 ms, NEX = 1, gradient amplitude = 600 mT/m, b = 1492–1,565 s/mm2) and generated maps of FA, RD, and ADC. We measured RD, FA and ADC within 14 regions of interest representative of various portions of white matter. We compared the three combinations of values, i.e., FA vs ADC, FA vs RD and ADC vs RD, using linear regression models. Linear regression demonstrated that RD was significantly correlated with FA (p << 0.01; R2 = 0.3053) and also with ADC (p << 0.01; R2 = 0.6755), but to a much greater degree. However, ADC was not significantly correlated with FA (p = 0.526; R2 = 0.101). Our findings suggest that both RD and ADC reflect similar cytoarchitectural features, most likely that of myelination, whereas FA values likely reflect both myelination and additional microstructural features that constrain the diffusion of water in white matter. PMID:25924167

  19. Play it again, Sam: brain correlates of emotional music recognition

    PubMed Central

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Siggel, Susann; Mohammadi, Bahram; Samii, Amir; Münte, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Music can elicit strong emotions and can be remembered in connection with these emotions even decades later. Yet, the brain correlates of episodic memory for highly emotional music compared with less emotional music have not been examined. We therefore used fMRI to investigate brain structures activated by emotional processing of short excerpts of film music successfully retrieved from episodic long-term memory. Methods: Eighteen non-musicians volunteers were exposed to 60 structurally similar pieces of film music of 10 s length with high arousal ratings and either less positive or very positive valence ratings. Two similar sets of 30 pieces were created. Each of these was presented to half of the participants during the encoding session outside of the scanner, while all stimuli were used during the second recognition session inside the MRI-scanner. During fMRI each stimulation period (10 s) was followed by a 20 s resting period during which participants pressed either the “old” or the “new” button to indicate whether they had heard the piece before. Results: Musical stimuli vs. silence activated the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right insula, right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral medial frontal gyrus and the left anterior cerebellum. Old pieces led to activation in the left medial dorsal thalamus and left midbrain compared to new pieces. For recognized vs. not recognized old pieces a focused activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus and the left cerebellum was found. Positive pieces activated the left medial frontal gyrus, the left precuneus, the right superior frontal gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, and the left thalamus compared to less positive pieces. Conclusion: Specific brain networks related to memory retrieval and emotional processing of symphonic film music were identified. The results imply that the valence of a music piece is important for memory performance and is recognized very

  20. Cognitive function in acromegaly: description and brain volumetric correlates.

    PubMed

    Sievers, Caroline; Sämann, P G; Pfister, H; Dimopoulou, C; Czisch, M; Roemmler, J; Schopohl, J; Stalla, G K; Zihl, J

    2012-09-01

    In acromegaly, we reported on increased rates of affective disorders such as dysthymia and depression, as well as structural brain changes. Objective of this study was to determine if cognitive impairments in patients with acromegaly exist and whether such impairments are associated with structural brain alterations defined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this cross-sectional study, 55 patients with biochemically confirmed acromegaly were enrolled. MRI data were compared with 87 control subjects. Main outcome measures were performance levels in 13 cognitive tests covering the domains of attention, memory and executive function, with performance below the cut-off level of the 16th percentile rated as impaired. In addition, individual global and hippocampal volume changes were defined for each patient in reference to a normative sample. We found that up to 33.3% of the patients were impaired in the attention, up to 24.1% in the memory, and up to 16.7% in the executive function domain. 67.3% of the patients failed to reach the cut-off level in at least one subtest. MRI demonstrated increased global, left and right hippocampal grey matter and white matter, particularly early in the disease course. Rather few positive than expected negative correlations could be established between the hippocampal grey matter gain and cognitive performance. Cognitive dysfunction, particularly attentional deficits, are common in acromegaly, rendering neuropsychological testing essential in the diagnostic work-up. PMID:21735089

  1. Brain size is correlated with endangerment status in mammals.

    PubMed

    Abelson, Eric S

    2016-02-24

    Increases in relative encephalization (RE), brain size after controlling for body size, comes at a great metabolic cost and is correlated with a host of cognitive traits, from the ability to count objects to higher rates of innovation. Despite many studies examining the implications and trade-offs accompanying increased RE, the relationship between mammalian extinction risk and RE is unknown. I examine whether mammals with larger levels of RE are more or less likely to be at risk of endangerment than less-encephalized species. I find that extant species with large levels of encephalization are at greater risk of endangerment, with this effect being strongest in species with small body sizes. These results suggest that RE could be a valuable asset in estimating extinction vulnerability. Additionally, these findings suggest that the cost-benefit trade-off of RE is different in large-bodied species when compared with small-bodied species. PMID:26888034

  2. Brain imaging correlates of verbal working memory in children following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Elisabeth A; Newsome, Mary R; Bigler, Erin D; Pertab, Jon; Merkley, Tricia L; Hanten, Gerri; Scheibel, Randall S; Li, Xiaoqi; Chu, Zili; Yallampalli, Ragini; Hunter, Jill V; Levin, Harvey S

    2011-10-01

    Neural correlates of working memory (WM) based on the Sternberg Item Recognition Task (SIRT) were assessed in 40 children with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to 41 demographically-comparable children with orthopedic injury (OI). Multiple magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods assessed structural and functional brain correlates of WM, including volumetric and cortical thickness measures on all children; functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed on a subset of children. Confirming previous findings, children with TBI had decreased cortical thickness and volume as compared to the OI group. Although the findings did not confirm the predicted relation of decreased frontal lobe cortical thickness and volume to SIRT performance, left parietal volume was negatively related to reaction time (RT). In contrast, cortical thickness was positively related to SIRT accuracy and RT in the OI group, particularly in aspects of the frontal and parietal lobes, but these relationships were less robust in the TBI group. We attribute these findings to disrupted fronto-parietal functioning in attention and WM. fMRI results from a subsample demonstrated fronto-temporal activation in the OI group, and parietal activation in the TBI group, and DTI findings reflected multiple differences in white matter tracts that engage fronto-parietal networks. Diminished white matter integrity of the frontal lobes and cingulum bundle as measured by DTI was associated with longer RT on the SIRT. Across modalities, the cingulate emerged as a common structure related to performance after TBI. These results are discussed in terms of how different imaging modalities tap different types of pathologic correlates of brain injury and their relationship with WM. PMID:21565227

  3. Brain structure correlates of emotion-based rash impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Muhlert, N.; Lawrence, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Negative urgency (the tendency to engage in rash, ill-considered action in response to intense negative emotions), is a personality trait that has been linked to problematic involvement in several risky and impulsive behaviours, and to various forms of disinhibitory psychopathology, but its neurobiological correlates are poorly understood. Here, we explored whether inter-individual variation in levels of trait negative urgency was associated with inter-individual variation in regional grey matter volumes. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in a sample (n = 152) of healthy participants, we found that smaller volumes of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and right temporal pole, regions previously linked to emotion appraisal, emotion regulation and emotion-based decision-making, were associated with higher levels of trait negative urgency. When controlling for other impulsivity linked personality traits (sensation seeking, lack of planning/perseverance) and negative emotionality per se (neuroticism), these associations remained, and an additional relationship was found between higher levels of trait negative urgency and smaller volumes of the left ventral striatum. This latter finding mirrors recent VBM findings in an animal model of impulsivity. Our findings offer novel insight into the brain structure correlates of one key source of inter-individual differences in impulsivity. PMID:25957991

  4. Brain activity associated with illusory correlations in animal phobia.

    PubMed

    Wiemer, Julian; Schulz, Stefan M; Reicherts, Philipp; Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Andreatta, Marta; Pauli, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Anxiety disorder patients were repeatedly found to overestimate the association between disorder-relevant stimuli and aversive outcomes despite random contingencies. Such an illusory correlation (IC) might play an important role in the return of fear after extinction learning; yet, little is known about how this cognitive bias emerges in the brain. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 18 female patients with spider phobia and 18 healthy controls were exposed to pictures of spiders, mushrooms and puppies followed randomly by either a painful electrical shock or nothing. In advance, both patients and healthy controls expected more shocks after spider pictures. Importantly, only patients with spider phobia continued to overestimate this association after the experiment. The strength of this IC was predicted by increased outcome aversiveness ratings and primary sensory motor cortex activity in response to the shock after spider pictures. Moreover, increased activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) to spider pictures predicted the IC. These results support the theory that phobia-relevant stimuli amplify unpleasantness and sensory motor representations of aversive stimuli, which in turn may promote their overestimation. Hyper-activity in dlPFC possibly reflects a pre-occupation of executive resources with phobia-relevant stimuli, thus complicating the accurate monitoring of objective contingencies and the unlearning of fear. PMID:25411452

  5. Brain activity associated with illusory correlations in animal phobia

    PubMed Central

    Wiemer, Julian; Schulz, Stefan M.; Reicherts, Philipp; Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Andreatta, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorder patients were repeatedly found to overestimate the association between disorder-relevant stimuli and aversive outcomes despite random contingencies. Such an illusory correlation (IC) might play an important role in the return of fear after extinction learning; yet, little is known about how this cognitive bias emerges in the brain. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 18 female patients with spider phobia and 18 healthy controls were exposed to pictures of spiders, mushrooms and puppies followed randomly by either a painful electrical shock or nothing. In advance, both patients and healthy controls expected more shocks after spider pictures. Importantly, only patients with spider phobia continued to overestimate this association after the experiment. The strength of this IC was predicted by increased outcome aversiveness ratings and primary sensory motor cortex activity in response to the shock after spider pictures. Moreover, increased activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) to spider pictures predicted the IC. These results support the theory that phobia-relevant stimuli amplify unpleasantness and sensory motor representations of aversive stimuli, which in turn may promote their overestimation. Hyper-activity in dlPFC possibly reflects a pre-occupation of executive resources with phobia-relevant stimuli, thus complicating the accurate monitoring of objective contingencies and the unlearning of fear. PMID:25411452

  6. Pain Catastrophizing Correlates with Early Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Outcome.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Geneviève; Lajoie, Susanne P; Naismith, Laura M; Lavigne, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Background. Identifying which patients are most likely to be at risk of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a difficult clinical challenge. Objectives. To examine the relationship between pain catastrophizing, defined as the exaggerated negative appraisal of a pain experience, and early MTBI outcome. Methods. This cross-sectional design included 58 patients diagnosed with a MTBI. In addition to medical chart review, postconcussion symptoms were assessed by self-report at 1 month (Time 1) and 8 weeks (Time 2) after MTBI. Pain severity, psychological distress, level of functionality, and pain catastrophizing were measured by self-report at Time 2. Results. The pain catastrophizing subscales of rumination, magnification, and helplessness were significantly correlated with pain severity (r = .31 to .44), number of postconcussion symptoms reported (r = .35 to .45), psychological distress (r = .57 to .67), and level of functionality (r = -.43 to -.29). Pain catastrophizing scores were significantly higher for patients deemed to be at high risk of postconcussion syndrome (6 or more symptoms reported at both Time 1 and Time 2). Conclusions. Higher levels of pain catastrophizing were related to adverse early MTBI outcomes. The early detection of pain catastrophizing may facilitate goal-oriented interventions to prevent or minimize the development of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms. PMID:27445604

  7. Pain Catastrophizing Correlates with Early Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, Geneviève; Lajoie, Susanne P.; Naismith, Laura M.; Lavigne, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Background. Identifying which patients are most likely to be at risk of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a difficult clinical challenge. Objectives. To examine the relationship between pain catastrophizing, defined as the exaggerated negative appraisal of a pain experience, and early MTBI outcome. Methods. This cross-sectional design included 58 patients diagnosed with a MTBI. In addition to medical chart review, postconcussion symptoms were assessed by self-report at 1 month (Time 1) and 8 weeks (Time 2) after MTBI. Pain severity, psychological distress, level of functionality, and pain catastrophizing were measured by self-report at Time 2. Results. The pain catastrophizing subscales of rumination, magnification, and helplessness were significantly correlated with pain severity (r = .31 to .44), number of postconcussion symptoms reported (r = .35 to .45), psychological distress (r = .57 to .67), and level of functionality (r = −.43 to −.29). Pain catastrophizing scores were significantly higher for patients deemed to be at high risk of postconcussion syndrome (6 or more symptoms reported at both Time 1 and Time 2). Conclusions. Higher levels of pain catastrophizing were related to adverse early MTBI outcomes. The early detection of pain catastrophizing may facilitate goal-oriented interventions to prevent or minimize the development of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms. PMID:27445604

  8. Cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy correlated by xenon contrast CT scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Kitagawa, Y.; Meyer, J.S.; Tanahashi, N.; Rogers, R.L.; Tachibana, H.; Kandula, P.; Dowell, R.E.; Mortel, K.F.

    1985-11-01

    Correlations between cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured during stable xenon contrast CT scanning and standard CT indices of brain atrophy were investigated in the patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type, multi-infarct dementia and idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Compared to age-matched normal volunteers, significant correlations were found in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease between cortical and subcortical gray matter blood flow and brain atrophy estimated by the ventricular body ratio, and mild to moderate brain atrophy were correlated with stepwise CBF reductions. However, in patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia, brain atrophy was not associated with stepwise CBF reductions. Overall correlations between brain atrophy and reduced CBF were weak. Mild degrees of brain atrophy are not always associated with reduced CBF.

  9. An examination of cetacean brain structure with a novel hypothesis correlating thermogenesis to the evolution of a big brain.

    PubMed

    Manger, Paul R

    2006-05-01

    This review examines aspects of cetacean brain structure related to behaviour and evolution. Major considerations include cetacean brain-body allometry, structure of the cerebral cortex, the hippocampal formation, specialisations of the cetacean brain related to vocalisations and sleep phenomenology, paleoneurology, and brain-body allometry during cetacean evolution. These data are assimilated to demonstrate that there is no neural basis for the often-asserted high intellectual abilities of cetaceans. Despite this, the cetaceans do have volumetrically large brains. A novel hypothesis regarding the evolution of large brain size in cetaceans is put forward. It is shown that a combination of an unusually high number of glial cells and unihemispheric sleep phenomenology make the cetacean brain an efficient thermogenetic organ, which is needed to counteract heat loss to the water. It is demonstrated that water temperature is the major selection pressure driving an altered scaling of brain and body size and an increased actual brain size in cetaceans. A point in the evolutionary history of cetaceans is identified as the moment in which water temperature became a significant selection pressure in cetacean brain evolution. This occurred at the Archaeoceti - modern cetacean faunal transition. The size, structure and scaling of the cetacean brain continues to be shaped by water temperature in extant cetaceans. The alterations in cetacean brain structure, function and scaling, combined with the imperative of producing offspring that can withstand the rate of heat loss experienced in water, within the genetic confines of eutherian mammal reproductive constraints, provides an explanation for the evolution of the large size of the cetacean brain. These observations provide an alternative to the widely held belief of a correlation between brain size and intelligence in cetaceans. PMID:16573845

  10. Brain oxytocin correlates with maternal aggression: link to anxiety.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Oliver J; Meddle, Simone L; Beiderbeck, Daniela I; Douglas, Alison J; Neumann, Inga D

    2005-07-20

    The oxytocinergic system is critically involved in the regulation of maternal behavior, which includes maternal aggression. Because aggression has been linked to anxiety, we investigated the maternal aggression and the role of brain oxytocin in lactating Wistar rats selectively bred for high anxiety-related behavior (HAB) or low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) during the 10 min maternal defense test. HAB dams displayed more maternal aggression against a virgin intruder compared with LAB dams, resulting in more defensive behavior and higher anxiety of HAB-defeated virgins. The different levels of aggression were accompanied by opposite oxytocin release patterns within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN; HAB, increase; LAB, decrease). Furthermore, oxytocin release was higher within the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) of HAB dams compared with LABs. A direct correlation between the offensive behavior displayed during the maternal defense test and local oxytocin release was found in both the PVN and CeA. Using retrodialysis, blockade of endogenous oxytocin action by infusion of an oxytocin receptor antagonist (des-Gly-NH2,d(CH2)5[Tyr(Me)2,Thr4]OVT) into the PVN or CeA reduced maternal aggression of HAB dams, whereas infusion of synthetic oxytocin into the PVN tended to increase aggression toward the intruder in LAB dams. There were no significant differences in oxytocin receptor mRNA expression or oxytocin receptor binding between lactating HAB and LAB dams. Therefore, differences in intracerebral release patterns of oxytocin, rather than differences at the level of oxytocin receptors, are critical for the regulation of maternal aggressive behavior. PMID:16033890

  11. Brain Event-Related Potential Correlates of Concept Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    An irrelevant auditory probe procedure was used to evoke brain event-related potentials (ERPs) in 56 Navy recruits while they learned pulsed radar concepts presented to them in study booklets. A mastery test was administered to assess concept acquisition. The research issue was whether brain ERPs recorded while students are in the process of…

  12. Event-Related Brain Potential Correlates of Emotional Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eimer, Martin; Holmes, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    Results from recent event-related brain potential (ERP) studies investigating brain processes involved in the detection and analysis of emotional facial expression are reviewed. In all experiments, emotional faces were found to trigger an increased ERP positivity relative to neutral faces. The onset of this emotional expression effect was…

  13. The Correlation between Brain Development, Language Acquisition, and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Leslie Haley

    2007-01-01

    There continues to be a debate whether educators should use brain research to their advantage in the classroom. This debate should not prevent educators from using their new found knowledge toward enhancing their students' learning. By understanding how the brain learns, educators are able to determine what developmental level the child is…

  14. Midsagittal Brain Shape Correlation with Intelligence and Cognitive Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Emiliano; Martin-Loeches, Manuel; Burgaleta, Miguel; Colom, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Brain shape might influence cognitive performance because of the relationships between functions, spatial organization, and differential volumetric development of cortical areas. Here we analyze the relationships between midsagittal brain shape variation and a set of basic psychological measures. Coordinates in 2D from 102 MRI-scanned young adult…

  15. Peripheral Blood Mitochondrial DNA as a Biomarker of Cerebral Mitochondrial Dysfunction following Traumatic Brain Injury in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Kilbaugh, Todd J.; Lvova, Maria; Karlsson, Michael; Zhang, Zhe; Leipzig, Jeremy; Wallace, Douglas C.; Margulies, Susan S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been shown to activate the peripheral innate immune system and systemic inflammatory response, possibly through the central release of damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Our main purpose was to gain an initial understanding of the peripheral mitochondrial response following TBI, and how this response could be utilized to determine cerebral mitochondrial bioenergetics. We hypothesized that TBI would increase peripheral whole blood relative mtDNA copy number, and that these alterations would be associated with cerebral mitochondrial bioenergetics triggered by TBI. Methodology Blood samples were obtained before, 6 h after, and 25 h after focal (controlled cortical impact injury: CCI) and diffuse (rapid non-impact rotational injury: RNR) TBI. PCR primers, unique to mtDNA, were identified by aligning segments of nuclear DNA (nDNA) to mtDNA, normalizing values to nuclear 16S rRNA, for a relative mtDNA copy number. Three unique mtDNA regions were selected, and PCR primers were designed within those regions, limited to 25-30 base pairs to further ensure sequence specificity, and measured utilizing qRT-PCR. Results Mean relative mtDNA copy numbers increased significantly at 6 and 25 hrs after following both focal and diffuse traumatic brain injury. Specifically, the mean relative mtDNA copy number from three mitochondrial-specific regions pre-injury was 0.84 ± 0.05. At 6 and 25 h after diffuse non-impact TBI, mean mtDNA copy number was significantly higher: 2.07 ± 0.19 (P < 0.0001) and 2.37 ± 0.42 (P < 0.001), respectively. Following focal impact TBI, relative mtDNA copy number was also significantly higher, 1.35 ± 0.12 (P < 0.0001) at 25 hours. Alterations in mitochondrial respiration in the hippocampus and cortex post-TBI correlated with changes in the relative mtDNA copy number measured in peripheral blood. Conclusions Alterations in peripheral blood relative mtDNA copy numbers may be a novel biosignature of

  16. Correlated mRNAs and miRNAs from co-expression and regulatory networks affect porcine muscle and finally meat properties

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physiological processes aiding the conversion of muscle to meat involve many genes associated with muscle structure and metabolic processes. MicroRNAs regulate networks of genes to orchestrate cellular functions, in turn regulating phenotypes. Results We applied weighted gene co-expression network analysis to identify co-expression modules that correlated to meat quality phenotypes and were highly enriched for genes involved in glucose metabolism, response to wounding, mitochondrial ribosome, mitochondrion, and extracellular matrix. Negative correlation of miRNA with mRNA and target prediction were used to select transcripts out of the modules of trait-associated mRNAs to further identify those genes that are correlated with post mortem traits. Conclusions Porcine muscle co-expression transcript networks that correlated to post mortem traits were identified. The integration of miRNA and mRNA expression analyses, as well as network analysis, enabled us to interpret the differentially-regulated genes from a systems perspective. Linking co-expression networks of transcripts and hierarchically organized pairs of miRNAs and mRNAs to meat properties yields new insight into several biological pathways underlying phenotype differences. These pathways may also be diagnostic for many myopathies, which are accompanied by deficient nutrient and oxygen supply of muscle fibers. PMID:23915301

  17. Finding the "g"-Factor in Brain Structure Using the Method of Correlated Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colom, Roberto; Jung, Rex E.; Haier, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    It is unclear whether brain mechanisms underlying human intelligence are distributed throughout the brain or mainly concentrated in the frontal lobes. Data are inconsistent possibly due, at least in part, to the different ways the construct of intelligence is measured. Here we apply the method of correlated vectors to determine how the general…

  18. Individual Differences in General Intelligence Correlate with Brain Function during Nonreasoning Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haier, Richard J.; White, Nathan S.; Alkire, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Administered Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices to 22 adults and measured cerebral glucose activity as subjects viewed videos on 2 occasions. Data provide evidence that individual differences in intelligence correlate with brain function even when the brain is engaged in non-reasoning tasks. (SLD)

  19. Memory Impairment in Korsakoff's Psychosis: A Correlation with Brain Noradrenergic Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEntee, William J.; Mair, Robert G.

    1978-01-01

    The concentration of the primary brain metabolite of norepinephrine is diminished in the lumbar spinal fluid of patients with Korsakoff's syndrome. The extent of its reduction is correlated with measures of memory impairment. (BB)

  20. Neural Correlates of Socioeconomic Status in the Developing Human Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Kimberly G.; Houston, Suzanne M.; Kan, Eric; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in childhood are associated with remarkable differences in cognitive and socio-emotional development during a time when dramatic changes are occurring in the brain. Yet, the neurobiological pathways through which socioeconomic status (SES) shapes development remain poorly understood. Behavioral evidence suggests that…

  1. Alpha oscillatory correlates of motor inhibition in the aged brain

    PubMed Central

    Bönstrup, Marlene; Hagemann, Julian; Gerloff, Christian; Sauseng, Paul; Hummel, Friedhelm C.

    2015-01-01

    Exerting inhibitory control is a cognitive ability mediated by functions known to decline with age. The goal of this study is to add to the mechanistic understanding of cortical inhibition during motor control in aged brains. Based on behavioral findings of impaired inhibitory control with age we hypothesized that elderly will show a reduced or a lack of EEG alpha-power increase during tasks that require motor inhibition. Since inhibitory control over movements has been shown to rely on prior motor memory formation, we investigated cortical inhibitory processes at two points in time—early after learning and after an overnight consolidation phase and hypothesized an overnight increase of inhibitory capacities. Young and elderly participants acquired a complex finger movement sequence and in each experimental session brain activity during execution and inhibition of the sequence was recorded with multi-channel EEG. We assessed cortical processes of sustained inhibition by means of task-induced changes of alpha oscillatory power. During inhibition of the learned movement, young participants showed a significant alpha power increase at the sensorimotor cortices whereas elderly did not. Interestingly, for both groups, the overnight consolidation phase improved up-regulation of alpha power during sustained inhibition. This points to deficits in the generation and enhancement of local inhibitory mechanisms at the sensorimotor cortices in aged brains. However, the alpha power increase in both groups implies neuroplastic changes that strengthen the network of alpha power generation over time in young as well as elderly brains. PMID:26528179

  2. The influx of neutral amino acids into the porcine brain during development: a positron emission tomography study.

    PubMed

    Brust, Peter; Vorwieger, Gerd; Walter, Bernd; Füchtner, Frank; Stark, Holger; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Herzau, Michael; Opfermann, Thomas; Steinbach, Jörg; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Bauer, Reinhard

    2004-09-17

    Pigs of three different age groups (newborns, 1 week old, 6 weeks old) were used to study the transport of the large neutral amino acids 6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA ([18F]FDOPA) and 3-O-methyl-6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA ([18F]OMFD) across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) with positron emission tomography (PET). Compartmental modeling of PET data was used to calculate the blood-brain clearance (K1) and the rate constant for the brain-blood transfer (k2) of [18F]FDOPA and [18F]OMFD after i.v. injection. A 40-70% decrease of K1(OMFD), K1(FDOPA) and k2(OMFD) from newborns to juvenile pigs was found whereas k2(FDOPA) did not change. Generally, K1(OMFD) and k2(OMFD) are lower than K1(FDOPA) and k2(FDOPA) in all regions and age groups. The changes cannot be explained by differences in brain perfusion because the measured regional cerebral blood flow did not show major changes during the first 6 weeks after birth. In addition, alterations in plasma amino acids cannot account for the described transport changes. In newborn and juvenile pigs, HPLC measurements were performed. Despite significant changes of single amino acids (decrease: Met, Val, Leu; increase: Tyr), the sum of large neutral amino acids transported by LAT1 remained unchanged. Furthermore, treatment with a selective inhibitor of the LAT1 transporter (BCH) reduced the blood-brain transport of [18F]FDOPA and [18F]OMFD by 35% and 32%, respectively. Additional in-vitro studies using human LAT1 reveal a much lower affinity of FDOPA compared to OMFD or L-DOPA. The data indicate that the transport system(s) for neutral amino acids underlie(s) developmental changes after birth causing a decrease of the blood-brain barrier permeability for those amino acids during brain development. It is suggested that there is no tight coupling between brain amino acid supply and the demands of protein synthesis in the brain tissue. PMID:15351512

  3. Neuropsychological Correlates of Brain Perfusion SPECT in Patients with Macrophagic Myofasciitis

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Gucht, Axel; Aouizerate, Jessie; Evangelista, Eva; Chalaye, Julia; Gherardi, Romain K.; Ragunathan-Thangarajah, Nilusha; Bachoud-Levi, Anne-Catherine; Authier, François-Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant-induced macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) complain of arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue and cognitive deficits. This study aimed to characterize brain perfusion in these patients. Methods Brain perfusion SPECT was performed in 76 consecutive patients (aged 49±10 y) followed in the Garches-Necker-Mondor-Hendaye reference center for rare neuromuscular diseases. Images were acquired 30 min after intravenous injection of 925 MBq 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) at rest. All patients also underwent a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests, within 1.3±5.5 mo from SPECT. Statistical parametric maps (SPM12) were obtained for each test using linear regressions between each performance score and brain perfusion, with adjustment for age, sex, socio-cultural level and time delay between brain SPECT and neuropsychological testing. Results SPM analysis revealed positive correlation between neuropsychological scores (mostly exploring executive functions) and brain perfusion in the posterior associative cortex, including cuneus/precuneus/occipital lingual areas, the periventricular white matter/corpus callosum, and the cerebellum, while negative correlation was found with amygdalo-hippocampal/entorhinal complexes. A positive correlation was also observed between brain perfusion and the posterior associative cortex when the time elapsed since last vaccine injection was investigated. Conclusions Brain perfusion SPECT showed a pattern of cortical and subcortical changes in accordance with the MMF-associated cognitive disorder previously described. These results provide a neurobiological substrate for brain dysfunction in aluminum hydroxide adjuvant-induced MMF patients. PMID:26030650

  4. Brain correlates of phonological recoding of visual symbols.

    PubMed

    Madec, Sylvain; Le Goff, Kévin; Anton, Jean-Luc; Longcamp, Marieke; Velay, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Roth, Muriel; Courrieu, Pierre; Grainger, Jonathan; Rey, Arnaud

    2016-05-15

    Learning to read involves setting up associations between meaningless visual inputs (V) and their phonological representations (P). Here, we recorded the brain signals (ERPs and fMRI) associated with phonological recoding (i.e., V-P conversion processes) in an artificial learning situation in which participants had to learn the associations between 24 unknown visual symbols (Japanese Katakana characters) and 24 arbitrary monosyllabic names. During the learning phase on Day 1, the strength of V-P associations was manipulated by varying the proportion of correct and erroneous associations displayed during a two-alternative forced choice task. Recording event related potentials (ERPs) during the learning phase allowed us to track changes in the processing of these visual symbols as a function of the strength of V-P associations. We found that, at the end of the learning phase, ERPs were linearly affected by the strength of V-P associations in a time-window starting around 200ms post-stimulus onset on right occipital sites and ending around 345ms on left occipital sites. On Day 2, participants had to perform a matching task during an fMRI session and the strength of these V-P associations was again used as a probe for identifying brain regions related to phonological recoding. Crucially, we found that the left fusiform gyrus was gradually affected by the strength of V-P associations suggesting that this region is involved in the brain network supporting phonological recoding processes. PMID:26902821

  5. Stillbirth: Correlations Between Brain Injury and Placental Pathology.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Linda M; Bit-Ivan, Esther N; Miller, Emily S; Minturn, Lucy; Bigio, Eileen H; Weese-Mayer, Debra E

    2016-01-01

    Chronic placental pathologic processes such as fetal thrombotic vasculopathy have been linked to brain injury in neonates. We hypothesize that using stillbirth as a model, placental pathology can predict risk for hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. From a single institutional database of stillbirths ≥23 weeks' gestational age, we included cases with full autopsy and neuropathology examination. Bivariable analyses were performed to identify whether there was an association between placental pathologic findings and neuropathologic findings. Logistic regression was used to control for potential confounders. Among 97 potential cases, adequate tissue was analyzable from 79 cases (mean gestational age  =  33 weeks). Acute central nervous system hemorrhage and acute neuronal necrosis were the most common neuropathologic processes seen in this cohort (57% for each). Maternal vascular underperfusion was the most common placental pathology but was not significantly associated with a specific neuropathologic finding. High-grade chronic villitis (HGCV) and fetal thrombotic vasculopathy (FTV) were significantly associated with increased risk for pontosubicular necrosis (odds ratios, 15.73 and 3.79, respectively). These associations persisted after controlling for potential confounders. Chronic placental pathologies, specifically HGCV and FTV, were associated with pontosubicular necrosis, suggesting that placental pathology involving the fetal vasculature and altered fetoplacental blood flow carry the greatest likelihood of hypoxic/ischemic brain injury. PMID:26492345

  6. Tracking of electroencephalography signals across brain lobes using motion estimation and cross-correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Seng Hooi; Nisar, Humaira; Yap, Vooi Voon; Shim, Seong-O.

    2015-11-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is the signal generated by electrical activity in the human brain. EEG topographic maps (topo-maps) give an idea of brain activation. Functional connectivity helps to find functionally integrated relationship between spatially separated brain regions. Brain connectivity can be measured by several methods. The classical methods calculate the coherence and correlation of the signal. We have developed an algorithm to map functional neural connectivity in the brain by using a full search block matching motion estimation algorithm. We have used oddball paradigm to examine the flow of activation across brain lobes for a specific activity. In the first step, the EEG signal is converted into topo-maps. The flow of activation between consecutive frames is tracked using full search block motion estimation, which appears in the form of motion vectors. In the second step, vector median filtering is used to obtain a smooth motion field by removing the unwanted noise. For each topo-map, several activation paths are tracked across various brain lobes. We have also developed correlation activity maps by following the correlation coefficient paths between electrodes. These paths are selected when the correlation coefficient between electrodes is >70%. We have compared the motion estimation path with the correlation coefficient activation maps. The tracked paths obtained by using motion estimation and correlation give very similar results. The inter-subject comparison shows that four out of five subjects tracked path involves all four (occipital, temporal, parietal, frontal) brain lobes for the same stimuli. The intra-subject analysis shows that three out of five subjects show different tracked lobes for different stimuli.

  7. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Young, Brittany M; Nigogosyan, Zack; Walton, Léo M; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A; Grogan, Scott W; Tyler, Mitchell E; Edwards, Dorothy F; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A; Williams, Justin C; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n = 8) or no therapy (n = 6). Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and 1 month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI) values during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy, but not in the absence of therapy, to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere) as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions. PMID:25076886

  8. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface

    PubMed Central

    Young, Brittany M.; Nigogosyan, Zack; Walton, Léo M.; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A.; Grogan, Scott W.; Tyler, Mitchell E.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A.; Williams, Justin C.; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n = 8) or no therapy (n = 6). Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and 1 month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI) values during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy, but not in the absence of therapy, to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere) as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions. PMID:25076886

  9. Amyloid Load in Nondemented Brains Correlates with APOE e4

    PubMed Central

    Caselli, Richard J.; Walker, Douglas; Sue, Lucia; Sabbagh, Marwan; Beach, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    179 cognitively healthy adults enrolled in the Sun Health Brain Donation program between 7/91 and 12/07 were at least 60 years old and nondemented at the time of death (21 had developed mild cognitive impairment [MCI]). Amyloid plaque density, congophilic amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) density scores were based on CERAD criteria and compared in apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 carriers (n=42) and noncarriers (NC) (n=137). Mean age (83.4+/−.6), gender (45% women), interval between death and brain harvest (3.1+/−2.4 hours), and brain weight (1200+/−119 grams) did not differ between e4 carriers (n=42) and NC. Total plaque density was higher in e4 carriers than NC (6.8+/−4.9 vs 4.3+/−4.4, p=.002), and this was true in each of 5 subregions examined. Total CAA (p=.002) and all subregion CAA burden was also higher in e4 carriers. Total neuritic plaque density (1.2+/−1.0 vs 1.0+/−1.0, p=.18) and total NFT density (3.9+/−2.4 vs 3.6+/−2.3, p=.50) did not differ between e4 carriers and NC, nor in any subregion. Eliminating the 21 with MCI did not alter these results. Nondemented APOE e4 carriers over age 60 have a higher burden of total parenchymal and vascular amyloid neuropathology than NC, but no difference in neuritic plaque and NFT pathology. PMID:20153809

  10. A New Measure of Imagination Ability: Anatomical Brain Imaging Correlates.

    PubMed

    Jung, Rex E; Flores, Ranee A; Hunter, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Imagination involves episodic memory retrieval, visualization, mental simulation, spatial navigation, and future thinking, making it a complex cognitive construct. Prior studies of imagination have attempted to study various elements of imagination (e.g., visualization), but none have attempted to capture the entirety of imagination ability in a single instrument. Here we describe the Hunter Imagination Questionnaire (HIQ), an instrument designed to assess imagination over an extended period of time, in a naturalistic manner. We hypothesized that the HIQ would be related to measures of creative achievement and to a network of brain regions previously identified to be important to imagination/creative abilities. Eighty subjects were administered the HIQ in an online format; all subjects were administered a broad battery of tests including measures of intelligence, personality, and aptitude, as well as structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI). Responses of the HIQ were found to be normally distributed, and exploratory factor analysis yielded four factors. Internal consistency of the HIQ ranged from 0.76 to 0.79, and two factors ("Implementation" and "Learning") were significantly related to measures of Creative Achievement (Scientific-r = 0.26 and Writing-r = 0.31, respectively), suggesting concurrent validity. We found that the HIQ and its factors were related to a broad network of brain volumes including increased bilateral hippocampi, lingual gyrus, and caudal/rostral middle frontal lobe, and decreased volumes within the nucleus accumbens and regions within the default mode network (e.g., precuneus, posterior cingulate, transverse temporal lobe). The HIQ was found to be a reliable and valid measure of imagination in a cohort of normal human subjects, and was related to brain volumes previously identified as central to imagination including episodic memory retrieval (e.g., hippocampus). We also identified compelling evidence suggesting imagination ability

  11. A New Measure of Imagination Ability: Anatomical Brain Imaging Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Rex E.; Flores, Ranee A.; Hunter, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Imagination involves episodic memory retrieval, visualization, mental simulation, spatial navigation, and future thinking, making it a complex cognitive construct. Prior studies of imagination have attempted to study various elements of imagination (e.g., visualization), but none have attempted to capture the entirety of imagination ability in a single instrument. Here we describe the Hunter Imagination Questionnaire (HIQ), an instrument designed to assess imagination over an extended period of time, in a naturalistic manner. We hypothesized that the HIQ would be related to measures of creative achievement and to a network of brain regions previously identified to be important to imagination/creative abilities. Eighty subjects were administered the HIQ in an online format; all subjects were administered a broad battery of tests including measures of intelligence, personality, and aptitude, as well as structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI). Responses of the HIQ were found to be normally distributed, and exploratory factor analysis yielded four factors. Internal consistency of the HIQ ranged from 0.76 to 0.79, and two factors (“Implementation” and “Learning”) were significantly related to measures of Creative Achievement (Scientific—r = 0.26 and Writing—r = 0.31, respectively), suggesting concurrent validity. We found that the HIQ and its factors were related to a broad network of brain volumes including increased bilateral hippocampi, lingual gyrus, and caudal/rostral middle frontal lobe, and decreased volumes within the nucleus accumbens and regions within the default mode network (e.g., precuneus, posterior cingulate, transverse temporal lobe). The HIQ was found to be a reliable and valid measure of imagination in a cohort of normal human subjects, and was related to brain volumes previously identified as central to imagination including episodic memory retrieval (e.g., hippocampus). We also identified compelling evidence suggesting imagination

  12. Influence of meditation on anti-correlated networks in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Josipovic, Zoran; Dinstein, Ilan; Weber, Jochen; Heeger, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Human experiences can be broadly divided into those that are external and related to interaction with the environment, and experiences that are internal and self-related. The cerebral cortex appears to be divided into two corresponding systems: an “extrinsic” system composed of brain areas that respond more to external stimuli and tasks and an “intrinsic” system composed of brain areas that respond less to external stimuli and tasks. These two broad brain systems seem to compete with each other, such that their activity levels over time is usually anti-correlated, even when subjects are “at rest” and not performing any task. This study used meditation as an experimental manipulation to test whether this competition (anti-correlation) can be modulated by cognitive strategy. Participants either fixated without meditation (fixation), or engaged in non-dual awareness (NDA) or focused attention (FA) meditations. We computed inter-area correlations (“functional connectivity”) between pairs of brain regions within each system, and between the entire extrinsic and intrinsic systems. Anti-correlation between extrinsic vs. intrinsic systems was stronger during FA meditation and weaker during NDA meditation in comparison to fixation (without mediation). However, correlation between areas within each system did not change across conditions. These results suggest that the anti-correlation found between extrinsic and intrinsic systems is not an immutable property of brain organization and that practicing different forms of meditation can modulate this gross functional organization in profoundly different ways. PMID:22287947

  13. Neural correlates of socioeconomic status in the developing human brain.

    PubMed

    Noble, Kimberly G; Houston, Suzanne M; Kan, Eric; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2012-07-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in childhood are associated with remarkable differences in cognitive and socio-emotional development during a time when dramatic changes are occurring in the brain. Yet, the neurobiological pathways through which socioeconomic status (SES) shapes development remain poorly understood. Behavioral evidence suggests that language, memory, social-emotional processing, and cognitive control exhibit relatively large differences across SES. Here we investigated whether volumetric differences could be observed across SES in several neural regions that support these skills. In a sample of 60 socioeconomically diverse children, highly significant SES differences in regional brain volume were observed in the hippocampus and the amygdala. In addition, SES × age interactions were observed in the left superior temporal gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus, suggesting increasing SES differences with age in these regions. These results were not explained by differences in gender, race or IQ. Likely mechanisms include differences in the home linguistic environment and exposure to stress, which may serve as targets for intervention at a time of high neural plasticity. PMID:22709401

  14. Different brain correlates for watching real and virtual hand actions.

    PubMed

    Perani, D; Fazio, F; Borghese, N A; Tettamanti, M; Ferrari, S; Decety, J; Gilardi, M C

    2001-09-01

    We investigated whether observation of actions reproduced in three-dimensional virtual reality would engage perceptual and visuomotor brain processes different from those induced by the observation of real hand actions. Participants were asked to passively observe grasping actions of geometrical objects made by a real hand or by hand reconstructions of different quality in 3D virtual reality as well as on a 2D TV screen. We found that only real actions in natural environment activated a visuospatial network including the right posterior parietal cortex. Observation of virtual-reality hand actions engaged prevalent visual perceptual processes within lateral and mesial occipital regions. Thus, only perception of actions in reality maps onto existing action representations, whereas virtual-reality conditions do not access the full motor knowledge available to the central nervous system. PMID:11506547

  15. Quantitative assessment of brain tissue oxygenation in porcine models of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation using hyperspectral near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfabadi, Shahin S.; Toronov, Vladislav; Ramadeen, Andrew; Hu, Xudong; Kim, Siwook; Dorian, Paul; Hare, Gregory M. T.

    2014-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive tool to measure real-time tissue oxygenation in the brain. In an invasive animal experiment we were able to directly compare non-invasive NIRS measurements on the skull with invasive measurements directly on the brain dura matter. We used a broad-band, continuous-wave hyper-spectral approach to measure tissue oxygenation in the brain of pigs under the conditions of cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and defibrillation. An additional purpose of this research was to find a correlation between mortality due to cardiac arrest and inadequacy of the tissue perfusion during attempts at resuscitation. Using this technique we measured the changes in concentrations of oxy-hemoglobin [HbO2] and deoxy-hemoglobin [HHb] to quantify the tissue oxygenation in the brain. We also extracted cytochrome c oxidase changes Δ[Cyt-Ox] under the same conditions to determine increase or decrease in cerebral oxygen delivery. In this paper we proved that applying CPR, [HbO2] concentration and tissue oxygenation in the brain increase while [HHb] concentration decreases which was not possible using other measurement techniques. We also discovered a similar trend in changes of both [Cyt-Ox] concentration and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2). Both invasive and non-invasive measurements showed similar results.

  16. Brain Structure Correlates of Urban Upbringing, an Environmental Risk Factor for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Leila; Schäfer, Axel; Streit, Fabian; Lederbogen, Florian; Grimm, Oliver; Wüst, Stefan; Deuschle, Michael; Kirsch, Peter; Tost, Heike; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Urban upbringing has consistently been associated with schizophrenia, but which specific environmental exposures are reflected by this epidemiological observation and how they impact the developing brain to increase risk is largely unknown. On the basis of prior observations of abnormal functional brain processing of social stress in urban-born humans and preclinical evidence for enduring structural brain effects of early social stress, we investigated a possible morphological correlate of urban upbringing in human brain. In a sample of 110 healthy subjects studied with voxel-based morphometry, we detected a strong inverse correlation between early-life urbanicity and gray matter (GM) volume in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, Brodmann area 9). Furthermore, we detected a negative correlation of early-life urbanicity and GM volumes in the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) in men only. Previous work has linked volume reductions in the DLPFC to the exposure to psychosocial stress, including stressful experiences in early life. Besides, anatomical and functional alterations of this region have been identified in schizophrenic patients and high-risk populations. Previous data linking functional hyperactivation of pACC during social stress to urban upbringing suggest that the present interaction effect in brain structure might contribute to an increased risk for schizophrenia in males brought up in cities. Taken together, our results suggest a neural mechanism by which early-life urbanicity could impact brain architecture to increase the risk for schizophrenia. PMID:24894884

  17. Chloride permeability of rat brain membrane vesicles correlates with thiamine triphosphate content.

    PubMed

    Bettendorff, L; Hennuy, B; De Clerck, A; Wins, P

    1994-07-25

    Incubation of rat brain homogenates with thiamine or thiamine diphosphate (TDP) leads to a synthesis of thiamine triphosphate (TTP). In membrane vesicles subsequently prepared from the homogenates, increased TTP content correlates with increased 36Cl- uptake. A hyperbolic relationship was obtained with a K0.5 of 0.27 nmol TTP/mg protein. In crude mitochondrial fractions from the brains of animals previously treated with thiamine or sulbutiamine, a positive correlation between 36Cl- uptake and TTP content was found. These results, together with other results previously obtained with the patch-clamp technique, suggest that TTP is an activator of chloride channels having a large unit conductance. PMID:7953714

  18. A pilot study of functional magnetic resonance imaging brain correlates of deception in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Kozel, F Andrew; Revell, Letty J; Lorberbaum, Jeffrey P; Shastri, Ananda; Elhai, Jon D; Horner, Michael David; Smith, Adam; Nahas, Ziad; Bohning, Daryl E; George, Mark S

    2004-01-01

    We hypothesized that specific brain regions would activate during deception, and these areas would correlate with changes in electrodermal activity (EDA). Eight men were asked to find money hidden under various objects. While functional MRI images were acquired and EDA was recorded, the subjects gave both truthful and deceptive answers regarding the money's location. The group analysis revealed significant activation during deception in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFCx) and anterior cingulate (AC), but individual results were not consistent. Individually and as a group, EDA correlated with blood flow changes in the OFCx and AC. Specific brain regions were activated during deception, but the present technique lacks good predictive power for individuals. PMID:15377736

  19. Correlation between light scattering signal and tissue reversibility in rat brain exposed to hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Uozumi, Yoichi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Miya; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2010-02-01

    Light scattering signal is a potential indicator of tissue viability in brain because cellular and subcellular structural integrity should be associated with cell viability in brain tissue. We previously performed multiwavelength diffuse reflectance measurement for a rat global ischemic brain model and observed a unique triphasic change in light scattering at a certain time after oxygen and glucose deprivation. This triphasic scattering change (TSC) was shown to precede cerebral ATP exhaustion, suggesting that loss of brain tissue viability can be predicted by detecting scattering signal. In the present study, we examined correlation between light scattering signal and tissue reversibility in rat brain in vivo. We performed transcranial diffuse reflectance measurement for rat brain; under spontaneous respiration, hypoxia was induced for the rat by nitrogen gas inhalation and reoxygenation was started at various time points. We observed a TSC, which started at 140 +/- 15 s after starting nitrogen gas inhalation (mean +/- SD, n=8). When reoxygenation was started before the TSC, all rats survived (n=7), while no rats survived when reoxygenation was started after the TSC (n=8). When reoxygenation was started during the TSC, rats survived probabilistically (n=31). Disability of motor function was not observed for the survived rats. These results indicate that TSC can be used as an indicator of loss of tissue reversibility in brains, providing useful information on the critical time zone for treatment to rescue the brain.

  20. BDNF promoter I methylation correlates between post-mortem human peripheral and brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Stenz, Ludwig; Zewdie, Seblewongel; Laforge-Escarra, Térèse; Prados, Julien; La Harpe, Romano; Dayer, Alexandre; Paoloni-Giacobino, Ariane; Perroud, Nader; Aubry, Jean-Michel

    2015-02-01

    Several psychiatric disorders have been associated with CpG methylation changes in CG rich promoters of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mainly by extracting DNA from peripheral blood cells. Whether changes in peripheral DNA methylation can be used as a proxy for brain-specific alterations remains an open question. In this study we aimed to compare DNA methylation levels in BDNF promoter regions in human blood cells, muscle and brain regions using bisulfite-pyrosequencing. We found a significant correlation between the levels of BDNF promoter I methylation measured in quadriceps and vPFC tissues extracted from the same individuals (n = 98, Pearson, r = 0.48, p = 4.5 × 10(-7)). In the hippocampus, BDNF promoter I and IV methylation levels were strongly correlated (Pearson, n = 37, r = 0.74, p = 1.4 × 10(-7)). We found evidence for sex-dependent effect on BDNF promoter methylation levels in the various tissues and blood samples. Taken together, these data indicate a strong intra-individual correlation between peripheral and brain tissue. They also suggest that sex determines methylation patterns in BDNF promoter region across different types of tissue, including muscle, brain, and blood. PMID:25450314

  1. Coronary Injury Score Correlates with Proliferating Cells and Alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin Expression in Stented Porcine Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Swier, Vicki J.; Tang, Lin; Krueger, Kristopher D.; Radwan, Mohamed M.; Del Core, Michael G.; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Neointimal formation and cell proliferation resulting into in-stent restenosis is a major pathophysiological event following the deployment of stents in the coronary arteries. In this study, we assessed the degree of injury, based on damage to internal elastic lamina, media, external elastic lamina, and adventitia following the intravascular stenting, and its relationship with the degree of smooth muscle cell proliferation. We examined the smooth muscle cell proliferation and their phenotype at different levels of stent injury in the coronary arteries of domestic swine fed a normal swine diet. Five weeks after stent implantation, swine with and without stents were euthanized and coronaries were excised. Arteries were embedded in methyl methacrylate and sections were stained with H&E, trichrome, and Movat’s pentachrome. The expression of Ki67, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), vimentin, and HMGB1 was evaluated by immunofluorescence. There was a positive correlation between percent area stenosis and injury score. The distribution of SMA and vimentin was correlated with the degree of arterial injury such that arteries that had an injury score >2 did not have immunoreactivity to SMA in the neointimal cells near the stent struts, but these neointimal cells were positive for vimentin, suggesting a change in the smooth muscle cell phenotype. The Ki67 and HMGB1 immunoreactivity was highly correlated with the fragmentation of the IEL and injury in the tunica media. Thus, the extent of coronary arterial injury during interventional procedure will dictate the degree of neointimal hyperplasia, in-stent restenosis, and smooth muscle cell phenotype. PMID:26382957

  2. Probiotic Treatment Decreases the Number of CD14-Expressing Cells in Porcine Milk Which Correlates with Several Intestinal Immune Parameters in the Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Scharek-Tedin, Lydia; Kreuzer-Redmer, Susanne; Twardziok, Sven Olaf; Siepert, Bianca; Klopfleisch, Robert; Tedin, Karsten; Zentek, Jürgen; Pieper, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Modulating the mucosal immune system of neonates by probiotic treatment of their mothers is a promising approach which can only be investigated through the use of animal models. Here, we used sows and their piglets to investigate the impact of a bacterial treatment on the sow’s milk and on the neonate piglet intestinal immune system. In previous experiments, feed supplementation of sows with the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 during pregnancy and lactation had been shown to affect intestinal microbiota and cytokine expression of the offspring during the suckling and weaning periods. We therefore investigated the composition of the milk from treated sows in comparison to samples from a control group. In treated sows, the amount of lactose increased, and the somatic cell numbers were reduced. In all milk samples, the percentage of cells expressing membranous CD14 (mCD14) was greater than the fractions of immune cells, indicating expression of mCD14 on mammary epithelial cells. However, in the milk of E. faecium-treated sows, mCD14+ cells were reduced. Furthermore, the number of CD14+ milk cells was positively correlated with the percentages of B cells and activated T cells in the ileal MLN of the piglets. This study provides evidence for the expression of mCD14 by the porcine mammary epithelium, and suggests an immunological effect of mCD14+ milk cells on the piglets’ intestinal immune system. Our study further suggests that mCD14+ mammary epithelial cell populations can be modulated by probiotic feed supplementation of the sow. PMID:25806034

  3. Magnetic Resonance Microscopy at 14 Tesla and Correlative Histopathology of Human Brain Tumor Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Segura, Ana; Morales, Jose Manuel; Gonzalez-Darder, Jose Manuel; Cardona-Marsal, Ramon; Lopez-Gines, Concepcion; Cerda-Nicolas, Miguel; Monleon, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Microscopy (MRM) can provide high microstructural detail in excised human lesions. Previous MRM images on some experimental models and a few human samples suggest the large potential of the technique. The aim of this study was the characterization of specific morphological features of human brain tumor samples by MRM and correlative histopathology. We performed MRM imaging and correlative histopathology in 19 meningioma and 11 glioma human brain tumor samples obtained at surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first MRM direct structural characterization of human brain tumor samples. MRM of brain tumor tissue provided images with 35 to 40 µm spatial resolution. The use of MRM to study human brain tumor samples provides new microstructural information on brain tumors for better classification and characterization. The correlation between MRM and histopathology images allowed the determination of image parameters for critical microstructures of the tumor, like collagen patterns, necrotic foci, calcifications and/or psammoma bodies, vascular distribution and hemorrhage among others. Therefore, MRM may help in interpreting the Clinical Magnetic Resonance images in terms of cell biology processes and tissue patterns. Finally, and most importantly for clinical diagnosis purposes, it provides three-dimensional information in intact samples which may help in selecting a preferential orientation for the histopathology slicing which contains most of the informative elements of the biopsy. Overall, the findings reported here provide a new and unique microstructural view of intact human brain tumor tissue. At this point, our approach and results allow the identification of specific tissue types and pathological features in unprocessed tumor samples. PMID:22110653

  4. Integrating Functional Neuroimaging and Human Operant Research: Brain Activation Correlated with Presentation of Discriminative Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlund, Michael W.; Cataldo, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Results of numerous human imaging studies and nonhuman neurophysiological studies on "reward" highlight a role for frontal, striatal, and thalamic regions in operant learning. By integrating operant and functional neuroimaging methodologies, the present investigation examined brain activation to two types of discriminative stimuli correlated with…

  5. Confirmation of Correlation between Brain Nerve Conduction Velocity and Intelligence Level in Normal Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, T. Edward; Vernon, Philip A.; Johnson, Andrew M.

    2004-01-01

    In 1992, Reed and Jensen ["Intelligence" 16 (1992) 259-272] reported a positive correlation (0.26; "p"= 0.002; 0.37 after correcting for restricted intelligence range) between a brain nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and intelligence level in 147 normal male students. In the first follow-up of their study, we report on a study using similar NCV…

  6. Neuroimaging Correlates of Novel Psychiatric Disorders after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max, Jeffrey E.; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Bigler, Erin D.; Thompson, Wesley K.; MacLeod, Marianne; Vasquez, Ana C.; Merkley, Tricia L.; Hunter, Jill V.; Chu, Zili D.; Yallampalli, Ragini; Hotz, Gillian; Chapman, Sandra B.; Yang, Tony T.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlates of novel (new-onset) psychiatric disorders (NPD) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and orthopedic injury (OI). Method: Participants were 7 to 17 years of age at the time of hospitalization for either TBI or OI. The study used a prospective, longitudinal, controlled design with…

  7. Transfer of Cystoisospora suis-specific colostral antibodies and their correlation with the course of neonatal porcine cystoisosporosis.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Lukas; Joachim, Anja; Worliczek, Hanna Lucia

    2013-11-01

    Cystoisospora suis is the most pathogenic species of coccidia in suckling piglets, affecting them predominantly within their first three weeks of life. The clinical signs of neonatal cystoisosporosis include watery diarrhea and wasting, leading to significant economic losses for the farmer. Since neonatal piglets have an immature immune system, colostral transfer of maternal factors such as immune cells or antibodies is essential for controlling infections at that age. However, the role of C. suis-specific antibodies transferred from the sow to the piglets and possible correlations between antibody levels in the piglets acquired from colostrum with the clinical outcome of disease are currently not understood. To address this issue, 12 non-infected piglets and 14 piglets experimentally infected with C. suis on the third day of life were examined during their first four weeks of life. IgG, IgA, and IgM titers in the blood serum specific for sporozoites and merozoites of C. suis were evaluated, along with oocyst excretion and fecal consistency. Additionally, the antibody content in the colostrum and milk of three mother sows was determined. A transfer of naturally acquired C. suis-specific antibodies from sows to piglets with the colostrum could be demonstrated. Maternal antibodies in piglets' blood sera did not persist for longer than 14-21 days except for IgG which was present in high titers until the end of the study. Within 2-3 weeks after birth the onset of endogenous antibody production was noticed. Titers in blood serum showed a correlation with the severity of diarrhea which was positive for IgG and IgM (possibly due to increased consumption or loss of these antibodies) and negative for IgA. C. suis-specific mucus antibodies isolated from infected and non-infected piglets (n=6/group) on the 28th day of life were present in both groups, showing significantly higher titers of IgA and IgM in infected piglets. Maternally transferred antibodies acquired by natural

  8. Nose-to-Brain Delivery: Investigation of the Transport of Nanoparticles with Different Surface Characteristics and Sizes in Excised Porcine Olfactory Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Alpesh; Stolnik, Snjezana; Illum, Lisbeth

    2015-08-01

    The ability to deliver therapeutically relevant amounts of drugs directly from the nasal cavity to the central nervous system to treat neurological diseases is dependent on the availability of efficient drug delivery systems. Increased delivery and/or therapeutic effect has been shown for drugs encapsulated in nanoparticles; however, the factors governing the transport of the drugs and/or the nanoparticles from the nasal cavity to the brain are not clear. The present study evaluates the potential transport of nanoparticles across the olfactory epithelium in relation to nanoparticle characteristics. Model systems, 20, 100, and 200 nm fluorescent carboxylated polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles that were nonmodified or surface modified with polysorbate 80 (P80-PS) or chitosan (C-PS), were assessed for transport across excised porcine olfactory epithelium mounted in a vertical Franz diffusion cell. Assessment of the nanoparticle content in the donor chamber of the diffusion cell, accompanied by fluorescence microscopy of dismounted tissues, revealed a loss of nanoparticle content from the donor suspension and their association with the excised tissue, depending on the surface properties and particle size. Chitosan surface modification of PS nanoparticles resulted in the highest tissue association among the tested systems, with the associated nanoparticles primarily located in the mucus, whereas the polysorbate 80-modified nanoparticles showed some penetration into the epithelial cell layer. Assessment of the bioelectrical properties, metabolic activity, and histology of the excised olfactory epithelium showed that C-PS nanoparticles applied in pH 6.0 buffer produced a damaging effect on the epithelial cell layer in a size-dependent manner, with fine 20 nm sized nanoparticles causing substantial tissue damage relative to that with the 100 and 200 nm counterparts. Although histology showed that the olfactory tissue was affected by the application of citrate buffer that was

  9. Multiscale causal connectivity analysis by canonical correlation: theory and application to epileptic brain.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guo Rong; Chen, Fuyong; Kang, Dezhi; Zhang, Xiangyang; Marinazzo, Daniele; Chen, Huafu

    2011-11-01

    Multivariate Granger causality is a well-established approach for inferring information flow in complex systems, and it is being increasingly applied to map brain connectivity. Traditional Granger causality is based on vector autoregressive (AR) or mixed autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model, which are potentially affected by errors in parameter estimation and may be contaminated by zero-lag correlation, notably when modeling neuroimaging data. To overcome this issue, we present here an extended canonical correlation approach to measure multivariate Granger causal interactions among time series. The procedure includes a reduced rank step for calculating canonical correlation analysis (CCA), and extends the definition of causality including instantaneous effects, thus avoiding the potential estimation problems of AR (or ARMA) models. We tested this approach on simulated data and confirmed its practical utility by exploring local network connectivity at different scales in the epileptic brain analyzing scalp and depth-EEG data during an interictal period. PMID:21788178

  10. Limbic Metabolic Abnormalities in Remote Traumatic Brain Injury and Correlation With Psychiatric Morbidity and Social Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Capizzano, Arístides A.; Jorge, Ricardo E.; Robinson, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate limbic metabolic abnormalities in remote traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their psychiatric correlates. Twenty patients and 13 age-matched comparison subjects received complete psychiatric evaluation and brain MRI and MR spectroscopy at 3 Tesla. Patients had reduced NAA to creatine ratio in the left hippocampus relative to comparison subjects (mean=1.3 [SD=0.21] compared with mean=1.55 [SD=0.21]; F=10.73, df=1, 30, p=0.003), which correlated with the Social Functioning Examination scores (rs=−0.502, p=0.034). Furthermore, patients with mood disorders had reduced NAA to creatine ratio in the left cingulate relative to patients without mood disorders (1.47 compared with 1.68; F=3.393, df=3, 19, p=0.044). Remote TBI displays limbic metabolic abnormalities, which correlate to social outcome and psychiatric status. PMID:21037120

  11. Partial least squares correlation of multivariate cognitive abilities and local brain structure in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, G; Dahnke, R; Winkler, A D; Gaser, C

    2013-11-15

    Intelligent behavior is not a one-dimensional phenomenon. Individual differences in human cognitive abilities might be therefore described by a 'cognitive manifold' of intercorrelated tests from partially independent domains of general intelligence and executive functions. However, the relationship between these individual differences and brain morphology is not yet fully understood. Here we take a multivariate approach to analyzing covariations across individuals in two feature spaces: the low-dimensional space of cognitive ability subtests and the high-dimensional space of local gray matter volume obtained from voxel-based morphometry. By exploiting a partial least squares correlation framework in a large sample of 286 healthy children and adolescents, we identify directions of maximum covariance between both spaces in terms of latent variable modeling. We obtain an orthogonal set of latent variables representing commonalities in the brain-behavior system, which emphasize specific neuronal networks involved in cognitive ability differences. We further explore the early lifespan maturation of the covariance between cognitive abilities and local gray matter volume. The dominant latent variable revealed positive weights across widespread gray matter regions (in the brain domain) and the strongest weights for parents' ratings of children's executive function (in the cognitive domain). The obtained latent variables for brain and cognitive abilities exhibited moderate correlations of 0.46-0.6. Moreover, the multivariate modeling revealed indications for a heterochronic formation of the association as a process of brain maturation across different age groups. PMID:23727321

  12. Correlations between brain structures and study time at home in healthy children: a longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Michiko; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Thyreau, Benjamin; Sassa, Yuko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Like sleeping and eating habits, the study habits adopted by children when they are at home are important contributors to lifestyle and they affect cognitive ability. It has recently been reported that sleeping and eating habits change the brain structure of children. However, no research on the effect of study habits at home on the brain structure of children has been conducted thus far. We investigated the effects of study habits at home on the brain structures of healthy children by examining correlations between study time at home and changes in brain structure over the course of 3 years. Methods We used the brain magnetic resonance images of 229 healthy children aged 5.6–18.4 years and computed the changes (time 2–time 1) in regional gray matter and white matter volume (rWMV) using voxel-based morphometry. Whole-brain multiple regression analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between study time at home and changes in rWMV in the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG). Behaviorally, we found a significant positive correlation between study time at home and change in the verbal comprehension index (VCI), one of the subscales of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–third edition (WISC–III). Results and Conclusions Given that the SFG is involved in memory control and that the VCI measures abilities related to vocabulary, our results indicate that greater SFG involvement in the memorization component of longer study times may result in greater increases in the number of axons and more axon branching and myelination, causing plastic changes in the neural network involved in memory processes. PMID:25365804

  13. Absolute, not relative brain size correlates with sociality in ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Matějů, Jan; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Pavelková, Zuzana; Pavelková Řičánková, Věra; Vohralík, Vladimír; Němec, Pavel

    2016-03-30

    The social brain hypothesis (SBH) contends that cognitive demands associated with living in cohesive social groups favour the evolution of large brains. Although the correlation between relative brain size and sociality reported in various groups of birds and mammals provides broad empirical support for this hypothesis, it has never been tested in rodents, the largest mammalian order. Here, we test the predictions of the SBH in the ground squirrels from the tribe Marmotini. These rodents exhibit levels of sociality ranging from solitary and single-family female kin groups to egalitarian polygynous harems but feature similar ecologies and life-history traits. We found little support for the association between increase in sociality and increase in relative brain size. Thus, sociality does not drive the evolution of encephalization in this group of rodents, a finding inconsistent with the SBH. However, body mass and absolute brain size increase with sociality. These findings suggest that increased social complexity in the ground squirrels goes hand in hand with larger body mass and brain size, which are tightly coupled to each other. PMID:27009231

  14. Correlation between subacute sensorimotor deficits and brain edema in two mouse models of intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Krafft, Paul R.; McBride, Devin W.; Lekic, Tim; Rolland, William B.; Mansell, Charles E.; Ma, Qingyi; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Formation of brain edema after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is highly associated with its poor outcome, thus it is clinically important to understand the effect brain edema has on outcome. However, the relationship between cerebral edema and behavioral deficits has not been thoroughly examined in the preclinical setting. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the ability of common sensorimotor tests to predict the extent of brain edema in two mouse models of ICH. One hundred male CD-1 mice were subjected to sham surgery or ICH induction via intrastriatal injection of either autologous blood (30 μL) or bacterial collagenase (0.0375 U or 0.075 U). At 24 and 72 hours after surgery, animals underwent a battery of behavioral tests, including the modified Garcia neuroscore (Neuroscore), corner turn test (CTT), forelimb placing test (FPT), wire hang task (WHT) and beam walking (BW). Brain edema was evaluated via the wet weight/dry weight method. Intrastriatal injection of autologous blood or bacterial collagenase resulted in a significant increase in brain water content and associated sensorimotor deficits (p<0.05). A significant correlation between brain edema and sensorimotor deficits was observed for all behavioral tests except for WHT and BW. Based on these findings, we recommend implementing the Neuroscore, CTT and/or FPT in preclinical studies of unilateral ICH in mice. PMID:24518201

  15. Delay-correlation landscape reveals characteristic time delays of brain rhythms and heart interactions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Aijing; Liu, Kang K L; Bartsch, Ronny P; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2016-05-13

    Within the framework of 'Network Physiology', we ask a fundamental question of how modulations in cardiac dynamics emerge from networked brain-heart interactions. We propose a generalized time-delay approach to identify and quantify dynamical interactions between physiologically relevant brain rhythms and the heart rate. We perform empirical analysis of synchronized continuous EEG and ECG recordings from 34 healthy subjects during night-time sleep. For each pair of brain rhythm and heart interaction, we construct a delay-correlation landscape (DCL) that characterizes how individual brain rhythms are coupled to the heart rate, and how modulations in brain and cardiac dynamics are coordinated in time. We uncover characteristic time delays and an ensemble of specific profiles for the probability distribution of time delays that underly brain-heart interactions. These profiles are consistently observed in all subjects, indicating a universal pattern. Tracking the evolution of DCL across different sleep stages, we find that the ensemble of time-delay profiles changes from one physiologic state to another, indicating a strong association with physiologic state and function. The reported observations provide new insights on neurophysiological regulation of cardiac dynamics, with potential for broad clinical applications. The presented approach allows one to simultaneously capture key elements of dynamic interactions, including characteristic time delays and their time evolution, and can be applied to a range of coupled dynamical systems. PMID:27044991

  16. Evaluation of sliding window correlation performance for characterizing dynamic functional connectivity and brain states.

    PubMed

    Shakil, Sadia; Lee, Chin-Hui; Keilholz, Shella Dawn

    2016-06-01

    A promising recent development in the study of brain function is the dynamic analysis of resting-state functional MRI scans, which can enhance understanding of normal cognition and alterations that result from brain disorders. One widely used method of capturing the dynamics of functional connectivity is sliding window correlation (SWC). However, in the absence of a "gold standard" for comparison, evaluating the performance of the SWC in typical resting-state data is challenging. This study uses simulated networks (SNs) with known transitions to examine the effects of parameters such as window length, window offset, window type, noise, filtering, and sampling rate on the SWC performance. The SWC time course was calculated for all node pairs of each SN and then clustered using the k-means algorithm to determine how resulting brain states match known configurations and transitions in the SNs. The outcomes show that the detection of state transitions and durations in the SWC is most strongly influenced by the window length and offset, followed by noise and filtering parameters. The effect of the image sampling rate was relatively insignificant. Tapered windows provide less sensitivity to state transitions than rectangular windows, which could be the result of the sharp transitions in the SNs. Overall, the SWC gave poor estimates of correlation for each brain state. Clustering based on the SWC time course did not reliably reflect the underlying state transitions unless the window length was comparable to the state duration, highlighting the need for new adaptive window analysis techniques. PMID:26952197

  17. Brain region-specific monoaminergic correlates of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Vermeiren, Yannick; Van Dam, Debby; Aerts, Tony; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are present during the disease course of nearly all AD patients and consist of psychosis, agitation/aggression, and depression, among others. Given their detrimental consequences regarding life expectancy, cognition, and socio-economic costs, it is essential to elucidate their neurochemical etiology to facilitate the development of novel and effective pharmacotherapeutics. This study attempted to identify brain region-specific monoaminergic correlates of NPS by measuring the levels of eight monoamines and metabolites in nine relevant postmortem brain regions of 40 behaviorally characterized AD patients, i.e., dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), (nor)epinephrine and their respective metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), using RP-HPLC-ECD. Likewise, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score correlates of monoaminergic neurotransmitter alterations were calculated. As a result, MMSE scores, used as a measure of dementia severity, correlated positively with hippocampal 5-HIAA levels as well as with 5-HT levels of the superior temporal gyrus and cerebellar cortex. Furthermore, hippocampal 5-HIAA levels inversely correlated with agitation scores, whereas thalamic MHPG levels comparably did with the presence of hallucinations. Finally, in the cerebellar cortex, DOPAC/DA ratios, indicative of DA turnover, correlated with physically agitated behavior while MHPG levels correlated with affective disturbances. These findings support the assumption that specific NPS features in AD might be (in)directly related to brain region-specific monoaminergic neurotransmitter alterations. Additionally, the effect of AD pathology on neurochemical alterations in the cerebellum requires further examination due to its important but underestimated role in the neurochemical pathophysiology of NPS in AD. PMID:24685637

  18. Ethanol-induced loss of brain cyclic AMP binding proteins: correlation with growth suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, S.; Kalmus, G.

    1987-05-01

    Brain hypoplasia secondary to maternal ethanol consumption is a common fetal defect observed in all models of fetal alcohol syndrome. The molecular mechanism by which ethanol inhibits growth is unknown but has been hypothesized to involve ethanol-induced changes in the activity of cyclic-AMP stimulated protein kinase. Acute and chronic alcohol exposure elevate cyclic AMP level in many tissues, including brain. This increase in cyclic AMP should increase the phosphorylating activity of kinase by increasing the amount of dissociated (active) kinase catalytic subunit. In 7-day embryonic chick brains, ethanol-induced growth suppression was correlated with increased brain cyclic AMP content but neither basal nor cyclic AMP stimulated kinase catalytic activity was increased. However, the levels of cyclic AMP binding protein (kinase regulatory subunit) were significantly lowered by ethanol exposure. Measured as either /sup 3/H cyclic AMP binding or as 8-azido cyclic AM/sup 32/P labeling, ethanol-exposed brains had significantly less cyclic AMP binding activity (51 +/- 14 versus 29 +/- 10 units/..mu..g protein for 8-azido cyclic AMP binding). These findings suggest that ethanol's effect on kinase activity may involve more than ethanol-induced activation of adenylate cyclase.

  19. Brain damage after cardiopulmonary by-pass: correlations between neurophysiological and neuropathological findings.

    PubMed Central

    Malone, M; Prior, P; Scholtz, C L

    1981-01-01

    Ischaemic lesions along cerebral arterial boundary zones were present in nine patients dying after cardiopulmonary by-pass. Their intra-operative cerebral function monitor recordings had shown at least 7 min major depression, its severity correlating with degrees of neurological deficit after operation and EEG abnormality and extent of infarction. In contrast eleven patients with normal or minimally abnormal cerebral function monitor recordings had macroscopically normal brains. Images PMID:7310410

  20. Hedging Your Bets by Learning Reward Correlations in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Wunderlich, Klaus; Symmonds, Mkael; Bossaerts, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Human subjects are proficient at tracking the mean and variance of rewards and updating these via prediction errors. Here, we addressed whether humans can also learn about higher-order relationships between distinct environmental outcomes, a defining ecological feature of contexts where multiple sources of rewards are available. By manipulating the degree to which distinct outcomes are correlated, we show that subjects implemented an explicit model-based strategy to learn the associated outcome correlations and were adept in using that information to dynamically adjust their choices in a task that required a minimization of outcome variance. Importantly, the experimentally generated outcome correlations were explicitly represented neuronally in right midinsula with a learning prediction error signal expressed in rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Thus, our data show that the human brain represents higher-order correlation structures between rewards, a core adaptive ability whose immediate benefit is optimized sampling. PMID:21943609

  1. Functional Connectivity of Brain Structures Correlates with Treatment Outcome in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, F. Andrew; Rao, Uma; Lu, Hanzhang; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Grannemann, Bruce; McGregor, Tamara; Croarkin, Paul E.; Mapes, Kimberly S.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying biosignatures to assess the probability of response to an antidepressant for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) is critically needed. Functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) offers the promise to provide such a measure. Previous work with fcMRI demonstrated that the correlation in signal from one region to another is a measure of functional connectivity. In this pilot work, a baseline non-task fcMRI was acquired in 14 adults with MDD who were free of all medications. Participants were then treated for 8 weeks with an antidepressant and then clinically re-evaluated. Probabilistic anatomic regions of interest (ROI) were defined for 16 brain regions (eight for each hemisphere) previously identified as being important in mood disorders. These ROIs were used to determine mean time courses for each individual's baseline non-task fcMRI. The correlations in time courses between 16 brain regions were calculated. These calculated correlations were considered to signify measures of functional connectivity. The degree of connectivity for each participant was correlated with treatment outcome. Among 13 participants with 8 weeks follow-up data, connectivity measures in several regions, especially the subcallosal cortex, were highly correlated with treatment outcome. These connectivity measures could provide a means to evaluate how likely a patient is to respond to an antidepressant treatment. Further work using larger samples is required to confirm these findings and to assess if measures of functional connectivity can be used to predict differential outcomes between antidepressant treatments. PMID:21556277

  2. Brain Structure Correlates of Individual Differences in the Acquisition and Inhibition of Conditioned Fear

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Catherine A.; Fischl, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Research employing aversive conditioning paradigms has elucidated the neurocircuitry involved in acquiring and diminishing fear responses. However, the factors underlying individual differences in fear acquisition and inhibition are not presently well understood. In this study, we explored whether the magnitude of individuals' acquired fear responses and the modulation of these responses via 2 fear reduction methods were correlated with structural differences in brain regions involved in affective processing. Physiological and structural magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained from experiments exploring extinction retention and intentional cognitive regulation. Our results identified 2 regions in which individual variation in brain structure correlated with subjects' fear-related arousal. Confirming previous results, increased thickness in ventromedial prefrontal cortex was correlated with the degree of extinction retention. Additionally, subjects with greater thickness in the posterior insula exhibited larger conditioned responses during acquisition. The data suggest a trend toward a negative correlation between amygdala volume and fear acquisition magnitude. There was no significant correlation between fear reduction via cognitive regulation and thickness in our prefrontal regions of interest. Acquisition and regulation measures were uncorrelated, suggesting that while certain individuals may have a propensity toward increased expression of conditioned fear, these responses can be diminished via both extinction and cognitive regulation. PMID:21263037

  3. Correlation of neurocognitive function and brain parenchyma volumes in children surviving cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddick, Wilburn E.; White, Holly A.; Glass, John O.; Mulhern, Raymond K.

    2002-04-01

    This research builds on our hypothesis that white matter damage and associated neurocognitive symptoms, in children treated for cancer with cranial spinal irradiation, spans a continuum of severity that can be reliably probed using non-invasive MR technology. Quantitative volumetric assessments of MR imaging and psychological assessments were obtained in 40 long-term survivors of malignant brain tumors treated with cranial irradiation. Neurocognitive assessments included a test of intellect (Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), attention (Conner's Continuous Performance Test), and memory (California Verbal Learning Test). One-sample t-tests were conducted to evaluate test performance of survivors against age-adjusted scores from the test norms; these analyses revealed significant impairments in all apriori selected measures of intelligence, attention, and memory. Partial correlation analyses were performed to assess the relationships between brain tissues volumes (normal appearing white matter (NAWM), gray matter, and CSF) and neurocognitive function. Global intelligence (r = 0.32, p = 0.05) and global attentional (r = 0.49, p < 0.01) were significantly positively correlated with NAWM volumes, whereas global memory was significantly positively correlated with overall brain parenchyma (r = 0.38, p = 0.04). We conclude that quantitative assessment of MR examinations in survivors of childhood cancer treated with cranial irradiation reveal that loss of NAWM is associated with decreased intellectual and attentional deficits, whereas overall parenchyma loss, as reflected by increased CSF and decreased white matter, is associated with memory-related deficits.

  4. Time-dependent degree-degree correlations in epileptic brain networks: from assortative to dissortative mixing

    PubMed Central

    Geier, Christian; Lehnertz, Klaus; Bialonski, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the long-term evolution of degree-degree correlations (assortativity) in functional brain networks from epilepsy patients. Functional networks are derived from continuous multi-day, multi-channel electroencephalographic data, which capture a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological activities. In contrast to previous studies which all reported functional brain networks to be assortative on average, even in case of various neurological and neurodegenerative disorders, we observe large fluctuations in time-resolved degree-degree correlations ranging from assortative to dissortative mixing. Moreover, in some patients these fluctuations exhibit some periodic temporal structure which can be attributed, to a large extent, to daily rhythms. Relevant aspects of the epileptic process, particularly possible pre-seizure alterations, contribute marginally to the observed long-term fluctuations. Our findings suggest that physiological and pathophysiological activity may modify functional brain networks in a different and process-specific way. We evaluate factors that possibly influence the long-term evolution of degree-degree correlations. PMID:26347641

  5. Brain structural correlates of schizotypy and psychosis proneness in a non-clinical healthy volunteer sample.

    PubMed

    Nenadic, Igor; Lorenz, Carsten; Langbein, Kerstin; Dietzek, Maren; Smesny, Stefan; Schönfeld, Nils; Fañanás, Lourdes; Sauer, Heinrich; Gaser, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Schizotypal traits are phenotypic risk factors for schizophrenia, associated with biological changes across a putative schizophrenia spectrum. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that brain structural changes in key brain areas relevant to this spectrum (esp. medial and lateral prefrontal cortex) would vary across different degrees of schizotypal trait expression and/or phenotypic markers of psychosis proneness in healthy non-clinical volunteers. We analysed high-resolution 3Tesla magnetic resonance images (MRI) of 59 healthy volunteers using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), correlating grey matter values to the positive and negative symptom factors of the schizotypal personality questionnaire (SPQ, German version) and a measure of psychosis proneness (community assessment of psychic experiences, CAPE). We found positive correlations between positive SPQ dimension and bilateral inferior and right superior frontal cortices, and positive CAPE dimension and left inferior frontal cortex, as well as CAPE negative dimension and right supplementary motor area (SMA) and left inferior parietal cortex. However, only the positive correlation of the right precuneus with negative schizotypy scores was significant after FWE correction for multiple comparisons. Our findings confirm an effect of schizotypal traits and psychosis proneness on brain structure in healthy subjects, providing further support to a biological continuum model. PMID:26164819

  6. The Virtual Brain: Modeling Biological Correlates of Recovery after Chronic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Falcon, Maria Inez; Riley, Jeffrey D.; Jirsa, Viktor; McIntosh, Anthony R.; Shereen, Ahmed D.; Chen, E. Elinor; Solodkin, Ana

    2015-01-01

    There currently remains considerable variability in stroke survivor recovery. To address this, developing individualized treatment has become an important goal in stroke treatment. As a first step, it is necessary to determine brain dynamics associated with stroke and recovery. While recent methods have made strides in this direction, we still lack physiological biomarkers. The Virtual Brain (TVB) is a novel application for modeling brain dynamics that simulates an individual’s brain activity by integrating their own neuroimaging data with local biophysical models. Here, we give a detailed description of the TVB modeling process and explore model parameters associated with stroke. In order to establish a parallel between this new type of modeling and those currently in use, in this work we establish an association between a specific TVB parameter (long-range coupling) that increases after stroke with metrics derived from graph analysis. We used TVB to simulate the individual BOLD signals for 20 patients with stroke and 10 healthy controls. We performed graph analysis on their structural connectivity matrices calculating degree centrality, betweenness centrality, and global efficiency. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that long-range coupling is negatively correlated with global efficiency (P = 0.038), but is not correlated with degree centrality or betweenness centrality. Our results suggest that the larger influence of local dynamics seen through the long-range coupling parameter is closely associated with a decreased efficiency of the system. We thus propose that the increase in the long-range parameter in TVB (indicating a bias toward local over global dynamics) is deleterious because it reduces communication as suggested by the decrease in efficiency. The new model platform TVB hence provides a novel perspective to understanding biophysical parameters responsible for global brain dynamics after stroke, allowing the design of focused therapeutic

  7. Cornelia de Lange syndrome: Correlation of brain MRI findings with behavioral assessment.

    PubMed

    Roshan Lal, Tamanna R; Kliewer, Mark A; Lopes, Thelma; Rebsamen, Susan L; O'Connor, Julia; Grados, Marco A; Kimball, Amy; Clemens, Julia; Kline, Antonie D

    2016-06-01

    Neurobehavioral and developmental issues with a broad range of deficits are prominent features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), a disorder due to disruption of the cohesin protein complex. The etiologic relationship of these clinical findings to anatomic abnormalities on neuro-imaging studies has not, however, been established. Anatomic abnormalities in the brain and central nervous system specific to CdLS have been observed, including changes in the white matter, brainstem, and cerebellum. We hypothesize that location and severity of brain abnormalities correlate with clinical phenotype in CdLS, as seen in other developmental disorders. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated brain MRI studies of 15 individuals with CdLS and compared these findings to behavior at the time of the scan. Behavior was assessed using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), a validated behavioral assessment tool with several clinical features. Ten of fifteen (67%) of CdLS patients had abnormal findings on brain MRI, including cerebral atrophy, white matter changes, cerebellar hypoplasia, and enlarged ventricles. Other findings included pituitary tumors or cysts, Chiari I malformation and gliosis. Abnormal behavioral scores in more than one behavioral area were seen in all but one patient. All 5 of the 15 (33%) patients with normal structural MRI studies had abnormal ABC scores. All normal ABC scores were noted in only one patient and this was correlated with moderately abnormal MRI changes. Although our cohort is small, our results suggest that abnormal behaviors can exist in individuals with CdLS in the setting of relatively normal structural brain findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27164360

  8. Symmetric diffeomorphic image registration with cross-correlation: evaluating automated labeling of elderly and neurodegenerative brain.

    PubMed

    Avants, B B; Epstein, C L; Grossman, M; Gee, J C

    2008-02-01

    One of the most challenging problems in modern neuroimaging is detailed characterization of neurodegeneration. Quantifying spatial and longitudinal atrophy patterns is an important component of this process. These spatiotemporal signals will aid in discriminating between related diseases, such as frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), which manifest themselves in the same at-risk population. Here, we develop a novel symmetric image normalization method (SyN) for maximizing the cross-correlation within the space of diffeomorphic maps and provide the Euler-Lagrange equations necessary for this optimization. We then turn to a careful evaluation of our method. Our evaluation uses gold standard, human cortical segmentation to contrast SyN's performance with a related elastic method and with the standard ITK implementation of Thirion's Demons algorithm. The new method compares favorably with both approaches, in particular when the distance between the template brain and the target brain is large. We then report the correlation of volumes gained by algorithmic cortical labelings of FTD and control subjects with those gained by the manual rater. This comparison shows that, of the three methods tested, SyN's volume measurements are the most strongly correlated with volume measurements gained by expert labeling. This study indicates that SyN, with cross-correlation, is a reliable method for normalizing and making anatomical measurements in volumetric MRI of patients and at-risk elderly individuals. PMID:17659998

  9. Serotonergic, brain volume and attentional correlates of trait anxiety in primates.

    PubMed

    Mikheenko, Yevheniia; Shiba, Yoshiro; Sawiak, Stephen; Braesicke, Katrin; Cockcroft, Gemma; Clarke, Hannah; Roberts, Angela C

    2015-05-01

    Trait anxiety is a risk factor for the development and maintenance of affective disorders, and insights into the underlying brain mechanisms are vital for improving treatment and prevention strategies. Translational studies in non-human primates, where targeted neurochemical and genetic manipulations can be made, are critical in view of their close neuroanatomical similarity to humans in brain regions implicated in trait anxiety. Thus, we characterised the serotonergic and regional brain volume correlates of trait-like anxiety in the marmoset monkey. Low- and high-anxious animals were identified by behavioral responses to a human intruder (HI) that are known to be sensitive to anxiolytic drug treatment. Extracellular serotonin levels within the amygdala were measured with in vivo microdialysis, at baseline and in response to challenge with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, citalopram. Regional brain volume was assessed by structural magnetic resonance imaging. Anxious individuals showed persistent, long-term fearful responses to both a HI and a model snake, alongside sustained attention (vigilance) to novel cues in a context associated with unpredictable threat. Neurally, high-anxious marmosets showed reduced amygdala serotonin levels, and smaller volumes in a closely connected prefrontal region, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. These findings highlight behavioral and neural similarities between trait-like anxiety in marmosets and humans, and set the stage for further investigation of the processes contributing to vulnerability and resilience to affective disorders. PMID:25586542

  10. Brain correlates underlying creative thinking: EEG alpha activity in professional vs. novice dancers.

    PubMed

    Fink, Andreas; Graif, Barbara; Neubauer, Aljoscha C

    2009-07-01

    Neuroscientific research on creativity has revealed valuable insights into possible brain correlates underlying this complex mental ability domain. However, most of the studies investigated brain activity during the performance of comparatively simple (verbal) type of tasks and the majority of studies focused on samples of the normal population. In this study we investigate EEG activity in professional dancers (n=15) who have attained a high level of expertise in this domain. This group was compared with a group of novices (n=17) who have only basic experience in dancing and completed no comprehensive training in this field. The EEG was recorded during performance of two different dancing imagery tasks which differed with respect to creative demands. In the first task participants were instructed to mentally perform a dance which should be as unique and original as possible (improvisation dance). In the waltz task they were asked to imagine dancing the waltz, a standard dance which involves a sequence of monotonous steps (lower creative demands). In addition, brain activity was also measured during performance of the Alternative Uses test. We observed evidence that during the generation of alternative uses professional dancers show stronger alpha synchronization in posterior parietal brain regions than novice dancers. During improvisation dance, professional dancers exhibited more right-hemispheric alpha synchronization than the group of novices did, while during imagining dancing the waltz no significant group differences emerged. The findings complement and extend existing findings on the relationship between EEG alpha activity and creative thinking. PMID:19269335

  11. Fluctuations in Neuronal Synchronization in Brain Activity Correlate with the Subjective Experience of Visual Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Luis Garcia; Erra, Ramon Guevara

    2007-01-01

    The scientific study of subjective experience is a current major research area in the neurosciences. Coordination patterns of brain activity are being studied to address the question of how brain function relates to behaviour, and particularly methods to estimate neuronal synchronization can unravel the spatio-temporal dynamics of the transient formation of neuronal assemblies. We report here a biophysical correlate of subjective experience. Subjects visualised figures with different levels of noise, while their brain activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG), and reported the moment in time (corresponding to a noise level) of figure recognition, which varied between individuals, as well as the moment when they saw the figure more clearly, which was mostly common among the participants (thus less subjective). This latter moment is considered to represent psychophysical stochastic resonance (PSR). Fluctuations in neuronal synchronization, quantified using a diffusion coefficient, were lower in occipital cortex when subjects recognised the figure, for a certain noise level, but did not correlate with the moment of PSR. A different pattern was observed in frontal cortex, where lower values of the diffusion coefficient in neuronal synchronization was maintained from the moment of recognition to the moment of PSR. No specific pattern was found analysing signals from temporal or parietal cortical areas. These observations provide support for distinct synchronization patterns in different cortical areas, and represent another demonstration that the subjective, first-person perspective is accessible to scientific methods. PMID:19669552

  12. Bat fly species richness in Neotropical bats: correlations with host ecology and host brain.

    PubMed

    Bordes, Frédéric; Morand, Serge; Ricardo, Guerrero

    2008-11-01

    Patterns of ectoparasite species richness in mammals have been investigated in various terrestrial mammalian taxa such as primates, ungulates and carnivores. Several ecological or life traits of hosts are expected to explain much of the variability in species richness of parasites. In the present comparative analysis we investigate some determinants of parasite richness in bats, a large and understudied group of flying mammals, and their obligate blood-sucking ectoparasite, streblid bat flies (Diptera). We investigate the effects of host body size, geographical range, group size and roosting ecology on the species richness of bat flies in tropical areas of Venezuela and Peru, where both host and parasite diversities are high. We use the data from a major sampling effort on 138 bat species from nine families. We also investigate potential correlation between bat fly species richness and brain size (corrected for body size) in these tropical bats. We expect a relationship if there is a potential energetic trade-off between costly large brains and parasite-mediated impacts. We show that body size and roosting in cavities are positively correlated with bat fly species richness. No effects of bat range size and group size were observed. Our results also suggest an association between body mass-independent brain size and bat fly species richness. PMID:18679724

  13. The correlation of metrics in complex networks with applications in functional brain networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Wang, H.; de Haan, W.; Stam, C. J.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2011-11-01

    An increasing number of network metrics have been applied in network analysis. If metric relations were known better, we could more effectively characterize networks by a small set of metrics to discover the association between network properties/metrics and network functioning. In this paper, we investigate the linear correlation coefficients between widely studied network metrics in three network models (Bárabasi-Albert graphs, Erdös-Rényi random graphs and Watts-Strogatz small-world graphs) as well as in functional brain networks of healthy subjects. The metric correlations, which we have observed and theoretically explained, motivate us to propose a small representative set of metrics by including only one metric from each subset of mutually strongly dependent metrics. The following contributions are considered important. (a) A network with a given degree distribution can indeed be characterized by a small representative set of metrics. (b) Unweighted networks, which are obtained from weighted functional brain networks with a fixed threshold, and Erdös-Rényi random graphs follow a similar degree distribution. Moreover, their metric correlations and the resultant representative metrics are similar as well. This verifies the influence of degree distribution on metric correlations. (c) Most metric correlations can be explained analytically. (d) Interestingly, the most studied metrics so far, the average shortest path length and the clustering coefficient, are strongly correlated and, thus, redundant. Whereas spectral metrics, though only studied recently in the context of complex networks, seem to be essential in network characterizations. This representative set of metrics tends to both sufficiently and effectively characterize networks with a given degree distribution. In the study of a specific network, however, we have to at least consider the representative set so that important network properties will not be neglected.

  14. Congenital brain damage: cognitive development correlates with lesion and electroencephalographic features.

    PubMed

    Riva, Daria; Franceschetti, Silvana; Erbetta, Alessandra; Baranello, Giovanni; Esposito, Silvia; Bulgheroni, Sara

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess cognitive development in 26 children with congenital focal brain lesion and unilateral spastic cerebral palsy first diagnosed and followed up for rehabilitation at our institution. Mean intelligence quotients (IQs) were correlated not only to the different features of the cerebral lesions, but also to the different types of electroencephalographic abnormalities. We also examined individual scores. We found that about 70% of the children had values of Full-Scale, Verbal, and Performance IQs within the normal range. No differences were found between left and right injured children. Different Verbal IQ-Performance IQ profiles were observed. Larger lesions and some electroencephalographic features, mainly signal slowing/attenuation as signs of structural brain damage, were significantly associated with lower intellectual abilities. The role of other factors, including genetic and environmental background variability, as well as rehabilitative treatments, on cognitive sequelae in such patients was discussed. PMID:22752481

  15. Brain Metabolism Correlates of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Caffarra, Paolo; Ghetti, Caterina; Ruffini, Livia; Spallazzi, Marco; Spotti, Annamaria; Barocco, Federica; Guzzo, Caterina; Marchi, Massimo; Gardini, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) measures immediate and delayed episodic memory and cueing sensitivity and is suitable to detect prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study aimed at investigating the segregation effect of FCSRT scores on brain metabolism of memory-related structures, usually affected by AD pathology, in the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) stage. A cohort of forty-eight MCI patients underwent FCSRT and 18F-FDG-PET. Multiple regression analysis showed that Immediate Free Recall correlated with brain metabolism in the bilateral anterior cingulate and delayed free recall with the left anterior cingulate and medial frontal gyrus, whereas semantic cueing sensitivity with the left posterior cingulate. FCSRT in MCI is associated with neuro-functional activity of specific regions of memory-related structures connected to hippocampal formation, such as the cingulate cortex, usually damaged in AD. PMID:26836012

  16. Neural changes in the primate brain correlated with the evolution of complex motor skills.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Y; Hikishima, K; Saiki, M; Inada, M; Sasaki, E; Lemon, R N; Price, C J; Okano, H; Iriki, A

    2016-01-01

    Complex motor skills of eventual benefit can be learned after considerable trial and error. What do structural brain changes that accompany such effortful long-term learning tell us about the mechanisms for developing innovative behavior? Using MRI, we monitored brain structure before, during and after four marmosets learnt to use a rake, over a long period of 10-13 months. Throughout learning, improvements in dexterity and visuo-motor co-ordination correlated with increased volume in the lateral extrastriate cortex. During late learning, when the most complex behavior was maintained by sustained motivation to acquire the skill, the volume of the nucleus accumbens increased. These findings reflect the motivational state required to learn, and show accelerated function in higher visual cortex that is consistent with neurocognitive divergence across a spectrum of primate species. PMID:27498966

  17. Neural changes in the primate brain correlated with the evolution of complex motor skills

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Y.; Hikishima, K.; Saiki, M.; Inada, M.; Sasaki, E.; Lemon, R. N.; Price, C. J.; Okano, H.; Iriki, A.

    2016-01-01

    Complex motor skills of eventual benefit can be learned after considerable trial and error. What do structural brain changes that accompany such effortful long-term learning tell us about the mechanisms for developing innovative behavior? Using MRI, we monitored brain structure before, during and after four marmosets learnt to use a rake, over a long period of 10–13 months. Throughout learning, improvements in dexterity and visuo-motor co-ordination correlated with increased volume in the lateral extrastriate cortex. During late learning, when the most complex behavior was maintained by sustained motivation to acquire the skill, the volume of the nucleus accumbens increased. These findings reflect the motivational state required to learn, and show accelerated function in higher visual cortex that is consistent with neurocognitive divergence across a spectrum of primate species. PMID:27498966

  18. Extracting the internal representation of faces from human brain activity: an analogue to reverse correlation.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bruce C; Thompson, Benjamin; Hess, Robert F; Ellemberg, Dave

    2010-05-15

    Much of the debate surrounding the precise functional role of brain mechanisms implicated in the processing of human faces can be explained when considering that studies into early-stage neural representations of the spatial arrangement of facial features are potentially contaminated by "higher-level" cognitive attributes associated with human faces. One way to bypass such attributes would be to employ ambiguous stimuli that are not biased toward any particular object class and analyze neural activity in response to those stimuli in a manner similar to traditional reverse correlation for mapping visual receptive fields. Accordingly, we sought to derive whole face representations directly from neural activity in the human brain using electroencephalography (EEG). We presented ambiguous fractal noise stimuli to human participants and asked them to rate each stimulus along a "face not present" to "face present" continuum while simultaneously recording EEGs. All EEGs were subjected to a time-frequency analysis near 170 ms (negative amplitudes near 170 ms post-stimulus onset have been linked to early face processing) for five different frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma) on a trial-by-trial basis, independent of the behavioral responses. Images containing apparent face-like structure were obtained for theta through gamma frequency bands for strong negative amplitudes near 170 ms post-stimulus onset. The presence of the face-like structure in the spatial images derived from brain signals was objectively verified using both Fourier methods and trained neural networks. The results support the use of a modified reverse correlation technique with EEG as a non-biased assessment of brain processes involved in the complex integration of spatial information into objects such as human faces. PMID:20156567

  19. Transcriptomic Analysis Unveils Correlations between Regulative Apoptotic Caspases and Genes of Cholesterol Homeostasis in Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Picco, Raffaella; Tomasella, Andrea; Fogolari, Federico; Brancolini, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Regulative circuits controlling expression of genes involved in the same biological processes are frequently interconnected. These circuits operate to coordinate the expression of multiple genes and also to compensate dysfunctions in specific elements of the network. Caspases are cysteine-proteases with key roles in the execution phase of apoptosis. Silencing of caspase-2 expression in cultured glioblastoma cells allows the up-regulation of a limited number of genes, among which some are related to cholesterol homeostasis. Lysosomal Acid Lipase A (LIPA) was up-regulated in two different cell lines in response to caspase-2 down-regulation and cells silenced for caspase-2 exhibit reduced cholesterol staining in the lipid droplets. We expanded this observation by large-scale analysis of mRNA expression. All caspases were analyzed in terms of co-expression in comparison with 166 genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. In the brain, hierarchical clustering has revealed that the expression of regulative apoptotic caspases (CASP2, CASP8 CASP9, CASP10) and of the inflammatory CASP1 is linked to several genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. These correlations resulted in altered GBM (Glioblastoma Multiforme), in particular for CASP1. We have also demonstrated that these correlations are tissue specific being reduced (CASP9 and CASP10) or different (CASP2) in the liver. For some caspases (CASP1, CASP6 and CASP7) these correlations could be related to brain aging. PMID:25330190

  20. Endothelial Progenitor Cells Correlate with Clinical Outcome of Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Wei, Huijie; Chen, Fanglian; Wang, Jinghua; Dong, Jing-fei; Zhang, Jianning

    2012-01-01

    Objective Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play an active role in vascular repair and revascularization of tissue damaged by traumatic, inflammatory, and ischemic injures. We correlate the changes in circulating EPCs with the severity of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The study is designed to investigate the EPC mobilization after injury and a potential use of circulating EPCs as a prognostic marker for evaluating trauma severity and clinical outcomes. Design A prospective cohort study conducted in two neurosurgical intensive care units (NSICU) of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital and Tianjin Huanhu Hospital. Patients Patients with traumatic brain injury and age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Interventions None Measurements and Main Results Changes in the levels of circulating EPCs were monitored for up to 21 days in 84 patients with TBI. Results were correlated with the clinical assessment of injury severity as determined by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). The level of circulating EPCs was found to be suppressed 24–48 hrs after injury, but rapidly increased, reaching the highest at day 5–7 posttrauma. Circulating EPCs in patients with improved GCS were significantly higher than those with deteriorated conditions, and remained persistently low in patients who died of trauma. Conclusions The results suggest that the level of circulating EPCs correlates with the clinical severity and outcome of TBI, and may offer potentials as a prognostic marker for TBI. A long-term follow up of these patients is ongoing. PMID:21460712

  1. Brain Atrophy Correlates with Severe Enlarged Perivascular Spaces in Basal Ganglia among Lacunar Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Ding, Lingling; Yang, Lei; Qin, Wei; Yuan, Junliang; Li, Shujuan; Hu, Wenli

    2016-01-01

    Background Enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) correlate with cognitive impairment and incident dementia. However, etiologies for severe basal ganglia EPVS (BG-EPVS) are still unclear. Our aim was to investigate the independent risk factors for severe BG-EPVS in patients with acute lacunar stroke. Methods We prospectively identified patients with lacunar stroke (diameter on DWI ≤ 20mm) from Jan 2011 to May 2015. Patients with severe BG-EPVS were identified on T2 weighted MRI. Age (± 1 year) and sex matched controls were also recruited in the same population (two controls for one case). Vascular risk factors, clinical data, EPVS in centrum semiovale (rated 0 to 4), white matter hyperintensities (WMH) (by Fazekas scale), brain atrophy (rated 0 to 6) were compared between two groups. Logistic regression was performed to determine independent risk factors for severe BG-EPVS. Results During study period, 89 patients with severe BG-EPVS and 178 matched controls were included. Vascular risk factors did not differ between two groups. Patients with severe BG-EPVS had lower level of HbA1c and diastolic BP at admission, but presented with larger infarct size, more severe WMH (including total WMH, periventricular WMH and deep WMH) and brain atrophy. In logistic regression, brain atrophy (OR = 1.40; 95%CI 1.13, 1.73) and deep WMH (OR = 1.88; 95%CI 1.24, 2.83) were independent risk factors for severe BG-EPVS. Conclusions Brain atrophy and deep WMH are independent risk factors for severe BG-EPVS, supporting the hypothesis that brain atrophy may be associated with the development of EPVS in basal ganglia. PMID:26900696

  2. Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  3. Structural correlates of active-staining following magnetic resonance microscopy in the mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Jon O.; Wiseman, Frances K.; Norris, Francesca C.; Price, Anthony N.; Choy, ManKin; Tybulewicz, Victor L.J.; Ordidge, Roger J.; Brandner, Sebastian; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.; Lythgoe, Mark F.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive worldwide efforts are underway to produce knockout mice for each of the ~ 25,000 mouse genes, which may give new insights into the underlying pathophysiology of neurological disease. Microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (μMRI) is a key method for non-invasive morphological phenotyping, capable of producing high-resolution 3D images of ex-vivo brains, after fixation with an MR contrast agent. These agents have been suggested to act as active-stains, enhancing structures not normally visible on MRI. In this study, we investigated the structural correlates of the MRI agent Gd-DTPA, together with the optimal preparation and scan parameters for contrast-enhanced gradient-echo imaging of the mouse brain. We observed that in-situ preparation was preferential to ex-situ due to the degree of extraction damage. In-situ brains scanned with optimised parameters, enabled images with a high signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR ~ 30) and comprehensive anatomical delineation. Direct correlation of the MR brain structures to histology, detailed fine histoarchitecture in the cortex, cerebellum, olfactory bulb and hippocampus. Neurofilament staining demonstrated that regions of negative MR contrast strongly correlated to myelinated white-matter structures, whilst structures of more positive MR contrast corresponded to areas with high grey matter content. We were able to identify many sub-regions, particularly within the hippocampus, such as the unmyelinated mossy fibres (stratum lucidum) and their region of synapse in the stratum pyramidale, together with the granular layer of the dentate gyrus, an area of densely packed cell bodies, which was clearly visible as a region of hyperintensity. This suggests that cellular structure influences the site-specific distribution of the MR contrast agent, resulting in local variations in T2*, which leads to enhanced tissue discrimination. Our findings provide insights not only into the cellular distribution and mechanism of MR active

  4. Correlates of Physiological and Psychological Stress Among Parents of Childhood Cancer and Brain Tumor Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Elizabeth A.; Litzelman, Kristin; Wisk, Lauren E.; Witt, Whitney P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives First, we sought to determine if parents of children with cancer or a brain tumor had greater stress compared to parents of healthy children, and to evaluate the correlates of stress among parents of children with cancer or brain tumors. Second, we sought to examine the relationship between perceived stress and symptoms of stress, and how that relationship may differ for parents of children with cancer. Methods In-person interviewer-assisted surveys were administered to 73 case dyads (children with cancer or a brain tumor and their parents) and 133 comparison dyads (children without health problems and their parents from a community sample). Descriptive analyses and multivariable logistic regressions were performed for case-comparison and case-only analyses to distinguish correlates of parental stress. Results Parents of children with cancer exhibited higher levels of physiological symptoms of stress than parents of healthy children. Poor sleep quality and greater social stress (negative social interactions) were significant correlates of increased levels of stress in parents of children with cancer (odds ratio 4.23, 95% confidence interval 1.15–15.60; and odds ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 1.00–1.14, respectively). A subset of parents reported symptoms of stress but not perceived stress, and this discordance was more pronounced among cancer caregivers. Conclusions Implementation of screening tools that include symptoms of stress may help clinicians to comprehensively identify parents of children with cancer who are in need of additional services. Targeted stress-reduction interventions that address sleep quality and negative social interactions may mitigate the deleterious effects of caregiving, improving the psychosocial well-being of both parents and children with cancer. PMID:23384776

  5. Correlation of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Fractional Anisotropy Values in the Developing Infant Brain

    PubMed Central

    Provenzale, James M.; Isaacson, Jared; Chen, Steven; Stinnett, Sandra; Liu, Chunlei

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of our study was to correlate decrease in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and increase in fractional anisotropy (FA) in various white matter (WM) regions using diffusion tenor imaging (DTI) within the first year of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed DTI on 53 infants and measured FA and ADC within 10 WM regions important in brain development. For each region, we calculated the slope of ADC as a function of FA, the correlation coefficient (r) and correlation of determination (r2). We performed a group analysis of r values and r2 values for six WM regions primarily composed of crossing fibers and four regions primarily having parallel fibers. Upon finding that a strong correlation of FA with age existed, we adjusted for age and calculated partial correlation coefficients. RESULTS Slopes of FA versus ADC ranged from −1.00711 to −1.67592 (p < 0.05); r values ranged from −0.81 to −0.50 and r2 values from 0.25 to 0.66. The four greatest r2 values were within WM regions having large numbers of crossing fibers and the three lowest r2 values were in regions having predominantly parallel fibers. After adjusting for age, slopes ranged from −1.08095 to 0.09612 (p < 0.05 in five cases); partial correlation coefficients ranged from −0.49 to 0.03 and r2 values from 0.31 to 0.79. The highest partial correlation coefficients were then relatively equally distributed between the two types of WM regions. CONCLUSION In various regions, FA and ADC evolved with differing degrees of correlation. We found a strong influence of age on the relationship between FA and ADC. PMID:21098179

  6. Visualizing functional pathways in the human brain using correlation tensors and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhaohua; Xu, Ran; Bailey, Stephen K; Wu, Tung-Lin; Morgan, Victoria L; Cutting, Laurie E; Anderson, Adam W; Gore, John C

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging usually detects changes in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals from T2*-sensitive acquisitions, and is most effective in detecting activity in brain cortex which is irrigated by rich vasculature to meet high metabolic demands. We recently demonstrated that MRI signals from T2*-sensitive acquisitions in a resting state exhibit structure-specific temporal correlations along white matter tracts. In this report we validate our preliminary findings and introduce spatio-temporal functional correlation tensors to characterize the directional preferences of temporal correlations in MRI signals acquired at rest. The results bear a remarkable similarity to data obtained by diffusion tensor imaging but without any diffusion-encoding gradients. Just as in gray matter, temporal correlations in resting state signals may reflect intrinsic synchronizations of neural activity in white matter. Here we demonstrate that functional correlation tensors are able to visualize long range white matter tracts as well as short range sub-cortical fibers imaged at rest, and that evoked functional activities alter these structures and enhance the visualization of relevant neural circuitry. Furthermore, we explore the biophysical mechanisms underlying these phenomena by comparing pulse sequences, which suggest that white matter signal variations are consistent with hemodynamic (BOLD) changes associated with neural activity. These results suggest new ways to evaluate MRI signal changes within white matter. PMID:26477562

  7. Visualizing Functional Pathways in the Human Brain Using Correlation Tensors and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zhaohua; Xu, Ran; Bailey, Stephen K.; Wu, Tung-Lin; Morgan, Victoria L.; Cutting, Laurie E.; Anderson, Adam W.; Gore, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging usually detects changes in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals from T2*-sensitive acquisitions, and is most effective in detecting activity in brain cortex which is irrigated by rich vasculature to meet high metabolic demands. We recently demonstrated that MRI signals from T2*-sensitive acquisitions in a resting state exhibit structure-specific temporal correlations along white matter tracts. In this report we validate our preliminary findings and introduce spatio-temporal functional correlation tensors to characterize the directional preferences of temporal correlations in MRI signals acquired at rest. The results bear a remarkable similarity to data obtained by diffusion tensor imaging but without any diffusion-encoding gradients. Just as in gray matter, temporal correlations in resting state signals may reflect intrinsic synchronizations of neural activity in white matter. Here we demonstrate that functional correlation tensors are able to visualize long range white matter tracts as well as short range sub-cortical fibers imaged at rest, and that evoked functional activities alter these structures and enhance the visualization of relevant neural circuitry. Furthermore, we explore the biophysical mechanisms underlying these phenomena by comparing pulse sequences, which suggest that white matter signal variations are consistent with hemodynamic (BOLD) changes associated with neural activity. These results suggest new ways to evaluate MRI signal changes within white matter. PMID:26477562

  8. Exploratory Metabolomic Analyses Reveal Compounds Correlated with Lutein Concentration in Frontal Cortex, Hippocampus, and Occipital Cortex of Human Infant Brain

    PubMed Central

    Lieblein-Boff, Jacqueline C.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Kennedy, Adam D.; Lai, Chron-Si; Kuchan, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Lutein is a dietary carotenoid well known for its role as an antioxidant in the macula, and recent reports implicate a role for lutein in cognitive function. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in both pediatric and geriatric brain tissue. In addition, cognitive function in older adults correlated with macular and postmortem brain lutein concentrations. Furthermore, lutein was found to preferentially accumulate in the infant brain in comparison to other carotenoids that are predominant in diet. While lutein is consistently related to cognitive function, the mechanisms by which lutein may influence cognition are not clear. In an effort to identify potential mechanisms through which lutein might influence neurodevelopment, an exploratory study relating metabolite signatures and lutein was completed. Post-mortem metabolomic analyses were performed on human infant brain tissues in three regions important for learning and memory: the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and occipital cortex. Metabolomic profiles were compared to lutein concentration, and correlations were identified and reported here. A total of 1276 correlations were carried out across all brain regions. Of 427 metabolites analyzed, 257 were metabolites of known identity. Unidentified metabolite correlations (510) were excluded. In addition, moderate correlations with xenobiotic relationships (2) or those driven by single outliers (3) were excluded from further study. Lutein concentrations correlated with lipid pathway metabolites, energy pathway metabolites, brain osmolytes, amino acid neurotransmitters, and the antioxidant homocarnosine. These correlations were often brain region—specific. Revealing relationships between lutein and metabolic pathways may help identify potential candidates on which to complete further analyses and may shed light on important roles of lutein in the human brain during development. PMID:26317757

  9. Apoptotic markers in cultured fibroblasts correlate with brain metabolites and regional brain volume in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Batalla, A; Bargalló, N; Gassó, P; Molina, O; Pareto, D; Mas, S; Roca, J M; Bernardo, M; Lafuente, A; Parellada, E

    2015-01-01

    Cultured fibroblasts from first-episode schizophrenia patients (FES) have shown increased susceptibility to apoptosis, which may be related to glutamate dysfunction and progressive neuroanatomical changes. Here we determine whether apoptotic markers obtained from cultured fibroblasts in FES and controls correlate with changes in brain glutamate and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and regional brain volumes. Eleven antipsychotic-naive FES and seven age- and gender-matched controls underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Glutamate plus glutamine (Glx) and NAA levels were measured in the anterior cingulate (AC) and the left thalamus (LT). Hallmarks of apoptotic susceptibility (caspase-3-baseline activity, phosphatidylserine externalization and chromatin condensation) were measured in fibroblast cultures obtained from skin biopsies after inducing apoptosis with staurosporine (STS) at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 μM. Apoptotic biomarkers were correlated to brain metabolites and regional brain volume. FES and controls showed a negative correlation in the AC between Glx levels and percentages of cells with condensed chromatin (CC) after both apoptosis inductions (STS 0.5 μM: r = -0.90; P = 0.001; STS 0.25 μM: r = -0.73; P = 0.003), and between NAA and cells with CC (STS 0.5 μM induction r = -0.76; P = 0.002; STS 0.25 μM r = -0.62; P = 0.01). In addition, we found a negative correlation between percentages of cells with CC and regional brain volume in the right supratemporal cortex and post-central region (STS 0.25 and 0.5 μM; P < 0.05 family-wise error corrected (FWEc)). We reveal for the first time that peripheral markers of apoptotic susceptibility may correlate with brain metabolites, Glx and NAA, and regional brain volume in FES and controls, which is consistent with the neuroprogressive theories around the onset of the schizophrenia illness. PMID:26305477

  10. Personality Change Due to Traumatic Brain Injury in Children and Adolescents: Neurocognitive Correlates.

    PubMed

    Max, Jeffrey E; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Bigler, Erin D; Hanten, Gerri; Dennis, Maureen; Schachar, Russell J; Saunders, Ann E; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Chapman, Sandra B; Thompson, Wesley K; Yang, Tony T; Levin, Harvey S

    2015-01-01

    Personality change due to traumatic brain injury (PC) in children is an important psychiatric complication of injury and is a form of severe affective dysregulation. This study aimed to examine neurocognitive correlates of PC. The sample included 177 children 5-14 years old with traumatic brain injury who were enrolled from consecutive admissions to five trauma centers. Patients were followed up prospectively at baseline and at 6 months, and they were assessed with semistructured psychiatric interviews. Injury severity, socioeconomic status, and neurocognitive function (measures of attention, processing speed, verbal memory, IQ, verbal working memory, executive function, naming/reading, expressive language, motor speed, and motor inhibition) were assessed with standardized instruments. Unremitted PC was present in 26 (18%) of 141 participants assessed at 6 months postinjury. Attention, processing speed, verbal memory, IQ, and executive function were significantly associated with PC even after socioeconomic status, injury severity, and preinjury attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were controlled. These findings are a first step in characterizing concomitant cognitive impairments associated with PC. The results have implications beyond brain injury to potentially elucidate the neurocognitive symptom complex associated with mood instability regardless of etiology. PMID:26185905

  11. Personality Change due to Traumatic Brain Injury in Children and Adolescents: Neurocognitive Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Bigler, Erin D.; Hanten, Gerri; Dennis, Maureen; Schachar, Russell J.; Saunders, Ann E.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Chapman, Sandra B.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Yang, Tony T.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2015-01-01

    Personality Change due to traumatic brain injury (PC) in children is an important psychiatric complication of injury and is a form of severe affective dysregulation. The aim of the study was to examine neurocognitive correlates of PC. The sample included children (n=177) aged 5-14 years with traumatic brain injury from consecutive admissions to 5 trauma centers were followed prospectively at baseline and 6 months with semi-structured psychiatric interviews. Injury severity, socioeconomic status, and neurocognitive function (measures of attention, processing speed, verbal memory, IQ, verbal working memory, executive function, naming/reading, expressive language, motor speed, and motor inhibition) were assessed with standardized instruments. Unremitted PC was present in 26/141 (18%) participants assessed at 6 months post-injury. Attention, processing speed, verbal memory, IQ, and executive function, were significantly associated (p < .05) with PC even after socioeconomic status, injury severity, and pre-injury attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were controlled. These findings are a first step in characterizing concomitant cognitive impairments associated with PC. The results have implications beyond brain injury to potentially elucidate the neurocognitive symptom complex associated with mood instability regardless of etiology. PMID:26185905

  12. Motor deficits correlate with resting state motor network connectivity in patients with brain tumours

    PubMed Central

    Mikell, Charles B.; Youngerman, Brett E.; Liston, Conor; Sisti, Michael B.; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Small, Scott A.; McKhann, Guy M.

    2012-01-01

    While a tumour in or abutting primary motor cortex leads to motor weakness, how tumours elsewhere in the frontal or parietal lobes affect functional connectivity in a weak patient is less clear. We hypothesized that diminished functional connectivity in a distributed network of motor centres would correlate with motor weakness in subjects with brain masses. Furthermore, we hypothesized that interhemispheric connections would be most vulnerable to subtle disruptions in functional connectivity. We used task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity to probe motor networks in control subjects and patients with brain tumours (n = 22). Using a control dataset, we developed a method for automated detection of key nodes in the motor network, including the primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, premotor area and superior parietal lobule, based on the anatomic location of the hand-motor knob in the primary motor cortex. We then calculated functional connectivity between motor network nodes in control subjects, as well as patients with and without brain masses. We used this information to construct weighted, undirected graphs, which were then compared to variables of interest, including performance on a motor task, the grooved pegboard. Strong connectivity was observed within the identified motor networks between all nodes bilaterally, and especially between the primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area. Reduced connectivity was observed in subjects with motor weakness versus subjects with normal strength (P < 0.001). This difference was driven mostly by decreases in interhemispheric connectivity between the primary motor cortices (P < 0.05) and between the left primary motor cortex and the right premotor area (P < 0.05), as well as other premotor area connections. In the subjects without motor weakness, however, performance on the grooved pegboard did not relate to interhemispheric connectivity, but rather was inversely

  13. White matter microstructure throughout the brain correlates with visual imagery in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kirstie J; Kang, Xiaojian; Herron, Timothy J; Woods, David L; Robertson, Lynn C; Alvarez, Bryan D

    2014-04-15

    In this study we show, for the first time, a correlation between the neuroanatomy of the synesthetic brain and a metric that measures behavior not exclusive to the synesthetic experience. Grapheme-color synesthetes (n=20), who experience colors triggered by viewing or thinking of specific letters or numbers, showed altered white matter microstructure, as measured using diffusion tensor imaging, compared with carefully matched non-synesthetic controls. Synesthetes had lower fractional anisotropy and higher perpendicular diffusivity when compared to non-synesthetic controls. An analysis of the mode of anisotropy suggested that these differences were likely due to the presence of more crossing pathways in the brains of synesthetes. Additionally, these differences in white matter microstructure correlated negatively, and only for synesthetes, with a measure of the vividness of their visual imagery. Synesthetes who reported the most vivid visual imagery had the lowest fractional anisotropy and highest perpendicular diffusivity. We conclude that synesthetes as a population vary along a continuum while showing categorical differences in neuroanatomy and behavior compared to non-synesthetes. PMID:24406309

  14. Brain correlates of musical and facial emotion recognition: evidence from the dementias.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, S; Hornberger, M; Piguet, O; Hodges, J R

    2012-07-01

    The recognition of facial expressions of emotion is impaired in semantic dementia (SD) and is associated with right-sided brain atrophy in areas known to be involved in emotion processing, notably the amygdala. Whether patients with SD also experience difficulty recognizing emotions conveyed by other media, such as music, is unclear. Prior studies have used excerpts of known music from classical or film repertoire but not unfamiliar melodies designed to convey distinct emotions. Patients with SD (n = 11), Alzheimer's disease (n = 12) and healthy control participants (n = 20) underwent tests of emotion recognition in two modalities: unfamiliar musical tunes and unknown faces as well as volumetric MRI. Patients with SD were most impaired with the recognition of facial and musical emotions, particularly for negative emotions. Voxel-based morphometry showed that the labelling of emotions, regardless of modality, correlated with the degree of atrophy in the right temporal pole, amygdala and insula. The recognition of musical (but not facial) emotions was also associated with atrophy of the left anterior and inferior temporal lobe, which overlapped with regions correlating with standardized measures of verbal semantic memory. These findings highlight the common neural substrates supporting the processing of emotions by facial and musical stimuli but also indicate that the recognition of emotions from music draws upon brain regions that are associated with semantics in language. PMID:22579645

  15. Connectomic and Surface-Based Morphometric Correlates of Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Dall'Acqua, Patrizia; Johannes, Sönke; Mica, Ladislav; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Glaab, Richard; Fandino, Javier; Schwendinger, Markus; Meier, Christoph; Ulbrich, Erika J; Müller, Andreas; Jäncke, Lutz; Hänggi, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Reduced integrity of white matter (WM) pathways and subtle anomalies in gray matter (GM) morphology have been hypothesized as mechanisms in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, findings on structural brain changes in early stages after mTBI are inconsistent and findings related to early symptoms severity are rare. Fifty-one patients were assessed with multimodal neuroimaging and clinical methods exclusively within 7 days following mTBI and compared to 53 controls. Whole-brain connectivity based on diffusion tensor imaging was subjected to network-based statistics, whereas cortical surface area, thickness, and volume based on T1-weighted MRI scans were investigated using surface-based morphometric analysis. Reduced connectivity strength within a subnetwork of 59 edges located predominantly in bilateral frontal lobes was significantly associated with higher levels of self-reported symptoms. In addition, cortical surface area decreases were associated with stronger complaints in five clusters located in bilateral frontal and postcentral cortices, and in the right inferior temporal region. Alterations in WM and GM were localized in similar brain regions and moderately-to-strongly related to each other. Furthermore, the reduction of cortical surface area in the frontal regions was correlated with poorer attentive-executive performance in the mTBI group. Finally, group differences were detected in both the WM and GM, especially when focusing on a subgroup of patients with greater complaints, indicating the importance of classifying mTBI patients according to severity of symptoms. This study provides evidence that mTBI affects not only the integrity of WM networks by means of axonal damage but also the morphology of the cortex during the initial post-injury period. These anomalies might be greater in the acute period than previously believed and the involvement of frontal brain regions was consistently pronounced in both findings. The dysconnected subnetwork

  16. Connectomic and Surface-Based Morphometric Correlates of Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dall'Acqua, Patrizia; Johannes, Sönke; Mica, Ladislav; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Glaab, Richard; Fandino, Javier; Schwendinger, Markus; Meier, Christoph; Ulbrich, Erika J.; Müller, Andreas; Jäncke, Lutz; Hänggi, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Reduced integrity of white matter (WM) pathways and subtle anomalies in gray matter (GM) morphology have been hypothesized as mechanisms in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, findings on structural brain changes in early stages after mTBI are inconsistent and findings related to early symptoms severity are rare. Fifty-one patients were assessed with multimodal neuroimaging and clinical methods exclusively within 7 days following mTBI and compared to 53 controls. Whole-brain connectivity based on diffusion tensor imaging was subjected to network-based statistics, whereas cortical surface area, thickness, and volume based on T1-weighted MRI scans were investigated using surface-based morphometric analysis. Reduced connectivity strength within a subnetwork of 59 edges located predominantly in bilateral frontal lobes was significantly associated with higher levels of self-reported symptoms. In addition, cortical surface area decreases were associated with stronger complaints in five clusters located in bilateral frontal and postcentral cortices, and in the right inferior temporal region. Alterations in WM and GM were localized in similar brain regions and moderately-to-strongly related to each other. Furthermore, the reduction of cortical surface area in the frontal regions was correlated with poorer attentive-executive performance in the mTBI group. Finally, group differences were detected in both the WM and GM, especially when focusing on a subgroup of patients with greater complaints, indicating the importance of classifying mTBI patients according to severity of symptoms. This study provides evidence that mTBI affects not only the integrity of WM networks by means of axonal damage but also the morphology of the cortex during the initial post-injury period. These anomalies might be greater in the acute period than previously believed and the involvement of frontal brain regions was consistently pronounced in both findings. The dysconnected subnetwork

  17. Restriction of Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus by Porcine APOBEC3 Cytidine Deaminases ▿

    PubMed Central

    Dörrschuck, Eva; Fischer, Nicole; Bravo, Ignacio G.; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Kuiper, Heidi; Spötter, Andreas; Möller, Ronny; Cichutek, Klaus; Münk, Carsten; Tönjes, Ralf R.

    2011-01-01

    Xenotransplantation of porcine cells, tissues, and organs shows promise to surmount the shortage of human donor materials. Among the barriers to pig-to-human xenotransplantation are porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) since functional representatives of the two polytropic classes, PERV-A and PERV-B, are able to infect human embryonic kidney cells in vitro, suggesting that a xenozoonosis in vivo could occur. To assess the capacity of human and porcine cells to counteract PERV infections, we analyzed human and porcine APOBEC3 (A3) proteins. This multigene family of cytidine deaminases contributes to the cellular intrinsic immunity and act as potent inhibitors of retroviruses and retrotransposons. Our data show that the porcine A3 gene locus on chromosome 5 consists of the two single-domain genes A3Z2 and A3Z3. The evolutionary relationships of the A3Z3 genes reflect the evolutionary history of mammals. The two A3 genes encode at least four different mRNAs: A3Z2, A3Z3, A3Z2-Z3, and A3Z2-Z3 splice variant A (SVA). Porcine and human A3s have been tested toward their antiretroviral activity against PERV and murine leukemia virus (MuLV) using novel single-round reporter viruses. The porcine A3Z2, A3Z3 and A3Z2-Z3 were packaged into PERV particles and inhibited PERV replication in a dose-dependent manner. The antiretroviral effect correlated with editing by the porcine A3s with a trinucleotide preference for 5′ TGC for A3Z2 and A3Z2-Z3 and 5′ CAC for A3Z3. These results strongly imply that human and porcine A3s could inhibit PERV replication in vivo, thereby reducing the risk of infection of human cells by PERV in the context of pig-to-human xenotransplantation. PMID:21307203

  18. Toward brain correlates of natural behavior: fMRI during violent video games.

    PubMed

    Mathiak, Klaus; Weber, René

    2006-12-01

    Modern video games represent highly advanced virtual reality simulations and often contain virtual violence. In a significant amount of young males, playing video games is a quotidian activity, making it an almost natural behavior. Recordings of brain activation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during gameplay may reflect neuronal correlates of real-life behavior. We recorded 13 experienced gamers (18-26 years; average 14 hrs/week playing) while playing a violent first-person shooter game (a violent computer game played in self-perspective) by means of distortion and dephasing reduced fMRI (3 T; single-shot triple-echo echo-planar imaging [EPI]). Content analysis of the video and sound with 100 ms time resolution achieved relevant behavioral variables. These variables explained significant signal variance across large distributed networks. Occurrence of violent scenes revealed significant neuronal correlates in an event-related design. Activation of dorsal and deactivation of rostral anterior cingulate and amygdala characterized the mid-frontal pattern related to virtual violence. Statistics and effect sizes can be considered large at these areas. Optimized imaging strategies allowed for single-subject and for single-trial analysis with good image quality at basal brain structures. We propose that virtual environments can be used to study neuronal processes involved in semi-naturalistic behavior as determined by content analysis. Importantly, the activation pattern reflects brain-environment interactions rather than stimulus responses as observed in classical experimental designs. We relate our findings to the general discussion on social effects of playing first-person shooter games. PMID:16628606

  19. Brain correlates of pro-social personality traits: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Joana F; Sampaio, Adriana; Ferreira, Miguel; Soares, José M; Gonçalves, Oscar F

    2013-09-01

    Of the five personality dimensions described by the Big Five Personality Model (Costa and McCrae 1992), Extraversion and Agreeableness are the traits most commonly associated with a pro-social orientation. In this study we tested whether a pro-social orientation, as expressed in terms of Extraversion and Agreeableness, is associated with a specific grey matter phenotype. Fifty-two healthy participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), a self-report measure of the Big Five personality traits. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate the correlation between brain structure and the personality traits of Agreeableness and Extraversion. We found that Extraversion was negatively correlated with grey matter density in the middle frontal and orbitofrontal gyri while Agreeableness was negatively correlated with grey matter density in the inferior parietal, middle occipital and posterior cingulate gyri. No positive correlations were found. These results suggest that pro-social personality traits seem to be associated with decreases in grey matter density in more frontal regions for Extraversion, and more posterior regions for Agreeableness. PMID:23512407

  20. Expression of brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 is inversely correlated with pathological grade, angiogenesis and peritumoral brain edema in human astrocytomas

    PubMed Central

    WANG, WEI; DA, RONG; WANG, MAODE; WANG, TUO; QI, LEI; JIANG, HAITAO; CHEN, WEI; LI, QI

    2013-01-01

    As the most common intracranial malignant neoplasms, astrocytomas are characterized by high neovascularization and severe peritumoral brain edema (PTBE). Angiogenesis is a prerequisite for the growth of solid tumors, including astrocytoma, and brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) is a novel angiogenesis inhibitor. In the present study, the expression levels of BAI1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were investigated using immunohistochemical methods in 90 human brain astrocytoma specimens of various pathological grades and in 11 normal human brain tissues. Vascular endothelial cells were stained for CD105 and the microvessel density (MVD) was assessed. The volume of astrocytoma and PTBE in each case was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The results showed that BAI1 was highly expressed in the normal brain tissues, but that the expression decreased with the rising pathological grades of astrocytoma, MVD number and PTBE, indicating that BAI1 expression was inversely correlated with these factors. Furthermore, it was observed that the expression of VEGF and bFGF were inversely correlated with BAI1 expression in the human brain astrocytomas. These results indicate that the BAI1 gene may be used as a marker of decreased tumor progression and tumoral neovascularization, as well as PTBE. PMID:23761815

  1. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An analysis of 220 fully sequenced porcine BACs generated by the Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative (http://www.nisc.nih.gov/) revealed 27 distinct, novel porcine repetitive elements ranging in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. This set of fully sequenced BACs covers approximately 1% of...

  2. ARTIFICIAL SELECTION ON RELATIVE BRAIN SIZE REVEALS A POSITIVE GENETIC CORRELATION BETWEEN BRAIN SIZE AND PROACTIVE PERSONALITY IN THE GUPPY

    PubMed Central

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Lievens, Eva JP; Dahlbom, Josefin; Bundsen, Andreas; Semenova, Svetlana; Sundvik, Maria; Maklakov, Alexei A; Winberg, Svante; Panula, Pertti; Kolm, Niclas; Morrow, E

    2014-01-01

    Animal personalities range from individuals that are shy, cautious, and easily stressed (a “reactive” personality type) to individuals that are bold, innovative, and quick to learn novel tasks, but also prone to routine formation (a “proactive” personality type). Although personality differences should have important consequences for fitness, their underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated how genetic variation in brain size affects personality. We put selection lines of large- and small-brained guppies (Poecilia reticulata), with known differences in cognitive ability, through three standard personality assays. First, we found that large-brained animals were faster to habituate to, and more exploratory in, open field tests. Large-brained females were also bolder. Second, large-brained animals excreted less cortisol in a stressful situation (confinement). Third, large-brained animals were slower to feed from a novel food source, which we interpret as being caused by reduced behavioral flexibility rather than lack of innovation in the large-brained lines. Overall, the results point toward a more proactive personality type in large-brained animals. Thus, this study provides the first experimental evidence linking brain size and personality, an interaction that may affect important fitness-related aspects of ecology such as dispersal and niche exploration. PMID:24359469

  3. Artificial selection on relative brain size reveals a positive genetic correlation between brain size and proactive personality in the guppy.

    PubMed

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Lievens, Eva J P; Dahlbom, Josefin; Bundsen, Andreas; Semenova, Svetlana; Sundvik, Maria; Maklakov, Alexei A; Winberg, Svante; Panula, Pertti; Kolm, Niclas

    2014-04-01

    Animal personalities range from individuals that are shy, cautious, and easily stressed (a "reactive" personality type) to individuals that are bold, innovative, and quick to learn novel tasks, but also prone to routine formation (a "proactive" personality type). Although personality differences should have important consequences for fitness, their underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated how genetic variation in brain size affects personality. We put selection lines of large- and small-brained guppies (Poecilia reticulata), with known differences in cognitive ability, through three standard personality assays. First, we found that large-brained animals were faster to habituate to, and more exploratory in, open field tests. Large-brained females were also bolder. Second, large-brained animals excreted less cortisol in a stressful situation (confinement). Third, large-brained animals were slower to feed from a novel food source, which we interpret as being caused by reduced behavioral flexibility rather than lack of innovation in the large-brained lines. Overall, the results point toward a more proactive personality type in large-brained animals. Thus, this study provides the first experimental evidence linking brain size and personality, an interaction that may affect important fitness-related aspects of ecology such as dispersal and niche exploration. PMID:24359469

  4. Magnetic resonance elastography of the lung parenchyma in an in situ porcine model with a noninvasive mechanical driver: correlation of shear stiffness with trans-respiratory system pressures.

    PubMed

    Mariappan, Yogesh K; Kolipaka, Arunark; Manduca, Armando; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Ehman, Richard L; Araoz, Philip; McGee, Kiaran P

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of the mechanical properties of lung parenchyma is an active field of research due to the association of this metric with normal function, disease initiation and progression. A phase contrast MRI-based elasticity imaging technique known as magnetic resonance elastography is being investigated as a method for measuring the shear stiffness of lung parenchyma. Previous experiments performed with small animals using invasive drivers in direct contact with the lungs have indicated that the quantification of lung shear modulus with (1) H based magnetic resonance elastography is feasible. This technique has been extended to an in situ porcine model with a noninvasive mechanical driver placed on the chest wall. This approach was tested to measure the change in parenchymal stiffness as a function of airway opening pressure (P(ao) ) in 10 adult pigs. In all animals, shear stiffness was successfully quantified at four different P(ao) values. Mean (±STD error of mean) pulmonary parenchyma density corrected stiffness values were calculated to be 1.48 (±0.09), 1.68 (±0.10), 2.05 (±0.13), and 2.23 (±0.17) kPa for P(ao) values of 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm H2O, respectively. Shear stiffness increased with increasing P(ao) , in agreement with the literature. It is concluded that in an in situ porcine lung shear stiffness can be quantitated with (1) H magnetic resonance elastography using a noninvasive mechanical driver and that it is feasible to measure the change in shear stiffness due to change in P(ao) . PMID:21590723

  5. Unified Framework for Robust Estimation of Brain Networks From fMRI Using Temporal and Spatial Correlation Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongmei Michelle; Xia, Jing

    2011-01-01

    There is a rapidly growing interest in the neuroimaging field to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore brain networks, i.e., how regions of the brain communicate with one another. This paper presents a general and novel statistical framework for robust and more complete estimation of brain functional connectivity from fMRI based on correlation analyses and hypothesis testing. In addition to the ability of examining the correlations with each individual seed as in the standard and existing methods, the proposed framework can detect functional interactions by simultaneously examining multiseed correlations via multiple correlation coefficients. Spatially structured noise in fMRI is also taken into account during the identification of functional interconnection networks through noncentral F hypothesis tests. The associated issues for the multiple testing and the effective degrees-of-freedom are considered as well. Furthermore, partial multiple correlations are introduced and formulated to measure any additional task-induced but not stimulus-locked relation over brain regions so that we can take the analysis of functional connectivity closer to the characterization of direct functional interactions of the brain. Evaluation for accuracy and advantages, and comparisons of the new approaches in the presented general framework are performed using both realistic synthetic data and in vivo fMRI data. PMID:19237342

  6. Properties of functional brain networks correlate with frequency of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Barzegaran, Elham; Joudaki, Amir; Jalili, Mahdi; Rossetti, Andrea O; Frackowiak, Richard S; Knyazeva, Maria G

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in the topology of brain networks may be an important feature and etiological factor for psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). To explore this possibility, we applied a graph theoretical approach to functional networks based on resting state EEGs from 13 PNES patients and 13 age- and gender-matched controls. The networks were extracted from Laplacian-transformed time-series by a cross-correlation method. PNES patients showed close to normal local and global connectivity and small-world structure, estimated with clustering coefficient, modularity, global efficiency, and small-worldness (SW) metrics, respectively. Yet the number of PNES attacks per month correlated with a weakness of local connectedness and a skewed balance between local and global connectedness quantified with SW, all in EEG alpha band. In beta band, patients demonstrated above-normal resiliency, measured with assortativity coefficient, which also correlated with the frequency of PNES attacks. This interictal EEG phenotype may help improve differentiation between PNES and epilepsy. The results also suggest that local connectivity could be a target for therapeutic interventions in PNES. Selective modulation (strengthening) of local connectivity might improve the skewed balance between local and global connectivity and so prevent PNES events. PMID:23267325

  7. The correlation between perceived social support, cortisol and brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Ma, Doy Yung; Chang, Wei Hung; Chi, Mei Hung; Tsai, Hsin Chun; Yang, Yen Kuang; Chen, Po See

    2016-05-30

    In this study, the role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in stress resilience was investigated. With a focus on healthy subjects, we explored whether plasma BDNF levels are correlated with the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and subjectively perceived social support status. Moreover, we examined the possible interacting effect of DST status and perceived social support on BDNF levels. Seventy-two healthy volunteers, 44 females and 28 males, were recruited from the community and completed the perceived routine support subscale of Measurement of Support Function (PRS_MSF) questionnaire. Plasma BDNF levels and DST suppression rate with the low dose DST were measured. There was a significant positive correlation between BDNF and DST suppression rate in the female subjects. This was also true for the plasma BDNF levels and PRS_MSF in the female subjects. The positive correlation between BDNF and PRS_MSF was significant only in female subjects with low DST suppression rates. Plasma BDNF levels were associated with stress resilience in a sex-specific manner. Subjects' belief in social support might buffer the biological stress reactions. Differences in social perception and the biological stress response between men and women merits further investigation. PMID:27137977

  8. Correlation mapping method of OCT for visualization blood vessels in brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izotova, O. A.; Kalyanov, A. L.; Lychagov, V. V.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.

    2013-11-01

    The burning issue in modern medicine is the diagnosis and treatment of various life-threatening diseases, in particular the diseases of brain. One of them is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). It occurs especially among newborn babies and is hard-diagnosed. In order to understand the nature of the ICH, the microcirculation of blood, which serves key functions within the body, is analyzed. On this basis a series of experiments was done, in the results of which it was showed, that latent stage of ICH is characterized by decrease of venous blood outflow and the loss of sensitivity of sagittal vein to vasoconstrictor effect of adrenaline. So, stress-related changes of the cerebral venous blood flow (CVBF) can be the source of this disease. In this paper registration CVBF was made with the help of commercially available Thorlabs Swept Source OCT System, using the correlation mapping method. In this method values of correlation coefficient of several images are analyzed. In the result of the algorithm the correlation map was obtained. By the resulting map the diameter of vessels was calculated, which is necessary for examination of effects of adrenalin to the vessels and identification symptoms of ICH.

  9. Plasma infusions into porcine cerebral white matter induce early edema, oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and DNA fragmentation: implications for white matter injury with increased blood-brain-barrier permeability.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Kenneth R; Dean, Christopher; Beiler, Shauna; Bryan, David W; Packard, Benjamin A; Smulian, A George; Linke, Michael J; de Courten-Myers, Gabrielle M

    2005-04-01

    Plasma infused into porcine cerebral white matter induces both acute interstitial and delayed vasogenic edema. Edematous white matter contains extracellular plasma proteins and rapidly induces oxidative stress as evidenced by increased protein carbonyl formation and heme oxygenase-1 induction. We tested the hypothesis that edematous white matter would also upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and develop DNA damage. We infused autologous plasma into the frontal hemispheric white matter of pentobarbital-anesthetized pigs. We monitored and controlled physiological variables and froze brains in situ at 1, 4 or 24 hrs. We determined edema volumes by computer-assisted morphometry. We measured white matter protein carbonyl formation by immunoblotting, cytokine gene expression by standard RT-PCR methods and DNA fragmentation by agarose gel electrophoresis. White matter edema developed acutely (1 hr) after plasma infusion and increased significantly in volume between 4 and 24 hrs. Protein carbonyl formation also occurred rapidly in edematous white matter with significant elevations (3 to 4-fold) already present at 1 hr. This increase remained through 24 hrs. Pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression was also rapidly increased at 1 hr post-infusion. Evidence for DNA fragmentation began at 2 to 4 hrs, and a pattern indicative of both ongoing necrosis and apoptosis was robust by 24 hrs. Plasma protein accumulation in white matter induces acute edema development and a cascade of patho-chemical events including oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and DNA damage. These results suggest that in diseases with increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability or following intracerebral hemorrhage or traumatic brain injury, interstitial plasma can rapidly damage white matter. PMID:16181107

  10. Brain Correlates of Self-Evaluation Deficits in Schizophrenia: A Combined Functional and Structural MRI Study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shuping; Zhao, Yanli; Fan, Fengmei; Zou, Yizhuang; Jin, Zhen; Zen, Yawei; Zhu, Xiaolin; Yang, Fude; Tan, Yunlong; Zhou, Dongfeng

    2015-01-01

    Self-evaluation plays an important role in adaptive functioning and is a process that is typically impaired in patients with schizophrenia. Underlying neural mechanisms for this dysfunction may be associated with manifested psychosis. However, the brain substrates underlying this deficit are not well known. The present study used brain blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and gray matter voxel-based morphometry to explore the functional and structural brain correlates of self-evaluation deficits in schizophrenia. Eighteen patients with schizophrenia and 17 healthy controls were recruited and asked to judge whether a set of personality-trait adjectives were appropriate for describing themselves, a familiar other, or whether the adjectives were of positive or negative valence. Patients had slower response times for negative trait attributions than controls did; responses to positive trait attributions were faster than those for negative traits among the patient group, while no differences were observed in the control group. Control subjects showed greater activation within the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) than the patient group during the self-evaluation > semantic positivity-evaluation contrast. Patients showed greater activation mainly within the posterior cingulate gyrus (PCC) as compared to controls for the other-evaluation > semantic positivity-evaluation contrast. Furthermore, gray matter volume was reduced in the MPFC, temporal lobe, cuneus, and the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) among the patient group when compared to controls. The present study adds to previous findings regarding self- and other-referential processing in schizophrenia, providing support for neurobiological models of self-reflection impairment. PMID:26406464

  11. Brain Correlates of Self-Evaluation Deficits in Schizophrenia: A Combined Functional and Structural MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Fengmei; Zou, Yizhuang; Jin, Zhen; Zen, Yawei; Zhu, Xiaolin; Yang, Fude; Tan, Yunlong; Zhou, Dongfeng

    2015-01-01

    Self-evaluation plays an important role in adaptive functioning and is a process that is typically impaired in patients with schizophrenia. Underlying neural mechanisms for this dysfunction may be associated with manifested psychosis. However, the brain substrates underlying this deficit are not well known. The present study used brain blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and gray matter voxel-based morphometry to explore the functional and structural brain correlates of self-evaluation deficits in schizophrenia. Eighteen patients with schizophrenia and 17 healthy controls were recruited and asked to judge whether a set of personality-trait adjectives were appropriate for describing themselves, a familiar other, or whether the adjectives were of positive or negative valence. Patients had slower response times for negative trait attributions than controls did; responses to positive trait attributions were faster than those for negative traits among the patient group, while no differences were observed in the control group. Control subjects showed greater activation within the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) than the patient group during the self-evaluation > semantic positivity-evaluation contrast. Patients showed greater activation mainly within the posterior cingulate gyrus (PCC) as compared to controls for the other-evaluation > semantic positivity-evaluation contrast. Furthermore, gray matter volume was reduced in the MPFC, temporal lobe, cuneus, and the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) among the patient group when compared to controls. The present study adds to previous findings regarding self- and other-referential processing in schizophrenia, providing support for neurobiological models of self-reflection impairment. PMID:26406464

  12. Neuromagnetic correlates of developmental changes in endogenous high-frequency brain oscillations in children: a wavelet-based beamformer study.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jing; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yingying; Kotecha, Rupesh; Kirtman, Elijah G; Chen, Yangmei; Huo, Xiaolin; Fujiwara, Hisako; Hemasilpin, Nat; DeGrauw, Ton; Rose, Douglas

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies have found that the brain generates very fast oscillations. The objective of the present study was to investigate the spectral, spatial and coherent features of high-frequency brain oscillations in the developing brain. Sixty healthy children and 20 healthy adults were studied using a 275-channel magnetoencephalography (MEG) system. MEG data were digitized at 12,000 Hz. The frequency characteristics of neuromagnetic signals in 0.5-2000 Hz were quantitatively determined with Morlet wavelet transform. The magnetic sources were volumetrically estimated with wavelet-based beamformer at 2.5 mm resolution. The neural networks of endogenous brain oscillations were analyzed with coherent imaging. Neuromagnetic activities in 8-12 Hz and 800-900 Hz were found to be the most reliable frequency bands in healthy children. The neuromagnetic signals were localized in the occipital, temporal and frontal cortices. The activities in the occipital and temporal cortices were strongly correlated in 8-12 Hz but not in 800-900 Hz. In comparison to adults, children had brain oscillations in intermingled frequency bands. Developmental changes in children were identified for both low- and high-frequency brain activities. The results of the present study suggest that the development of the brain is associated with spatial and coherent changes of endogenous brain activities in both low- and high-frequency ranges. Analysis of high-frequency neuromagnetic oscillation may provide novel insights into cerebral mechanisms of brain function. The noninvasive measurement of neuromagnetic brain oscillations in the developing brain may open a new window for analysis of brain function. PMID:19362072

  13. Investigation of the best model to characterize diffuse correlation spectroscopy measurements acquired directly on the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdecchia, K.; Diop, M.; St. Lawrence, K.

    2015-03-01

    Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is a non-invasive optical technique capable of monitoring tissue perfusion changes, particularly in the brain. The normalized temporal intensity autocorrelation function generated by DCS is typically characterized by assuming that the movement of erythrocytes can be modeled as a Brownian diffusion-like process instead of the expected random flow model. Carp et al. [Biomedical Optics Express, 2011] proposed a hybrid model, referred to as the hydrodynamic diffusion model, to capture both the random ballistic and diffusive nature of erythrocyte motion. The purpose of this study was to compare how well the Brownian diffusion and the hydrodynamic diffusion models characterized DCS data acquired directly on the brain, avoiding the confounding effects of scalp and skull. Data were acquired from seven pigs during normocapnia (39.9 +/- 0.7 mmHg) and hypocapnia (22.1 +/- 1.6 mmHg) with the DCS fibers placed 7 mm apart, directly on the cerebral cortex. The hydrodynamic diffusion model was found to provide a consistently better fit to the autocorrelation functions compared to the Brownian diffusion model and was less sensitive to the chosen start and end time points used in the fitting. However, the decrease in cerebral blood flow from normocapnia to hypocapnia determined was similar for the two models (-42.6 +/- 8.6 % for the Brownian model and -42.2 +/- 10.2 % for the hydrodynamic model), suggesting that the latter is reasonable for monitoring flow changes.

  14. Testicular volume is inversely correlated with nurturing-related brain activity in human fathers.

    PubMed

    Mascaro, Jennifer S; Hackett, Patrick D; Rilling, James K

    2013-09-24

    Despite the well-documented benefits afforded the children of invested fathers in modern Western societies, some fathers choose not to invest in their children. Why do some men make this choice? Life History Theory offers an explanation for variation in parental investment by positing a trade-off between mating and parenting effort, which may explain some of the observed variance in human fathers' parenting behavior. We tested this hypothesis by measuring aspects of reproductive biology related to mating effort, as well as paternal nurturing behavior and the brain activity related to it. Both plasma testosterone levels and testes volume were independently inversely correlated with paternal caregiving. In response to viewing pictures of one's own child, activity in the ventral tegmental area--a key component of the mesolimbic dopamine reward and motivation system--predicted paternal caregiving and was negatively related to testes volume. Our results suggest that the biology of human males reflects a trade-off between mating effort and parenting effort, as indexed by testicular size and nurturing-related brain function, respectively. PMID:24019499

  15. Correlations between apolipoprotein E ε4 gene dose and brain-imaging measurements of regional hypometabolism

    PubMed Central

    Reiman, Eric M.; Chen, Kewei; Alexander, Gene E.; Caselli, Richard J.; Bandy, Daniel; Osborne, David; Saunders, Ann M.; Hardy, John

    2005-01-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have abnormally low positron emission tomography (PET) measurements of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRgl) in regions of the precuneus and the posterior cingulate, parietotemporal, and frontal cortex. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 gene dose (i.e., the number of ε4 alleles in a person's APOE genotype) is associated with a higher risk of AD and a younger age at dementia onset. We previously found that cognitively normal late-middle-aged APOE ε4 carriers have abnormally low CMRgl in the same brain regions as patients with probable Alzheimer's dementia. In a PET study of 160 cognitively normal subjects 47–68 years of age, including 36 ε4 homozygotes, 46 heterozygotes, and 78 ε4 noncarriers who were individually matched for their gender, age, and educational level, we now find that ε4 gene dose is correlated with lower CMRgl in each of these brain regions. This study raises the possibility of using PET as a quantitative presymptomatic endophenotype to help evaluate the individual and aggregate effects of putative genetic and nongenetic modifiers of AD risk. PMID:15932949

  16. Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis: Neural Correlates and the Role of Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Chalah, Moussa A.; Riachi, Naji; Ahdab, Rechdi; Créange, Alain; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Ayache, Samar S.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and the major cause of non-traumatic disability in young adults. Fatigue is a frequent symptom reported by the majority of MS patients during their disease course and drastically affects their quality of life. Despite its significant prevalence and impact, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not well elucidated. MS fatigue is still considered the result of multifactorial and complex constellations, and is commonly classified into “primary” fatigue related to the pathological changes of the disease itself, and “secondary” fatigue attributed to mimicking symptoms, comorbid sleep and mood disorders, and medications side effects. Radiological, physiological, and endocrine data have raised hypotheses regarding the origin of this symptom, some of which have succeeded in identifying an association between MS fatigue and structural or functional abnormalities within various brain networks. Hence, the aim of this work is to reappraise the neural correlates of MS fatigue and to discuss the rationale for the emergent use of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques as potential treatments. This will include a presentation of the various NIBS modalities and a suggestion of their potential mechanisms of action in this context. Specific issues related to the value of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) will be addressed. PMID:26648845

  17. Correlation of behavior with brain damage after in utero exposure to toxic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, S.; Kimler, B.F.

    1987-03-01

    Early postnatal behaviors involving sensorimotor integration were measured along with thickness of the sensorimotor cortex in rats irradiated with 1.0 Gy on gestational day 11 or 17. Body weight and morphology of anterior pituitary cells were recorded. Irradiation on day 17 was more effective in reducing cortical thickness and body weight and performance on behavioral tests and less effective in altering pituitary cells than irradiation on day 11. Prediction of behavioral effects, using cortical layers, body weight and pituitary morphology as predictors in stepwise multiple regression, was measured in both irradiated and control rats. Cortical Layer V more than I more than IV and VI as significant predictors of behavior. The best predictions accounted for about half of the variance in the data. When behavioral data were used to predict brain damage, the best predictor was negative geotaxis. Significant association of behavior with Layers V and VI was found. These experiments show the difficulties in correlating complex behaviors with specific brain areas and, at the same time, implicate especially Layer V of the sensorimotor cortex in these behaviors.

  18. Structural and Functional Brain Correlates of Cognitive Impairment in Euthymic Patients with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Goikolea, José M.; Bonnin, Caterina M.; Sarró, Salvador; Segura, Barbara; Amann, Benedikt L.; Monté, Gemma C.; Moro, Noemi; Fernandez-Corcuera, Paloma; Maristany, Teresa; Salvador, Raymond; Vieta, Eduard; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; McKenna, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive impairment in the euthymic phase is a well-established finding in bipolar disorder. However, its brain structural and/or functional correlates are uncertain. Methods Thirty-three euthymic bipolar patients with preserved memory and executive function and 28 euthymic bipolar patients with significant memory and/or executive impairment, as defined using two test batteries, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT) and the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS), plus 28 healthy controls underwent structural MRI using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Twenty-seven of the cognitively preserved patients, 23 of the cognitively impaired patients and 28 controls also underwent fMRI during performance of the n-back working memory task. Results No clusters of grey or white matter volume difference were found between the two patient groups. During n-back performance, the cognitively impaired patients showed hypoactivation compared to the cognitively preserved patients in a circumscribed region in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Both patient groups showed failure of de-activation in the medial frontal cortex compared to the healthy controls. Conclusions Cognitive impairment in euthymic bipolar patients appears from this study to be unrelated to structural brain abnormality, but there was some evidence for an association with altered prefrontal function. PMID:27448153

  19. Math anxiety: A review of its cognitive consequences, psychophysiological correlates, and brain bases.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, María Isabel; Colomé, Àngels

    2016-02-01

    A decade has passed since the last published review of math anxiety, which was carried out by Ashcraft and Ridley (2005). Given the considerable interest aroused by this topic in recent years and the growing number of publications related to it, the present article aims to provide a full and updated review of the field, ranging from the initial studies of the impact of math anxiety on numerical cognition, to the latest research exploring its electrophysiological correlates and brain bases from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Finally, this review describes the factors and mechanisms that have been claimed to play a role in the origins and/or maintenance of math anxiety, and it examines in detail the main explanations proposed to account for the negative effects of math anxiety on performance: competition for working memory resources, a deficit in a low-level numerical representation, and inhibition/attentional control deficit. PMID:26250692

  20. Impairment in cognitive and affective empathy in patients with brain lesions: anatomical and cognitive correlates.

    PubMed

    Shamay-Tsoory, S G; Tomer, R; Goldsher, D; Berger, B D; Aharon-Peretz, J

    2004-11-01

    The present study was designed to examine the degree of impairment in cognitive and affective empathy among patients with focal brain lesions, and the contribution of specific cognitive abilities (such as cognitive flexibility and processing of emotional information), to empathy. The cognitive and affective empathic response of patients with localized prefrontal lesions (n=36) was compared to responses of patients with parietal lesions (n=15) and healthy control subjects (n=19). Results indicate that patients with prefrontal lesions (especially those with lesions involving the orbitoprefrontal and medial regions) were significantly impaired in both cognitive and affective empathy as compared to parietal patients and healthy controls. When the damage was restricted to the prefrontal cortex, either left- or right-hemisphere lesions resulted in impaired empathy. However, when the lesion involved the right hemisphere, patients with parietal lesions were also impaired. The pattern of relationships between cognitive performance and empathy suggested dissociation between the cognitive correlates of affective and cognitive empathy. PMID:15590464

  1. Molecular characterization of porcine SARM1 and its role in regulating TLRs signaling during highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Jiang, Tengfei; Du, Xiaochuan; Zhou, Ping; Jiang, Zhihua; Michal, Jennifer J; Liu, Bang

    2013-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) that trigger innate immune response and mediate acquired immunity. Evidence has shown that SARM1 (sterile-α and TIR motif containing protein 1) is one of five TIR domain-containing adaptor proteins involved in TLRs signaling transduction. In the present study, a full-length cDNA sequence was cloned for the porcine SARM1 gene, which contains nine exons. Using the radiation hybrid mapping approach, we assigned the porcine gene to SSC12 q13. Under the normal condition, porcine SARM1 was highly expressed in brain and spleen. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly (I:C)) weakly induced the porcine SARM1 expression in the early stimulation. We found that porcine SARM1 protein is localized in mitochondria and attenuates NF-κB activation induced by stimulation and infection. The quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) analysis showed that the expression of porcine SARM1 significantly decreased in several tissues of Tongcheng pigs infected with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV). Gene-interaction network analysis for porcine SARM1 in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) showed that down-regulation of SARM1 gene in infected Tongcheng pig may modulate TRIF-depend TLRs signaling and regulate the expression of disease-resistant genes and inflammatory genes. Our findings provide evidence that porcine SARM1 may play an important role in immune regulation with PRRSV infection. PMID:22366489

  2. An Efficient and Reliable Statistical Method for Estimating Functional Connectivity in Large Scale Brain Networks Using Partial Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yikai; Kang, Jian; Kemmer, Phebe B.; Guo, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Currently, network-oriented analysis of fMRI data has become an important tool for understanding brain organization and brain networks. Among the range of network modeling methods, partial correlation has shown great promises in accurately detecting true brain network connections. However, the application of partial correlation in investigating brain connectivity, especially in large-scale brain networks, has been limited so far due to the technical challenges in its estimation. In this paper, we propose an efficient and reliable statistical method for estimating partial correlation in large-scale brain network modeling. Our method derives partial correlation based on the precision matrix estimated via Constrained L1-minimization Approach (CLIME), which is a recently developed statistical method that is more efficient and demonstrates better performance than the existing methods. To help select an appropriate tuning parameter for sparsity control in the network estimation, we propose a new Dens-based selection method that provides a more informative and flexible tool to allow the users to select the tuning parameter based on the desired sparsity level. Another appealing feature of the Dens-based method is that it is much faster than the existing methods, which provides an important advantage in neuroimaging applications. Simulation studies show that the Dens-based method demonstrates comparable or better performance with respect to the existing methods in network estimation. We applied the proposed partial correlation method to investigate resting state functional connectivity using rs-fMRI data from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC) study. Our results show that partial correlation analysis removed considerable between-module marginal connections identified by full correlation analysis, suggesting these connections were likely caused by global effects or common connection to other nodes. Based on partial correlation, we find that the most significant

  3. Gray matter volume and executive functioning correlate with time since injury following mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S; Singh, Prabhjyot; Kipman, Maia; Pisner, Derek; Fridman, Andrew; Weber, Mareen

    2016-01-26

    Most people who sustain a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) will recover to baseline functioning within a period of several days to weeks. A substantial minority of patients, however, will show persistent symptoms and mild cognitive complaints for much longer. To more clearly delineate how the duration of time since injury (TSI) is associated with neuroplastic cortical volume changes and cognitive recovery, we employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and select neuropsychological measures in a cross-sectional sample of 26 patients with mTBI assessed at either two-weeks, one-month, three-months, six-months, or one-year post injury, and a sample of 12 healthy controls. Longer duration of TSI was associated with larger gray matter volume (GMV) within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and right fusiform gyrus, and better neurocognitive performance on measures of visuospatial design fluency and emotional functioning. In particular, volume within the vmPFC was positively correlated with design fluency and negatively correlated with symptoms of anxiety, whereas GMV of the fusiform gyrus was associated with greater design fluency and sustained visual psychomotor vigilance performance. Moreover, the larger GMV seen among the more chronic individuals was significantly greater than healthy controls, suggesting possible enlargement of these regions with time since injury. These findings are interpreted in light of burgeoning evidence suggesting that cortical regions often exhibit structural changes following experience or practice, and suggest that with greater time since an mTBI, the brain displays compensatory remodeling of cortical regions involved in emotional regulation, which may reduce distractibility during attention demanding visuo-motor tasks. PMID:26711488

  4. Brain tissue volume changes in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: correlation with lesion load.

    PubMed

    Quarantelli, Mario; Ciarmiello, Andrea; Morra, Vincenzo Brescia; Orefice, Giuseppe; Larobina, Michele; Lanzillo, Roberta; Schiavone, Vittorio; Salvatore, Elena; Alfano, Bruno; Brunetti, Arturo

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this study was to simultaneously measure in vivo volumes of gray matter (GM), normal white matter (WM), abnormal white matter (aWM), and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), and to assess their relationship in 50 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) (age range, 21-59; mean EDSS, 2.5; mean disease duration, 9.9 years), using an unsupervised multiparametric segmentation procedure applied to brain MR studies. Tissue volumes were normalized to total intracranial volume providing corresponding fractional volumes (fGM, faWM, fWM, and fCSF), subsequently corrected for aWM-related segmentation inaccuracies and adjusted to mean patients' age according to age-related changes measured in 54 normal volunteers (NV) (age range 16-70). In MS patients aWM was 23.8 +/- 29.8 ml (range 0.4-138.8). A significant decrease in fGM was present in MS patients as compared to NV (49.5 +/- 3.2% vs 53.3 +/- 2.1%; P < 0.0001), with a corresponding increase in fCSF (13.0 +/- 3.8% vs 9.1 +/- 2.4%; P < 0.0001). No difference could be detected between the two groups for fWM (37.5 +/- 2.6% vs 37.6 +/- 2.2%). faWM correlated inversely with fGM (R = -0.434, P < 0.001 at regression analysis), and directly with fCSF (R = 0.473, P < 0.001), but not with fWM. There was a significant correlation between disease duration and EDSS, while no relationship was found between EDSS or disease duration and fractional volumes. Brain atrophy in RR-MS is mainly related to GM loss, which correlates with faWM. Both measures do not appear to significantly affect EDSS, which correlates to disease duration. PMID:12595189

  5. Reorganization of Functional Connectivity as a Correlate of Cognitive Recovery in Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Paul, Nuria; Ordonez, Victoria E.; Demuynck, Olivier; Bajo, Ricardo; Campo, Pablo; Bilbao, Alvaro; Ortiz, Tomas; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestu, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive processes require a functional interaction between specialized multiple, local and remote brain regions. Although these interactions can be strongly altered by an acquired brain injury, brain plasticity allows network reorganization to be principally responsible for recovery. The present work evaluates the impact of brain injury on…

  6. Immunohistochemistry of porcine skin.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Berger, U; Mahrle, G

    1991-01-01

    The present paper reports immunohistological findings in porcine skin, which were obtained by use of mono- and polyclonal antihuman antibodies and either alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) or peroxidase (POX) technique. Epidermal staining was observed with antibodies to keratins (K 8.12, RSKE 60), filaggrin, and calmodulin (ACAM). Staining of connective tissue and vessels was achieved using antibodies to vimentin (V9(1)), collagen type IV, and fibronectin. In general, these antibodies gave a staining pattern similar to that of normal human skin. The similarities of immunoreactivity to poly- and monoclonal antihuman antibodies in porcine and human skin render porcine skin a reliable model in biomedical research. PMID:1710864

  7. Time-Shift Correlation Algorithm for P300 Event Related Potential Brain-Computer Interface Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ju-Chi; Chou, Hung-Chyun; Chen, Chien-Hsiu; Lin, Yi-Tseng

    2016-01-01

    A high efficient time-shift correlation algorithm was proposed to deal with the peak time uncertainty of P300 evoked potential for a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI). The time-shift correlation series data were collected as the input nodes of an artificial neural network (ANN), and the classification of four LED visual stimuli was selected as the output node. Two operating modes, including fast-recognition mode (FM) and accuracy-recognition mode (AM), were realized. The proposed BCI system was implemented on an embedded system for commanding an adult-size humanoid robot to evaluate the performance from investigating the ground truth trajectories of the humanoid robot. When the humanoid robot walked in a spacious area, the FM was used to control the robot with a higher information transfer rate (ITR). When the robot walked in a crowded area, the AM was used for high accuracy of recognition to reduce the risk of collision. The experimental results showed that, in 100 trials, the accuracy rate of FM was 87.8% and the average ITR was 52.73 bits/min. In addition, the accuracy rate was improved to 92% for the AM, and the average ITR decreased to 31.27 bits/min. due to strict recognition constraints. PMID:27579033

  8. Time-Shift Correlation Algorithm for P300 Event Related Potential Brain-Computer Interface Implementation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju-Chi; Chou, Hung-Chyun; Chen, Chien-Hsiu; Lin, Yi-Tseng; Kuo, Chung-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    A high efficient time-shift correlation algorithm was proposed to deal with the peak time uncertainty of P300 evoked potential for a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI). The time-shift correlation series data were collected as the input nodes of an artificial neural network (ANN), and the classification of four LED visual stimuli was selected as the output node. Two operating modes, including fast-recognition mode (FM) and accuracy-recognition mode (AM), were realized. The proposed BCI system was implemented on an embedded system for commanding an adult-size humanoid robot to evaluate the performance from investigating the ground truth trajectories of the humanoid robot. When the humanoid robot walked in a spacious area, the FM was used to control the robot with a higher information transfer rate (ITR). When the robot walked in a crowded area, the AM was used for high accuracy of recognition to reduce the risk of collision. The experimental results showed that, in 100 trials, the accuracy rate of FM was 87.8% and the average ITR was 52.73 bits/min. In addition, the accuracy rate was improved to 92% for the AM, and the average ITR decreased to 31.27 bits/min. due to strict recognition constraints. PMID:27579033

  9. Apoptotic markers in cultured fibroblasts correlate with brain metabolites and regional brain volume in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Batalla, A; Bargalló, N; Gassó, P; Molina, O; Pareto, D; Mas, S; Roca, J M; Bernardo, M; Lafuente, A; Parellada, E

    2015-01-01

    Cultured fibroblasts from first-episode schizophrenia patients (FES) have shown increased susceptibility to apoptosis, which may be related to glutamate dysfunction and progressive neuroanatomical changes. Here we determine whether apoptotic markers obtained from cultured fibroblasts in FES and controls correlate with changes in brain glutamate and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and regional brain volumes. Eleven antipsychotic-naive FES and seven age- and gender-matched controls underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Glutamate plus glutamine (Glx) and NAA levels were measured in the anterior cingulate (AC) and the left thalamus (LT). Hallmarks of apoptotic susceptibility (caspase-3-baseline activity, phosphatidylserine externalization and chromatin condensation) were measured in fibroblast cultures obtained from skin biopsies after inducing apoptosis with staurosporine (STS) at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 μM. Apoptotic biomarkers were correlated to brain metabolites and regional brain volume. FES and controls showed a negative correlation in the AC between Glx levels and percentages of cells with condensed chromatin (CC) after both apoptosis inductions (STS 0.5 μM: r=−0.90; P=0.001; STS 0.25 μM: r=−0.73; P=0.003), and between NAA and cells with CC (STS 0.5 μM induction r=−0.76; P=0.002; STS 0.25 μM r=−0.62; P=0.01). In addition, we found a negative correlation between percentages of cells with CC and regional brain volume in the right supratemporal cortex and post-central region (STS 0.25 and 0.5 μM; P<0.05 family-wise error corrected (FWEc)). We reveal for the first time that peripheral markers of apoptotic susceptibility may correlate with brain metabolites, Glx and NAA, and regional brain volume in FES and controls, which is consistent with the neuroprogressive theories around the onset of the schizophrenia illness. PMID:26305477

  10. Correlation between brain natriuretic peptide levels and the prognosis of patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    GONG, HUI; WANG, XIN; SHI, YI-JUN; SHANG, WEN-JING; LING, YI; PAN, LI-JIAN; SHI, HAI-MING

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the association between brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels and the prognosis of patients with left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction. A total of 708 inpatients with cardiovascular disease (mean age, 66 years; 395 males and 313 females) were grouped according to initial BNP and were followed-up for 20–51 months (average, 30.86 months) until endpoint events occurred. Endpoints were defined as mortality or readmission due to cardiovascular disease, or mortality due to any other reason. A total of 67 and 77 events were reported in the BNP ≤80 pg/ml and BNP >80 pg/ml groups, respectively. The occurrence rate of the endpoint was significantly higher in the BNP >80 pg/ml group, as compared with the BNP ≤80 pg/ml group (26.28 vs. 16.14%; relative risk=1.63). Furthermore, the durations of patient survival were significantly shorter in the BNP >80 pg/ml group, as compared with the BNP ≤80 pg/ml group (P=0.0006), and patient survival decreased as BNP levels rose (P=0.0074). Among the 708 patients, 677 underwent echocardiographic detection at the same time. No significant correlation was detected between BNP levels and survival time in 178 patients with normal LV diastolic function [mitral Doppler flow, early diastolic (E)/late diastolic (A)>1] (P=0.2165); whereas a negative correlation was determined in 499 patients with LVD dysfunction (E/A≤1) (Spearman's rho=−0.0899; P=0.0447). The prognoses of patients with elevated BNP levels were correspondingly worse in the present study and these correlations were demonstrated to be significant in patients with LV diastolic dysfunction. Therefore, BNP levels may be used to predict the prognosis of patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:27313677

  11. Correlations between Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption and Neuroinflammation in an Experimental Model of Penetrating Ballistic-Like Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Cartagena, Casandra M.; Lu, Xi-Chun M.; Konopko, Melissa; Dave, Jitendra R.; Tortella, Frank C.; Shear, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption is a pathological hallmark of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is associated with neuroinflammatory events contributing to brain edema and cell death. The goal of this study was to elucidate the profile of BBB disruption after penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) in conjunction with changes in neuroinflammatory markers. Brain uptake of biotin-dextran amine (BDA; 3 kDa) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP; 44 kDa) was evaluated in rats at 4 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 7 days post-PBBI and compared with the histopathologic and molecular profiles for inflammatory markers. BDA and HRP both displayed a uniphasic profile of extravasation, greatest at 24 h post-injury and which remained evident out to 48 h for HRP and 7 days for BDA. This profile was most closely associated with markers for adhesion (mRNA for intercellular adhesion molecule-1) and infiltration of peripheral granulocytes (mRNA for matrix metalloproteinase-9 [MMP-9] and myeloperoxidase staining). Improvement of BBB dysfunction coincided with increased expression of markers implicated in tissue remodeling and repair. The results of this study reveal a uniphasic and gradient opening of the BBB after PBBI and suggest MMP-9 and resident inflammatory cell activation as candidates for future neurotherapeutic intervention after PBBI. PMID:24138024

  12. A porcine model of osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Saalfrank, A; Janssen, K-P; Ravon, M; Flisikowski, K; Eser, S; Steiger, K; Flisikowska, T; Müller-Fliedner, P; Schulze, É; Brönner, C; Gnann, A; Kappe, E; Böhm, B; Schade, B; Certa, U; Saur, D; Esposito, I; Kind, A; Schnieke, A

    2016-01-01

    We previously produced pigs with a latent oncogenic TP53 mutation. Humans with TP53 germline mutations are predisposed to a wide spectrum of early-onset cancers, predominantly breast, brain, adrenal gland cancer, soft tissue sarcomas and osteosarcomas. Loss of p53 function has been observed in >50% of human cancers. Here we demonstrate that porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) convert to a transformed phenotype after activation of latent oncogenic TP53R167H and KRASG12D, and overexpression of MYC promotes tumorigenesis. The process mimics key molecular aspects of human sarcomagenesis. Transformed porcine MSCs exhibit genomic instability, with complex karyotypes, and develop into sarcomas on transplantation into immune-deficient mice. In pigs, heterozygous knockout of TP53 was sufficient for spontaneous osteosarcoma development in older animals, whereas homozygous TP53 knockout resulted in multiple large osteosarcomas in 7–8-month-old animals. This is the first report that engineered mutation of an endogenous tumour-suppressor gene leads to invasive cancer in pigs. Unlike in Trp53 mutant mice, osteosarcoma developed in the long bones and skull, closely recapitulating the human disease. These animals thus promise a model for juvenile osteosarcoma, a relatively uncommon but devastating disease. PMID:26974205

  13. Oscillatory Brain Correlates of Live Joint Attention: A Dual-EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Lachat, Fanny; Hugueville, Laurent; Lemaréchal, Jean-Didier; Conty, Laurence; George, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Joint attention consists in following another’s gaze onto an environmental object, which leads to the alignment of both subjects’ attention onto this object. It is a fundamental mechanism of non-verbal communication, and it is essential for dynamic, online, interindividual synchronization during interactions. Here we aimed at investigating the oscillatory brain correlates of joint attention in a face-to-face paradigm where dyads of participants dynamically oriented their attention toward the same or different objects during joint and no-joint attention periods respectively. We also manipulated task instruction: in socially driven instructions, the participants had to follow explicitly their partner’s gaze, while in color-driven instructions, the objects to be looked at were designated at by their color so that no explicit gaze following was required. We focused on oscillatory activities in the 10 Hz frequency range, where parieto-occipital alpha and the centro-parietal mu rhythms have been described, as these rhythms have been associated with attention and social coordination processes respectively. We tested the hypothesis of a modulation of these oscillatory activities by joint attention. We used dual-EEG to record simultaneously the brain activities of the participant dyads during our live, face-to-face joint attention paradigm. We showed that joint attention periods – as compared to the no-joint attention periods – were associated with a decrease of signal power between 11 and 13 Hz over a large set of left centro-parieto-occipital electrodes, encompassing the scalp regions where alpha and mu rhythms have been described. This 11–13 Hz signal power decrease was observed independently of the task instruction: it was similar when joint versus no-joint attention situations were socially driven and when they were color-driven. These results are interpreted in terms of the processes of attention mirroring, social coordination, and mutual

  14. Cosplicing network analysis of mammalian brain RNA-Seq data utilizing WGCNA and Mantel correlations.

    PubMed

    Iancu, Ovidiu D; Colville, Alexandre; Oberbeck, Denesa; Darakjian, Priscila; McWeeney, Shannon K; Hitzemann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Across species and tissues and especially in the mammalian brain, production of gene isoforms is widespread. While gene expression coordination has been previously described as a scale-free coexpression network, the properties of transcriptome-wide isoform production coordination have been less studied. Here we evaluate the system-level properties of cosplicing in mouse, macaque, and human brain gene expression data using a novel network inference procedure. Genes are represented as vectors/lists of exon counts and distance measures sensitive to exon inclusion rates quantifies differences across samples. For all gene pairs, distance matrices are correlated across samples, resulting in cosplicing or cotranscriptional network matrices. We show that networks including cosplicing information are scale-free and distinct from coexpression. In the networks capturing cosplicing we find a set of novel hubs with unique characteristics distinguishing them from coexpression hubs: heavy representation in neurobiological functional pathways, strong overlap with markers of neurons and neuroglia, long coding lengths, and high number of both exons and annotated transcripts. Further, the cosplicing hubs are enriched in genes associated with autism spectrum disorders. Cosplicing hub homologs across eukaryotes show dramatically increasing intronic lengths but stable coding region lengths. Shared transcription factor binding sites increase coexpression but not cosplicing; the reverse is true for splicing-factor binding sites. Genes with protein-protein interactions have strong coexpression and cosplicing. Additional factors affecting the networks include shared microRNA binding sites, spatial colocalization within the striatum, and sharing a chromosomal folding domain. Cosplicing network patterns remain relatively stable across species. PMID:26029240

  15. Anatomical correlates for category-specific naming of objects and actions: a brain stimulation mapping study.

    PubMed

    Lubrano, Vincent; Filleron, Thomas; Démonet, Jean-François; Roux, Franck-Emmanuel

    2014-02-01

    The production of object and action words can be dissociated in aphasics, yet their anatomical correlates have been difficult to distinguish in functional imaging studies. To investigate the extent to which the cortical neural networks underlying object- and action-naming processing overlap, we performed electrostimulation mapping (ESM), which is a neurosurgical mapping technique routinely used to examine language function during brain-tumor resections. Forty-one right-handed patients who had surgery for a brain tumor were asked to perform overt naming of object and action pictures under stimulation. Overall, 73 out of the 633 stimulated cortical sites (11.5%) were associated with stimulation-induced language interferences. These interference sites were very much localized (<1 cm(2) ), and showed substantial variability across individuals in their exact localization. Stimulation interfered with both object and action naming over 44 sites, whereas it specifically interfered with object naming over 19 sites and with action naming over 10 sites. Specific object-naming sites were mainly identified in Broca's area (Brodmann area 44/45) and the temporal cortex, whereas action-naming specific sites were mainly identified in the posterior midfrontal gyrus (Brodmann area 6/9) and Broca's area (P = 0.003 by the Fisher's exact test). The anatomical loci we emphasized are in line with a cortical distinction between objects and actions based on conceptual/semantic features, so the prefrontal/premotor cortex would preferentially support sensorimotor contingencies associated with actions, whereas the temporal cortex would preferentially underpin (functional) properties of objects. PMID:23015527

  16. Splicing variants of porcine synphilin-1.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Knud; Madsen, Lone Bruhn; Farajzadeh, Leila; Bendixen, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), idiopathic and familial, is characterized by degradation of dopaminergic neurons and the presence of Lewy bodies (LB) in the substantia nigra. LBs contain aggregated proteins of which α-synuclein is the major component. The protein synphilin-1 interacts and colocalizes with α-synuclein in LBs. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize porcine synphilin-1 and isoforms hereof with the future perspective to use the pig as a model for Parkinson's disease. The porcine SNCAIP cDNA was cloned by reverse transcriptase PCR. The spatial expression of SNCAIP mRNA was investigated by RNAseq. The presented work reports the molecular cloning and characterization of the porcine (Sus scrofa) synphilin-1 cDNA (SNCAIP) and three splice variants hereof. The porcine SNCAIP cDNA codes for a protein (synphilin-1) of 919 amino acids which shows a high similarity to human (90%) and to mouse (84%) synphilin-1. Three shorter transcript variants of the synphilin-1 gene were identified, all lacking one or more exons. SNCAIP transcripts were detected in most examined organs and tissues and the highest expression was found in brain tissues and lung. Conserved splicing variants and a novel splice form of synhilin-1 were found in this study. All synphilin-1 isoforms encoded by the identified transcript variants lack functional domains important for protein degradation. PMID:26101749

  17. Exploratory metabolomic analyses reveal compounds correlated with lutein concentration in frontal cortex, hippocampus, and occipital cortex of human infant brain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lutein is a dietary carotenoid well known for its role as an antioxidant in the macula and recent reports implicate a role for lutein in cognitive function. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in both pediatric and geriatric brain tissue. In addition, cognitive function in older adults correlated with...

  18. Early Neuropsychological Tests as Correlates of Productivity 1 Year after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Preliminary Matched Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Won Hyung A.; Cullen, Nora K.; Bayley, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relative strength of five neuropsychological tests in correlating with productivity 1 year after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Six moderate-to-severe TBI patients who returned to work at 1-year post-injury were matched with six controls who were unemployed after 1 year based on age, severity of injury, and Functional…

  19. Context-specific behavioral surprise is differentially correlated with activity in anterior and posterior brain systems.

    PubMed

    Tobia, Michael J; Gläscher, Jan; Sommer, Tobias

    2016-06-15

    This experiment investigated whether behavioral surprise, an information-theoretic measure of the amount of memory and information integration associated with a response, is correlated with neural activity during decision making. A total of 30 participants (age 18-30) were scanned with functional MRI while completing 240 trials of a sequential decision-making task in which they selected an amount to wager from four possible values on each trial. Behavioral surprise was computed trial by trial using both context-free and context-specific formulations, and was used as a parametric modulator in functional MRI analyses. Whereas context-free surprise was not significantly correlated, two sets of clusters (P<0.005; cluster size>156 voxels) were differentially modulated by context-specific behavioral surprise. An anterior system comprised of the inferior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate (each bilaterally), and left caudate, was positively modulated. A posterior system comprised of the posterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyrus and posterior hippocampus (each bilaterally), and left angular gyrus, was negatively modulated. These anticorrelated systems indicate that more surprising (resource demanding) actions recruit greater activity from the anterior system and less activity from the posterior system and less surprising actions (memory-guided) recruit greater activity from the posterior system and less activity from the anterior system. These results show that context-specific behavioral surprise is a unique neural signal and may be related to mechanisms for both cognitive control and memory-guided behavior, and support contemporary theories that the brain is a statistical observer of external and internal events. PMID:27110868

  20. Brain structural correlates of sensory phenomena in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Subirà, Marta; Sato, João R.; Alonso, Pino; do Rosário, Maria C.; Segalàs, Cinto; Batistuzzo, Marcelo C.; Real, Eva; Lopes, Antonio C.; Cerrillo, Ester; Diniz, Juliana B.; Pujol, Jesús; Assis, Rachel O.; Menchón, José M.; Shavitt, Roseli G.; Busatto, Geraldo F.; Cardoner, Narcís; Miguel, Euripedes C.; Hoexter, Marcelo Q.; Soriano-Mas, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Background Sensory phenomena (SP) are uncomfortable feelings, including bodily sensations, sense of inner tension, “just-right” perceptions, feelings of incompleteness, or “urge-only” phenomena, which have been described to precede, trigger or accompany repetitive behaviours in individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Sensory phenomena are also observed in individuals with tic disorders, and previous research suggests that sensorimotor cortex abnormalities underpin the presence of SP in such patients. However, to our knowledge, no studies have assessed the neural correlates of SP in patients with OCD. Methods We assessed the presence of SP using the University of São Paulo Sensory Phenomena Scale in patients with OCD and healthy controls from specialized units in São Paulo, Brazil, and Barcelona, Spain. All participants underwent a structural magnetic resonance examination, and brain images were examined using DARTEL voxel-based morphometry. We evaluated grey matter volume differences between patients with and without SP and healthy controls within the sensorimotor and premotor cortices. Results We included 106 patients with OCD and 87 controls in our study. Patients with SP (67% of the sample) showed grey matter volume increases in the left sensorimotor cortex in comparison to patients without SP and bilateral sensorimotor cortex grey matter volume increases in comparison to controls. No differences were observed between patients without SP and controls. Limitations Most patients were medicated. Participant recruitment and image acquisition were performed in 2 different centres. Conclusion We have identified a structural correlate of SP in patients with OCD involving grey matter volume increases within the sensorimotor cortex; this finding is in agreement with those of tic disorder studies showing that abnormal activity and volume increases within this region are associated with the urges preceding tic onset. PMID:25652753

  1. Event-related brain potential correlates of prospective memory in symptomatically remitted male patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guoliang; Zhang, Lei; Ding, Weiyan; Zhou, Renlai; Xu, Peng; Lu, Shan; Sun, Li; Jiang, Zhongdong; Li, Huiju; Li, Yansong; Cui, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) refers to the ability to remember to perform intended actions in the future. Although PM deficits are a prominent impairment in schizophrenia, little is still known about the nature of PM in symptomatically remitted patients with schizophrenia. To address this issue, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 20 symptomatically remitted patients with schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls during an event-based PM paradigm. Behavioral results showed that symptomatically remitted patients with schizophrenia performed poorly on the PM task compared with healthy controls. On the neural level, the N300, a component of the ERPs related to PM cue detection, was reliable across these two groups, suggesting a degree of functional recovery of processes supporting cue detection in patients with symptomatically remitted schizophrenia. By contrast, the amplitude of the prospective positivity, a component of the ERPs related to PM intention retrieval, was significantly attenuated in symptomatically remitted schizophrenia patients relative to healthy controls. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation between the amplitude of the prospective positivity and accuracy on the PM task was found in those patients, indicating that patients’ poor performance on this task may result from the failure to recover PM cue-induced intention from memory. These results provide evidence for the existence of altered PM processing in patients with symptomatically remitted schizophrenia, which is characterized by a selective deficit in retrospective component (intention retrieval) of PM. Therefore, these findings shed new light on the neurophysiological processes underlying PM in schizophrenia patients during clinical remission. PMID:26483650

  2. Brain structural correlates of obsessive-compulsive disorder with and without preceding stressful life events.

    PubMed

    Real, E; Subirà, M; Alonso, P; Segalàs, C; Labad, J; Orfila, C; López-Solà, C; Martínez-Zalacaín, I; Via, E; Cardoner, N; Jiménez-Murcia, S; Soriano-Mas, C; Menchón, J M

    2016-08-01

    Objectives There is growing evidence supporting a role for stressful life events (SLEs) at obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) onset, but neurobiological correlates of such effect are not known. We evaluated regional grey matter (GM) changes associated with the presence/absence of SLEs at OCD onset. Methods One hundred and twenty-four OCD patients and 112 healthy controls were recruited. Patients were split into two groups according to the presence (n = 56) or absence (n = 68) of SLEs at disorder's onset. A structural magnetic resonance image was acquired for each participant and pre-processed with Statistical Parametric Mapping software (SPM8) to obtain a volume-modulated GM map. Between-group differences in sociodemographic, clinical and whole-brain regional GM volumes were assessed. Results SLEs were associated with female sex, later age at disorder's onset, more contamination/cleaning and less hoarding symptoms. In comparison with controls, patients without SLEs showed GM volume increases in bilateral dorsal putamen and the central tegmental tract of the brainstem. By contrast, patients with SLEs showed specific GM volume increases in the right anterior cerebellum. Conclusions Our findings support the idea that neuroanatomical alterations of OCD patients partially depend on the presence of SLEs at disorder's onset. PMID:26784523

  3. Brain correlates of hypnotic paralysis-a resting-state fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Pyka, M; Burgmer, M; Lenzen, T; Pioch, R; Dannlowski, U; Pfleiderer, B; Ewert, A W; Heuft, G; Arolt, V; Konrad, C

    2011-06-15

    Hypnotic paralysis has been used since the times of Charcot to study altered states of consciousness; however, the underlying neurobiological correlates are poorly understood. We investigated human brain function during hypnotic paralysis using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), focussing on two core regions of the default mode network and the representation of the paralysed hand in the primary motor cortex. Hypnotic suggestion induced an observable left-hand paralysis in 19 participants. Resting-state fMRI at 3T was performed in pseudo-randomised order awake and in the hypnotic condition. Functional connectivity analyses revealed increased connectivity of the precuneus with the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, angular gyrus, and a dorsal part of the precuneus. Functional connectivity of the medial frontal cortex and the primary motor cortex remained unchanged. Our results reveal that the precuneus plays a pivotal role during maintenance of an altered state of consciousness. The increased coupling of selective cortical areas with the precuneus supports the concept that hypnotic paralysis may be mediated by a modified representation of the self which impacts motor abilities. PMID:21497656

  4. Healthy children show gender differences in correlations between nonverbal cognitive ability and brain activation during visual perception.

    PubMed

    Asano, Kohei; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Thyreau, Benjamin; Asano, Michiko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-08-01

    Humans perceive textual and nontextual information in visual perception, and both depend on language. In childhood education, students exhibit diverse perceptual abilities, such that some students process textual information better and some process nontextual information better. These predispositions involve many factors, including cognitive ability and learning preference. However, the relationship between verbal and nonverbal cognitive abilities and brain activation during visual perception has not yet been examined in children. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the relationship between nonverbal and verbal cognitive abilities and brain activation during nontextual visual perception in large numbers of children. A significant positive correlation was found between nonverbal cognitive abilities and brain activation in the right temporoparietal junction, which is thought to be related to attention reorienting. This significant positive correlation existed only in boys. These findings suggested that male brain activation differed from female brain activation, and that this depended on individual cognitive processes, even if there was no gender difference in behavioral performance. PMID:24937269

  5. Amplitude of Sensorimotor Mu Rhythm Is Correlated with BOLD from Multiple Brain Regions: A Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Siyang; Liu, Yuelu; Ding, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    The mu rhythm is a field oscillation in the ∼10Hz range over the sensorimotor cortex. For decades, the suppression of mu (event-related desynchronization) has been used to index movement planning, execution, and imagery. Recent work reports that non-motor processes, such as spatial attention and movement observation, also desynchronize mu, raising the possibility that the mu rhythm is associated with the activity of multiple brain regions and systems. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by recording simultaneous resting-state EEG-fMRI from healthy subjects. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to extract the mu components. The amplitude (power) fluctuations of mu were estimated as a time series using a moving-window approach, which, after convolving with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF), was correlated with blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals from the entire brain. Two main results were found. First, mu power was negatively correlated with BOLD from areas of the sensorimotor network, the attention control network, the putative mirror neuron system, and the network thought to support theory of mind. Second, mu power was positively correlated with BOLD from areas of the salience network, including anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that sensorimotor mu rhythm is associated with multiple brain regions and systems. They also suggest that caution should be exercised when attempting to interpret mu modulation in terms of a single brain network. PMID:27499736

  6. Amplitude of Sensorimotor Mu Rhythm Is Correlated with BOLD from Multiple Brain Regions: A Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Yin, Siyang; Liu, Yuelu; Ding, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    The mu rhythm is a field oscillation in the ∼10Hz range over the sensorimotor cortex. For decades, the suppression of mu (event-related desynchronization) has been used to index movement planning, execution, and imagery. Recent work reports that non-motor processes, such as spatial attention and movement observation, also desynchronize mu, raising the possibility that the mu rhythm is associated with the activity of multiple brain regions and systems. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by recording simultaneous resting-state EEG-fMRI from healthy subjects. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to extract the mu components. The amplitude (power) fluctuations of mu were estimated as a time series using a moving-window approach, which, after convolving with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF), was correlated with blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals from the entire brain. Two main results were found. First, mu power was negatively correlated with BOLD from areas of the sensorimotor network, the attention control network, the putative mirror neuron system, and the network thought to support theory of mind. Second, mu power was positively correlated with BOLD from areas of the salience network, including anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that sensorimotor mu rhythm is associated with multiple brain regions and systems. They also suggest that caution should be exercised when attempting to interpret mu modulation in terms of a single brain network. PMID:27499736

  7. Developmental changes in the activities of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase and catechol-O-methyl transferase in the porcine brain: a positron emission tomography study.

    PubMed

    Brust, Peter; Walter, Bernd; Hinz, Rainer; Füchtner, Frank; Müller, Marco; Steinbach, Jörg; Bauer, Reinhard

    2004-07-01

    Newborn (7-10 days old) and young (6-8 weeks old) pigs were used to study the metabolism of 6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA (FDOPA) in various brain regions with positron emission tomography (PET). Compartmental modeling of PET data was used to calculate the rate constants for the decarboxylation of FDOPA (k3) and for the metabolism of the resulting [18F]fluoro-dopamine (kcl). Whereas general physiological parameters such as cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygen uptake, arterial blood gases and glucose concentration remained unchanged in young pigs as compared to newborns, a 50-200% increase of k3 in frontal cortex, striatum and mesencephalon was found. Also a 60% enhancement of kcl in the frontal cortex was measured, which is related to changes of the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) activity and implies a special function of this enzyme in the development of this brain region. In addition, measurement of plasma metabolites of FDOPA with HPLC was performed. The metabolism of FDOPA in young pigs was significantly faster than in newborns. Calculation of the rate constant for O-methylation of FDOPA by COMT revealed a significant elevation of this enzyme activity in young pigs compared to newborns. The increase of AADC and COMT activity with brain development is considered to be associated with special stages of neuronal maturation and tissue differentiation. PMID:15196667

  8. Degree of Cajal-Retzius Cell Mislocalization Correlates with the Severity of Structural Brain Defects in Mouse Models of Dystroglycanopathy.

    PubMed

    Booler, Helen S; Williams, Josie L; Hopkinson, Mark; Brown, Susan C

    2016-07-01

    The secondary dystroglycanopathies are characterized by the hypoglycosylation of alpha dystroglycan, and are associated with mutations in at least 18 genes that act on the glycosylation of this cell surface receptor rather than the Dag1 gene itself. At the severe end of the disease spectrum, there are substantial structural brain defects, the most striking of which is often cobblestone lissencephaly. The aim of this study was to determine the gene-specific aspects of the dystroglycanopathy brain phenotype through a detailed investigation of the structural brain defects present at birth in three mouse models of dystroglycanopathy-the FKRP(KD) , which has an 80% reduction in Fkrp transcript levels; the Pomgnt1null , which carries a deletion of exons 7-16 of the Pomgnt1 gene; and the Large(myd) mouse, which carries a deletion of exons 5-7 of the Large gene. We show a rostrocaudal and mediolateral gradient in the severity of brain lesions in FKRP(KD) , and to a lesser extent Pomgnt1null mice. Furthermore, the mislocalization of Cajal-Retzius cells is correlated with the gradient of these lesions and the severity of the brain phenotype in these models. Overall these observations implicate gene-specific differences in the pathogenesis of brain lesions in this group of disorders. PMID:26306834

  9. Brain microstructural changes and cognitive correlates in patients with pure obsessive compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Piras, Fabrizio; Fagioli, Sabrina; Caltagirone, Carlo; Piras, Federica

    2014-01-01

    Object The aim of this study was to investigate macrostructural and microstructural brain changes in patients with pure obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and to examine the relationship between brain structure and neuropsychological deficits. Method 20 patients with OCD underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. A combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis was used to capture gray matter (GM) and white matter changes in OCD patients as compared to pair-matched healthy volunteers. Multiple regression designs explored the relationship between cognition and neuroimaging parameters. Results OCD patients had increased mean diffusivity (MD) in GM nodes of the orbitofronto-striatal loop (left dorsal anterior cingulate [Z = 3.67, P < 0.001] left insula [Z = 3.35 P < 0.001] left thalamus [Z = 3.59, P < 0.001] left parahippocampal gyrus [Z = 3.77 P < 0.001]) and in lateral frontal and posterior associative cortices (right frontal operculum [Z = 3.42 P < 0.001], right temporal lobe [Z = 3.79 P < 0.001] left parietal lobe [Z = 3.91 P < 0.001]). Decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) was detected in intrahemispheric (left superior longitudinal fasciculus [Z = 4.07 P < 0.001]) and interhemispheric (body of corpus callosum [CC, Z = 4.42 P < 0.001]) bundles. Concurrently, the semantic fluency score, a measure of executive control processes, significantly predicted OCD diagnosis (Odds Ratio = 1.37; 95% Confidence Intervals = 1.09–1.73; P = 0.0058), while variation in performance was correlated with increased MD in left temporal (Z = 4.25 P < 0.001) and bilateral parietal regions (left Z = 3.94, right Z = 4.19 P < 0.001), and decreased FA in the right posterior corona radiata (Z = 4.07 P < 0.001) and the left corticospinal tract (Z = 3.95 P < 0.001). Conclusions The reported deficit in executive processes and the underlying microstructural alterations may qualify as

  10. Porcine Parvovirus: Natural and Experimental Infections of the Porcine Fetus and Prevalence In Mature Swine 1

    PubMed Central

    Redman, D. R.; Bohl, E. H.; Ferguson, L. C.

    1974-01-01

    Antibodies against porcine parvovirus were detected in 17 of 116 prenursing pig sera. Antibodies against transmissible gastroenteritis or ECPO-6 (an enterovirus) were not detected in prenursing sera of the pigs tested. Seventy-seven percent of 129 serum samples from 23 Ohio farms and 82% of 96 samples from slaughter plants in Ohio were serologically positive for porcine parvovirus. Mummies or other abnormalities were not observed in newly born pigs exposed to porcine parvovirus by the transuterine route 101 days after gestation. Indirect evidence suggested that the virus had not spread to other fet uses following exposure after 101 days at least not in a sufficient amount of time to stimulate detectable antibody. Direct intrafetal exposure to porcine parvovirus (i.m. injection, transutero) after 62 days of gestation resulted in dealth and mummification of the two fetuses, and apparently in the subsequent spread of the virus, as five of nine live pigs born were serologically positive for porcine parvovirus and these five pigs had not been injected with the virus. Immunoglobulin G was detected in all newborn pigs irregardless of known antigenic stimulation or the presence of specific antibody. In general, the presence of immunoglobulin M or immunoglobulin A in fetal serum was correlated with a history of antigenic stimulation or the presence of detectable antibody. PMID:4426705

  11. MR elastography in a murine stroke model reveals correlation of macroscopic viscoelastic properties of the brain with neuronal density.

    PubMed

    Freimann, Florian Baptist; Müller, Susanne; Streitberger, Kaspar-Josche; Guo, Jing; Rot, Sergej; Ghori, Adnan; Vajkoczy, Peter; Reiter, Rolf; Sack, Ingolf; Braun, Jürgen

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of neuronal density on viscoelastic parameters of living brain tissue after ischemic infarction in the mouse using MR elastography (MRE). Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in the left hemisphere was induced in 20 mice. In vivo 7-T MRE at a vibration frequency of 900 Hz was performed on days 3, 7, 14 and 28 (n = 5 per group) after MCAO, followed by the analysis of histological markers, such as neuron counts (NeuN). MCAO led to a significant reduction in the storage modulus in the left hemisphere relative to contralateral values (p = 0.03) without changes over time. A correlation between storage modulus and NeuN in both hemispheres was observed, with correlation coefficients of R = 0.648 (p = 0.002, left) and R = 0.622 (p = 0.003, right). The loss modulus was less sensitive to MCAO, but correlated with NeuN in the left hemisphere (R = 0.764, p = 0.0001). In agreement with the literature, these results suggest that the shear modulus in the brain is reduced after transient ischemic insult. Furthermore, our study provides evidence that the in vivo shear modulus of brain tissue correlates with neuronal density. In diagnostic applications, MRE may thus have diagnostic potential as a tool for image-based quantification of neurodegenerative processes. PMID:23784982

  12. A study of the oligomeric state of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-preferring glutamate receptors in the synaptic junctions of porcine brain.

    PubMed

    Wu, T Y; Liu, C I; Chang, Y C

    1996-11-01

    The number of the subunits in an alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-preferring L-glutamate receptor in the synaptic junctions of porcine brain was investigated in this study. Upon incubation of the synaptic junctions with three cross-linking regents, dimethyl adipimidate (DMA), dimethyl suberimidate (DMS) and N-succinimidyl-(4-azidophenyl)-1,3'-dithiopropionate (SADP), AMPA receptor subunits in higher-molecular-mass aggregates were detected by immunoblotting. These aggregates migrated as proteins of approx. 200, 300 and 400 kDa. The number and identity of the subunits in a solubilized AMPA receptor were also investigated here. Two samples, W1 and W2, enriched in AMPA receptors were prepared from synaptic junctions by a combination of detergent-solubilization, anion-exchange chromatography and wheatgerm agglutinin affinity chromatography. Hydrodynamic behaviour analyses revealed that the majority of the AMPA receptors in either one of these samples were asymmetrical detergent-surrounded particles with a protein mass around 350 kDa. SDS/PAGE analysis revealed that the majority of AMPA receptors in the W1 sample were comprised of dimers of 106 kDa subunits which were covalently linked by disulphide bonds. Cross-linking these receptors with SADP yielded a new band of approx. 400 kDa. The results obtained here, either from the studies of AMPA receptors embedding in synaptic junctions or from those of detergent-solubilized and partially purified receptors, suggest that AMPA receptors contain a basic core structure comprising of four 106 kDa subunits. PMID:8920974

  13. A study of the oligomeric state of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-preferring glutamate receptors in the synaptic junctions of porcine brain.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, T Y; Liu, C I; Chang, Y C

    1996-01-01

    The number of the subunits in an alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-preferring L-glutamate receptor in the synaptic junctions of porcine brain was investigated in this study. Upon incubation of the synaptic junctions with three cross-linking regents, dimethyl adipimidate (DMA), dimethyl suberimidate (DMS) and N-succinimidyl-(4-azidophenyl)-1,3'-dithiopropionate (SADP), AMPA receptor subunits in higher-molecular-mass aggregates were detected by immunoblotting. These aggregates migrated as proteins of approx. 200, 300 and 400 kDa. The number and identity of the subunits in a solubilized AMPA receptor were also investigated here. Two samples, W1 and W2, enriched in AMPA receptors were prepared from synaptic junctions by a combination of detergent-solubilization, anion-exchange chromatography and wheatgerm agglutinin affinity chromatography. Hydrodynamic behaviour analyses revealed that the majority of the AMPA receptors in either one of these samples were asymmetrical detergent-surrounded particles with a protein mass around 350 kDa. SDS/PAGE analysis revealed that the majority of AMPA receptors in the W1 sample were comprised of dimers of 106 kDa subunits which were covalently linked by disulphide bonds. Cross-linking these receptors with SADP yielded a new band of approx. 400 kDa. The results obtained here, either from the studies of AMPA receptors embedding in synaptic junctions or from those of detergent-solubilized and partially purified receptors, suggest that AMPA receptors contain a basic core structure comprising of four 106 kDa subunits. PMID:8920974

  14. Correlation of oxygenation and perfusion sensitive MRI with invasive micro probe measurements in healthy mice brain.

    PubMed

    Sedlacik, Jan; Reitz, Matthias; Bolar, Divya S; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Schmidt, Nils O; Fiehler, Jens

    2015-03-01

    The non-invasive assessment of (patho-)physiological parameters such as, perfusion and oxygenation, is of great importance for the characterization of pathologies e.g., tumors, which may be helpful to better predict treatment response and potential outcome. To better understand the influence of physiological parameters on the investigated oxygenation and perfusion sensitive MRI methods, MRI measurements were correlated with subsequent invasive micro probe measurements during free breathing conditions of air, air+10% CO2 and 100% O2 in healthy mice brain. MRI parameters were the irreversible (R2), reversible (R2') and effective (R2*) transverse relaxation rates, venous blood oxygenation level assessed by quantitative blood oxygenation level dependent (qBOLD) method and cerebral blood flow (CBF) assessed by arterial spin labeling (ASL) using a 7 T small animal MRI scanner. One to two days after MRI, tissue perfusion and pO2 were measured by Laser-Doppler flowmetry and fluorescence quenching micro probes, respectively. The tissue pO2 values were converted to blood oxygen saturation by using the Hill equation. The animals were anesthetized by intra peritoneal injection of ketamine-xylazine-acepromazine (10-2-0.3 mg/ml · kg). Results for normal/hypercapnia/hyperoxia conditions were: R2[s(∧)-1] = 20.7/20.4/20.1, R2*[s(∧)-1] = 31.6/29.6/25.9, R2'[s-(∧)1] = 10.9/9.2/5.7, qBOLD venous blood oxygenation level = 0.43/0.51/0.56, CBF[ml · min(∧)-1 · 100 g(∧)-1] = 70.6/105.5/81.8, Laser-Doppler flowmetry[a.u.] = 89.2/120.2/90.6 and pO2[mmHg] = 6.3/32.3/46.7. All parameters were statistically significantly different with P < 0.001 between all breathing conditions. All MRI and the corresponding micro probe measurements were also statistically significantly (P ≤ 0.03) correlated with each other. However, converting the tissue pO2 to blood oxygen saturation = 0.02/0.34/0.63, showed only very limited agreement with the qBOLD venous blood oxygenation level. We found

  15. Correlation of Students' Brain Types to Their Conceptions of Learning Science and Approaches to Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jiyeon; Jeon, Dongryul

    2015-01-01

    The systemizing and empathizing brain type represent two contrasted students' characteristics. The present study investigated differences in the conceptions and approaches to learning science between the systemizing and empathizing brain type students. The instruments are questionnaires on the systematizing and empathizing, questionnaires on the…

  16. Physiological Correlates of Intellectual Function in Children with Sickle Cell Disease: Hypoxaemia, Hyperaemia and Brain Infarction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Alexandra M.; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Prengler, Mara; Kirkham, Fenella J.

    2006-01-01

    Lowered intelligence relative to controls is evident by mid-childhood in children with sickle cell disease. There is consensus that brain infarct contributes to this deficit, but the subtle lowering of IQ in children with normal MRI scans might be accounted for by chronic systemic complications leading to insufficient oxygen delivery to the brain.…

  17. Whole-brain analytic measures of network communication reveal increased structure-function correlation in right temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wirsich, Jonathan; Perry, Alistair; Ridley, Ben; Proix, Timothée; Golos, Mathieu; Bénar, Christian; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Breakspear, Michael; Jirsa, Viktor; Guye, Maxime

    2016-01-01

    The in vivo structure-function relationship is key to understanding brain network reorganization due to pathologies. This relationship is likely to be particularly complex in brain network diseases such as temporal lobe epilepsy, in which disturbed large-scale systems are involved in both transient electrical events and long-lasting functional and structural impairments. Herein, we estimated this relationship by analyzing the correlation between structural connectivity and functional connectivity in terms of analytical network communication parameters. As such, we targeted the gradual topological structure-function reorganization caused by the pathology not only at the whole brain scale but also both in core and peripheral regions of the brain. We acquired diffusion (dMRI) and resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) data in seven right-lateralized TLE (rTLE) patients and fourteen healthy controls and analyzed the structure-function relationship by using analytical network communication metrics derived from the structural connectome. In rTLE patients, we found a widespread hypercorrelated functional network. Network communication analysis revealed greater unspecific branching of the shortest path (search information) in the structural connectome and a higher global correlation between the structural and functional connectivity for the patient group. We also found evidence for a preserved structural rich-club in the patient group. In sum, global augmentation of structure-function correlation might be linked to a smaller functional repertoire in rTLE patients, while sparing the central core of the brain which may represent a pathway that facilitates the spread of seizures. PMID:27330970

  18. The brain antigen-specific B cell response correlates with glatiramer acetate responsiveness in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Rovituso, Damiano M.; Duffy, Cathrina E.; Schroeter, Michael; Kaiser, Claudia C.; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Bayas, Antonios; Elsner, Rebecca; Kuerten, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    B cells have only recently begun to attract attention in the immunopathology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Suitable markers for the prediction of treatment success with immunomodulatory drugs are still missing. Here we evaluated the B cell response to brain antigens in n = 34 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients treated with glatiramer acetate (GA) using the enzyme-linked immunospot technique (ELISPOT). Our data demonstrate that patients can be subdivided into responders that show brain-specific B cell reactivity in the blood and patients without this reactivity. Only in patients that classified as B cell responders, there was a significant positive correlation between treatment duration and the time since last relapse in our study. This correlation was GA-specific because it was absent in a control group that consisted of interferon-ß (IFN-β)-treated RRMS patients (n = 23). These data suggest that GA has an effect on brain-reactive B cells in a subset of patients and that only this subset benefits from treatment. The detection of brain-reactive B cells is likely to be a suitable tool to identify drug responders. PMID:26387426

  19. The brain antigen-specific B cell response correlates with glatiramer acetate responsiveness in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Rovituso, Damiano M; Duffy, Cathrina E; Schroeter, Michael; Kaiser, Claudia C; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Bayas, Antonios; Elsner, Rebecca; Kuerten, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    B cells have only recently begun to attract attention in the immunopathology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Suitable markers for the prediction of treatment success with immunomodulatory drugs are still missing. Here we evaluated the B cell response to brain antigens in n = 34 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients treated with glatiramer acetate (GA) using the enzyme-linked immunospot technique (ELISPOT). Our data demonstrate that patients can be subdivided into responders that show brain-specific B cell reactivity in the blood and patients without this reactivity. Only in patients that classified as B cell responders, there was a significant positive correlation between treatment duration and the time since last relapse in our study. This correlation was GA-specific because it was absent in a control group that consisted of interferon-ß (IFN-β)-treated RRMS patients (n = 23). These data suggest that GA has an effect on brain-reactive B cells in a subset of patients and that only this subset benefits from treatment. The detection of brain-reactive B cells is likely to be a suitable tool to identify drug responders. PMID:26387426

  20. Parcellating an Individual Subject's Cortical and Subcortical Brain Structures Using Snowball Sampling of Resting-State Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Wig, Gagan S.; Laumann, Timothy O.; Cohen, Alexander L.; Power, Jonathan D.; Nelson, Steven M.; Glasser, Matthew F.; Miezin, Francis M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Petersen, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    We describe methods for parcellating an individual subject's cortical and subcortical brain structures using resting-state functional correlations (RSFCs). Inspired by approaches from social network analysis, we first describe the application of snowball sampling on RSFC data (RSFC-Snowballing) to identify the centers of cortical areas, subdivisions of subcortical nuclei, and the cerebellum. RSFC-Snowballing parcellation is then compared with parcellation derived from identifying locations where RSFC maps exhibit abrupt transitions (RSFC-Boundary Mapping). RSFC-Snowballing and RSFC-Boundary Mapping largely complement one another, but also provide unique parcellation information; together, the methods identify independent entities with distinct functional correlations across many cortical and subcortical locations in the brain. RSFC parcellation is relatively reliable within a subject scanned across multiple days, and while the locations of many area centers and boundaries appear to exhibit considerable overlap across subjects, there is also cross-subject variability—reinforcing the motivation to parcellate brains at the level of individuals. Finally, examination of a large meta-analysis of task-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging data reveals that area centers defined by task-evoked activity exhibit correspondence with area centers defined by RSFC-Snowballing. This observation provides important evidence for the ability of RSFC to parcellate broad expanses of an individual's brain into functionally meaningful units. PMID:23476025

  1. Positive Correlation Between the Efficiency of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and the Development Rate of Nuclear Transfer Embryos When the Same Porcine Embryonic Fibroblast Lines Are Used As Donor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bingteng; Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Shichao; Wang, Jiaqiang; Xue, Binghua; Li, Jingyu; Wei, Renyue; Zhao, Yanhua

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and nuclear transfer (NT) are two of the primary routes to reprogram differentiated cells back to the pluripotent state. However, it is still unknown whether there is any correlation between the reprogramming efficiency of iPSCs and NT if the same donor cells are employed. In this study, six porcine embryonic fibroblast (PEF) lines from Landrace (L1, L6, L9) or Congjiang local pigs (C4, C5, C6) were used for iPSC induction and NT. Furthermore, the resultant iPSCs from four PEF lines (L1, L6, C4, and C5) were used for NT (iPSC-NT), and the expression of exogenous genes was detected in iPSC-NT embryos by real-time PCR. The results showed that the efficiency of iPSC lines established from different PEF lines were significantly different. When the same PEF lines were used as donor cells for NT, the blastocysts rates were also different among different PEF lines and positively related with iPSCs induction efficiency. When the iPSCs were used as donor cells for NT, compared with the source PEFs, the blastocysts rates were significantly decreased. Real-time PCR results indicated that exogenous genes (Oct4, c-Myc) continued to be expressed in iPSC-NT embryos. In summary, our results demonstrate that there was a positive correlation between iPSCs and NT reprogramming efficiency, although the mechanism of these two routes is different. This may provide a new method to select the appropriate donor cells for inducing iPSCs. PMID:24738969

  2. Correlating Cognitive Decline with White Matter Lesion and Brain Atrophy MRI Measurements in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bilello, Michel; Doshi, Jimit; Nabavizadeh, S. Ali; Toledo, Jon B.; Erus, Guray; Xie, Sharon X.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Han, Xiaoyan; Davatzikos, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Background Vascular risk factors are increasingly recognized as risks factors for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and early conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia. While neuroimaging research in AD has focused on brain atrophy, metabolic function or amyloid deposition, little attention has been paid to the effect of cerebrovascular disease to cognitive decline. Objective To investigate the correlation of brain atrophy and white matter lesions with cognitive decline in AD, MCI, and control subjects. Methods Patients with AD and MCI, and healthy subjects were included in this study. Subjects had a baseline MRI scan, and baseline and follow-up neuropsychological battery (CERAD). Regional volumes were measured, and white matter lesion segmentation was performed. Correlations between rate of CERAD score decline and white matter lesion load and brain structure volume were evaluated. In addition, voxel-based correlations between baseline CERAD scores and atrophy and white matter lesion measures were computed. Results CERAD rate of decline was most significantly associated with lesion loads located in the fornices. Several temporal lobe ROI volumes were significantly associated with CERAD decline. Voxel-based analysis demonstrated strong correlation between baseline CERAD scores and atrophy measures in the anterior temporal lobes. Correlation of baseline CERAD scores with white matter lesion volumes achieved significance in multilobar subcortical white matter. Conclusion Both baseline and declines in CERAD scores correlate with white matter lesion load and gray matter atrophy. Results of this study highlight the dominant effect of volume loss, and underscore the importance of small vessel disease as a contributor to cognitive decline in the elderly. PMID:26402108

  3. Subcallosal brain structure: correlation with hearing threshold at supra-clinical frequencies (>8 kHz), but not with tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Melcher, Jennifer R; Knudson, Inge M; Levine, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    This study tested for differences in brain structure between tinnitus and control subjects, focusing on a subcallosal brain region where striking differences have been inconsistently found previously. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to compare structural MRIs of tinnitus subjects and non-tinnitus controls. Audiograms of all subjects were normal or near-normal at standard clinical frequencies (≤8 kHz). Mean threshold through 14 kHz, age, sex and handedness were matched between groups. There were no definitive differences between tinnitus and control groups in modulated or unmodulated maps of gray matter (GM) probability (i.e., GM volume and concentration, respectively). However, when the image data were tested for correlations with parameters that were either not measured or not matched between the tinnitus and control groups of previous studies, a notable correlation was found: Threshold at supra-clinical frequencies (above 8 kHz) was negatively correlated with modulated GM probability in ventral posterior cingulate cortex, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, and a subcallosal region that included ventromedial prefrontal cortex and coincided with previously-reported differences between tinnitus and control subjects. The results suggest an explanation for the discrepant findings in subcallosal brain: threshold at supra-clinical frequencies may have differed systematically between tinnitus and control groups in some studies but not others. The observed correlation between (1) brain structure in regions engaged in cognitive and attentional processes and (2) hearing sensitivity at frequencies generally considered unnecessary for normal human auditory behavior is surprising and worthy of follow up. PMID:22504034

  4. Differences in and correlations between cognitive abilities and brain volumes in healthy control, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer disease groups.

    PubMed

    Chung, Soon-Cheol; Choi, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Lee, Jung-Chul; Park, Sung-Jun; Jeong, Ul-Ho; Baek, Ji-Hye; Gim, Seon-Young; Choi, Young Chil; Lee, Beob-Yi; Lim, Dae-Woon; Kim, Boseong

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate differences in and correlations between cognitive abilities and brain volumes in healthy control (HC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) groups. The Korean Version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD-K), which is used to diagnose AD, was used to measure the cognitive abilities of the study subjects, and the volumes of typical brain components related to AD diagnosis-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), gray matter (GM), and white matter (WM)-were acquired. Of the CERAD-K subtests, the Boston Naming Test distinguished significantly among the HC, MCI, and AD groups. GM and WM volumes differed significantly among the three groups. There was a significant positive correlation between Boston Naming Test scores and GM and WM volumes. In conclusion, the Boston Naming Test and GM and WM brain volumes differentiated the three tested groups accurately, and there were strong correlations between Boston Naming Test scores and GM and WM volumes. These results will help to establish a test method that differentiates the three groups accurately and is economically feasible. Clin. Anat. 29:473-480, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26710236

  5. Comparison of Brain Activity Correlating with Self-Report versus Narrative Attachment Measures during Conscious Appraisal of an Attachment Figure

    PubMed Central

    Yaseen, Zimri S.; Zhang, Xian; Muran, J. Christopher; Winston, Arnold; Galynker, Igor I.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) has been the gold standard of attachment assessment, but requires special training. The Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ) is a widely used self-report measure. We investigate how each correlates with brain activity during appraisal of subjects’ mothers. Methods: Twenty-eight women were scored on the AAI, RSQ, and mood measures. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, subjects viewed their mothers in neutral-, valence-, and salience-rating conditions. We identified regions where contrasts in brain activity between appraisal and neutral viewing conditions correlated with each measure of attachment after covarying for mood. AAI and RSQ measures were then compared in terms of the extent to which regions of correlating brain activity overlapped with “default mode network” (DMN) vs. executive frontal network (EFN) masks and cortical vs. subcortical masks. Additionally, interactions with mood were examined. Results: Salience and valence processing associated with increased thalamo-striatal, posterior cingulate, and visual cortex activity. Salience processing decreased PFC activity, whereas valence processing increased left insula activity. Activity correlating with AAI vs. RSQ measures demonstrated significantly more DMN and subcortical involvement. Interactions with mood were observed in the middle temporal gyrus and precuneus for both measures. Conclusion: The AAI appears to disproportionately correlate with conscious appraisal associated activity in DMN and subcortical structures, while the RSQ appears to tap EFN structures more extensively. Thus, the AAI may assess more interoceptive, ‘core-self’-related processes, while the RSQ captures higher-order cognitions involved in attachment. Shared interaction effects between mood and AAI and RSQ-measures may suggest that processes tapped by each belong to a common system. PMID:27014022

  6. Suicidality, Bullying and Other Conduct and Mental Health Correlates of Traumatic Brain Injury in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ilie, Gabriela; Mann, Robert E.; Boak, Angela; Adlaf, Edward M.; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our knowledge on the adverse correlates of traumatic brain injuries (TBI), including non-hospitalized cases, among adolescents is limited to case studies. We report lifetime TBI and adverse mental health and conduct behaviours associated with TBI among adolescents from a population-based sample in Ontario. Method and Findings Data were derived from 4,685 surveys administered to adolescents in grades 7 through 12 as part of the 2011 population-based cross-sectional Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). Lifetime TBI was defined as head injury that resulted in being unconscious for at least 5 minutes or being retained in the hospital for at least one night, and was reported by 19.5% (95%CI:17.3,21.9) of students. When holding constant sex, grade, and complex sample design, students with TBI had significantly greater odds of reporting elevated psychological distress (AOR = 1.52), attempting suicide (AOR = 3.39), seeking counselling through a crisis help-line (AOR = 2.10), and being prescribed medication for anxiety, depression, or both (AOR = 2.45). Moreover, students with TBI had higher odds of being victimized through bullying at school (AOR = 1.70), being cyber-bullied (AOR = 2.05), and being threatened with a weapon at school (AOR = 2.90), compared with students who did not report TBI. Students with TBI also had higher odds of victimizing others and engaging in numerous violent as well as nonviolent conduct behaviours. Conclusions Significant associations between TBI and adverse internalizing and externalizing behaviours were found in this large population-based study of adolescents. Those who reported lifetime TBI were at a high risk for experiencing mental and physical health harms in the past year than peers who never had a head injury. Primary physicians should be vigilant and screen for potential mental heath and behavioural harms in adolescent patients with TBI. Efforts to prevent TBI during adolescence and

  7. Changes in functional connectivity correlate with behavioral gains in stroke patients after therapy using a brain-computer interface device.

    PubMed

    Young, Brittany Mei; Nigogosyan, Zack; Remsik, Alexander; Walton, Léo M; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A; Grogan, Scott W; Tyler, Mitchell E; Edwards, Dorothy Farrar; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A; Williams, Justin C; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology is being incorporated into new stroke rehabilitation devices, but little is known about brain changes associated with its use. We collected anatomical and functional MRI of nine stroke patients with persistent upper extremity motor impairment before, during, and after therapy using a BCI system. Subjects were asked to perform finger tapping of the impaired hand during fMRI. Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), 9-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT), and Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) domains of Hand Function (HF) and Activities of Daily Living (ADL) were also assessed. Group-level analyses examined changes in whole-brain task-based functional connectivity (FC) to seed regions in the motor network observed during and after BCI therapy. Whole-brain FC analyses seeded in each thalamus showed FC increases from baseline at mid-therapy and post-therapy (p < 0.05). Changes in FC between seeds at both the network and the connection levels were examined for correlations with changes in behavioral measures. Average motor network FC was increased post-therapy, and changes in average network FC correlated (p < 0.05) with changes in performance on ARAT (R (2) = 0.21), 9-HPT (R (2) = 0.41), SIS HF (R (2) = 0.27), and SIS ADL (R (2) = 0.40). Multiple individual connections within the motor network were found to correlate in change from baseline with changes in behavioral measures. Many of these connections involved the thalamus, with change in each of four behavioral measures significantly correlating with change from baseline FC of at least one thalamic connection. These preliminary results show changes in FC that occur with the administration of rehabilitative therapy using a BCI system. The correlations noted between changes in FC measures and changes in behavioral outcomes indicate that both adaptive and maladaptive changes in FC may develop with this therapy and also suggest a brain-behavior relationship that may be stimulated by the neuromodulatory

  8. Changes in functional connectivity correlate with behavioral gains in stroke patients after therapy using a brain-computer interface device

    PubMed Central

    Young, Brittany Mei; Nigogosyan, Zack; Remsik, Alexander; Walton, Léo M.; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A.; Grogan, Scott W.; Tyler, Mitchell E.; Edwards, Dorothy Farrar; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A.; Williams, Justin C.; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology is being incorporated into new stroke rehabilitation devices, but little is known about brain changes associated with its use. We collected anatomical and functional MRI of nine stroke patients with persistent upper extremity motor impairment before, during, and after therapy using a BCI system. Subjects were asked to perform finger tapping of the impaired hand during fMRI. Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), 9-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT), and Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) domains of Hand Function (HF) and Activities of Daily Living (ADL) were also assessed. Group-level analyses examined changes in whole-brain task-based functional connectivity (FC) to seed regions in the motor network observed during and after BCI therapy. Whole-brain FC analyses seeded in each thalamus showed FC increases from baseline at mid-therapy and post-therapy (p < 0.05). Changes in FC between seeds at both the network and the connection levels were examined for correlations with changes in behavioral measures. Average motor network FC was increased post-therapy, and changes in average network FC correlated (p < 0.05) with changes in performance on ARAT (R2 = 0.21), 9-HPT (R2 = 0.41), SIS HF (R2 = 0.27), and SIS ADL (R2 = 0.40). Multiple individual connections within the motor network were found to correlate in change from baseline with changes in behavioral measures. Many of these connections involved the thalamus, with change in each of four behavioral measures significantly correlating with change from baseline FC of at least one thalamic connection. These preliminary results show changes in FC that occur with the administration of rehabilitative therapy using a BCI system. The correlations noted between changes in FC measures and changes in behavioral outcomes indicate that both adaptive and maladaptive changes in FC may develop with this therapy and also suggest a brain-behavior relationship that may be stimulated by the neuromodulatory component of BCI

  9. Density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes correlates with extent of brain edema and overall survival time in patients with brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Berghoff, Anna S; Fuchs, Elisabeth; Ricken, Gerda; Mlecnik, Bernhard; Bindea, Gabriela; Spanberger, Thomas; Hackl, Monika; Widhalm, Georg; Dieckmann, Karin; Prayer, Daniela; Bilocq, Amelie; Heinzl, Harald; Zielinski, Christoph; Bartsch, Rupert; Birner, Peter; Galon, Jerome; Preusser, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The immune microenvironment of the brain differs from that of other organs and the role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in brain metastases (BM), one of the most common and devastating complication of cancer, is unclear. We investigated TIL subsets and their prognostic impact in 116 BM specimens using immunohistochemistry for CD3, CD8, CD45RO, FOXP3, PD1 and PD-L1. The Immunoscore was calculated as published previously. Overall, we found TIL infiltration in 115/116 (99.1%) BM specimens. PD-L1 expression was evident in 19/67 (28.4%) BM specimens and showed no correlation with TIL density (p > 0.05). TIL density was not associated with corticosteroid administration (p > 0.05). A significant difference in infiltration density according to TIL subtype was present (p < 0.001; Chi Square); high infiltration was most frequently observed for CD3+ TILs (95/116; 81.9%) and least frequently for PD1+ TILs (18/116; 15.5%; p < 0.001). Highest TIL density was observed in melanoma, followed by renal cell cancer and lung cancer BM (p < 0.001). The density of CD8+ TILs correlated positively with the extent of peritumoral edema seen on pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (p = 0.031). The density of CD3+ (15 vs. 6 mo; p = 0.015), CD8+ (15 vs. 11 mo; p = 0.030) and CD45RO+ TILs (18 vs. 8 mo; p = 0.006) showed a positive correlation with favorable median OS times. Immunoscore showed significant correlation with survival prognosis (27 vs. 10 mo; p < 0.001). The prognostic impact of Immunoscore was independent from established prognostic parameters at multivariable analysis (HR 0.612, p < 0.001). In conclusion, our data indicate that dense TILs infiltrates are common in BM and correlate with the amount of peritumoral brain edema and survival prognosis, thus identifying the immune system as potential biomarker for cancer patients with CNS affection. Further studies are needed to substantiate our findings. PMID:26942067

  10. Cortical brain connectivity evaluated by graph theory in dementia: a correlation study between functional and structural data.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Curcio, Giuseppe; Altavilla, Riccardo; Scrascia, Federica; Giambattistelli, Federica; Quattrocchi, Carlo Cosimo; Bramanti, Placido; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2015-01-01

    A relatively new approach to brain function in neuroscience is the "functional connectivity", namely the synchrony in time of activity in anatomically-distinct but functionally-collaborating brain regions. On the other hand, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a recently developed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based technique with the capability to detect brain structural connection with fractional anisotropy (FA) identification. FA decrease has been observed in the corpus callosum of subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI, an AD prodromal stage). Corpus callosum splenium DTI abnormalities are thought to be associated with functional disconnections among cortical areas. This study aimed to investigate possible correlations between structural damage, measured by MRI-DTI, and functional abnormalities of brain integration, measured by characteristic path length detected in resting state EEG source activity (40 participants: 9 healthy controls, 10 MCI, 10 mild AD, 11 moderate AD). For each subject, undirected and weighted brain network was built to evaluate graph core measures. eLORETA lagged linear connectivity values were used as weight of the edges of the network. Results showed that callosal FA reduction is associated to a loss of brain interhemispheric functional connectivity characterized by increased delta and decreased alpha path length. These findings suggest that "global" (average network shortest path length representing an index of how efficient is the information transfer between two parts of the network) functional measure can reflect the reduction of fiber connecting the two hemispheres as revealed by DTI analysis and also anticipate in time this structural loss. PMID:25613102

  11. What Do I Want and When Do I Want It: Brain Correlates of Decisions Made for Self and Other

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Konstanze; Volz, Kirsten G.; Sutter, Matthias; von Cramon, D. Yves

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies on intertemporal choice behavior have demonstrated that so-called emotion- and reward-related brain areas are preferentially activated by decisions involving immediately available (but smaller) rewards as compared to (larger) delayed rewards. This pattern of activation was not seen, however, when intertemporal choices were made for another (unknown) individual, which speaks to that activation having been triggered by self-relatedness. In the present fMRI study, we investigated the brain correlates of individuals who passively observed intertemporal choices being made either for themselves or for an unknown person. We found higher activation within the ventral striatum, medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex when an immediate reward was possible for the observer herself, which is in line with findings from studies in which individuals actively chose immediately available rewards. Additionally, activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus was higher for choices that included immediate options than for choices that offered only delayed options, irrespective of who was to be the beneficiary. These results indicate that (1) the activations found in active intertemporal decision making are also present when the same decisions are merely observed, thus supporting the assumption that a robust brain network is engaged in immediate gratification; and (2) with immediate rewards, certain brain areas are activated irrespective of whether the observer or another person is the beneficiary of a decision, suggesting that immediacy plays a more general role for neural activation. An explorative analysis of participants’ brain activation corresponding to chosen rewards, further indicates that activation in the aforementioned brain areas depends on the mere presence, availability, or actual

  12. Attentional performance is correlated with the local regional efficiency of intrinsic brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junhai; Yin, Xuntao; Ge, Haitao; Han, Yan; Pang, Zengchang; Tang, Yuchun; Liu, Baolin; Liu, Shuwei

    2015-01-01

    Attention is a crucial brain function for human beings. Using neuropsychological paradigms and task-based functional brain imaging, previous studies have indicated that widely distributed brain regions are engaged in three distinct attention subsystems: alerting, orienting and executive control (EC). Here, we explored the potential contribution of spontaneous brain activity to attention by examining whether resting-state activity could account for individual differences of the attentional performance in normal individuals. The resting-state functional images and behavioral data from attention network test (ANT) task were collected in 59 healthy subjects. Graph analysis was conducted to obtain the characteristics of functional brain networks and linear regression analyses were used to explore their relationships with behavioral performances of the three attentional components. We found that there was no significant relationship between the attentional performance and the global measures, while the attentional performance was associated with specific local regional efficiency. These regions related to the scores of alerting, orienting and EC largely overlapped with the regions activated in previous task-related functional imaging studies, and were consistent with the intrinsic dorsal and ventral attention networks (DAN/VAN). In addition, the strong associations between the attentional performance and specific regional efficiency suggested that there was a possible relationship between the DAN/VAN and task performances in the ANT. We concluded that the intrinsic activity of the human brain could reflect the processing efficiency of the attention system. Our findings revealed a robust evidence for the functional significance of the efficiently organized intrinsic brain network for highly productive cognitions and the hypothesized role of the DAN/VAN at rest. PMID:26283939

  13. The Whole-Brain N-Acetylaspartate Correlates with Education in Normal Adults

    PubMed Central

    Glodzik, Lidia; Wu, William E.; Babb, James S.; Achtnichts, Lutz; Amann, Michael; Sollberger, Marc; Monsch, Andreas U.; Gass, Achim; Gonen, Oded

    2012-01-01

    N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is an index of neuronal integrity. We hypothesized that in healthy subjects its whole brain concentration (WBNAA) may be related to formal educational attainment, a common proxy for cognitive reserve. To test this hypothesis 97 middle aged to elderly subjects (51–89 years old, 38% women) underwent brain MRI and non-localizing proton spectroscopy. Their WBNAA was obtained by dividing their whole-head NAA amount with the brain volume. Intracranial volume and fractional brain volume, a metric of brain atrophy, were also determined. Each subject’s educational attainment was the sum of their years of formal education. In the entire group higher education was associated with larger intracranial volume. The relationship between WBNAA and education was observed only in younger (51–70 years old) participants. In this group education explained 21% variance in WBNAA. More WBNAA was related to more years of formal education in adults and younger elders. Prospective studies can determine whether this relationship reflects a true advantage from years of training versus innate characteristic predisposing to higher achievements later in life. We offer that late life WBNAA may be more affected by other like factors acting at midlife and later. PMID:23177924

  14. Brain morphometric correlates of metabolic variables in HIV: the CHARTER study.

    PubMed

    Archibald, S L; McCutchan, J A; Sanders, C; Wolfson, T; Jernigan, T L; Ellis, R J; Ances, B M; Collier, A C; McArthur, J C; Morgello, S; Simpson, D M; Marra, C; Gelman, B B; Clifford, D B; Grant, I; Fennema-Notestine, C

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and other metabolic variables are associated with abnormal brain structural volumes and cognitive dysfunction in HIV-uninfected populations. Since individuals with HIV infection on combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) often have systemic metabolic abnormalities and changes in brain morphology and function, we examined associations among brain volumes and metabolic factors in the multisite CNS HIV AntiRetroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) cohort, cross-sectional study of 222 HIV-infected individuals. Metabolic variables included body mass index (BMI), total blood cholesterol (C), low- and high-density lipoprotein C (LDL-C and HDL-C), blood pressure, random blood glucose, and diabetes. MRI measured volumes of cerebral white matter, abnormal white matter, cortical and subcortical gray matter, and ventricular and sulcal CSF. Multiple linear regression models allowed us to examine metabolic variables separately and in combination to predict each regional volume. Greater BMI was associated with smaller cortical gray and larger white matter volumes. Higher total cholesterol (C) levels were associated with smaller cortex volumes; higher LDL-C was associated with larger cerebral white matter volumes, while higher HDL-C levels were associated with larger sulci. Higher blood glucose levels and diabetes were associated with more abnormal white matter. Multiple atherogenic metabolic factors contribute to regional brain volumes in HIV-infected, CART-treated patients, reflecting associations similar to those found in HIV-uninfected individuals. These risk factors may accelerate cerebral atherosclerosis and consequent brain alterations and cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25227933

  15. Volumetric and Correlational Implications of Brain Parcellation Method Selection: A 3-Way Comparison in the Frontal Lobes

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Simon R.; McKenzie, Tahlia I.; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Royle, Natalie A.; MacPherson, Sarah E.; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Bastin, Mark E.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.; Ferguson, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to compare distinct brain frontal lobe parcellation methods across 90 brain magnetic resonance imaging scans and examine their associations with cognition in older age. Methods Three parcellation methods (Manual, FreeSurfer, and Stereology) were applied to T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of 90 older men, aged ∼73 years. A measure of general fluid intelligence (gf) associated with dorsolateral frontal regions was also derived from a contemporaneous psychological test battery. Results Despite highly discordant raw volumes for the same nominal regions, Manual and FreeSurfer (but not Stereology) left dorsolateral measures were significantly correlated with gf (r > 0.22), whereas orbital and inferior lateral volumes were not, consistent with the hypothesized frontal localization of gf. Conclusions Individual differences in specific frontal lobe brain volumes—variously measured—show consistent associations with cognitive ability in older age. Importantly, differences in parcellation protocol for some regions that may impact the outcome of brain-cognition analyses are discussed. PMID:26466114

  16. Correlation between Peripheral Levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Hippocampal Volume in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lauxen Peruzzolo, Tatiana; Anes, Mauricio; Kohmann, Andre de Moura; Souza, Ana Claudia Mércio Loredo; Rodrigues, Ramiro Borges; Brun, Juliana Basso; Peters, Roberta; de Aguiar, Bianca Wollenhaupt; Kapczinski, Flavio; Tramontina, Silzá; Rohde, Luis Augusto Paim; Zeni, Cristian Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is a serious mental disorder that affects the development and emotional growth of affected patients. The brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is recognized as one of the possible markers of the framework and its evolution. Abnormalities in BDNF signaling in the hippocampus could explain the cognitive decline seen in patients with TB. Our aim with this study was to evaluate possible changes in hippocampal volume in children and adolescents with BD and associate them to serum BDNF. Subjects included 30 patients aged seven to seventeen years from the ProCAB (Program for Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder). We observed mean right and left hippocampal volumes of 41910.55 and 41747.96 mm(3), respectively. No statistically significant correlations between peripheral BDNF levels and hippocampal volumes were found. We believe that the lack of correlation observed in this study is due to the short time of evolution of BD in children and adolescents. Besides studies with larger sample sizes to confirm the present findings and longitudinal assessments, addressing brain development versus a control group and including drug-naive patients in different mood states may help clarify the role of BDNF in the brain changes consequent upon BD. PMID:26075097

  17. Brain correlates of discourse processing: An fMRI investigation of irony and conventional metaphor comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Eviatar, Zohar; Just, Marcel Adam

    2006-01-01

    Higher levels of discourse processing evoke patterns of cognition and brain activation that extend beyond the literal comprehension of sentences. We used fMRI to examine brain activation patterns while 16 healthy participants read brief three-sentence stories that concluded with either a literal, metaphoric, or ironic sentence. The fMRI images acquired during the reading of the critical sentence revealed a selective response of the brain to the two types of nonliteral utterances. Metaphoric utterances resulted in significantly higher levels of activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus and in bilateral inferior temporal cortex than the literal and ironic utterances. Ironic statements resulted in significantly higher activation levels than literal statements in the right superior and middle temporal gyri, with metaphoric statements resulting in intermediate levels in these regions. The findings show differential hemispheric sensitivity to these aspects of figurative language, and are relevant to models of the functional cortical architecture of language processing in connected discourse. PMID:16806316

  18. Neural correlates of verbal associative memory and mnemonic strategy use following childhood traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Megan E.; Chiu, C.-Y. Peter; Shear, Paula K.; Wade, Shari L.

    2010-01-01

    Children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often experience memory deficits, although the nature, functional implication, and recovery trajectory of such difficulties are poorly understood. The present fMRI study examined the neural activation patterns in a group of young children who sustained moderate TBI in early childhood (n = 7), and a group of healthy control children (n = 13) during a verbal paired associate learning (PAL) task that promoted the use of two mnemonic strategies differing in efficacy. The children with TBI demonstrated intact memory performance and were able to successfully utilize the mnemonic strategies. However, the TBI group also demonstrated altered brain activation patterns during the task compared to the control children. These findings suggest early childhood TBI may alter activation within the network of brain regions supporting associative memory even in children who show good behavioral performance. PMID:21188286

  19. Correlation of clinical and angiographic findings in brain ischemia with regional cerebral blood flow measured by the xenon inhalation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Awad, I.; Little, J.R.; Furlan, A.J.; Weinstein, M.

    1982-07-01

    Eighty-eight patients with brain ischemia underwent cerebral angiography and measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after /sup 133/Xe inhalation. A fast compartment flow rate and an initial slope index were computed for each detector and for each hemisphere. The clinical presentation, angiographic findings, and rCBF results were then examined for significant correlations. Patients with hemispheric infarction most frequently showed bilateral diffusely decreased rCBF. In patients with transient ischemic attacks, no specific pattern emerged. Patients with unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion frequently hd bilateral diffusely decreased rCBF. Patients with severe internal carotid artery stenosis were more likely to show decreased rCBF than were patients with mild or moderate stenosis. The initial slope index seemed to be a more sensitive indicator of brain ischemia than the fast compartment flow rate. The possible pathophysiological significance and relationship to patient management of the various rCBF patterns are discussed.

  20. CEST Signal at 2ppm (CEST@2ppm) from Z-Spectral Fitting Correlates with Creatine Distribution in Brain Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Kejia; Singh, Anup; Poptani, Harish; Li, Weiguo; Yang, Shaolin; Lu, Yang; Hariharan, Hari; Zhou, Xiaohong J.; Reddy, Ravinder

    2014-01-01

    In general, multiple components such as water direct saturation (DS), magnetization transfer (MT), chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and aliphatic nuclear overhauser effect (NOE) contribute to Z-spectrum. The conventional CEST quantification method based on asymmetrical analysis may lead to quantification errors due to the semi-solid MT asymmetry and the aliphatic NOE effect located on single side of the Z-spectrum. Fitting individual contributors to the Z-spectrum may improve the quantification of each component. In this study, we aim to characterize the multiple exchangeable components from an intracranial tumor model using a simplified Z-spectral fitting method. In this method, the Z-spectrum acquired at low saturation RF amplitude (50 Hz) was modeled as the summation of five Lorentzian functions that correspond to NOE, MT effect, bulk water, amide proton transfer (APT) effect and a CEST peak located at +2ppm, called CEST@2ppm. With the pixel-wise fitting, the regional variation of these five components in the brain tumor and the normal brain tissue were quantified and summarized. Increased APT effect, decreased NOE and reduced CEST@2ppm were observed in the brain tumor compared to the normal brain tissue. Additionally, the CEST@2ppm decreased with tumor progression. The CEST@2ppm was found to correlate with the creatine concentration quantified with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Based on the correlation curve, the creatine contribution to the CEST@2ppm was quantified. The CEST@2ppm signal could be a novel imaging surrogate for in vivo creatine, the important bioenergetics marker. Given its noninvasive nature, this CEST MRI method may have broad applications in cancer bioenergetics. PMID:25295758

  1. Cannabis cue-induced brain activation correlates with drug craving in limbic and visual salience regions: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Charboneau, Evonne J; Dietrich, Mary S; Park, Sohee; Cao, Aize; Watkins, Tristan J; Blackford, Jennifer U; Benningfield, Margaret M; Martin, Peter R; Buchowski, Maciej S; Cowan, Ronald L

    2013-11-30

    Craving is a major motivator underlying drug use and relapse but the neural correlates of cannabis craving are not well understood. This study sought to determine whether visual cannabis cues increase cannabis craving and whether cue-induced craving is associated with regional brain activation in cannabis-dependent individuals. Cannabis craving was assessed in 16 cannabis-dependent adult volunteers while they viewed cannabis cues during a functional MRI (fMRI) scan. The Marijuana Craving Questionnaire was administered immediately before and after each of three cannabis cue-exposure fMRI runs. FMRI blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity was determined in regions activated by cannabis cues to examine the relationship of regional brain activation to cannabis craving. Craving scores increased significantly following exposure to visual cannabis cues. Visual cues activated multiple brain regions, including inferior orbital frontal cortex, posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, amygdala, superior temporal pole, and occipital cortex. Craving scores at baseline and at the end of all three runs were significantly correlated with brain activation during the first fMRI run only, in the limbic system (including amygdala and hippocampus) and paralimbic system (superior temporal pole), and visual regions (occipital cortex). Cannabis cues increased craving in cannabis-dependent individuals and this increase was associated with activation in the limbic, paralimbic, and visual systems during the first fMRI run, but not subsequent fMRI runs. These results suggest that these regions may mediate visually cued aspects of drug craving. This study provides preliminary evidence for the neural basis of cue-induced cannabis craving and suggests possible neural targets for interventions targeted at treating cannabis dependence. PMID:24035535

  2. Similar Neural Correlates for Language and Sequential Learning: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Morten H.; Conway, Christopher M.; Onnis, Luca

    2012-01-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the time course and distribution of brain activity while adults performed (1) a sequential learning task involving complex structured sequences and (2) a language processing task. The same positive ERP deflection, the P600 effect, typically linked to difficult or ungrammatical syntactic…

  3. Neural Correlates of Motor Dysfunction in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury: Exploration of Compensatory Recruitment Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caeyenberghs, K.; Wenderoth, N.; Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M.; Sunaert, S.; Swinnen, S. P.

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common form of disability in children. Persistent deficits in motor control have been documented following TBI but there has been less emphasis on changes in functional cerebral activity. In the present study, children with moderate to severe TBI (n = 9) and controls (n = 17) were scanned while performing cyclical…

  4. Intranasal Insulin Improves Age-Related Cognitive Deficits and Reverses Electrophysiological Correlates of Brain Aging.

    PubMed

    Maimaiti, Shaniya; Anderson, Katie L; DeMoll, Chris; Brewer, Lawrence D; Rauh, Benjamin A; Gant, John C; Blalock, Eric M; Porter, Nada M; Thibault, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral insulin resistance is a key component of metabolic syndrome associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. While the impact of insulin resistance is well recognized in the periphery, it is also becoming apparent in the brain. Recent studies suggest that insulin resistance may be a factor in brain aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) whereby intranasal insulin therapy, which delivers insulin to the brain, improves cognition and memory in AD patients. Here, we tested a clinically relevant delivery method to determine the impact of two forms of insulin, short-acting insulin lispro (Humalog) or long-acting insulin detemir (Levemir), on cognitive functions in aged F344 rats. We also explored insulin effects on the Ca(2+)-dependent hippocampal afterhyperpolarization (AHP), a well-characterized neurophysiological marker of aging which is increased in the aged, memory impaired animal. Low-dose intranasal insulin improved memory recall in aged animals such that their performance was similar to that seen in younger animals. Further, because ex vivo insulin also reduced the AHP, our results suggest that the AHP may be a novel cellular target of insulin in the brain, and improved cognitive performance following intranasal insulin therapy may be the result of insulin actions on the AHP. PMID:25659889

  5. Behavior Problems in School and Their Educational Correlates among Children with Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the emotional and behavioral adjustment of children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in school and its relationship to post-injury academic performance and educational interventions. Teachers' ratings of child behavior and academic performance were collected during a prospective, longitudinal study of 53 children with severe…

  6. Where the Brain Appreciates the Final State of an Event: The Neural Correlates of Telicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romagno, Domenica; Rota, Giuseppina; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Pietrini, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether the human brain distinguishes between telic events that necessarily entail a specified endpoint (e.g., "reaching"), and atelic events with no delimitation or final state (e.g., "chasing"). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the patterns of neural response associated with verbs denoting…

  7. First and Second Language in the Brain: Neuronal Correlates of Language Processing and Spelling Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Patricia; Kozel, Nadja; Purgstaller, Christian; Kargl, Reinhard; Schwab, Daniela; Fink, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This study explores oscillatory brain activity by means of event-related synchronization and desynchronization (%ERS/ERD) of EEG activity during the use of phonological and orthographic-morphological spelling strategies in L2 (English) and L1 (German) in native German speaking children. EEG was recorded while 33 children worked on a task requiring…

  8. Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels are increased in patients with tinnitus and correlated with therapeutic effects.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Hao; Yang, Haidi; Liang, Maojin; Ou, Yongkang; Huang, Xiayin; Cai, Yuexin; Lai, Lan; Pang, Jiaqi; Zheng, Yiqing

    2016-05-27

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound without an external source and is known to be associated with altered neuronal excitability in the auditory system. Tinnitus severity can be assessed by various psychometric instruments and there is no objective measures developed to evaluate tinnitus severity and therapeutic effects so far. Brain-derived nerve growth factor (BDNF) is believed in playing a key role in regulating neuronal excitability in the brain. To determine whether BDNF correlates with tinnitus induction and severity, we described plasma BDNF levels in patients with tinnitus and healthy controls and evaluated the correlation between plasma BDNF levels and tinnitus severity measured by Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Moreover, alteration of plasma BDNF levels before and after tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) in patients with severe tinnitus was also analyzed. We found plasma BDNF levels were elevated in patients with tinnitus compared with healthy controls. In addition, plasma BDNF levels in patients with severe tinnitus were decreased significantly after effective TRT. However, plasma BDNF levels were not correlated with tinnitus loudness and tinnitus severity measured by THI and VAS. These findings support plasma BDNF as a marker for activity changes in the auditory system and could possibly evaluate therapeutic effects in patients with tinnitus. PMID:27095590

  9. Brain structural, functional, and cognitive correlates of recent versus remote autobiographical memories in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Tomadesso, Clémence; Perrotin, Audrey; Mutlu, Justine; Mézenge, Florence; Landeau, Brigitte; Egret, Stéphanie; de la Sayette, Vincent; Jonin, Pierre-Yves; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice; Chételat, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in autobiographical memory appear earlier for recent than for remote life periods over the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study aims to further our understanding of this graded effect by investigating the cognitive and neural substrates of recent versus remote autobiographical memories in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) thanks to an autobiographical fluency task. 20 aMCI patients and 25 Healthy elderly Controls (HC) underwent neuropsychological tests assessing remote (20-to-30 years old) and recent (the ten last years) autobiographical memory as well as episodic and semantic memory, executive function and global cognition. All patients also had a structural MRI and an FDG-PET scan. Correlations were assessed between each autobiographical memory score and the other tests as well as grey matter volume and metabolism. Within the aMCI, performances for the remote period correlated with personal semantic memory and episodic memory retrieval whereas performances for the recent period only correlated with episodic memory retrieval. Neuroimaging analyses revealed significant correlations between performances for the remote period and temporal pole and temporo-parietal cortex volumes and anterior cingulate gyrus metabolism, while performances for the recent period correlated with hippocampal volume and posterior cingulate, medial prefrontal and hippocampus metabolism. The brain regions related with the retrieval of events from the recent period showed greater atrophy/hypometabolism in aMCI patients compared to HC than those involved in remote memories. Recall of recent memories essentially relies on episodic memory processes and brain network while remote memories also involve other processes such as semantic memory. This is consistent with the semanticization of memories with time and may explain the better resistance of remote memory in AD. PMID:26106572

  10. Long-range correlation properties in timing of skilled piano performance: the influence of auditory feedback and deep brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Herrojo Ruiz, María; Hong, Sang Bin; Hennig, Holger; Altenmüller, Eckart; Kühn, Andrea A.

    2014-01-01

    Unintentional timing deviations during musical performance can be conceived of as timing errors. However, recent research on humanizing computer-generated music has demonstrated that timing fluctuations that exhibit long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) are preferred by human listeners. This preference can be accounted for by the ubiquitous presence of LRTC in human tapping and rhythmic performances. Interestingly, the manifestation of LRTC in tapping behavior seems to be driven in a subject-specific manner by the LRTC properties of resting-state background cortical oscillatory activity. In this framework, the current study aimed to investigate whether propagation of timing deviations during the skilled, memorized piano performance (without metronome) of 17 professional pianists exhibits LRTC and whether the structure of the correlations is influenced by the presence or absence of auditory feedback. As an additional goal, we set out to investigate the influence of altering the dynamics along the cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical network via deep brain stimulation (DBS) on the LRTC properties of musical performance. Specifically, we investigated temporal deviations during the skilled piano performance of a non-professional pianist who was treated with subthalamic-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) due to severe Parkinson's disease, with predominant tremor affecting his right upper extremity. In the tremor-affected right hand, the timing fluctuations of the performance exhibited random correlations with DBS OFF. By contrast, DBS restored long-range dependency in the temporal fluctuations, corresponding with the general motor improvement on DBS. Overall, the present investigations demonstrate the presence of LRTC in skilled piano performances, indicating that unintentional temporal deviations are correlated over a wide range of time scales. This phenomenon is stable after removal of the auditory feedback, but is altered by STN-DBS, which suggests that cortico

  11. Long-range correlation properties in timing of skilled piano performance: the influence of auditory feedback and deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Herrojo Ruiz, María; Hong, Sang Bin; Hennig, Holger; Altenmüller, Eckart; Kühn, Andrea A

    2014-01-01

    Unintentional timing deviations during musical performance can be conceived of as timing errors. However, recent research on humanizing computer-generated music has demonstrated that timing fluctuations that exhibit long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) are preferred by human listeners. This preference can be accounted for by the ubiquitous presence of LRTC in human tapping and rhythmic performances. Interestingly, the manifestation of LRTC in tapping behavior seems to be driven in a subject-specific manner by the LRTC properties of resting-state background cortical oscillatory activity. In this framework, the current study aimed to investigate whether propagation of timing deviations during the skilled, memorized piano performance (without metronome) of 17 professional pianists exhibits LRTC and whether the structure of the correlations is influenced by the presence or absence of auditory feedback. As an additional goal, we set out to investigate the influence of altering the dynamics along the cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical network via deep brain stimulation (DBS) on the LRTC properties of musical performance. Specifically, we investigated temporal deviations during the skilled piano performance of a non-professional pianist who was treated with subthalamic-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) due to severe Parkinson's disease, with predominant tremor affecting his right upper extremity. In the tremor-affected right hand, the timing fluctuations of the performance exhibited random correlations with DBS OFF. By contrast, DBS restored long-range dependency in the temporal fluctuations, corresponding with the general motor improvement on DBS. Overall, the present investigations demonstrate the presence of LRTC in skilled piano performances, indicating that unintentional temporal deviations are correlated over a wide range of time scales. This phenomenon is stable after removal of the auditory feedback, but is altered by STN-DBS, which suggests that cortico

  12. Support vector regression correlates single-sweep evoked brain potentials to gastrointestinal symptoms in diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Graversen, C; Frøkjaer, J B; Brock, C; Drewes, A M; Farina, D

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multi-factorial and complex disease causing autonomic neuropathy and gastrointestinal symptoms in some patients. The neural mechanisms behind these symptoms are poorly understood, but it is believed that both peripheral and central mechanisms are involved. To gain further knowledge of the central mechanisms, the aim of this study was to identify biomarkers for the altered brain activity in type-1 DM patients compared to healthy volunteers (HV), and to correlate the obtained biomarkers to clinical patient scores. The study included 14 DM patients and 15 HV, with brain activity recorded as multi-channel electroencephalography evoked brain potentials (EPs) elicited by painful electrical stimulations in the esophagus. The single-sweep EPs were decomposed by an optimized discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and averaged for each channel. The DWT features from the DM patients were discriminated from the HV by a support vector machine (SVM) applied in regression mode. For the optimal DWT, the discriminative features were extracted and the SVM regression value representing the overall alteration of the EP was correlated to the clinical scores. A classification performance of 86.2% (P=0.01) was obtained by applying a majority voting scheme to the 5 best performing channels. The biomarker was identified as decreased theta band activity. The regression value was correlated to symptoms reported by the patients (P=0.04). The methodology is an improvement of the present approach to study central mechanisms in diabetes mellitus, and may provide a future application for a clinical tool to optimize treatment in individual patients. PMID:23367111

  13. Inflammatory-Induced Hibernation in the Fetus: Priming of Fetal Sheep Metabolism Correlates with Developmental Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Matthias; Enot, David P.; Hodson, Mark P.; Igwe, Emeka I.; Deigner, Hans-Peter; Dean, Justin; Bolouri, Hayde; Hagberg, Henrik; Mallard, Carina

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal inflammation is considered an important factor contributing to preterm birth and neonatal mortality and morbidity. The impact of prenatal inflammation on fetal bioenergetic status and the correlation of specific metabolites to inflammatory-induced developmental brain injury are unknown. We used a global metabolomics approach to examine plasma metabolites differentially regulated by intrauterine inflammation. Preterm-equivalent sheep fetuses were randomized to i.v. bolus infusion of either saline-vehicle or LPS. Blood samples were collected at baseline 2 h, 6 h and daily up to 10 days for metabolite quantification. Animals were killed at 10 days after LPS injection, and brain injury was assessed by histopathology. We detected both acute and delayed effects of LPS on fetal metabolism, with a long-term down-regulation of fetal energy metabolism. Within the first 3 days after LPS, 121 metabolites were up-regulated or down-regulated. A transient phase (4–6 days), in which metabolite levels recovered to baseline, was followed by a second phase marked by an opposing down-regulation of energy metabolites, increased pO2 and increased markers of inflammation and ADMA. The characteristics of the metabolite response to LPS in these two phases, defined as 2 h to 2 days and at 6–9 days, respectively, were strongly correlated with white and grey matter volumes at 10 days recovery. Based on these results we propose a novel concept of inflammatory-induced hibernation of the fetus. Inflammatory priming of fetal metabolism correlated with measures of brain injury, suggesting potential for future biomarker research and the identification of therapeutic targets. PMID:22242129

  14. Brain Correlates of Stuttering and Syllable Production: Gender Comparison and Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Roger J.; Fox, Peter T.; Ingham, Janis C.; Xiong, Jinhu; Zamarripa, Frank; Hardies, L. Jean; Lancaster, Jack L.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports a gender replication study of the P. T. Fox et a. (2000) performance correlation analysis of neural systems that distinguish between normal and stuttered speech in adult males. Positron-emission tomographic (PET) images of cerebral blood flow (CBF) were correlated with speech behavior scores obtained during PET imaging for 10…

  15. Poor weaning transition average daily gain in pigs is not correlated with pathological or immunological markers of enteric disease during a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus outbreak.

    PubMed

    Jones, C K; Madson, D M; Main, R G; Gabler, N K; Patience, J F

    2014-06-01

    Previous research suggests that enteric disease and poor gut health interact to decrease pig performance. Our objective was to determine if light birth weight pigs or those from the bottom 10th percentile of transition ADG (tADG) have a higher incidence of pathogen presence or enteric lesions than heavier or faster-growing contemporaries. A total of 1,500 pigs were weighed at birth and divided into 5 birth weight (BRW) categories: <1, 1 to 1.25, 1.26 to 1.5, 1.51 to 1.75, and >1.76 kg. At weaning, 1,054 random pigs were moved to a commercial wean-to-finish barn. Pigs were weighed individually at 0 and 3 wk postweaning. Transition ADG was calculated as the ADG between wk 0 and 3 postweaning. One pig from each of the 10th, 30th, and 70th percentiles of tADG was used to create 1 set of 3 pigs with the same litter size and from the same parity sow. Forty pigs from each of the 3 tADG percentiles were matched for sex, litter size, and sow parity but not BRW to create 20 matched sets of 60 pigs. This allowed for the main effects of BRW and tADG to be studied as a 5 × 3 factorial design. At 3 and 22 wk postweaning, pigs were euthanized for organ system tissue evaluation. Lung, lymph node, and digesta were analyzed for presence of pathogens and for severity of microscopic lesions (0 = not present, 1 = present, with slight erosion, 2 = present, with moderate erosion, and 3 = present and severe erosion). Data were analyzed using PROC GENMOD and GLIMMIX, where pig served as the experimental unit. The fixed effects were BRW and tADG and the random effects were pen and set. There were no BRW × tADG interactions (P = 0.16). There was no correlation (P = 0.12) between tADG and pathogen presence at either 3 or 22 wk postweaning. Incidence and severity of microscopic lesions in the large intestine at 3 wk postweaning decreased linearly with increasing tADG (P = 0.01). Lesion incidence and severity were also affected (P < 0.04) by tADG at 22 wk postweaning, with greater stomach

  16. Inconsistencies in the correlation between loss of brain stem auditory evoked response waves and postoperative deafness.

    PubMed

    Mustain, W D; al-Mefty, O; Anand, V K

    1992-07-01

    This case underscores the difficulty of predicting postoperative hearing status from brain stem auditory evoked response (BAER) monitoring when wave I is preserved and all later waves are lost. During an operation involving the base of the skull, sudden and irreversible loss of all BAER waves beyond wave I occurred unilaterally. Wave I was preserved, with reduced amplitude and minimal latency shift. There was no permanent postoperative hearing sensitivity loss or speech discrimination loss. PMID:1494930

  17. Brain Structural Correlates of Risk-Taking Behavior and Effects of Peer Influence in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Myoung Soo; Vorobyev, Victor; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents are characterized by impulsive risky behavior, particularly in the presence of peers. We discriminated high and low risk-taking male adolescents aged 18–19 years by assessing their propensity for risky behavior and vulnerability to peer influence with personality tests, and compared structural differences in gray and white matter of the brain with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), respectively. We also compared the brain structures according to the participants' actual risk-taking behavior in a simulated driving task with two different social conditions making up a peer competition situation. There was a discrepancy between the self-reported personality test results and risky driving behavior (running through an intersection with traffic lights turning yellow, chancing a collision with another vehicle). Comparison between high and low risk-taking adolescents according to personality test results revealed no significant difference in gray matter volume and white matter integrity. However, comparison according to actual risk-taking behavior during task performance revealed significantly higher white matter integrity in the high risk-taking group, suggesting that increased risky behavior during adolescence is not necessarily attributed to the immature brain as conventional wisdom says. PMID:25389976

  18. Long-term correlation of the electrocorticogram as a bioindicator of brain exposure to ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, L.A.A.; Silva, I.M.S.; Fernandes, T.S.; Nogueira, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effects of radiation and its possible influence on the nervous system are of great clinical interest. However, there have been few electrophysiological studies on brain activity after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). A new methodological approach regarding the assessment of the possible effects of IR on brain activity is the use of linear and nonlinear mathematical methods in the analysis of complex time series, such as brain oscillations measured using the electrocorticogram (ECoG). The objective of this study was to use linear and nonlinear mathematical methods as biomarkers of gamma radiation regarding cortical electrical activity. Adult Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: 1 control and 2 irradiated groups, evaluated at 24 h (IR24) and 90 days (IR90) after exposure to 18 Gy of gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 radiotherapy source. The ECoG was analyzed using power spectrum methods for the calculation of the power of delta, theta, alpha and beta rhythms and by means of the α-exponent of the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Using both mathematical methods it was possible to identify changes in the ECoG, and to identify significant changes in the pattern of the recording at 24 h after irradiation. Some of these changes were persistent at 90 days after exposure to IR. In particular, the theta wave using the two methods showed higher sensitivity than other waves, suggesting that it is a possible biomarker of exposure to IR. PMID:26445335

  19. Neural Correlates of Birth: Labor Contractions Induce C-Fos Expression In Newborn Rat Brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, A. E.; Daly, M. E.; Baer, L. A.; Hills, E. M.; Conway, G.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    At birth, the newborn mammal must make rapid adaptations to the extrauterine environment to survive. We have previously shown that labor contractions augment the appearance of adaptive responses at birth, viz., postpartum breathing and the onset of suckling. Since neuronal activity has been shown to upregulate the activity of immediate early genes (IEGs) in the brain, we analyzed the neural distribution of c-Fos protein expression in newborn rats using immunohistochemistry. Previous studies have reported a burst of c-Fos mRNA expression in mouse and rat brain at birth however relationships to labor and delivery have not been examined. In the present study, we exposed near-term rat fetuses to elements of the vaginal birth process: 1) Simulated labor contractions. 2) Postpartum cooling (22 deg C). 3) Umbilical cord occlusion. and 4) Stroking to mimic postpartum licking by the dam. Cardinally delivered newborns (VG) were compared with those delivered by cesarean section following either prenatal exposure to compressions (C) [simulated labor contractions], or no compressions (NC) [no labor contractions]. Similar patterns of c-fos activation were observed throughout hypothalamic and thalamic nuclei, hippocampus and cerebral cortex in VG and C newborns that were not apparent in NC newborns. Our results indicate that labor contractions play a role in the induction of widespread neural activation in the newborn brain.

  20. Brain responses strongly correlate with Weibull image statistics when processing natural images.

    PubMed

    Scholte, H Steven; Ghebreab, Sennay; Waldorp, Lourens; Smeulders, Arnold W M; Lamme, Victor A F

    2009-01-01

    The visual appearance of natural scenes is governed by a surprisingly simple hidden structure. The distributions of contrast values in natural images generally follow a Weibull distribution, with beta and gamma as free parameters. Beta and gamma seem to structure the space of natural images in an ecologically meaningful way, in particular with respect to the fragmentation and texture similarity within an image. Since it is often assumed that the brain exploits structural regularities in natural image statistics to efficiently encode and analyze visual input, we here ask ourselves whether the brain approximates the beta and gamma values underlying the contrast distributions of natural images. We present a model that shows that beta and gamma can be easily estimated from the outputs of X-cells and Y-cells. In addition, we covaried the EEG responses of subjects viewing natural images with the beta and gamma values of those images. We show that beta and gamma explain up to 71% of the variance of the early ERP signal, substantially outperforming other tested contrast measurements. This suggests that the brain is strongly tuned to the image's beta and gamma values, potentially providing the visual system with an efficient way to rapidly classify incoming images on the basis of omnipresent low-level natural image statistics. PMID:19757938

  1. Long-term correlation of the electrocorticogram as a bioindicator of brain exposure to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, L A A; Silva, I M S; Fernandes, T S; Nogueira, R A

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the effects of radiation and its possible influence on the nervous system are of great clinical interest. However, there have been few electrophysiological studies on brain activity after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). A new methodological approach regarding the assessment of the possible effects of IR on brain activity is the use of linear and nonlinear mathematical methods in the analysis of complex time series, such as brain oscillations measured using the electrocorticogram (ECoG). The objective of this study was to use linear and nonlinear mathematical methods as biomarkers of gamma radiation regarding cortical electrical activity. Adult Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: 1 control and 2 irradiated groups, evaluated at 24 h (IR24) and 90 days (IR90) after exposure to 18 Gy of gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 radiotherapy source. The ECoG was analyzed using power spectrum methods for the calculation of the power of delta, theta, alpha and beta rhythms and by means of the α-exponent of the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Using both mathematical methods it was possible to identify changes in the ECoG, and to identify significant changes in the pattern of the recording at 24 h after irradiation. Some of these changes were persistent at 90 days after exposure to IR. In particular, the theta wave using the two methods showed higher sensitivity than other waves, suggesting that it is a possible biomarker of exposure to IR. PMID:26445335

  2. Identifying with fictive characters: structural brain correlates of the personality trait ‘fantasy’

    PubMed Central

    Hänggi, Jürgen; Jancke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The perception of oneself as absorbed in the thoughts, feelings and happenings of a fictive character (e.g. in a novel or film) as if the character’s experiences were one’s own is referred to as identification. We investigated whether individual variation in the personality trait of identification is associated with individual variation in the structure of specific brain regions, using surface and volume-based morphometry. The hypothesized regions of interest were selected on the basis of their functional role in subserving the cognitive processing domains considered important for identification (i.e. mental imagery, empathy, theory of mind and merging) and for the immersive experience called ‘presence’. Controlling for age, sex, whole-brain volume and other traits, identification covaried significantly with the left hippocampal volume, cortical thickness in the right anterior insula and the left dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, and with gray matter volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings show that trait identification is associated with structural variation in specific brain regions. The findings are discussed in relation to the potential functional contribution of these regions to identification. PMID:24464847

  3. Real world navigation independence in the early blind correlates with differential brain activity associated with virtual navigation

    PubMed Central

    Halko, Mark A.; Connors, Erin C.; Sánchez, Jaime; Merabet, Lotfi B.

    2014-01-01

    Navigating is a complex cognitive task that places high demands on spatial abilities, particularly in the absence of sight. Significant advances have been made in identifying the neural correlates associated with various aspects of this skill, however, how the brain is able to navigate in the absence of visual experience remains poorly understood. Furthermore, how neural network activity relates to the wide variability in navigational independence and skill in the blind population is also unknown. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural correlates of audio-based navigation within a large scale, indoor virtual environment in early profoundly blind participants with differing levels of spatial navigation independence (assessed by the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction (SBSoD) scale). Performing path integration tasks in the virtual environment was associated with activation within areas of a core network implicated in navigation. Furthermore, we found a positive relationship between SBSoD scores and activation within right temporal parietal junction (TPJ) during the planning and execution phases of the task. These findings suggest that differential navigational ability in the blind may be related to the utilization of different brain network structures. Further characterization of the factors that influence network activity may have important implications regarding how this skill is taught in the blind community. PMID:24027192

  4. Real world navigation independence in the early blind correlates with differential brain activity associated with virtual navigation.

    PubMed

    Halko, Mark A; Connors, Erin C; Sánchez, Jaime; Merabet, Lotfi B

    2014-06-01

    Navigating is a complex cognitive task that places high demands on spatial abilities, particularly in the absence of sight. Significant advances have been made in identifying the neural correlates associated with various aspects of this skill; however, how the brain is able to navigate in the absence of visual experience remains poorly understood. Furthermore, how neural network activity relates to the wide variability in navigational independence and skill in the blind population is also unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural correlates of audio-based navigation within a large scale, indoor virtual environment in early profoundly blind participants with differing levels of spatial navigation independence (assessed by the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale). Performing path integration tasks in the virtual environment was associated with activation within areas of a core network implicated in navigation. Furthermore, we found a positive relationship between Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scores and activation within right temporal parietal junction during the planning and execution phases of the task. These findings suggest that differential navigational ability in the blind may be related to the utilization of different brain network structures. Further characterization of the factors that influence network activity may have important implications regarding how this skill is taught in the blind community. PMID:24027192

  5. Individual Variation in Pheromone Response Correlates with Reproductive Traits and Brain Gene Expression in Worker Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Kocher, Sarah D.; Ayroles, Julien F.; Stone, Eric A.; Grozinger, Christina M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Variation in individual behavior within social groups can affect the fitness of the group as well as the individual, and can be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. However, the molecular factors associated with individual variation in social behavior remain relatively unexplored. We used honey bees (Apis mellifera) as a model to examine differences in socially-regulated behavior among individual workers, and used transcriptional profiling to determine if specific gene expression patterns are associated with these individual differences. In honey bees, the reproductive queen produces a pheromonal signal that regulates many aspects of worker behavior and physiology and maintains colony organization. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we demonstrate that there is substantial natural variation in individual worker attraction to queen pheromone (QMP). Furthermore, worker attraction is negatively correlated with ovariole number—a trait associated with reproductive potential in workers. We identified transcriptional differences in the adult brain associated with individual worker attraction to QMP, and identified hundreds of transcripts that are organized into statistically-correlated gene networks and associated with this response. Conclusions/Significance Our studies demonstrate that there is substantial variation in worker attraction to QMP among individuals, and that this variation is linked with specific differences in physiology and brain gene expression patterns. This variation in individual response thresholds may reveal underlying variation in queen-worker reproductive conflict, and may mediate colony function and productivity by creating variation in individual task performance. PMID:20161742

  6. Disruption of White Matter Integrity in Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors: Correlates with Long-Term Intellectual Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background Although chemotherapy and radiation treatment have contributed to increased survivorship, treatment-induced brain injury has been a concern when examining long-term intellectual outcomes of survivors. Specifically, disruption of brain white matter integrity and its relationship to intellectual outcomes in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors needs to be better understood. Methods Fifty-four participants underwent diffusion tensor imaging in addition to structural MRI and an intelligence test (IQ). Voxel-wise group comparisons of fractional anisotropy calculated from DTI data were performed using Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) on 27 survivors (14 treated with radiation with and without chemotherapy and 13 treated without radiation treatment on average over 13 years since diagnosis) and 27 healthy comparison participants. Whole brain white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) differences were explored between each group. The relationships between IQ and FA in the regions where statistically lower FA values were found in survivors were examined, as well as the role of cumulative neurological factors. Results The group of survivors treated with radiation with and without chemotherapy had lower IQ relative to the group of survivors without radiation treatment and the healthy comparison group. TBSS identified white matter regions with significantly different mean fractional anisotropy between the three different groups. A lower level of white matter integrity was found in the radiation with or without chemotherapy treated group compared to the group without radiation treatment and also the healthy control group. The group without radiation treatment had a lower mean FA relative to healthy controls. The white matter disruption of the radiation with or without chemotherapy treated survivors was positively correlated with IQ and cumulative neurological factors. Conclusions Lower long-term intellectual outcomes of childhood brain tumor survivors are

  7. Correlation of EEG, CT, and MRI Brain with Neurological Outcome at 12 Months in Term Newborns with Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Annu; Matthai, John; Paul, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To correlate electroencephalogram (EEG), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain with neurological outcome at 12 months in term neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted between June 2010 and November 2011. Consecutive term neonates with perinatal asphyxia and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy were the subjects. All babies were managed as per standard protocol. EEG was done as soon as the baby was stable and CT brain within 7 days. MRI was done at 3 months. Neurodevelpmental assessment was done at 12 months. Results: Of the 31 babies, four died and one was lost to follow-up. Neurodevelopmental at 12 months of age was normal in 15 babies. EEG was normal in six babies and all of them had a normal neurodevelopment. Thirteen of the 14 babies with burst suppression pattern were abnormal (P<0.001). CT brain was normal in 14 and all of them had normal neurodevelopment (P<0.001), while 11 of the 12 with cerebral edema had abnormal outcome (P<0.001). Of the 16 babies with normal MRI, 14 were normal, while all six babies with abnormal signals in the cortex and thalamus had abnormal outcome (P=0.002). Conclusions: A normal EEG and CT brain in a term newborn with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is associated with good neurological outcome. Burst suppression pattern in EEG, bleeds, or hypodensities in the CT and involvement of basal ganglia/thalamus in the MRI are predictors of abnormal outcome. PMID:24251256

  8. Hemodynamic measurements in rat brain and human muscle using diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Guoqiang; Durduran, Turgut; Furuya, D.; Lech, G.; Zhou, Chao; Chance, Britten; Greenberg, J. H.; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2003-07-01

    Measurement of concentration, oxygenation, and flow characteristics of blood cells can reveal information about tissue metabolism and functional heterogeneity. An improved multifunctional hybrid system has been built on the basis of our previous hybrid instrument that combines two near-infrared diffuse optical techniques to simultaneously monitor the changes of blood flow, total hemoglobin concentration (THC) and blood oxygen saturation (StO2). Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) monitors blood flow (BF) by measuring the optical phase shifts caused by moving blood cells, while diffuse photon density wave spectroscopy (DPDW) measures tissue absorption and scattering. Higher spatial resolution, higher data acquisition rate and higher dynamic range of the improved system allow us to monitor rapid hemodynamic changes in rat brain and human muscles. We have designed two probes with different source-detector pairs and different separations for the two types of experiments. A unique non-contact probe mounted on the back of a camera, which allows continuous measurements without altering the blood flow, was employed to in vivo monitor the metabolic responses in rat brain during KCl induced cortical spreading depression (CSD). A contact probe was used to measure changes of blood flow and oxygenation in human muscle during and after cuff occlusion or exercise, where the non-contact probe is not appropriate for monitoring the moving target. The experimental results indicate that our multifunctional hybrid system is capable of in vivo and non-invasive monitoring of the hemodynamic changes in different tissues (smaller tissues in rat brain, larger tissues in human muscle) under different conditions (static versus moving). The time series images of flow during CSD obtained by our technique revealed spatial and temporal hemodynamic changes in rat brain. Two to three fold longer recovery times of flow and oxygenation after cuff occlusion or exercise from calf flexors in a

  9. Vocal parameters that indicate threat level correlate with FOS immunolabeling in social and vocal control brain regions.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Jesse M S; Riters, Lauren V

    2012-01-01

    Transmitting information via communicative signals is integral to interacting with conspecifics, and some species achieve this task by varying vocalizations to reflect context. Although signal variation is critical to social interactions, the underlying neural control has not been studied. In response to a predator, black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapilla) produce mobbing calls (chick-a-dee calls) with various parameters, some of which convey information about the threat stimulus. We predicted that vocal parameters indicative of threat would be associated with distinct patterns of neuronal activity within brain areas involved in social behavior and those involved in the sensorimotor control of vocal production. To test this prediction, we measured the syntax and structural aspects of chick-a-dee call production in response to a hawk model and assessed the protein product of the immediate early gene FOS in brain regions implicated in context-specific vocal and social behavior. These regions include the medial preoptic area (POM) and lateral septum (LS), as well as regions involved in vocal motor control, including the dorsomedial nucleus of the intercollicular complex and the HVC. We found correlations linking call rate (previously demonstrated to reflect threat) to labeling in the POM and LS. Labeling in the HVC correlated with the number of D notes per call, which may also signal threat level. Labeling in the call control region dorsomedial nucleus was associated with the structure of D notes and the overall number of notes, but not call rate or type of notes produced. These results suggest that the POM and LS may influence attributes of vocalizations produced in response to predators and that the brain region implicated in song control, the HVC, also influences call production. Because variation in chick-a-dee call rate indicates predator threat, we speculate that these areas could integrate with motor control regions to imbue mobbing signals with additional

  10. Brain Correlates of Phasic Autonomic Response to Acupuncture Stimulation: An Event-Related fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Napadow, Vitaly; Lee, Jeungchan; Kim, Jieun; Cina, Stephen; Maeda, Yumi; Barbieri, Riccardo; Harris, Richard E.; Kettner, Norman; Park, Kyungmo

    2013-01-01

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) response to acupuncture has been investigated by multiple studies; however, the brain circuitry underlying this response is not well understood. We applied event-related fMRI (er-fMRI) in conjunction with ANS recording (heart rate, HR; skin conductance response, SCR). Brief manual acupuncture stimuli were delivered at acupoints ST36 and SP9, while sham stimuli were delivered at control location, SH1. Acupuncture produced activation in S2, insula, and mid-cingulate cortex, and deactivation in default mode network (DMN) areas. On average, HR deceleration (HR–) and SCR were noted following both real and sham acupuncture, though magnitude of response was greater following real acupuncture and inter-subject magnitude of response correlated with evoked sensation intensity. Acupuncture events with strong SCR also produced greater anterior insula activation than without SCR. Moreover, acupuncture at SP9, which produced greater SCR, also produced stronger sharp pain sensation, and greater anterior insula activation. Conversely, acupuncture-induced HR– was associated with greater DMN deactivation. Between-event correlation demonstrated that this association was strongest for ST36, which also produced more robust HR–. In fact, DMN deactivation was significantly more pronounced across acupuncture stimuli producing HR–, versus those events characterized by acceleration (HR+). Thus, differential brain response underlying acupuncture stimuli may be related to differential autonomic outflows and may result from heterogeneity in evoked sensations. Our er-fMRI approach suggests that ANS response to acupuncture, consistent with previously characterized orienting and startle/defense responses, arises from activity within distinct subregions of the more general brain circuitry responding to acupuncture stimuli. PMID:22504841

  11. Vocal Parameters That Indicate Threat Level Correlate with FOS Immunolabeling in Social and Vocal Control Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Jesse M.S.; Riters, Lauren V.

    2012-01-01

    Transmitting information via communicative signals is integral to interacting with conspecifics, and some species achieve this task by varying vocalizations to reflect context. Although signal variation is critical to social interactions, the underlying neural control has not been studied. In response to a predator, black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapilla) produce mobbing calls (chick-a-dee calls) with various parameters, some of which convey information about the threat stimulus. We predicted that vocal parameters indicative of threat would be associated with distinct patterns of neuronal activity within brain areas involved in social behavior and those involved in the sensorimotor control of vocal production. To test this prediction, we measured the syntax and structural aspects of chick-a-dee call production in response to a hawk model and assessed the protein product of the immediate early gene FOS in brain regions implicated in context-specific vocal and social behavior. These regions include the medial preoptic area (POM) and lateral septum (LS), as well as regions involved in vocal motor control, including the dorsomedial nucleus of the intercollicular complex and the HVC. We found correlations linking call rate (previously demonstrated to reflect threat) to labeling in the POM and LS. Labeling in the HVC correlated with the number of D notes per call, which may also signal threat level. Labeling in the call control region dorsomedial nucleus was associated with the structure of D notes and the overall number of notes, but not call rate or type of notes produced. These results suggest that the POM and LS may influence attributes of vocalizations produced in response to predators and that the brain region implicated in song control, the HVC, also influences call production. Because variation in chick-a-dee call rate indicates predator threat, we speculate that these areas could integrate with motor control regions to imbue mobbing signals with additional

  12. The microbiota-gut-brain axis: neurobehavioral correlates, health and sociality.

    PubMed

    Montiel-Castro, Augusto J; González-Cervantes, Rina M; Bravo-Ruiseco, Gabriela; Pacheco-López, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Recent data suggest that the human body is not such a neatly self-sufficient island after all. It is more like a super-complex ecosystem containing trillions of bacteria and other microorganisms that inhabit all our surfaces; skin, mouth, sexual organs, and specially intestines. It has recently become evident that such microbiota, specifically within the gut, can greatly influence many physiological parameters, including cognitive functions, such as learning, memory and decision making processes. Human microbiota is a diverse and dynamic ecosystem, which has evolved in a mutualistic relationship with its host. Ontogenetically, it is vertically inoculated from the mother during birth, established during the first year of life and during lifespan, horizontally transferred among relatives, mates or close community members. This micro-ecosystem serves the host by protecting it against pathogens, metabolizing complex lipids and polysaccharides that otherwise would be inaccessible nutrients, neutralizing drugs and carcinogens, modulating intestinal motility, and making visceral perception possible. It is now evident that the bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain, mainly through the vagus nerve, the so called "microbiota-gut-vagus-brain axis," is vital for maintaining homeostasis and it may be also involved in the etiology of several metabolic and mental dysfunctions/disorders. Here we review evidence on the ability of the gut microbiota to communicate with the brain and thus modulate behavior, and also elaborate on the ethological and cultural strategies of human and non-human primates to select, transfer and eliminate microorganisms for selecting the commensal profile. PMID:24109440

  13. General and specialized brain correlates for analogical reasoning: A meta-analysis of functional imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Hobeika, Lucie; Diard-Detoeuf, Capucine; Garcin, Béatrice; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2016-05-01

    Reasoning by analogy allows us to link distinct domains of knowledge and to transfer solutions from one domain to another. Analogical reasoning has been studied using various tasks that have generally required the consideration of the relationships between objects and their integration to infer an analogy schema. However, these tasks varied in terms of the level and the nature of the relationships to consider (e.g., semantic, visuospatial). The aim of this study was to identify the cerebral network involved in analogical reasoning and its specialization based on the domains of information and task specificity. We conducted a coordinate-based meta-analysis of 27 experiments that used analogical reasoning tasks. The left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex was one of the regions most consistently activated across the studies. A comparison between semantic and visuospatial analogy tasks showed both domain-oriented regions in the inferior and middle frontal gyri and a domain-general region, the left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex, which was specialized for analogy tasks. A comparison of visuospatial analogy to matrix problem tasks revealed that these two relational reasoning tasks engage, at least in part, distinct right and left cerebral networks, particularly separate areas within the left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings highlight several cognitive and cerebral differences between relational reasoning tasks that can allow us to make predictions about the respective roles of distinct brain regions or networks. These results also provide new, testable anatomical hypotheses about reasoning disorders that are induced by brain damage. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1953-1969, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27012301

  14. Structural and functional brain correlates of subclinical psychotic symptoms in 11-13 year old schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Sarah; Kelleher, Ian; Harley, Michelle; Murtagh, Aileen; Clarke, Mary; Blanchard, Mathieu; Connolly, Colm; O'Hanlon, Erik; Garavan, Hugh; Cannon, Mary

    2010-01-15

    Studying children experiencing psychotic symptoms provides a unique opportunity to examine the vulnerability to psychosis within the context of development. Using neuroimaging techniques this study investigated cognitive control functions, brain volumetrics and white matter integrity in an at-risk cohort of children. Between-subjects assessment of brain function and structure among 11 school-going, non-treatment seeking children aged 11-13 who were at symptomatic risk for psychosis (AR) and 14 healthy control children aged 11-12 without subclinical psychotic symptoms (CON). MRI assessments included functional measures of response inhibition and error-related processes, whole brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of gray matter (GM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) utilizing fractional anisotropy to probe white matter (WM) integrity. fMRI results showed reduced activity in the AR group within right frontal and bilateral temporal cortex for response inhibition and reduced activity within the anterior cingulate, insula and middle frontal gyrus for error-related processing (p<.05, corrected). VBM analysis revealed GM increases in the AR group within middle and superior temporal gyri, angular gyrus, orbitofrontal gyrus and GM decrease within the inferior temporal gyrus (p<.05, corrected). DTI analysis identified WM decreases in the AR group along the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, cingulum and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (p<.05, corrected). This multimodal investigation revealed aberrant prefrontal-temporal dysfunction in addition to cingulate and insular dysfunctions which provide potential early neurocognitive risk markers related to the susceptibility for developing psychosis and subsequently the neurodevelopmental trajectory leading to schizophrenia. PMID:19770054

  15. The microbiota-gut-brain axis: neurobehavioral correlates, health and sociality

    PubMed Central

    Montiel-Castro, Augusto J.; González-Cervantes, Rina M.; Bravo-Ruiseco, Gabriela; Pacheco-López, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Recent data suggest that the human body is not such a neatly self-sufficient island after all. It is more like a super-complex ecosystem containing trillions of bacteria and other microorganisms that inhabit all our surfaces; skin, mouth, sexual organs, and specially intestines. It has recently become evident that such microbiota, specifically within the gut, can greatly influence many physiological parameters, including cognitive functions, such as learning, memory and decision making processes. Human microbiota is a diverse and dynamic ecosystem, which has evolved in a mutualistic relationship with its host. Ontogenetically, it is vertically inoculated from the mother during birth, established during the first year of life and during lifespan, horizontally transferred among relatives, mates or close community members. This micro-ecosystem serves the host by protecting it against pathogens, metabolizing complex lipids and polysaccharides that otherwise would be inaccessible nutrients, neutralizing drugs and carcinogens, modulating intestinal motility, and making visceral perception possible. It is now evident that the bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain, mainly through the vagus nerve, the so called “microbiota–gut–vagus–brain axis,” is vital for maintaining homeostasis and it may be also involved in the etiology of several metabolic and mental dysfunctions/disorders. Here we review evidence on the ability of the gut microbiota to communicate with the brain and thus modulate behavior, and also elaborate on the ethological and cultural strategies of human and non-human primates to select, transfer and eliminate microorganisms for selecting the commensal profile. PMID:24109440

  16. Patterns of fatigue and its correlates over the first 2 years after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bushnik, Tamara; Englander, Jeffrey; Wright, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    This study used a prospective longitudinal design to quantify fatigue and associated factors during the first 2 years after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Fifty-one individuals were assessed at 3 time points: within the first 6, 12, and 18-24 months after TBI. Self-reported fatigue improved during the first year, as did pain, sleep quality, cognitive independence, and involvement in productive activity. Further changes up to 2 years after TBI were not observed. The subset of individuals who reported significant increases in fatigue over the first 2 years demonstrated poorer outcomes in cognition, motor symptoms, and general functioning than those with decreased or stable fatigue. PMID:18219232

  17. Childhood atopic dermatitis-Brain-derived neurotrophic factor correlates with serum eosinophil cationic protein and disease severity.

    PubMed

    Fölster-Holst, R; Papakonstantinou, E; Rüdrich, U; Buchner, M; Pite, H; Gehring, M; Kapp, A; Weidinger, S; Raap, U

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have shown that neurotrophins including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) play a role in chronic inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD). BDNF is increased in the serum samples of adults with AD. Interestingly, eosinophils of these patients can release and produce BDNF. We analyzed BDNF serum levels with ELISA and their correlation with SCORAD score, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), total IgE, IL-4, IL-13 and IL-31 in children with AD (n = 56) compared to nonatopic healthy children (n = 25). In addition, we analyzed FLG loss-of-function mutations in 17 children with AD and their connection to BDNF. BDNF serum levels were significantly higher in children with AD. Further, BDNF correlated with disease activity, serum ECP, and total IgE serum levels in AD. There was no difference in BDNF levels of filaggrin-positive or filaggrin-negative children with AD, and there was no correlation of BDNF with IL-31 and Th2 cytokines including IL-4 and IL-13. Together, our data add new insights into the pathophysiology of AD, suggesting that serum BDNF which correlates with disease severity contributes to the regulation of inflammation in an eosinophil-, but not Th2-dependent manner. PMID:27087278

  18. Simultaneous Quantification of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 and 24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Rats Shows Strong Correlations between Serum and Brain Tissue Levels.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ying; He, Xin; Li, Huan-De; Deng, Yang; Yan, Miao; Cai, Hua-Lin; Tang, Mi-Mi; Dang, Rui-Li; Jiang, Pei

    2015-01-01

    While vitamin D3 is recognized as a neuroactive steroid affecting both brain development and function, efficient analytical method in determining vitamin D3 metabolites in the brain tissue is still lacking, and the relationship of vitamin D3 status between serum and brain remains elusive. Therefore, we developed a novel analysis method by using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to simultaneously quantify the concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24,25(OH)2D3) in the serum and brain of rats fed with different dose of vitamin D3. We further investigated whether variations of serum vitamin D3 metabolites could affect vitamin D3 metabolite levels in the brain. Serum and brain tissue were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization following derivatization with 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD). The method is highly sensitive, specific, and accurate to quantify 25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 in animal brain tissue. Vitamin D3 metabolites in brain tissue were significantly lower in rats fed with a vitamin D deficiency diet than in rats fed with high vitamin D3 diet. There was also a strong correlation of vitamin D3 metabolites in serum and brain. These results indicate that vitamin D3 status in serum affects bioavailability of vitamin D3 metabolites in the brain. PMID:26713090

  19. Simultaneous Quantification of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 and 24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Rats Shows Strong Correlations between Serum and Brain Tissue Levels

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Ying; He, Xin; Li, Huan-De; Deng, Yang; Yan, Miao; Cai, Hua-Lin; Tang, Mi-Mi; Dang, Rui-Li; Jiang, Pei

    2015-01-01

    While vitamin D3 is recognized as a neuroactive steroid affecting both brain development and function, efficient analytical method in determining vitamin D3 metabolites in the brain tissue is still lacking, and the relationship of vitamin D3 status between serum and brain remains elusive. Therefore, we developed a novel analysis method by using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to simultaneously quantify the concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24,25(OH)2D3) in the serum and brain of rats fed with different dose of vitamin D3. We further investigated whether variations of serum vitamin D3 metabolites could affect vitamin D3 metabolite levels in the brain. Serum and brain tissue were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization following derivatization with 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD). The method is highly sensitive, specific, and accurate to quantify 25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 in animal brain tissue. Vitamin D3 metabolites in brain tissue were significantly lower in rats fed with a vitamin D deficiency diet than in rats fed with high vitamin D3 diet. There was also a strong correlation of vitamin D3 metabolites in serum and brain. These results indicate that vitamin D3 status in serum affects bioavailability of vitamin D3 metabolites in the brain. PMID:26713090

  20. Positive correlation between ADAR expression and its targets suggests a complex regulation mediated by RNA editing in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Liscovitch, Noa; Bazak, Lily; Levanon, Erez Y; Chechik, Gal

    2014-01-01

    A-to-I RNA editing by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA is a post-transcriptional modification that is crucial for normal life and development in vertebrates. RNA editing has been shown to be very abundant in the human transcriptome, specifically at the primate-specific Alu elements. The functional role of this wide-spread effect is still not clear; it is believed that editing of transcripts is a mechanism for their down-regulation via processes such as nuclear retention or RNA degradation. Here we combine 2 neural gene expression datasets with genome-level editing information to examine the relation between the expression of ADAR genes with the expression of their target genes. Specifically, we computed the spatial correlation across structures of post-mortem human brains between ADAR and a large set of targets that were found to be edited in their Alu repeats. Surprisingly, we found that a large fraction of the edited genes are positively correlated with ADAR, opposing the assumption that editing would reduce expression. When considering the correlations between ADAR and its targets over development, 2 gene subsets emerge, positively correlated and negatively correlated with ADAR expression. Specifically, in embryonic time points, ADAR is positively correlated with many genes related to RNA processing and regulation of gene expression. These findings imply that the suggested mechanism of regulation of expression by editing is probably not a global one; ADAR expression does not have a genome wide effect reducing the expression of editing targets. It is possible, however, that RNA editing by ADAR in non-coding regions of the gene might be a part of a more complex expression regulation mechanism. PMID:25692240

  1. Positive correlation between ADAR expression and its targets suggests a complex regulation mediated by RNA editing in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Liscovitch, Noa; Bazak, Lily; Levanon, Erez Y; Chechik, Gal

    2014-01-01

    A-to-I RNA editing by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA is a post-transcriptional modification that is crucial for normal life and development in vertebrates. RNA editing has been shown to be very abundant in the human transcriptome, specifically at the primate-specific Alu elements. The functional role of this wide-spread effect is still not clear; it is believed that editing of transcripts is a mechanism for their down-regulation via processes such as nuclear retention or RNA degradation. Here we combine 2 neural gene expression datasets with genome-level editing information to examine the relation between the expression of ADAR genes with the expression of their target genes. Specifically, we computed the spatial correlation across structures of post-mortem human brains between ADAR and a large set of targets that were found to be edited in their Alu repeats. Surprisingly, we found that a large fraction of the edited genes are positively correlated with ADAR, opposing the assumption that editing would reduce expression. When considering the correlations between ADAR and its targets over development, 2 gene subsets emerge, positively correlated and negatively correlated with ADAR expression. Specifically, in embryonic time points, ADAR is positively correlated with many genes related to RNA processing and regulation of gene expression. These findings imply that the suggested mechanism of regulation of expression by editing is probably not a global one; ADAR expression does not have a genome wide effect reducing the expression of editing targets. It is possible, however, that RNA editing by ADAR in non-coding regions of the gene might be a part of a more complex expression regulation mechanism. PMID:25692240

  2. White matter correlates of cognitive dysfunction after mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Cowie, Christopher J.A.; He, Jiabao; Peel, Anna; Wood, Joshua; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Mitchell, Patrick; Mendelow, A. David; Smith, Fiona E.; Millar, David; Kelly, Tom; Blamire, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To relate neurophysiologic changes after mild/moderate traumatic brain injury to cognitive deficit in a longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging investigation. Methods: Fifty-three patients were scanned an average of 6 days postinjury (range = 1–14 days). Twenty-three patients were rescanned 1 year later. Thirty-three matched control subjects were recruited. At the time of scanning, participants completed cognitive testing. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics was used to conduct voxel-wise analysis on diffusion changes and to explore regressions between diffusion metrics and cognitive performance. Results: Acutely, increased axial diffusivity drove a fractional anisotropy (FA) increase, while decreased radial diffusivity drove a negative regression between FA and Verbal Letter Fluency across widespread white matter regions, but particularly in the ascending fibers of the corpus callosum. Raised FA is hypothesized to be caused by astrogliosis and compaction of axonal neurofilament, which would also affect cognitive functioning. Chronically, FA was decreased, suggesting myelin sheath disintegration, but still regressed negatively with Verbal Letter Fluency in the anterior forceps. Conclusions: Acute mild/moderate traumatic brain injury is characterized by increased tissue FA, which represents a clear neurobiological link between cognitive dysfunction and white matter injury after mild/moderate injury. PMID:25031282

  3. Homer1a is a core brain molecular correlate of sleep loss

    PubMed Central

    Maret, Stéphanie; Dorsaz, Stéphane; Gurcel, Laure; Pradervand, Sylvain; Petit, Brice; Pfister, Corinne; Hagenbuchle, Otto; O'Hara, Bruce F.; Franken, Paul; Tafti, Mehdi

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is regulated by a homeostatic process that determines its need and by a circadian process that determines its timing. By using sleep deprivation and transcriptome profiling in inbred mouse strains, we show that genetic background affects susceptibility to sleep loss at the transcriptional level in a tissue-dependent manner. In the brain, Homer1a expression best reflects the response to sleep loss. Time-course gene expression analysis suggests that 2,032 brain transcripts are under circadian control. However, only 391 remain rhythmic when mice are sleep-deprived at four time points around the clock, suggesting that most diurnal changes in gene transcription are, in fact, sleep–wake-dependent. By generating a transgenic mouse line, we show that in Homer1-expressing cells specifically, apart from Homer1a, three other activity-induced genes (Ptgs2, Jph3, and Nptx2) are overexpressed after sleep loss. All four genes play a role in recovery from glutamate-induced neuronal hyperactivity. The consistent activation of Homer1a suggests a role for sleep in intracellular calcium homeostasis for protecting and recovering from the neuronal activation imposed by wakefulness. PMID:18077435

  4. Emotion Regulatory Brain Function and SSRI Treatment in PTSD: Neural Correlates and Predictors of Change.

    PubMed

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Rabinak, Christine A; Kennedy, Amy E; Fitzgerald, Daniel A; Liberzon, Israel; Stein, Murray B; Phan, K Luan

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-a chronic, debilitating condition, broadly characterized by emotion dysregulation-is prevalent among US military personnel who have returned from Operations Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a first-line treatment for PTSD, but treatment mechanisms are unknown and patient response varies. SSRIs may exert their effects by remediating emotion regulatory brain activity and individual differences in patient response might be explained, in part, by pre-treatment differences in neural systems supporting the downregulation of negative affect. Thirty-four OEF/OIF veterans, 17 with PTSD and 17 without PTSD underwent 2 functional magnetic resonance imaging scans 12 weeks apart. At each scan, they performed an emotion regulation task; in the interim, veterans with PTSD were treated with the SSRI, paroxetine. SSRI treatment increased activation in both the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and supplementary motor area (SMA) during emotion regulation, although only change in the SMA over time occurred in veterans with PTSD and not those without PTSD. Less activation of the right ventrolateral PFC/inferior frontal gyrus during pre-treatment emotion regulation was associated with greater reduction in PTSD symptoms with SSRI treatment, irrespective of pre-treatment severity. Patients with the least recruitment of prefrontal emotion regulatory brain regions may benefit most from treatment with SSRIs, which appear to augment activity in these regions. PMID:26111649

  5. Brain structure and cognitive correlates of body mass index in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bolzenius, Jacob D.; Laidlaw, David H.; Cabeen, Ryan P.; Conturo, Thomas E.; McMichael, Amanda R.; Lane, Elizabeth M.; Heaps, Jodi M.; Salminen, Lauren E.; Baker, Laurie M.; Scott, Staci E.; Cooley, Sarah A.; Gunstad, John; Paul, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, commonly measured with body mass index (BMI), is associated with numerous deleterious health conditions including alterations in brain integrity related to advanced age. Prior research has suggested that white matter integrity observed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is altered in relation to high BMI, but the integrity of specific white matter tracts remains poorly understood. Additionally, no studies have examined white matter tract integrity in conjunction with neuropsychological evaluation associated with BMI among older adults. The present study examined white matter tract integrity using DTI and cognitive performance associated with BMI in 62 healthy older adults (20 males, 42 females) aged 51 to 81. Results revealed that elevated BMI was associated with lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in the uncinate fasciculus, though there was no evidence of an age by BMI interaction relating to FA in this tract. No relationships were observed between BMI and other white matter tracts or cognition after controlling for demographic variables. Findings suggest that elevated BMI is associated with lower structural integrity in a brain region connecting frontal and temporal lobes and this alteration precedes cognitive dysfunction. Future studies should examine biological mechanisms that mediate the relationships between BMI and white matter tract integrity, as well as the evolution of these abnormalities utilizing longitudinal designs. PMID:25448431

  6. Neural correlates of malingering in mild traumatic brain injury: A positron emission tomography study.

    PubMed

    Spadoni, Andrea D; Kosheleva, Elena; Buchsbaum, Monte S; Simmons, Alan N

    2015-09-30

    The detection of malingering in cognitive performance is a challenge in clinical and legal environments. Neuroimaging may provide an objective method to determine the source of failure on tests of symptom validity. Participants comprised 45 combat veterans, 31 with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), not seeking medical or legal compensation, who completed the Tombaugh Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and a positron emission tomography (PET) scan. Based on TOMM performance (i.e., less than 45 of 50 total correct, suggesting suboptimal effort or malingering), subjects were separated into poor TOMM score (PT; n=10) and good TOMM score (GT; n=35) groups. Voxel-based multiple regression analysis with Group (GT/PT) predicting uptake of fluorodeoxyglucose revealed decreased brain metabolism in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex of poor performers. The current findings may suggest that poor TOMM performance in those with combat trauma and mTBI may be related to ventromedial prefrontal cortical dysfunction. These findings have important implications for the disentanglement of feigned versus actual memory impairment, where the latter may be secondary to neural mechanisms not consistent with forgetting or deception. PMID:26184458

  7. Brain structure and cognitive correlates of body mass index in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Bolzenius, Jacob D; Laidlaw, David H; Cabeen, Ryan P; Conturo, Thomas E; McMichael, Amanda R; Lane, Elizabeth M; Heaps, Jodi M; Salminen, Lauren E; Baker, Laurie M; Scott, Staci E; Cooley, Sarah A; Gunstad, John; Paul, Robert H

    2015-02-01

    Obesity, commonly measured with body mass index (BMI), is associated with numerous deleterious health conditions including alterations in brain integrity related to advanced age. Prior research has suggested that white matter integrity observed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is altered in relation to high BMI, but the integrity of specific white matter tracts remains poorly understood. Additionally, no studies have examined white matter tract integrity in conjunction with neuropsychological evaluation associated with BMI among older adults. The present study examined white matter tract integrity using DTI and cognitive performance associated with BMI in 62 healthy older adults (20 males, 42 females) aged 51-81. Results revealed that elevated BMI was associated with lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in the uncinate fasciculus, though there was no evidence of an age by BMI interaction relating to FA in this tract. No relationships were observed between BMI and other white matter tracts or cognition after controlling for demographic variables. Findings suggest that elevated BMI is associated with lower structural integrity in a brain region connecting frontal and temporal lobes and this alteration precedes cognitive dysfunction. Future studies should examine biological mechanisms that mediate the relationships between BMI and white matter tract integrity, as well as the evolution of these abnormalities utilizing longitudinal designs. PMID:25448431

  8. Functional and structural brain correlates of risk for major depression in children with familial depression

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Xiaoqian J.; Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina; Biederman, Joseph; Uchida, Mai; Doehrmann, Oliver; Leonard, Julia A.; Salvatore, John; Kenworthy, Tara; Brown, Ariel; Kagan, Elana; de los Angeles, Carlo; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing evidence for atypical amygdala function and structure in major depression, it remains uncertain as to whether these brain differences reflect the clinical state of depression or neurobiological traits that predispose individuals to major depression. We examined function and structure of the amygdala and associated areas in a group of unaffected children of depressed parents (at-risk group) and a group of children of parents without a history of major depression (control group). Compared to the control group, the at-risk group showed increased activation to fearful relative to neutral facial expressions in the amygdala and multiple cortical regions, and decreased activation to happy relative to neutral facial expressions in the anterior cingulate cortex and supramarginal gyrus. At-risk children also exhibited reduced amygdala volume. The extensive hyperactivation to negative facial expressions and hypoactivation to positive facial expressions in at-risk children are consistent with behavioral evidence that risk for major depression involves a bias to attend to negative information. These functional and structural brain differences between at-risk children and controls suggest that there are trait neurobiological underpinnings of risk for major depression. PMID:26106565

  9. Creativity and Brain-Functioning in Product Development Engineers: A Canonical Correlation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Frederick; Lagrosen, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This study used canonical correlation analysis to explore the relation among scores on the Torrance test of figural and verbal creativity and demographic, psychological and physiological measures in Swedish product-development engineers. The first canonical variate included figural and verbal flexibility and originality as dependent measures and…

  10. Correlation between Patent Foramen Ovale, Cerebral "Lesions" and Neuropsychometric Testing in Experienced Sports Divers: Does Diving Damage the Brain?

    PubMed

    Balestra, Costantino; Germonpré, Peter

    2016-01-01

    SCUBA diving exposes divers to decompression sickness (DCS). There has been considerable debate whether divers with a Patent Foramen Ovale of the heart have a higher risk of DCS because of the possible right-to-left shunt of venous decompression bubbles into the arterial circulation. Symptomatic neurological DCS has been shown to cause permanent damage to brain and spinal cord tissue; it has been suggested that divers with PFO may be at higher risk of developing subclinical brain lesions because of repeated asymptomatic embolization of decompression-induced nitrogen bubbles. These studies however suffer from several methodological flaws, including self-selection bias. We recruited 200 volunteer divers from a recreational diving population who had never suffered from DCS; we then randomly selected 50 of those for further investigation. The selected divers underwent brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging to detect asymptomatic brain lesions, contrast trans-oesophageal echocardiography for PFO, and extensive neuro-psychometric testing. Neuro-psychometry results were compared with a control group of normal subjects and a separate control group for subjects exposed to neurotoxic solvents. Forty two divers underwent all the tests and are included in this report. Grade 2 Patent Foramen Ovale was found in 16 (38%) of the divers; brain Unidentified Bright Objects (UBO's) were found in 5 (11.9%). There was no association between PFO and the presence of UBO's (P = 0.693) or their size (p = 0.5) in divers. Neuropsychometric testing in divers was significantly worse from controls in two tests, Digit Span Backwards (DSB; p < 0.05) and Symbol-Digit-Substitution (SDS; p < 0.01). Compared to subjects exposed to neurotoxic solvents, divers scored similar on DSB and SDS tests, but significantly better on the Simple Reaction Time (REA) and Hand-Eye Coordination (EYE) tests. There was no correlation between PFO, number of UBO's and any of the neuro-psychometric tests. We conclude that for

  11. Neural correlates of learning in an electrocorticographic motor-imagery brain-computer interface

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, Tim M.; Miller, Kai J.; Rao, Rajesh P. N.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.

    2014-01-01

    Human subjects can learn to control a one-dimensional electrocorticographic (ECoG) brain-computer interface (BCI) using modulation of primary motor (M1) high-gamma activity (signal power in the 75–200 Hz range). However, the stability and dynamics of the signals over the course of new BCI skill acquisition have not been investigated. In this study, we report 3 characteristic periods in evolution of the high-gamma control signal during BCI training: initial, low task accuracy with corresponding low power modulation in the gamma spectrum, followed by a second period of improved task accuracy with increasing average power separation between activity and rest, and a final period of high task accuracy with stable (or decreasing) power separation and decreasing trial-to-trial variance. These findings may have implications in the design and implementation of BCI control algorithms. PMID:25599079

  12. Resting cerebral metabolism correlates with skin conductance and functional brain activation during fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Linnman, Clas; Zeidan, Mohamed A; Pitman, Roger K; Milad, Mohammed R

    2012-02-01

    We investigated whether resting brain metabolism can be used to predict autonomic and neuronal responses during fear conditioning in 20 healthy humans. Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was measured via positron emission tomography at rest. During conditioning, autonomic responses were measured via skin conductance, and blood oxygen level dependent signal was measured via functional magnetic resonance imaging. Resting dorsal anterior cingulate metabolism positively predicted differentially conditioned skin conductance responses. Midbrain and insula resting metabolism negatively predicted midbrain and insula functional reactivity, while dorsal anterior cingulate resting metabolism positively predicted midbrain functional reactivity. We conclude that resting metabolism in limbic areas can predict some aspects of psychophysiological and neuronal reactivity during fear learning. PMID:22207247

  13. Resting cerebral metabolism correlates with skin conductance and functional brain activation during fear conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Linnman, Clas; Zeidan, Mohamed A.; Pitman, Roger K; Milad, Mohammed R.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether resting brain metabolism can be used to predict autonomic and neuronal responses during fear conditioning in 20 healthy humans. Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was measured via positron emission tomography at rest. During conditioning, autonomic responses were measured via skin conductance, and blood oxygen level dependent signal was measured via functional magnetic resonance imaging. Resting dorsal anterior cingulate metabolism positively predicted differentially conditioned skin conductance responses. Midbrain and insula resting metabolism negatively predicted midbrain and insula functional reactivity, while dorsal anterior cingulate resting metabolism positively predicted midbrain functional reactivity. We conclude that resting metabolism in limbic areas can predict some aspects of psychophysiological and neuronal reactivity during fear learning. PMID:22207247

  14. Ultrastructural Correlates of Enhanced Norepinephrine and Neuropeptide Y Cotransmission in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kourtesis, Ioannis; Kasparov, Sergey; Verkade, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) replicates many clinically relevant features of human essential hypertension and also exhibits behavioral symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and dementia. The SHR phenotype is highly complex and cannot be explained by a single genetic or physiological mechanism. Nevertheless, numerous studies including our own work have revealed striking differences in central catecholaminergic transmission in SHR such as increased vesicular catecholamine content in the ventral brainstem. Here, we used immunolabeling followed by confocal microscopy and electron microscopy to quantify vesicle sizes and populations across three catecholaminergic brain areas—nucleus tractus solitarius and rostral ventrolateral medulla, both key regions for cardiovascular control, and the locus coeruleus. We also studied colocalization of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in norepinephrine and epinephrine-containing neurons as NPY is a common cotransmitter with central and peripheral catecholamines. We found significantly increased expression and coexpression of NPY in norepinephrine and epinephrine-positive neurons of locus coeruleus in SHR compared with Wistar rats. Ultrastructural analysis revealed immunolabeled vesicles of 150 to 650 nm in diameter (means ranging from 250 to 300 nm), which is much larger than previously reported. In locus coeruleus and rostral ventrolateral medulla, but not in nucleus tractus solitarius, of SHR, noradrenergic and adrenergic vesicles were significantly larger and showed increased NPY colocalization when compared with Wistar rats. Our morphological evidence underpins the hypothesis of hyperactivity of the noradrenergic and adrenergic system and increased norepinephrine and epinephrine and NPY cotransmission in specific brain areas in SHR. It further strengthens the argument for a prohypertensive role of C1 neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla as a potential causative factor for essential hypertension. PMID

  15. Electrophysiological correlates of self-specific prediction errors in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Sel, Alejandra; Harding, Rachel; Tsakiris, Manos

    2016-01-15

    Recognising one's self, vs. others, is a key component of self-awareness, crucial for social interactions. Here we investigated whether processing self-face and self-body images can be explained by the brain's prediction of sensory events, based on regularities in the given context. We measured evoked cortical responses while participants observed alternating sequences of self-face or other-face images (experiment 1) and self-body or other-body images (experiment 2), which were embedded in an identity-irrelevant task. In experiment 1, the expected sequences were violated by deviant morphed images, which contained 33%, 66% or 100% of the self-face when the other's face was expected (and vice versa). In experiment 2, the anticipated sequences were violated by deviant images of the self when the other's image was expected (and vice versa), or by two deviant images composed of pictures of the self-face attached to the other's body, or the other's face attached to the self-body. This manipulation allowed control of the prediction error associated with the self or the other's image. Deviant self-images (but not deviant images of the other) elicited a visual mismatch response (vMMR)--a cortical index of violations of regularity. This was source localised to face and body related visual, sensorimotor and limbic areas and had amplitude proportional to the amount of deviance from the self-image. We provide novel evidence that self-processing can be described by the brain's prediction error system, which accounts for self-bias in visual processing. These findings are discussed in the light of recent predictive coding models of self-processing. PMID:26455899

  16. Activities of DNA base excision repair enzymes in liver and brain correlate with body mass, but not lifespan.

    PubMed

    Page, Melissa M; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2012-10-01

    Accumulation of DNA lesions compromises replication and transcription and is thus toxic to cells. DNA repair deficiencies are generally associated with cellular replicative senescence and premature aging syndromes, suggesting that efficient DNA repair is required for normal longevity. It follows that the evolution of increasing lifespan amongst animal species should be associated with enhanced DNA repair capacities. Although UV damage repair has been shown to correlate positively with mammalian species lifespan, we lack similar insight into many other DNA repair pathways, including base excision repair (BER). DNA is continuously exposed to reactive oxygen species produced during aerobic metabolism, resulting in the occurrence of oxidative damage within DNA. Short-patch BER plays an important role in repairing the resultant oxidative lesions. We therefore tested whether an enhancement of BER enzyme activities has occurred concomitantly with the evolution of increased maximum lifespan (MLSP). We collected brain and liver tissue from 15 vertebrate endotherm species ranging in MLSP over an order of magnitude. We measured apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease activity, as well as the rates of nucleotide incorporation into an oligonucleotide containing a single nucleotide gap (catalyzed by BER polymerase β) and subsequent ligation of the oligonucleotide. None of these activities correlated positively with species MLSP. Rather, nucleotide incorporation and oligonucleotide ligation activities appeared to be primarily (and negatively) correlated with species body mass. PMID:21853261

  17. Correlates of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Brain-Computer Interface Accuracy in a Multi-Class Personalization Framework.

    PubMed

    Weyand, Sabine; Chau, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide individuals with a means of interacting with a computer using only neural activity. To date, the majority of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) BCIs have used prescribed tasks to achieve binary control. The goals of this study were to evaluate the possibility of using a personalized approach to establish control of a two-, three-, four-, and five-class NIRS-BCI, and to explore how various user characteristics correlate to accuracy. Ten able-bodied participants were recruited for five data collection sessions. Participants performed six mental tasks and a personalized approach was used to select each individual's best discriminating subset of tasks. The average offline cross-validation accuracies achieved were 78, 61, 47, and 37% for the two-, three-, four-, and five-class problems, respectively. Most notably, all participants exceeded an accuracy of 70% for the two-class problem, and two participants exceeded an accuracy of 70% for the three-class problem. Additionally, accuracy was found to be strongly positively correlated (Pearson's) with perceived ease of session (ρ = 0.653), ease of concentration (ρ = 0.634), and enjoyment (ρ = 0.550), but strongly negatively correlated with verbal IQ (ρ = -0.749). PMID:26483657

  18. Comparison of human and porcine skin for characterization of sunscreens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigmann, Hans-Jürgen; Schanzer, Sabine; Patzelt, Alexa; Bahaban, Virginie; Durat, Fabienne; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen

    2009-03-01

    The universal sun protection factor (USPF) characterizing sunscreen efficacy based on spectroscopically determined data, which were obtained using the tape stripping procedure. The USPF takes into account the complete ultraviolet (UV) spectral range in contrast to the classical sun protection factor (SPF). Until now, the USPF determination has been evaluated only in human skin. However, investigating new filters not yet licensed excludes in vivo investigation on human skin but requires the utilization of a suitable skin model. The penetration behavior and the protection efficacy of 10 commercial sunscreens characterized by USPF were investigated, comparing human and porcine skin. The penetration behavior found for typical UV filter substances is nearly identical for both skin types. The comparison of the USPF obtained for human and porcine skin results in a linear relation between both USPF values with a correlation factor R2=0.98. The results demonstrate the possibility for the use of porcine skin to determine the protection efficacy of sunscreens.

  19. Porcine prion protein amyloid

    PubMed Central

    Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions. PMID:26218890

  20. Adverse effects of brain irradiation correlated with MR and CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Constine, L.S.; Konski, A.; Ekholm, S.; McDonald, S.; Rubin, P.

    1988-08-01

    Forty-one patients treated for primary malignancies of the brain at the University of Rochester Cancer Center since 1970 were assessed for adverse effects of irradiation clinically, and by computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. At diagnosis, patients ranged in age from 1-65 years (median 19 years) and the most common tumor (in 30) was astrocytoma. Radiation doses ranged from 45 to 81.3 Gy (median 56.8 Gy). White matter changes visible on MR were graded on a scale of 1-4, with grades 1-2 known to occur in some normal patients. Areas of increased signal intensity not associated with the tumor or surgery were visible in all patients (gr 1 = 37%, gr 2 = 32%, gr 3 = 17%, gr 4 = 15%) whereas only 35% had regions of abnormality (hypodensity) on CT. Sulci enlargement and ventricular abnormalities (asymmetry or dilatation) were present in approximately 50% of patients by each technique. Higher grade MR lesions were associated with radiation to large volumes and high doses. For the 36 patients treated with 1.5-2.0 Gy daily fractions, the mean radiation dose by grade was as follows: gr 1 = 55.1 Gy, gr 2 = 58.8 Gy, gr 3 = 60.0 Gy, gr 4 = 63.5 Gy. All 5 patients treated on a hyperfractionated schedule had gr 1-2 changes despite receiving greater than 70 Gy. Fifty percent of patients treated to the whole brain (+/- boost) had gr 3-4 changes, compared with 14% treated with local fields (peak dose regions similar in both groups). Among the children (less than or equal to 13 years), 20% had gr 3-4 changes compared with 56% of adults (excluding hyperfractionated patients). This finding may be due entirely or in part to the lower radiation doses used for children (mean 54.4 Gy vs. 63.7 Gy in adults). Clinical abnormalities attributable to irradiation included an impairment in mental functioning in 7 adults, and learning disabilities in 5 children.

  1. Correlation of brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging of spontaneously lead poisoned bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) with histological lesions: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    de Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Feeney, Daniel; Armién, Anibal G; Wuenschmann, Arno; Redig, Patrick T

    2016-04-01

    Six bald eagles with severe, acute lead poisoning based on blood lead values were analyzed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain and histopathology. The aims of the study were to use MRI to locate brain lesions and correlate the changes in MRI signal with the histological character of the lesions at necropsy. All of the bald eagles presented with neurologic and non-neurologic signs suggestive of severe lead poisoning and had blood lead levels in excess of 1.0 ppm. Areas of change in image intensity in the brainstem, midbrain and cerebellum were detected in the MRI scans. Histopathology confirmed the presence of all suspected lesions. The character of the lesions suggested vascular damage as the primary insult. MRI was useful for detecting lesions and defining their three-dimensional distribution and extent. Future studies are needed to evaluate the utility of MRI for detection of lesions in less severely lead poisoned eagles and determining prognosis for treatment. PMID:27033939

  2. Anatomo-clinical atlases correlate clinical data and electrode contact coordinates: application to subthalamic deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lalys, Florent; Haegelen, Claire; Mehri, Maroua; Drapier, Sophie; Vérin, Marc; Jannin, Pierre

    2013-01-30

    For patients suffering from Parkinson's disease with severe movement disorders, functional surgery may be required when medical therapy is not effective. In Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS), electrodes are implanted within the brain to stimulate deep structures such as SubThalamic Nucleus (STN). The quality of patient surgical outcome is generally related to the accuracy of nucleus targeting during surgery. In this paper, we focused on identifying optimum sites for STN DBS by studying symptomatic motor improvement along with neuropsychological side effects. We described successive steps for constructing digital atlases gathering patient's location of electrode contacts automatically segmented from postoperative images, and clinical scores. Three motor and five neuropsychological scores were included in the study. Correlations with active contact locations were carried out using an adapted hierarchical ascendant classification. Such analysis enabled the extraction of representative clusters to determine the optimum site for therapeutic STN DBS. For each clinical score, we built an anatomo-clinical atlas representing its improvement or deterioration in relation with the anatomical location of electrodes and from a population of implanted patients. To the best of our knowledge, we reported for the first time a discrepancy between a very good motor improvement by targeting the postero-superior region of the STN and an inevitable deterioration of the categorical and phonemic fluency in the same region. Such atlases and associated analysis may help better understanding of functional mapping in deep structures and may help pre-operative decision-making process and especially targeting. PMID:23147008

  3. Assessment of the best flow model to characterize diffuse correlation spectroscopy data acquired directly on the brain.

    PubMed

    Verdecchia, Kyle; Diop, Mamadou; Morrison, Laura B; Lee, Ting-Yim; St Lawrence, Keith

    2015-11-01

    Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is a non-invasive optical technique capable of monitoring tissue perfusion. The normalized temporal intensity autocorrelation function generated by DCS is typically characterized by assuming that the movement of erythrocytes can be modeled as a Brownian diffusion-like process instead of by the expected random flow model. Recently, a hybrid model, referred to as the hydrodynamic diffusion model, was proposed, which combines the random and Brownian flow models. The purpose of this study was to investigate the best model to describe autocorrelation functions acquired directly on the brain in order to avoid confounding effects of extracerebral tissues. Data were acquired from 11 pigs during normocapnia and hypocapnia, and flow changes were verified by computed tomography perfusion (CTP). The hydrodynamic diffusion model was found to provide the best fit to the autocorrelation functions; however, no significant difference for relative flow changes measured by the Brownian and hydrodynamic diffusion models was observed. PMID:26600995

  4. Dissociable correlates of response conflict and error awareness in error-related brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Gethin; Yeung, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Errors in speeded decision tasks are associated with characteristic patterns of brain activity. In the scalp-recorded EEG, error processing is reflected in two components, the error-related negativity (ERN) and the error positivity (Pe). These components have been widely studied, but debate remains regarding the precise aspects of error processing they reflect. The present study investigated the relation between the ERN and Pe using a novel version of the flanker task to allow a comparison between errors reflecting different causes—response conflict versus stimulus masking. The conflict and mask conditions were matched for overall behavioural performance but differed in underlying response dynamics, as indexed by response time distributions and measures of lateralised motor activity. ERN amplitude varied in relation to these differing response dynamics, being significantly larger in the conflict condition compared to the mask condition. Furthermore, differences in response dynamics between participants were predictive of modulations in ERN amplitude. In contrast, Pe activity varied little between conditions, but varied across trials in relation to participants‘ awareness of their errors. Taken together, these findings suggest a dissociation between the ERN and Pe, with the former reflecting the dynamics of response selection and conflict, and the latter reflecting conscious recognition of an error. PMID:21130788

  5. Hearing facial identities: brain correlates of face--voice integration in person identification.

    PubMed

    Schweinberger, Stefan R; Kloth, Nadine; Robertson, David M C

    2011-10-01

    Audiovisual integration (AVI) is a well-known aspect of speech perception, but integration of facial and vocal information is also important for speaker recognition. We recently demonstrated AVI in the recognition of familiar (but not unfamiliar) speakers. Specifically, systematic behavioural benefits and costs in recognizing a familiar voice occur when the voice is combined with a time-synchronised articulating face of corresponding or noncorresponding speaker identity, respectively (Schweinberger et al., 2007; Robertson and Schweinberger, 2010). Here we report an experiment assessing event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in this novel paradigm, while participants recognized familiar speakers presented in (1) Voice only, (2) voice with identity-corresponding and (3) noncorresponding time-synchronised speaking faces, as well as (4) Face only conditions. Audiovisual speaker identity correspondence influenced only later ERPs around 250-600 msec, with increased negativity for noncorresponding identities at central electrodes. Strikingly, when compared with the ERPs from both unimodal conditions, both audiovisual conditions led to a much earlier onset of frontocentral negativity, with maximal differences around 50-80 msec. Moreover, audiovisual stimuli elicited larger N170 responses than Face only stimuli. These findings suggest that the perception of a voice and a time-synchronised articulating face triggers remarkably early and mandatory mechanisms of audiovisual processing, although the correspondence or discrepancy in audiovisual speaker identity may only be computed ∼200msec later. PMID:21208611

  6. Event-related brain potential correlates of two states of conscious awareness in memory

    PubMed Central

    Düzel, Emrah; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Mangun, George R.; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Tulving, Endel

    1997-01-01

    We report an event-related potential (ERP) experiment of human recognition memory that explored the relation between conscious awareness and electrophysiological activity of the brain. We recorded ERPs from healthy adults while they made “remember” and “know” recognition judgments about previously seen words. These two kinds of judgments reflect “autonoetic” and “noetic” awareness, respectively. The ERP effects differed between the two kinds of awareness while they were similar for “true” and “false” recognition. Noetic awareness was associated with a temporoparietal positivity in the N400 range (325–600 ms) and a late (600–1,000 ms) frontocentral negativity, whereas autonoetic awareness was associated with a widespread, late, bifrontal and left parietotemporal (600–1000 ms) positivity. In the very late (1,300–1,900 ms) time window, a right frontal positivity was observed for both remember and know judgments of both true and false targets. These results provide physiological evidence for two types of conscious awareness in episodic memory retrieval. PMID:9159185

  7. Anatomical-Functional Correlative Analysis Of The Human Brain Using Three Dimensional Imaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Alan C.; Marrett, Sean; Collins, D. L.; Peters, Terence M.

    1989-05-01

    Quantitative interpretation of functional images (PET or SPECT) is hampered by poor spatial resolution, low counting statistics and, for many tracers, low contrast between different brain structures of interest. Further, normal tracer distributions can be severely distorted by such gross pathologies as stroke, tumor and dementia. Hence, the complementary anatomical information provided by CT or MRI is essential for accurate and reproducible regional analysis of functional data. We have developed methods for the three-dimensional integration and simultaneous display of image volumes from MRI and PET. PET data was collected from an older Therascan 3-slice scanner with 12 mm resolution and a 15-slice Scanditronix PC-2048 system having 5-6 mm resolution in each dimension. MRI data was obtained from a Philips 1.5 Tesla Gyroscan scanner. The image volumes were loaded into a PIXAR 3-D image computer for simultaneous display. A general algorithm for finding the optimal transformation between two ensembles of equivalent points was implemented and investigated through simulation studies. Using a locally-developed 3-D image/graphics analysis package, equivalent points in the two image volumes were identified, either manually or via an adjustable computerized volume-of-interest (VOI) atlas. The MRI data were then re-sampled along planes parallel to the PET planes and the two volumes overlaid using opacity-weighted composition. Arbitrary oblique planes through the two volumes were obtained in interactive sessions.

  8. Differential compromise of prospective and retrospective metamemory monitoring and their dissociable structural brain correlates.

    PubMed

    Le Berre, Anne-Pascale; Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Kwon, Dongjin; Serventi, Matthew R; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2016-08-01

    Metamemory refers to personal knowledge about one's own memory ability that invokes cognitive processes relevant to monitoring and controlling memory. An impaired monitoring system can potentially result in unawareness of symptoms as can occur in addiction denial. Monitoring processes can be assessed with prospective measures such as Feeling-Of-Knowing (FOK) judgments on prediction of future recognition performance, or retrospective confidence judgments (RCJ) made on previous memory performance. Alcoholic patients with amnesia showed poor FOK but intact RCJ. The neuropsychological continuum from mild to moderate deficits in nonamnesic to amnesic alcoholism raised the possibility that alcoholics uncomplicated by clinically-detectable amnesia may suffer anosognosia for their mild memory deficits. Herein 24 abstinent alcoholics and 26 age-matched controls completed an episodic memory paradigm including prospective FOK and retrospective RCJ monitoring measures and underwent 3T structural magnetic resonance imaging. Alcoholics were less accurate than controls in recognition and in assessing their future recognition performance, which was marked by overestimation, but were as accurate as controls on confidence ratings of actual recognition performance. Examination of brain structure-function relations revealed a double dissociation where FOK accuracy was selectively related to insular volume, and retrospective confidence accuracy was selectively related to frontolimbic structural volumes. Impaired FOK with intact RCJ was consistent with mild anosognosia and suggested evidence for neuropsychological and neural mechanisms of unawareness in addiction. PMID:27244277

  9. Brain perfusion monitoring with frequency-domain and continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy: a cross-correlation study in newborn piglets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Katz, A.; Alfano, R. R.; Kofinas, A. D.; Kofinas, D. A.; Stubblefield, P. G.; Rosenfeld, W.; Beyer, D.; Maulik, D.; Stankovic, M. R.

    2000-11-01

    The newborn piglet brain model was used to correlate continuous-wave (CW) and frequency-domain (FD) near-infrared spectroscopy. Six ventilated and instrumented newborn piglets were subjected to a series of manipulations in blood oxygenation with the effects on brain perfusion known to be associated with brain hypoxia-ischaemia. An excellent agreement between the CW and FD was demonstrated. This agreement improved when the scattering properties (determined by the FD device) were employed to calculate the differential pathlength factor, an important step in CW data processing.

  10. Ivy Sign on Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Images in Moyamoya Disease: Correlation with Clinical Severity and Old Brain Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Kwon-Duk; Suh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Yong Bae; Kim, Ji Hwa; Ahn, Sung Jun; Kim, Dong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Leptomeningeal collateral, in moyamoya disease (MMD), appears as an ivy sign on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images. There has been little investigation into the relationship between presentation of ivy signs and old brain lesions. We aimed to evaluate clinical significance of ivy signs and whether they correlate with old brain lesions and the severity of clinical symptoms in patients with MMD. Materials and Methods FLAIR images of 83 patients were reviewed. Each cerebral hemisphere was divided into 4 regions and each region was scored based on the prominence of the ivy sign. Total ivy score (TIS) was defined as the sum of the scores from the eight regions and dominant hemispheric ivy sign (DHI) was determined by comparing the ivy scores from each hemisphere. According to the degree of ischemic symptoms, patients were classified into four subgroups: 1) nonspecific symptoms without motor weakness, 2) single transient ischemic attack (TIA), 3) recurrent TIA, or 4) complete stroke. Results TIS was significantly different as follows: 4.86±2.55 in patients with nonspecific symptoms, 5.89±3.10 in patients with single TIA, 9.60±3.98 in patients with recurrent TIA and 8.37±3.39 in patients with complete stroke (p=0.003). TIS associated with old lesions was significantly higher than those not associated with old lesions (9.35±4.22 vs. 7.49±3.37, p=0.032). We found a significant correlation between DHI and motor symptoms (p=0.001). Conclusion Because TIS has a strong tendency with severity of ischemic motor symptom and the presence of old lesions, the ivy sign may be useful in predicting severity of disease progression. PMID:26256975

  11. The binaural masking level difference: cortical correlates persist despite severe brain stem atrophy in progressive supranuclear palsy

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, James B.; Ghosh, Boyd C. P.; Carlyon, Robert P.; Plack, Christopher J.; Gockel, Hedwig E.

    2014-01-01

    Under binaural listening conditions, the detection of target signals within background masking noise is substantially improved when the interaural phase of the target differs from that of the masker. Neural correlates of this binaural masking level difference (BMLD) have been observed in the inferior colliculus and temporal cortex, but it is not known whether degeneration of the inferior colliculus would result in a reduction of the BMLD in humans. We used magnetoencephalography to examine the BMLD in 13 healthy adults and 13 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). PSP is associated with severe atrophy of the upper brain stem, including the inferior colliculus, confirmed by voxel-based morphometry of structural MRI. Stimuli comprised in-phase sinusoidal tones presented to both ears at three levels (high, medium, and low) masked by in-phase noise, which rendered the low-level tone inaudible. Critically, the BMLD was measured using a low-level tone presented in opposite phase across ears, making it audible against the noise. The cortical waveforms from bilateral auditory sources revealed significantly larger N1m peaks for the out-of-phase low-level tone compared with the in-phase low-level tone, for both groups, indicating preservation of early cortical correlates of the BMLD in PSP. In PSP a significant delay was observed in the onset of the N1m deflection and the amplitude of the P2m was reduced, but these differences were not restricted to the BMLD condition. The results demonstrate that although PSP causes subtle auditory deficits, binaural processing can survive the presence of significant damage to the upper brain stem. PMID:25231610

  12. Expression and genomic imprinting of the porcine Rasgrf1 gene.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yue-Yun; Liu, Li-Yuan; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Huang, Long; Zhang, Shu-Jing; Yin, Zong-Jun

    2014-02-25

    Imprinted genes play important roles in mammalian growth, development and behavior. The Rasgrf1 (Ras protein-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1) gene has been identified as an imprinted gene in mouse and rat. In the present study, we detected its sequence, imprinting status and expression pattern in the domestic pigs. A 228 bp partial sequence located in exon 14 and a 193 bp partial sequence located in exon 1 of the Rasgrf1 gene in domestic pigs were obtained. A G/A transition, was identified in Rasgrf1 exon 14, and then, the reciprocal Berkshire × Wannan black F1 hybrid model and the RT-PCR-RFLP method were used to detect the imprinting status of porcine Rasgrf1 gene at the developmental stage of 1-day-old. The expression profile results indicated that the porcine Rasgrf1 mRNA was highly expressed in brain, pituitary and pancreas, followed by kidney, stomach, lung, testis, small intestine, ovary, spleen and liver, and at low levels of expression in longissimus dorsi, heart, and backfat. The expression levels of Rasgrf1 gene in brain, pituitary and pancreas tissues were significantly different between the two reciprocal F1 hybrids. Imprinting analysis showed that porcine Rasgrf1 gene was maternally expressed in the liver, small intestine, paternally expressed in the lung, but biallelically expressed in brain, heart, spleen, kidney, stomach, pancreas, backfat, testis, ovary, longissimus dorsi and pituitary tissues. PMID:24342659

  13. Experiential and Doctrinal Religious Knowledge Categorization in Parkinson's Disease: Behavioral and Brain Correlates.

    PubMed

    Modestino, Edward J; O'Toole, Partrick; Reinhofer, AnnaMarie

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest changes in religious cognition in a subgroup of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD e.g., Butler et al., 2011). It is unclear whether this deficit extends to both doctrinal and experiential categorization forms of religious cognition. Kapogiannis et al. (2009b) dissociated experiential and doctrinal religious knowledge to different neural networks using fMRI. We examined Kapogiannis' dissociation against the background of PD side of onset (LOPD, ROPD), assessing performance both On- and Off-medication. In the behavioral portion of the study, we used a statement classification task in combination with scholar derived test sets for experiential and doctrinal religious knowledge categorization in conjunction with neuropsychological measures. In the neuroimaging portion of the study, we expanded on Kapogiannis' study by examining the same networks in PD. The behavioral data revealed that all groups rated (categorized) the scholar derived tests of experiential and doctrinal significantly differently than the scholars. All groups, including the scholars, classified more phrases as doctrinal than experiential. Religious cognition differed in the PD groups: those with PD Off-medication and LOPD Off-medication comprehended scholar defined experiential phrases with more difficulty, making them more likely to be classified as mixed or doctrinal. This was in contrast to the subjective frequency of classification of phrases as experiential paired with a cognitive decline in PD Off-medication; whereas PD On-medication showed a positive correlation with cognitive state and subjective doctrinal classification. For ROPD, cognitive state was associated with subjective experiential and doctrinal frequency of classification. With more intact intellect, there was a greater likelihood of classifying phrases subjectively as mixed, and the converse for experiential. Furthermore, religiosity negatively predicted subjective doctrinal frequency in LOPD, with the

  14. Experiential and Doctrinal Religious Knowledge Categorization in Parkinson's Disease: Behavioral and Brain Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Modestino, Edward J.; O'Toole, Partrick; Reinhofer, AnnaMarie

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest changes in religious cognition in a subgroup of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD e.g., Butler et al., 2011). It is unclear whether this deficit extends to both doctrinal and experiential categorization forms of religious cognition. Kapogiannis et al. (2009b) dissociated experiential and doctrinal religious knowledge to different neural networks using fMRI. We examined Kapogiannis' dissociation against the background of PD side of onset (LOPD, ROPD), assessing performance both On- and Off-medication. In the behavioral portion of the study, we used a statement classification task in combination with scholar derived test sets for experiential and doctrinal religious knowledge categorization in conjunction with neuropsychological measures. In the neuroimaging portion of the study, we expanded on Kapogiannis' study by examining the same networks in PD. The behavioral data revealed that all groups rated (categorized) the scholar derived tests of experiential and doctrinal significantly differently than the scholars. All groups, including the scholars, classified more phrases as doctrinal than experiential. Religious cognition differed in the PD groups: those with PD Off-medication and LOPD Off-medication comprehended scholar defined experiential phrases with more difficulty, making them more likely to be classified as mixed or doctrinal. This was in contrast to the subjective frequency of classification of phrases as experiential paired with a cognitive decline in PD Off-medication; whereas PD On-medication showed a positive correlation with cognitive state and subjective doctrinal classification. For ROPD, cognitive state was associated with subjective experiential and doctrinal frequency of classification. With more intact intellect, there was a greater likelihood of classifying phrases subjectively as mixed, and the converse for experiential. Furthermore, religiosity negatively predicted subjective doctrinal frequency in LOPD, with the

  15. Proton spectroscopy of the brain in HIV infection: correlation with clinical, immunologic, and MR imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Chong, W K; Sweeney, B; Wilkinson, I D; Paley, M; Hall-Craggs, M A; Kendall, B E; Shepard, J K; Beecham, M; Miller, R F; Weller, I V

    1993-07-01

    Abnormalities at cerebral proton spectroscopy occur in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) is believed to be a neuronal marker, and neuronal loss is thought to underlie the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cognitive/motor complex. The proton spectra in 103 HIV-seropositive patients and 23 control subjects were compared and correlated with clinical, immunologic, and radiologic measures of HIV infection. Significant (P < .05) reductions in the mean NAA/choline (Cho) and NAA/creatine (Cr) ratios were seen in patients with immune suppression and neurologic signs. Significant increases in the Cho/Cr ratios were seen in patients with low CD4 lymphocyte counts and abnormal magnetic resonance (MR) images. Reduced NAA ratios correlated with diffuse but not focal MR imaging abnormalities. Combined MR imaging and spectroscopy provides closer relationships to clinical and immunologic measures of disease than either modality alone. Spectroscopy is an adjunct to MR imaging and augments the value of an MR imaging study. PMID:8099750

  16. Neural correlates of informational cascades: brain mechanisms of social influence on belief updating.

    PubMed

    Huber, Rafael E; Klucharev, Vasily; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Informational cascades can occur when rationally acting individuals decide independently of their private information and follow the decisions of preceding decision-makers. In the process of updating beliefs, differences in the weighting of private and publicly available social information may modulate the probability that a cascade starts in a decisive way. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined neural activity while participants updated their beliefs based on the decisions of two fictitious stock market traders and their own private information, which led to a final decision of buying one of two stocks. Computational modeling of the behavioral data showed that a majority of participants overweighted private information. Overweighting was negatively correlated with the probability of starting an informational cascade in trials especially prone to conformity. Belief updating by private information was related to activity in the inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the parietal cortex; the more a participant overweighted private information, the higher the activity in the inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula and the lower in the parietal-temporal cortex. This study explores the neural correlates of overweighting of private information, which underlies the tendency to start an informational cascade. PMID:24974396

  17. Correlation between injury pattern and Finite Element analysis in biomechanical reconstructions of Traumatic Brain Injuries.

    PubMed

    Fahlstedt, Madelen; Depreitere, Bart; Halldin, Peter; Vander Sloten, Jos; Kleiven, Svein

    2015-05-01

    At present, Finite Element (FE) analyses are often used as a tool to better understand the mechanisms of head injury. Previously, these models have been compared to cadaver experiments, with the next step under development being accident reconstructions. Thus far, the main focus has been on deriving an injury threshold and little effort has been put into correlating the documented injury location with the response displayed by the FE model. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to introduce a novel image correlation method that compares the response of the FE model with medical images. The injuries shown on the medical images were compared to the strain pattern in the FE model and evaluated by two indices; the Overlap Index (OI) and the Location Index (LI). As the name suggests, OI measures the area which indicates both injury in the medical images and high strain values in the FE images. LI evaluates the difference in center of mass in the medical and FE images. A perfect match would give an OI and LI equal to 1. This method was applied to three bicycle accident reconstructions. The reconstructions gave an average OI between 0.01 and 0.19 for the three cases and between 0.39 and 0.88 for LI. Performing injury reconstructions are a challenge as the information from the accidents often is uncertain. The suggested method evaluates the response in an objective way which can be used in future injury reconstruction studies. PMID:25817473

  18. Neural correlates of informational cascades: brain mechanisms of social influence on belief updating

    PubMed Central

    Klucharev, Vasily; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Informational cascades can occur when rationally acting individuals decide independently of their private information and follow the decisions of preceding decision-makers. In the process of updating beliefs, differences in the weighting of private and publicly available social information may modulate the probability that a cascade starts in a decisive way. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined neural activity while participants updated their beliefs based on the decisions of two fictitious stock market traders and their own private information, which led to a final decision of buying one of two stocks. Computational modeling of the behavioral data showed that a majority of participants overweighted private information. Overweighting was negatively correlated with the probability of starting an informational cascade in trials especially prone to conformity. Belief updating by private information was related to activity in the inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the parietal cortex; the more a participant overweighted private information, the higher the activity in the inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula and the lower in the parietal-temporal cortex. This study explores the neural correlates of overweighting of private information, which underlies the tendency to start an informational cascade. PMID:24974396

  19. Friends and Foes from an Ant Brain's Point of View – Neuronal Correlates of Colony Odors in a Social Insect

    PubMed Central

    Brandstaetter, Andreas Simon; Rössler, Wolfgang; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Background Successful cooperation depends on reliable identification of friends and foes. Social insects discriminate colony members (nestmates/friends) from foreign workers (non-nestmates/foes) by colony-specific, multi-component colony odors. Traditionally, complex processing in the brain has been regarded as crucial for colony recognition. Odor information is represented as spatial patterns of activity and processed in the primary olfactory neuropile, the antennal lobe (AL) of insects, which is analogous to the vertebrate olfactory bulb. Correlative evidence indicates that the spatial activity patterns reflect odor-quality, i.e., how an odor is perceived. For colony odors, alternatively, a sensory filter in the peripheral nervous system was suggested, causing specific anosmia to nestmate colony odors. Here, we investigate neuronal correlates of colony odors in the brain of a social insect to directly test whether they are anosmic to nestmate colony odors and whether spatial activity patterns in the AL can predict how odor qualities like “friend” and “foe” are attributed to colony odors. Methodology/Principal Findings Using ant dummies that mimic natural conditions, we presented colony odors and investigated their neuronal representation in the ant Camponotus floridanus. Nestmate and non-nestmate colony odors elicited neuronal activity: In the periphery, we recorded sensory responses of olfactory receptor neurons (electroantennography), and in the brain, we measured colony odor specific spatial activity patterns in the AL (calcium imaging). Surprisingly, upon repeated stimulation with the same colony odor, spatial activity patterns were variable, and as variable as activity patterns elicited by different colony odors. Conclusions Ants are not anosmic to nestmate colony odors. However, spatial activity patterns in the AL alone do not provide sufficient information for colony odor discrimination and this finding challenges the current notion of how odor

  20. The brain correlates of the effects of monetary and verbal rewards on intrinsic motivation.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Konstanze; Abeler, Johannes; Weber, Bernd; Falk, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Apart from everyday duties, such as doing the laundry or cleaning the house, there are tasks we do for pleasure and enjoyment. We do such tasks, like solving crossword puzzles or reading novels, without any external pressure or force; instead, we are intrinsically motivated: we do the tasks because we enjoy doing them. Previous studies suggest that external rewards, i.e., rewards from the outside, affect the intrinsic motivation to engage in a task: while performance-based monetary rewards are perceived as controlling and induce a business-contract framing, verbal rewards praising one's competence can enhance the perceived self-determination. Accordingly, the former have been shown to decrease intrinsic motivation, whereas the latter have been shown to increase intrinsic motivation. The present study investigated the neural processes underlying the effects of monetary and verbal rewards on intrinsic motivation in a group of 64 subjects applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that, when participants received positive performance feedback, activation in the anterior striatum and midbrain was affected by the nature of the reward; compared to a non-rewarded control group, activation was higher while monetary rewards were administered. However, we did not find a decrease in activation after reward withdrawal. In contrast, we found an increase in activation for verbal rewards: after verbal rewards had been withdrawn, participants showed a higher activation in the aforementioned brain areas when they received success compared to failure feedback. We further found that, while participants worked on the task, activation in the lateral prefrontal cortex was enhanced after the verbal rewards were administered and withdrawn. PMID:25278834

  1. Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Liver Cirrhosis and Fatty Liver: Correlation with Cardiac Performance

    PubMed Central

    Metwaly, Amna; khalik, Ashraf Abdel; Nasr, Fatma Mohammad; Sabry, Amal Ismail; Gouda, Mohamed Fathy; Hassan, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of the present study were to assess the serum BNP level in patients with post hepatitis C liver cirrhosis and patients with fatty liver and to determine the correlation between BNP and the severity of liver disease and cardiac performance. Methods The study was conducted on 140 subjects subdivided into 3 groups: group 1 included 60 patients having post hepatitis C virus (HCV) liver cirrhosis; group 2 included 60 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); and group 3 included 20 healthy volunteers serving as a control group. All patients and volunteers were subjected to full physical examinations, laboratory evaluation of hemoglobin percent, liver and renal function tests, serum electrolytes, cholesterol, triglyceride, HBs antigen, HCV antibody and serum BNP levels, ECG, abdominal ultrasonography, and echocardiography. Results There was a significant increase in the BNP level in cirrhotic patients compared to the other two groups (p = 0.000), and it was correlated with the severity of liver disease assigned as Child’s classification (p = 0.000). Also, there was a significant increase in the BNP level in cirrhotic patients with decompensation components compared to those without decompensation components (p = 0.000), history of hepatic encephalopathy (p = 0.000), history of variceal bleeding (p = 0.000), history of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (p = 0.000), presence of ascites (p = 0.000) and portal vein diameter > 11 mm in abdominal ultrasound (p = 0.000), and prolonged QTc interval in ECG (p = 0.011). There was a significant increase in serum BNP in patients with cirrhosis with the following echocardiographic findings: IVST > 11 mm, PWT > 11 mm, LA diameter > 40 mm, EF% < 54%, and E/A ratio < 1 compared to those without these echocardiographic findings (p = 0.000). Conclusion BNP level increases in post hepatitis C cirrhotic patients and tends to decrease in fatty liver disease patients, and it is correlated with both the

  2. Exploring the physiological correlates of chronic mild traumatic brain injury symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Astafiev, Serguei V.; Zinn, Kristina L.; Shulman, Gordon L.; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of a multimodal imaging study involving behavioral assessments, evoked and resting-state BOLD fMRI, and DTI in chronic mTBI subjects. We found that larger task-evoked BOLD activity in the MT+/LO region in extra-striate visual cortex correlated with mTBI and PTSD symptoms, especially light sensitivity. Moreover, higher FA values near the left optic radiation (OR) were associated with both light sensitivity and higher BOLD activity in the MT+/LO region. The MT+/LO region was localized as a region of abnormal functional connectivity with central white matter regions previously found to have abnormal physiological signals during visual eye movement tracking (Astafiev et al., 2015). We conclude that mTBI symptoms and light sensitivity may be related to excessive responsiveness of visual cortex to sensory stimuli. This abnormal sensitivity may be related to chronic remodeling of white matter visual pathways acutely injured. PMID:26909324

  3. Event-related potentials as brain correlates of item specific proportion congruent effects.

    PubMed

    Shedden, Judith M; Milliken, Bruce; Watter, Scott; Monteiro, Sandra

    2013-12-01

    The item-specific proportion congruency (ISPC) effect is consistent with the idea that control processes can be applied rapidly in accord with previously experienced conflict for a particular category. An alternative account of this effect is that it reflects item-specific learning processes unrelated to control at the level of the category. The accounts predict the same behaviour but differ in terms of electrophysiological predictions. Two experiments examined the ISPC effect with a particular focus on neural correlates that might reveal whether, and how early in processing, high and low proportion congruent items are treated as distinct classes of stimuli. For both tasks, the proportion congruency category was distinguished prior to the congruence of the specific stimulus, as early as 100 ms post-stimulus onset for the global/local identification task (Experiment 1) and 150 ms for the Stroop task (Experiment 2). The results support an on-line control account of ISPC effects. PMID:24177235

  4. Magnetic resonance volumetric assessments of brains in fetuses with ventriculomegaly correlated to outcome

    PubMed Central

    Pier, Danielle B; Levine, Deborah; Kataoka, Miliam L; Estroff, Judy A.; Werdich, Xiang Q.; Ware, Janice; Beeghly, Marjorie; Poussaint, Tina Y; DuPlessis A, Adre; Li, Y; Feldman, Henry A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To correlate MR 2D measurements of lateral ventricular width and 3D measures of lateral ventricular and supratentorial parenchymal volumes to postnatal outcomes in fetuses with ventriculomegaly (VM). Methods 307 fetuses (mean gestational age 26.0 weeks, range 15.7-39.4 weeks) had MR volumetry after referral for VM. Fetuses were grouped into those with (N=114) or without (N=193) other CNS anomalies. Pregnancy outcome and postnatal neurodevelopmental outcomes up to age 3 were obtained. A subgroup analysis was performed excluding fetuses with other CNS anomalies. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess which measure was most predictive of outcome. Results There were 50 terminations and 2 stillbirths. There were 255 live births. 75 were lost to follow-up. Among 180 liveborn infants with follow-up, 140 had an abnormal and 40 had normal outcome. Atrial diameter (p<0.0001), frontal horn diameter (p<0.0001), and ventricular volume (p=0.04) were each predictive of live-birth, with each having 92% specificity at 60% sensitivity. Among fetuses without other CNS anomalies, 180/193 (93%) pregnancies resulted in live deliveries, with atrial diameter (p<0.0001), frontal horn diameter (p=0.003), and ventricular volume (p=0.008) associated with live birth, and with atrial diameter having highest specificity of >99% at 60% sensitivity. Parenchymal volume was not associated with normal or abnormal outcome (either livebirth vs. demise or normal vs. abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome). Among live-borns, there was no age-adjusted threshold for any of the measures that reliably distinguished between normal and abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome. Conclusions Ventricular volume and diameter, but not parenchymal volume, correlate with live birth in fetuses with VM. However, once live-born, neither 2D nor 3D measurements can distinguish a fetus that will go on to have a normal outcome. PMID:21527607

  5. Correlation of the impedance and effective electrode area of doped PEDOT modified electrodes for brain-machine interfaces.

    PubMed

    Harris, Alexander R; Molino, Paul J; Kapsa, Robert M I; Clark, Graeme M; Paolini, Antonio G; Wallace, Gordon G

    2015-05-01

    Electrode impedance is used to assess the thermal noise and signal-to-noise ratio for brain-machine interfaces. An intermediate frequency of 1 kHz is typically measured, although other frequencies may be better predictors of device performance. PEDOT-PSS, PEDOT-DBSA and PEDOT-pTs conducting polymer modified electrodes have reduced impedance at 1 kHz compared to bare metal electrodes, but have no correlation with the effective electrode area. Analytical solutions to impedance indicate that all low-intermediate frequencies can be used to compare the electrode area at a series RC circuit, typical of an ideal metal electrode in a conductive solution. More complex equivalent circuits can be used for the modified electrodes, with a simplified Randles circuit applied to PEDOT-PSS and PEDOT-pTs and a Randles circuit including a Warburg impedance element for PEDOT-DBSA at 0 V. The impedance and phase angle at low frequencies using both equivalent circuit models is dependent on the electrode area. Low frequencies may therefore provide better predictions of the thermal noise and signal-to-noise ratio at modified electrodes. The coefficient of variation of the PEDOT-pTs impedance at low frequencies was lower than the other conducting polymers, consistent with linear and steady-state electroactive area measurements. There are poor correlations between the impedance and the charge density as they are not ideal metal electrodes. PMID:25773879

  6. GnRH immunodetection in the brain of the holocephalan fish Chimaera monstrosa L.: correlation to oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Masini, Maria Angela; Prato, Paola; Vacchi, Marino; Uva, Bianca Maria

    2008-05-01

    Chimera monstrosa (rabbit fish) like other holocephalans is a rare, delicate deep sea fish. Owing to the difficulty of sampling individuals in good shape, there is a paucity of information available on the morphology and physiology of this species especially concerning reproduction. In holocephalans, a hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis has been postulated and a GnRH molecule identical to cGnRH II has been identified. The aim of the present study was to correlate the presence of steroidogenic enzymes in the ovarian follicles with the presence of GnRH in the hypothalamus. Estrogens, the steroids that trigger the accumulation of yolk (vitellogenesis) in the oocytes are synthesized by the somatic cells of the follicle in the vitellogenic stages via a cascade of steroid dehydrogenases involving 3 beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD; in the inner thecal layer) and aromatase cytochrome (P450; granulosa layer). Our results showed that 3 beta-HSD is present concomitant with the presence of cGnRH II in the preoptic area and in the ventral hypothalamus. Another form of immunoreactive GnRH, mGnRH is also present in the brain of C. monstrosa. It is localized in the ventral telencephalon and in the midbrain caudal diencephalon (boundary between ventral thalamus and tegmentum of the mesencephalon). This form of GnRH is probably correlated with sexual behaviour. PMID:18400222

  7. A Lack of Correlation between Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Serum Level and Verbal Memory Performance in Healthy Polish Population

    PubMed Central

    Wilkosc, Monika; Markowska, Anita; Zajac-Lamparska, Ludmila; Skibinska, Maria; Szalkowska, Agnieszka; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is considered to be connected with memory and learning through the processes of long term synaptic potentiation and synaptic plasticity. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between precursor BDNF (proBNDF) and mature BDNF (mBDNF) serum levels and performance on Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) in 150 healthy volunteers. In addition, we have verified the relationships between serum concentration of both forms of BDNF and RAVLT with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.We found no strong evidence for the correlation of proBDNF and mBDNF serum levels with performance on RAVLT in healthy Polish population in early and middle adulthood. We observed the mBDNF serum concentration to be higher in women compared with men. Moreover, we revealed higher mBDNF level to be connected with lower body mass index (BMI). In turn, the results of RAVLT correlated with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, such as: age, education, gender, BMI and smoking. PMID:27242447

  8. A Lack of Correlation between Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Serum Level and Verbal Memory Performance in Healthy Polish Population.

    PubMed

    Wilkosc, Monika; Markowska, Anita; Zajac-Lamparska, Ludmila; Skibinska, Maria; Szalkowska, Agnieszka; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is considered to be connected with memory and learning through the processes of long term synaptic potentiation and synaptic plasticity. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between precursor BDNF (proBNDF) and mature BDNF (mBDNF) serum levels and performance on Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) in 150 healthy volunteers. In addition, we have verified the relationships between serum concentration of both forms of BDNF and RAVLT with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.We found no strong evidence for the correlation of proBDNF and mBDNF serum levels with performance on RAVLT in healthy Polish population in early and middle adulthood. We observed the mBDNF serum concentration to be higher in women compared with men. Moreover, we revealed higher mBDNF level to be connected with lower body mass index (BMI). In turn, the results of RAVLT correlated with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, such as: age, education, gender, BMI and smoking. PMID:27242447

  9. EEG correlates of P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI) performance in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Joseph N.; McFarland, Dennis J.; Vaughan, Theresa M.; McCane, Lynn M.; Tsui, Phillippa Z.; Zeitlin, Debra J.; Sellers, Eric W.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify electroencephalography (EEG) features that correlate with P300-based brain-computer interface (P300 BCI) performance in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Twenty people with ALS used a P300 BCI spelling application in copy-spelling mode. Three types of EEG features were found to be good predictors of P300 BCI performance: (1) the root-mean-square amplitude and (2) the negative peak amplitude of the event-related potential to target stimuli (target ERP) at Fz, Cz, P3, Pz, and P4; and (3) EEG theta frequency (4.5-8 Hz) power at Fz, Cz, P3, Pz, P4, PO7, PO8 and Oz. A statistical prediction model that used a subset of these features accounted for >60% of the variance in copy-spelling performance (p < 0.001, mean R2 = 0.6175). The correlations reflected between-subject, rather than within-subject, effects. The results enhance understanding of performance differences among P300 BCI users. The predictors found in this study might help in: (1) identifying suitable candidates for long-term P300 BCI operation; (2) assessing performance online. Further work on within-subject effects needs to be done to establish whether P300 BCI user performance could be improved by optimizing one or more of these EEG features.

  10. Clinicopathological correlation of psychosis and brain vascular changes in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Simon Kang Seng; Hao, Ying; Chia, Pei Shi; Tan, Eng-King; Hameed, Shahul

    2016-01-01

    Psychosis is common in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, studies on neuropathology in vascular etiology contributing to psychosis in AD is lacking to date. The aim of this study was to investigate neuropathological vascular related changes in Alzheimer’s disease with psychosis. Data of patients with AD from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center between 2005 to September 2013 was accessed and reviewed. Presence of psychosis was determined based on Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire taken from the last visit within one year prior to death, and patients were divided into psychosis positive and negative group. Comparison of clinical details and neuropathological vascular changes between the groups was performed using Wilcoxon rank sum test and Chi-square/ Fisher’s exact test. Significant variables were further included in a multivariate logistic model. Overall, 145 patients was included. Of these, 50 patients were psychosis positive. Presence of one or more cortical microinfarcts and moderate to severe arteriosclerosis was found to be positively associated with psychosis. Our results suggest vascular changes correlate with psychosis in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26868671

  11. Individual Differences in Reward and Somatosensory-Motor Brain Regions Correlate with Adiposity in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rapuano, Kristina M; Huckins, Jeremy F; Sargent, James D; Heatherton, Todd F; Kelley, William M

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of adolescent obesity has increased dramatically over the past three decades, and research has documented that the number of television shows viewed during childhood is associated with greater risk for obesity. In particular, considerable evidence suggests that exposure to food marketing promotes eating habits that contribute to obesity. The present study examines neural responses to dynamic food commercials in overweight and healthy-weight adolescents using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Compared with non-food commercials, food commercials more strongly engaged regions involved in attention and saliency detection (occipital lobe, precuneus, superior temporal gyri, and right insula) and in processing rewards [left and right nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)]. Activity in the left OFC and right insula further correlated with subjects' percent body fat at the time of the scan. Interestingly, this reward-related activity to food commercials was accompanied by the additional recruitment of mouth-specific somatosensory-motor cortices-a finding that suggests the intriguing possibility that higher-adiposity adolescents mentally simulate eating behaviors and offers a potential neural mechanism for the formation and reinforcement of unhealthy eating habits that may hamper an individual's ability lose weight later in life. PMID:25994961

  12. Surprise! Neural Correlates of Pearce-Hall and Rescorla-Wagner Coexist within the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Roesch, Matthew R; Esber, Guillem R; Li, Jian; Daw, Nathaniel D; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    Learning theory and computational accounts suggest that learning depends on errors in outcome prediction as well as changes in processing of or attention to events. These divergent ideas are captured by models, such as Rescorla-Wagner (RW) and temporal difference (TD) learning on one hand, which emphasize errors as directly driving changes in associative strength, versus models such Pearce-Hall (PH) and more recent variants on the other hand, which propose that errors promote changes in associative strength by modulating attention and processing of events. Numerous studies have shown that phasic firing of midbrain dopamine neurons carries a signed error signal consistent with RW or TD learning theories, and recently we have shown that this signal can be dissociated from attentional correlates in the basolateral amygdala and anterior cingulate. Here we will review this data along with new evidence 1) implicating habenula and striatal regions in supporting error signaling in midbrain dopamine neurons and 2) suggesting that central nucleus of the amygdala and prefrontal regions process the amygdalar attentional signal. However while the neural instantiations of the RW and PH signals are dissociable and complementary, they may be linked. Any linkage would have implications for understanding why one signal dominates learning in some situations and not others and also for appreciating the potential impact on learning of neuropathological conditions involving altered dopamine or amygdalar function, such as schizophrenia, addiction, or anxiety disorders. PMID:22487047

  13. Associative memory and underlying brain correlates in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Ching; Chang, Yu-Ling

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated associative recognition memory by using unique features of the Chinese language and the underlying neuroanatomical correlates. The study participants were 22 Chinese speakers with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 25 cognitively normal (CN) Chinese speakers. The results revealed that the MCI group demonstrated impaired associative memory performance, despite exhibiting item memory performance comparable with that of the CN group, and that associative memory performance in older adults was associated with gray matter integrity in the medial temporal regions as well as executive function. An abnormal elevation was also observed in false-positive errors related to features unique to Chinese characters, namely orthographical errors, in addition to rearranged and semantic errors in the MCI group relative to the CN group, and the three error subtypes were differentially associated with gray matter integrity in the hippocampus or lateral prefrontal regions. Overall, these results demonstrate the value of evaluating associative memory in people with prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD), and further elucidate the underlying neural substrates related to associative recognition memory in older adults. PMID:27033742

  14. Sex-dependent effects of stress on brain correlates to empathy for pain.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Liencres, Cristina; Breidenstein, Anja; Wolf, Oliver T; Brüne, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Empathy is a fundamental attribute required for appropriate social functioning. The extent to which we empathize with others in pain is influenced by numerous factors. Being highly social species, humans face social stress on a regular basis, which undoubtedly affects how we react to our environment. It is not yet known how social stress may modulate our neural mechanisms when we empathize with others in painful circumstances, and its effects on empathic behavior are still unclear. For this reason, we recorded the electroencephalography (EEG) of healthy men and women, half of which were previously exposed to psychosocial stress, while they observed photographs of hands in painful and neutral situations. At the behavioral level, stress induced higher unpleasantness ratings to painful stimuli, and lower ratings to neutral pictures, independent of sex. At the neurophysiological level, we found that early (N110 over fronto-central sites) event-related potentials (ERPs) were not affected by stress, while late (P3 over centro-parietal regions) components showed a sex-dependent differential effect of stress. Correlation analyses further indicated a strong association between N110 with trait markers of empathy in all participants, while P3 was associated with the change in cortisol in stressed males. Our findings suggest that sex-dependent effects of social stress on the neural responses to empathy for pain give rise to comparable behaviors in men and women in the paradigm we employed, implying that each sex may engage in distinct mechanisms to cope with stress. Moreover, stress seems to modulate late neural mechanisms of empathy but not our early perception. PMID:27150848

  15. Brain dynamics that correlate with effects of learning on auditory distance perception

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Matthew G.; Mercado, Eduardo; Church, Barbara A.; Gramann, Klaus; Makeig, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Accuracy in auditory distance perception can improve with practice and varies for sounds differing in familiarity. Here, listeners were trained to judge the distances of English, Bengali, and backwards speech sources pre-recorded at near (2-m) and far (30-m) distances. Listeners' accuracy was tested before and after training. Improvements from pre-test to post-test were greater for forward speech, demonstrating a learning advantage for forward speech sounds. Independent component (IC) processes identified in electroencephalographic (EEG) data collected during pre- and post-testing revealed three clusters of ICs across subjects with stimulus-locked spectral perturbations related to learning and accuracy. One cluster exhibited a transient stimulus-locked increase in 4–8 Hz power (theta event-related synchronization; ERS) that was smaller after training and largest for backwards speech. For a left temporal cluster, 8–12 Hz decreases in power (alpha event-related desynchronization; ERD) were greatest for English speech and less prominent after training. In contrast, a cluster of IC processes centered at or near anterior portions of the medial frontal cortex showed learning-related enhancement of sustained increases in 10–16 Hz power (upper-alpha/low-beta ERS). The degree of this enhancement was positively correlated with the degree of behavioral improvements. Results suggest that neural dynamics in non-auditory cortical areas support distance judgments. Further, frontal cortical networks associated with attentional and/or working memory processes appear to play a role in perceptual learning for source distance. PMID:25538550

  16. Membrane barrier of a porcine hepatocyte bioartificial liver.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Scott L; Yagi, Toshikazu; Matsushita, Takakazu; Hardin, Joseph; Grande, Joseph P; Gibson, Lawrence E; Platt, Jeffrey L

    2003-03-01

    Pores in the membrane of a bioartificial liver (BAL) allow it to function as a semipermeable barrier between its contents (i.e., liver cells) and components of the recipient's immune system. This study is designed to assess the influence of pore size on immune response to a BAL containing porcine hepatocytes. Sixteen healthy dogs were divided into four groups (four dogs per group) based on pore size of the BAL membrane and level of exposure to porcine hepatocytes. Group 1 dogs were administered porcine hepatocytes by intraperitoneal injection and served as positive controls. Group 2 dogs were exposed to porcine hepatocytes in a large-pore (200-nm) BAL, and group 3 dogs were exposed to porcine hepatocytes in a small-pore (10-nm) BAL. Group 4 dogs were exposed to a no-cell (unloaded) BAL and served as negative controls. Intraperitoneal injection of hepatocytes or 3 hours of BAL hemoperfusion was performed day 0 and 3 weeks later on day 21. Biochemical, humoral, and cellular measures of immune response were collected until day 44. The initiation of BAL hemoperfusion was associated with a rapid decline in CH(50) levels of complement and transient neutropenia and thrombocytopenia during all BAL exposures. Xenoreactive antibody response to BAL was increased by use of membranes with large pores and secondary exposures. Skin testing on day 42 showed a delayed-type hypersensitivity response to porcine hepatocytes that also correlated with level of previous antigen exposure. BAL treatment was associated with both immediate and elicited immunologic responses. The immediate response was transient and not influenced by membrane pore size, whereas elicited responses were influenced by pore size of the BAL during previous exposures. PMID:12619028

  17. The tool in the brain: apraxia in ADL. Behavioral and neurological correlates of apraxia in daily living.

    PubMed

    Bieńkiewicz, Marta M N; Brandi, Marie-Luise; Goldenberg, Georg; Hughes, Charmayne M L; Hermsdörfer, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Humans differ from other animals in the way they can skilfully and precisely operate or invent tools to facilitate their everyday life. Tools have dominated our home, travel and work environment, becoming an integral step for our motor skills development. What happens when the part of the brain responsible for tool use is damaged in our adult life due to a cerebrovascular accident? How does daily life change when we lose the previously mastered ability to make use of the objects around us? How do patients suffering from compromised tool use cope with food preparation, personal hygiene, grooming, housework, or use of home appliances? In this literature review we present a state of the art for single and multiple tool use research, with a focus on the impact that apraxia (impaired ability to perform tool-based actions) and action disorganization syndrome (ADS; impaired ability to carry out multi-step actions) have on activities of daily living (ADL). Firstly, we summarize the behavioral studies investigating the impact of apraxia and other comorbidity syndromes, such as neglect or visual extinction, on ADL. We discuss the hallmarks of the compromised tool use in terms of the sequencing of action steps, conceptual errors committed, spatial motor control, and temporal organization of the movement. In addition, we present an up-to-date overview of the neuroimaging and lesion analyses studies that provide an insight into neural correlates of tool use in the human brain and functional changes in the neural organization following a stroke, in the context of ADL. Finally we discuss the current practice in neurorehabilitation of ADL in apraxia and ADS aiming at increasing patients' independence. PMID:24795685

  18. The tool in the brain: apraxia in ADL. Behavioral and neurological correlates of apraxia in daily living

    PubMed Central

    Bieńkiewicz, Marta M. N.; Brandi, Marie-Luise; Goldenberg, Georg; Hughes, Charmayne M. L.; Hermsdörfer, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Humans differ from other animals in the way they can skilfully and precisely operate or invent tools to facilitate their everyday life. Tools have dominated our home, travel and work environment, becoming an integral step for our motor skills development. What happens when the part of the brain responsible for tool use is damaged in our adult life due to a cerebrovascular accident? How does daily life change when we lose the previously mastered ability to make use of the objects around us? How do patients suffering from compromised tool use cope with food preparation, personal hygiene, grooming, housework, or use of home appliances? In this literature review we present a state of the art for single and multiple tool use research, with a focus on the impact that apraxia (impaired ability to perform tool-based actions) and action disorganization syndrome (ADS; impaired ability to carry out multi-step actions) have on activities of daily living (ADL). Firstly, we summarize the behavioral studies investigating the impact of apraxia and other comorbidity syndromes, such as neglect or visual extinction, on ADL. We discuss the hallmarks of the compromised tool use in terms of the sequencing of action steps, conceptual errors committed, spatial motor control, and temporal organization of the movement. In addition, we present an up-to-date overview of the neuroimaging and lesion analyses studies that provide an insight into neural correlates of tool use in the human brain and functional changes in the neural organization following a stroke, in the context of ADL. Finally we discuss the current practice in neurorehabilitation of ADL in apraxia and ADS aiming at increasing patients’ independence. PMID:24795685

  19. Detection and Characterization of Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus in Porcine Plasma and Porcine Factor VIII

    PubMed Central

    Takefman, Daniel M.; Wong, Susan; Maudru, Thomas; Peden, Keith; Wilson, Carolyn A.

    2001-01-01

    The pig genome contains porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) capable of infecting human cells. Detection of infectious retrovirus in porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endothelial cells suggested to us that pig plasma is likely to contain PERV. Both PERV env sequences and viral reverse transcriptase (RT) activity were detected in all plasma samples isolated from four NIH minipigs. To detect infectious virus from plasma, we performed a culture assay using three cell lines of feline, swine, and human origin that had previously been shown to be permissive for PERV. Infectious virus was successfully cultured from all four NIH minipig plasmas on the swine cell line ST-IOWA. Using RT-PCR with env-specific primers, we could detect expression of PERV class C envelope in the supernatant of ST-IOWA cells that had been exposed to each pig plasma. We next examined a pig plasma derivative, Hyate:C (porcine factor VIII), and found evidence of PERV particles, since all six lots examined were positive for PERV RNA and RT activity. However, infectious virus could not be detected in clinical lots of Hyate:C, suggesting that the manufacturing process might reduce the load of infectious virus to levels below detectable limits of the assay. Detection of infectious virus in porcine plasma confirms and extends the previous findings that certain porcine cells express PERV when manipulated in vitro and clearly demonstrates that there are porcine cells that express infectious PERV constitutively in vivo. PMID:11312325

  20. The Correlation between the Virus- and Brain Antigen-Specific B Cell Response in the Blood of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wunsch, Marie; Hohmann, Christopher; Milles, Bianca; Rostermund, Christina; Lehmann, Paul V; Schroeter, Michael; Bayas, Antonios; Ulzheimer, Jochen; Mäurer, Mathias; Ergün, Süleyman; Kuerten, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    There is a largely divergent body of literature regarding the relationship between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and brain inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we tested MS patients during relapse (n = 11) and in remission (n = 19) in addition to n = 22 healthy controls to study the correlation between the EBV- and brain-specific B cell response in the blood by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) was used as a control antigen tested in n = 16 MS patients during relapse and in n = 35 patients in remission. Over the course of the study, n = 16 patients were untreated, while n = 33 patients received immunomodulatory therapy. The data show that there was a moderate correlation between the frequencies of EBV- and brain-reactive B cells in MS patients in remission. In addition we could detect a correlation between the B cell response to EBV and disease activity. There was no evidence of an EBV reactivation. Interestingly, there was also a correlation between the frequencies of CMV- and brain-specific B cells in MS patients experiencing an acute relapse and an elevated B cell response to CMV was associated with higher disease activity. The trend remained when excluding seronegative subjects but was non-significant. These data underline that viral infections might impact the immunopathology of MS, but the exact link between the two entities remains subject of controversy. PMID:27120609

  1. The Correlation between the Virus- and Brain Antigen-Specific B Cell Response in the Blood of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wunsch, Marie; Hohmann, Christopher; Milles, Bianca; Rostermund, Christina; Lehmann, Paul V.; Schroeter, Michael; Bayas, Antonios; Ulzheimer, Jochen; Mäurer, Mathias; Ergün, Süleyman; Kuerten, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    There is a largely divergent body of literature regarding the relationship between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and brain inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we tested MS patients during relapse (n = 11) and in remission (n = 19) in addition to n = 22 healthy controls to study the correlation between the EBV- and brain-specific B cell response in the blood by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) was used as a control antigen tested in n = 16 MS patients during relapse and in n = 35 patients in remission. Over the course of the study, n = 16 patients were untreated, while n = 33 patients received immunomodulatory therapy. The data show that there was a moderate correlation between the frequencies of EBV- and brain-reactive B cells in MS patients in remission. In addition we could detect a correlation between the B cell response to EBV and disease activity. There was no evidence of an EBV reactivation. Interestingly, there was also a correlation between the frequencies of CMV- and brain-specific B cells in MS patients experiencing an acute relapse and an elevated B cell response to CMV was associated with higher disease activity. The trend remained when excluding seronegative subjects but was non-significant. These data underline that viral infections might impact the immunopathology of MS, but the exact link between the two entities remains subject of controversy. PMID:27120609

  2. Gradual emergence of spontaneous correlated brain activity during fading of general anesthesia in rats: Evidences from fMRI and local field potentials

    PubMed Central

    Bettinardi, Ruggero G.; Tort-Colet, Núria; Ruiz-Mejias, Marcel; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V.; Deco, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic brain activity is characterized by the presence of highly structured networks of correlated fluctuations between different regions of the brain. Such networks encompass different functions, whose properties are known to be modulated by the ongoing global brain state and are altered in several neurobiological disorders. In the present study, we induced a deep state of anesthesia in rats by means of a ketamine/medetomidine peritoneal injection, and analyzed the time course of the correlation between the brain activity in different areas while anesthesia spontaneously decreased over time. We compared results separately obtained from fMRI and local field potentials (LFPs) under the same anesthesia protocol, finding that while most profound phases of anesthesia can be described by overall sparse connectivity, stereotypical activity and poor functional integration, during lighter states different frequency-specific functional networks emerge, endowing the gradual restoration of structured large-scale activity seen during rest. Noteworthy, our in vivo results show that those areas belonging to the same functional network (the default-mode) exhibited sustained correlated oscillations around 10 Hz throughout the protocol, suggesting the presence of a specific functional backbone that is preserved even during deeper phases of anesthesia. Finally, the overall pattern of results obtained from both imaging and in vivo-recordings suggests that the progressive emergence from deep anesthesia is reflected by a corresponding gradual increase of organized correlated oscillations across the cortex. PMID:25804643

  3. Correlations of Behavioral Deficits with Brain Pathology Assessed through Longitudinal MRI and Histopathology in the R6/2 Mouse Model of HD

    PubMed Central

    Rattray, Ivan; Smith, Edward; Gale, Richard; Matsumoto, Kaoru; Bates, Gillian P.; Modo, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is caused by the expansion of a CAG repeat in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. The R6/2 mouse model of HD expresses a mutant version of exon 1 HTT and develops motor and cognitive impairments, a widespread huntingtin (HTT) aggregate pathology and brain atrophy. Despite the vast number of studies that have been performed on this model, the association between the molecular and cellular neuropathology with brain atrophy, and with the development of behavioral phenotypes remains poorly understood. In an attempt to link these factors, we have performed longitudinal assessments of behavior (rotarod, open field, passive avoidance) and of regional brain abnormalities determined through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (whole brain, striatum, cortex, hippocampus, corpus callosum), as well as an end-stage histological assessment. Detailed correlative analyses of these three measures were then performed. We found a gender-dependent emergence of motor impairments that was associated with an age-related loss of regional brain volumes. MRI measurements further indicated that there was no striatal atrophy, but rather a lack of striatal growth beyond 8 weeks of age. T2 relaxivity further indicated tissue-level changes within brain regions. Despite these dramatic motor and neuroanatomical abnormalities, R6/2 mice did not exhibit neuronal loss in the striatum or motor cortex, although there was a significant increase in neuronal density due to tissue atrophy. The deposition of the mutant HTT (mHTT) protein, the hallmark of HD molecular pathology, was widely distributed throughout the brain. End-stage histopathological assessments were not found to be as robustly correlated with the longitudinal measures of brain atrophy or motor impairments. In conclusion, modeling pre-manifest and early progression of the disease in more slowly progressing animal models will be key to establishing which changes are causally related. PMID:23593159

  4. Identification and Quantification of Ovine Gammaherpesvirus 2 DNA in Fresh and Stored Tissues of Pigs with Symptoms of Porcine Malignant Catarrhal Fever

    PubMed Central

    Albini, Sarah; Zimmermann, Werner; Neff, Felix; Ehlers, Bernhard; Häni, Hansjürg; Li, Hong; Hüssy, Daniela; Engels, Monika; Ackermann, Mathias

    2003-01-01

    Cases of porcine malignant catarrhal fever were analyzed by a combination of identification and quantitation of ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 DNA in a variety of paraffin-embedded tissues from diseased pigs, serology, and exclusion of primary porcine gammaherpesviruses. In spite of reduced signal due to fixation and paraffin embedding, ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 DNA in pig brains exceeded the amounts found in sheep brains by orders of magnitude. PMID:12574312

  5. Identification and quantification of ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 DNA in fresh and stored tissues of pigs with symptoms of porcine malignant catarrhal fever.

    PubMed

    Albini, Sarah; Zimmermann, Werner; Neff, Felix; Ehlers, Bernhard; Häni, Hansjürg; Li, Hong; Hüssy, Daniela; Engels, Monika; Ackermann, Mathias

    2003-02-01

    Cases of porcine malignant catarrhal fever were analyzed by a combination of identification and quantitation of ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 DNA in a variety of paraffin-embedded tissues from diseased pigs, serology, and exclusion of primary porcine gammaherpesviruses. In spite of reduced signal due to fixation and paraffin embedding, ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 DNA in pig brains exceeded the amounts found in sheep brains by orders of magnitude. PMID:12574312

  6. Correlated, simultaneous, multiple-wavelength optical monitoring in vivo of localized cerebrocortical NADH and brain microvessel hemoglobin oxygen saturation.

    PubMed

    Rampil, I J; Litt, L; Mayevsky, A

    1992-07-01

    Current forms of brain monitoring, such as electroencephalography (EEG), have had limited clinical utility. The EEG records spontaneous cerebrocortical activity and thus is an indirect indicator of metabolic demand and, to a lesser extent, an indicator of mismatch of supply versus demand. Ischemia modulates EEG activity in ways that can usually be detected, but EEG patterns can be similarly modulated by many other factors, including temperature and pharmacologic manipulation. This in vivo study in physiologically monitored animals evaluated the use of correlated optical spectroscopy, performed with an instrument having a fiberoptic light-guide bundle in contact with the cerebral cortex, for the simultaneous monitoring of cerebrovascular oxygen availability and intracellular oxygen delivery. A highly specific monitor of cerebral intracellular oxygen supply, the cerebrocortical intramitochondrial NADH redox state, was monitored in vivo with a fluorescence technique. Absorption spectroscopy was used concurrently to monitor hemoglobin content (blood volume) and oxygen saturation in the microcirculation. Correlated changes in optical signals from cerebrocortical NADH and hemoglobin were studied in a swine model (n = 7) of nitrogen hypoxia. Measurements were made at four wavelengths with a time-division, multiplexed fluorometer/reflectometer. Because the NADH fluorescence signal at 450 nm is affected by local changes in blood volume, a "corrected" fluorescence signal is usually calculated. In previous studies, where only two wave lengths have been measured, attempts at correction were based on reflectance at the excitation wavelength (366 nm). We compared estimators of changes in microcirculatory blood volume using reflection at two wavelengths: 366 nm and 585 nm, the wavelengths for maximum and isobestic absorption. The results of the studies were as follows: (1) during transient hypoxia, NADH and local hemoglobin saturation signals changed in concert with arterial

  7. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  8. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  9. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  10. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  11. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  12. Correlation of amyloid PET ligand florbetapir F 18 (18F-AV-45) binding with β-amyloid aggregation and neuritic plaque deposition in postmortem brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seok Rye; Schneider, Julie A.; Bennett, David A.; Beach, Thomas G.; Bedell, Barry J.; Zehntner, Simone P.; Krautkramer, Michael; Kung, Hank F.; Skovronsky, Daniel M.; Hefti, Franz; Clark, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Florbetapir F 18 (18F-AV-45) is a positron emission tomography (PET) imaging ligand for the detection of amyloid aggregation associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Earlier data showed that florbetapir F 18 binds with high affinity to β-amyloid plaques in human brain homogenates (Kd = 3.7 nM) and has favorable imaging pharmacokinetic properties, including rapid brain penetration and washout. The present study used human autopsy brain tissue to evaluate the correlation between in vitro florbetapir F 18 binding and β-amyloid density measured by established neuropathological methods. Methods The localization and density of florbetapir F 18 binding in frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of postmortem brain tissue from 40 subjects with a varying degree of neurodegenerative pathology was assessed by standard florbetapir F 18 autoradiography and correlated with the localization and density of β-amyloid identified by silver staining, thioflavin S staining, and immunohistochemistry. Results There were strong quantitative correlations between florbetapir F 18 tissue binding and both β-amyloid plaques identified by light microscopy (sliver staining and thioflavin S fluorescence) and by immunohistochemical measurements of β-amyloid using three antibodies recognizing different epitopes of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). Florbetapir F 18 did not bind to neurofibrillary tangles. Conclusion Florbetapir F 18 selectively binds β-amyloid in human brain tissue. The binding intensity was quantitatively correlated with the density of β-amyloid plaques identified by standard neuropathological techniques and correlated with the density of Aβ measured by immunohistochemistry. Since β-amyloid plaques are a defining neuropathological feature for Alzheimer’s disease, these results support the use of florbetapir F 18 as an amyloid PET ligand to identify the presence of AD pathology in patients with signs and symptoms of progressive late-life cognitive

  13. Filter bank canonical correlation analysis for implementing a high-speed SSVEP-based brain-computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaogang; Wang, Yijun; Gao, Shangkai; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Gao, Xiaorong

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Recently, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) has been widely used in steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) due to its high efficiency, robustness, and simple implementation. However, a method with which to make use of harmonic SSVEP components to enhance the CCA-based frequency detection has not been well established. Approach. This study proposed a filter bank canonical correlation analysis (FBCCA) method to incorporate fundamental and harmonic frequency components to improve the detection of SSVEPs. A 40-target BCI speller based on frequency coding (frequency range: 8-15.8 Hz, frequency interval: 0.2 Hz) was used for performance evaluation. To optimize the filter bank design, three methods (M1: sub-bands with equally spaced bandwidths; M2: sub-bands corresponding to individual harmonic frequency bands; M3: sub-bands covering multiple harmonic frequency bands) were proposed for comparison. Classification accuracy and information transfer rate (ITR) of the three FBCCA methods and the standard CCA method were estimated using an offline dataset from 12 subjects. Furthermore, an online BCI speller adopting the optimal FBCCA method was tested with a group of 10 subjects. Main results. The FBCCA methods significantly outperformed the standard CCA method. The method M3 achieved the highest classification performance. At a spelling rate of ˜33.3 characters/min, the online BCI speller obtained an average ITR of 151.18 ± 20.34 bits min-1. Significance. By incorporating the fundamental and harmonic SSVEP components in target identification, the proposed FBCCA method significantly improves the performance of the SSVEP-based BCI, and thereby facilitates its practical applications such as high-speed spelling.

  14. Conventional and cross-correlation brain-stem auditory evoked responses in the white leghorn chick: rate manipulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkard, R.; Jones, S.; Jones, T.

    1994-01-01

    Rate-dependent changes in the chick brain-stem auditory evoked response (BAER) using conventional averaging and a cross-correlation technique were investigated. Five 15- to 19-day-old white leghorn chicks were anesthetized with Chloropent. In each chick, the left ear was acoustically stimulated. Electrical pulses of 0.1-ms duration were shaped, attenuated, and passed through a current driver to an Etymotic ER-2 which was sealed in the ear canal. Electrical activity from stainless-steel electrodes was amplified, filtered (300-3000 Hz) and digitized at 20 kHz. Click levels included 70 and 90 dB peSPL. In each animal, conventional BAERs were obtained at rates ranging from 5 to 90 Hz. BAERs were also obtained using a cross-correlation technique involving pseudorandom pulse sequences called maximum length sequences (MLSs). The minimum time between pulses, called the minimum pulse interval (MPI), ranged from 0.5 to 6 ms. Two BAERs were obtained for each condition. Dependent variables included the latency and amplitude of the cochlear microphonic (CM), wave 2 and wave 3. BAERs were observed in all chicks, for all level by rate combinations for both conventional and MLS BAERs. There was no effect of click level or rate on the latency of the CM. The latency of waves 2 and 3 increased with decreasing click level and increasing rate. CM amplitude decreased with decreasing click level, but was not influenced by click rate for the 70 dB peSPL condition. For the 90 dB peSPL click, CM amplitude was uninfluenced by click rate for conventional averaging. For MLS BAERs, CM amplitude was similar to conventional averaging for longer MPIs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  15. The neuronal correlates of intranasal trigeminal function-an ALE meta-analysis of human functional brain imaging data.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Jessica; Kopietz, Rainer; Frasnelli, Johannes; Wiesmann, Martin; Hummel, Thomas; Lundström, Johan N

    2010-03-01

    Almost every odor we encounter in daily life has the capacity to produce a trigeminal sensation. Surprisingly, few functional imaging studies exploring human neuronal correlates of intranasal trigeminal function exist, and results are to some degree inconsistent. We utilized activation likelihood estimation (ALE), a quantitative voxel-based meta-analysis tool, to analyze functional imaging data (fMRI/PET) following intranasal trigeminal stimulation with carbon dioxide (CO(2)), a stimulus known to exclusively activate the trigeminal system. Meta-analysis tools are able to identify activations common across studies, thereby enabling activation mapping with higher certainty. Activation foci of nine studies utilizing trigeminal stimulation were included in the meta-analysis. We found significant ALE scores, thus indicating consistent activation across studies, in the brainstem, ventrolateral posterior thalamic nucleus, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, precentral gyrus, as well as in primary and secondary somatosensory cortices-a network known for the processing of intranasal nociceptive stimuli. Significant ALE values were also observed in the piriform cortex, insula, and the orbitofrontal cortex, areas known to process chemosensory stimuli, and in association cortices. Additionally, the trigeminal ALE statistics were directly compared with ALE statistics originating from olfactory stimulation, demonstrating considerable overlap in activation. In conclusion, the results of this meta-analysis map the human neuronal correlates of intranasal trigeminal stimulation with high statistical certainty and demonstrate that the cortical areas recruited during the processing of intranasal CO(2) stimuli include those outside traditional trigeminal areas. Moreover, through illustrations of the considerable overlap between brain areas that process trigeminal and olfactory information; these results demonstrate the interconnectivity of flavor processing. PMID:19913573

  16. Clinical, cognitive, and functional connectivity correlations of resting-state intrinsic brain activity alterations in unmedicated depression

    PubMed Central

    Tadayonnejad, Reza; Yang, Shaolin; Kumar, Anand; Ajilore, Olusola

    2014-01-01

    The pervasive and persistent nature of depressive symptoms has made resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) an appropriate approach for understanding the underlying mechanisms of major depressive disorder. The majority of rs-fMRI research has focused on depression-related alterations in the interregional coordination of brain baseline low frequency oscillations (LFOs). However, alteration of the regional amplitude of LFOs in depression, particularly its clinical, cognitive and network implications have not been examined comprehensively yet. rs-fMRI amplitudes of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF/fALFF) mediated by two LFOs bands of 0.01-0.08 Hz (LF-ALFF/fALFF) and 0.1-0.25 Hz (HF-ALFF/fALFF) were measured in unmedicated subjects with major depressive disorder (n=20) and a healthy control group (n=25). A novel method of “ALFF-based functional connectivity” analysis was developed to test regional/network interaction abnormalities in depression. Our results revealed abnormal alterations in ALFF for both lower and higher frequency bands of LFOs in regions that participate in affective networks, corticostriatal circuits and motor/somatosensory networks. A strong positive correlation was detected between depressive symptom severity and fALFF in the anterior cingulate cortex. Functional connectivity of the thalamus and postcentral area with altered ALFF were found to be decreased with other interacting regions of their involved networks. Major depressive disorder relates to the alterations of regional properties of intrinsic neural activity with meaningful clinical and cognitive correlations. This study also proposes an integrating regional/network dysfunction in MDD. PMID:25451423

  17. The Moderating Effects of Sex and Age on the Association between Traumatic Brain Injury and Harmful Psychological Correlates among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ilie, Gabriela; Adlaf, Edward M.; Mann, Robert E.; Boak, Angela; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Colantonio, Angela; Turner, Nigel E.; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although it is well established that sex is a risk factor in acquiring a traumatic brain injury (TBI) among adolescents, it has not been established whether it also moderates the influence of other TBI psychological health correlates. Methods and Findings Data were derived from a 2011 population-based cross-sectional school survey, which included 9,288 Ontario 7th–12th graders who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Response rate was 62%. Preliminary analyses found no evidence of nonresponse bias in the reporting of TBI. TBI was defined as a hit or blow to the head that resulted in a 5 minutes loss of consciousness or at least one overnight hospitalization due to symptoms associated with it. Reports of lifetime TBI were more common among males than females (23.1%, 95% CI: 20.5, 25.8 vs. 17.1%, 95% CI: 14.7, 19.8). Thirteen correlates were examined and included cigarette smoking, elevated psychological distress, suicide ideation, bully victimization (at school, as well as cyber bullying), bullying others, cannabis use, cannabis dependence and drug use problems, physical injuries, daily smoking, drinking alcohol, binge drinking, use of cannabis, and poor academic performance. Among the outcomes examined, sex moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and cigarette smoking. In addition, sex and age jointly moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and daily smoking, alcohol use and physical injuries. Late adolescent males who reported lifetime TBI, relative to females, displayed elevated daily smoking and injuries, whereas their females counterparts displayed elevated past year drinking. Possible bias related to self-report procedures and the preclusion of causal inferences due to the cross-sectional nature of the data are limitations of this study. Conclusions TBI differences in outcomes need to be assessed for potential moderating effects of sex and age. Results have important implications for more tailored

  18. Characteristic laryngoscopic findings in Parkinson's disease patients after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation and its correlation with voice disorder.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Takashi; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Ohdake, Reiko; Yoneyama, Noritaka; Hara, Kazuhiro; Ito, Mizuki; Hirayama, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Kajita, Yasukazu; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Sobue, Gen

    2015-12-01

    Speech and voice disorders are one of the most common adverse effects in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients treated with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS). However, the pathophysiology of voice and laryngeal dysfunction after STN-DBS remains unclear. We assessed 47 PD patients (22 treated with bilateral STN-DBS (PD-DBS) and 25 treated medically (PD-Med); all patients in both groups matched by age, sex, disease duration, and motor and cognitive function) using the objective and subjective voice assessment batteries (GRBAS scale and Voice Handicap Index), and laryngoscopy. Laryngoscopic examinations revealed that PD-DBS patients showed a significantly higher incidence of incomplete glottal closure (77 vs 48 %; p = 0.039), hyperadduction of the false vocal folds (73 vs 44 %; p = 0.047), anteroposterior hypercompression (50 vs 20 %; p = 0.030) and asymmetrical glottal movement (50 vs 16 %; p = 0.002) than PD-Med patients. On- and off-stimulation assessment revealed that STN-DBS could induce or aggravate incomplete glottal closure, hyperadduction of the false vocal folds, anteroposterior hypercompression, and asymmetrical glottal movement. Incomplete glottal closure and hyperadduction of the false vocal folds significantly correlated with breathiness and strained voice, respectively (r = 0.590 and 0.539). We should adjust patients' DBS settings in consideration of voice and laryngeal functions as well as motor function. PMID:26254905

  19. Multiple gamma oscillations in the brain: a new strategy to differentiate functional correlates and P300 dynamics.

    PubMed

    Başar, Erol; Tülay, Elif; Güntekin, Bahar

    2015-03-01

    Brain oscillations in the gamma frequency band, - i.e. oscillations greater than 25 Hz - have attracted increasing attention over the last few decades in the research of sensory-cognitive processes. In the neuroscience research literature, a great number of reports aim to describe the functional correlates of oscillatory responses in the gamma frequency window. However, analysis using a broadband frequency window often leads to divergent functional interpretations and controversies. In order to provide a more exact approach, we have used a strategy by defining multiple frequency and multiple time windows according to the combined analysis of conventional power spectral windows, frequency adaptive multiple filters, and inter-trial coherence. The analysis in frequency windows of 25-30 Hz, 30-35 Hz, and 40-48 Hz enables the investigator to provide a distinction of cognitive and/or sensory responses. Moreover, according to topological differentiation and the consideration of neuroanatomic pathways, more reliable interpretations of gamma responses are reached. PMID:25660304

  20. An online multi-channel SSVEP-based brain-computer interface using a canonical correlation analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin, Guangyu; Gao, Xiaorong; Yan, Zheng; Hong, Bo; Gao, Shangkai

    2009-08-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in using steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) in brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. However, several aspects of current SSVEP-based BCI systems need improvement, specifically in relation to speed, user variation and ease of use. With these improvements in mind, this paper presents an online multi-channel SSVEP-based BCI system using a canonical correlation analysis (CCA) method for extraction of frequency information associated with the SSVEP. The key parameters, channel location, window length and the number of harmonics, are investigated using offline data, and the result used to guide the design of the online system. An SSVEP-based BCI system with six targets, which use nine channel locations in the occipital and parietal lobes, a window length of 2 s and the first harmonic, is used for online testing on 12 subjects. The results show that the proposed BCI system has a high performance, achieving an average accuracy of 95.3% and an information transfer rate of 58 ± 9.6 bit min-1. The positive characteristics of the proposed system are that channel selection and parameter optimization are not required, the possible use of harmonic frequencies, low user variation and easy setup.

  1. A correlative study of clinical-pathologic characteristics of human brain tumors and blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability evaluated with Ga-68 EDTA and positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wapenski, J.A.; Hawkins, R.A.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Phelps, M.E.; Huang, S.C.

    1985-05-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between quantitative estimates of BBB permeability and the clinical and pathologic characteristics of human brain tumors. BBB permeability in 12 patients with either primary (4) or metastatic (8) brain tumors were studied with Ga-68 EDTA and PET with a two compartment model. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of the tumors were reviewed retrospectively. PET estimates of the transfer constant K/sub 1/ (ml/min/gm) paralleled the X-ray CT evidence of BBB disruption. Biopsies of four patients provided histologic support for the presumed pathophysiologic mechanism of BBB disruption, in the degree of alteration of brain vascularity and cellular architecture. For example, a patient with a hemorrhagic melanoma and a K/sub 1/ = 0.0049 ml/min/gm had gross hemorrhage, little recognizeable brain tissue and evidence of neovascularization on biopsy.

  2. Porcine Dentin Sialophosphoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Lu, Yuhe; Hu, Jan C.-C.; Kim, Jung-Wook; Iwata, Takanori; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Nagano, Takatoshi; Yamakoshi, Fumiko; Hu, Yuanyuan; Fukae, Makoto; Simmer, James P.

    2008-01-01

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is critical for proper mineralization of tooth dentin, and mutations in DSPP cause inherited dentin defects. Dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) is the C-terminal cleavage product of DSPP that binds collagen and induces intrafibrillar mineralization. We isolated DPP from individual pigs and determined that its N-terminal and C-terminal domains are glycosylated and that DPP averages 155 phosphates per molecule. Porcine DPP is unstable at low pH and high temperatures, and complexing with collagen improves its stability. Surprisingly, we observed DPP size variations on SDS-PAGE for DPP isolated from individual pigs. These variations are not caused by differences in proteolytic processing or degrees of phosphorylation or glycosylation, but rather to allelic variations in Dspp. Characterization of the DPP coding region identified 4 allelic variants. Among the 4 alleles, 27 sequence variations were identified, including 16 length polymorphisms ranging from 3 to 63 nucleotides. None of the length variations shifted the reading frame, and all localized to the highly redundant region of the DPP code. The 4 alleles encode DPP domains having 551, 575, 589, or 594 amino acids and completely explain the DPP size variations. DPP length variations are polymorphic and are not associated with dentin defects. PMID:18359767

  3. Menopause Analytical Hormonal Correlate Outcome Study (MAHCOS) and the Association to Brain Electrophysiology (P300) in a Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Braverman, Eric R.; Han, David; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Karikh, Tatiana; Truesdell, Courtney; Dushaj, Kristina; Kreuk, Florian; Li, Mona; Stratton, Danielle; Blum, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have demonstrated that increased leptin levels and obesity are inversely related to cognitive decline in menopausal women. It is hypothesized that adiposity is inversely correlated with cognitive decline, as women with increased weight are less vulnerable to diminishing cognition. However, it is increasingly observed that menopausal women, even with increased adiposity, experience significant cognitive decline. Positron emission tomography (PET) has been used to analyze cognitive function and processing in menopausal women. Evoked potentials (P300) and neurophysiologic tests have validated brain metabolism in cognitively impaired patients. Post-hoc analyses of 796 female patients entering PATH Medical Clinic, between January 4, 2009 and February 24, 2013, were performed as part of the “Menopause Analytical Hormonal Correlate Outcome Study” (MAHCOS). Patient age range was 39–76 years (46.7±0.2). P300 latency and amplitude correlated with a number of hormones: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, estrone, estriol, DHEA, pregnenolone, progesterone, free and total testosterone, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Vitamins D 1.25 and D 25OH, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGF-BP3). Corrected statistics did not reveal significant associations with P300 latency or amplitude for these hormones except for leptin plasma levels. However, factor analysis showed that FSH and LH clustered together with Vitamin D1.25 and Vitamin D25OH, P300 latency (not amplitude), and log leptin were found to be associated in the same cluster. Utilizing regression analysis, once age adjusted, leptin was the only significant predictor for latency or speed (p = 0.03) with an effect size of 0.23. Higher plasma leptin levels were associated with abnormal P300 speed (OR = 0.98). Our findings show a significant relationship of higher plasma leptin levels, potentially due to leptin resistance, and prolonged P

  4. Menopause Analytical Hormonal Correlate Outcome Study (MAHCOS) and the association to brain electrophysiology (P300) in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Eric R; Han, David; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Karikh, Tatiana; Truesdell, Courtney; Dushaj, Kristina; Kreuk, Florian; Li, Mona; Stratton, Danielle; Blum, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have demonstrated that increased leptin levels and obesity are inversely related to cognitive decline in menopausal women. It is hypothesized that adiposity is inversely correlated with cognitive decline, as women with increased weight are less vulnerable to diminishing cognition. However, it is increasingly observed that menopausal women, even with increased adiposity, experience significant cognitive decline. Positron emission tomography (PET) has been used to analyze cognitive function and processing in menopausal women. Evoked potentials (P300) and neurophysiologic tests have validated brain metabolism in cognitively impaired patients. Post-hoc analyses of 796 female patients entering PATH Medical Clinic, between January 4, 2009 and February 24, 2013, were performed as part of the "Menopause Analytical Hormonal Correlate Outcome Study" (MAHCOS). Patient age range was 39-76 years (46.7 ± 0.2). P300 latency and amplitude correlated with a number of hormones: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, estrone, estriol, DHEA, pregnenolone, progesterone, free and total testosterone, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Vitamins D 1.25 and D 25OH, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGF-BP3). Corrected statistics did not reveal significant associations with P300 latency or amplitude for these hormones except for leptin plasma levels. However, factor analysis showed that FSH and LH clustered together with Vitamin D1.25 and Vitamin D25OH, P300 latency (not amplitude), and log leptin were found to be associated in the same cluster. Utilizing regression analysis, once age adjusted, leptin was the only significant predictor for latency or speed (p = 0.03) with an effect size of 0.23. Higher plasma leptin levels were associated with abnormal P300 speed (OR = 0.98). Our findings show a significant relationship of higher plasma leptin levels, potentially due to leptin resistance, and prolonged P300 latency

  5. Brain structural changes and their correlation with vascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a voxel-based morphometric study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunxia; Fu, Kailiang; Liu, Huaijun; Xing, Fei; Zhang, Songyun

    2014-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry has been used in the study of alterations in brain structure in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients. These changes are associated with clinical indices. The age at onset, pathogenesis, and treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus are different from those for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thus, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus may have different impacts on brain structure. Only a few studies of the alterations in brain structure in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients using voxel-based morphometry have been conducted, with inconsistent results. We detected subtle changes in the brain structure of 23 cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and demonstrated that there was no significant difference between the total volume of gray and white matter of the brain of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and that in controls. Regional atrophy of gray matter mainly occurred in the right temporal and left occipital cortex, while regional atrophy of white matter involved the right temporal lobe and the right cerebellar hemisphere. The ankle-brachial index in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus strongly correlated with the volume of brain regions in the default mode network. The ankle-brachial index, followed by the level of glycosylated hemoglobin, most strongly correlated with the volume of gray matter in the right temporal lobe. These data suggest that voxel-based morphometry could detect small structural changes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Early macrovascular atherosclerosis may play a crucial role in subtle brain atrophy in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, with chronic hyperglycemia playing a lesser role. PMID:25317173

  6. Linear and curvilinear correlations of brain gray matter volume and density with age using voxel-based morphometry with the Akaike information criterion in 291 healthy children.

    PubMed

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Thyreau, Benjamin; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Wu, Kai; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-08-01

    We examined linear and curvilinear correlations of gray matter volume and density in cortical and subcortical gray matter with age using magnetic resonance images (MRI) in a large number of healthy children. We applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and region-of-interest (ROI) analyses with the Akaike information criterion (AIC), which was used to determine the best-fit model by selecting which predictor terms should be included. We collected data on brain structural MRI in 291 healthy children aged 5-18 years. Structural MRI data were segmented and normalized using a custom template by applying the diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL) procedure. Next, we analyzed the correlations of gray matter volume and density with age in VBM with AIC by estimating linear, quadratic, and cubic polynomial functions. Several regions such as the prefrontal cortex, the precentral gyrus, and cerebellum showed significant linear or curvilinear correlations between gray matter volume and age on an increasing trajectory, and between gray matter density and age on a decreasing trajectory in VBM and ROI analyses with AIC. Because the trajectory of gray matter volume and density with age suggests the progress of brain maturation, our results may contribute to clarifying brain maturation in healthy children from the viewpoint of brain structure. PMID:22505237

  7. Rare and challenging extra-axial brain lesions: CT and MRI findings with clinico-radiological differential diagnosis and pathological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Yapıcıer, Özlem; Onat, Elif; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Akakın, Akın; Urgun, Kamran; Kılıç, Türker

    2014-01-01

    There are many kinds of extra-axial brain tumors and tumor-like lesions, and definitive diagnosis is complicated in some cases. In this pictorial essay, we present rare and challenging extra-axial brain lesions including neuroenteric cyst, primary leptomeningeal melanomatosis, isolated dural neurosarcoidosis, intradiploic epidermoid cyst, ruptured dermoid cyst, intraventricular cavernoma, and cavernous hemangioma of the skull with imaging findings and clinico-radiological differential diagnosis, including the pathologic correlation. Familiarity with these entities may improve diagnostic accuracy and patient management. PMID:25010368

  8. Magnetic resonance Elastography of the Lung parenchyma in an in situ porcine model with a non-invasive mechanical driver: Correlation of Shear Stiffness with Trans-respiratory system Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Mariappan, Yogesh K; Kolipaka, Arunark; Manduca, Armando; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Ehman, Richard L; Araoz, Philip; McGee, Kiaran P

    2011-01-01

    Quantification of the mechanical properties of lung parenchyma is an active field of research due to the association of this metric with normal function, disease initiation and progression. A phase contrast MRI-based elasticity imaging technique known as magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is being investigated as a method for measuring the shear stiffness of lung parenchyma. Previous experiments performed with small animals using invasive drivers in direct contact with the lungs have indicated that the quantification of lung shear modulus with 1H based MRE is feasible. This technique has been extended to an in situ porcine model with a noninvasive mechanical driver placed on the chest wall. This approach was tested to measure the change in parenchymal stiffness as a function of airway opening pressure (Pao) in 10 adult pigs. In all animals, shear stiffness was successfully quantified at four different Pao values. Mean (± std error of mean) pulmonary parenchyma density corrected stiffness values were calculated to be 1.48 (±0.09), 1.68 (±0.10), 2.05 (±0.13) and 2.23 (±0.17) kPa for Pao values of 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm H2O respectively. Shear stiffness increased with increasing Pao, in agreement with the literature. It is concluded that in an in situ porcine lung shear stiffness can be quantitated with 1H MRE using a noninvasive mechanical driver, and that it is feasible to measure the change in shear stiffness due to change in Pao. PMID:21590723

  9. Correlations of Behavioral Deficits with Brain Pathology Assessed through Longitudinal MRI and Histopathology in the R6/1 Mouse Model of Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rattray, Ivan; Smith, Edward J.; Crum, William R.; Walker, Thomas A.; Gale, Richard; Bates, Gillian P.; Modo, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is caused by the expansion of a CAG repeat in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. The R6 mouse models of HD express a mutant version of exon 1 HTT and typically develop motor and cognitive impairments, a widespread huntingtin (HTT) aggregate pathology and brain atrophy. Unlike the more commonly used R6/2 mouse line, R6/1 mice have fewer CAG repeats and, subsequently, a less rapid pathological decline. Compared to the R6/2 line, fewer descriptions of the progressive pathologies exhibited by R6/1 mice exist. The association between the molecular and cellular neuropathology with brain atrophy, and with the development of behavioral phenotypes remains poorly understood in many models of HD. In attempt to link these factors in the R6/1 mouse line, we have performed detailed assessments of behavior and of regional brain abnormalities determined through longitudinal, in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as an end-stage, ex vivo MRI study and histological assessment. We found progressive decline in both motor and non-motor related behavioral tasks in R6/1 mice, first evident at 11 weeks of age. Regional brain volumes were generally unaffected at 9 weeks, but by 17 weeks there was significant grey matter atrophy. This age-related brain volume loss was validated using a more precise, semi-automated Tensor Based morphometry assessment. As well as these clear progressive phenotypes, mutant HTT (mHTT) protein, the hallmark of HD molecular pathology, was widely distributed throughout the R6/1 brain and was accompanied by neuronal loss. Despite these seemingly concomitant, robust pathological phenotypes, there appeared to be little correlation between the three main outcome measures: behavioral performance, MRI-detected brain atrophy and histopathology. In conclusion, R6/1 mice exhibit many features of HD, but the underlying mechanisms driving these clear behavioral disturbances and the brain volume loss, still remain unclear. PMID:24367693

  10. Porcine transcriptome analysis based on 97 non-normalized cDNA libraries and assembly of 1,021,891 expressed sequence tags

    PubMed Central

    Gorodkin, Jan; Cirera, Susanna; Hedegaard, Jakob; Gilchrist, Michael J; Panitz, Frank; Jørgensen, Claus; Scheibye-Knudsen, Karsten; Arvin, Troels; Lumholdt, Steen; Sawera, Milena; Green, Trine; Nielsen, Bente J; Havgaard, Jakob H; Rosenkilde, Carina; Wang, Jun; Li, Heng; Li, Ruiqiang; Liu, Bin; Hu, Songnian; Dong, Wei; Li, Wei; Yu, Jun; Wang, Jian; Stærfeldt, Hans-Henrik; Wernersson, Rasmus; Madsen, Lone B; Thomsen, Bo; Hornshøj, Henrik; Bujie, Zhan; Wang, Xuegang; Wang, Xuefei; Bolund, Lars; Brunak, Søren; Yang, Huanming; Bendixen, Christian; Fredholm, Merete

    2007-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the structure of gene expression is essential for mammalian transcriptomics research. We analyzed a collection of more than one million porcine expressed sequence tags (ESTs), of which two-thirds were generated in the Sino-Danish Pig Genome Project and one-third are from public databases. The Sino-Danish ESTs were generated from one normalized and 97 non-normalized cDNA libraries representing 35 different tissues and three developmental stages. Results Using the Distiller package, the ESTs were assembled to roughly 48,000 contigs and 73,000 singletons, of which approximately 25% have a high confidence match to UniProt. Approximately 6,000 new porcine gene clusters were identified. Expression analysis based on the non-normalized libraries resulted in the following findings. The distribution of cluster sizes is scaling invariant. Brain and testes are among the tissues with the greatest number of different expressed genes, whereas tissues with more specialized function, such as developing liver, have fewer expressed genes. There are at least 65 high confidence housekeeping gene candidates and 876 cDNA library-specific gene candidates. We identified differential expression of genes between different tissues, in particular brain/spinal cord, and found patterns of correlation between genes that share expression in pairs of libraries. Finally, there was remarkable agreement in expression between specialized tissues according to Gene Ontology categories. Conclusion This EST collection, the largest to date in pig, represents an essential resource for annotation, comparative genomics, assembly of the pig genome sequence, and further porcine transcription studies. PMID:17407547

  11. Alzheimer’s Biomarkers are Correlated with Brain Connectivity in Older Adults Differentially during Resting and Task States

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yang; Huang, Haiqing; Abner, Erin; Broster, Lucas S.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Kryscio, Richard; Andersen, Anders; Powell, David; Van Eldik, Linda; Gold, Brian T.; Nelson, Peter T.; Smith, Charles; Ding, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and tau-related neurodegeneration are pathologic hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The utility of AD biomarkers, including those measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), in predicting future AD risk and cognitive decline is still being refined. Here, we explored potential relationships between functional connectivity (FC) patterns within the default-mode network (DMN), age, CSF biomarkers (Aβ42 and pTau181), and cognitive status in older adults. Multiple measures of FC were explored, including a novel time series-based measure [total interdependence (TI)]. In our sample of 27 cognitively normal older adults, no significant associations were found between levels of Aβ42 or pTau181 and cognitive scores or regional brain volumes. However, we observed several novel relationships between these biomarkers and measures of FC in DMN during both resting-state and a short-term memory task. First, increased connectivity between bilateral anterior middle temporal gyri was associated with higher levels of CSF Aβ42 and Aβ42/pTau181 ratio (reflecting lower AD risk) during both rest and task. Second, increased bilateral parietal connectivity during the short-term memory task, but not during rest, was associated with higher levels of CSF pTau181 (reflecting higher AD risk). Third, increased connectivity between left middle temporal and left parietal cortices during the active task was associated with decreased global cognitive status but not CSF biomarkers. Lastly, we found that our new TI method was more sensitive to the CSF Aβ42-connectivity relationship whereas the traditional cross-correlation method was more sensitive to levels of CSF pTau181 and cognitive status. With further refinement, resting-state connectivity and task-driven connectivity measures hold promise as non-invasive neuroimaging markers of Aβ and pTau burden in cognitively normal older adults. PMID:26903858

  12. Theory of Mind Performance in Children Correlates with Functional Specialization of a Brain Region for Thinking about Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gweon, Hyowon; Dodell-Feder, David; Bedny, Marina; Saxe, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Thinking about other people's thoughts recruits a specific group of brain regions, including the temporo-parietal junctions (TPJ), precuneus (PC), and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). The same brain regions were recruited when children (N = 20, 5-11 years) and adults (N = 8) listened to descriptions of characters' mental states, compared to…

  13. Reward-related Brain Response and Craving Correlates of Marijuana Cue Exposure: A Preliminary Study in Treatment-Seeking Marijuana-Dependent Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Marina; Szucs-Reed, Regina P.; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Ehrman, Ronald N.; Wang, Ze; Li, Yin; Suh, Jesse J.; Kampman, Kyle; O’Brien, Charles P.; Childress, Anna Rose; Franklin, Teresa R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Determining the brain substrates underlying the motivation to abuse addictive drugs is critical for understanding and treating addictive disorders. Laboratory neuroimaging studies have demonstrated differential activation of limbic and motivational circuitry [e.g., amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)] triggered by cocaine, heroin, nicotine, and alcohol cues. The literature on neural responses to marijuana cues is sparse. Thus, the goals of this study were to characterize the brain’s response to marijuana cues, a major motivator underlying drug use and relapse, and determine whether these responses are linked to self-reported craving in a clinically relevant population of treatment-seeking marijuana-dependent subjects. Methods Marijuana craving was assessed in 12 marijuana-dependent subjects using the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire-Short Form. Subsequently, BOLD functional MRI data were acquired during exposure to alternating 20 second blocks of marijuana-related versus matched nondrug visual cues. Results Brain activation during marijuana cue exposure was significantly greater in bilateral amygdala and hippocampus. Significant positive correlations between craving scores and brain activation were found in ventral striatum, and medial and lateral OFC (p<0.0001). Conclusions This study presents direct evidence for a link between reward-relevant brain responses to marijuana cues and craving, and extends the current literature on marijuana cue reactivity. Further, the correlative relationship between craving and brain activity in reward-related regions was observed in a clinically relevant sample (treatment-seeking marijuana-dependent subjects). Results are consistent with prior findings in cocaine, heroin, nicotine, and alcohol cue studies, indicating that the brain substrates of cue-triggered drug motivation are shared across abused substances. PMID:23188041

  14. Working Memory Performance Is Correlated with Local Brain Morphology in the Medial Frontal and Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Fibromyalgia Patients: Structural Correlates of Pain-Cognition Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luerding, R.; Weigand, T.; Bogdahn, U.; Schmidt-Wilcke, T.

    2008-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disorder of unknown aetiology, characterized by chronic widespread pain, stiffness and sleep disturbances. In addition, patients frequently complain of memory and attention deficits. Accumulating evidence suggests that FM is associated with CNS dysfunction and with an altered brain morphology. However, few studies have…

  15. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) first appeared in the late 1980s, though serologic evidence indicates that it had been circulating in swine for some time prior to being recognized. PRRS has since become a highly significant infectious disease affecting swine production worldwid...

  16. Structural and functional annotation of the porcine immunome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The domestic pig is known as an excellent model for human immunology and the two species share many pathogens. Susceptibility to infectious disease is one of the major constraints on swine performance, yet the structure and function of genes comprising the pig immunome are not well-characterized. The completion of the pig genome provides the opportunity to annotate the pig immunome, and compare and contrast pig and human immune systems. Results The Immune Response Annotation Group (IRAG) used computational curation and manual annotation of the swine genome assembly 10.2 (Sscrofa10.2) to refine the currently available automated annotation of 1,369 immunity-related genes through sequence-based comparison to genes in other species. Within these genes, we annotated 3,472 transcripts. Annotation provided evidence for gene expansions in several immune response families, and identified artiodactyl-specific expansions in the cathelicidin and type 1 Interferon families. We found gene duplications for 18 genes, including 13 immune response genes and five non-immune response genes discovered in the annotation process. Manual annotation provided evidence for many new alternative splice variants and 8 gene duplications. Over 1,100 transcripts without porcine sequence evidence were detected using cross-species annotation. We used a functional approach to discover and accurately annotate porcine immune response genes. A co-expression clustering analysis of transcriptomic data from selected experimental infections or immune stimulations of blood, macrophages or lymph nodes identified a large cluster of genes that exhibited a correlated positive response upon infection across multiple pathogens or immune stimuli. Interestingly, this gene cluster (cluster 4) is enriched for known general human immune response genes, yet contains many un-annotated porcine genes. A phylogenetic analysis of the encoded proteins of cluster 4 genes showed that 15% exhibited an accelerated

  17. Limbic correlates of fearlessness and disinhibition in incarcerated youth: Exploring the brain-behavior relationship with the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version.

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D; Kiehl, Kent A

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether scores on two temperament dimensions (fearlessness and disinhibition) correlated differentially with gray matter volumes in two limbic regions (amygdala and hippocampus). It was predicted that the fearlessness dimension would correlate with low gray matter volumes in the amygdala and the disinhibition dimension would correlate with low gray matter volumes in the hippocampus after controlling for age, IQ, regular substance use, and total brain volume. Participants were 191 male adolescents (age range=13-19 years) incarcerated in a maximum-security juvenile facility. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis of the limbic and paralimbic regions of the brain was conducted. The temperament dimensions were estimated with items from the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV: Forth et al., 2003). Analyses showed that the fearlessness dimension correlated negatively with gray matter volumes in the amygdala and the disinhibition dimension correlated negatively with gray matter volumes in the hippocampus but not vice versa. These findings provide preliminary support for the construct validity of the fearlessness and disinhibition temperament dimensions and offer confirmatory evidence for involvement of the amygdala and hippocampus in fear conditioning and behavioral inhibition, respectively. PMID:26363777

  18. In vivo porcine training model for cranial neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Regelsberger, Jan; Eicker, Sven; Siasios, Ioannis; Hänggi, Daniel; Kirsch, Matthias; Horn, Peter; Winkler, Peter; Signoretti, Stefano; Fountas, Kostas; Dufour, Henry; Barcia, Juan A; Sakowitz, Oliver; Westermaier, Thomas; Sabel, Michael; Heese, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Supplemental education is desirable for neurosurgical training, and the use of human cadaver specimen and virtual reality models is routine. An in vivo porcine training model for cranial neurosurgery was introduced in 2005, and our recent experience with this unique model is outlined here. For the first time, porcine anatomy is illustrated with particular respect to neurosurgical procedures. The pros and cons of this model are described. The aim of the course was to set up a laboratory scenery imitating an almost realistic operating room in which anatomy of the brain and neurosurgical techniques in a mentored environment free from time constraints could be trained. Learning objectives of the course were to learn about the microsurgical techniques in cranial neurosurgery and the management of complications. Participants were asked to evaluate the quality and utility of the programme via standardized questionnaires by a grading scale from A (best) to E (worst). In total, 154 residents have been trained on the porcine model to date. None of the participants regarded his own residency programme as structured. The bleeding and complication management (97%), the realistic laboratory set-up (89%) and the working environment (94%) were favoured by the vast majority of trainees and confirmed our previous findings. After finishing the course, the participants graded that their skills in bone drilling, dissecting the brain and preserving cerebral vessels under microscopic magnification had improved to level A and B. In vivo hands-on courses, fully equipped with microsurgical instruments, offer an outstanding training opportunity in which bleeding management on a pulsating, vital brain represents a unique training approach. Our results have shown that education programmes still lack practical training facilities in which in vivo models may act as a complementary approach in surgical training. PMID:25240530

  19. Neuropathology and pressure in the pig brain resulting from low-impulse noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Säljö, Annette; Arrhén, Fredrik; Bolouri, Hayde; Mayorga, Maria; Hamberger, Anders

    2008-12-01

    Military personnel are exposed to occupational levels of blast overpressure during training. This study characterizes the pressure-time histories of air, underwater, and localized blast, and correlates blast parameters with neuropathology. Blast overpressure was produced by a howitzer, a bazooka, an automatic rifle, underwater explosives, or a shock tube. Anesthetized pigs were exposed in positions that simulated real training scenarios. Underwater exposures were performed using explosives at distances recommended by safety requirements. In other experiments, rats were exposed via a shock tube. The pressure changes were recorded with a hydrophone sensor in the brain of the pig and in rats with an optical fiber sensor. Histological examination of porcine brains revealed small parenchymal and subarachnoid hemorrhages, predominately in the occipital lobe, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata. Relative to the peak pressure in air, that in porcine brain (Pmax brain/air) was 0.7 for the bazooka and 0.5 and 0.7, respectively, for the 9- and 30-kPa howitzer. The attenuation was stronger in water: the detonation pulse had a brain/water ratio of 0.1, and the secondary pulses had ratios of 0.3-0.4. The results indicate that low-frequency spectra penetrate easily from air or water into the brain, but high-frequency spectra appear to be filtered by body structures. In addition, blast waves were recorded in the brain and abdomen of pigs after local exposure via shock tube to either the abdomen or the top of the skull. When the abdomen was exposed, the maximal peak value in the brain was only 3% of that in the abdomen. Moreover, part of this pressure could have been derived from the air outside the head. The results gave little support to significant transmission of pressure within the body. PMID:19146459

  20. Increased levels of brain serotonin correlated with MMP-9 activity and IL-4 levels resulted in severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M; Seo, J-E; Rahaman, K A; Kang, M-J; Jung, B-H; Kwon, O-S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of monoamine neurotransmitters on the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in obese mice. EAE was induced in mice with normal diets (ND-EAE) and obese mice with high-fat diets (HFD-EAE) through the immune response to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) (35-55). The levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites in different anatomical brain regions were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The plasma and tissue NADPH oxidase and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9 activities were analyzed by fluorescence spectrophotometry. The cumulative disease index and disease peaks were significantly higher in HFD-EAE compared with those in ND-EAE. Significantly higher 5-HT levels and lower 5-HT turnovers 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid ((5-HIAA)/5-HT) were found in the brains of HFD-EAE mice compared with those found in the HFD-CON and ND-EAE mice brains. Moreover, increased DA levels were observed in the caudate nucleus of the HFD-EAE mice compared with the control and ND-EAE mice. The NADPH oxidase and MMP-9 activities in the plasma and tissues were significantly higher in both the ND-EAE and HFD-EAE groups than in their respective controls. The cytokine levels in the plasma, tissues, and cultured splenocytes were found to be significantly altered in EAE mice compared with control mice. Moreover, HFD-EAE mice exhibited significantly higher MMP-9 activity and lower IL-4 levels than ND-EAE mice and were significantly correlated with brain 5-HT levels. In conclusion, the increased 5-HT levels in the brain significantly correlated with MMP-9 activity and IL-4 levels play an important role in the exacerbation of disease severity in HFD-EAE mice. PMID:26820599

  1. Brain wave correlates of attentional states: Event related potentials and quantitative EEG analysis during performance of cognitive and perceptual tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Frederick G.

    1993-01-01

    presented target stimulus. In addition to the task requirements, irrelevant tones were presented in the background. Research has shown that even though these stimuli are not attended, ERP's to them can still be elicited. The amplitude of the ERP waves has been shown to change as a function of a person's level of alertness. ERP's were also collected and analyzed for the target stimuli for each task. Brain maps were produced based on the ERP voltages for the different stimuli. In addition to the ERP's, a quantitative EEG (QEEG) was performed on the data using a fast Fourier technique to produce a power spectral analysis of the EEG. This analysis was conducted on the continuous EEG while the subjects were performing the tasks. Finally, a QEEG was performed on periods during the task when subjects indicated that they were in an altered state of awareness. During the tasks, subjects were asked to indicate by pressing a button when they realized their level of task awareness had changed. EEG epochs were collected for times just before and just after subjects made this reponse. The purpose of this final analysis was to determine whether or not subjective indices of level of awareness could be correlated with different patterns of EEG.

  2. Differential expression and activity of the porcine type I interferon family.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yongming; Rowland, Raymond R R; Hesse, Richard A; Blecha, Frank

    2010-07-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) are central to innate and adaptive immunity, and many have unique developmental and physiological functions. However, in most species, only two subtypes, IFN-alpha and IFN-beta, have been well studied. Because of the increasing importance of zoonotic viral diseases and the use of pigs to address human research questions, it is important to know the complete repertoire and activity of porcine type I IFNs. Here we show that porcine type I IFNs comprise at least 39 functional genes distributed along draft genomic sequences of chromosomes 1 and 10. These functional IFN genes are classified into 17 IFN-alpha subtypes, 11 IFN-delta subtypes, 7 IFN-omega subtypes, and single-subtype subclasses of IFN-alphaomega, IFN-beta, IFN-epsilon, and IFN-kappa. We found that porcine type I IFNs have diverse expression profiles and antiviral activities against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), with activity ranging from 0 to >10(5) U.ng(-1).ml(-1). Whereas most IFN-alpha subtypes retained the greatest antiviral activity against both PRRSV and VSV in porcine and MARC-145 cells, some IFN-delta and IFN-omega subtypes, IFN-beta, and IFN-alphaomega differed in their antiviral activity based on target cells and viruses. Several IFNs, including IFN-alpha7/11, IFN-delta2/7, and IFN-omega4, exhibited minimal or no antiviral activity in the tested target cell-virus systems. Thus comparative studies showed that antiviral activity of porcine type I IFNs is virus- and cell-dependent, and IFN-alphas are positively correlated with induction of MxA, an IFN-stimulated gene. Collectively, these data provide fundamental genomic information for porcine type I IFNs, information that is necessary for understanding porcine physiological and antiviral responses. PMID:20406849

  3. Diffusion tensor imaging reveals adolescent binge ethanol-induced brain structural integrity alterations in adult rats that correlate with behavioral dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Vetreno, Ryan P; Yaxley, Richard; Paniagua, Beatriz; Crews, Fulton T

    2016-07-01

    Adolescence is characterized by considerable brain maturation that coincides with the development of adult behavior. Binge drinking is common during adolescence and can have deleterious effects on brain maturation because of the heightened neuroplasticity of the adolescent brain. Using an animal model of adolescent intermittent ethanol [AIE; 5.0 g/kg, intragastric, 20 percent EtOH w/v; 2 days on/2 days off from postnatal day (P)25 to P55], we assessed the adult brain structural volumes and integrity on P80 and P220 using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). While we did not observe a long-term effect of AIE on structural volumes, AIE did reduce axial diffusivity (AD) in the cerebellum, hippocampus and neocortex. Radial diffusivity (RD) was reduced in the hippocampus and neocortex of AIE-treated animals. Prior AIE treatment did not affect fractional anisotropy (FA), but did lead to long-term reductions of mean diffusivity (MD) in both the cerebellum and corpus callosum. AIE resulted in increased anxiety-like behavior and diminished object recognition memory, the latter of which was positively correlated with DTI measures. Across aging, whole brain volumes increased, as did volumes of the corpus callosum and neocortex. This was accompanied by age-associated AD reductions in the cerebellum and neocortex as well as RD and MD reductions in the cerebellum. Further, we found that FA increased in both the cerebellum and corpus callosum as rats aged from P80 to P220. Thus, both age and AIE treatment caused long-term changes to brain structural integrity that could contribute to cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25678360

  4. Activation in inhibitory brain regions during food choice correlates with temptation strength and self-regulatory success in weight-concerned women

    PubMed Central

    van der Laan, Laura Nynke; de Ridder, Denise T. D.; Viergever, Max A.; Smeets, Paul A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Food choices constitute a classic self-control dilemma involving the trade-off between immediate eating enjoyment and the long term goal of being slim and healthy, especially for weight-concerned women. For them, decision-making concerning high (HE) and low energy (LE) snacks differs when it comes to the need for self-control. In line, our first study aim was to investigate which brain regions are activated during food choices during HE compared to LE energy snacks in weight-concerned women. Since it is particularly difficult to resist HE snacks when they are very tasty, our second aim was to investigate in which brain regions choice-related activation varies with the food's tastiness. Our third aim was to assess in which brain regions choice-related activation varies with individual differences in self-regulatory success. To this end, 20 weight-concerned women indicated for 100 HE or LE snacks whether they wanted to eat them or not, while their brains were scanned using fMRI. HE snacks were refused more often than equally-liked LE snacks. HE snack choice elicited stronger activation in reward-related brain regions [medial to middle orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), caudate]. Highly tasty HE snacks were more difficult to resist and, accordingly, activation in inhibitory areas (inferior frontal gyrus, lateral OFC) was negatively associated with tastiness. More successful self-controllers showed increased activation in the supplementary motor area during HE food choices. In sum, the results suggest that HE snacks constitute a higher reward for weight-concerned women compared to (equally-liked) LE snacks, and that activation during food choice in brain regions involved in response inhibition varied with tastiness and individual differences in self-regulatory success. These findings advance our understanding of the neural correlates of food choice and point to new avenues for investigating explanations for self-regulatory failure. PMID:25324714

  5. Perforation forces of the intact porcine anterior lens capsule.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Franziska; Lussi, Jonas; Felekis, Dimitrios; Michels, Stephan; Petruska, Andrew J; Nelson, Bradley J

    2016-09-01

    During the first step of cataract surgery, the lens capsule is perforated and a circular hole is created with a sharp instrument, a procedure called capsulorhexis. To develop automated systems that can assist ophthalmologists during capsulorhexis, the forces required must be quantified. This study investigates perforation forces of the central anterior lens capsule in porcine eyes, which are used as a conservative model for the human eye. A micro-mechanical characterisation method is presented that measures capsular bag perforation forces with a high precision positioning and high-resolution force sensing system. The force during perforation of the anterior lens capsule was measured with various sized needles and indentation speeds and is found to be 15-35mN. A bio-mechanical model is identified that describes an exponential correlation between indentation force and depth, indicating strain hardening behaviour of the porcine anterior lens capsule. PMID:27254279

  6. Can brain thallium 201 SPECT substitute for F-18-FDG PET in detecting recurrent brain tumor in the presence of radiation necrosis; correlation with biopsy/surgery results

    SciTech Connect

    Antar, M.A.; Barnett, G.H.; McIntyre, W.J.

    1994-05-01

    F-18-FDG PET man has been largely successful in differentiating between radiation necrosis and recurrent brain tumors. Because of the expense and unavailability of PET scanners in most clinical centers, Tl-201 SPECT scan may offer an alternative. Therefore, we have evaluated both techniques in 18 patients (13 men and 5 women) whose ages range from 28 to 74 year old. Eleven patients had glioblastoma multiformi and 4 patients high grade astrocytoma and 3 patient meningiosarcoma. All patients received radiation therapy (5500-6000 Rad) and 13 patients received also chemotherapy. PET scan was performed 40-60 min. after 5-10 mCi of F-18 FDG (i.v.) and SPECT 30 min. after 4.6 mCi of Tl-201 chloride (i.v.). Severe FDG hypometabolism was evident in the irradiated regions, in all patients. Evidence of tumor recurrence was seen in 15 patients by both FDG PET and Thallium 201 SPECT. The ratio of peak pixel uptake of suspected tumor to that of normal cortex for FDG ranged from 0.67 to 1.5 with a mean of 1.02. The ratio of peak pixel uptake of thallium 201 in the suspected lesion to that of the contralateral scalp area ranges from 0.8 to 1.9 with mean of 1.1. There was concordance between the findings of PET and SPECT in 16/18 patients. However, the volume of involvement differs in these patients; most likely secondary to different mechanisms of uptake and both studies may complement each other. Subsequent biopsy/surgery in 11 patients confirmed tumor recurrence in 10 out of 11 patients. The findings suggest that thallium 201 brain SPECT scan can provide similar (but not identical) information regarding brain tumor recurrence in these patients.

  7. 'Negativity bias' in risk for depression and anxiety: brain-body fear circuitry correlates, 5-HTT-LPR and early life stress.

    PubMed

    Williams, Leanne M; Gatt, Justine M; Schofield, Peter R; Olivieri, Gloria; Peduto, Anthony; Gordon, Evian

    2009-09-01

    The INTEGRATE Model draws on the framework of 'integrative neuroscience' to bring together brain-body and behavioral concepts of emotion, thinking and feeling and their regulation. The key organizing principle is the drive to 'minimize danger and maximize reward' that determines what is significant to us at each point in time. Traits of 'negativity bias' reflect the tendency to perceive danger rather than reward related information, and this bias influences emotion, thinking and feeling processes. Here, we examined a self-report measure of Negativity Bias in relation to its impact on brain and body correlates of emotion processing. The contributions of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT-LPR) allelic variants and early life stress to both negativity bias and these correlates were also examined. Data were accessed in collaboration with the Brain Resource International Database (BRID) which provides standardized data across these domains of measurement. From an initial sample of 303 nonclinical subjects from the BRID, subjects scoring one standard deviation below (n=55) and above (n=47) the mean on the measure of negativity bias were identified as 'Negativity Bias' and 'Positivity Bias' groups for analysis, respectively. These subjects had been genotyped for 5-HTT-LPR Short allele versus LL homozygote status, and completed the early life stress scale, and recording of startle responses and heart rate for conscious and nonconscious fear conditions. A matched subset (n=39) of BRID subjects completed functional MRI with the same facial emotion tasks. The Negativity Bias (compared to Positivity Bias) group was distinguished by both arousal and brain function correlates: higher startle amplitude, higher heart rate for conscious and nonconscious fear conditions, and heightened activation in neural circuitry for both fear conditions. Regions of heightened activation included brainstem and bilateral amygdala, anterior cingulate and ventral and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (m

  8. Thalamic atrophy in antero-medial and dorsal nuclei correlates with six-month outcome after severe brain injury☆

    PubMed Central

    Lutkenhoff, Evan S.; McArthur, David L.; Hua, Xue; Thompson, Paul M.; Vespa, Paul M.; Monti, Martin M.

    2013-01-01

    The primary and secondary damage to neural tissue inflicted by traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability. The secondary processes, in particular, are of great clinical interest because of their potential susceptibility to intervention. We address the dynamics of tissue degeneration in cortico-subcortical circuits after severe brain injury by assessing volume change in individual thalamic nuclei over the first six-months post-injury in a sample of 25 moderate to severe traumatic brain injury patients. Using tensor-based morphometry, we observed significant localized thalamic atrophy over the six-month period in antero-dorsal limbic nuclei as well as in medio-dorsal association nuclei. Importantly, the degree of atrophy in these nuclei was predictive, even after controlling for full-brain volume change, of behavioral outcome at six-months post-injury. Furthermore, employing a data-driven decision tree model, we found that physiological measures, namely the extent of atrophy in the anterior thalamic nucleus, were the most predictive variables of whether patients had regained consciousness by six-months, followed by behavioral measures. Overall, these findings suggest that the secondary non-mechanical degenerative processes triggered by severe brain injury are still ongoing after the first week post-trauma and target specifically antero-medial and dorsal thalamic nuclei. This result therefore offers a potential window of intervention, and a specific target region, in agreement with the view that specific cortico-thalamo-cortical circuits are crucial to the maintenance of large-scale network neural activity and thereby the restoration of cognitive function after severe brain injury. PMID:24273723

  9. Mechanical characterization of porcine corneas.

    PubMed

    Boschetti, F; Triacca, V; Spinelli, L; Pandolfi, A

    2012-03-01

    An experimental program has been carried out in order to investigate the mechanical behavior of porcine corneas. We report the results of inflation tests on the whole cornea and uniaxial tests on excised corneal strips, performed on 51 fresh porcine eyes. Uniaxial tests have been performed on specimens cut from previously inflated corneas. The cornea behavior is characterized by means of elastic stiffness, measured on both average pressure-apex displacement and average uniaxial stress-strain curves; and by means of transversal contraction coefficient, peak stress, and failure stress measured on uniaxial stress-strain curves. Uniaxial tests performed on excised strips allowed to measure the anisotropy in the corneal stiffness and to compare the stiffness of the cornea with the one of the sclera. Viscous properties of the cornea have been obtained through uniaxial relaxation curves on excised corneal strips. The relevant geometrical parameters have been measured and, with the aid of the elastic thin shell theory, a stress-strain curve has been derived from the average inflation test data and compared with similar data available in the literature. The experimental system has been developed in view of future applications to the mechanical testing of both porcine and human corneas. PMID:22482683

  10. Oral Reading and Expressive Language after Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury: Trajectory and Correlates of Change over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanten, Gerri; Li, Xiaoqi; Newsome, Mary R.; Swank, Paul; Chapman, Sandra B.; Dennis, Maureen; Barnes, Marcia; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Levin, Harvey S.

    2009-01-01

    Oral reading and expressive language skills were examined in 2 cohorts of children aged 5-15 years, who had mild, moderate, or severe traumatic brain injury. Children recruited prospectively from time of injury were assessed on 5 occasions over 2 years in a longitudinal study of change in reading skills, using the Gray Oral Reading Test-3rd…

  11. Brain Activity in Adults Who Stutter: Similarities across Speaking Tasks and Correlations with Stuttering Frequency and Speaking Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Roger J.; Grafton, Scott T.; Bothe, Anne K.; Ingham, Janis C.

    2012-01-01

    Many differences in brain activity have been reported between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically fluent controls during oral reading tasks. An earlier meta-analysis of imaging studies identified stutter-related regions, but recent studies report less agreement with those regions. A PET study on adult dextral PWS (n = 18) and matched fluent…

  12. The Episodic Engram Transformed: Time Reduces Retrieval-Related Brain Activity but Correlates It with Memory Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Orit; Mendelsohn, Avi; Dudai, Yadin

    2012-01-01

    We took snapshots of human brain activity with fMRI during retrieval of realistic episodic memory over several months. Three groups of participants were scanned during a memory test either hours, weeks, or months after viewing a documentary movie. High recognition accuracy after hours decreased after weeks and remained at similar levels after…

  13. Analysis of acute brain slices by electron microscopy: a correlative light-electron microscopy workflow based on Tokuyasu cryo-sectioning.

    PubMed

    Loussert Fonta, Celine; Leis, Andrew; Mathisen, Cliff; Bouvier, David S; Blanchard, Willy; Volterra, Andrea; Lich, Ben; Humbel, Bruno M

    2015-01-01

    Acute brain slices are slices of brain tissue that are kept vital in vitro for further recordings and analyses. This tool is of major importance in neurobiology and allows the study of brain cells such as microglia, astrocytes, neurons and their inter/intracellular communications via ion channels or transporters. In combination with light/fluorescence microscopies, acute brain slices enable the ex vivo analysis of specific cells or groups of cells inside the slice, e.g. astrocytes. To bridge ex vivo knowledge of a cell with its ultrastructure, we developed a correlative microscopy approach for acute brain slices. The workflow begins with sampling of the tissue and precise trimming of a region of interest, which contains GFP-tagged astrocytes that can be visualised by fluorescence microscopy of ultrathin sections. The astrocytes and their surroundings are then analysed by high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). An important aspect of this workflow is the modification of a commercial cryo-ultramicrotome to observe the fluorescent GFP signal during the trimming process. It ensured that sections contained at least one GFP astrocyte. After cryo-sectioning, a map of the GFP-expressing astrocytes is established and transferred to correlation software installed on a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope equipped with a STEM detector. Next, the areas displaying fluorescence are selected for high resolution STEM imaging. An overview area (e.g. a whole mesh of the grid) is imaged with an automated tiling and stitching process. In the final stitched image, the local organisation of the brain tissue can be surveyed or areas of interest can be magnified to observe fine details, e.g. vesicles or gold labels on specific proteins. The robustness of this workflow is contingent on the quality of sample preparation, based on Tokuyasu's protocol. This method results in a reasonable compromise between preservation of morphology and maintenance of

  14. A new PAMPA model using an in-house brain lipid extract for screening the blood-brain barrier permeability of drug candidates.

    PubMed

    Bicker, Joana; Alves, Gilberto; Fortuna, Ana; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício; Falcão, Amílcar

    2016-03-30

    The determination of the permeability of drug candidates across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a fundamental step during drug discovery programs. The parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) is a high throughput screening tool applied to evaluate the passive permeability and adapted to predict BBB penetration. Herein, a new PAMPA model was developed using an in-house brain lipid extract capable of discriminating BBB permeable from non-permeable compounds. The apparent permeability (Papp) of 18 reference molecules and 10 test compounds was assessed and compared with phosphatidylcholine and commercial porcine polar brain lipid (PBL). The physicochemical selectivity of the in-house brain lipid extract was demonstrated by correlating Papp values with physicochemical properties and its predictive capacity estimated by establishing in vitro-in vivo correlations. The strong correlations achieved between 2% (w/v) in-house lipid extract and PBL for reference (r(2)=0.77) and test compounds (r(2)=0.94) support an equivalent discriminatory capacity and validate the presented model. Moreover, PAMPA studies performed with PBL and in-house lipid extract exhibited a higher correlation with the in vivo parameter logBB (r(2)=0.76 and r(2)=0.72, respectively) than phosphatidylcholine (r(2)=0.51). Overall, the applied lipid extraction process was reproducible, economical and provided lipid extracts that can be used to reliably assess BBB permeation. PMID:26836708

  15. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to another person to be finished for slaughtering over a period of more than 1 month; (b) for...

  16. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to another person to be finished for slaughtering over a period of more than 1 month; (b) for...

  17. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  18. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  19. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  20. Biaxial tensile tests of the porcine ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Deplano, Valérie; Boufi, Mourad; Boiron, Olivier; Guivier-Curien, Carine; Alimi, Yves; Bertrand, Eric

    2016-07-01

    One of the aims of this work is to develop an original custom built biaxial set-up to assess mechanical behavior of soft tissues. Stretch controlled biaxial tensile tests are performed and stereoscopic digital image correlation (SDIC) is implemented to measure the 3D components of the generated displacements. Using this experimental device, the main goal is to investigate the mechanical behavior of porcine ascending aorta in the more general context of human ascending aorta pathologies. The results highlight that (i) SDIC arrangement allows accurate assessment of displacements and so stress strain curves, (ii) porcine ascending aorta has a nearly linear and anisotropic mechanical behavior until 30% of strain, (iii) porcine ascending aorta is stiffer in the circumferential direction than in the longitudinal one, (iv) the material coefficient representing the interaction between the two loading directions is thickness dependent, (v) taking into account the variability of the samples the stress values are independent of the stretch rate in the range of values from 10(-3) to 10(-1)s(-1) and finally, (vi) unlike other segments of the aorta, 4-month-old pigs ascending aorta is definitely not a relevant model to investigate the mechanical behavior of the human ascending aorta. PMID:27211783

  1. Tunes stuck in your brain: The frequency and affective evaluation of involuntary musical imagery correlate with cortical structure.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Nicolas; Jakubowski, Kelly; Cusack, Rhodri; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-09-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in the neuroscience of spontaneous cognition. One form of such cognition is involuntary musical imagery (INMI), the non-pathological and everyday experience of having music in one's head, in the absence of an external stimulus. In this study, aspects of INMI, including frequency and affective evaluation, were measured by self-report in 44 subjects and related to variation in brain structure in these individuals. Frequency of INMI was related to cortical thickness in regions of right frontal and temporal cortices as well as the anterior cingulate and left angular gyrus. Affective aspects of INMI, namely the extent to which subjects wished to suppress INMI or considered them helpful, were related to gray matter volume in right temporopolar and parahippocampal cortices respectively. These results provide the first evidence that INMI is a common internal experience recruiting brain networks involved in perception, emotions, memory and spontaneous thoughts. PMID:25978461

  2. Brain Oscillatory Correlates of Altered Executive Functioning in Positive and Negative Symptomatic Schizophrenia Patients and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Barbara; Minarik, Tamas; Griesmayr, Birgit; Stelzig-Schoeler, Renate; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Sauseng, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Working Memory and executive functioning deficits are core characteristics of patients suffering from schizophrenia. Electrophysiological research indicates that altered patterns of neural oscillatory mechanisms underpinning executive functioning are associated with the psychiatric disorder. Such brain oscillatory changes have been found in local amplitude differences at gamma and theta frequencies in task-specific cortical areas. Moreover, interregional interactions are also disrupted as signified by decreased phase coherence of fronto-posterior theta activity in schizophrenia patients. However, schizophrenia is not a one-dimensional psychiatric disorder but has various forms and expressions. A common distinction is between positive and negative symptomatology but most patients have both negative and positive symptoms to some extent. Here, we examined three groups—healthy controls, predominantly negative, and predominantly positive symptomatic schizophrenia patients—when performing a working memory task with increasing cognitive demand and increasing need for executive control. We analyzed brain oscillatory activity in the three groups separately and investigated how predominant symptomatology might explain differences in brain oscillatory patterns. Our results indicate that differences in task specific fronto-posterior network activity (i.e., executive control network) expressed by interregional phase synchronization are able to account for working memory dysfunctions between groups. Local changes in the theta and gamma frequency range also show differences between patients and healthy controls, and more importantly, between the two patient groups. We conclude that differences in oscillatory brain activation patterns related to executive processing can be an indicator for positive and negative symptomatology in schizophrenia. Furthermore, changes in cognitive and especially executive functioning in patients are expressed by alterations in a task

  3. IDH1(R132) mutation identified in one human melanoma metastasis, but not correlated with metastases to the brain.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Giselle Y; Reitman, Zachary J; Solomon, David; Waldman, Todd; Bigner, Darell D; McLendon, Roger E; Rosenberg, Steven A; Samuels, Yardena; Yan, Hai

    2010-07-30

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) are enzymes which convert isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate while reducing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+to NADPH). IDH1/2 were recently identified as mutated in a large percentage of progressive gliomas. These mutations occur at IDH1(R132) or the homologous IDH2(R172). Melanomas share some genetic features with IDH1/2-mutated gliomas, such as frequent TP53 mutation. We sought to test whether melanoma is associated with IDH1/2 mutations. Seventy-eight human melanoma samples were analyzed for IDH1(R132) and IDH2(R172) mutation status. A somatic, heterozygous IDH1 c.C394T (p.R132C) mutation was identified in one human melanoma metastasis to the lung. Having identified this mutation in one metastasis, we sought to test the hypothesis that certain selective pressures in the brain environment may specifically favor the cell growth or survival of tumor cells with mutations in IDH1/2, regardless of primary tumor site. To address this, we analyzed IDH1(R132) and IDH2(R172) mutation status 53 metastatic brain tumors, including nine melanoma metastases. Results revealed no mutations in any samples. This lack of mutations would suggest that mutations in IDH1(R132) or IDH2(R172) may be necessary for the formation of tumors in a cell-lineage dependent manner, with a particularly strong selective pressure for mutations in progressive gliomas; this also suggests the lack of a particular selective pressure for growth in brain tissue in general. Studies on the cell-lineages of tumors with IDH1/2 mutations may help clarify the role of these mutations in the development of brain tumors. PMID:20603105

  4. CDK5RAP2 expression during murine and human brain development correlates with pathology in primary autosomal recessive microcephaly.

    PubMed

    Issa, Lina; Kraemer, Nadine; Rickert, Christian H; Sifringer, Marco; Ninnemann, Olaf; Stoltenburg-Didinger, Gisela; Kaindl, Angela M

    2013-09-01

    Homozygous mutations in the cyclin-dependent kinase-5 regulatory subunit-associated protein 2 gene CDK5RAP2 cause primary autosomal recessive microcephaly (MCPH). MCPH is characterized by a pronounced reduction of brain volume, particularly of the cerebral cortex, and mental retardation. Though it is a rare developmental disorder, MCPH has moved into the spotlight of neuroscience because of its proposed central role in stem-cell biology and brain development. Investigation of the neural basis of genetically defined MCPH has been limited to animal studies and neuroimaging of affected patients as no neuropathological studies have been published. In the present study, we depict the spatiotemporal expression of CDK5RAP2 in the developing brain of mouse and human. We found intriguing concordance between regions of high CDK5RAP2 expression in the mouse and sites of pathology suggested by neuroimaging studies in humans and mouse. Our findings in human tissue confirm those in mouse tissues, underlining the function of CDK5RAP2 in cell proliferation and arguing for a conserved role of this protein in the development of the mammalian cerebral cortex. PMID:22806269

  5. Long-term survival and integration of porcine expanded neural precursor cell grafts in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Harrower, T P; Tyers, P; Hooks, Y; Barker, R A

    2006-01-01

    Porcine fetal neural tissue has been considered as an alternative source to human allografts for transplantation in neurodegenerative disorders by virtue of the fact that it can overcome the ethical and practical difficulties using human fetal neural tissue. However, primary porcine neural xenografts are rejected while porcine expanded neural precursor neural cells (PNPCs) seem to be less immunogenic and thus survive better [Armstrong, R.J., Harrower, T.P., Hurelbrink, C.B., McLaughin, M., Ratcliffe, E.L., Tyers, P., Richards, A., Dunnett, S.B., Rosser, A.E., Barker, R.A., 2001a. Porcine neural xenografts in the immunocompetent rat: immune response following grafting of expanded neural precursor cells. Neuroscience 106, 201-216]. In this study, we extended these observations to investigate the long-term survival of such transplants in immunosuppressed rats. Unilateral 6 OHDA lesioned rats received grafts into the dopamine denervated striatum of either primary porcine fetal neural tissue dissected from the E26 cortex or cortically derived neural stem cells which had been derived from the same source but expanded in vitro for 21 days. All cortically derived neural stem cell grafts survived up to 5 months in contrast to the poor survival of primary porcine xenografts. Histological analysis demonstrated good graft integration with fibers extending into the surrounding host tissue including white matter with synapse formation, and in addition there was evidence of host vascularization and myelinated fibers within the graft area. This study has therefore shown for the first time the reliable long-term survival of grafts derived from porcine expanded neural precursors in a rat model of PD, with maturation and integration into the host brain. This demonstrates that such xenografted cells may be able to recreate the damaged circuitry in PD although strategies for dopaminergic differentiation of the porcine neural precursor cell remain to be refined. PMID:16246328

  6. Peptide YY receptors in the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Inui, A.; Oya, M.; Okita, M.; Inoue, T.; Sakatani, N.; Morioka, H.; Shii, K.; Yokono, K.; Mizuno, N.; Baba, S.

    1988-01-15

    Radiolabelled ligand binding studies demonstrated that specific receptors for peptide YY are present in the porcine as well as the canine brains. Peptide YY was bound to brain tissue membranes via high-affinity (dissociation constant, 1.39 X 10(-10)M) and low-affinity (dissociation constant, 3.72 X 10(-8)M) components. The binding sites showed a high specificity for peptide YY and neuropeptide Y, but not for pancreatic polypeptide or structurally unrelated peptides. The specific activity of peptide YY binding was highest in the hippocampus, followed by the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus, and the amygdala of the porcine brain, this pattern being similarly observed in the canine brain. The results suggest that peptide YY and neuropeptide Y may regulate the function of these regions of the brain through interaction with a common receptor site.

  7. Decreased Cerebellar-Orbitofrontal Connectivity Correlates with Stuttering Severity: Whole-Brain Functional and Structural Connectivity Associations with Persistent Developmental Stuttering.

    PubMed

    Sitek, Kevin R; Cai, Shanqing; Beal, Deryk S; Perkell, Joseph S; Guenther, Frank H; Ghosh, Satrajit S

    2016-01-01

    Persistent developmental stuttering is characterized by speech production disfluency and affects 1% of adults. The degree of impairment varies widely across individuals and the neural mechanisms underlying the disorder and this variability remain poorly understood. Here we elucidate compensatory mechanisms related to this variability in impairment using whole-brain functional and white matter connectivity analyses in persistent developmental stuttering. We found that people who stutter had stronger functional connectivity between cerebellum and thalamus than people with fluent speech, while stutterers with the least severe symptoms had greater functional connectivity between left cerebellum and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Additionally, people who stutter had decreased functional and white matter connectivity among the perisylvian auditory, motor, and speech planning regions compared to typical speakers, but greater functional connectivity between the right basal ganglia and bilateral temporal auditory regions. Structurally, disfluency ratings were negatively correlated with white matter connections to left perisylvian regions and to the brain stem. Overall, we found increased connectivity among subcortical and reward network structures in people who stutter compared to controls. These connections were negatively correlated with stuttering severity, suggesting the involvement of cerebellum and OFC may underlie successful compensatory mechanisms by more fluent stutterers. PMID:27199712

  8. Decreased Cerebellar-Orbitofrontal Connectivity Correlates with Stuttering Severity: Whole-Brain Functional and Structural Connectivity Associations with Persistent Developmental Stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Sitek, Kevin R.; Cai, Shanqing; Beal, Deryk S.; Perkell, Joseph S.; Guenther, Frank H.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent developmental stuttering is characterized by speech production disfluency and affects 1% of adults. The degree of impairment varies widely across individuals and the neural mechanisms underlying the disorder and this variability remain poorly understood. Here we elucidate compensatory mechanisms related to this variability in impairment using whole-brain functional and white matter connectivity analyses in persistent developmental stuttering. We found that people who stutter had stronger functional connectivity between cerebellum and thalamus than people with fluent speech, while stutterers with the least severe symptoms had greater functional connectivity between left cerebellum and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Additionally, people who stutter had decreased functional and white matter connectivity among the perisylvian auditory, motor, and speech planning regions compared to typical speakers, but greater functional connectivity between the right basal ganglia and bilateral temporal auditory regions. Structurally, disfluency ratings were negatively correlated with white matter connections to left perisylvian regions and to the brain stem. Overall, we found increased connectivity among subcortical and reward network structures in people who stutter compared to controls. These connections were negatively correlated with stuttering severity, suggesting the involvement of cerebellum and OFC may underlie successful compensatory mechanisms by more fluent stutterers. PMID:27199712

  9. Correlation of Acute Humoral Response with Brain Virus Burden and Survival Time in Pig-Tailed Macaques Infected with the Neurovirulent Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVsmmFGb

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, Shawn P.; Suwyn, Carolyn; Anderson, Daniel C.; Niedziela, Genevieve; Bradley, Juliette; Novembre, Francis J.; Herndon, James G.; McClure, Harold M.

    2004-01-01

    Infection of pig-tailed macaques with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolate SIVsmmFGb frequently results in SIV encephalitis (SIVE) in addition to immunodeficiency and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. We used in situ hybridization to quantitate the number of SIV-infected cells in brain parenchyma, choroid plexus, and meninges from 17 macaques that developed acquired immune deficiency syndrome after infection with SIVsmmFGb. SIV-infected cells and histopathological lesions of SIVE were identified in 15 of 17 animals (88.2%), including 12 of 12 rapid progressors (RP) and 3 of 5 slow progressors (SP). The parenchymal virus burden was much greater in RP macaques than in the three SP macaques with SIVE (median values of 24.3 versus 0.3 infected cells/mm2, respectively; P < 0.05). Viral load differences between RP and SP with SIVE were less marked in choroid plexus (29.6 versus 12.8 infected cells/mm2, respectively) and meninges (133.0 versus 34.2 infected cells/mm2, respectively). A significant negative correlation was observed between the magnitude of the anti-SIV antibody titer at 1 month after inoculation and brain virus burden at necropsy (r = −0.614; P < 0.01). The close association between immune response and SIVE in this model should prove useful for identifying correlates of immune protection against primate lentiviral encephalitis. PMID:15039205

  10. Serum BDNF correlates with connectivity in the (pre)motor hub in the aging human brain--a resting-state fMRI pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Karsten; Arelin, Katrin; Möller, Harald E; Sacher, Julia; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Luck, Tobias; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Villringer, Arno; Schroeter, Matthias L

    2016-02-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been discussed to be involved in plasticity processes in the human brain, in particular during aging. Recently, aging and its (neurodegenerative) diseases have increasingly been conceptualized as disconnection syndromes. Here, connectivity changes in neural networks (the connectome) are suggested to be the most relevant and characteristic features for such processes or diseases. To further elucidate the impact of aging on neural networks, we investigated the interaction between plasticity processes, brain connectivity, and healthy aging by measuring levels of serum BDNF and resting-state fMRI data in 25 young (mean age 24.8 ± 2.7 (SD) years) and 23 old healthy participants (mean age, 68.6 ± 4.1 years). To identify neural hubs most essentially related to serum BDNF, we applied graph theory approaches, namely the new data-driven and parameter-free approach eigenvector centrality (EC) mapping. The analysis revealed a positive correlation between serum BDNF and EC in the premotor and motor cortex in older participants in contrast to young volunteers, where we did not detect any association. This positive relationship between serum BDNF and EC appears to be specific for older adults. Our results might indicate that the amount of physical activity and learning capacities, leading to higher BDNF levels, increases brain connectivity in (pre)motor areas in healthy aging in agreement with rodent animal studies. Pilot results have to be replicated in a larger sample including behavioral data to disentangle the cause for the relationship between BDNF levels and connectivity. PMID:26827656

  11. Abnormal brain activation of adolescent internet addict in a ball-throwing animation task: possible neural correlates of disembodiment revealed by fMRI.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeoung-Rang; Son, Jung-Woo; Lee, Sang-Ick; Shin, Chul-Jin; Kim, Sie-Kyeong; Ju, Gawon; Choi, Won-Hee; Oh, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Seungbok; Jo, Seongwoo; Ha, Tae Hyon

    2012-10-01

    While adolescent internet addicts are immersed in cyberspace, they are easily able to experience 'disembodied state'. The purposes of this study were to investigate the difference of brain activity between adolescent internet addicts and normal adolescents in a state of disembodiment, and to find the correlation between the activities of disembodiment-related areas and the behavioral characteristics related to internet addiction. The fMRI images were taken while the addiction group (N=17) and the control group (N=17) were asked to perform the task composed with ball-throwing animations. The task reflected on either self-agency about ball-throwing or location of a ball. And each block was shown with either different (Changing View) or same animations (Fixed View). The disembodiment-related condition was the interaction between Agency Task and Changing View. Within-group analyses revealed that the addiction group exhibited higher activation in the thalamus, bilateral precentral area, bilateral middle frontal area, and the area around the right temporo-parietal junction. And between-group analyses showed that the addiction group exhibited higher activation in the area near the left temporo-parieto-occipital junction, right parahippocampal area, and other areas than the control group. Finally, the duration of internet use was significantly correlated with the activity of posterior area of left middle temporal gyrus in the addiction group. These results show that the disembodiment-related activation of the brain is easily manifested in adolescent internet addicts. Internet addiction of adolescents could be significantly unfavorable for their brain development related with identity formation. PMID:22687465

  12. Profiling the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern of porcine ovaries using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiao-Long; Gao, Ning; Xing, Yan; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Ai-Ling; Liu, Jing; He, Jin-Long; Xu, Yuan; Lin, Wen-Mian; Chen, Zan-Mou; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Jia-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Substantial evidence has shown that DNA methylation regulates the initiation of ovarian and sexual maturation. Here, we investigated the genome-wide profile of DNA methylation in porcine ovaries at single-base resolution using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing. The biological variation was minimal among the three ovarian replicates. We found hypermethylation frequently occurred in regions with low gene abundance, while hypomethylation in regions with high gene abundance. The DNA methylation around transcriptional start sites was negatively correlated with their own CpG content. Additionally, the methylation level in the bodies of genes was higher than that in their 5′ and 3′ flanking regions. The DNA methylation pattern of the low CpG content promoter genes differed obviously from that of the high CpG content promoter genes. The DNA methylation level of the porcine ovary was higher than that of the porcine intestine. Analyses of the genome-wide DNA methylation in porcine ovaries would advance the knowledge and understanding of the porcine ovarian methylome. PMID:26912189

  13. Profiling the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern of porcine ovaries using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Long; Gao, Ning; Xing, Yan; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Ai-Ling; Liu, Jing; He, Jin-Long; Xu, Yuan; Lin, Wen-Mian; Chen, Zan-Mou; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Jia-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Substantial evidence has shown that DNA methylation regulates the initiation of ovarian and sexual maturation. Here, we investigated the genome-wide profile of DNA methylation in porcine ovaries at single-base resolution using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing. The biological variation was minimal among the three ovarian replicates. We found hypermethylation frequently occurred in regions with low gene abundance, while hypomethylation in regions with high gene abundance. The DNA methylation around transcriptional start sites was negatively correlated with their own CpG content. Additionally, the methylation level in the bodies of genes was higher than that in their 5' and 3' flanking regions. The DNA methylation pattern of the low CpG content promoter genes differed obviously from that of the high CpG content promoter genes. The DNA methylation level of the porcine ovary was higher than that of the porcine intestine. Analyses of the genome-wide DNA methylation in porcine ovaries would advance the knowledge and understanding of the porcine ovarian methylome. PMID:26912189

  14. Diffusion Tensor Imaging Parameters in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Its Correlation with Early Neuropsychological Impairment: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Vairavan; Kuo, Tan Li; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Chinna, Karuthan; Bondi, Mark William; Waran, Vicknes; Ganesan, Dharmendra; Ramli, Norlisah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We explored the prognostic value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters of selected white matter (WM) tracts in predicting neuropsychological outcome, both at baseline and 6 months later, among well-characterized patients diagnosed with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Sixty-one patients with mTBI (mean age=27.08; standard deviation [SD], 8.55) underwent scanning at an average of 10 h (SD, 4.26) post-trauma along with assessment of their neuropsychological performance at an average of 4.35 h (SD, 7.08) upon full Glasgow Coma Scale recovery. Results were then compared to 19 healthy control participants (mean age=29.05; SD, 5.84), both in the acute stage and 6 months post-trauma. DTI and neuropsychological measures between acute and chronic phases were compared, and significant differences emerged. Specifically, chronic-phase fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity values showed significant group differences in the corona radiata, anterior limb of internal capsule, cingulum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, and genu of corpus callosum. Findings also demonstrated associations between DTI indices and neuropsychological outcome across two time points. Our results provide new evidence for the use of DTI as an imaging biomarker and indicator of WM damage occurring in the context of mTBI, and they underscore the dynamic nature of brain injury and possible biological basis of chronic neurocognitive alterations. PMID:25952562

  15. Diffusion Tensor Imaging Parameters in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Its Correlation with Early Neuropsychological Impairment: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Veeramuthu, Vigneswaran; Narayanan, Vairavan; Kuo, Tan Li; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Chinna, Karuthan; Bondi, Mark William; Waran, Vicknes; Ganesan, Dharmendra; Ramli, Norlisah

    2015-10-01

    We explored the prognostic value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters of selected white matter (WM) tracts in predicting neuropsychological outcome, both at baseline and 6 months later, among well-characterized patients diagnosed with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Sixty-one patients with mTBI (mean age=27.08; standard deviation [SD], 8.55) underwent scanning at an average of 10 h (SD, 4.26) post-trauma along with assessment of their neuropsychological performance at an average of 4.35 h (SD, 7.08) upon full Glasgow Coma Scale recovery. Results were then compared to 19 healthy control participants (mean age=29.05; SD, 5.84), both in the acute stage and 6 months post-trauma. DTI and neuropsychological measures between acute and chronic phases were compared, and significant differences emerged. Specifically, chronic-phase fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity values showed significant group differences in the corona radiata, anterior limb of internal capsule, cingulum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, and genu of corpus callosum. Findings also demonstrated associations between DTI indices and neuropsychological outcome across two time points. Our results provide new evidence for the use of DTI as an imaging biomarker and indicator of WM damage occurring in the context of mTBI, and they underscore the dynamic nature of brain injury and possible biological basis of chronic neurocognitive alterations. PMID:25952562

  16. There is no correlation between glucocorticoid receptor mRNA expression and protein binding in the brains of house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    PubMed

    Medina, Carlos O; Lattin, Christine R; McVey, M; Romero, L Michael

    2013-11-01

    The stress response represents an animal's attempt to cope with a noxious stimulus through a rapid release of corticosterone or cortisol (CORT) into the bloodstream, resulting in a suite of physiological and behavioral changes. These changes are mediated in large part through CORT's binding to two different intracellular receptors, the high-affinity mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the lower-affinity glucocorticoid receptor (GR). We tested the hypothesis that GR and MR mRNA expression would correlate with functional protein expression in neuronal tissue of wild-caught house sparrows (Passer domesticus). To test this hypothesis, we performed a parallel procedure in which protein concentrations were quantified in one half of house sparrow brains (n=16) using radioligand binding assays, and mRNA levels were quantified in the other brain half using reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Two reference genes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and TATA-box binding protein (TBP), were used for relative quantification of GR and MR mRNA. Quantifications showed that these two reference genes were not correlated with each other. Furthermore, there was no correlation between mRNA and protein levels for GR or MR using either reference gene, suggesting that regulation of mRNA and protein levels for MR and GR is not tightly linked. This study provides insight into the importance of regulatory steps between mRNA expression and the creation and stability of a functional protein. The overall conclusion is that mRNA expression cannot be used as a proxy for GR or MR binding in house sparrows. PMID:23892014

  17. Brain-Behavior Correlations: Relationships between Mother-Stranger Face Processing and Infants' Behavioral Responses to a Separation from Mother

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swingler, Margaret M.; Sweet, Monica A.; Carver, Leslie J.

    2010-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 6-month-olds (N = 30) as they looked at pictures of their mother's face and a stranger's face. Negative component (Nc) and P400 component responses from the ERP portion of the study were correlated with behavioral responses of the infants during a separation from their mothers. We measured the…

  18. Correlation of Brain Neuropeptide (Nesfatin-1 and Orexin-A) Concentrations with Anthropometric and Biochemical Parameters in Malnourished Children

    PubMed Central

    Ustabaş Kahraman, Feyza; Vehapoğlu, Aysel; Özgen, İlker Tolga; Terzioğlu, Şule; Cesur, Yaşar; Dündaröz, Ruşen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Malnutrition continues to be a leading cause of stunted growth in many countries. This study aimed to investigate serum nesfatin-1 and orexin-A levels in underweight children and the potential correlations of these levels with anthropometric and nutritional parameters. Methods: The study enrolled 44 prepubertal children (between 2 and 12 years of age) with thinness grades of 1-3 and 41 healthy age- and gender-matched children. The demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters including nesfatin-1 and orexin-A concentrations were compared between the two groups. The correlations of nesfatin-1 and orexin-A with biochemical and anthropometric parameters were investigated. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were also performed for evaluating nesfatin-1 and orexin-A in distinguishing children with malnutrition from healthy controls. Results: Thyroid-stimulating hormone, vitamin B12 and insulin levels were significantly lower in the study group than controls (p=0.001, p=0.049 and p=0.033, respectively). Mean nesfatin-1 levels in the malnourished group was also significantly lower compared to the healthy controls (3871.2±1608.8 vs. 5515.0±3816.4 pg/mL, p=0.012). No significant difference was observed in the orexin-A levels between the two groups (malnourished vs. control groups: 1135.7±306.0 vs. 1025.7±361.6 pg/mL, p=0.141). Correlation analyses revealed a positive correlation of nesfatin-1 and a negative correlation of orexin-A with body mass index (BMI) z-score. ROC analysis demonstrated that nesfatin-1 and orexin-A cannot be used to distinguish children with malnutrition from healthy controls (AUC: 0.620, p=0.061 for nesfatin-1 and AUC: 0.584, p=0.190 for orexin-A). Conclusion: The positive correlation of nesfatin-1 and the negative correlation of orexin-A with BMI suggest that these neuropeptides may be a part of a protective mechanism in the maintenance of nutritional status and that they may have a role in regulating food intake in

  19. Correlation between Patent Foramen Ovale, Cerebral “Lesions” and Neuropsychometric Testing in Experienced Sports Divers: Does Diving Damage the Brain?

    PubMed Central

    Balestra, Costantino; Germonpré, Peter

    2016-01-01

    SCUBA diving exposes divers to decompression sickness (DCS). There has been considerable debate whether divers with a Patent Foramen Ovale of the heart have a higher risk of DCS because of the possible right-to-left shunt of venous decompression bubbles into the arterial circulation. Symptomatic neurological DCS has been shown to cause permanent damage to brain and spinal cord tissue; it has been suggested that divers with PFO may be at higher risk of developing subclinical brain lesions because of repeated asymptomatic embolization of decompression-induced nitrogen bubbles. These studies however suffer from several methodological flaws, including self-selection bias. We recruited 200 volunteer divers from a recreational diving population who had never suffered from DCS; we then randomly selected 50 of those for further investigation. The selected divers underwent brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging to detect asymptomatic brain lesions, contrast trans-oesophageal echocardiography for PFO, and extensive neuro-psychometric testing. Neuro-psychometry results were compared with a control group of normal subjects and a separate control group for subjects exposed to neurotoxic solvents. Forty two divers underwent all the tests and are included in this report. Grade 2 Patent Foramen Ovale was found in 16 (38%) of the divers; brain Unidentified Bright Objects (UBO's) were found in 5 (11.9%). There was no association between PFO and the presence of UBO's (P = 0.693) or their size (p = 0.5) in divers. Neuropsychometric testing in divers was significantly worse from controls in two tests, Digit Span Backwards (DSB; p < 0.05) and Symbol-Digit-Substitution (SDS; p < 0.01). Compared to subjects exposed to neurotoxic solvents, divers scored similar on DSB and SDS tests, but significantly better on the Simple Reaction Time (REA) and Hand-Eye Coordination (EYE) tests. There was no correlation between PFO, number of UBO's and any of the neuro-psychometric tests. We conclude that for

  20. Antisaccadic Eye Movements Are Correlated with Corpus Callosum White Matter Mean Diffusivity, Stroop Performance, and Symptom Burden in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Windsor Kwan-Chun; Schweizer, Tom A.; Topolovec-Vranic, Jane; Cusimano, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Antisaccades are thought to involve higher level inputs from neural centers involved in rapid eye movement inhibition and control. Previous work has demonstrated that performance on the antisaccade task can help in the assessment of injury in acute and/or chronic mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). In this exploratory study, we performed cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of rapid eye movement, followed by correlations of antisaccade performance with assessments of symptom burden, diffusion tensor imaging, and a neuropsychological test of response inhibition. Significant deficits in antisaccade median latency, F(2, 31) = 3.65, p = 0.04 and prosaccade error mean duration, F(2, 31) = 3.63, p = 0.04 were found between patient groups and controls: the former was correlated with loss of white matter integrity in the splenium of the corpus callosum in acute mTBI, rho = 0.90, p = 0.0005. Furthermore, increased antisaccade median latency was also correlated with poor performance on an executive functioning task, r2 = 0.439, p = 0.03, and greater symptom burden, r2 = 0.480, p = 0.02 in the acute mTBI patients. Our preliminary research suggests that the antisaccade task could be useful as a neurological marker for mTBI and concussion, but more work is required. PMID:26834693

  1. Underlying neurobiology and clinical correlates of mania status after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Amit; Tye, Susannah J; Lee, Kendall H; Sampson, Shirlene; Matsumoto, Joseph; Adams, Andrea; Klassen, Bryan; Stead, Matt; Fields, Julie A; Frye, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a novel and effective surgical intervention for refractory Parkinson's disease (PD). The authors review the current literature to identify the clinical correlates associated with subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS-induced hypomania/mania in PD patients. Ventromedial electrode placement has been most consistently implicated in the induction of STN DBS-induced mania. There is some evidence of symptom amelioration when electrode placement is switched to a more dorsolateral contact. Additional clinical correlates may include unipolar stimulation, higher voltage (>3 V), male sex, and/or early-onset PD. STN DBS-induced psychiatric adverse events emphasize the need for comprehensive psychiatric presurgical evaluation and follow-up in PD patients. Animal studies and prospective clinical research, combined with advanced neuroimaging techniques, are needed to identify clinical correlates and underlying neurobiological mechanisms of STN DBS-induced mania. Such working models would serve to further our understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of mania and contribute valuable new insight toward development of future DBS mood-stabilization therapies. PMID:22450620

  2. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Porcine Elastase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Porcine Elastase. This enzyme is associated with the degradation of lung tissue in people suffering from emphysema. It is useful in studying causes of this disease. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Charles Bugg.

  3. Sirtuin Inhibition Adversely Affects Porcine Oocyte Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Ma, Rujun; Hu, Jin; Ding, Xiaolin; Xu, Yinxue

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuins have been implicated in diverse biological processes, including oxidative stress, energy metabolism, cell migration, and aging. Here, we employed Sirtuin inhibitors, nicotinamide (NAM) and Sirtinol, to investigate their effects on porcine oocyte maturation respectively. The rate of polar body extrusion in porcine oocytes decreased after treatment with NAM and Sirtinol, accompanied with the failure of cumulus cell expansion. We further found that NAM and Sirtinol significantly disrupted oocyte polarity, and inhibited the formation of actin cap and cortical granule-free domain (CGFD). Moreover, the abnormal spindles and misaligned chromosomes were readily detected during porcine oocyte maturation after treatment with NAM and Sirtinol. Together, these results suggest that Sirtuins are involved in cortical polarity and spindle organization in porcine oocytes. PMID:26176547

  4. Tutorial on use of intraclass correlation coefficients for assessing intertest reliability and its application in functional near-infrared spectroscopy-based brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Zeng, Li; Lin, Zi-Jing; Cazzell, Mary; Liu, Hanli

    2015-05-01

    Test-retest reliability of neuroimaging measurements is an important concern in the investigation of cognitive functions in the human brain. To date, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), originally used in inter-rater reliability studies in behavioral sciences, have become commonly used metrics in reliability studies on neuroimaging and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). However, as there are six popular forms of ICC, the adequateness of the comprehensive understanding of ICCs will affect how one may appropriately select, use, and interpret ICCs toward a reliability study. We first offer a brief review and tutorial on the statistical rationale of ICCs, including their underlying analysis of variance models and technical definitions, in the context of assessment on intertest reliability. Second, we provide general guidelines on the selection and interpretation of ICCs. Third, we illustrate the proposed approach by using an actual research study to assess intertest reliability of fNIRS-based, volumetric diffuse optical tomography of brain activities stimulated by a risk decision-making protocol. Last, special issues that may arise in reliability assessment using ICCs are discussed and solutions are suggested.

  5. Correlation Between Cerebral Atrophy and Texture Features in Alzheimer-type Dementia Brains: A 3-Year Follow-up MRI Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Naoki; Takeuchi, Hiroshi

    We assessed relationships between six texture features and changes in atrophy of the cerebral parenchyma, the hippocampus, and the parahippocampal gyrus in the Alzheimer-type dementia (ATD) brain to determine whether or not the features reflect cerebral atrophy in ATD patients. The subjects of this study were 10 ATD patients, and underwent an magnetic resonanse imaging test of the head annually for at least 3 consecutive years. They consisted of three men and seven women, with a mean age of 71.4 ± 6.7 years. The results of study, the mean run length nonuniformity (RLN), angular second moment (ASM), and contrast (CON) increased with time, whereas the mean gray level nonuniformity (GLN), run percentage (RPC), and entropy (ENT) decreased with time. There was a statistically significant correlation between brain-intracranial area ratio (BIR) and GLN (p = 0.039), between BIR and ASM (p = 0.011), and between BIR and ENT (p = 0.023) as well as between parahippocampal-intracranial area ratio and GLN (p = 0.049). These results indicate that the six texture features were shown to reflect gray matter atrophy associated with ATD and to change with the progress of the disease. Although the course of ATD can be followed up by measuring a hippocampal area or volume and determining a decrease in the area or volume, texture features should be a more effective instrument for identifying the progress of ATD.

  6. Blueberry-induced changes in spatial working memory correlate with changes in hippocampal CREB phosphorylation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels.

    PubMed

    Williams, Claire M; El Mohsen, Manal Abd; Vauzour, David; Rendeiro, Catarina; Butler, Laurie T; Ellis, Judi A; Whiteman, Matthew; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2008-08-01

    Phytochemical-rich foods have been shown to be effective at reversing age-related deficits in memory in both animals and humans. We show that a supplementation with a blueberry diet (2% w/w) for 12 weeks improves the performance of aged animals in spatial working memory tasks. This improvement emerged within 3 weeks and persisted for the remainder of the testing period. Memory performance correlated well with the activation of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) and increases in both pro- and mature levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus. Changes in CREB and BDNF in aged and blueberry-supplemented animals were accompanied by increases in the phosphorylation state of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1/2), rather than that of calcium calmodulin kinase (CaMKII and CaMKIV) or protein kinase A. Furthermore, age and blueberry supplementation were linked to changes in the activation state of Akt, mTOR, and the levels of Arc/Arg3.1 in the hippocampus, suggesting that pathways involved in de novo protein synthesis may be involved. Although causal relationships cannot be made among supplementation, behavior, and biochemical parameters, the measurement of anthocyanins and flavanols in the brain following blueberry supplementation may indicate that changes in spatial working memory in aged animals are linked to the effects of flavonoids on the ERK-CREB-BDNF pathway. PMID:18457678

  7. Distribution and cellular localization of mRNA coding for 5-HT1A receptor in the rat brain: correlation with receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Pompeiano, M; Palacios, J M; Mengod, G

    1992-02-01

    In order to localize the cells expressing 5-HT1A receptors in the rat brain, we used in situ hybridization histochemistry to visualize the distribution of the mRNA coding for 5-HT1A receptors. Oligonucleotides derived from different parts of the coding region of the rat 5-HT1A receptor gene were used as hybridization probes. 5-HT1A binding sites were visualized on consecutive sections by receptor autoradiography using 3H-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin as ligand. The highest levels of hybridization were observed in the dorsal raphe nucleus, septum, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and interpeduncular nucleus. Positive hybridization signals were also present in other areas, such as the olfactory bulb; cerebral cortex; some thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei; several nuclei of the brainstem, including all the remaining raphe nuclei, nucleus of the solitary tract, and nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminus; and the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The distribution and abundance of 5-HT1A receptor mRNA in different rat brain areas generally correlate with those of the binding sites, suggesting that 5-HT1A receptors are predominantly somatodendritic receptors. PMID:1531498

  8. Mapping, expression and regulation of the TRα gene in porcine adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Cai, Z-W; Sheng, Y-F; Zhang, L-F; Wang, Y; Jiang, X-L; Lv, Z-Z; Xu, N-Y

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TR) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. There are at least two TR isoforms, TRα and TRβ. The TRα isoform plays a critical role in mediating the action of thyroid hormone in adipose tissue. We mapped the porcine TRα gene to chromosome 12 p11-p13, by using the ImpRH panel. We examined tissue-localization of TRα and determined expression patterns of TRα in porcine adipose tissue with quantitative real-time PCR. TRα was expressed in all tissues, including heart, liver, spleen, stomach, pancreas, brain, small intestine, skeletal muscle, and subcutaneous adipose tissue. In the adipose tissue, the expression of TRα decreased postnatally. Compared to Yorkshire pigs, Jinhua pigs had significantly lower expression levels of TRα gene in the subcutaneous fat tissue. The expression levels of β2-AR, HSL and ATGL were also significantly lower in Jinhua pigs than in Yorkshire pigs. However, no significant differences in PPARγ and SREBP-1C expression levels were found between Jinhua and Yorkshire pigs. Incubation of porcine adipose tissue explants with high doses of isoproterenol (100 and 1000 nM) significantly increased the expression levels of TRα. We conclude that there is considerable evidence that TRα plays an important role in fat deposition in porcine adipose tissue. PMID:21751158

  9. Correlation between clinical severity of central nervous system (CNS) lupus and findings on single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images of the brain; preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, I.E.; Zeit, R.M.; Von Feldt, J.M.

    1994-05-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosis (SLE) commonly causes significant neuropsychiatric disorders. The purpose of this study was to review the brain SPECT studies of SLE patients with clinical evidence of CNS involvement and determine whether there is a correlation between the findings on SPECT images and the clinical manifestations of this serious phase of the disease. We enrolled 19 SLE patients and 12 normal controls in this study. The level of each patient`s disease activity was determined by the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), an established method of scoring disease severity which is heavily weighted toward neuropsychiatric symptomatology, for 15 of the 19 SLE patients. The SLEDAI was calculated within a 10 day window of the date when the SPECT scan was obtained. SPECT scans were performed 30 minutes following the intravenous administration of 99mTc-HMPAO. Results are discussed.

  10. Regional distribution of rat brain alpha/sub 1/-adrenergic receptors: correlation between (/sup 125/I)-heat membrane binding and in vitro autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.S.; Miller, G.; Gauger, L.L.; Davis, J.N.

    1985-01-07

    (/sup 125/I)-HEAT has proven useful for in vitro autoradiography as a specific alpha/sub 1/-adrenergic radioligand. We compared the binding of (/sup 125/I)-HEAT to membranes from ten brain regions with the densitometric readings of these regions in autoradiographs. There was an excellent correlation between receptor numbers from membrane binding and relative optical densities from the autoradiography. The affinity of HEAT for binding to membranes from various regions was similar. The results of this direct comparison are further evidence that HEAT binds to alpha/sub 1/-adrenergic receptors in lightly fixed tissue sections. A further interesting observation is that in regions with a heterogeneous distribution of binding sites, membrane binding may not reflect the presence of a dense local population of receptors. 19 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  11. Cloning and characterization of porcine resistin gene.

    PubMed

    Dai, M H; Xia, T; Chen, X D; Gan, L; Feng, S Q; Qiu, H; Peng, Y; Yang, Z Q

    2006-02-01

    Resistin is a member of resistin-like molecules (RELMs) and a hormone secreted from mature adipocytes in rodents and leukocytes in human. We now report the cloning and characterization of the full-length porcine resistin cDNA and gene. Sequence analysis indicated that the pig resistin cDNA sequence had an open reading frame of 330 bp encoding a 12 kDa protein of 109 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 75.2% identity to the human resistin. The porcine resistin gene was composed of four exons and had exactly the same exon structure as the human resistin gene. The tissue distribution of porcine resistin mRNA was assessed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Resistin gene expression was the highest in porcine leukocytes and low in adipose tissue. Resistin protein could be detected in porcine serum by western blotting and it circulated in serum as dimers and trimers. We provided the first evidence that resistin was abundantly expressed in porcine leukocytes and had an expression pattern similar to that in human resistin mRNA and protein. This suggests that the pig may be a suitable animal model for studying the function of resistin in human insulin resistance. PMID:16023825

  12. Computer aided diagnosis system for Alzheimer disease using brain diffusion tensor imaging features selected by Pearson's correlation.

    PubMed

    Graña, M; Termenon, M; Savio, A; Gonzalez-Pinto, A; Echeveste, J; Pérez, J M; Besga, A

    2011-09-20

    The aim of this paper is to obtain discriminant features from two scalar measures of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data, Fractional Anisotropy (FA) and Mean Diffusivity (MD), and to train and test classifiers able to discriminate Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients from controls on the basis of features extracted from the FA or MD volumes. In this study, support vector machine (SVM) classifier was trained and tested on FA and MD data. Feature selection is done computing the Pearson's correlation between FA or MD values at voxel site across subjects and the indicative variable specifying the subject class. Voxel sites with high absolute correlation are selected for feature extraction. Results are obtained over an on-going study in Hospital de Santiago Apostol collecting anatomical T1-weighted MRI volumes and DTI data from healthy control subjects and AD patients. FA features and a linear SVM classifier achieve perfect accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in several cross-validation studies, supporting the usefulness of DTI-derived features as an image-marker for AD and to the feasibility of building Computer Aided Diagnosis systems for AD based on them. PMID:21839143

  13. Simulations of Porcine Eye Exposure to Primary Blast Insult

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Richard; Gray, Walt; Sponsel, William E.; Lund, Brian J.; Glickman, Randolph D.; Groth, Sylvia L.; Reilly, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A computational model of the porcine eye was developed to simulate primary blast exposure. This model facilitates understanding of blast-induced injury mechanisms. Methods A computational model of the porcine eye was used to simulate the effects of primary blast loading for comparison with experimental findings from shock tube experiments. The eye model was exposed to overpressure-time histories measured during physical experiments. Deformations and mechanical stresses within various ocular tissues were then examined for correlation with pathological findings in the experiments. Results Stresses and strains experienced in the eye during a primary blast event increase as the severity of the blast exposure increases. Peak stresses in the model occurred in locations in which damage was most often observed in the physical experiments. Conclusions Blast injuries to the anterior chamber may be due to inertial displacement of the lens and ciliary body while posterior damage may arise due to contrecoup interactions of the vitreous and retina. Correlation of modeling predictions with physical experiments lends confidence that the model accurately represents the conditions found in the physical experiments. Translational Relevance This computational model offers insights into the mechanisms of ocular injuries arising due to primary blast and may be used to simulate the effects of new protective eyewear designs. PMID:26336633

  14. Atomic water channel controlling remarkable properties of a single brain microtubule: correlating single protein to its supramolecular assembly.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Satyajit; Ghosh, Subrata; Ghosh, Batu; Aswani, Krishna; Hirata, Kazuto; Fujita, Daisuke; Bandyopadhyay, Anirban

    2013-09-15

    Microtubule nanotubes are found in every living eukaryotic cells; these are formed by reversible polymerization of the tubulin protein, and their hollow fibers are filled with uniquely arranged water molecules. Here we measure single tubulin molecule and single brain-neuron extracted microtubule nanowire with and without water channel inside to unravel their unique electronic and optical properties for the first time. We demonstrate that the energy levels of a single tubulin protein and single microtubule made of 40,000 tubulin dimers are identical unlike conventional materials. Moreover, the transmitted ac power and the transient fluorescence decay (single photon count) are independent of the microtubule length. Even more remarkable is the fact that the microtubule nanowire is more conducting than a single protein molecule that constitutes the nanowire. Microtubule's vibrational peaks condense to a single mode that controls the emergence of size independent electronic/optical properties, and automated noise alleviation, which disappear when the atomic water core is released from the inner cylinder. We have carried out several tricky state-of-the-art experiments and identified the electromagnetic resonance peaks of single microtubule reliably. The resonant vibrations established that the condensation of energy levels and periodic oscillation of unique energy fringes on the microtubule surface, emerge as the atomic water core resonantly integrates all proteins around it such that the nanotube irrespective of its size functions like a single protein molecule. Thus, a monomolecular water channel residing inside the protein-cylinder displays an unprecedented control in governing the tantalizing electronic and optical properties of microtubule. PMID:23567633

  15. Psychosis in Machado-Joseph Disease: Clinical Correlates, Pathophysiological Discussion, and Functional Brain Imaging. Expanding the Cerebellar Cognitive Affective Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Braga-Neto, Pedro; Pedroso, José Luiz; Gadelha, Ary; Laureano, Maura Regina; de Souza Noto, Cristiano; Garrido, Griselda Jara; Barsottini, Orlando Graziani Povoas

    2016-08-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is the most common spinocerebellar ataxia worldwide with a broad range of clinical manifestations, but psychotic symptoms were not previously characterized. We investigated the psychiatric manifestations of a large cohort of Brazilian patients with MJD in an attempt to characterize the presence of psychotic symptoms. We evaluated 112 patients with clinical and molecular diagnosis of MJD from February 2008 to November 2013. Patients with psychotic symptoms were referred to psychiatric evaluation and brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) analysis. A specific scale-Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)-was used to characterize psychotic symptoms in MJD patients. We also performed an autopsy from one of the patients with MJD and psychotic symptoms. Five patients presented psychotic symptoms. Patients with psychotic symptoms were older and had a late onset of the disease (p < 0.05). SPECT results showed that MJD patients had significant regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) decrease in the cerebellum bilaterally and vermis compared with healthy subjects. No significant rCBF differences were found in patients without psychotic symptoms compared to patients with psychotic symptoms. The pathological description of a patient with MJD and psychotic symptoms revealed severe loss of neuron bodies in the dentate nucleus and substantia nigra. MJD patients with a late onset of the disease and older ones are at risk to develop psychotic symptoms during the disease progression. These clinical findings may be markers for an underlying cortical-cerebellar disconnection or degeneration of specific cortical and subcortical regions that may characterize the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. PMID:26298474

  16. Contrasting brain patterns of writing-related DTI parameters, fMRI connectivity, and DTI–fMRI connectivity correlations in children with and without dysgraphia or dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Richards, T.L.; Grabowski, T.J.; Boord, P.; Yagle, K.; Askren, M.; Mestre, Z.; Robinson, P.; Welker, O.; Gulliford, D.; Nagy, W.; Berninger, V.

    2015-01-01

    Based on comprehensive testing and educational history, children in grades 4–9 (on average 12 years) were diagnosed with dysgraphia (persisting handwriting impairment) or dyslexia (persisting word spelling/reading impairment) or as typical writers and readers (controls). The dysgraphia group (n = 14) and dyslexia group (n = 17) were each compared to the control group (n = 9) and to each other in separate analyses. Four brain region seed points (left occipital temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, precuneus, and inferior frontal gyrus) were used in these analyses which were shown in a metaanalysis to be related to written word production on four indicators of white matter integrity and fMRI functional connectivity for four tasks (self-guided mind wandering during resting state, writing letter that follows a visually displayed letter in alphabet, writing missing letter to create a correctly spelled real word, and planning for composing after scanning on topic specified by researcher). For those DTI indicators on which the dysgraphic group or dyslexic group differed from the control group (fractional anisotropy, relative anisotropy, axial diffusivity but not radial diffusivity), correlations were computed between the DTI parameter and fMRI functional connectivity for the two writing tasks (alphabet and spelling) by seed points. Analyses, controlled for multiple comparisons, showed that (a) the control group exhibited more white matter integrity than either the dysgraphic or dyslexic group; (b) the dysgraphic and dyslexic groups showed more functional connectivity than the control group but differed in patterns of functional connectivity for task and seed point; and (c) the dysgraphic and dyslexic groups showed different patterns of significant DTI–fMRI connectivity correlations for specific seed points and written language tasks. Thus, dysgraphia and dyslexia differ in white matter integrity, fMRI functional connectivity, and white matter–gray matter

  17. Inter-Subject Correlation of Brain Hemodynamic Responses During Watching a Movie: Localization in Space and Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Sams, Mikko; Tohka, Jussi

    2009-01-01

    Cinema is a promising naturalistic stimulus that enables, for instance, elicitation of robust emotions during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Inter-subject correlation (ISC) has been used as a model-free analysis method to map the highly complex hemodynamic responses that are evoked during watching a movie. Here, we extended the ISC analysis to frequency domain using wavelet analysis combined with non-parametric permutation methods for making voxel-wise statistical inferences about frequency-band specific ISC. We applied these novel analysis methods to a dataset collected in our previous study where 12 subjects watched an emotionally engaging movie “Crash” during fMRI scanning. Our results suggest that several regions within the frontal and temporal lobes show ISC predominantly at low frequency bands, whereas visual cortical areas exhibit ISC also at higher frequencies. It is possible that these findings relate to recent observations of a cortical hierarchy of temporal receptive windows, or that the types of events processed in temporal and prefrontal cortical areas (e.g., social interactions) occur over longer time periods than the stimulus features processed in the visual areas. Software tools to perform frequency-specific ISC analysis, together with a visualization application, are available as open source Matlab code. PMID:20428497

  18. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum levels correlate with cognitive performance in Parkinson’s disease patients with mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Alberto; Peppe, Antonella; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Zabberoni, Silvia; Scalici, Francesco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Angelucci, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a trophic factor regulating cell survival and synaptic plasticity. Recent findings indicate that BDNF could be a potential regulatory factor for cognitive functioning in normal and/or neuropathological conditions. With regard to neurological disorders, recent data suggest that individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) may be affected by cognitive deficits and that they have altered BDNF production. Therefore, the hypothesis can be advanced that BDNF levels are associated with the cognitive state of these patients. With this in mind, the present study was aimed at exploring the relationship between BDNF serum levels and cognitive functioning in PD patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thirteen PD patients with MCI were included in the study. They were administered an extensive neuropsychological test battery that investigated executive, episodic memory, attention, visual-spatial and language domains. A single score was obtained for each cognitive domain by averaging z-scores on tests belonging to that specific domain. BDNF serum levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Pearson’s correlation analyses were performed between BDNF serum levels and cognitive performance. Results showed a significant positive correlation between BDNF serum levels and both attention (p < 0.05) and executive (p < 0.05) domains. Moreover, in the executive domain we found a significant correlation between BDNF levels and scores on tests assessing working memory and self-monitoring/inhibition. These preliminary data suggest that BDNF serum levels are associated with cognitive state in PD patients with MCI. Given the role of BDNF in regulating synaptic plasticity, the present findings give further support to the hypothesis that this trophic factor may be a potential biomarker for evaluating cognitive changes in PD and other neurological syndromes associated with cognitive decline. PMID:26441580

  19. Antidepressant actions of lateral habenula deep brain stimulation differentially correlate with CaMKII/GSK3/AMPK signaling locally and in the infralimbic cortex.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yesul; Morath, Brooke; Hu, Chunling; Byrne, Linda K; Sutor, Shari L; Frye, Mark A; Tye, Susannah J

    2016-06-01

    High frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the lateral habenula (LHb) reduces symptoms of depression in severely treatment-resistant individuals. Despite the observed therapeutic effects, the molecular underpinnings of DBS are poorly understood. This study investigated the efficacy of high frequency LHb DBS (130Hz; 200μA; 90μs) in an animal model of tricyclic antidepressant resistance. Further, we reported DBS mediated changes in Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKIIα/β), glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3α/β) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) both locally and in the infralimbic cortex (IL). Protein expressions were then correlated to immobility time during the forced swim test (FST). Antidepressant actions were quantified via FST. Treatment groups comprised of animals treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone alone (ACTH; 100μg/day, 14days, n=7), ACTH with active DBS (n=7), sham DBS (n=8), surgery only (n=8) or control (n=8). Active DBS significantly reduced immobility in ACTH-treated animals (p<0.05). For this group, western blot results demonstrated phosphorylation status of LHb CaMKIIα/β and GSK3α/β significantly correlated to immobility time in the FST. Concurrently, we observed phosphorylation status of CaMKIIα/β, GSK3α/β, and AMPK in the IL to be negatively correlated with antidepressant actions of DBS. These findings suggest that activity dependent phosphorylation of CaMKIIα/β, and GSK3α/β in the LHb together with the downregulation of CaMKIIα/β, GSK3α/β, and AMPK in the IL, contribute to the antidepressant actions of DBS. PMID:26956153

  20. Coagulopathy in Traumatic Brain Injury and Its Correlation with Progressive Hemorrhagic Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qiang; Sun, Yi-Rui; Wu, Xing; Yu, Jian; Li, Zhi-Qi; Du, Zhuo-Ying; Wu, Xue-Hai; Zhou, Liang-Fu; Hu, Jin

    2016-07-15

    The association between coagulopathy and either isolated traumatic brain injury (TBI) or progressive hemorrhagic injury (PHI) remains controversial. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether isolated TBI induces pronounced coagulopathy, in comparison with non-TBI or TBI in conjunction with other injuries (TBI + other injuries), and to examine whether there is any evidence of a relationship between coagulopathy and PHI in patients who have experienced TBI. The MEDLINE(®) and Embase databases, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Central), were trawled for relevant studies. Searches covered the period from the inception of each of the databases to June 2015, and were conducted using appropriate combinations of terms and key words based on medical subject headings (MeSH). Studies were included if they compared isolated TBI with a similar severity of injury to other body regions, or compared PHI with non-PHI, with regard to coagulation tests and the prevalence of coagulopathy. We extracted the means and standard deviations (SD) of coagulation test levels, as well as their ranges or the percentage of abnormal coagulation tests, in both cases and controls. A total of 19 studies were included in our systematic review and meta-analysis. Only the mean fibrinogen (FIB) in isolated TBI was found to be significantly higher than in TBI + other injuries (pooled mean difference [MD] 32.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.92-59.25; p = 0.02); in contrast, it was also significantly higher than in non-TBI (pooled MD 15.44; 95% CI 0.28-30.59; p = 0.05). We identified 15 studies that compared coagulopathy between a PHI group and a non-PHI group. The PHI group had a lower platelet count (PLT) value (pooled MD -19.21; 95% CI: -26.99 to -11.44, p < 0.001) and a higher international normalized ratio (INR) value (pooled MD 0.07; 95% CI: 0.02-0.13, p = 0.006) than the non-PHI group, but no differences were observed in the mean activated partial

  1. [M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiographic features of porcine xenograft valve dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Makihata, S; Tanimoto, M; Yamamoto, T; Komasa, N; Yasutomi, N; Ohgami, T; Ando, H; Kawai, Y; Iwasaki, T

    1982-03-01

    Clinical survey was made on the porcine xenograft valve replacements in 76 patients who underwent the replacement for the past five years at Hyogo College of Medicine Hospital. The follow-up period was from 3 to 84 months after implantation. Seventy-one patients had mitral valve replacements, 1 aortic, 2 mitral and tricuspid and 2 tricuspid. Seven patients were diagnosed as porcine valve dysfunction echocardiographically, and in four of these the dysfunction (two with bacterial endocarditis, one with perivalvular leak and one with ruptured porcine aortic valve) was confirmed at operation, and the echocardiographic features were correlated with surgical findings. M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiograms of one patient with fungal endocarditis demonstrated vegetations on the mitral and tricuspid valves. In another patient with endocarditis, the echocardiographic finding of valve thickening associated with the flail and torn cusp was observed. The two-dimensional echocardiographic study was particularly useful in detecting the dislocation of the stent echo in one patient with paravalvular regurgitation. In one patient with the ruptured and flail porcine aortic valve, the two-dimensional echocardiogram was characterized by rapid diastolic motion of the involved leaflet into the left ventricular outflow tract beyond the line of valve closure. Three patients were not confirmed at operation. In one patient, the two-dimensional echocardiogram demonstrated a systolic prolapse of the porcine mitral valve. In another two patients the M-mode echocardiographic finding included a coarse fluttering of the porcine mitral cusp in diastole. The major M-mode features of prosthetic regurgitation were fuzzy echoes with fluttering of the cusp in systole or diastole or both. In one patient with fluttering, the two-dimensional echocardiogram also demonstrated the thickening of the cusp. But in another patient with fluttering, the two-dimensional echocardiogram revealed no abnormality

  2. Multiplex Method for Simultaneous Serological Detection of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Porcine Circovirus Type 2▿

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kathy; Wang, Chong; Murtaugh, Michael P.; Ramamoorthy, Sheela

    2011-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are major contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Routine serological diagnosis and surveillance play an important role in the prevention of PRDC, as it is a leading cause of economic losses to the swine industry. We herein describe an advanced microsphere-based immunoassay that permits the simultaneous detection of antibodies to PCV2 and PRRSV, thereby reducing the time and effort involved in testing. Recombinant PRRSV nucleoprotein antigen and the PCV2 capsid antigen were coupled to fluorophore-dyed beads with distinct spectral addresses. Weekly serum samples from 72 pigs that were experimentally exposed to either PCV2, PRRSV, or both PCV2 and PRRSV were used to validate the microbead assay (MBA) in comparison with the “gold standard” enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The kinetics of the PCV2- and PRRSV-specific antibody responses measured by the microbead assay were comparable to those of the standard assays; Spearman's rank correlations were 0.72 (P < 0.001) for PRRSV and 0.80 (P < 0.001) for PCV2. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were determined using field sera whose positive or negative status was determined by the standard tests. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were both 98% for PCV2 and were 91% and 93%, respectively, for PRRSV (kappa coefficients, 0.85 and 0.67 for PCV2 and PRRSV, respectively). Multiplexing did not interfere with assay performance or diagnostic sensitivity. Therefore, the described study demonstrates proof of concept for the development of more versatile and economical microbead array-based multiplex serological test panels for veterinary use. PMID:21734031

  3. Risk-Taking Behavior in a Computerized Driving Task: Brain Activation Correlates of Decision-Making, Outcome, and Peer Influence in Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Vorobyev, Victor; Kwon, Myoung Soo; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Increased propensity for risky behavior in adolescents, particularly in peer groups, is thought to reflect maturational imbalance between reward processing and cognitive control systems that affect decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain functional correlates of risk-taking behavior and effects of peer influence in 18–19-year-old male adolescents. The subjects were divided into low and high risk-taking groups using either personality tests or risk-taking rates in a simulated driving task. The fMRI data were analyzed for decision-making (whether to take a risk at intersections) and outcome (pass or crash) phases, and for the influence of peer competition. Personality test-based groups showed no difference in the amount of risk-taking (similarly increased during peer competition) and brain activation. When groups were defined by actual task performance, risk-taking activated two areas in the left medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) significantly more in low than in high risk-takers. In the entire sample, risky decision-specific activation was found in the anterior and dorsal cingulate, superior parietal cortex, basal ganglia (including the nucleus accumbens), midbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus. Peer competition increased outcome-related activation in the right caudate head and cerebellar vermis in the entire sample. Our results suggest that the activation of the medial (rather than lateral) PFC and striatum is most specific to risk-taking behavior of male adolescents in a simulated driving situation, and reflect a stronger conflict and thus increased cognitive effort to take risks in low risk-takers, and reward anticipation for risky decisions, respectively. The activation of the caudate nucleus, particularly for the positive outcome (pass) during peer competition, further suggests enhanced reward processing of risk-taking under peer influence. PMID:26052943

  4. Risk-Taking Behavior in a Computerized Driving Task: Brain Activation Correlates of Decision-Making, Outcome, and Peer Influence in Male Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vorobyev, Victor; Kwon, Myoung Soo; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Increased propensity for risky behavior in adolescents, particularly in peer groups, is thought to reflect maturational imbalance between reward processing and cognitive control systems that affect decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain functional correlates of risk-taking behavior and effects of peer influence in 18-19-year-old male adolescents. The subjects were divided into low and high risk-taking groups using either personality tests or risk-taking rates in a simulated driving task. The fMRI data were analyzed for decision-making (whether to take a risk at intersections) and outcome (pass or crash) phases, and for the influence of peer competition. Personality test-based groups showed no difference in the amount of risk-taking (similarly increased during peer competition) and brain activation. When groups were defined by actual task performance, risk-taking activated two areas in the left medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) significantly more in low than in high risk-takers. In the entire sample, risky decision-specific activation was found in the anterior and dorsal cingulate, superior parietal cortex, basal ganglia (including the nucleus accumbens), midbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus. Peer competition increased outcome-related activation in the right caudate head and cerebellar vermis in the entire sample. Our results suggest that the activation of the medial (rather than lateral) PFC and striatum is most specific to risk-taking behavior of male adolescents in a simulated driving situation, and reflect a stronger conflict and thus increased cognitive effort to take risks in low risk-takers, and reward anticipation for risky decisions, respectively. The activation of the caudate nucleus, particularly for the positive outcome (pass) during peer competition, further suggests enhanced reward processing of risk-taking under peer influence. PMID:26052943

  5. Lentiviral vector gene transfer to porcine airways.

    PubMed

    Sinn, Patrick L; Cooney, Ashley L; Oakland, Mayumi; Dylla, Douglas E; Wallen, Tanner J; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Chang, Eugene H; McCray, Paul B

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated lentiviral vector development and transduction efficiencies in well-differentiated primary cultures of pig airway epithelia (PAE) and wild-type pigs in vivo. We noted gene transfer efficiencies similar to that observed for human airway epithelia (HAE). Interestingly, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-based vectors transduced immortalized pig cells as well as pig primary cells more efficiently than HIV-1-based vectors. PAE express TRIM5α, a well-characterized species-specific lentiviral restriction factor. We contrasted the restrictive properties of porcine TRIM5α against FIV- and HIV-based vectors using gain and loss of function approaches. We observed no effect on HIV-1 or FIV conferred transgene expression in response to porcine TRIM5α overexpression or knockdown. To evaluate the ability of GP64-FIV to transduce porcine airways in vivo, we delivered vector expressing mCherry to the tracheal lobe of the lung and the ethmoid sinus of 4-week-old pigs. One week later, epithelial cells expressing mCherry were readily detected. Our findings indicate that pseudotyped FIV vectors confer similar tropisms in porcine epithelia as observed in human HAE and provide further support for the selection of GP64 as an appropriate envelope pseudotype for future preclinical gene therapy studies in the porcine model of cystic fibrosis (CF).Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids (2012) 1, e56; doi:10.1038/mtna.2012.47; published online 27 November 2012. PMID:23187455

  6. Expression of connexin 43 mRNA and protein in developing follicles of prepubertal porcine ovaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melton, C.M.; Zaunbrecher, G.M.; Yoshizaki, G.; Patio, R.; Whisnant, S.; Rendon, A.; Lee, V.H.

    2001-01-01

    A major form of cell-cell communication is mediated by gap junctions, aggregations of intercellular channels composed of connexins (Cxs), which are responsible for exchange of low molecular weight (< 1200 Da) cytosolic materials. These channels are a growing family of related proteins. This study was designed to determine the ontogeny of connexin 43 (Cx43) during early stages of follicular development in prepubertal porcine ovaries. A partial-length (412 base) cDNA clone was obtained from mature porcine ovaries and determined to have 98% identity with published porcine Cx43. Northern blot analysis demonstrated a 4.3-kb mRNA in total RNA isolated from prepubertal and adult porcine ovaries. In-situ hybridization revealed that Cx43 mRNA was detectable in granulosa cells of primary follicles but undetectable in dormant primordial follicles. The intensity of the signal increased with follicular growth and was greatest in the large antral follicles. Immunohistochemical evaluation indicated that Cx43 protein expression correlated with the presence of Cx43 mRNA. These results indicate that substantial amounts of Cx43 are first expressed in granulosa cells following activation of follicular development and that this expression increases throughout follicular growth and maturation. These findings suggest an association between the enhancement of intercellular gap-junctional communication and onset of follicular growth. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Carbohydrate-binding specificities of potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains in porcine jejunal (IPEC-J2) cells and porcine mucin.

    PubMed

    Valeriano, Valerie Diane; Bagon, Bernadette B; Balolong, Marilen P; Kang, Dae-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial lectins are carbohydrate-binding adhesins that recognize glycoreceptors in the gut mucus and epithelium of hosts. In this study, the contribution of lectin-like activities to adhesion of Lactobacillus mucosae LM1 and Lactobacillus johnsonii PF01, which were isolated from swine intestine, were compared to those of the commercial probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Both LM1 and PF01 strains have been reported to have good adhesion ability to crude intestinal mucus of pigs. To confirm this, we quantified their adhesion to porcine gastric mucin and intestinal porcine enterocytes isolated from the jejunum of piglets (IPEC-J2). In addition, we examined their carbohydrate-binding specificities by suspending bacterial cells in carbohydrate solutions prior to adhesion assays. We found that the selected carbohydrates affected the adherences of LM1 to IPEC-J2 cells and of LGG to mucin. In addition, compared to adhesion to IPEC-J2 cells, adhesion to mucin by both LM1 and LGG was characterized by enhanced specific recognition of glycoreceptor components such as galactose, mannose, and N-acetylglucosamine. Hydrophobic interactions might make a greater contribution to adhesion of PF01. A similar adhesin profile between a probiotic and a pathogen, suggest a correlation between shared pathogen-probiotic glycoreceptor recognition and the ability to exclude enteropathogens such as Escherichia coli K88 and Salmonella Typhimurium KCCM 40253. These findings extend our understanding of the mechanisms of the intestinal adhesion and pathogen-inhibition abilities of probiotic Lactobacillus strains. PMID:27350617

  8. Correlation of the CT Compatible Stereotaxic Craniotomy with MRI Scans of the Patients for Removing Cranial Lesions Located Eloquent Areas and Deep Sites of Brain

    PubMed Central

    Gulsen, Salih

    2015-01-01

    The first goal in neurosurgery is to protect neural function as long as it is possible. Moreover, while protecting the neural function, a neurosurgeon should extract the maximum amount of tumoral tissue from the tumour region of the brain. So neurosurgery and technological advancement go hand in hand to realize this goal. Using of CT compatible stereotaxy for removing a cranial tumour is to be commended as a cornerstone of these technological advancements. Following CT compatible stereotaxic system applications in neurosurgery, different techniques have taken place in neurosurgical practice. These techniques are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), MRI compatible stereotaxis, frameless stereotaxy, volumetric stereotaxy, functional MRI, diffusion tensor (DT) imaging techniques (tractography of the white matter), intraoperative MRI and neuronavigation systems. However, to use all of this equipment having these technologies would be impossible because of economic reasons. However, when we correlated this technique with MRI scans of the patients with CT compatible stereotaxy scans, it is possible to provide gross total resection and protect and improve patients’ neural functions.

  9. Recovery of motor coordination after exercise is correlated to enhancement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in lactational vanadium-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dean-Chuan; Lin, Yu-Yi; Lin, Hwai-Ting

    2015-07-23

    Lactational exposure to vanadium can reduce the locomotor activity in adult animals. In this study, we investigated whether lactational vanadium exposure impairs the motor coordination and whether exercise ameliorates this dysfunction. Sprague-Dawley dams were treated with or without vanadium during lactation. The weaned male offspring were trained to treadmill running for 5 weeks and then examined their motor coordination on a rotarod. The neuroprotective effect of exercise was evaluated by the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in plasma and cerebellum. The results demonstrated that vanadium-exposed rats exhibited impaired motor coordination and reduced plasma and cerebellar BDNF levels. Treadmill running during childhood-adolescence prevented the impaired motor coordination in the lactational vanadium-exposed rats. The beneficial effect of treadmill running on motor coordination in the vanadium-exposed rats was correlated to the normalization of plasma and cerebellar BDNF levels, as well as the increased TrkB phosphorylation in the cerebellum. The result suggests that exercise may prevent the impairment of motor coordination in the lactational vanadium-exposed rats. PMID:26115625

  10. Hygienic aspects of porcine gullets.

    PubMed

    Bijker, P G; Mossel, D A; van Logtestijn, J G

    1985-01-01

    In an attempt to elaborate good manufacturing practices, including the collection, processing and storage of porcine gullets, their bacterial condition immediately after collection (100 samples), as well as that of deep frozen gullets just before incorporation into meat products (40 samples), was assessed. Fresh gullets were found to be contaminated to a high degree: poured plate colony count at 30°C (PPCC) approximately 10(6) to 10(7) and Enterobacteriaceae approximately 10(3) to 10(4) cfu g(-1). Deep frozen gullets showed even higher counts: PPCC approximately 10(7) to 10(8) and Enterobacteriaceae approximately 10(4) to 10(5) cfu g(-1). Hygiene during collection was visually assessed in six abattoirs and found to be satisfactory in two, moderate in three and poor in one. The effects of processing, by cleaning or removal of the mucus membrane, on bacterial condition, pH, colour and odour were assessed before and during storage at 4°C and 20°C. Both cleaning and removal of the mucus membrane resulted in up to approximately a tenfold reduction of colony counts. After 7 days' storage at 4°C these were significantly lower than those of unprocessed gullets (P < 0·01). Processed gullets stored at 4°C were no longer fit for consumption after 4 days' storage. It being impossible to achieve a marked improvement in the bacteriological condition of gullets, the incorporation of these products into sausages should be discouraged and their use in petfoods only allowed under reasonable conditions of hygiene and chilling. PMID:22055164

  11. High rate properties of porcine skull bone tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herwig, Kyle Jeffry

    Several recent studies have shown the importance of understanding the nature of blast injuries. Traditionally, the lungs and other air filled organs were the focus of these injuries but it is being discovered that some level of brain trauma may result after encountering a blast. These injuries are referred to as traumatic brain injuries, or TBI. There has been many clinical studies and statistical analyses done concerning these injuries, but there is still no physical understanding of the problem. In order to develop a model of how this injury can occur, rate dependent material properties of the tissues the stress wave will travel through are needed. In this study, the compressive response of porcine skull bone through the thickness direction was experimentally determined over a wide range of rates, ranging from 0.001 sec -1 to approximately 3000 sec-1. The results reveal that for most mechanical properties there is a clear rate dependence of the material. However, only one subset of the skull section appeared to have a rate dependent initial modulus, with the rest showing no significant statistical dependence on loading rate. Other mechanical properties appeared to be affected by the loading rate, including the strain energy density.

  12. Porcine cancer models for translational oncology

    PubMed Central

    Sieren, Jessica C.; Quelle, Dawn; Meyerholz, David K.; Rogers, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    Large-animal cancer models are needed to advance the development of innovative and clinically applicable tumor diagnostic, therapeutic, and monitoring technologies. We developed a genetically modified porcine model of cancer based on a TP53 mutation, and established its utility for tracking tumorigenesis in vivo through non-invasive clinical imaging approaches. PMID:27308376

  13. The Porcine Immunology and Nutrition Resource Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diverse genomics-based databases have been developed to facilitate research with human and rodent models. Current porcine gene databases, however, lack the nutritional and immunological orientation and robust annotation to design effective molecular tools to study relevant pig models. To address t...

  14. O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase protein expression by immunohistochemistry in brain and non-brain systemic tumours: systematic review and meta-analysis of correlation with methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The DNA repair protein O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) confers resistance to alkylating agents. Several methods have been applied to its analysis, with methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) the most commonly used for promoter methylation study, while immunohistochemistry (IHC) has become the most frequently used for the detection of MGMT protein expression. Agreement on the best and most reliable technique for evaluating MGMT status remains unsettled. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the correlation between IHC and MSP. Methods A computer-aided search of MEDLINE (1950-October 2009), EBSCO (1966-October 2009) and EMBASE (1974-October 2009) was performed for relevant publications. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were those comparing MGMT protein expression by IHC with MGMT promoter methylation by MSP in the same cohort of patients. Methodological quality was assessed by using the QUADAS and STARD instruments. Previously published guidelines were followed for meta-analysis performance. Results Of 254 studies identified as eligible for full-text review, 52 (20.5%) met the inclusion criteria. The review showed that results of MGMT protein expression by IHC are not in close agreement with those obtained with MSP. Moreover, type of tumour (primary brain tumour vs others) was an independent covariate of accuracy estimates in the meta-regression analysis beyond the cut-off value. Conclusions Protein expression assessed by IHC alone fails to reflect the promoter methylation status of MGMT. Thus, in attempts at clinical diagnosis the two methods seem to select different groups of patients and should not be used interchangeably. PMID:21269507

  15. Birth Weight, Intrauterine Growth Retardation and Fetal Susceptibility to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ladinig, Andrea; Foxcroft, George; Ashley, Carolyn; Lunney, Joan K.; Plastow, Graham; Harding, John C. S.

    2014-01-01

    The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1) were necropsied along with their fetuses 21 days later. Ovulation rates and litter size did not differ between groups, but fetuses from low birth weight gilts were shorter, lighter and demonstrated evidence of asymmetric growth with large brain:organ weight ratios (i.e. brain sparing). The number of intrauterine growth retarded fetuses, defined by brain:organ weight ratios greater than 1 standard deviation from the mean, was significantly greater in low, compared to high, birth weight gilts. Although γδ T cells significantly decreased over time in high compared to low birth weight gilts, viral load in serum and tissues, gilt serum cytokine levels, and litter outcome, including the percent dead fetuses per litter, did not differ by birth weight group. Thus, this study provided no substantive evidence that the severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is affected by dam birth weight. However, intrauterine growth retarded fetuses had lower viral loads in both fetal thymus and in endometrium adjacent to the umbilical stump. Crown rump length did not significantly differ between fetuses that survived and those that died at least one week prior to termination. Taken together, this study clearly demonstrates that birth weight is a transgenerational trait in pigs, and provides evidence that larger fetuses are more susceptible to transplacental PRRSv infection. PMID:25275491

  16. MicroRNA expression profiling of the porcine developing hypothalamus and pituitary tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifan; Cai, Zhaowei; Wei, Shengjuan; Zhou, Huiyun; Zhou, Hongmei; Jiang, Xiaoling; Xu, Ningying

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNA molecules, play important roles in gene expressions at transcriptional and post-transcriptional stages in mammalian brain. So far, a growing number of porcine miRNAs and their function have been identified, but little is known regarding the porcine developing hypothalamus and pituitary. In the present study, Solexa sequencing analysis showed 14,129,397 yielded reads, 6,680,678 of which were related to 674 unique miRNAs. After a microarray assay, we detected 175 unique miRNAs in the hypothalamus, including 136 previously known miRNAs and 39 novel candidates, while a total of 140 miRNAs, including 104 known and 36 new candidate miRNAs, were discovered in pituitary. More importantly, 37 and 30 differentially expressed miRNAs from several developmental stages of hypothalamus and pituitary were revealed, respectively. The 37 differentially expressed miRNAs in hypothalamus represented 6 different expression patterns, while the 30 differentially expressed miRNAs in pituitary represented 7 different expression patterns. To clarify potential target genes and specific functions of these differentially expressed miRNAs in hypothalamus and pituitary, TargetScan and Gorilla prediction tools were then applied. The current functional analysis showed that the differentially expressed miRNAs in hypothalamus and pituitary shared many biological processes, with the main differences being found in tissue-specific processes including: CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthetic/metabolic process; phosphatidic acid biosynthetic/metabolic process; energy reserve metabolic process for hypothalamus; adult behavior; sterol transport/homeostasis; and cholesterol/reverse cholesterol transport for pituitary. Overall, this study identified miRNA profiles and differentially expressed miRNAs among various developmental stages in hypothalamus and pituitary and indicated miRNA profiles change with age and brain location, enhancing our knowledge about spatial

  17. Age-dependent inverse correlations in CSF and plasma amyloid-β(1-42) concentrations prior to amyloid plaque deposition in the brain of 3xTg-AD mice.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soo Min; Lee, Sejin; Yang, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Hye Yun; Lee, Michael Jisoo; Kim, Hyunjin Vincent; Kim, Jiyoon; Baek, Seungyeop; Yun, Jin; Kim, Dohee; Kim, Yun Kyung; Cho, Yakdol; Woo, Jiwan; Kim, Tae Song; Kim, YoungSoo

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) plays a critical role as a biomarker in Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis. In addition to its diagnostic potential in the brain, recent studies have suggested that changes of Aβ level in the plasma can possibly indicate AD onset. In this study, we found that plasma Aβ(1-42) concentration increases with age, while the concentration of Aβ(1-42) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) decreases in APPswe, PS1M146V and TauP301L transgenic (3xTg-AD) mice, if measurements were made before formation of ThS-positive plaques in the