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Sample records for porcine lungs comparison

  1. Comparison of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparins Prepared From Bovine Lung Heparin and Porcine Intestine Heparin.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yudong; Xu, Xiaohui; Liu, Xinyue; Sheng, Anran; Jin, Lan; Linhardt, Robert J; Chi, Lianli

    2016-06-01

    Currently porcine intestine is the only approved source for producing pharmaceutical heparin in most countries. Enoxaparin, prepared by benzylation and alkaline depolymerization from porcine intestine heparin, is prevalent in the anticoagulant drug market. It is predicted that porcine intestine heparin-derived enoxaparin (PIE) will encounter shortage, and expanding its production from heparins obtained from other animal tissues may, therefore, be inevitable. Bovine lung heparin is a potential alternative source for producing enoxaparin. Critical processing parameters for producing bovine lung heparin-derived enoxaparin (BLE) are discussed. Three batches of BLEs were prepared and their detailed structures were compared with PIEs using modern analytical techniques, including disaccharide composition, intact chain mapping by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and 2-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results suggested that the differences between PIEs and BLEs mainly result from N-acetylation differences derived from the parent heparins. In addition, bioactivities of BLEs were about 70% of PIEs based on anti-factor IIa and Xa chromogenic assays. We conclude that BLE has the potential to be developed as an analogue of PIE, although some challenges still remain. PMID:27238483

  2. The porcine lung as a potential model for cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Christopher S.; Abraham, William M.; Brogden, Kim A.; Engelhardt, John F.; Fisher, John T.; McCray, Paul B.; McLennan, Geoffrey; Meyerholz, David K.; Namati, Eman; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Prather, Randall S.; Sabater, Juan R.; Stoltz, David Anthony; Zabner, Joseph; Welsh, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Airway disease currently causes most of the morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, understanding the pathogenesis of CF lung disease and developing novel therapeutic strategies have been hampered by the limitations of current models. Although the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) has been targeted in mice, CF mice fail to develop lung or pancreatic disease like that in humans. In many respects, the anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, size, and genetics of pigs resemble those of humans. Thus pigs with a targeted CFTR gene might provide a good model for CF. Here, we review aspects of porcine airways and lung that are relevant to CF. PMID:18487356

  3. The porcine lung as a potential model for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Christopher S; Abraham, William M; Brogden, Kim A; Engelhardt, John F; Fisher, John T; McCray, Paul B; McLennan, Geoffrey; Meyerholz, David K; Namati, Eman; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Prather, Randall S; Sabater, Juan R; Stoltz, David Anthony; Zabner, Joseph; Welsh, Michael J

    2008-08-01

    Airway disease currently causes most of the morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, understanding the pathogenesis of CF lung disease and developing novel therapeutic strategies have been hampered by the limitations of current models. Although the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) has been targeted in mice, CF mice fail to develop lung or pancreatic disease like that in humans. In many respects, the anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, size, and genetics of pigs resemble those of humans. Thus pigs with a targeted CFTR gene might provide a good model for CF. Here, we review aspects of porcine airways and lung that are relevant to CF. PMID:18487356

  4. Immunoaffinity purification and characterization of thromboxane synthase from porcine lung.

    PubMed

    Shen, R F; Tai, H H

    1986-09-01

    Thromboxane synthase has been purified 620-fold from porcine lung microsomes by a three-step purification procedure including Lubrol-PX solubilization, reactive blue-agarose chromatography, and immunoaffinity chromatography. The purified enzyme exhibited a single protein band (53,000 daltons) on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Rabbit antiserum raised against the purified enzyme immunoprecipitated thromboxane synthase activity from crude enzyme preparations of porcine lung, cow lung, and human platelets, indicating the existence of structural homology of the enzyme in these species. Immunoblotting experiment identified the same polypeptide (53,000 daltons) in porcine lung and a polypeptide of 50,000 daltons in human platelets, confirming the identity of the enzyme and the specificity of the antiserum. Purified thromboxane synthase is a hemoprotein with a Soret-like absorption peak at 418 nm. The enzyme reaction has a Km for 15-hydroxy-9 alpha, 11 alpha-peroxidoprosta-5, 13-dienoic acid of 12 microM, an optimal pH of 7.5, and an optimal temperature of reaction at 30 degrees C. Purified thromboxane synthase catalyzed the formation of both thromboxane B2 and 12-hydroxy-5,8,10-heptadecatrienoic acid (HHT). The ratios of HHT to thromboxane B2 varied from 1.6 to 2.1 dependent on the reaction conditions. Except that HHT was formed at a greater rate, the formation of HHT and that of thromboxane responded identically to pH, temperature, substrate concentration, kinetics of formation, metal ions, and inhibitors suggesting that the two products are probably formed at the same active site via a common intermediate. Thromboxane synthase was irreversibly inactivated by 15-hydroxy-9 alpha, 11 alpha-peroxidoprosta-5,13-dienoic acid during catalysis and by treatment of 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid. The irreversible inactivation, however, could be protected by reversible inhibitors such as sodium (E)-3-[4-(1-imidazolylmethyl)phenyl]-2-propenoate and

  5. Porcine acellular lung matrix for wound healing and abdominal wall reconstruction: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S; Van Eps, Jeffrey L; Rhudy, Jessica R; Cabrera, Fernando J; Acharya, Ghanashyam S; Tasciotti, Ennio; Sakamoto, Jason; Nichols, Joan E

    2016-01-01

    Surgical wound healing applications require bioprosthetics that promote cellular infiltration and vessel formation, metrics associated with increased mechanical strength and resistance to infection. Porcine acellular lung matrix is a novel tissue scaffold known to promote cell adherence while minimizing inflammatory reactions. In this study, we evaluate the capacity of porcine acellular lung matrix to sustain cellularization and neovascularization in a rat model of subcutaneous implantation and chronic hernia repair. We hypothesize that, compared to human acellular dermal matrix, porcine acellular lung matrix would promote greater cell infiltration and vessel formation. Following pneumonectomy, porcine lungs were processed and characterized histologically and by scanning electron microscopy to demonstrate efficacy of the decellularization. Using a rat model of subcutaneou implantation, porcine acellular lung matrices (n = 8) and human acellular dermal matrices (n = 8) were incubated in vivo for 6 weeks. To evaluate performance under mechanically stressed conditions, porcine acellular lung matrices (n = 7) and human acellular dermal matrices (n = 7) were implanted in a rat model of chronic ventral incisional hernia repair for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, tissues were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson’s trichrome staining to quantify cell infiltration and vessel formation. Porcine acellular lung matrices were shown to be successfully decellularized. Following subcutaneous implantation, macroscopic vessel formation was evident. Porcine acellular lung matrices demonstrated sufficient incorporation and showed no evidence of mechanical failure after ventral hernia repair. Porcine acellular lung matrices demonstrated significantly greater cellular density and vessel formation when compared to human acellular dermal matrix. Vessel sizes were similar across all groups. Cell infiltration and vessel formation are well-characterized metrics of incorporation

  6. Porcine acellular lung matrix for wound healing and abdominal wall reconstruction: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S; Van Eps, Jeffrey L; Rhudy, Jessica R; Cabrera, Fernando J; Acharya, Ghanashyam S; Tasciotti, Ennio; Sakamoto, Jason; Nichols, Joan E

    2016-01-01

    Surgical wound healing applications require bioprosthetics that promote cellular infiltration and vessel formation, metrics associated with increased mechanical strength and resistance to infection. Porcine acellular lung matrix is a novel tissue scaffold known to promote cell adherence while minimizing inflammatory reactions. In this study, we evaluate the capacity of porcine acellular lung matrix to sustain cellularization and neovascularization in a rat model of subcutaneous implantation and chronic hernia repair. We hypothesize that, compared to human acellular dermal matrix, porcine acellular lung matrix would promote greater cell infiltration and vessel formation. Following pneumonectomy, porcine lungs were processed and characterized histologically and by scanning electron microscopy to demonstrate efficacy of the decellularization. Using a rat model of subcutaneou implantation, porcine acellular lung matrices (n = 8) and human acellular dermal matrices (n = 8) were incubated in vivo for 6 weeks. To evaluate performance under mechanically stressed conditions, porcine acellular lung matrices (n = 7) and human acellular dermal matrices (n = 7) were implanted in a rat model of chronic ventral incisional hernia repair for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, tissues were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining to quantify cell infiltration and vessel formation. Porcine acellular lung matrices were shown to be successfully decellularized. Following subcutaneous implantation, macroscopic vessel formation was evident. Porcine acellular lung matrices demonstrated sufficient incorporation and showed no evidence of mechanical failure after ventral hernia repair. Porcine acellular lung matrices demonstrated significantly greater cellular density and vessel formation when compared to human acellular dermal matrix. Vessel sizes were similar across all groups. Cell infiltration and vessel formation are well-characterized metrics of incorporation

  7. Comparison of a New Miniaturized Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation System With Integrated Rotary Blood Pump to a Standard System in a Porcine Model of Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Pilarczyk, Kevin; Heckmann, Jens; Lyskawa, Kathrin; Strauß, Andreas; Haake, Nils; Wiese, Ingo; Jakob, Heinz; Kamler, Markus; Pizanis, Nikolaus

    2016-07-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, available ECMO systems are large and not well designed for fast delivery, emergency implantation, and interhospital transfer. Therefore, a new miniaturized oxygenator with integrated rotary blood pump (ILIAS) was developed and compared with a standard ECMO system in a large animal model. Acute lung injury was induced with repeated pulmonary saline lavage in 14 pigs until PaO2 /FiO2 -ratio was <100 mm Hg with a positive-end-expiratory-pressure of 5 mbar. Pigs were assigned to the following three groups: group 1 (n = 4): control group with conventional ventilation; group 2 (n = 5): standard vv-ECMO; group 3 (n = 5): vv-ILIAS. Gas exchange, hemodynamics, hemolysis, and coagulation activation were examined over a period of 8 h. No device failed during the observation period. PaCO2 decreased from 59.40 ± 4.14 mm Hg to 48.62 ± 4.50 mm Hg after 1 h in the ILIAS group compared with an improvement of PaCO2 from 48.86 ± 7.45 to 40.10 ± 6.02 in the conventional ECMO group (P = not significant [n.s.]). ARDS-induced respiratory acidosis was controlled promptly with a pH of 7.2 ± 0.1 at baseline increasing to 7.4 ± 0.1 in both study groups after 60 min of ECMO support. Mean carbon dioxide transfer was comparable between the conventional ECMO and ILIAS (211.36 ± 78.39 mL/min vs. 219.99 ± 76.72 mL/min, P = n.s.). PaO2 /FiO2 increased from 118.4 ± 15.5 mm Hg to 179.1 ± 72.4 mm Hg in the ILIAS group compared with an improvement of oxygenation from 107.1 ± 24.9 mm Hg to 179.0 ± 45.7 mm Hg in the standard ECMO group (P = n.s.). Mean oxygen transfer was calculated with 136.09 ± 30.25 mL/min for the ILIAS and 129.05 ± 36.28 mL/min for the standard ECMO. Hemodynamic instability or significant activation of the plasmatic coagulation was not

  8. Comparison of human and porcine skin for characterization of sunscreens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigmann, Hans-Jürgen; Schanzer, Sabine; Patzelt, Alexa; Bahaban, Virginie; Durat, Fabienne; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen

    2009-03-01

    The universal sun protection factor (USPF) characterizing sunscreen efficacy based on spectroscopically determined data, which were obtained using the tape stripping procedure. The USPF takes into account the complete ultraviolet (UV) spectral range in contrast to the classical sun protection factor (SPF). Until now, the USPF determination has been evaluated only in human skin. However, investigating new filters not yet licensed excludes in vivo investigation on human skin but requires the utilization of a suitable skin model. The penetration behavior and the protection efficacy of 10 commercial sunscreens characterized by USPF were investigated, comparing human and porcine skin. The penetration behavior found for typical UV filter substances is nearly identical for both skin types. The comparison of the USPF obtained for human and porcine skin results in a linear relation between both USPF values with a correlation factor R2=0.98. The results demonstrate the possibility for the use of porcine skin to determine the protection efficacy of sunscreens.

  9. Clinical comparison of St. Jude and porcine mitral valve prostheses.

    PubMed

    Douglas, P S; Hirshfeld, J W; Edie, R N; Stephenson, L W; Gleason, K; Edmunds, L H

    1988-01-01

    One hundred and six consecutive patients who had mitral valve replacement with either a St. Jude or porcine heterograft prosthesis were prospectively studied. The 2 groups are similar with respect to 67 clinical and operative factors and allow comparison of valve performance as an independent variable. Total follow-up is 3,312 patient-months (mean 36 months, range 2-57 months, 94% complete). There are no statistical differences in symptomatic improvement or mortality by life table analysis. Valve-related complications expressed as percent per patient-year are: reoperation: 1.8 St. Jude and 3.8 porcine; endocarditis: 1.2 and 1.9; regurgitant murmur: 2.3 and 1.9; hemolysis: 1.8 and 0.0; late thromboembolism: 1.8 and 1.0; hemorrhage: 2.9 and 2.9; and valve failure: 0.0 and 1.0. There were no significant differences found. Actuarial survival at 3 years was 78% in St. Jude and 81% in porcine patients. Forty-six percent of patients with St. Jude valves and 55% of patients with porcine valves were alive and free of all complications at latest follow-up. The clinical performance of St. Jude and porcine mitral valves are similar over this period of intermediate follow-up. PMID:3360831

  10. Autologous endothelial progenitor cells improve allograft survival in porcine lung transplantation with prolonged ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Yi-Ting; Roan, Jun-Neng; Fang, Shih-Yuan; Chang, Shi-Wei; Tseng, Yau-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background As endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) attenuated acute lung injury (ALI) in rabbit model, we hypothesized that autologous EPCs preserved lung graft function during the acute reperfusion period of lung transplantation and tested the therapeutic potential of EPCs in a porcine model of lung transplantation with prolonged graft ischemia. Methods Day-7 EPCs isolated from the recipient subjects or plain culture media were administered into the left pulmonary artery immediately before restoration of pulmonary blood flow in a porcine lung allotransplantation model, with the transplantation surgeons blinded to the content of injection. Hemodynamics and arterial blood gas were recorded, and the right pulmonary artery was occluded 30 min after reperfusion to evaluate the lung graft function. The lung grafts were sectioned for histological examination at the end of experiments. The total ischemic time for lung graft was approximately 14 h. Results All animals receiving plain medium died within 40 min after reperfusion, but 3 out of 5 (60%) piglets receiving EPCs survived up to 4 h after diversion of the entire cardiac output into the lung graft (P<0.01). The donor body weight, recipient body weight, cold ischemic time, and time for anastomosis were comparable between the EPC and control group (P=0.989, 0.822, 0.843, and 0.452, respectively). The mean aortic pressure decreased, and the cardiac output and mean pulmonary artery pressure elevated after right pulmonary artery occlusion. All these parameters were gradually compensated in the EPC group but decompensated in the control group. Better preservation of gas exchange function, reduced thrombi formation in the terminal pulmonary arterioles, and attenuated interstitial hemorrhage of the lung graft were observed in the EPC group. Conclusions We concluded autologous EPCs significantly enhanced the function of lung allograft and improved survival in a porcine model of lung transplantation with prolonged ischemia

  11. Three-dimensional scaffolds of acellular human and porcine lungs for high throughput studies of lung disease and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Darcy E.; Bonenfant, Nicholas R.; Sokocevic, Dino; DeSarno, Michael; Borg, Zachary; Parsons, Charles; Brooks, Elice M.; Platz, Joseph; Khalpey, Zain; Hoganson, David M.; Deng, Bin; Lam, Ying Wai; Oldinski, Rachael A.; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Weiss, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Acellular scaffolds from complex whole organs such as lung are being increasingly studied for ex vivo organ generation and for in vitro studies of cell-extracellular matrix interactions. We have established effective methods for efficient de- and recellularization of large animal and human lungs including techniques which allow multiple small segments (∼1–3cm3) to be excised that retain 3-dimensional lung structure. Coupled with the use of a synthetic pleural coating, cells can be selectively physiologically inoculated via preserved vascular and airway conduits. Inoculated segments can be further sliced for high throughput studies. Further, we demonstrate thermography as a powerful noninvasive technique for monitoring perfusion decellularization and for evaluating preservation of vascular and airway networks following human and porcine lung decellularization. Collectively, these techniques are a significant step forward as they allow high throughput in vitro studies from a single lung or lobe in a more biologically relevant, three-dimensional acellular scaffold. PMID:24411675

  12. LUMOR: an app for standardized control and monitoring of a porcine lung and its nutrient cycle.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Gregor; Frohner, Matthias; Sauermann, Stefan; Forjan, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The outcome of the EU-funded project ElBik has been the lung simulator 'iLung', which imitates an actively breathing human lung with a porcine lung. In order to keep the explanted lung in a nearly physiological state during transportation from the slaughterhouse to the ventilation laboratory the tissue needs to be nourished and temperature controlled. The Project AlveoPic designs a mobile transport vehicle implementing an ISO/IEEE 11073-20601 compliant communication interface for the exchange of the physical parameters, alert messages and setpoint-values. An appropriate 11073 domain information model is designed and limitations of the defined services and attributes are identified. For monitoring purposes the Android App LUMOR is implemented providing a user with an easy-to-handle GUI. It was found, that alert capabilities and remote set features are not well supported in ISO/IEEE 11073-20601 at the moment and possible workarounds are discussed. PMID:24825688

  13. Clinical comparison of St. Jude and porcine aortic valve prostheses.

    PubMed

    Douglas, P S; Hirshfeld, J W; Edie, R N; Harken, A H; Stephenson, L W; Edmunds, L H

    1985-09-01

    One hundred eighty-seven consecutive patients who had aortic valve replacement with either a St. Jude or porcine heterograft prosthesis were studied prospectively. The two groups were similar with respect to 67 clinical and operative factors, which allowed comparison of valve performance as an independent variable. Total follow-up was 6162 patient-months (mean 32 months, range 23 to 62, 99% complete). There were no statistical differences in symptomatic improvement or mortality by life-table analysis. Valve-related complications expressed as percent per patient-year included: reoperation, 0.6 St. Jude and 1.2 porcine; endocarditis, 1.1 and 0.9; regurgitant murmur, 3.4 and 2.7; hemolysis, 2.8 and 0.0; thromboembolism, 2.8 and 1.5 (all not significant); and hemorrhage, 7.9 and 2.4 (p less than .005). Anticoagulant-related bleeding was the only significant difference between the two valves in morbidity and mortality 32 to 34 months after operation. PMID:4028357

  14. Molecular mobility in the monolayers of foam films stabilized by porcine lung surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Lalchev, Z I; Todorov, R K; Christova, Y T; Wilde, P J; Mackie, A R; Clark, D C

    1996-01-01

    Certain physical properties of a range of foam film types that are believed to exist in vivo in the lung have been investigated. The contribution of different lung surfactant components found in porcine lung surfactant to molecular surface diffusion in the plane of foam films has been investigated for the first time. The influence of the type and thickness of black foam films, temperature, electrolyte concentration, and extract composition on surface diffusion has been studied using the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique. Fluorescent phospholipid probe molecules in foam films stabilized by porcine lung surfactant samples or their hydrophobic extracts consisting of surfactant lipids and hydrophobic lung surfactant proteins, SP-B and SP-C, exhibited more rapid diffusion than observed in films of its principal lipid component alone, L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine dipalmitoyl. This effect appears to be due to contributions from minor lipid components present in the total surfactant lipid extracts. The minor lipid components influence the surface diffusion in foam films both by their negative charge and by lowering the phase transition temperature of lung surfactant samples. In contrast, the presence of high concentrations of the hydrophillic surfactant protein A (SP-A) and non-lung-surfactant proteins in the sample reduced the diffusion coefficient (D) of the lipid analog in the adsorbed layer of the films. Hysteresis behavior of D was observed during temperature cycling, with the cooling curve lying above the heating curve. However, in cases where some surface molecular aggregation and surface heterogeneity were observed during cooling, the films became more rigid and molecules at the interfaces became immobilized. The thickness, size, capillary pressure, configuration, and composition of foam films of lung surfactant prepared in vitro support their investigation as realistic structural analogs of the surface films that exist in vivo in the lung

  15. A comprehensive computational model of sound transmission through the porcine lung

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zoujun; Peng, Ying; Henry, Brian M.; Mansy, Hansen A.; Sandler, Richard H.; Royston, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive computational simulation model of sound transmission through the porcine lung is introduced and experimentally evaluated. This “subject-specific” model utilizes parenchymal and major airway geometry derived from x-ray CT images. The lung parenchyma is modeled as a poroviscoelastic material using Biot theory. A finite element (FE) mesh of the lung that includes airway detail is created and used in comsol FE software to simulate the vibroacoustic response of the lung to sound input at the trachea. The FE simulation model is validated by comparing simulation results to experimental measurements using scanning laser Doppler vibrometry on the surface of an excised, preserved lung. The FE model can also be used to calculate and visualize vibroacoustic pressure and motion inside the lung and its airways caused by the acoustic input. The effect of diffuse lung fibrosis and of a local tumor on the lung acoustic response is simulated and visualized using the FE model. In the future, this type of visualization can be compared and matched with experimentally obtained elastographic images to better quantify regional lung material properties to noninvasively diagnose and stage disease and response to treatment. PMID:25190415

  16. A comprehensive computational model of sound transmission through the porcine lung.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zoujun; Peng, Ying; Henry, Brian M; Mansy, Hansen A; Sandler, Richard H; Royston, Thomas J

    2014-09-01

    A comprehensive computational simulation model of sound transmission through the porcine lung is introduced and experimentally evaluated. This "subject-specific" model utilizes parenchymal and major airway geometry derived from x-ray CT images. The lung parenchyma is modeled as a poroviscoelastic material using Biot theory. A finite element (FE) mesh of the lung that includes airway detail is created and used in comsol FE software to simulate the vibroacoustic response of the lung to sound input at the trachea. The FE simulation model is validated by comparing simulation results to experimental measurements using scanning laser Doppler vibrometry on the surface of an excised, preserved lung. The FE model can also be used to calculate and visualize vibroacoustic pressure and motion inside the lung and its airways caused by the acoustic input. The effect of diffuse lung fibrosis and of a local tumor on the lung acoustic response is simulated and visualized using the FE model. In the future, this type of visualization can be compared and matched with experimentally obtained elastographic images to better quantify regional lung material properties to noninvasively diagnose and stage disease and response to treatment. PMID:25190415

  17. Analysis of Heparins Derived From Bovine Tissues and Comparison to Porcine Intestinal Heparins.

    PubMed

    St Ange, Kalib; Onishi, Akihiro; Fu, Li; Sun, Xiaojun; Lin, Lei; Mori, Daisuke; Zhang, Fuming; Dordick, Jonathan S; Fareed, Jawed; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Jeske, Walter; Linhardt, Robert J

    2016-09-01

    Heparin is a widely used clinical anticoagulant. It is also a linear glycosaminoglycan with an average mass between 10 and 20 kDa and is primarily made up of trisulfated disaccharides comprised of 1,4-linked iduronic acid and glucosamine residues containing some glucuronic acid residues. Heparin is biosynthesized in the Golgi of mast cells commonly found in the liver, intestines, and lungs. Pharmaceutical heparin currently used in the United States is primarily extracted from porcine intestines. Other sources of heparin including bovine intestine and bovine lung are being examined as potential substitutes for porcine intestinal heparin. These additional sources are intended to serve to diversify the heparin supply, making this lifesaving drug more secure. The current study examines bovine heparins prepared from both intestines and lung and compares these to porcine intestinal heparin. The structural properties of these heparins are examined using nuclear magnetic resonance, gel permeation chromatography, and disaccharide analysis of heparinase-catalyzed depolymerized heparin. The in vitro functional activities of these heparins have also been determined. The goal of this study is to establish the structural and functional similarities and potential differences between bovine and porcine heparins. Porcine and bovine heparins have structural and compositional similarities and differences. PMID:27084870

  18. CT Fluoroscopy-Guided Lung Biopsy with Novel Steerable Biopsy Canula: Ex-Vivo Evaluation in Ventilated Porcine Lung Explants

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, Philipp J. Fabel, Michael; Bolte, Hendrik; Schaefer, Fritz K. W.; Jahnke, Thomas; Heller, Martin; Lammer, Johannes; Biederer, Juergen

    2010-08-15

    The purpose was to evaluate ex-vivo a prototype of a novel biopsy canula under CT fluoroscopy-guidance in ventilated porcine lung explants in respiratory motion simulations. Using an established chest phantom for porcine lung explants, n = 24 artificial lesions consisting of a fat-wax-Lipiodol mixture (approx. 70HU) were placed adjacent to sensible structures such as aorta, pericardium, diaphragm, bronchus and pulmonary artery. A piston pump connected to a reservoir beneath a flexible silicone reconstruction of a diaphragm simulated respiratory motion by rhythmic inflation and deflation of 1.5 L water. As biopsy device an 18-gauge prototype biopsy canula with a lancet-like, helically bended cutting edge was used. The artificial lesions were punctured under CT fluoroscopy-guidance (SOMATOM Sensation 64, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany; 30mAs/120 kV/5 mm slice thickness) implementing a dedicated protocol for CT fluoroscopy-guided lung biopsy. The mean-diameter of the artificial lesions was 8.3 {+-} 2.6 mm, and the mean-distance of the phantom wall to the lesions was 54.1 {+-} 13.5 mm. The mean-displacement of the lesions by respiratory motion was 14.1 {+-} 4.0 mm. The mean-duration of CT fluoroscopy was 9.6 {+-} 5.1 s. On a 4-point scale (1 = central; 2 = peripheral; 3 = marginal; 4 = off target), the mean-targeted precision was 1.9 {+-} 0.9. No misplacement of the biopsy canula affecting adjacent structures could be detected. The novel steerable biopsy canula proved to be efficient in the ex-vivo set-up. The chest phantom enabling respiratory motion and the steerable biopsy canula offer a feasible ex-vivo system for evaluating and training CT fluoroscopy-guided lung biopsy adapted to respiratory motion.

  19. Perfusion-Decellularization of Porcine Lung and Trachea for Respiratory Bioengineering.

    PubMed

    Weymann, Alexander; Patil, Nikhil Prakash; Sabashnikov, Anton; Korkmaz, Sevil; Li, Shiliang; Soos, Pal; Ishtok, Roland; Chaimow, Nicole; Pätzold, Ines; Czerny, Natalie; Schmack, Bastian; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Simon, Andre Rüdiger; Karck, Matthias; Szabo, Gabor

    2015-12-01

    Decellularization of native organs may provide an acellular tissue platform for organ regeneration. However, decellularization involves a trade-off between removal of immunogenic cellular elements and preservation of biomechanical integrity. We sought to develop a bioartificial scaffold for respiratory tissue engineering by decellularization of porcine lungs and trachea while preserving organ architecture and vasculature. Lung-trachea preparations from 25 German Landrace pigs were perfused in a modified Langendorff circuit and decellularized by an SDC (sodium deoxycholate)-based perfusion protocol. Decellularization was evaluated by histology and fluorescence microscopy, and residual DNA quantified spectrophotometrically and compared with controls. Airway compliance was evaluated by endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation to simulate physiological breathing-induced stretch. Structural integrity was evaluated by bronchoscopy and biomechanical stress/strain analysis by measuring passive tensile strength, all compared with controls. Decellularized lungs and trachea lacked intracellular components but retained specific collagen fibers and elastin. Quantitative DNA analysis demonstrated a significant reduction of DNA compared with controls (32.8 ± 12.4 μg DNA/mg tissue vs. 179.7 ± 35.8 μg DNA/mg tissue, P < 0.05). Lungs and trachea decellularized by our perfusion protocol demonstrated increased airway compliance but preserved biomechanical integrity as compared with native tissue. Whole porcine lungs-tracheae can be successfully decellularized to create an acellular scaffold that preserves extracellular matrix and retains structral integrity and three-dimensional architecture to provide a bioartifical platform for respiratory tissue engineering. PMID:25894696

  20. Exposure of the hydrophobic components of porcine lung surfactant to oxidant stress alters surface tension properties.

    PubMed Central

    Gilliard, N; Heldt, G P; Loredo, J; Gasser, H; Redl, H; Merritt, T A; Spragg, R G

    1994-01-01

    We have tested the hypothesis that oxidation of lung surfactant results in loss of surface tension lowering function. Porcine lung surfactant was exposed to conditions known to cause lipid peroxidation (0.2 mM FeCl2 + 0.1 mM H2O2 or 5 microM CuCl2). Lipid peroxidation was verified by detection of conjugated dienes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, fluorescent products, hydroxy alkenals, and loss of unsaturated fatty acids. Exposed samples had significantly diminished surface tension lowering ability in vitro as measured in a bubble surfactometer. Samples exposed to FeCl2 + H2O2 had significantly diminished surface tension lowering ability in vivo as indicated by their reduced ability to improve lung compliance of surfactant-deficient fetal rabbits. Oxidation of phospholipid mixtures with surface tension lowering activity and containing unsaturated acyl groups resulted in partial loss of activity as determined in vitro. These results suggest that the effect of oxidants on lung surfactant function is due, in part, to effects on the phospholipid components and that acute pulmonary inflammation accompanied by oxygen radical production may result in surfactant lipid peroxidation and loss of surface tension lowering function. PMID:8200999

  1. Comparison of porcine thorax to gelatine blocks for wound ballistics studies.

    PubMed

    Mabbott, A; Carr, D J; Champion, S; Malbon, C

    2016-09-01

    Tissue simulants are typically used in ballistic testing as substitutes for biological tissues. Many simulants have been used, with gelatine amongst the most common. While two concentrations of gelatine (10 and 20 %) have been used extensively, no agreed standard exists for the preparation of either. Comparison of ballistic damage produced in both concentrations is lacking. The damage produced in gelatine is also questioned, with regards to what it would mean for specific areas of living tissue. The aim of the work discussed in this paper was to consider how damage caused by selected pistol and rifle ammunition varied in different simulants. Damage to gelatine blocks 10 and 20 % in concentration were tested with 9 mm Luger (9 × 19 full metal jacket; FMJ) rounds, while damage produced by .223 Remington (5.56 × 45 Federal Premium® Tactical® Bonded®) rounds to porcine thorax sections (skin, underlying tissue, ribs, lungs, ribs, underlying tissue, skin; backed by a block of 10 % gelatine) were compared to 10 and 20 % gelatine blocks. Results from the .223 Remington rifle round, which is one that typically expands on impact, revealed depths of penetration in the thorax arrangement were significantly different to 20 % gelatine, but not 10 % gelatine. The level of damage produced in the simulated thoraxes was smaller in scale to that witnessed in both gelatine concentrations, though greater debris was produced in the thoraxes. PMID:26846765

  2. Minimally Invasive Electro-Magnetic Navigational Bronchoscopy-Integrated Near-Infrared-Guided Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping in the Porcine Lung

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Hironobu; Hirohashi, Kentaro; Anayama, Takashi; Nakajima, Takahiro; Kato, Tatsuya; Chan, Harley H. L.; Qiu, Jimmy; Daly, Michael; Weersink, Robert; Jaffray, David A.; Irish, Jonathan C.; Waddell, Thomas K.; Keshavjee, Shaf; Yoshino, Ichiro; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging with indocyanine green (ICG) for sentinel lymph node (SN) mapping has been investigated in lung cancer; however, this has not been fully adapted for minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The aim of our study was to develop a minimally invasive SN mapping integrating pre-operative electro-magnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB)-guided transbronchial ICG injection and intraoperative NIR thoracoscopic imaging. Methods A NIR thoracoscope was used to visualize ICG fluorescence. ICG solutions in a 96-well plate and ex vivo porcine lungs were examined to optimize ICG concentrations and injection volumes. Transbronchial ICG injection (n=4) was assessed in comparison to a traditional transpleural approach (n=3), where after thoracotomy an ICG solution (100μL at 100μg/mL) was injected into the porcine right upper lobe for SN identification. For further translation into clinical use, transbronchial ICG injection prior to thoracotomy followed by NIR thoracoscopic imaging was validated (n=3). ENB was used for accurate targeting in two pigs with a pseudo-tumor. Results The ICG fluorescence at 10 μg/mL was the brightest among various concentrations, unchanged by the distance between the thoracoscope and ICG solutions. Injected ICG of no more than 500μL showed a localized fluorescence area. All 7 pigs showed a bright paratracheal lymph node within 15 minutes post-injection, with persistent fluorescence for 60 minutes. The antecedent transbronchial ICG injection succeeded in SN identification in all 3 cases at the first thoracoscopic inspection within 20 minutes post-injection. The ENB system allowed accurate ICG injection surrounding the pseudo-tumors. Conclusions ENB-guided ICG injection followed by NIR thoracoscopy was technically feasible for SN mapping in the porcine lung. This promising platform may be translated into human clinical trials and is suited for MIS. PMID:25993006

  3. Lung flooding enables efficient lung sonography and tumour imaging in human ex vivo and porcine in vivo lung cancer model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sonography has become the imaging technique of choice for guiding intraoperative interventions in abdominal surgery. Due to artefacts from residual air content, however, videothoracoscopic and open intraoperative ultrasound-guided thermoablation of lung malignancies are impossible. Lung flooding is a new method that allows complete ultrasound imaging of lungs and their tumours. Methods Fourteen resected tumourous human lung lobes were examined transpleurally with B-mode ultrasound before (in atelectasis) and after lung flooding with isotonic saline solution. In two swine, the left lung was filled with 15 ml/kg isotonic saline solution through the left side of a double-lumen tube. Lung tumours were simulated by transthoracic ultrasound-guided injection of 5 ml of purified bovine serum albumin in glutaraldehyde, centrally into the left lower lung lobe. The rate of tumour detection, the severity of disability caused by residual gas, and sonomorphology of the lungs and tumours were assessed. Results The ex vivo tumour detection rate was 100% in flooded human lung lobes and 43% (6/14) in atelectatic lungs. In all cases of atelectasis, sonographic tumour imaging was impaired by residual gas. Tumours and atelectatic tissue were isoechoic. In 28% of flooded lungs, a little residual gas was observed that did not impair sonographic tumour imaging. In contrast to tumours, flooded lung tissue was hyperechoic, homogeneous, and of fine-grained structure. Because of the bronchial wall three-laminar structure, sonographic differentiation of vessels and bronchi was possible. In all cases, malignant tumours in the flooded lung appeared well-demarcated from the lung parenchyma. Adenocarcinoma, squamous, and large cell carcinomas were hypoechoic. Bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma was slightly hyperechoic. Transpleural sonography identifies endobronchial tumour growth and bronchial wall destruction. With transthoracic sonography, the flooded animal lung can be completely

  4. Comparison of methods of extracting messenger Ribonucleic Acid from ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    H. D. Guthrie, G.R. Welch, and L. A. Blomberg. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Messenger Ribonucleic Acid from Ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa. Biotechnology and Germplasm Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 The purpos...

  5. Percutaneous Irreversible Electroporation Lung Ablation: Preliminary Results in a Porcine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Deodhar, Ajita; Monette, Sebastien; Single, Gordon W.; Hamilton, William C.; Thornton, Raymond H.; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Maybody, Majid; Solomon, Stephen B.

    2011-12-15

    Objective: Irreversible electroporation (IRE) uses direct electrical pulses to create permanent 'pores' in cell membranes to cause cell death. In contrast to conventional modalities, IRE has a nonthermal mechanism of action. Our objective was to study the histopathological and imaging features of IRE in normal swine lung. Materials and Methods: Eleven female swine were studied for hyperacute (8 h), acute (24 h), subacute (96 h), and chronic (3 week) effects of IRE ablation in lung. Paired unipolar IRE applicators were placed under computed tomography (CT) guidance. Some applicators were deliberately positioned near bronchovascular structures. IRE pulse delivery was synchronized with the cardiac rhythm only when ablation was performed within 2 cm of the heart. Contrast-enhanced CT scan was performed immediately before and after IRE and at 1 and 3 weeks after IRE ablation. Representative tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathology. Results: Twenty-five ablations were created: ten hyperacute, four acute, and three subacute ablations showed alveolar edema and necrosis with necrosis of bronchial, bronchiolar, and vascular epithelium. Bronchovascular architecture was maintained. Chronic ablations showed bronchiolitis obliterans and alveolar interstitial fibrosis. Immediate post-procedure CT images showed linear or patchy density along the applicator tract. At 1 week, there was consolidation that resolved partially or completely by 3 weeks. Pneumothorax requiring chest tube developed in two animals; no significant cardiac arrhythmias were noted. Conclusion: Our preliminary porcine study demonstrates the nonthermal and extracellular matrix sparing mechanism of action of IRE. IRE is a potential alternative to thermal ablative modalities.

  6. Hair growth promoting potential of phospholipids purified from porcine lung tissues.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong-Hyun; Moon, Jeong-Su; Jeon, Byung-Suk; Jeon, Yeon-Jeong; Yoon, Byung-Il; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2015-03-01

    BP201, porcine lung tissue-derived phospholipids, consists of phosphatidylcholine as a major phospholipid species. BP201 promoted hair growth after application onto the shaved backs of BALB/c and C3H mice. Its effect was enhanced when applied together with minoxidil (MNX) in C3H mice. When the tissue specimens prepared from the shaved skins of BP201-treated and control mice were microscopically examined, the total numbers of hair follicles in both anagen and telogen phases of BP201-treated mice were significantly higher than those of control mice. The numbers of hair follicles in the anagen phase of BP201-treated mice were also higher than those of control mice. In combination with MNX, BP201 further increased the total number of hair follicles, but did not alter the percentage of hair follicles in the anagenic phase. BP201 also increased the proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells. Collectively, BP201 possesses hair growth promoting potential, which would suggest its use singly or in combination for hair growth products. PMID:25767686

  7. Hair Growth Promoting Potential of Phospholipids Purified from Porcine Lung Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seong-Hyun; Moon, Jeong-Su; Jeon, Byung-Suk; Jeon, Yeon-Jeong; Yoon, Byung-Il; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    BP201, porcine lung tissue-derived phospholipids, consists of phosphatidylcholine as a major phospholipid species. BP201 promoted hair growth after application onto the shaved backs of BALB/c and C3H mice. Its effect was enhanced when applied together with minoxidil (MNX) in C3H mice. When the tissue specimens prepared from the shaved skins of BP201-treated and control mice were microscopically examined, the total numbers of hair follicles in both anagen and telogen phases of BP201-treated mice were significantly higher than those of control mice. The numbers of hair follicles in the anagen phase of BP201-treated mice were also higher than those of control mice. In combination with MNX, BP201 further increased the total number of hair follicles, but did not alter the percentage of hair follicles in the anagenic phase. BP201 also increased the proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells. Collectively, BP201 possesses hair growth promoting potential, which would suggest its use singly or in combination for hair growth products. PMID:25767686

  8. 3D thoracoscopic ultrasound volume measurement validation in an ex vivo and in vivo porcine model of lung tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornblower, V. D. M.; Yu, E.; Fenster, A.; Battista, J. J.; Malthaner, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy and reliability of volume measurements obtained using three-dimensional (3D) thoracoscopic ultrasound (US) imaging. Artificial 'tumours' were created by injecting a liquid agar mixture into spherical moulds of known volume. Once solidified, the 'tumours' were implanted into the lung tissue in both a porcine lung sample ex vivo and a surgical porcine model in vivo. 3D US images were created by mechanically rotating the thoracoscopic ultrasound probe about its long axis while the transducer was maintained in close contact with the tissue. Volume measurements were made by one observer using the ultrasound images and a manual-radial segmentation technique and these were compared with the known volumes of the agar. In vitro measurements had average accuracy and precision of 4.76% and 1.77%, respectively; in vivo measurements had average accuracy and precision of 8.18% and 1.75%, respectively. The 3D thoracoscopic ultrasound can be used to accurately and reproducibly measure 'tumour' volumes both in vivo and ex vivo.

  9. A micromechanical comparison of human and porcine skin before and after preservation by freezing for medical device development.

    PubMed

    Ranamukhaarachchi, S A; Lehnert, S; Ranamukhaarachchi, S L; Sprenger, L; Schneider, T; Mansoor, I; Rai, K; Häfeli, U O; Stoeber, B

    2016-01-01

    Collecting human skin samples for medical research, including developing microneedle-based medical devices, is challenging and time-consuming. Researchers rely on human skin substitutes and skin preservation techniques, such as freezing, to overcome the lack of skin availability. Porcine skin is considered the best substitute to human skin, but their mechanical resemblance has not been fully validated. We provide a direct mechanical comparison between human and porcine skin samples using a conventional mechano-analytical technique (microindentation) and a medical application (microneedle insertion), at 35% and 100% relative humidity. Human and porcine skin samples were tested immediately after surgical excision from subjects, and after one freeze-thaw cycle at -80 °C to assess the impact of freezing on their mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of fresh human and porcine skin (especially of the stratum corneum) were found to be different for bulk measurements using microindentation; and both types of skin were mechanically affected by freezing. Localized in-plane mechanical properties of skin during microneedle insertion appeared to be more comparable between human and porcine skin samples than their bulk out-of-plane mechanical properties. The results from this study serve as a reference for future mechanical tests conducted with frozen human skin and/or porcine skin as a human skin substitute. PMID:27558287

  10. A micromechanical comparison of human and porcine skin before and after preservation by freezing for medical device development

    PubMed Central

    Ranamukhaarachchi, S. A.; Lehnert, S.; Ranamukhaarachchi, S. L.; Sprenger, L.; Schneider, T.; Mansoor, I.; Rai, K.; Häfeli, U. O.; Stoeber, B.

    2016-01-01

    Collecting human skin samples for medical research, including developing microneedle-based medical devices, is challenging and time-consuming. Researchers rely on human skin substitutes and skin preservation techniques, such as freezing, to overcome the lack of skin availability. Porcine skin is considered the best substitute to human skin, but their mechanical resemblance has not been fully validated. We provide a direct mechanical comparison between human and porcine skin samples using a conventional mechano-analytical technique (microindentation) and a medical application (microneedle insertion), at 35% and 100% relative humidity. Human and porcine skin samples were tested immediately after surgical excision from subjects, and after one freeze-thaw cycle at −80 °C to assess the impact of freezing on their mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of fresh human and porcine skin (especially of the stratum corneum) were found to be different for bulk measurements using microindentation; and both types of skin were mechanically affected by freezing. Localized in-plane mechanical properties of skin during microneedle insertion appeared to be more comparable between human and porcine skin samples than their bulk out-of-plane mechanical properties. The results from this study serve as a reference for future mechanical tests conducted with frozen human skin and/or porcine skin as a human skin substitute. PMID:27558287

  11. Computer-aided analysis of airway trees in micro-CT scans of ex vivo porcine lung tissue.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Christian; Adam, Ryan; Stoltz, David A; Beichel, Reinhard R

    2012-12-01

    We present a highly automated approach to obtain detailed structural models of airway trees from ex vivo porcine lung tissue imaged with a high resolution micro-CT scanner. Such information is an important prerequisite to systematically study models of lung disease that affect airway morphology. The method initially identifies all tubular airway-like structures in the lung. In a second processing step, these structures are grouped into a connected airway tree by utilizing prior knowledge about the airway trees branching pattern. The method was evaluated on 12 micro-CT scans from four tracheal lobes of piglets imaged at three different inflation levels. For this study, two control piglets and two cystic fibrosis piglets were used. For systematic validation of our approach, an airway nomenclature was developed for the pig airway tree. Out of more than 3500 airway tree segments assessed during evaluation, 88.45% were correctly identified by the method. No false positive airway branches were found. A detailed performance analysis for different airway tree hierarchy levels, lung inflation levels and piglets with/without cystic fibrosis is presented in the paper. PMID:22959430

  12. An in-depth comparison of the porcine, murine and human inflammasomes; lessons from the porcine genome and transcriptome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence suggests that swine are a scientifically acceptable intermediate species between rodents and humans to model immune function relevant to humans. The swine genome has recently been sequenced and several preliminary structural and functional analysis of the porcine immunome have been...

  13. Increased survival time after delayed histamine and prostaglandin blockade in a porcine model of severe sepsis-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Byrne, K; Sielaff, T D; Michna, B; Carey, P D; Blocher, C R; Vasquez, A; Sugerman, H J

    1990-03-01

    A combination of cimetidine, diphenhydramine, and ibuprofen has been shown to be an effective treatment in a porcine model of septic acute lung injury. The present study was designed to evaluate this therapy in a delayed treatment survival model. Three groups of animals were studied: a control group (C, n = 6) received a sham infusion of 0.9% saline; a septic group (Ps, n = 5) received a continuous infusion of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa organisms; and a treatment group (CID, n = 6) received P. aeruginosa plus cimetidine 150 mg, ibuprofen 12.5 mg/kg, and diphenhydramine 10 mg/kg given at 90 min after P. aeruginosa infusion, and hourly thereafter. Group Ps developed fulminant acute lung injury and hypodynamic septic shock. CID therapy ameliorated temporarily the progressive course of hypoxemia and increased extravascular lung water (EVLW), delayed the onset of cardiovascular deterioration, and improved significantly survival time. It was concluded that CID therapy given at 90 min after the onset of lethal continuous P. aeruginosa infusion improved significantly animal survival time by improving temporarily hypoxemia and increase in EVLW and delaying cardiovascular collapse. PMID:2302957

  14. Biophysical study of porcine ear skin in vitro and its comparison to human skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sekkat, N; Kalia, Y N; Guy, R H

    2002-11-01

    The goal of this work was to establish, using biophysical characterization, that porcine ear skin in vitro is a valid model for its human counterpart. Specifically, stratum corneum (SC) barrier function was evaluated during its progressive removal by adhesive tape-stripping using the techniques of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and impedance spectroscopy. TEWL increased slowly at first and then more rapidly with the degree of SC impairment. In contrast, low-frequency skin impedance declined exponentially as a function of progressive SC removal. The methods provide complementary and correlated information about SC barrier function. Biophysical parameters, including the diffusivity and permeability coefficient of water across the SC, and the thickness of the barrier were determined from the TEWL data using Fick's first law of diffusion. Furthermore, an ionic partition coefficient-mobility product was estimated from the skin impedance measurements. Comparison of the results with those previously reported for human skin in vivo strongly supports the validity of the porcine membrane as an in vitro model. PMID:12379922

  15. Cytokines transcript levels in lung and lymphoid organs during genotype 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) infection.

    PubMed

    García-Nicolás, Obdulio; Quereda, Juan José; Gómez-Laguna, Jaime; Salguero, Francisco Javier; Carrasco, Librado; Ramis, Guillermo; Pallarés, Francisco José

    2014-07-15

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically important diseases of swine. PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection in the pig is characterized by a weak or absent host innate immune response. The underlying mechanisms of PRRSV pathogenesis are still unclear. The analysis of transcript levels represents an alternative to immunoassays for the detection of cytokines that sometimes are difficult to detect due to their low amounts. This study sets out to determine the differences in pathogenesis and the immune response between lung, tonsil, tracheobronchial lymph node (Tb-LN) and retropharyngeal LN (Rf-LN) of PRRSV 2982 strain infected pigs. PRRSV strain 2982 avoided the onset of an effective innate immune response, especially in PRRSV main target (lung) and reservoir (tonsil) organs. PRRSV lead to an impaired expression of IFN-α and TNF-α gene expression, which finally induced a weak and delayed adaptive immune response through an inefficient IL-12 and IFN-γ expression. Finally, PRRSV replication favored the expression of the anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine in infected pigs. PMID:24726859

  16. Pathogenicity comparison between highly pathogenic and NADC30-like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhe; Wang, Juan; Bai, Xiaofei; Ji, Guobiao; Yan, He; Li, Yingying; Wang, Yuzhou; Tan, Feifei; Xiao, Yan; Li, Xiangdong; Tian, Kegong

    2016-08-01

    The pathogenicity of HNjz15, an NADC30-like strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), was investigated and compared to that of a highly pathogenic PRRSV JAX1 strain. Six-week-old pigs infected with each virus showed typical clinical symptoms, including high fever and respiratory disorders. Pigs infected with JXA1 had more-severe clinical manifestations than pigs infected with HNjz15. HNjz15 replicated in vivo with kinetics similar to those of JXA1 but induced a lower level of PRRSV-specific antibody at the beginning of virus infection. Histopathologically, JXA1 infection led to more-severe lung lesions and broader organ tropism than HNjz15 did. Different from what was observed with the previously reported NADC30-like PRRSV JL580 strain, all HNjz15-infected pigs survived until the end of the study. All of these results indicated that NADC30-like PRRSV HNjz15 is virulent to pigs but is less pathogenic than the JXA1 and JL580 PRRSV strains. PMID:27151278

  17. Lung mechanical changes following bronchoaspiration in a porcine model: differentiation of direct and indirect mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Fodor, Gergely H; Peták, Ferenc; Erces, Dániel; Balogh, Adám L; Babik, Barna

    2014-08-01

    Bronchoaspiration results in local deterioration of lung function through direct damage and/or indirect systemic effects related to neurohumoral pathways. We distinguished these effects by selectively intubating the two main bronchi in pigs while a PEEP of 4 or 10cm H2O was maintained. Gastric juice was instilled only into the right lung. Lung mechanical and ventilation defects were assessed by measuring unilateral pulmonary input impedance (ZL,s) and the third phase slope of the capnogram (SIII) for each lung side separately before the aspiration and for 120min thereafter. Marked transient elevations in ZL,s parameters and SIII were observed in the affected lung after aspiration. Elevating PEEP did not affect these responses in the ZL,s parameters, whereas it prevented the SIII increases. None of these indices changed in the intact left lung. These findings furnish evidence of the predominance of the local direct damage over the indirect systemic effects in the development of the deterioration of lung function, and demonstrate the benefit of an initially elevated PEEP following aspiration. PMID:24814560

  18. Comparison of four decontamination treatments on porcine renal decellularized extracellular matrix structure, composition, and support of human renal cortical tubular epithelium cells.

    PubMed

    Poornejad, Nafiseh; Nielsen, Jeffery J; Morris, Ryan J; Gassman, Jason R; Reynolds, Paul R; Roeder, Beverly L; Cook, Alonzo D

    2016-03-01

    Engineering whole organs from porcine decellularized extracellular matrix and human cells may lead to a plentiful source of implantable organs. Decontaminating the porcine decellularized extracellular matrix scaffolds is an essential step prior to introducing human cells. However, decontamination of whole porcine kidneys is a major challenge because the decontamination agent or irradiation needs to diffuse deep into the structure to eliminate all microbial contamination while minimizing damage to the structure and composition of the decellularized extracellular matrix. In this study, we compared four decontamination treatments that could be applicable to whole porcine kidneys: 70% ethanol, 0.2% peracetic acid in 1 M NaCl, 0.2% peracetic acid in 4% ethanol, and gamma (γ)-irradiation. Porcine kidneys were decellularized by perfusion of 0.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate and the four decontamination treatments were optimized using segments (n = 60) of renal tissue to ensure a consistent comparison. Although all four methods were successful in decontamination, γ-irradiation was very damaging to collagen fibers and glycosaminoglycans, leading to less proliferation of human renal cortical tubular epithelium cells within the porcine decellularized extracellular matrix. The effectiveness of the other three optimized solution treatments were then all confirmed using whole decellularized porcine kidneys (n = 3). An aqueous solution of 0.2% peracetic acid in 1 M NaCl was determined to be the best method for decontamination of porcine decellularized extracellular matrix. PMID:26589294

  19. The Porcine Chloride Channel Calcium-Activated Family Member pCLCA4a Mirrors Lung Expression of the Human hCLCA4

    PubMed Central

    Plog, Stephanie; Grötzsch, Tanja; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Kobalz, Ursula; Gruber, Achim D.

    2012-01-01

    Pig models of cystic fibrosis (CF) have recently been established that are expected to mimic the human disease closer than mouse models do. The human CLCA (originally named chloride channels, calcium-activated) member hCLCA4 is considered a potential modifier of disease severity in CF, but its murine ortholog, mCLCA6, is not expressed in the mouse lung. Here, we have characterized the genomic structure, protein processing, and tissue expression patterns of the porcine ortholog to hCLCA4, pCLCA4a. The genomic structure and cellular protein processing of pCLCA4a were found to closely mirror those of hCLCA4 and mCLCA6. Similar to human lung, pCLCA4a mRNA was strongly expressed in porcine lungs, and the pCLCA4a protein was immunohistochemically detected on the apical membranes of tracheal and bronchial epithelial cells. This stands in sharp contrast to mouse mCLCA6, which has been detected exclusively in intestinal epithelia but not the murine lung. The results may add to the understanding of species-specific differences in the CF phenotype and support the notion that the CF pig model may be more suitable than murine models to study the role of hCLCA4. PMID:22205680

  20. Reduced airway surface pH impairs bacterial killing in the porcine cystic fibrosis lung.

    PubMed

    Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Tang, Xiao Xiao; Hoegger, Mark J; Alaiwa, Mahmoud H Abou; Ramachandran, Shyam; Moninger, Thomas O; Karp, Phillip H; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine L; Haagsman, Henk P; van Eijk, Martin; Bánfi, Botond; Horswill, Alexander R; Stoltz, David A; McCray, Paul B; Welsh, Michael J; Zabner, Joseph

    2012-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Although bacterial lung infection and the resulting inflammation cause most of the morbidity and mortality, how the loss of CFTR function first disrupts airway host defence has remained uncertain. To investigate the abnormalities that impair elimination when a bacterium lands on the pristine surface of a newborn CF airway, we interrogated the viability of individual bacteria immobilized on solid grids and placed onto the airway surface. As a model, we studied CF pigs, which spontaneously develop hallmark features of CF lung disease. At birth, their lungs lack infection and inflammation, but have a reduced ability to eradicate bacteria. Here we show that in newborn wild-type pigs, the thin layer of airway surface liquid (ASL) rapidly kills bacteria in vivo, when removed from the lung and in primary epithelial cultures. Lack of CFTR reduces bacterial killing. We found that the ASL pH was more acidic in CF pigs, and reducing pH inhibited the antimicrobial activity of ASL. Reducing ASL pH diminished bacterial killing in wild-type pigs, and, conversely, increasing ASL pH rescued killing in CF pigs. These results directly link the initial host defence defect to the loss of CFTR, an anion channel that facilitates HCO(3)(-) transport. Without CFTR, airway epithelial HCO(3)(-) secretion is defective, the ASL pH falls and inhibits antimicrobial function, and thereby impairs the killing of bacteria that enter the newborn lung. These findings suggest that increasing ASL pH might prevent the initial infection in patients with CF, and that assaying bacterial killing could report on the benefit of therapeutic interventions. PMID:22763554

  1. Reduced Airway Surface pH Impairs Bacterial Killing in the Porcine Cystic Fibrosis Lung

    PubMed Central

    Pezzulo, Alejandro A.; Tang, Xiao Xiao; Hoegger, Mark J.; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H.; Ramachandran, Shyam; Moninger, Thomas O.; Karp, Phillip H.; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine L.; Haagsman, Henk P.; van Eijk, Martin; Bánfi, Botond; Horswill, Alexander R.; Stoltz, David A.; McCray, Paul B.; Welsh, Michael J.; Zabner, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene 1. Although bacterial lung infection and the resulting inflammation cause most of the morbidity and mortality, how loss of CFTR first disrupts airway host defense has remained uncertain 2–6. We asked what abnormalities impair eradication when a bacterium lands on the pristine surface of a newborn CF airway? To investigate these defects, we interrogated the viability of individual bacteria immobilized on solid grids and placed on the airway surface. As a model we studied CF pigs, which spontaneously develop hallmark features of CF lung disease 7,8. At birth, their lungs lack infection and inflammation, but have a reduced ability to eradicate bacteria 8. Here we show that in newborn wild-type pigs, the thin layer of airway surface liquid (ASL) rapidly killed bacteria in vivo, when removed from the lung, and in primary epithelial cultures. Lack of CFTR reduced bacterial killing. We found that ASL pH was more acidic in CF, and reducing pH inhibited the antimicrobial activity of ASL. Reducing ASL pH diminished bacterial killing in wild-type pigs, and increasing ASL pH rescued killing in CF pigs. These results directly link the initial host defense defect to loss of CFTR, an anion channel that facilitates HCO3− transport 9–13. Without CFTR, airway epithelial HCO3− secretion is defective, ASL pH falls and inhibits antimicrobial function, and thereby impairs killing of bacteria that enter the newborn lung. These findings suggest that increasing ASL pH might prevent the initial infection in patients with CF and that assaying bacterial killing could report on the benefit of therapeutic interventions. PMID:22763554

  2. In Vivo Evaluation of Lung Microwave Ablation in a Porcine Tumor Mimic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Planche, Olivier; Teriitehau, Christophe; Boudabous, Sana; Robinson, Joey Marie; Rao, Pramod; Deschamps, Frederic; Farouil, Geoffroy; Baere, Thierry de

    2013-02-15

    To evaluate the microwave ablation of created tumor mimics in the lung of a large animal model (pigs), with examination of the ablative synergy of multiple antennas. Fifty-six tumor-mimic models of various sizes were created in 15 pigs by using barium-enriched minced collected thigh muscle injected into the lung of the same animal. Tumors were ablated under fluoroscopic guidance by single-antenna and multiple-antenna microwaves. Thirty-five tumor models were treated in 11 pigs with a single antenna at 75 W for 15 min, with 15 measuring 20 mm in diameter, 10 measuring 30 mm, and 10 measuring 40 mm. Mean circularity of the single-antenna ablation zones measured 0.64 {+-} 0.12, with a diameter of 35.7 {+-} 8.7 mm along the axis of the antenna and 32.7 {+-} 12.8 mm perpendicular to the feeding point. Multiple-antenna delivery of 75 W for 15 min caused intraprocedural death of 2 animals; modified protocol to 60 W for 10 min resulted in an ablation zone with a diameter of 43.0 {+-} 7.7 along the axis of the antenna and 54.8 {+-} 8.5 mm perpendicular to the feeding point; circularity was 0.70 {+-} 0.10. A single microwave antenna can create ablation zones large enough to cover lung tumor mimic models of {<=}4 cm with no heat sink effect from vessels of {<=}6 mm. Synergic use of 3 antennas allows ablation of larger volumes than single-antenna or radiofrequency ablation, but great caution must be taken when 3 antennas are used simultaneously in the lung in clinical practice.

  3. Characterization of the porcine synovial fluid proteome and a comparison to the plasma proteome

    PubMed Central

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Barnaby, Omar; Steen, Hanno; Stensballe, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Synovial fluid is present in all joint cavities, and protects the articular cartilage surfaces in large by lubricating the joint, thus reducing friction. Several studies have described changes in the protein composition of synovial fluid in patients with joint disease. However, the protein concentration, content, and synovial fluid volume change dramatically during active joint diseases and inflammation, and the proteome composition of healthy synovial fluid is incompletely characterized. We performed a normative proteomics analysis of porcine synovial fluid, and report data from optimizing proteomic methods to investigate the proteome of healthy porcine synovial fluid (Bennike et al., 2014 [1]). We included an evaluation of different proteolytic sample preparation techniques, and an analysis of posttranslational modifications with a focus on glycosylation. We used pig (Sus Scrofa) as a model organism, as the porcine immune system is highly similar to human and the pig genome is sequenced. Furthermore, porcine model systems are commonly used large animal models to study several human diseases. In addition, we analyzed the proteome of human plasma, and compared the proteomes to the obtained porcine synovial fluid proteome. The proteome of the two body fluids were found highly similar, underlining the detected plasma derived nature of many synovial fluid components. The healthy porcine synovial fluid proteomics data, human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid proteomics data used in the method optimization, human plasma proteomics data, and search results, have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD000935. PMID:26543887

  4. Characterization of the porcine synovial fluid proteome and a comparison to the plasma proteome.

    PubMed

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Barnaby, Omar; Steen, Hanno; Stensballe, Allan

    2015-12-01

    Synovial fluid is present in all joint cavities, and protects the articular cartilage surfaces in large by lubricating the joint, thus reducing friction. Several studies have described changes in the protein composition of synovial fluid in patients with joint disease. However, the protein concentration, content, and synovial fluid volume change dramatically during active joint diseases and inflammation, and the proteome composition of healthy synovial fluid is incompletely characterized. We performed a normative proteomics analysis of porcine synovial fluid, and report data from optimizing proteomic methods to investigate the proteome of healthy porcine synovial fluid (Bennike et al., 2014 [1]). We included an evaluation of different proteolytic sample preparation techniques, and an analysis of posttranslational modifications with a focus on glycosylation. We used pig (Sus Scrofa) as a model organism, as the porcine immune system is highly similar to human and the pig genome is sequenced. Furthermore, porcine model systems are commonly used large animal models to study several human diseases. In addition, we analyzed the proteome of human plasma, and compared the proteomes to the obtained porcine synovial fluid proteome. The proteome of the two body fluids were found highly similar, underlining the detected plasma derived nature of many synovial fluid components. The healthy porcine synovial fluid proteomics data, human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid proteomics data used in the method optimization, human plasma proteomics data, and search results, have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD000935. PMID:26543887

  5. Advanced chemical imaging and comparison of human and porcine hair follicles for drug delivery by confocal Raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzen, Lutz; Mathes, Christiane; Hansen, Steffi; Windbergs, Maike

    2013-06-01

    Hair follicles have recently gained a lot of interest for dermal drug delivery. They provide facilitated penetration into the skin and a high potential to serve as a drug depot. In this area of research, excised pig ear is a widely accepted in vitro model to evaluate penetration of drug delivery into hair follicles. However, a comparison of human and porcine follicles in terms of chemical composition has not been performed so far. In this study, we applied confocal Raman microscopy as a chemically selective imaging technique to compare human and porcine follicle composition and to visualize component distribution within follicle cross-sections. Based on the evaluation of human and porcine Raman spectra optical similarity for both species was successfully confirmed. Furthermore, cyanoacrylate skin surface biopsies, which are generally used to determine the extent of follicular penetration, were imaged by a novel complementary analytical approach combining confocal Raman microscopy and optical profilometry. This all-encompassing analysis allows investigation of intactness and component distribution of the excised hair bulb in three dimensions. Confocal Raman microscopy shows a high potential as a noninvasive and chemically selective technique for the analysis of trans-follicular drug delivery.

  6. Copper and mineral deficiency effects on porcine aortae and lung elastin crosslinks

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, V.L.; Hansen, K. )

    1991-03-15

    Dietary copper was studied in mineral-deficient and -sufficient piglets. Three groups of newborn Yorkshire piglets were fed evaporated bovine milk-based copper-deficient mineral deficient diets as follows: Group A: copper-supplemented mineral-deficient; Group B: no additions, copper-deficient mineral-deficient; Group C: copper-deficient mineral-supplemented at mg/Kg/day: Mn 0.0994; Al 0.0097; Zn 0.082; Ni 0.132. Sacular dissecting aneurysms were 50% in Group C at days 87 and 108, whereas, none occurred in Groups A or B by day 168 to 180. Histological derangement of aortic elastic fibers occurred in Groups B and C. Lysyl-derived crosslinks of lysinonorleucine (LNL) in hot alkali-extracted elastin samples were 40% in Groups B and C compared with A for both lung and aortae elastic fibers. Desmosines were also decreased. Unmodified aortae lysyl residues were increased 64% in C compared to A, suggesting additional minerals decreased lysyl oxidase activity. Elastolysis of incompletely cross-linked elastic fibers may have contributed to decreased recoveries of insoluble elastin samples in aortae and especially in lung. Effects of minerals on copper metabolism when copper is limiting may be responsible for decreased strength of extracellular matrix.

  7. Automated continuous quantitative measurement of proximal airways on dynamic ventilation CT: initial experience using an ex vivo porcine lung phantom

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Tsubakimoto, Maho; Nagatani, Yukihiro; Moriya, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Kotaro; Tsukagoshi, Shinsuke; Inokawa, Hiroyasu; Kimoto, Tatsuya; Teramoto, Ryuichi; Murayama, Sadayuki

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of continuous quantitative measurement of the proximal airways, using dynamic ventilation computed tomography (CT) and our research software. Methods A porcine lung that was removed during meat processing was ventilated inside a chest phantom by a negative pressure cylinder (eight times per minute). This chest phantom with imitated respiratory movement was scanned by a 320-row area-detector CT scanner for approximately 9 seconds as dynamic ventilatory scanning. Obtained volume data were reconstructed every 0.35 seconds (total 8.4 seconds with 24 frames) as three-dimensional images and stored in our research software. The software automatically traced a designated airway point in all frames and measured the cross-sectional luminal area and wall area percent (WA%). The cross-sectional luminal area and WA% of the trachea and right main bronchus (RMB) were measured for this study. Two radiologists evaluated the traceability of all measurable airway points of the trachea and RMB using a three-point scale. Results It was judged that the software satisfactorily traced airway points throughout the dynamic ventilation CT (mean score, 2.64 at the trachea and 2.84 at the RMB). From the maximum inspiratory frame to the maximum expiratory frame, the cross-sectional luminal area of the trachea decreased 17.7% and that of the RMB 29.0%, whereas the WA% of the trachea increased 6.6% and that of the RMB 11.1%. Conclusion It is feasible to measure airway dimensions automatically at designated points on dynamic ventilation CT using research software. This technique can be applied to various airway and obstructive diseases. PMID:26445535

  8. Comparison of specimens for detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection in boar studs.

    PubMed

    Pepin, B J; Kittawornrat, A; Liu, F; Gauger, P C; Harmon, K; Abate, S; Main, R; Garton, C; Hargrove, J; Rademacher, C; Ramirez, A; Zimmerman, J

    2015-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-contaminated semen from boars is a route of transmission to females, and early detection of PRRSV infection in boars is a key component in sow farm biosecurity. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum diagnostic specimen(s) for the detection of acute PRRSV infection in boars. Individually housed boars (n = 15) were trained for semen and oral fluid collection and then vaccinated with a commercial PRRSV modified live virus vaccine. Starting on the day of vaccination and for 14 days thereafter, oral fluid specimens were collected daily from all boars. The 15 boars were subdivided into three groups of 5, and serum, blood swabs and 'frothy saliva' were collected at the time of semen collection on a 3-day rotation. Frothy saliva, derived from the submandibular salivary gland, is produced by aroused boars. Semen was centrifuged, and semen supernatant and cell fractions were tested separately. All samples were randomly ordered and then tested by PRRSV real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (rRT-PCR) and PRRSV antibody ELISA. In this study, a comparison of serum, blood swab, and oral fluid rRT-PCR results found no statistically significant differences in the onset of detection or proportion of positives, but serum was numerically superior to oral fluids for early detection. Serum and oral fluid provided identical rRT-PCR results at ≥ 5 day post-vaccination. Likewise, the onset of detection of PRRSV antibody in serum, oral fluid and frothy saliva was statistically equivalent, with serum results again showing a numerical advantage. These results showed that the highest assurance of providing PRRSV-negative semen to sow farms should be based on rRT-PCR testing of serum collected at the time of semen collection. This approach can be augmented with oral fluid sampling from a random selection of uncollected boars to provide for statistically valid surveillance of the

  9. Noninvasive carbon dioxide monitoring in a porcine model of acute lung injury due to smoke inhalation and burns.

    PubMed

    Belenkiy, Slava; Ivey, Katherine M; Batchinsky, Andriy I; Langer, Thomas; Necsoiu, Corina; Baker, William; Salinas, José; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2013-06-01

    In critically ill intubated patients, assessment of adequacy of ventilation relies on measuring partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2), which requires invasive arterial blood gas analysis. Alternative noninvasive technologies include transcutaneous CO2 (tPCO2) and end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2) monitoring. We evaluated accuracy of tPCO2 and EtCO2 monitoring in a porcine model of acute lung injury (ALI) due to smoke inhalation and burns. Eight anesthetized Yorkshire pigs underwent mechanical ventilation, wood-bark smoke inhalation injury, and 40% total body surface area thermal injury. tPCO2 was measured with a SenTec system (SenTec AG, Therwil, Switzerland) and EtCO2 with a Capnostream-20 (Oridion Medical, Jerusalem, Israel). These values were compared with PaCO2 measurements from an arterial blood gas analyzer. Paired measurements of EtCO2-PaCO2 (n = 276) and tPCO2-PaCO2 (n = 250) were recorded in the PaCO2 range of 25 to 85 mmHg. Overlapping data sets were analyzed based on respiratory and hemodynamic status of animals. Acute lung injury was defined as PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 300 mmHg; hemodynamic instability was defined as mean arterial pressure ≤ 60 mmHg. Before ALI, EtCO2 demonstrated moderate correlation with PaCO2 (R = 0.45; P < 0.0001), which deteriorated after onset of ALI (R = 0.12; P < 0.0001). Before ALI, tPCO2 demonstrated moderate correlation (R = 0.51, P < 0.0001), which was sustained after onset of ALI (R = 0.78; P < 0.0001). During hemodynamic stability, EtCO2 demonstrated moderate correlation with PaCO2 (R = 0.44; P < 0.0001). During hemodynamic instability, EtCO2 did not correlate with PaCO2 (R = 0.03; P = 0.29). tPCO2 monitoring demonstrated strong correlation with PaCO2 during hemodynamic stability (R = 0.80, P < 0.0001), which deteriorated under hemodynamically unstable conditions (R = 0.39; P < 0.0001). Noninvasive carbon dioxide monitors are acceptable for monitoring trends in PaCO2 under conditions of hemodynamic and pulmonary stability. Under

  10. Magnetic resonance elastography of the lung parenchyma in an in situ porcine model with a noninvasive mechanical driver: correlation of shear stiffness with trans-respiratory system pressures.

    PubMed

    Mariappan, Yogesh K; Kolipaka, Arunark; Manduca, Armando; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Ehman, Richard L; Araoz, Philip; McGee, Kiaran P

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of the mechanical properties of lung parenchyma is an active field of research due to the association of this metric with normal function, disease initiation and progression. A phase contrast MRI-based elasticity imaging technique known as magnetic resonance elastography is being investigated as a method for measuring the shear stiffness of lung parenchyma. Previous experiments performed with small animals using invasive drivers in direct contact with the lungs have indicated that the quantification of lung shear modulus with (1) H based magnetic resonance elastography is feasible. This technique has been extended to an in situ porcine model with a noninvasive mechanical driver placed on the chest wall. This approach was tested to measure the change in parenchymal stiffness as a function of airway opening pressure (P(ao) ) in 10 adult pigs. In all animals, shear stiffness was successfully quantified at four different P(ao) values. Mean (±STD error of mean) pulmonary parenchyma density corrected stiffness values were calculated to be 1.48 (±0.09), 1.68 (±0.10), 2.05 (±0.13), and 2.23 (±0.17) kPa for P(ao) values of 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm H2O, respectively. Shear stiffness increased with increasing P(ao) , in agreement with the literature. It is concluded that in an in situ porcine lung shear stiffness can be quantitated with (1) H magnetic resonance elastography using a noninvasive mechanical driver and that it is feasible to measure the change in shear stiffness due to change in P(ao) . PMID:21590723

  11. Pairwise comparisons of ten porcine tissues identify differential transcriptional regulation at the gene, isoform, promoter and transcription start site level

    SciTech Connect

    Farajzadeh, Leila; Hornshøj, Henrik; Momeni, Jamal; Thomsen, Bo; Larsen, Knud; Hedegaard, Jakob; Bendixen, Christian; Madsen, Lone Bruhn

    2013-08-23

    Highlights: •Transcriptome sequencing yielded 223 mill porcine RNA-seq reads, and 59,000 transcribed locations. •Establishment of unique transcription profiles for ten porcine tissues including four brain tissues. •Comparison of transcription profiles at gene, isoform, promoter and transcription start site level. •Highlights a high level of regulation of neuro-related genes at both gene, isoform, and TSS level. •Our results emphasize the pig as a valuable animal model with respect to human biological issues. -- Abstract: The transcriptome is the absolute set of transcripts in a tissue or cell at the time of sampling. In this study RNA-Seq is employed to enable the differential analysis of the transcriptome profile for ten porcine tissues in order to evaluate differences between the tissues at the gene and isoform expression level, together with an analysis of variation in transcription start sites, promoter usage, and splicing. Totally, 223 million RNA fragments were sequenced leading to the identification of 59,930 transcribed gene locations and 290,936 transcript variants using Cufflinks with similarity to approximately 13,899 annotated human genes. Pairwise analysis of tissues for differential expression at the gene level showed that the smallest differences were between tissues originating from the porcine brain. Interestingly, the relative level of differential expression at the isoform level did generally not vary between tissue contrasts. Furthermore, analysis of differential promoter usage between tissues, revealed a proportionally higher variation between cerebellum (CBE) versus frontal cortex and cerebellum versus hypothalamus (HYP) than in the remaining comparisons. In addition, the comparison of differential transcription start sites showed that the number of these sites is generally increased in comparisons including hypothalamus in contrast to other pairwise assessments. A comprehensive analysis of one of the tissue contrasts, i

  12. Comparison of protection provided by type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome field viruses against homologous and heterologous challenge.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyuhyung; Park, Changhoon; Jeong, Jiwoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-08-15

    The objective of this study was to compare protection provided by type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) against homologous and heterologous challenge based on clinical, virological, immunological, and pathological analysis. At 3 and 8 weeks of age, pigs were inoculated intranasally with either 3mL of tissue culture fluid containing 10(5) TCID50/mL of type 1 PRRSV or 3mL of tissue culture fluid containing 10(5) TCID50/mL of type 2 PRRSV. The homologous challenges resulted in a significant boost of the neutralizing antibodies (NA) and interferon-γ secreting cells (IFN-γ-SC) compared to heterologous challenges. The reduction of secondary challenging PRRSV viremia coincided with the appearance of homologous PRRSV-specific NA and IFN-γ-SC. Homologous challenge reduced the severity of lung lesions and levels of PRRSV viremia significantly in pigs in comparison with heterologous challenge. The differences in homologous and heterologous NA and IFN-γ-SC response may explain the differences in protection against homologous and heterologous challenge between type 1 and type 2 PRRSV. Primary challenge (immunization) with type 1 PRRSV provided protection against the secondary homologous challenge with type 1 PRRSV but failed to provide protection against the secondary heterologous challenge of type 2 PRRSV. Primary challenge with type 2 PRRSV provided protection against both the secondary homologous challenge with type 2 PRRSV and the secondary heterologous challenge with type 1 PRRSV. PMID:27374910

  13. Feasibility of 68Ga-labeled Siglec-9 peptide for the imaging of acute lung inflammation: a pilot study in a porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Retamal, Jaime; Sörensen, Jens; Lubberink, Mark; Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando; Borges, João Batista; Feinstein, Ricardo; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Antoni, Gunnar; Hedenstierna, Göran; Roivainen, Anne; Larsson, Anders; Velikyan, Irina

    2016-01-01

    There is an unmet need for noninvasive, specific and quantitative imaging of inherent inflammatory activity. Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) translocates to the luminal surface of endothelial cells upon inflammatory challenge. We hypothesized that in a porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), positron emission tomography (PET) with sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 9 (Siglec-9) based imaging agent targeting VAP-1 would allow quantification of regional pulmonary inflammation. ARDS was induced by lung lavages and injurious mechanical ventilation. Hemodynamics, respiratory system compliance (Crs) and blood gases were monitored. Dynamic examination using [15O]water PET-CT (10 min) was followed by dynamic (90 min) and whole-body examination using VAP-1 targeting 68Ga-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraaza cyclododecane-1,4,7-tris-acetic acid-10-ethylene glycol-conjugated Siglec-9 motif peptide ([68Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9). The animals received an anti-VAP-1 antibody for post-mortem immunohistochemistry assay of VAP-1 receptors. Tissue samples were collected post-mortem for the radioactivity uptake, histology and immunohistochemistry assessment. Marked reduction of oxygenation and Crs, and higher degree of inflammation were observed in ARDS animals. [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 PET showed significant uptake in lungs, kidneys and urinary bladder. Normalization of the net uptake rate (Ki) for the tissue perfusion resulted in 4-fold higher uptake rate of [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 in the ARDS lungs. Immunohistochemistry showed positive VAP-1 signal in the injured lungs. Detection of pulmonary inflammation associated with a porcine model of ARDS was possible with [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 PET when using kinetic modeling and normalization for tissue perfusion. PMID:27069763

  14. Feasibility of (68)Ga-labeled Siglec-9 peptide for the imaging of acute lung inflammation: a pilot study in a porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Retamal, Jaime; Sörensen, Jens; Lubberink, Mark; Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando; Borges, João Batista; Feinstein, Ricardo; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Antoni, Gunnar; Hedenstierna, Göran; Roivainen, Anne; Larsson, Anders; Velikyan, Irina

    2016-01-01

    There is an unmet need for noninvasive, specific and quantitative imaging of inherent inflammatory activity. Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) translocates to the luminal surface of endothelial cells upon inflammatory challenge. We hypothesized that in a porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), positron emission tomography (PET) with sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 9 (Siglec-9) based imaging agent targeting VAP-1 would allow quantification of regional pulmonary inflammation. ARDS was induced by lung lavages and injurious mechanical ventilation. Hemodynamics, respiratory system compliance (Crs) and blood gases were monitored. Dynamic examination using [(15)O]water PET-CT (10 min) was followed by dynamic (90 min) and whole-body examination using VAP-1 targeting (68)Ga-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraaza cyclododecane-1,4,7-tris-acetic acid-10-ethylene glycol-conjugated Siglec-9 motif peptide ([(68)Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9). The animals received an anti-VAP-1 antibody for post-mortem immunohistochemistry assay of VAP-1 receptors. Tissue samples were collected post-mortem for the radioactivity uptake, histology and immunohistochemistry assessment. Marked reduction of oxygenation and Crs, and higher degree of inflammation were observed in ARDS animals. [(68)Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 PET showed significant uptake in lungs, kidneys and urinary bladder. Normalization of the net uptake rate (Ki) for the tissue perfusion resulted in 4-fold higher uptake rate of [(68)Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 in the ARDS lungs. Immunohistochemistry showed positive VAP-1 signal in the injured lungs. Detection of pulmonary inflammation associated with a porcine model of ARDS was possible with [(68)Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 PET when using kinetic modeling and normalization for tissue perfusion. PMID:27069763

  15. Comparison of lung preservation solutions in human lungs using an ex vivo lung perfusion experimental model

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Israel L.; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo M.; Mariani, Alessandro W.; Fernandes, Flávio G.; Unterpertinger, Fernando V.; Canzian, Mauro; Jatene, Fabio B.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Experimental studies on lung preservation have always been performed using animal models. We present ex vivo lung perfusion as a new model for the study of lung preservation. Using human lungs instead of animal models may bring the results of experimental studies closer to what could be expected in clinical practice. METHOD: Brain-dead donors whose lungs had been declined by transplantation teams were used. The cases were randomized into two groups. In Group 1, Perfadex® was used for pulmonary preservation, and in Group 2, LPDnac, a solution manufactured in Brazil, was used. An ex vivo lung perfusion system was used, and the lungs were ventilated and perfused after 10 hours of cold ischemia. The extent of ischemic-reperfusion injury was measured using functional and histological parameters. RESULTS: After reperfusion, the mean oxygenation capacity was 405.3 mmHg in Group 1 and 406.0 mmHg in Group 2 (p = 0.98). The mean pulmonary vascular resistance values were 697.6 and 378.3 dyn·s·cm-5, respectively (p = 0.035). The mean pulmonary compliance was 46.8 cm H2O in Group 1 and 49.3 ml/cm H2O in Group 2 (p = 0.816). The mean wet/dry weight ratios were 2.06 and 2.02, respectively (p = 0.87). The mean Lung Injury Scores for the biopsy performed after reperfusion were 4.37 and 4.37 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 1.0), and the apoptotic cell counts were 118.75/mm2 and 137.50/mm2, respectively (p = 0.71). CONCLUSION: The locally produced preservation solution proved to be as good as Perfadex®. The clinical use of LPDnac may reduce costs in our centers. Therefore, it is important to develop new models to study lung preservation. PMID:23018310

  16. Mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines used in piglets.

    PubMed

    da Silva, N; Carriquiry, A; O'Neill, K; Opriessnig, T; O'Connor, A M

    2014-12-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination is globally one of the most commonly used intervention strategies in growing pigs since several products became commercially available in 2006. While multiple trials have described the efficacy of individual PCV2 vaccines relative to non-vaccination, few studies provide product-to-product comparisons of efficacy. Given the well-documented efficacy of PCV2 vaccines, information about the comparative efficacy of available vaccines is more relevant to producers and veterinarians than comparison to non-vaccination. The objective of this study was to provide comparative estimates of changes in average daily gain effect associated with the use of the commercially available PCV2 vaccines. PubMed, CAB Abstracts, AGRICOLA, the USA Department of Agriculture Center for Veterinary Biologics database of licenses and provisions, and the proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Swine Veterinarians, the Allen D. Leman Swine Conference, the Iowa State University Swine Disease Conference for Swine Practitioners, and the International Pig Veterinary Society Congress were used as the sources of information. Trials of licensed PCV2 vaccines administered according to manufacturers' specifications to intensively raised piglets with a known herd porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) status were considered relevant to the meta-analysis. Relevant studies had to report average daily gain (ADG) from weaning to finish and PCV2 infection had to be naturally occurring. PMID:25457512

  17. Genomic sequence and virulence comparison of four type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a ubiquitous and costly virus that exhibits substantial sequence and virulence disparity among diverse isolates. In this study, we compared the whole genomic sequence and virulence of 4 North American Type 2 PRRSV isolates. Among the 4 i...

  18. Comparison of the pathogenicity of Chinese and low virulent US porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, a new strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has resulted in huge economic losses in the Chinese pig industry. We imported a cDNA clone of the rJXwn06 Chinese strain from which infectious virus was obtained to test the hypothesis that the novel Chinese PRRSV ...

  19. Comparison of the pathogenicity of porcine circovirus type 2 group 1 and group 2 isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Introduction and Objectives Phylogenetically, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) can be divided into two major genotypic groups, PCV2-group 1 and PCV2-group 2 .1 It was noted that PCV2 group designations have no apparent association with disease status or geographic area. Interestingly, all of t...

  20. Comparison of surface modification chemistries in mouse, porcine, and human islets.

    PubMed

    SoRelle, Jeffrey A; Kanak, Mazhar A; Itoh, Takeshi; Horton, Joshua M; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Kane, Robert R

    2015-03-01

    Beta cell replacement therapy, the transplantation of isolated pancreatic islets by intraportal infusion, offers patients with brittle type 1 diabetes blood glucose regulation with a minimally invasive technique. Chemical modification of islets prior to transplantation, providing a nanothin barrier that potentially includes active protective compounds, has been proposed as a strategy to minimize the inflammatory and immune reactions that often significantly limit graft function and duration. Chemical modification also has the potential to allow the use of alternative sources of islets, such as porcine islets, for transplantation. This investigation compared three orthogonal covalent islet modification techniques across three species (human, porcine, and murine), using multiple measures to determine biocompatibility and effectiveness. All three conjugation chemistries were well tolerated, and the overall efficiency, gross uniformity, and stability of the surface modifications were dependent upon the conjugation chemistry as well as the islet source (human, porcine, or murine). Notably, the reductive modification of surface disulfides was shown to afford intense and long-lasting modification of human islets. This study demonstrates that murine, human, and porcine islets tolerate a variety of covalent modifications, that these modifications are relatively stable, and that the murine islet model may not be predictive for some chemical contexts. PMID:24829144

  1. Comparison of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Viruses from Germany and the United States, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Hanke, Dennis; Jenckel, Maria; Petrov, Anja; Ritzmann, Mathias; Stadler, Julia; Akimkin, Valerij; Pohlmann, Anne; Schirrmeier, Horst; Beer, Martin; Höper, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Since 2013, highly virulent porcine epidemic diarrhea virus has caused considerable economic losses in the United States. To determine the relation of US strains to those recently causing disease in Germany, we compared genomes and found that the strain from Germany is closely related to variants in the United States. PMID:25695311

  2. COMPARISON OF BIAXIAL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CORONARY SINUS TISSUES FROM PORCINE, OVINE AND AGED HUMAN SPECIES

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Thuy; Sun, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Due to its proximity to the mitral valve, the coronary sinus (CS) vessel serves as a conduit for the deployment and implantation of the percutaneous transvenous mitral annuloplasty (PTMA) devices that can potentially reduce the mitral regurgitation. Because CS vessel is a venous tissue and seldom diseased, its mechanical properties have not been well studied. In this study, we performed the multi-axial mechanical test and histological analysis to characterize the mechanical and structural properties of the aged human, porcine and ovine CS tissues. The results showed that the aged human CS tissues exhibited much stiffer and highly anisotropic behaviors compared to the porcine and ovine. Both of the porcine and ovine CS vessel walls were thicker and mainly composed of striated muscle fibers (SMF), whereas the thinner aged human CS had higher collagen, lesser SMF, and more fragmented elastin fibers, which are possibly due to the aging effects. We also observed that the anatomical features of porcine CS vessel might be not suitable for the PTMA deployment. These differences between animal and human models raise questions for the validity of using animal models to investigate the biomechanics involved in the PTMA intervention. Therefore, caution must be taken in future studies of PTMA stents using animal models. PMID:22301170

  3. Sequence and virulence comparison of four North American isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considerable genetic, antigenic and virulence differences exist among porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates and depending on strain, dose and immune status, some farms may be subclinically infected with PRRSV while others experience severe reproductive and/or respirato...

  4. Porcine gonadogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five images submitted for teaching purposes related to porcine gonadogenesis (2), porcine fetal testicular development (2), and porcine fetal ovarian development. Key words include: Egg cell nests, Embryo, GATA4, Genital ridge, Gonad, Leydig cell, Mesonephros, MIS, Ovary, P450c17, Porcine, Sertoli ...

  5. [International comparison APMP. QM-S6: determination of clenbuterol in porcine meat by isotopic dilution mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Xu, Sen; Li, Xiuqin; Luo, Ximing; Zhang, Qinghe

    2014-10-01

    A method was developed for the determination of clenbuterol in porcine meat by iso- topic dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). National Institute of Metrology of China (NIM) par- ticipated in the international comparison activity organized by Asia Pacific Metrology (APMP) and got an international mutual recognition result using this method. The important factors of the method, such as the spray voltage, mobile phase, chromatographic column, extraction, purification and filtration conditions were investigated to acquire optimum conditions. The opti- mization results showed that the composition and pH value of the mobile phase had effects on the response of the mass spectrum of clenbuterol and the optimal value of the spray voltage. The solvent of sample had influences on the chromatographic retention behavior of clenbuterol. It was found that methanol caused a serious solvent effect, even made chromatographic peak split. Since clenbuterol was easily adsorbed on hydrophilic filter membranes and solid phase extraction columns, there were interference suppressions for the quantification of clenbuterol because of the eluate of the solid phase extraction columns. The homogenate method with extraction solvent of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid in acetonitrile had the highest extraction efficiency. The limit of the detection (LOD, S/N > 3) of the method was 0.2 μg/kg. The determination results of clenbuterol in the porcine meat by this method were 5.18 μg/kg ± 0.50 μg/kg (k = 2). This method is accurate, reliable, reproducible, and suitable for the determination of clenbuterol with trace quantity in porcine meat. PMID:25739271

  6. Porcine islet isolation: prospective comparison of automated and manual methods of pancreatic collagenase digestion.

    PubMed

    Toomey, P; Chadwick, D R; Contractor, H; Bell, P R; James, R F; London, N J

    1993-02-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to compare an automated method of porcine pancreatic digestion with a simpler manual procedure. These techniques have not previously been compared directly. After intraductal distension with collagenase, seven porcine pancreata were divided longitudinally; half of each was digested by the automated method and half by the manual technique. Islet yield and purity were measured. Compared with the manual technique, the automated method isolated a significantly greater total volume of islet tissue (median (range) 3.56 (1.39-5.30) versus 1.07 (0.46-1.92) mm3/g, P = 0.022), increased the median (range) number of 105-microns islet equivalents isolated (5875 (2294-8746) versus 1766 (759-3168) per g, P = 0.022) and improved the islet cleavage index (median (range) 92 (89-99) versus 82 (78-92) per cent, P = 0.035). It is concluded that, although the automated method is more complicated to set up, it greatly improves the yield of intact islets from the porcine pancreas. PMID:8443669

  7. CISNET lung models: Comparison of model assumptions and model structures

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Pamela M.; Hazelton, William; Kimmel, Marek; Clarke, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Sophisticated modeling techniques can be powerful tools to help us understand the effects of cancer control interventions on population trends in cancer incidence and mortality. Readers of journal articles are however rarely supplied with modeling details. Six modeling groups collaborated as part of the National Cancer Institute’s Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network (CISNET) to investigate the contribution of US tobacco control efforts towards reducing lung cancer deaths over the period 1975 to 2000. The models included in this monograph were developed independently and use distinct, complementary approaches towards modeling the natural history of lung cancer. The models used the same data for inputs and agreed on the design of the analysis and the outcome measures. This article highlights aspects of the models that are most relevant to similarities of or differences between the results. Structured comparisons can increase the transparency of these complex models. PMID:22882887

  8. Comparison of modified Kessler tendon suture at different levels in the human flexor digitorum profundus tendon and porcine flexors and porcine extensors: an experimental biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Havulinna, J; Leppänen, O V; Järvinen, T L N; Göransson, H

    2011-10-01

    This study compared the biomechanical behaviour of repairs in the human flexor digitorum profundus tendon in zones I, II and III with repairs of different segments of the porcine flexor tendon of the second digit and the extensor digiti quarti proprius tendon, in order to assess the validity of porcine tendons as models for human flexor tendon repairs. These porcine tendons were selected after comparing their size with the human flexor digitorum profundus tendon. The tendon repairs were done in three segments of each porcine tendon and repairs in the human tendons were done in zones I,II and III. Ten tendons in each group yielded a total of 90 specimens. A modified Kessler repair was done with 3-0 coated braided polyester suture and subjected to uniaxial tensile testing. In human flexor tendons, the ultimate force was higher in zones I and II than in zone III. The porcine flexor digitorum profundus tendon from the second digit and the proximal segment of the extensor digiti quarti proprius tendon behaved similarly to the human flexor tendon in zone III and can be considered as surrogates for the human flexor tendon. PMID:21816887

  9. Comparison of Conventional Filtering and Independent Component Analysis for Artifact Reduction in Simultaneous Gastric EMG and Magnetogastrography From Porcines

    PubMed Central

    Richards, William O.; Bradshaw, L. Alan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we perform a comparative study of independent component analysis (ICA) and conventional filtering (CF) for the purpose of artifact reduction from simultaneous gastric EMG and magnetogastrography (MGG). EMG/MGG data were acquired from ten anesthetized pigs by obtaining simultaneous recordings using serosal electrodes (EMG) as well as with a superconducting quantum interference device biomagnetometer (MGG). The analysis of MGG waveforms using ICA and CF indicates that ICA is superior to the CF method in its ability to extract respiration and cardiac artifacts from MGG recordings. A signal frequency analysis of ICA- and CF-processed data was also undertaken using waterfall plots, and it was determined that the two methods produce qualitatively comparable results. Through the use of simultaneous EMG/MGG, we were able to demonstrate the accuracy and trustworthiness of our results by comparison and cross-validation within the framework of a porcine model. PMID:19398400

  10. [Comparison of expression and antibacterial activities of recombinant porcine lactoferrin expressed in four Lactobacillus species].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Jiang, Yanping; Cui, Wen; Wu, Xiao; He, Jia; Qiao, Xinyuan; Li, Yijing; Tang, Lijie

    2014-09-01

    The coding sequence for the mature peptide of porcine lactoferrin (Plf) was synthesized according to the codon usage of lactobacillus, to establish optimized porcine lactoferrin Lactobacillus expression system. The gene was ligated into the Xho I/BamH I site of Lactobacillus expression vector pPG612.1 and the recombinant plasmid pPG612.1-plf was transformed individually into Lactobacillus casei ATCC393, Lactobacillus pentosus KLDS1.0413, Lactobacillus plantarum KLDS1.0344 or Lactobacillus paracasei KLDS1.0652 by electroporation. After induction with xylose, expression of the recombinant proteins was detected by Western blotting and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Secretion of recombinant Plf proteins from four recombinant species was determined quantitatively by ELISA. The antibacterial activities of recombinant proteins were measured by agar diffusion method. The result shows that Plf was correctly expressed in four species of recombinant lactobacillus, with molecular weight of about 73 kDa. The expression levels in recombinant Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei were 9.6 μg/mL, 10.8 μg/mL, 12.5 μg/mL and 9.9 μg/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial activity experiment shows that the recombinant proteins were active against E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria, Pasteurella. The recombinant Plf expressed by recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum showed the best antibacterial activity among all recombinant lactobacillus species. These data represent a basis for the development and application of porcine lactoferrin from recombinant lactobacillus. PMID:25720152

  11. An innovative approach to induce cross-protective immunity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in the lungs of pigs through adjuvanted nanotechnology-based vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Ouyang, Kang; Torrelles, Jordi B; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically devastating respiratory disease of pigs. The disease is caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), an Arterivirus which is a highly mutating RNA virus. Widely used modified live PRRSV vaccines have failed to prevent PRRS outbreaks and reinfections; moreover, safety of the live virus vaccines is questionable. Though poorly immunogenic, inactivated PRRSV vaccine is safe. The PRRSV infects primarily the lung macrophages. Therefore, we attempted to strengthen the immunogenicity of inactivated/killed PRRSV vaccine antigens (KAg), especially in the pig respiratory system, through: 1) entrapping the KAg in biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (NP-KAg); 2) coupling the NP-KAg with a potent mucosal adjuvant, whole cell lysate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb WCL); and 3) delivering the vaccine formulation twice intranasally to growing pigs. We have previously shown that a single dose of NP-KAg partially cleared the challenged heterologous PRRSV. Recently, we reported that NP-KAg coupled with unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared the viremia of challenged heterologous PRRSV. Since PRRSV is primarily a lung disease, our goal in this study was to investigate lung viral load and various immune correlates of protection at the lung mucosal surfaces and its parenchyma in vaccinated heterologous PRRSV-challenged pigs. Our results indicated that out of five different vaccine-adjuvant formulations, the combination of NP-KAg and unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared detectable replicating infective PRRSV with a tenfold reduction in viral RNA load in the lungs, associated with substantially reduced gross and microscopic lung pathology. Immunologically, strong humoral (enhanced virus neutralization titers by high avidity antibodies) and cell-mediated immune responses (augmented population of interferon-γ secreting CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes and reduced secretion of immunosuppressive

  12. A comparison of six methods for the concentration of a porcine enterovirus.

    PubMed

    Hazlett, D T

    1977-08-01

    Single-step concentration of porcine enterovirus strain T80 by adsorption to the polyelectrolyte PE60 gave virus concentration factors of 35- to 88-fold in terms of plaque-forming units, with recovery rates of 22 to 75% of total virus present in the original virus suspension. Concentration by separation in an aqueous polymer two-phase system gave virus concentration factors of 56- to 105-fold and recovery rates of 37 to 107%. In the latter procedure, sodium dextran sulfate appeared to have no effect on plaque numbers, although plaques were sharper and clearer when this substance was incorporated in the overlay. The failure of sonication of virus concentrated by either procedure to increase plaque numbers indicated the absence of virus aggregates in the concentrates. T80 virus was not effectively concentrated by cobalt chloride or polyethylene glycol precipitation or by adsorption to either aluminium hydroxide or calcium hydrogen phosphate. PMID:196729

  13. Comparison of gene expression profiles of T cells in porcine colostrum and peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shohei; Okutani, Mie; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Nakanishi, Nobuo; Kato, Yoshihiro; Fukuta, Kikuto; Romero-Pérez, Gustavo A; Ushida, Kazunari; Inoue, Ryo

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare gene expression patterns of T cells in porcine colostrum and peripheral blood. ANIMALS 10 multiparous sows. PROCEDURES Cytotoxic and CD4-CD8 double-positive T cells were separated from porcine colostrum and peripheral blood. Total RNA was extracted. The cDNA prepared from RNA was amplified, labeled, fragmented, and competitively hybridized to DNA microarray slides. The DNA microarray data were validated by use of a real-time reverse-transcription PCR assay, and expression of the genes FOS, NFKBI, IFNG, CXCR6, CCR5, ITGB2, CCR7, and SELL was assessed. Finally, DNA microarray data were validated at the protein level by use of flow cytometry via expression of c-Fos and integrin β-2. RESULTS Evaluation of gene expression profiles indicated that in contrast to results for peripheral blood, numerous cell-signaling pathways might be activated in colostrum. Profile analysis also revealed that FOS and NFKBI (genes of transcription factors) were involved in most cell-signaling pathways and that expression of these genes was significantly higher in colostral T cells than in peripheral blood T cells. Furthermore, CCR7 and SELL (genes of T-cell differentiation markers) in colostral T cells had expression patterns extremely similar to those found in effector or effector memory T cells. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE All or most of the T cells in colostrum had an effector-like phenotype and thus were more activated than those in peripheral blood. This gene expression profile would enable T cells to migrate to mammary glands, be secreted in colostrum, and likely contribute to passive immunity provided by sows to newborn pigs. PMID:27580107

  14. Ex Vivo Rehabilitation of Non-Heart-Beating Donor Lungs in a Preclinical Porcine Model: Delayed Perfusion Results in Superior Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Mulloy, Daniel P.; Stone, Matthew L.; Crosby, Ivan K.; LaPar, Damien J.; Sharma, Ashish K.; Webb, David V.; Lau, Christine L.; Laubach, Victor E.; Kron, Irving L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a promising modality for the evaluation and treatment of marginal donor lungs. The optimal timing of EVLP initiation and potential for rehabilitation of donor lungs with extended warm-ischemic times is unknown. This study compares the efficacy of different treatment strategies for uncontrolled non-heart-beating donor lungs. Methods Mature swine underwent hypoxic arrest followed by 60 minutes of no-touch warm-ischemia. Lungs were harvested and flushed with 4°C Perfadex®. Three groups (n=5/group) were stratified according to preservation method: cold-static preservation (CSP: 4 hrs 4°C storage), immediate EVLP (I-EVLP: 4 hrs EVLP at 37°C), and delayed EVLP (D-EVLP: 4 hrs cold storage followed by 4 hrs EVLP). EVLP groups were perfused with Steen solution™ supplemented with heparin, methylprednisolone, cefazolin, and an adenosine 2A receptor agonist. Lungs then underwent allotransplantation and four hours of recipient reperfusion prior to allograft assessment for resultant ischemia-reperfusion injury. Results Donor blood oxygenation (PO2:FiO2) prior to euthanasia was not different between groups. Oxygenation after transplantation was significantly higher in the D-EVLP group compared to the I-EVLP or CSP groups. Mean airway pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, and expression of IL-8, IL-1β, and TNF-α were all significantly reduced in the D-EVLP group. Importantly, post-transplant oxygenation exceeded acceptable clinical levels only in D-EVLP lungs. Conclusions Uncontrolled non-heart-beating donor lungs with extended warm-ischemia can be reconditioned for successful transplantation. The combination of CSP and EVLP present in the D-EVLP group was necessary to obtain optimal post-transplant function. This finding, if confirmed clinically, will allow expanded use of non-heart-beating donor lungs. PMID:22944084

  15. Genome-Wide Gene Expression Profiles in Lung Tissues of Pig Breeds Differing in Resistance to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenhua; Zhang, Yujie; Wang, Nan; Li, Yanping; Yang, Lijuan; Jiang, Chenglan; Zhang, Chaoyang; Wen, Changhong; Jiang, Yunliang

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV) is an infectious disease characterized by severe reproductive deficiency in pregnant sows, typical respiratory symptoms in piglets, and high mortality rate of piglets. In this study, we employed an Affymetrix microarray chip to compare the gene expression profiles of lung tissue samples from Dapulian (DPL) pigs (a Chinese indigenous pig breed) and Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire (DLY) pigs after infection with PRRSV. During infection with PRRSV, the DLY pigs exhibited a range of clinical features that typify the disease, whereas the DPL pigs showed only mild signs of the disease. Overall, the DPL group had a lower percentage of CD4+ cells and lower CD4+/CD8+ratios than the DLY group (p<0.05). For both IL-10 and TNF-α, the DLY pigs had significantly higher levels than the DPL pigs (p<0.01). The DLY pigs have lower serum IFN-γ levels than the DPL pigs (p<0.01). The serum IgG levels increased slightly from 0 dpi to 7 dpi, and peaked at 14 dpi (p<0.0001). Microarray data analysis revealed 16 differentially expressed (DE) genes in the lung tissue samples from the DLY and DPL pigs (q≤5%), of which LOC100516029 and LOC100523005 were up-regulated in the PRRSV-infected DPL pigs, while the other 14 genes were down-regulated in the PRRSV-infected DPL pigs compared with the PRRSV-infected DLY pigs. The mRNA expression levels of 10 out of the 16 DE genes were validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and their fold change was consistent with the result of microarray data analysis. We further analyzed the mRNA expression level of 8 differentially expressed genes between the DPL and DLY pigs for both uninfected and infected groups, and found that TF and USP18 genes were important in underlying porcine resistance or susceptibility to PRRSV. PMID:24465897

  16. Diffusion limitations of the lung - comparison of different measurement methods.

    PubMed

    Preisser, A M; Seeber, M; Harth, V

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis leads to a decrease of oxygen diffusion, in particular during exercise. Bronchial obstruction also could decrease the partial pressure of oxygen (P(a)O(2)). In this study we investigated the validity of blood gas content, especially P(a)O(2) and P(a)O(2) affected by hyperventilation (P(a)O(2corr)) and alveolo-arterial oxygen gradient (P(A-a)O(2)) in comparison with the CO diffusion capacity (DLCO) in different lung diseases. A total of 250 subjects were studied (52.3 ± 12.5 year; F/M 40/210), among which there were 162 subjects with different lung disorders and 88 healthy controls. Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) of DLCO with P(a)O(2), P(a)O(2corr), and PA-aO(2) were analyzed in each group. The results show that the diagnostic power of P(A-a)O(2) against P(a)O(2corr) was equivalent, especially during exercise (r = -0.89 and -0.92, respectively). DLCO showed only weak correlations with P(a)O(2corr) and P(A-a)O(2) (r = 0.17 and -0.19, respectively). In conclusion, DLCO shows a better match with blood gas content during exercise than at rest during which it is routinely tested. Thus, the exercise test is advisable. The P(A-a)O(2) takes into account the level of ventilation, which makes it correlate better with DLCO rather than with blood gas content. The most significant problems in clinical evaluation of blood gas parameters during exercise are the insufficiently defined limits of normal-to-pathological range. PMID:25381558

  17. Biomechanical comparison of different combinations of hook and screw in one spine motion unit - an experiment in porcine model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The biomechanical performance of the hooks and screws in spinal posterior instrumentation is not well-characterized. Screw-bone interface failure at the uppermost and lowermost vertebrae is not uncommon. Some have advocated for the use of supplement hooks to prevent screw loosening. However, studies describing methods for combined hook and screw systems that fully address the benefits of these systems are lacking. Thus, the choice of which implant to use in a given case is often based solely on a surgeon’s experience instead of on the biomechanical features and advantages of each device. Methods We conducted a biomechanical comparison of devices instrumented with different combinations of hooks and screws. Thirty-six fresh low thoracic porcine spines were assigned to three groups (12 per group) according to the configuration used for of fixation: (1) pedicle screw; (2) lamina hook and (3) combination of pedicle screw and lamina hook. Axial pullout tests backward on transverse plane in the direction normal to the rods were performed using a material testing machine and a specially designed grip with self-aligned function. Results The pullout force for the pedicle screws group was significantly greater than for the hooks and the combination (p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was found between the hooks and the combination (p > 0.05). Conclusions Pedicle screws achieve the maximal pullout strength for spinal posterior instrumentation. PMID:24913189

  18. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Porcine Elastase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Porcine Elastase. This enzyme is associated with the degradation of lung tissue in people suffering from emphysema. It is useful in studying causes of this disease. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Charles Bugg.

  19. LUNG MODEL CASTING TECHNIQUES FOR INTERSPECIES MORPHOMETRIC COMPARISONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Techniques have been developed for casting both solid and hollow lung models from lung specimens. These techniques have been used to make casts of rat, rabbit, baboon, and human lungs and may be used for other species. An air line at a positive pressure of 25 cm of water is conne...

  20. Comparison of Ethylene Glycol and Propylene Glycol for the Vitrification of Immature Porcine Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    SOMFAI, Tamás; NAKAI, Michiko; TANIHARA, Fuminori; NOGUCHI, Junko; KANEKO, Hiroyuki; KASHIWAZAKI, Naomi; EGERSZEGI, István; NAGAI, Takashi; KIKUCHI, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Our aim was to optimize a cryoprotectant treatment for vitrification of immature porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Immature COCs were vitrified either in 35% ethylene glycol (EG), 35% propylene glycol (PG) or a combination of 17.5% EG and 17.5% PG. After warming, the COCs were in vitro matured (IVM), and surviving oocytes were in vitro fertilized (IVF) and cultured. The mean survival rate of vitrified oocytes in 35% PG (73.9%) was higher (P<0.05) than that in 35% EG (27.8%). Oocyte maturation rates did not differ among vitrified and non-vitrified control groups. Blastocyst formation in the vitrified EG group (10.8%) was higher (P<0.05) than that in the vitrified PG group (2.0%) but was lower than that in the control group (25.0%). Treatment of oocytes with 35% of each cryoprotectant without vitrification revealed a higher toxicity of PG on subsequent blastocyst development compared with EG. The combination of EG and PG resulted in 42.6% survival after vitrification. The maturation and fertilization rates of the surviving oocytes were similar in the vitrified, control and toxicity control (TC; treated with EG+PG combination without cooling) groups. Blastocyst development in the vitrified group was lower (P<0.05) than that in the control and TC groups, which in turn had similar development rates (10.7%, 18.1% and 23.3%, respectively). In conclusion, 35% PG enabled a higher oocyte survival rate after vitrification compared with 35% EG. However, PG was greatly toxic to oocytes. The combination of 17.5% EG and 17.5% PG yielded reasonable survival rates without toxic effects on embryo development. PMID:23666455

  1. Biomechanical Comparison of Glutaraldehyde-Crosslinked Gelatin Fibrinogen Electrospun Scaffolds to Porcine Coronary Arteries.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, E; Ardila, D C; Haskett, D G; Doetschman, T; Slepian, M J; Kellar, R S; Vande Geest, J P

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for Americans. As coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) remains a mainstay of therapy for CVD and native vein grafts are limited by issues of supply and lifespan, an effective readily available tissue-engineered vascular graft (TEVG) for use in CABG would provide drastic improvements in patient care. Biomechanical mismatch between vascular grafts and native vasculature has been shown to be the major cause of graft failure, and therefore, there is need for compliance-matched biocompatible TEVGs for clinical implantation. The current study investigates the biaxial mechanical characterization of acellular electrospun glutaraldehyde (GLUT) vapor-crosslinked gelatin/fibrinogen cylindrical constructs, using a custom-made microbiaxial optomechanical device (MOD). Constructs crosslinked for 2, 8, and 24 hrs are compared to mechanically characterized porcine left anterior descending coronary (LADC) artery. The mechanical response data were used for constitutive modeling using a modified Fung strain energy equation. The results showed that constructs crosslinked for 2 and 8 hrs exhibited circumferential and axial tangential moduli (ATM) similar to that of the LADC. Furthermore, the 8-hrs experimental group was the only one to compliance-match the LADC, with compliance values of 0.0006±0.00018 mm Hg-1 and 0.00071±0.00027 mm Hg-1, respectively. The results of this study show the feasibility of meeting mechanical specifications expected of native arteries through manipulating GLUT vapor crosslinking time. The comprehensive mechanical characterization of cylindrical biopolymer constructs in this study is an important first step to successfully develop a biopolymer compliance-matched TEVG. PMID:26501189

  2. Comparison of cellular distribution of LH receptors and steroidogenic enzymes in the porcine ovary.

    PubMed

    Meduri, G; Vu Hai, M T; Jolivet, A; Takemori, S; Kominami, S; Driancourt, M A; Milgrom, E

    1996-03-01

    Previous studies have shown a heterogeneous expression of LH receptors in various structures of the porcine ovary. Specially striking was the existence in the preovulatory follicle of inner layers of theca interna cells devoid of LH receptor and the confinement in the corpus luteum of the LH receptor to the external cellular layers. In the present study, we have compared the steroidogenic capabilities of LH receptor-positive and -negative cells using immunocytochemistry for side-chain cleavage P450, 3 beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase, 17 alpha-hydroxylase P450 and aromatase P450. We have also examined, using the same methods, the evolution of the various cell types after ovulation and during the development of the corpus luteum. In preovulatory follicles the inner layers of theca cells which were not labelled with anti-LH receptor antibodies appeared to express the steroidogenic enzymes in a way similar to that of the outer LH receptor-positive cell layers. Ovulation per se did not change the distribution of LH receptors (present in the outer luteal cells and in the granulosa) or of steroidogenic enzymes. However, 48 h after follicular rupture there as a marked decrease in overall labelling with anti-LH receptor antibody, and especially a disappearance of immunostaining in the luteal cells of granulosa origin. In the mid-luteal phase (6 days after ovulation), the receptor content seemed to increase in the peripheral luteal cells derived from the theca but the receptor did not reappear in the granulosa-derived luteal cells. Thus the down-regulation of LH receptor appeared to be reversible in the external thecal layers but irreversible in the granulosa cells. Furthermore, the distribution of the various steroidogenic enzymes in the corpora lutea delineated granulosa-derived from theca-derived cells and showed that only the external layers of the latter expressed the LH receptor. These results showed the existence in the preovulatory follicle of two theca interna

  3. Phylogenetic comparison of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains detected in domestic pigs until 2008 and in 2012 in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have been present for the last 2 decades in Croatia, causing large economical losses in the pig production. The clinical features of the infections are mostly manifested by the development of respiratory problems, weight loss and poor growth performance, as well as reproductive failure in pregnant sows. Even though the infections are continuously recognized in some regions in Croatia, the heterogeneity of the detected viral strains from 2012 has not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to compare virus strains of PCV2 and PRRSV detected until 2008 in Croatia with strains isolated in 2012 to gain a better epidemiological understanding of these two infections. Results PCV2 and PRRSV strains detected in 2012 in fattening pigs from regions where these two diseases have been previously described were compared to strains that have been detected in the same regions within the past two decades. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the circulating PCV2 and PRRSV strains are distantly related to the previously described Croatian viral strains. However, when compared to known isolates from the GenBank a high genetic identity of PRRSV isolates with isolates from Hungary, Denmark and the Netherlands was found. Conclusion The results of this study reveal that even though PCV2 and PRRSV are constantly present in the investigated regions in Croatia, the viral strains found in 2012 genetically differ from those detected in earlier years. This indicates that new entries into the pig population appeared with regard to both infections, probably as a result of pig trade. PMID:24839544

  4. Development of an ex vivo porcine lung model for studying growth, virulence, and signaling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Freya; Muruli, Aneesha; Higgins, Steven; Diggle, Stephen P

    2014-08-01

    Research into chronic infection by bacterial pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, uses various in vitro and live host models. While these have increased our understanding of pathogen growth, virulence, and evolution, each model has certain limitations. In vitro models cannot recapitulate the complex spatial structure of host organs, while experiments on live hosts are limited in terms of sample size and infection duration for ethical reasons; live mammal models also require specialized facilities which are costly to run. To address this, we have developed an ex vivo pig lung (EVPL) model for quantifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth, quorum sensing (QS), virulence factor production, and tissue damage in an environment that mimics a chronically infected cystic fibrosis (CF) lung. In a first test of our model, we show that lasR mutants, which do not respond to 3-oxo-C(12)-homoserine lactone (HSL)-mediated QS, exhibit reduced virulence factor production in EVPL. We also show that lasR mutants grow as well as or better than a corresponding wild-type strain in EVPL. lasR mutants frequently and repeatedly arise during chronic CF lung infection, but the evolutionary forces governing their appearance and spread are not clear. Our data are not consistent with the hypothesis that lasR mutants act as social "cheats" in the lung; rather, our results support the hypothesis that lasR mutants are more adapted to the lung environment. More generally, this model will facilitate improved studies of microbial disease, especially studies of how cells of the same and different species interact in polymicrobial infections in a spatially structured environment. PMID:24866798

  5. Development of an Ex Vivo Porcine Lung Model for Studying Growth, Virulence, and Signaling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Muruli, Aneesha; Higgins, Steven; Diggle, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Research into chronic infection by bacterial pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, uses various in vitro and live host models. While these have increased our understanding of pathogen growth, virulence, and evolution, each model has certain limitations. In vitro models cannot recapitulate the complex spatial structure of host organs, while experiments on live hosts are limited in terms of sample size and infection duration for ethical reasons; live mammal models also require specialized facilities which are costly to run. To address this, we have developed an ex vivo pig lung (EVPL) model for quantifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth, quorum sensing (QS), virulence factor production, and tissue damage in an environment that mimics a chronically infected cystic fibrosis (CF) lung. In a first test of our model, we show that lasR mutants, which do not respond to 3-oxo-C12-homoserine lactone (HSL)-mediated QS, exhibit reduced virulence factor production in EVPL. We also show that lasR mutants grow as well as or better than a corresponding wild-type strain in EVPL. lasR mutants frequently and repeatedly arise during chronic CF lung infection, but the evolutionary forces governing their appearance and spread are not clear. Our data are not consistent with the hypothesis that lasR mutants act as social “cheats” in the lung; rather, our results support the hypothesis that lasR mutants are more adapted to the lung environment. More generally, this model will facilitate improved studies of microbial disease, especially studies of how cells of the same and different species interact in polymicrobial infections in a spatially structured environment. PMID:24866798

  6. Automated segmentation of porcine airway wall layers using optical coherence tomography: comparison with manual segmentation and histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Miranda; Lee, Anthony M. D.; Candido, Tara; MacAulay, Calum; Lane, Pierre; Lam, Stephen; Coxson, Harvey O.

    2014-03-01

    The objective was to develop an automated optical coherence tomography (OCT) segmentation method. We evaluated three ex-vivo porcine airway specimens; six non-sequential OCT images were selected from each airway specimen. Histology was also performed for each airway and histology images were co-registered to OCT images for comparison. Manual segmentation of the airway luminal area, mucosa area, submucosa area and the outer airway wall area were performed for histology and OCT images. Automated segmentation of OCT images employed a despecking filter for pre-processing, a hessian-based filter for lumen and outer airway wall area segmentation, and K-means clustering for mucosa and submucosa area segmentation. Bland-Altman analysis indicated that there was very little bias between automated OCT segmentation and histology measurements for the airway lumen area (bias=-6%, 95% CI=-21%-8%), mucosa area, (bias=-4%, 95% CI=-14%-5%), submucosa area (bias=7%, 95% CI=-7%-20%) and outer airway wall area segmentation results (bias=-5%, 95% CI=-14%-5%). We also compared automated and manual OCT segmentation and Bland-Altman analysis indicated that there was negligible bias between luminal area (bias=4%, 95% CI=1%-8%), mucosa area (bias=-3%, 95% CI=-6%-1%), submucosa area (bias=-2%, 95% CI=-10%-6%) and the outer airway wall (bias=-3%, 95% CI=-13%-6%). The automated segmentation method for OCT airway imaging developed here allows for accurate and precise segmentation of the airway wall components, suggesting that translation of this method to in vivo human airway analysis would allow for longitudinal and serial studies.

  7. High frequency oscillatory ventilation and prone positioning in a porcine model of lavage-induced acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Brederlau, Joerg; Muellenbach, Ralf; Kredel, Markus; Greim, Clemens; Roewer, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    Background This animal study was conducted to assess the combined effects of high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and prone positioning on pulmonary gas exchange and hemodynamics. Methods Saline lung lavage was performed in 14 healthy pigs (54 ± 3.1 kg, mean ± SD) until the arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) decreased to 55 ± 7 mmHg. The animals were ventilated in the pressure controlled mode (PCV) with a positive endexpiratory pressure (PEEP) of 5 cmH2O and a tidal volume (VT) of 6 ml/kg body weight. After a stabilisation period of 60 minutes, the animals were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Group 1: HFOV in supine position; group 2: HFOV in prone position. After evaluation of prone positioning in group 2, the mean airway pressure (Pmean) was increased by 3 cmH2O from 16 to 34 cmH2O every 20 minutes in both groups accompanied by measurements of respiratory and hemodynamic variables. Finally all animals were ventilated supine with PCV, PEEP = 5 cm H2O, VT = 6 ml/kg. Results Combination of HFOV with prone positioning improves oxygenation and results in normalisation of cardiac output and considerable reduction of pulmonary shunt fraction at a significant (p < 0.05) lower Pmean than HFOV and supine positioning. Conclusion If ventilator induced lung injury is ameliorated by a lower Pmean, a combined treatment approach using HFOV and prone positioning might result in further lung protection. PMID:16584548

  8. COMPARISON OF LUNG ANTIOXIDANT LEVELS IN HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Basal lung concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA), nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH), and a-tocopherol (a-T) were determined in rabbits, guinea pigs, rats, hamsters, mice, domestic pigs and sheep, and in human lung samples obtained from cancer surgery patients. Significant differences ...

  9. Radiofrequency Ablated Lesion in the Normal Porcine Lung: Long-Term Follow-Up with MRI and Pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, Yoshimasa E-mail: yoshimasa03155@ych.or.jp; Nakamura, Kenji; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Toyoshima, Masami; Yamamoto, Akira; Okuma, Tomohisa; Ikura, Yoshihiro; Ueda, Makiko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in reflecting histopathologic changes after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) to the lung and to assess accurately the extent of tissue necrosis for evaluating untreated lesions. Methods. Percutaneous RFA was performed on 72 lung regions in 12 pigs under computed tomographic guidance. After performing MRI, the animals were divided into three experimental phases: in the acute phase, 4 pigs were killed immediately after the procedure; in the subacute phase, 4 pigs were killed at 1 week; and in the chronic phases, 2 pigs were killed at 4 and 8 weeks after the procedure, respectively. MRI-histopathologic correlation was performed. Results. In the acute phase, the inner zone showed hypointensity on T2-weighted images and isointensity on T1-weighted images, with a lack of enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images, representing early changes in coagulative necrosis on histopathologic examination. The outer zone showed hyperintensity on T2-weighted images and isointensity on T1-weighted images, with ring-like enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. The histopathologic section showed alveolar fluid collections and congestion. In the subacute phase the MR zone pattern was essentially similar to that of the acute phase, but the ablated lesion showed extensive coagulative necrosis with a fibrovascular rim on histopathologic examination. In the chronic phase, there was no change in the zone pattern on MRI. The lesions showed gradual resorption of coagulative necrosis. The area of coagulative necrosis correlated closely with the histopathologic size (p < 0.05). Conclusions. MRI effectively visualized the histopathologic changes after RFA and accurately determined the extent of the necrotic lesion. MRI is potentially a useful modality for evaluating therapeutic efficacy after RFA to the lung.

  10. Performance comparison of quantitative semantic features and lung-RADS in the National Lung Screening Trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qian; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Liu, Ying; Schabath, Matthew; Gillies, Robert J.

    2016-03-01

    Background: Lung-RADS is the new oncology classification guideline proposed by American College of Radiology (ACR), which provides recommendation for further follow up in lung cancer screening. However, only two features (solidity and size) are included in this system. We hypothesize that additional sematic features can be used to better characterize lung nodules and diagnose cancer. Objective: We propose to develop and characterize a systematic methodology based on semantic image traits to more accurately predict occurrence of cancerous nodules. Methods: 24 radiological image traits were systematically scored on a point scale (up to 5) by a trained radiologist, and lung-RADS was independently scored. A linear discriminant model was used on the semantic features to access their performance in predicting cancer status. The semantic predictors were then compared to lung-RADS classification in 199 patients (60 cancers, 139 normal controls) obtained from the National Lung Screening Trial. Result: There were different combinations of semantic features that were strong predictors of cancer status. Of these, contour, border definition, size, solidity, focal emphysema, focal fibrosis and location emerged as top candidates. The performance of two semantic features (short axial diameter and contour) had an AUC of 0.945, and was comparable to that of lung-RADS (AUC: 0.871). Conclusion: We propose that a semantics-based discrimination approach may act as a complement to the lung-RADS to predict cancer status.

  11. Apoptosis induced by lipid-associated membrane proteins from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in a porcine lung epithelial cell line with the involvement of caspase 3 and the MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Ni, B; Bai, F F; Wei, Y; Liu, M J; Feng, Z X; Xiong, Q Y; Hua, L Z; Shao, G Q

    2015-01-01

    Lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) are important in the pathogenicity of the Mycoplasma genus of bacteria. We investigated whether Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae LAMPs have pathogenic potential by inducing apoptosis in a St. Jude porcine lung epithelial cell line (SJPL). LAMPs from a pathogenic strain of M. hyopneumoniae (strain 232) were used in the research. Our investigation made use of diamidino-phenylindole (DAPI) and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining, terminal dexynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis, and Annexin-V-propidium iodide staining. After LAMP treatment for 24 h, typical changes were induced, chromosomes were concentrated, apoptotic bodies were observed, the 3'-OH groups of cleaved genomes were exposed, and the percentage of apoptotic cells reached 36.5 ± 11.66%. Caspase 3 and caspase 8 were activated and cytochrome c (cyt c) was released from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm; poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) was digested into two fragments; p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was phosphorylated; and the expression of pro-apoptosis protein Bax increased while the anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 decreased. LAMPs also stimulated SJPL cells to produce nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide. This study demonstrated that LAMPs from M. hyopneumoniae can induce apoptosis in SJPL cells through the activation of caspase 3, caspase 8, cyt c, Bax, and p38 MAPK, thereby contributing to our understanding of the pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae, which should improve the treatment of M. hyopneumoniae infections. PMID:26436384

  12. Magnetic resonance Elastography of the Lung parenchyma in an in situ porcine model with a non-invasive mechanical driver: Correlation of Shear Stiffness with Trans-respiratory system Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Mariappan, Yogesh K; Kolipaka, Arunark; Manduca, Armando; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Ehman, Richard L; Araoz, Philip; McGee, Kiaran P

    2011-01-01

    Quantification of the mechanical properties of lung parenchyma is an active field of research due to the association of this metric with normal function, disease initiation and progression. A phase contrast MRI-based elasticity imaging technique known as magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is being investigated as a method for measuring the shear stiffness of lung parenchyma. Previous experiments performed with small animals using invasive drivers in direct contact with the lungs have indicated that the quantification of lung shear modulus with 1H based MRE is feasible. This technique has been extended to an in situ porcine model with a noninvasive mechanical driver placed on the chest wall. This approach was tested to measure the change in parenchymal stiffness as a function of airway opening pressure (Pao) in 10 adult pigs. In all animals, shear stiffness was successfully quantified at four different Pao values. Mean (± std error of mean) pulmonary parenchyma density corrected stiffness values were calculated to be 1.48 (±0.09), 1.68 (±0.10), 2.05 (±0.13) and 2.23 (±0.17) kPa for Pao values of 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm H2O respectively. Shear stiffness increased with increasing Pao, in agreement with the literature. It is concluded that in an in situ porcine lung shear stiffness can be quantitated with 1H MRE using a noninvasive mechanical driver, and that it is feasible to measure the change in shear stiffness due to change in Pao. PMID:21590723

  13. Comparison between Mt-DNA D-Loop and Cyt B primers for porcine DNA detection in meat products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzah, Azhana; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to detect the presence of porcine DNA in meat products in the market using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and commercial PCR-southern hybridization analysis. Porcine DNA detection in meat products was tested due to some issues associated with the adulteration of food products in Malaysia. This is an important issue especially for Halal authentication which is required for some religious practices such as in Islam and Hinduisms. Many techniques have been developed for determining the Halal status of food products. In this paper, mt-DNA D-loop primer and cytochrome (cyt) b were used to detect the presence of porcine DNA in meat products. Positive and negative controls were always present for each batch of extraction. DNA of raw pork meat was used as a positive control while nucleus free water is used as negative control. A pair of oligonucleotide primer was used namely Pork1 and Pork2 which produced amplicon of 531 base pair (bp) in size. While, PCR-southern hybridization was conducted using primers readily supplied by commercial PCR-Southern hybridization and produced amplicon with 276 bp in size. In the present study, demonstrated that none of the samples were contaminated with porcine residuals but selected samples with pork meat were positive. The species-specific PCR amplification yielded excellent results for identification of pork derivatives in food products and it is a potentially reliable and suitable technique in routine food analysis for Halal certification.

  14. Comparison of Predicted Total Lung Capacity and Total Lung Capacity by Computed Tomography in Lung Transplantation Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Lee, Jin Gu; Kim, Tae Hoon; Paik, Hyo Chae; Park, Chul Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lung size mismatch is a major cause of poor lung function and worse survival after lung transplantation (LTx). We compared predicted total lung capacity (pTLC) and TLC measured by chest computed tomography (TLCCT) in LTx candidates. Materials and Methods We reviewed the medical records of patients on waiting lists for LTx. According to the results of pulmonary function tests, patients were divided into an obstructive disease group and restrictive disease group. The differences between pTLC calculated using the equation of the European Respiratory Society and TLCCT were analyzed in each group. Results Ninety two patients met the criteria. Thirty five patients were included in the obstructive disease group, and 57 patients were included in the restrictive disease group. pTLC in the obstructive disease group (5.50±1.07 L) and restrictive disease group (5.57±1.03 L) had no statistical significance (p=0.747), while TLCCT in the restrictive disease group (3.17±1.15 L) was smaller than that I the obstructive disease group (4.21±1.38 L) (p<0.0001). TLCCT/pTLC was 0.770 in the obstructive disease group and 0.571 in the restrictive disease group. Conclusion Regardless of pulmonary disease pattern, TLCCT was smaller than pTLC, and it was more apparent in restrictive lung disease. Therefore, we should consider the difference between TLCCT and pTLC, as well as lung disease patterns of candidates, in lung size matching for LTx. PMID:27189292

  15. Comparison of Two Commercial Type 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Modified Live Vaccines against Heterologous Type 1 and Type 2 PRRSV Challenge in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taeyeon; Park, Changhoon; Choi, Kyuhyung; Jeong, Jiwoon; Kang, Ikjae; Park, Su-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy of two commercial type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) modified live vaccines against heterologous type 1 and type 2 PRRSV challenge in growing pigs. Vaccination with a type 1 PRRSV vaccine reduced the level of viremia after type 1 PRRSV challenge but did not reduce the level of viremia after the type 2 PRRSV challenge in pigs. Increased levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) stimulated by type 2 PRRSV coincided with the low numbers of type 2 PRRSV-specific interferon gamma-secreting cells (IFN-γ-SC) in vaccinated pigs after type 2 PRRSV challenge, whereas low levels of IL-10 stimulated by type 1 PRRSV coincided with high numbers of type 1 PRRSV-specific IFN-γ-SC in vaccinated pigs after type 1 PRRSV challenge. Additionally, vaccination with the type 1 PRRSV vaccine effectively reduced the lung lesions and type 1 PRRSV nucleic acids in type 1 PRRSV-challenged pigs but did not reduce lung lesions and type 2 PRRSV nucleic acids in type 2 PRRSV-challenged pigs. There were no significant differences between two commercial type 1 PRRSV vaccines against type 1 and type 2 PRRSV challenge based on virological results, immunological responses, and pathological outcomes. This study demonstrates that vaccinating pigs with the type 1 PRRSV vaccine provides partial protection against respiratory disease with heterologous type 1 PRRSV challenge but no protection with heterologous type 2 PRRSV challenge. PMID:25855554

  16. A comparison of the techniques of PIXE, PIGE and INAA by reference to the elemental analysis of porcine brain samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedman, J. D.; Spyrou, N. M.

    1994-12-01

    The trace element concentrations in porcine brain samples as determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) analysis are compared. The matrix composition was determined by Rutherford backscattering (RBS). Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe and Cd were determined by PIXE analysis Na, K, Sc, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Br, Rb, and Cs by INAA and Na, Mg and Fe by PIGE analysis. The bulk elements C, N, O, Na Cl and S were found by RBS analysis. Elemental concentrations are obtained using the comparator method of analysis rather than an absolute method, the validity which is examined by comparing the elemental concentrations obtained in porcine brain using two separate certified reference materials.

  17. Megavoltage Image-Based Dynamic Multileaf Collimator Tracking of a NiTi Stent in Porcine Lungs on a Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, Per R.; Carl, Jesper; Nielsen, Jane; Nielsen, Martin S.; Thomsen, Jakob B.; Jensen, Henrik K.; Kjaergaard, Benedict; Zepernick, Peter R.; Worm, Esben; Fledelius, Walther; Cho, Byungchul; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan; Keall, Paul J.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy and potential limitations of MV image-based dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking in a porcine model on a linear accelerator. Methods and Materials: A thermo-expandable NiTi stent designed for kilovoltage (kV) X-ray visualization of lung lesions was inserted into the bronchia of three anaesthetized Goettingen minipigs. A four-dimensional computed tomography scan was used for planning a five-field conformal treatment with circular multileaf collimator (MLC) apertures. A 22.5 Gy single fraction treatment was delivered to the pigs. The peak-to-peak stent motion was 3 to 8 mm, with breathing periods of 1.2 to 4 s. Before treatment, X-ray images were used for image-guided setup based on the stent. During treatment delivery, continuous megavoltage (MV) portal images were acquired at 7.5 Hz. The stent was segmented in the images and used for continuous adaptation of the MLC aperture. Offline, the tracking error in beam's eye view of the treatment beam was calculated for each MV image as the difference between the MLC aperture center and the segmented stent position. The standard deviations of the systematic error {Sigma} and the random error {sigma} were determined and compared with the would-be errors for a nontracking treatment with pretreatment image-guided setup. Results: Reliable stent segmentation was obtained for 11 of 15 fields. Segmentation failures occurred when image contrast was dominated by overlapping anatomical structures (ribs, diaphragm) rather than by the stent, which was designed for kV rather than MV X-ray visibility. For the 11 fields with reliable segmentation, {Sigma} was 0.5 mm/0.4 mm in the two imager directions, whereas {sigma} was 0.5 mm/1.1 mm. Without tracking, {Sigma} and {sigma} would have been 1.7 mm/1.4 mm and 0.8 mm/1.4 mm, respectively. Conclusion: For the first time, in vivo DMLC tracking has been demonstrated on a linear accelerator showing the potential for improved targeting accuracy. The

  18. Identification and Comparison of Receptor Binding Characteristics of the Spike Protein of Two Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Feng; Ye, Gang; Liu, Qianqian; Navid, Muhammad Tariq; Zhong, Xiaoli; Li, Youwen; Wan, Chunyun; Xiao, Shaobo; He, Qigai; Fu, Zhen F.; Peng, Guiqing

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a member of Alphacoronavirus, has caused huge economic losses for the global pork industry recently. The spike (S) protein mediates PEDV entry into host cells. Herein, we investigated the interactions between the S protein and its receptor porcine aminopeptidase N (pAPN) or co-receptor sugars. The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the S1 domain is bound to pAPN. The prototype strain demonstrated similar receptor-binding activity compared with the variant field isolate. Three loops at the tips of the β-barrel domains did not play crucial roles in the PEDV S-pAPN association, indicating that PEDV conforms to a different receptor recognition model compared with transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine respiratory CoV (PRCV), and human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63). The N-terminal domain (NTD) of the PEDV S1 domain could bind sugar, a possible co-receptor for PEDV. The prototype strain exhibited weaker sugar-binding activity compared with the variant field isolate. Strategies targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) may be helpful for developing vaccines or antiviral drugs for PEDV. Understanding the differences in receptor binding between the prototype and the variant strains may provide insight into PEDV pathogenesis. PMID:26907329

  19. Functional Validation and Comparison Framework for EIT Lung Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Meybohm, Patrick; Weiler, Norbert; Frerichs, Inéz; Adler, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an emerging clinical tool for monitoring ventilation distribution in mechanically ventilated patients, for which many image reconstruction algorithms have been suggested. We propose an experimental framework to assess such algorithms with respect to their ability to correctly represent well-defined physiological changes. We defined a set of clinically relevant ventilation conditions and induced them experimentally in 8 pigs by controlling three ventilator settings (tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure and the fraction of inspired oxygen). In this way, large and discrete shifts in global and regional lung air content were elicited. Methods We use the framework to compare twelve 2D EIT reconstruction algorithms, including backprojection (the original and still most frequently used algorithm), GREIT (a more recent consensus algorithm for lung imaging), truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD), several variants of the one-step Gauss-Newton approach and two iterative algorithms. We consider the effects of using a 3D finite element model, assuming non-uniform background conductivity, noise modeling, reconstructing for electrode movement, total variation (TV) reconstruction, robust error norms, smoothing priors, and using difference vs. normalized difference data. Results and Conclusions Our results indicate that, while variation in appearance of images reconstructed from the same data is not negligible, clinically relevant parameters do not vary considerably among the advanced algorithms. Among the analysed algorithms, several advanced algorithms perform well, while some others are significantly worse. Given its vintage and ad-hoc formulation backprojection works surprisingly well, supporting the validity of previous studies in lung EIT. PMID:25110887

  20. Ultrastructural comparison of porcine putative embryonic stem cells derived by in vitro fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyunju; Kim, Eunhye; Hwang, Seon-Ung; Yoon, Junchul David; Jeon, Yubyeol; Park, Kyu-Mi; Kim, Kyu-Jun; Jin, Minghui; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Eunsong; Kim, Hyunggee; Kim, Gonhyung; Hyun, Sang-Hwan

    2016-04-22

    The ultrastructure of porcine putative embryonic stem cells and porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs) was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The aim of this study was to compare the features of organelles in in vitro fertilization (IVF) derived porcine embryonic stem cells (IVF-pESCs) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) derived pESCs (SCNT-pESCs). Also, the features of organelles in high-passage IVF-pESCs were compared with those in low-passage cells. The ultrastructure of PFFs showed rare microvilli on the cell surfaces, polygonal or irregular nuclei with one to two reticular-shaped nucleoli and euchromatin, low cytoplasm-to-nucleus ratios, rare ribosomes, rare rough endoplasmic reticulum, elongated mitochondria, rich lysosomes and rich phagocytic vacuoles. IVF-pESCs showed rare microvilli on the cell surfaces, round or irregular nuclei with one to two reticular-shaped nucleoli and euchromatin, low cytoplasm-to-nucleus ratios, rich ribosomes, long stacks of rough endoplasmic reticulum, elongated mitochondria, rare lysosomes and rare autophagic vacuoles. By contrast, SCNT-pESCs showed rich microvilli with various lengths and frequencies on the cell surfaces, polygonal nuclei with one reticular shaped nucleoli and heterochromatin, high cytoplasm-to-nucleus ratios, rare ribosomes, rare rough endoplasmic reticulum, round mitochondria, rich lysosomes and rich phagocytic vacuoles with clear intercellular junctions. Furthermore, high-passage IVF-pESCs showed irregularly shaped colonies, pyknosis and numerous lysosomes associated with autophagic vacuoles showing signs of apoptosis. In conclusion, this study confirms that the ultrastructural characteristics of pESCs differ depending on their origin. These ultrastructural characteristics might be useful in biomedical research using pESCs, leading to new insights regarding regenerative medicine and tissue repair. PMID:26821870

  1. A comparison between porcine, ovine, and bovine intervertebral disc anatomy and single lamella annulus fibrosus tensile properties.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Lauren A; DeWitte-Orr, Stephanie J; Gregory, Diane E

    2016-02-01

    This project aimed to compare gross anatomical measures and biomechanical properties of single lamellae from the annulus fibrosus of ovine and porcine lumbar vertebrae, and bovine tail vertebrae. The morphology of the vertebrae of these species differ significantly both from each other and from human, yet how these differences alter biomechanical properties is unknown. Geometric parameters measured in this study included: 1) absolute and relative intervertebral (IVD) and vertebral body height and 2) absolute and relative intervertebral disc (IVD) anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) widths. Single lamella tensile properties included toe-region stress and stretch ratio, stiffness, and tensile strength. As expected, the bovine tail IVD revealed a more circular shape compared with both the ovine and porcine lumbar IVD. The bovine tail also had the largest IVD to vertebral body height ratio (due to having the highest absolute IVD height). Bovine tail lamellae were also found to be strongest and stiffest (in tension) while ovine lumbar lamellae were weakest and most compliant. Histological analysis revealed the greatest proportion of collagen in the bovine corroborating findings of increased strength and stiffness. The observed differences in anatomical shape, connective tissue composition, and tensile properties need to be considered when choosing an appropriate model for IVD research. PMID:26558749

  2. Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo laser scanning microscopy and multiphoton tomography application for human and porcine skin imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvin, M. E.; Richter, H.; Zhu, Y. J.; Meinke, M. C.; Knorr, F.; Gonchukov, S. A.; Koenig, K.; Lademann, J.

    2014-07-01

    Two state-of-the-art microscopic optical methods, namely, confocal laser scanning microscopy in the fluorescence and reflectance regimes and multiphoton tomography in the autofluorescence and second harmonic generation regimes, are compared for porcine skin ex vivo and healthy human skin in vivo. All skin layers such as stratum corneum (SC), stratum spinosum (SS), stratum basale (SB), papillary dermis (PD) and reticular dermis (RD) as well as transition zones between these skin layers are measured noninvasively at a high resolution, using the above mentioned microscopic methods. In the case of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), measurements in the fluorescence regime were performed by using a fluorescent dye whose topical application on the surface is well suited for the investigation of superficial SC and characterisation of the skin barrier function. For investigations of deeply located skin layers, such as SS, SB and PD, the fluorescent dye must be injected into the skin, which markedly limits fluorescence measurements using CLSM. In the case of reflection CLSM measurements, the obtained results can be compared to the results of multiphoton tomography (MPT) for all skin layers excluding RD. CLSM cannot distinguish between dermal collagen and elastin measuring their superposition in the RD. By using MPT, it is possible to analyse the collagen and elastin structures separately, which is important for the investigation of anti-aging processes. The resolution of MPT is superior to CLSM. The advantages and limitations of both methods are discussed and the differences and similarities between human and porcine skin are highlighted.

  3. Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo laser scanning microscopy and multiphoton tomography application for human and porcine skin imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Darvin, M E; Richter, H; Zhu, Y J; Meinke, M C; Knorr, F; Lademann, J; Gonchukov, S A; Koenig, K

    2014-07-31

    Two state-of-the-art microscopic optical methods, namely, confocal laser scanning microscopy in the fluorescence and reflectance regimes and multiphoton tomography in the autofluorescence and second harmonic generation regimes, are compared for porcine skin ex vivo and healthy human skin in vivo. All skin layers such as stratum corneum (SC), stratum spinosum (SS), stratum basale (SB), papillary dermis (PD) and reticular dermis (RD) as well as transition zones between these skin layers are measured noninvasively at a high resolution, using the above mentioned microscopic methods. In the case of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), measurements in the fluorescence regime were performed by using a fluorescent dye whose topical application on the surface is well suited for the investigation of superficial SC and characterisation of the skin barrier function. For investigations of deeply located skin layers, such as SS, SB and PD, the fluorescent dye must be injected into the skin, which markedly limits fluorescence measurements using CLSM. In the case of reflection CLSM measurements, the obtained results can be compared to the results of multiphoton tomography (MPT) for all skin layers excluding RD. CLSM cannot distinguish between dermal collagen and elastin measuring their superposition in the RD. By using MPT, it is possible to analyse the collagen and elastin structures separately, which is important for the investigation of anti-aging processes. The resolution of MPT is superior to CLSM. The advantages and limitations of both methods are discussed and the differences and similarities between human and porcine skin are highlighted. (laser biophotonics)

  4. Comparison of 2 commercial single-dose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines on pigs dually infected with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV.

    PubMed

    Park, Changhoon; Kang, Ikjae; Seo, Hwi Won; Jeong, Jiwoon; Choi, Kyuhyung; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of 2 different commercial Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines in regard to growth performance, microbiological and immunological analyses, and pathological observation from wean to finish (175 d of age). Pigs were administered M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV vaccines at 7 and 21 d of age, respectively, or both at 21 d old and then challenged with both M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV at 49 d old. Significant (P < 0.05) differences were observed between the 2 vaccinated challenged groups in average daily weight gain, nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae, M. hyopneumoniae-specific interferon-γ secreting cells, and macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions. Induction of interleukin-10 following PRRSV vaccination does not interfere with the immune responses induced by M. hyopneumoniae vaccine. The present study demonstrated that the single-dose vaccination regimen for M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV vaccine is efficacious for controlling coinfection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV based on clinical, microbiological, immunological, and pathological evaluation. PMID:27127338

  5. Effects of atropine and propranolol on lung inflammation in experimental envenomation: comparison of two buthidae venoms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous works had shown that scorpion venom induced neurotransmitter elevation and an inflammatory response associated with various anatomo-pathological modifications. The most dangerous scorpions species in Algeria responsible for these effects are Androctonus australis hector (Aah) and Androctonus amoreuxi (Aam). Results Comparison of the physiopathological effects induced by the two venoms showed differences in the kinetic of cytokine release and in lung injury. The lung edema was only observed in response to Aah venom and it was correlated with cell infiltration. In order to better understand the involved mechanism in inflammatory response, we used two antagonists, atropine (non-selective muscarinic antagonist) and propranolol (β adrenergic antagonist), which lead to a decrease of cell infiltration but has no effect on edema forming. Conclusion These results suggest another pathway in the development of lung injury following envenomation with Aam or Aah venom. PMID:23849182

  6. [Comparison of sampling strategies to detect porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in a simulated pig producing plant].

    PubMed

    Kopacka, Ian; Fuchs, Klemens; Schmoll, Friedrich; Sattler, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    The effectivity of different sampling schemes for the early detection of the introduction of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus into a pig herd was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation. Within a theoretical breeding herd of 300 animals, disease transmission was simulated using a stochastic SEIR model incorporating actual animal movement data. The following parameters were evaluated for different sample sizes, sampling frequencies and diagnostic procedures (ELISA, PCR): the time from virus introduction until detection, the daily detection probability and the number of holdings to which infected animals are shipped before the disease is detected. The results show that the sample size has an influence on early detection. The biggest effects are, however, achieved by shortening the sampling intervals. The median detection time is approximately ten days shorter for PCR than for ELISA. If, however, the sampling intervals are chosen too wide there is a chance of overlooking the disease using PCR alone. PMID:27344920

  7. Comparison of a pulsed dye laser and electrohydraulic lithotripsy on porcine gallbladder and common bile duct in vitro.

    PubMed

    Birkett, D H; Lamont, J S; O'Keane, J C; Babayan, R K

    1992-01-01

    With the advent of minimal access biliary procedures there is a need for a safe intracorporal lithotripsy technique that can be used through small flexible endoscopes. Currently, the two techniques available are electrohydraulic lithotripsy and laser induced shock wave lithotripsy. In this study we compare the effect of a 504 nm coumarin pulsed dye laser and electrohydraulic lithotripsy on in vitro porcine gallbladder and common bile duct. Electrohydraulic lithotripsy at the lowest energy the generator would deliver caused perforation of both tissues in only a few pulses when a 1.9-F probe was placed in direct contact with the tissue. Energy from a 504 nm coumarin pulsed dye laser delivered through a 320-microns fiber placed in light contact with the tissue caused an energy-dependent perforation after 50 pulses in from none to 44% of tissues. It was also found that there was a higher incidence of perforation in more vascular than non-vascular tissue. When the EHL probe and the laser fiber were held 1-2 mm from the tissue surface, discharge of each resulted in no perforation. On histological examination of the tissues, the perforations were found to be very small with laser lithotripsy and considerably larger with the electrohydraulic lithotripsy. It was felt that laser lithotripsy in the clinical situation was likely to be much safer than electrohydraulic lithotripsy. PMID:1349415

  8. Comparison of Porcine Small Intestinal Submucosa versus Polypropylene in Open Inguinal Hernia Repair: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Xin; Xiao, Dongdong; Wang, Wenyue; Song, Zhicheng; Yang, Zhi; Chen, Yuanwen; Gu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) with polypropylene in open inguinal hernia repair. Method Electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were used to compare patient outcomes for the two groups via meta-analysis. Result A total of 3 randomized controlled trials encompassing 200 patients were included in the meta-analysis. There was no significant difference in recurrence (P = 0.16), hematomas (P = 0.06), postoperative pain within 30 days (P = 0.45), or postoperative pain after 1 year (P = 0.12) between the 2 groups. The incidence of discomfort was significantly lower (P = 0.0006) in the SIS group. However, the SIS group experienced a significantly higher incidence of seroma (P = 0.03). Conclusions Compared to polypropylene, using SIS in open inguinal hernia repair is associated with a lower incidence of discomfort and a higher incidence of seroma. However, well-designed larger RCT studies with a longer follow-up period are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26252895

  9. Comparison of RNA extraction methods for the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from boar semen.

    PubMed

    Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Dammen, Matthew; Nelson, Eric; Rowland, Raymond; Oberst, Richard

    2006-09-01

    To detect Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) in semen, various RNA extraction techniques have been utilized for RT-PCR, but rarely compared, to determine an optimized extraction protocol. Due to the viscosity, non-homogeneity, high cellularity and large volume of boar semen produced, difficulties can be encountered in obtaining RNA from the seminal cell fraction. This study compared six RNA extractions, five which used a commercially available kit (RNeasy, Qiagen Inc.) for use on highly cellular samples and a traditional phenol/chloroform procedure. All extractions were compared on serially diluted PRRSV "spiked" seminal cell fractions. The two methods resulting in recovery of the highest amount of RNA, which included a Qiashredder (Qiagen Inc.) (protocol 1) or cell lysis/centrifugation technique (protocol 3) preceding the RNeasy procedure were then compared using naturally infected semen samples from experimentally infected boars. Both protocols detected similar amounts of virus in "spiked" samples, but protocol 1 detected eight additional PRRSV-positive semen samples in naturally infected semen. This study demonstrated that semen "spiked" with PRRSV (cell-free virus) may not be representative of naturally infected semen samples (cell associated virus) for comparing extraction protocols, but did identify a useful extraction technique for boar semen. PMID:16621036

  10. Innate immune response to a H3N2 subtype swine influenza virus in newborn porcine trachea cells, alveolar macrophages, and precision-cut lung slices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Viral respiratory diseases remain of major importance in swine breeding units. Swine influenza virus (SIV) is one of the main known contributors to infectious respiratory diseases. The innate immune response to swine influenza viruses has been assessed in many previous studies. However most of these studies were carried out in a single-cell population or directly in the live animal, in all its complexity. In the current study we report the use of a trachea epithelial cell line (newborn pig trachea cells – NPTr) in comparison with alveolar macrophages and lung slices for the characterization of innate immune response to an infection by a European SIV of the H3N2 subtype. The expression pattern of transcripts involved in the recognition of the virus, interferon type I and III responses, and the host-response regulation were assessed by quantitative PCR in response to infection. Some significant differences were observed between the three systems, notably in the expression of type III interferon mRNA. Then, results show a clear induction of JAK/STAT and MAPK signaling pathways in infected NPTr cells. Conversely, PI3K/Akt signaling pathways was not activated. The inhibition of the JAK/STAT pathway clearly reduced interferon type I and III responses and the induction of SOCS1 at the transcript level in infected NPTr cells. Similarly, the inhibition of MAPK pathway reduced viral replication and interferon response. All together, these results contribute to an increased understanding of the innate immune response to H3N2 SIV and may help identify strategies to effectively control SIV infection. PMID:24712747

  11. Comparison of Pull-out Strength for Different Bone Block Length in a Porcine Anterior Cruciate Ligament Model

    PubMed Central

    Posner, Matthew; Owens, Brett; Johnson, Paul; Masciello, Noreen; Cameron, Kenneth; Roach, Christopher; Svoboda, Steven; Floersheim, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bone block length for bone–patellar tendon–bone (BPTB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has traditionally been 25 mm in length. The previous surgical technique did not require the surgeon to pay particular attention to the length of the bone block, and therefore, there is scant evidence in the literature describing ideal lengths. With the gaining popularity of accessory medial portal drilling of the femoral tunnel, concerns with tunnel length and graft shuttling have surfaced. Newer techniques have advised shortening of the femoral bone block to accommodate the shorter tunnel and for ease of bone block manipulation into the aperture of the tunnel. Purpose: To compare the effects of bone block length on the pull-out strength of patellar tendon grafts using metal interference screws in a porcine ACL reconstruction model. The hypothesis was that the pull-out strength of each length of bone block under cyclic and ultimate load to failure testing would surpass the physiologic loads experienced by a normal ACL. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: This study used 27 unmatched porcine femurs and BPTB constructs. Specimens were randomly assigned to a 10-, 15-, or 20-mm bone block reconstruction and a cycle load of 100, 500, or 1000 cycles. This resulted in 9 specimen groups with 3 specimens in each group. A central composite design (CCD) for the test matrix was selected, as this was optimum for requiring relatively few experiments while still exploring the complete range of interest for 2 independent variables. Each reconstruction used a 7 × 20–mm titanium interference screw. All reconstructions were performed on the femoral side using 10-mm-wide patellar tendon grafts, and tensile tests were performed. The loading protocol started with a 20-N preload, then cyclic testing to the appropriate number of cycles in the elastic region between 50 and 150 N at a strain rate of 200 mm/min, and then ended with ultimate load

  12. A Comparison between splenic fossa and subhepatic fossa auxiliary partial heterotopic liver transplantation in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Ai, Lemin; Liang, Xiao; Wang, Zhifei; Shen, Jie; Yu, Feiyan; Xie, Limei; Pan, Yongming; Lin, Hui

    2016-06-01

    To test the alternative possible locations for the placement of a liver graft and the relevant surgical technique issues, we developed a porcine model of auxiliary partial heterotopic liver transplantation (APHLT) and evaluated the difference between 2 styles of liver transplantation, either subhepatic fossa or splenic fossa APHLT, by comparing survival and biochemical indexes. Thirty-eight miniature pigs were randomly divided into 2 groups. A left hemihepatic graft without the middle hepatic vein (HV) was procured from the living donor. In group A (n = 9), an 8 mm diameter polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft approximately 2.5 cm long was connected to the left HV while another PTFE graft of the same size was connected to the left portal vein (PV). The liver graft was implanted in the right subhepatic fossa following splenectomy and right nephrectomy. In group B (n = 10), a PTFE graft of the same size was connected to the left HV while the liver graft was implanted in the splenic fossa following splenectomy and left nephrectomy. Survival rate and complications were observed at 2 weeks after transplantation. Data were collected from 5 animals in group A and 6 animals in group B that survived longer than 2 weeks. The liver function and renal function of the recipients returned to normal at 1 week after surgery in both groups. Eighty-eight percent (14/16) of the PTFE grafts remained patent at 2 weeks after surgery, but 44% of the PTFE grafts (7/16) developed mural thrombus. No significant differences in the survival rate and biochemistry were found between the 2 groups. In conclusion, the splenic fossa APHLT can achieve beneficial outcomes similar to the subhepatic fossa APHLT in miniature pigs, although it also has a high morbidity rate due to hepatic artery thrombosis, PV thrombosis, and PTEF graft mural thrombus formation. Liver Transplantation 22 812-821 2016 AASLD. PMID:26785299

  13. Outcomes of Adolescent and Adult Patients with Lung Metastatic Osteosarcoma and Comparison of Synchronous and Metachronous Lung Metastatic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Gok Durnali, Ayse; Paksoy Turkoz, Fatma; Ardic Yukruk, Fisun; Tokluoglu, Saadet; Yazici, Omer Kamil; Demirci, Ayse; Bal, Oznur; Gundogdu Buyukbas, Selay; Esbah, Onur; Oksuzoglu, Berna; Alkis, Necati

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcomas with lung metastases are rather heterogenous group. We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of osteosarcoma patients with lung metastases and to compare the synchronous and metachronous lung metastatic groups. A total of 93 adolescent and adult patients with lung metastatic osteosarcoma, from March 1995 to July 2011, in a single center, were included. Sixty-five patients (69.9%) were male. The median age was 19 years (range, 14–74). Thirty-nine patients (41.9%) had synchronous lung metastases (Group A) and 54 patients (58.1%) had metachronous lung metastases (Group B). The 5-year and 10-year post-lung metastases overall survival (PLM-OS) was 17% and 15%, respectively. In multivariate analysis for PLM-OS, time to lung metastases (p = 0.010), number of metastatic pulmonary nodules (p = 0.020), presence of pulmonary metastasectomy (p = 0.007) and presence of chemotherapy for lung metastases (p< 0.001) were found to be independent prognostic factors. The median PLM-OS of Group A and Group B was 16 months and 9 months, respectively. In Group B, the median PLM-OS of the patients who developed lung metastases within 12 months was 6 months, whereas that of the patients who developed lung metastases later was 16 months. Time to lung metastases, number and laterality of metastatic pulmonary nodules, chemotherapy for lung metastatic disease and pulmonary metastasectomy were independent prognostic factors for patients with lung metastatic osteosarcoma. The best PLM-OS was in the subgroup of patients treated both surgery and chemotherapy. The prognosis of the patients who developed lung metastases within 12 months after diagnosis was worst. PMID:27167624

  14. Sequence comparison of porcine respiratory coronavirus isolates reveals heterogeneity in the S, 3, and 3-1 genes.

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, E M; Halbur, P G; Paul, P S

    1995-01-01

    Four new porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) isolates were genetically characterized. Subgenomic mRNA patterns and the nucleotide sequences of the 5' ends of the S genes, the open reading frame (ORF) 3/3a genes, and the ORF 3-1/3b genes of these PRCV isolates were determined and compared with those of other PRCV and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) isolates. The S, ORF 3/3a, and ORF 3-1/3b genes are under intense study because of their possible roles in determining tissue tropism and virulence. Northern (RNA) blot analysis of subgenomic mRNAs revealed that mRNA 2, which encodes for the S gene, of the PRCV isolates migrated faster than the mRNA 2 of TGEV. The PRCV isolates AR310 and LEPP produced eight subgenomic mRNA species, the same number as produced by the virulent Miller strain of TGEV. However, the PRCV isolates IA1894 and ISU-1 produced only seven subgenomic mRNA species. All four of the PRCV isolates were found to have a large in-frame deletion in the 5' end of the S gene; however, the size and location of the deletion varied. Analysis of the ORF 3/3a gene nucleotide sequences from the four PRCV isolates also showed a high degree of variability in this area. The ORF 3 gene of the PRCV isolates AR310 and LEPP was preceded by a CTAAAC leader RNA-binding site, and the ORF 3 gene was predicted to yield a protein of 72 amino acids, the same size as that of the virulent Miller strain of TGEV. The PRCV isolates AR310 and LEPP are the first PRCV isolates found to have an intact ORF 3 gene. The ORF 3a gene of the PRCV isolate IA1894 was preceded by a CTAAAC leader RNA-binding site and was predicted to yield a truncated protein of 54 amino acids due to a 23-nucleotide deletion. The CTAAAC leader RNA-binding site and ATG start codon of ORF 3 gene of the PRCV isolate ISU-1 were removed because of a 168-nucleotide deletion. Analysis of the ORF 3-1/3b gene nucleotide sequences from the four PRCV nucleotides isolates also showed variability. PMID:7707547

  15. Ultra-short echo time (UTE) MR imaging of the lung: Comparison between normal and emphysematous lungs in mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Masaya; Togao, Osamu; Obara, Makoto; van Cauteren, Marc; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Doi, Shigehiro; Kuro-o, Makoto; Malloy, Craig; Hsia, Connie C.; Dimitrov, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the utility of ultra-short echo time (UTE) sequence as pulmonary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect non-uniform disruption of lung architecture that is typical of emphysema. Materials and Methods MRI of the lungs was conducted with a three dimensional UTE sequence in transgenic mice with severe emphysema and their wild type littermates in a 3 T clinical MR system. Measurements of the signal intensity (SI) and transverse relaxation time (T2*) of the lung parenchyma were performed with various echo times (TEs) ranging from 100 μsec to 2 msec. Results Much higher SI of the lung parenchyma was observed at an UTE of 100 μsec compared to longer TEs. The emphysematous lungs had reduced SIs and T2* than the controls, in particular at end-expiratory phase. The results suggested that both SI and T2* in lung parenchyma measured with the method represent fractional volume of lung tissue. Conclusion The UTE imaging provided MR signal from the lung parenchyma. Moreover, the UTE sequence was sensitive to emphysematous changes and may provide a direct assessment of lung parenchyma. UTE imaging has the potential to assist detection of localized pathological destruction of lung tissue architecture in emphysema. PMID:20677258

  16. Comparison of lifestyle risk factors by family history for gastric, breast, lung and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin-En; Hirose, Kaoru; Wakai, Kenji; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Xiang, Jin; Takezaki, Toshiro; Tajima, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    To assess the theoretical impact of lifestyle of a cancer family history in first-degree relatives (CFH) and clarify interactions between CFH and lifestyle factors, hospital-based comparison and case-reference studies were conducted in Nagoya, Japan. Totals of 1988 gastric, 2455 breast, 1398 lung and 1352 colorectal cancer patients, as well as 50,706 non-cancer outpatients collected from 1988 to 1998, were checked for lifestyle factors, which included dietary and physical exercise habits, as well as smoking/drinking status. General lifestyle factors with non-cancer outpatients did not differ by the CFH status. Case-reference analyses showed that frequent intake of fruits, raw vegetables, carrots, pumpkin, cabbage and lettuce, as well as frequent physical exercise, were associated with decreased risk for all four sites of cancer, while habitual smoking increasing the risk of gastric, and more particularly, lung cancer. Interestingly, the study revealed the magnitude of odds ratios for the above lifestyle factors obtained from CFH positives to be similar to those from CFH negatives for these four sites of cancer. There were no significant interactions between CFH and any particular lifestyle factor. In conclusion, our results suggest no appreciable influence of CFH on lifestyle related risk factors for gastric, breast, lung, and colorectal cancer. Habitual smoking increased, while frequent physical exercise and raw vegetables intake decreased cancer risk, regardless of the CFH status. PMID:15546249

  17. Dosimetric comparison of patient setup strategies in stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Jianzhou; He, Tongming T.; Betzing, Christopher; Fuss, Martin; D'Souza, Warren D.

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: In this work, the authors retrospectively compared the accumulated dose over the treatment course for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of lung cancer for three patient setup strategies. Methods: Ten patients who underwent lung SBRT were selected for this study. At each fraction, patients were immobilized using a vacuum cushion and were CT scanned. Treatment plans were performed on the simulation CT. The planning target volume (PTV) was created by adding a 5-mm uniform margin to the internal target volume derived from the 4DCT. All plans were normalized such that 99% of the PTV received 60 Gy. The plan parameters were copied onto the daily CT images for dose recalculation under three setup scenarios: skin marker, bony structure, and soft tissue based alignments. The accumulated dose was calculated by summing the dose at each fraction along the trajectory of a voxel over the treatment course through deformable image registration of each CT with the planning CT. The accumulated doses were analyzed for the comparison of setup accuracy. Results: The tumor volume receiving 60 Gy was 91.7 {+-} 17.9%, 74.1 {+-} 39.1%, and 99.6 {+-} 1.3% for setup using skin marks, bony structures, and soft tissue, respectively. The isodose line covering 100% of the GTV was 55.5 {+-} 7.1, 42.1 {+-} 16.0, and 64.3 {+-} 7.1 Gy, respectively. The corresponding average biologically effective dose of the tumor was 237.3 {+-} 29.4, 207.4 {+-} 61.2, and 258.3 {+-} 17.7 Gy, respectively. The differences in lung biologically effective dose, mean dose, and V20 between the setup scenarios were insignificant. Conclusions: The authors' results suggest that skin marks and bony structure are insufficient for aligning patients in lung SBRT. Soft tissue based alignment is needed to match the prescribed dose delivered to the tumors.

  18. Comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1α

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberger, Jutta; Rancan, Chiara; Skern, Tim

    2013-09-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (Lb{sup pro}) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. NMR studies on the monomeric variant Lb{sup pro} L200F provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. {sup 15}N-HSQC measurements of Lb{sup pro} L200F showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant sLb{sup pro}, lacking six C-terminal residues. This indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal extension (CTE) of one molecule and its own active site. Contrastingly, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader proteinase nsp1α, with a papain-like fold like Lb{sup pro}, stably binds its own CTE. Parts of the β-sheet domains but none of the α-helical domains of Lb{sup pro} and nsp1α superimpose; consequently, the α-helical domain of nsp1α is oriented differently relative to its β-sheet domain. This provides a large interaction surface for the CTE with the globular domain, stabilising the intramolecular complex. Consequently, self-processing inactivates nsp1α but not Lb{sup pro}. - Highlights: • We examine self-processing of the leader protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus. • NMR analysis strongly supports intramolecular self-processing. • Self-processing is a dynamic process with no stable complex. • Structural comparison with nsp1α of PRRSV which forms stable intramolecular complex. • Subdomain orientation explains differences in stability of intramolecular complexes.

  19. Lentiviral vector gene transfer to porcine airways.

    PubMed

    Sinn, Patrick L; Cooney, Ashley L; Oakland, Mayumi; Dylla, Douglas E; Wallen, Tanner J; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Chang, Eugene H; McCray, Paul B

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated lentiviral vector development and transduction efficiencies in well-differentiated primary cultures of pig airway epithelia (PAE) and wild-type pigs in vivo. We noted gene transfer efficiencies similar to that observed for human airway epithelia (HAE). Interestingly, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-based vectors transduced immortalized pig cells as well as pig primary cells more efficiently than HIV-1-based vectors. PAE express TRIM5α, a well-characterized species-specific lentiviral restriction factor. We contrasted the restrictive properties of porcine TRIM5α against FIV- and HIV-based vectors using gain and loss of function approaches. We observed no effect on HIV-1 or FIV conferred transgene expression in response to porcine TRIM5α overexpression or knockdown. To evaluate the ability of GP64-FIV to transduce porcine airways in vivo, we delivered vector expressing mCherry to the tracheal lobe of the lung and the ethmoid sinus of 4-week-old pigs. One week later, epithelial cells expressing mCherry were readily detected. Our findings indicate that pseudotyped FIV vectors confer similar tropisms in porcine epithelia as observed in human HAE and provide further support for the selection of GP64 as an appropriate envelope pseudotype for future preclinical gene therapy studies in the porcine model of cystic fibrosis (CF).Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids (2012) 1, e56; doi:10.1038/mtna.2012.47; published online 27 November 2012. PMID:23187455

  20. A comparison of conventional surfactant treatment and partial liquid ventilation on the lung volume of injured ventilated small lungs.

    PubMed

    Proquitté, Hans; Hartenstein, Sebastian; Koelsch, Uwe; Wauer, Roland R; Rüdiger, Mario; Schmalisch, Gerd

    2013-08-01

    As an alternative to surfactant therapy (ST), partial liquid ventilation (PLV) with perfluorocarbons (PFC) has been considered as a treatment for acute lung injury (ALI) in newborns. The instilled PFC is much heavier than the instilled surfactant and the aim of this study was to investigate whether PLV, compared to ST, increases the end-expiratory volume of the lung (VL). Fifteen newborn piglets (age <12 h, mean weight 678 g) underwent saline lung lavage to achieve a surfactant depletion. Thereafter animals were randomized to PLV (n = 8), receiving PFC PF5080 (3M, Germany) at 30 mL kg(-1), and ST (n = 7) receiving 120 mg Curosurf®. Blood gases, hemodynamics and static compliance were measured initially (baseline), immediately after ALI, and after 240 min mechanical ventilation with either technique. Subsequently all piglets were killed; the lungs were removed in toto and frozen in liquid N2. After freeze-drying the lungs were cut into lung cubes (LCs) with edge lengths of 0.7 cm, to calculate VL. All LCs were weighed and the density of the dried lung tissue was calculated. No statistically significant differences between treatment groups PLV and ST (means ± SD) were noted in body weight (676 ± 16 g versus 679 ± 17 g; P = 0.974) or lung dry weight (1.64 ± 0.29 g versus 1.79 ± 0.48 g; P = 0.48). Oxygenation index and ventilatory efficacy index did not differ significantly between both groups at any time. VL (34.28 ± 6.13 mL versus 26.22 ± 8.1 mL; P < 0.05) and the density of the dried lung tissue (48.07 ± 5.02 mg mL(-1) versus 69.07 ± 5.30 mg mL(-1); P < 0.001), however, differed significantly between the PLV and ST groups. A 4 h PLV treatment of injured ventilated small lungs increased VL by 30% and decreased lung density by 31% compared to ST treatment, indicating greater lung distension after PLV compared to ST. PMID:23893018

  1. Tissue damage by laser radiation: an in vitro comparison between Tm:YAG and Ho:YAG laser on a porcine kidney model.

    PubMed

    Huusmann, Stephan; Wolters, Mathias; Kramer, Mario W; Bach, Thorsten; Teichmann, Heinrich-Otto; Eing, Andreas; Bardosi, Sebastian; Herrmann, Thomas R W

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of tissue damage by laser radiation is very important for the safety in the application of surgical lasers. The objective of this study is to evaluate cutting, vaporization and coagulation properties of the 2 µm Tm:YAG laser (LISA Laser Products OHG, GER) in comparison to the 2.1 µm Ho:YAG laser (Coherent Medical Group, USA) at different laser power settings in an in vitro model of freshly harvested porcine kidneys. Laser radiation of both laser generators was delivered by using a laser fiber with an optical core diameter of 550 µm (RigiFib, LISA Laser GER). Freshly harvested porcine kidneys were used as tissue model. Experiments were either performed in ambient air or in aqueous saline. The Tm:YAG laser was adjusted to 5 W for low and 120 W for the high power setting. The Ho:YAG laser was adjusted to 0.5 J and 10 Hz (5 W average power) for low power setting and to 2.0 J and 40 Hz (80 W average power) for high power setting, accordingly. The specimens of the cutting experiments were fixed in 4 % formalin, embedded in paraffin and stained with Toluidin blue. The laser damage zone was measured under microscope as the main evaluation criteria. Laser damage zone consists of an outer coagulation zone plus a further necrotic zone. In the ambient air experiments the laser damage zone for the low power setting was 745 ± 119 µm for the Tm:YAG and 614 ± 187 µm for the Ho:YAG laser. On the high power setting, the damage zone was 760 ± 167 µm for Tm:YAG and 715 ± 142 µm for Ho:YAG. The incision depth in ambient air on the low power setting was 346 ± 199 µm for Tm:YAG, 118 ± 119 µm for Ho:YAG. On the high power setting incision depth was 5083 ± 144 µm (Tm:YAG) and 1126 ± 383 µm (Ho:YAG) respectively. In the saline solution experiments, the laser damage zone was 550 ± 137 µm (Tm:YAG) versus 447 ± 65 µm (Ho:YAG), on the low power setting and 653 ± 137 µm (Tm:YAG) versus 677 ± 134 µm (Ho

  2. Transcriptomics Comparison between Porcine Adipose and Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells during In Vitro Osteogenic and Adipogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, Elisa; Bionaz, Massimo; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra; Hurley, Walter L.; Wheeler, Matthew B.

    2012-01-01

    Bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) are considered the gold standard for use in tissue regeneration among mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). The abundance and ease of harvest make the adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) an attractive alternative to BMSC. The aim of the present study was to compare the transcriptome of ASC and BMSC, respectively isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue and femur of 3 adult pigs, during in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation for up to four weeks. At 0, 2, 7, and 21 days of differentiation RNA was extracted for microarray analysis. A False Discovery Rate ≤0.05 for overall interactions effect and P<0.001 between comparisons were used to determine differentially expressed genes (DEG). Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and DAVID performed the functional analysis of the DEG. Functional analysis of highest expressed genes in MSC and genes more expressed in MSC vs. fully differentiated tissues indicated low immunity and high angiogenic capacity. Only 64 genes were differentially expressed between ASC and BMSC before differentiation. The functional analysis uncovered a potential larger angiogenic, osteogenic, migration, and neurogenic capacity in BMSC and myogenic capacity in ASC. Less than 200 DEG were uncovered between ASC and BMSC during differentiation. Functional analysis also revealed an overall greater lipid metabolism in ASC, while BMSC had a greater cell growth and proliferation. The time course transcriptomic comparison between differentiation types uncovered <500 DEG necessary to determine cell fate. The functional analysis indicated that osteogenesis had a larger cell proliferation and cytoskeleton organization with a crucial role of G-proteins. Adipogenesis was driven by PPAR signaling and had greater angiogenesis, lipid metabolism, migration, and tumorigenesis capacity. Overall the data indicated that the transcriptome of the two MSC is relatively similar across the conditions studied. In addition, functional analysis

  3. Vaccination inhibits TLR2 transcription via suppression of GR nuclear translocation and binding to TLR2 promoter in porcine lung infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiyuan; Liu, Maojun; Zou, Huafeng; Li, Xian; Shao, Guoqing; Zhao, Ruqian

    2013-12-27

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) act respectively as effectors of innate immune and stress responses. The crosstalk between them is critical for the maintenance of homeostasis during the immune response. Vaccination is known to boost adaptive immunity, yet it remains elusive whether vaccination may affect GR/TLR interactions following infection. Duroc×Meishan crossbred piglets were allocated to three groups. The control group (CC) received neither vaccination nor infection; the non-vaccinated infection group (NI) was artificially infected intratracheally with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae); while the vaccinated, infected group (VI) was vaccinated intramuscularly with inactivated M. hyopneumoniae one month before infection. The clinical signs and macroscopic lung lesions were significantly reduced by vaccination. However, vaccination did not affect the concentration of M. hyopneumoniae DNA in the lung. Serum cortisol was significantly decreased in both NI and VI pigs (P<0.01), but only VI pigs demonstrated significantly diminished nuclear GR content. TLRs 1-10 were all expressed in lung, among which TLR2 was the most abundant and was significantly up-regulated (P<0.05) in NI pigs, but not in VI pigs. Accordingly, GR binding to the GR response element on TLR2 promoter was significantly increased (P<0.05) in NI pigs, but not in VI pigs. These results suggest that the inhibition of GR nuclear translocation and binding to the TLR2 promoter, which results in diminished TLR2 expression, is associated with the protective effect of vaccination on M. hyopneumoniae-induced lung lesions in the pig. PMID:24035265

  4. Xenogeneic lung transplantation models

    PubMed Central

    Burdorf, Lars; Azimzadeh, Agnes M.; Pierson, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Study of lung xenografts has proven useful to understand the remaining barriers to successful transplantation of other organ xenografts. In this chapter, the history and current status of lung xenotransplantation will be briefly reviewed and two different experimental models, the ex vivo porcine-to-human lung perfusion and the in vivo xenogeneic lung transplantation, will be presented. We will focus on the technical details of these lung xenograft models in sufficient detail, list the needed materials and mention analysis techniques to allow others to adopt them with minimal learning curve. PMID:22565996

  5. Comparison of effects of glass fibre and glass powder on guinea-pig lungs

    PubMed Central

    Botham, Susan K.; Holt, P. F.

    1973-01-01

    Botham, Susan K., and Holt, P. F. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 232-236. Comparison of effects of glass fibre and glass powder on guinea-pig lungs. Following 24 hours inhalation by guinea-pigs of powdered glass dust, the pulmonary effects over the succeeding month differed from those previously observed to follow inhalation of glass fibre in that (1) fewer erythrocytes escaped from the capillaries, (2) very few giant cells were produced, (3) erythrocytes and intracellular glass particles were cleared more readily because junctions between respiratory and terminal bronchioles were not blocked by giant cells, (4) intracellular granules containing Perls-positive material did not appreciably increase in number or intensity of staining during the month, and (5) particles were not coated with Perls-positive material during the time that pseudo-asbestos bodies would be formed from glass fibres. The difference between the effects of chemically similar glass powder and fibre during a month in a guinea-pig lung is considered to be due to the morphology of the inhaled particle. Images PMID:4124978

  6. The comparison of two negative-pressure wound therapy systems in a porcine model of wound healing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kathryn E; Lafontaine, Javier; Bills, Jessica; Noble, Deborah; Wight-Carter, Mary; Oni, Georgette; Rohrich, Rod J; Lavery, Lawrence A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two negative-pressure wound healing systems (NPWT), -75 mmHg with a silicone-coated (SC) dressing and -125 mmHg with polyurethane foam dressing (standard of care). In addition, this study compared the effects of two different dressing interfaces, SC dressing and gauze, with -75 mmHg pressure. For both comparisons, two groups of five pigs were evaluated over a 21-day time course. Two excisional wounds were made on each animal and NPWT dressings were applied. A canvas saddle was constructed to hold the NPWT device so the animal had free range of the pen. Dressings were changed twice a week and wound measurements were taken. Specimens for histology and gene expression analyses were taken on day 7 and 21. These data show that there is increased expression in a few genes associated with remodeling and inflammatory processes in the NPWT-125 with polyurethane foam as compared with the NPWT-75 with SC dressing. These two systems, however, are equivalent with respect to wound healing, histology, and gene expression over 21 days of healing. Further, we demonstrate that there is no difference in measure of healing between the SC dressing and a basic gauze dressing. PMID:23926906

  7. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in southwestern Germany.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Ralf; Ritzmann, Mathias; Palzer, Andreas; Lang, Christiane; Hammer, Birgit; Pesch, Stefan; Ladinig, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Samples were collected from 203 wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in Baden-Wurtemburg, Germany from November-January 2008 and 2009. Samples from the lung and tonsil were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) type 1 (European type) and type 2 (American type). A qPCR to detect porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-specific genome was performed on tissue homogenates including lung, tonsils, and inguinal lymph nodes. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against PRRSV and PCV2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No PRRSV was detected in any of the 203 samples and one sample had detectable antibodies against PRRSV. We detected PCV2 in organ materials from 103 wild boars with a prevalence of 50.7%. The number of wild boars positive for PCV2 by PCR varied according to the population density of wild boars among woodlands. More positive samples were detected in woodlands with a high density of wild boars. We found no correlation between the number of PCV2-positive wild boars and the density of domestic pigs in the surrounding area. The number of wild boars positive for antibodies against PCV2 by the INGEZIM Circovirus IgG/IgM test kit was low (53 sera positive for IgG- and three sera positive for IgM-antibodies) in comparison to the higher positive results from the INGEZIM CIRCO IgG test kit (102 positive and 12 inconclusive results). PMID:22247377

  8. The effect of steroid treatment with inhaled budesonide or intravenous methylprednisolone on phosgene-induced acute lung injury in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam; Brown, Roger; Jugg, Bronwen; Platt, Janet; Mann, Thomas; Masey, Charles; Jenner, John; Rice, Paul

    2009-12-01

    Toxic industrial chemicals e.g., phosgene, are widely used as reactive intermediates in industrial processes. Inhalation exposure to these chemicals can result in life-threatening acute lung injury (ALI), to which no specific antidote exists. This study aimed to assess the potential benefit of steroids in treating phosgene induced ALI. Anesthetized pigs were instrumented, exposed to phosgene Ct 2000 mg.min.m(-3) (Ct is the product of concentration [mg.m(-3)] x time [min]), and ventilated with intermittent positive pressure ventilation before being randomized to study part 1: treatment with intravenous glucose saline (20 mL) or methylprednisolone (12.5 mg.kg(-1) in 20 mL) 6 h postexposure or study part 2: treatment with inhaled glucose saline (2 mL) or budesonide (2 mL of 0.5 mg.mL(-1) solution) at 1, 6, 12, and 18 h postexposure. Biochemical parameters and animal physiology were monitored to 24 h postexposure. The results show no change in mortality, lung edema, or shunt fraction; however, some beneficial effects on cardiac parameters e.g., stroke volume, left ventricular stroke work, were noted. Steroids were neither beneficial nor detrimental in the treatment of phosgene induced ALI. This study does not support the use of steroids alone as a treatment, but their use in a combined therapy strategy should be investigated. PMID:20055070

  9. Dynamic Virus-Bacterium Interactions in a Porcine Precision-Cut Lung Slice Coinfection Model: Swine Influenza Virus Paves the Way for Streptococcus suis Infection in a Two-Step Process

    PubMed Central

    Meng, F.; Wu, N. H.; Nerlich, A.; Herrler, G.; Seitz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Swine influenza virus (SIV) and Streptococcus suis are common pathogens of the respiratory tract in pigs, with both being associated with pneumonia. The interactions of both pathogens and their contribution to copathogenesis are only poorly understood. In the present study, we established a porcine precision-cut lung slice (PCLS) coinfection model and analyzed the effects of a primary SIV infection on secondary infection by S. suis at different time points. We found that SIV promoted adherence, colonization, and invasion of S. suis in a two-step process. First, in the initial stages, these effects were dependent on bacterial encapsulation, as shown by selective adherence of encapsulated, but not unencapsulated, S. suis to SIV-infected cells. Second, at a later stage of infection, SIV promoted S. suis adherence and invasion of deeper tissues by damaging ciliated epithelial cells. This effect was seen with a highly virulent SIV subtype H3N2 strain but not with a low-virulence subtype H1N1 strain, and it was independent of the bacterial capsule, since an unencapsulated S. suis mutant behaved in a way similar to that of the encapsulated wild-type strain. In conclusion, the PCLS coinfection model established here revealed novel insights into the dynamic interactions between SIV and S. suis during infection of the respiratory tract. It showed that at least two different mechanisms contribute to the beneficial effects of SIV for S. suis, including capsule-mediated bacterial attachment to SIV-infected cells and capsule-independent effects involving virus-mediated damage of ciliated epithelial cells. PMID:25916988

  10. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An analysis of 220 fully sequenced porcine BACs generated by the Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative (http://www.nisc.nih.gov/) revealed 27 distinct, novel porcine repetitive elements ranging in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. This set of fully sequenced BACs covers approximately 1% of...

  11. Comparison of lung volume in Greek swimmers, land based athletes, and sedentary controls using allometric scaling.

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, M; Dimitriou, L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare lung volumes in a large cross sectional sample of Greek swimmers, land based athletes, and sedentary controls by means of allometric scaling. METHODS: Four hundred and fifty nine asymptomatic Greek children and young adults (age 10-21 years), including 159 swimmers, 130 land based athletes, and 170 sedentary controls, performed forced expiratory manoeuvres into a portable spirometer. Measurements included forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1.0), and peak expiratory flow. Body mass and stature were also measured using standardised anthropometric techniques. RESULTS: Logarithmic transformations showed that in FEV1.0 was highly related to in stature in males and females (r = 0.93 and 0.86 respectively, P < 0.001) and were used to determine the exponent in an allometric equation which also included age and age. Resulting power functions, FEV1.0/stature, were 0.64 (0.18) litres/m2.69 and 0.33 (0.24) litres/m2.32 for males and females respectively (mean (SE)). The male and female swimming groups had larger FEV1.0 than both land based athletes and sedentary controls (one way analysis of variance, P < 0.001). In addition, male national standard swimmers (n = 38) had superior FEV1.0 in comparison with male non-national standard swimmers (n = 24; t test, P < 0.05). However, when years of swimming training was controlled for by analysis of covariance, the difference in FEV1.0 between the two groups was no longer evident. CONCLUSIONS: Swimmers have superior FEV1.0 independent of stature and age in comparison with both land based athletes and sedentary controls. In addition, male national standard swimmers have superior FEV1.0 independent of stature and age in comparison with male non-national standard swimmers. When years of training is controlled for, the difference in FEV1.0 between the two groups is no longer evident. This suggests that the years of swimming training and/or the earlier age at which training begins may

  12. Comparison of breathing gated CT images generated using a 5DCT technique and a commercial clinical protocol in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Dylan P.; Thomas, David H.; Dou, Tai H.; Lamb, James M.; Feingold, Franklin; Low, Daniel A.; Fuld, Matthew K.; Sieren, Jered P.; Sloan, Chelsea M.; Shirk, Melissa A.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Hofmann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate that a “5DCT” technique which utilizes fast helical acquisition yields the same respiratory-gated images as a commercial technique for regular, mechanically produced breathing cycles. Methods: Respiratory-gated images of an anesthetized, mechanically ventilated pig were generated using a Siemens low-pitch helical protocol and 5DCT for a range of breathing rates and amplitudes and with standard and low dose imaging protocols. 5DCT reconstructions were independently evaluated by measuring the distances between tissue positions predicted by a 5D motion model and those measured using deformable registration, as well by reconstructing the originally acquired scans. Discrepancies between the 5DCT and commercial reconstructions were measured using landmark correspondences. Results: The mean distance between model predicted tissue positions and deformably registered tissue positions over the nine datasets was 0.65 ± 0.28 mm. Reconstructions of the original scans were on average accurate to 0.78 ± 0.57 mm. Mean landmark displacement between the commercial and 5DCT images was 1.76 ± 1.25 mm while the maximum lung tissue motion over the breathing cycle had a mean value of 27.2 ± 4.6 mm. An image composed of the average of 30 deformably registered images acquired with a low dose protocol had 6 HU image noise (single standard deviation) in the heart versus 31 HU for the commercial images. Conclusions: An end to end evaluation of the 5DCT technique was conducted through landmark based comparison to breathing gated images acquired with a commercial protocol under highly regular ventilation. The techniques were found to agree to within 2 mm for most respiratory phases and most points in the lung. PMID:26133604

  13. A quantitative comparison analysis of diatoms in the lung tissues and the drowning medium as an indicator of drowning.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Ma, Yanbin; Liu, Chao; Wen, Jinfeng; Hu, Sunlin; Shi, He; Zhu, Lingyun

    2016-08-01

    The presence of diatoms in the lung tissues, internal organs and bone marrow is considered as the supportive evidence in the diagnosis of death by drowning. Generally, the diatoms detected in the lung tissues are regarded as insignificant since these diatoms can be detected in the lung tissues of the postmortem immersion bodies. In this study, we analyzed the relationships between the numbers of the diatoms in the lung tissues and the drowning medium. We made a comparison analysis between the diatoms in the lung tissues and the drowning medium using the ratio of diatom numbers in both samples (L/D ratio), utilizing Microwave Digestion - Vacuum Filtration - Automated Scanning Electron Microscopy method. Our data indicate that the L/D ratios in victims of the drowning group were higher than the postmortem immersion group. A higher L/D ratio provides valuable information about the cause of death in drowning victims. Quantitative diatom analysis in the lung tissues, especially combined with the diatom analysis of the drowning medium, provides supportive evidence in determining if a body recovered in water was due to drowning or not. PMID:27266652

  14. Radiographic Comparison of Human Lung Shape During Normal Gravity and Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michels, D. B.; Friedman, P. J.; West, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    Chest radiographs in five seated normal volunteers at 1 G and 0 G were made with a view toward comparing human lung shape during normal gravity and weightlessness. Lung shape was assessed by measuring lung heights and widths in upper, middle and lower lung regions. No significant differences were found between any of the 1-G and 0-G measurements, although there was a slight tendency for the lung to become shorter and wider at 0 G. The evidence that gravity causes regional differences in ventilation by direct action on the lung is consistent with the theoretical analysis of West and Matthews (1972).

  15. Tissue Distribution of Porcine FTO and Its Effect on Porcine Intramuscular Preadipocytes Proliferation and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoling; Zhou, Bo; Luo, Yanliu; Huang, Zhiqing; Jia, Gang; Liu, Guangmang; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene plays an important role in adipogenesis. However, its function during porcine intramuscular preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation remains poorly understood. In this study, we prepared the antiserum against porcine FTO (pFTO), which was used to determine its subcellular localization and tissue distribution. Our data indicated that pFTO was localized predominantly in the nucleus. Real-time quantitative PCR and western blot analysis showed that pFTO was highly expressed in the lung and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Overexpression of pFTO in porcine intramuscular preadipocytes significantly promoted cell proliferation and lipid deposition. Furthermore, overexpression of pFTO in differentiating porcine intramuscular preadipocytes also significantly increased the mRNA levels of adipocyte differentiation transcription factors peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). Our findings provide the first functional evidence to reveal a role of pFTO in porcine intramuscular preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. PMID:26964098

  16. Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and functional analysis of porcine Akirin2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoling; Huang, Zhiqing; Jia, Gang; Wu, Xiuqun; Wu, Caimei

    2012-04-01

    Akirin2 is a recently discovered gene that is involved in innate immune response. In this study, the porcine Akirin2 gene was cloned. The full-length coding sequence (CDS) of porcine Akirin2 consists of 612 bp and encodes 203 amino acids with a molecular mass of 22493 kD. The homology tree analysis showed that the pig Akirin2 has closer genetic relationships and distance with the known mammalian Akirin2. Real time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the porcine Akirin2 transcript was most abundant in the lung, followed by the skeletal muscle, heart, liver, fat, thymus, lymph node, small intestine, kidney, and spleen. Overexpression of porcine Akirin2 increased expression of IL-6 in porcine jejunal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2 cells. Our data suggest that porcine Akirin2 could play an important role in intestinal immune regulation. PMID:22537061

  17. Splicing variants of porcine synphilin-1.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Knud; Madsen, Lone Bruhn; Farajzadeh, Leila; Bendixen, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), idiopathic and familial, is characterized by degradation of dopaminergic neurons and the presence of Lewy bodies (LB) in the substantia nigra. LBs contain aggregated proteins of which α-synuclein is the major component. The protein synphilin-1 interacts and colocalizes with α-synuclein in LBs. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize porcine synphilin-1 and isoforms hereof with the future perspective to use the pig as a model for Parkinson's disease. The porcine SNCAIP cDNA was cloned by reverse transcriptase PCR. The spatial expression of SNCAIP mRNA was investigated by RNAseq. The presented work reports the molecular cloning and characterization of the porcine (Sus scrofa) synphilin-1 cDNA (SNCAIP) and three splice variants hereof. The porcine SNCAIP cDNA codes for a protein (synphilin-1) of 919 amino acids which shows a high similarity to human (90%) and to mouse (84%) synphilin-1. Three shorter transcript variants of the synphilin-1 gene were identified, all lacking one or more exons. SNCAIP transcripts were detected in most examined organs and tissues and the highest expression was found in brain tissues and lung. Conserved splicing variants and a novel splice form of synhilin-1 were found in this study. All synphilin-1 isoforms encoded by the identified transcript variants lack functional domains important for protein degradation. PMID:26101749

  18. Comparison between the 2013–2014 and 2009–2012 annual porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus epidemics in a cohort of sow herds in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Tousignant, Steven J.P.; Perez, Andres; Morrison, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the 2013/2014 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) epidemic in the United States and compare it with the previous 4 y of data from 2009 to 2012. A total of 371 herds participated in the study, representing nearly 1.2 million sows in 15 States. There were significantly fewer PRRSV cases during this study period and the onset of the annual epidemic was delayed approximately 3 wk. Cluster analysis revealed a pattern similar to previous years. The roles of spurious observations, increased awareness of PRRSV epidemics, and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus detection in the United States swine herd are considered. PMID:26483586

  19. Porcine CD3+NKp46+ Lymphocytes Have NK-Cell Characteristics and Are Present in Increased Frequencies in the Lungs of Influenza-Infected Animals

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Kerstin H.; Stadler, Maria; Talker, Stephanie C.; Forberg, Hilde; Storset, Anne K.; Müllebner, Andrea; Duvigneau, J. Catharina; Hammer, Sabine E.; Saalmüller, Armin; Gerner, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    The CD3−NKp46+ phenotype is frequently used for the identification of natural killer (NK) cells in various mammalian species. Recently, NKp46 expression was analyzed in more detail in swine. It could be shown that besides CD3−NKp46+ lymphocytes, a small but distinct population of CD3+NKp46+ cells exists. In this study, we report low frequencies of CD3+NKp46+ lymphocytes in blood, lymph nodes, and spleen, but increased frequencies in non-lymphatic organs, like liver and lung. Phenotypic analyses showed that the majority of CD3+NKp46+ cells coexpressed the CD8αβ heterodimer, while a minor subset expressed the TCR-γδ, which was associated with a CD8αα+ phenotype. Despite these T-cell associated receptors, the majority of CD3+NKp46+ lymphocytes displayed a NK-related phenotype (CD2+CD5−CD6−CD16+perforin+) and expressed mRNA of NKp30, NKp44, and NKG2D at similar levels as NK cells. Functional tests showed that CD3+NKp46+ lymphocytes produced IFN-γ and proliferated upon cytokine stimulation to a similar extent as NK cells, but did not respond to the T-cell mitogen, ConA. Likewise, CD3+NKp46+ cells killed K562 cells with an efficiency comparable to NK cells. Cross-linking of NKp46 and CD3 led to degranulation of CD3+NKp46+ cells, indicating functional signaling pathways for both receptors. Additionally, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09-infected pigs had reduced frequencies of CD3+NKp46+ lymphocytes in blood, but increased frequencies in the lung in the early phase of infection. Thus, CD3+NKp46+ cells appear to be involved in the early phase of influenza infections. In summary, we describe a lymphocyte population in swine with a mixed phenotype of NK and T cells, with results so far indicating that this cell population functionally resembles NK cells. PMID:27471504

  20. Porcine CD3(+)NKp46(+) Lymphocytes Have NK-Cell Characteristics and Are Present in Increased Frequencies in the Lungs of Influenza-Infected Animals.

    PubMed

    Mair, Kerstin H; Stadler, Maria; Talker, Stephanie C; Forberg, Hilde; Storset, Anne K; Müllebner, Andrea; Duvigneau, J Catharina; Hammer, Sabine E; Saalmüller, Armin; Gerner, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    The CD3(-)NKp46(+) phenotype is frequently used for the identification of natural killer (NK) cells in various mammalian species. Recently, NKp46 expression was analyzed in more detail in swine. It could be shown that besides CD3(-)NKp46(+) lymphocytes, a small but distinct population of CD3(+)NKp46(+) cells exists. In this study, we report low frequencies of CD3(+)NKp46(+) lymphocytes in blood, lymph nodes, and spleen, but increased frequencies in non-lymphatic organs, like liver and lung. Phenotypic analyses showed that the majority of CD3(+)NKp46(+) cells coexpressed the CD8αβ heterodimer, while a minor subset expressed the TCR-γδ, which was associated with a CD8αα(+) phenotype. Despite these T-cell associated receptors, the majority of CD3(+)NKp46(+) lymphocytes displayed a NK-related phenotype (CD2(+)CD5(-)CD6(-)CD16(+)perforin(+)) and expressed mRNA of NKp30, NKp44, and NKG2D at similar levels as NK cells. Functional tests showed that CD3(+)NKp46(+) lymphocytes produced IFN-γ and proliferated upon cytokine stimulation to a similar extent as NK cells, but did not respond to the T-cell mitogen, ConA. Likewise, CD3(+)NKp46(+) cells killed K562 cells with an efficiency comparable to NK cells. Cross-linking of NKp46 and CD3 led to degranulation of CD3(+)NKp46(+) cells, indicating functional signaling pathways for both receptors. Additionally, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09-infected pigs had reduced frequencies of CD3(+)NKp46(+) lymphocytes in blood, but increased frequencies in the lung in the early phase of infection. Thus, CD3(+)NKp46(+) cells appear to be involved in the early phase of influenza infections. In summary, we describe a lymphocyte population in swine with a mixed phenotype of NK and T cells, with results so far indicating that this cell population functionally resembles NK cells. PMID:27471504

  1. Formation of reactive aldehydes (MDA, HHE, HNE) during the digestion of cod liver oil: comparison of human and porcine in vitro digestion models.

    PubMed

    Tullberg, Cecilia; Larsson, Karin; Carlsson, Nils-Gunnar; Comi, Irene; Scheers, Nathalie; Vegarud, Gerd; Undeland, Ingrid

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we investigated lipid oxidation of cod liver oil during gastrointestinal (GI) digestion using two types of in vitro digestion models. In the first type of model, we used human GI juices, while we used digestive enzymes and bile from porcine origin in the second type of model. Human and porcine models were matched with respect to factors important for lipolysis, using a standardized digestion protocol. The digests were analysed for reactive oxidation products: malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE), and 4-hydroxy-trans-2-hexenal (HHE) by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-MS), and for free fatty acids (FFA) obtained during the digestion by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The formation of the oxidation products MDA, HHE, and HNE was low during the gastric digestion, however, it increased during the duodenal digestion. The formation of the oxidation products reached higher levels when digestive juices of human origin were used (60 μM of MDA, 0.96 μM of HHE, and 1.6 μM of HNE) compared to when using enzymes and bile of porcine origin (9.8, and 0.36 μM of MDA; 0.16, and 0.026 μM of HHE; 0.23, and 0.005 μM of HNE, respectively, in porcine models I and II). In all models, FFA release was only detected during the intestinal step, and reached up to 31% of total fatty acids (FA). The findings in this work may be of importance when designing oxidation oriented lipid digestion studies. PMID:26838473

  2. Comparison of Four Commercial One-Dose Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Vaccines Administered to Pigs Challenged with PCV2 and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus at 17 Weeks Postvaccination To Control Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex under Korean Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Changhoon; Seo, Hwi Won; Han, Kiwon

    2014-01-01

    Under Korean field conditions, coinfection with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is most commonly observed in porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Despite the wide use of PCV2 vaccination, PRDC remains a serious respiratory problem. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine and compare the efficacy of 4 one-dose PCV2 vaccines on 3-week-old pigs with an experimental PCV2-PRRSV challenge at 17 weeks postvaccination. Regardless of which commercial PCV2 vaccine was used, the vaccination of piglets at 3 weeks of age was efficacious against cochallenge of PCV2 and PRRSV, on the basis of growth performance and PCV2-associated lesions. However, the inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 and the PCV2 vaccines induced higher PCV2-specific neutralizing antibody (NA) titers and PCV2-specific gamma interferon-secreting cells and lower PCV2 viremia levels than the two PCV2 subunit vaccines. The vaccination of piglets against PCV2 at 3 weeks of age was effective in reducing PCV2 viremia and PCV2-associated lesions during the finishing period, which is an age at which pigs are frequently affected by PRDC caused by coinfection with PCV2 and PRRSV under Korean field conditions. PMID:24403524

  3. Comparison of conventional mechanical ventilation and synchronous independent lung ventilation (SILV) in the treatment of unilateral lung injury.

    PubMed

    Hurst, J M; DeHaven, C B; Branson, R D

    1985-08-01

    Eight patients presenting with severe unilateral pulmonary injury responded poorly to conventional mechanical ventilation. Synchronous independent lung ventilation (SILV) was employed to provide support of ventilation and oxygenation without creating the ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatch observed during conventional ventilation. All patients demonstrated improved oxygenation (mean increase, 80 torr) during SILV with the FIO2 unchanged from previous therapy. Invasive hemodynamic monitoring in five of eight patients showed no difference in the commonly measured cardiopulmonary parameters with the two forms of mechanical ventilation. Peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and pressure change secondary to tidal volume delivery to the uninvolved lung were significantly less during SILV. SILV is an effective method of improving oxygenation in patients with severe unilateral pulmonary injury. PMID:3894680

  4. Immunohistochemistry of porcine skin.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Berger, U; Mahrle, G

    1991-01-01

    The present paper reports immunohistological findings in porcine skin, which were obtained by use of mono- and polyclonal antihuman antibodies and either alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) or peroxidase (POX) technique. Epidermal staining was observed with antibodies to keratins (K 8.12, RSKE 60), filaggrin, and calmodulin (ACAM). Staining of connective tissue and vessels was achieved using antibodies to vimentin (V9(1)), collagen type IV, and fibronectin. In general, these antibodies gave a staining pattern similar to that of normal human skin. The similarities of immunoreactivity to poly- and monoclonal antihuman antibodies in porcine and human skin render porcine skin a reliable model in biomedical research. PMID:1710864

  5. Viability of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in frozen pig lung samples and comparison of different methods of direct diagnosis in fresh samples.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, C B; Rodriguez Barbosa, J I; Gonzalez, O R; Tascon, R I; Rodriguez Ferri, E F

    1992-04-01

    A comparative study on different methods of diagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae from both fresh and frozen pig lungs is described. A total of 196 lung tissues with pneumonic lesions were examined for culture isolation on chocolate blood agar, as well as for antigen detection by means of the coagglutination test, the immunodiffusion test and the indirect ELISA. These samples were subsequently frozen for 1 yr and then they were recultured. A. pleuropneumoniae was recovered from fresh lung specimens in 30 cases (15.3%) and from frozen samples in only two cases (0.9%). Such a different degree of isolation demonstrates that long freezing had an adverse effect on the viability of this organism in lung samples. A pleuropneumoniae detection was positive in 134 samples (68.4%) by at least one of the immunological techniques examined. The indirect ELISA was the most sensitive and specific test, with antigen detected in 125 lungs (63.8%). In comparison with the coagglutination and immunodiffusion tests, the sensitivities of the indirect ELISA were 95.8 and 93.7%, and the specificities were 67.0 and 63.4%, respectively. PMID:1563263

  6. FTIR spectroscopic comparison of serum from lung cancer patients and healthy persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Shen, Xiang; Sheng, Daping; Chen, Xianliang; Liu, Xingcun

    2014-03-01

    The incidence and mortality of lung cancer remains so high that it is very urgent to develop an effective method for early detection of lung cancer. Serum can reflect physiological and pathological changes of human body, so FTIR spectroscopy was used to compare lung cancer patients' and healthy persons' serum in this study. The A1080/A1170 ratio might be potentially useful for distinguishing lung cancer patients' serum from healthy persons' serum. Moreover, the result of curve fitting indicated that the ratios of α-helix/antiparallel β-sheet were lower for lung cancer patients' serum than those for healthy persons' serum. These results indicated that IR spectra of serum might be potentially useful for detecting lung cancer.

  7. Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis in Madagascar: Comparison of immuno-diagnostic techniques and estimation of the prevalence in pork carcasses traded in Antananarivo city.

    PubMed

    Porphyre, V; Betson, M; Rabezanahary, H; Mboussou, Y; Zafindraibe, N J; Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Costard, S; Pfeiffer, D U; Michault, A

    2016-03-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis was reported in official veterinary and medical statistics to be highly prevalent in pigs and humans in Madagascar, but few estimates are available for pigs. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis among pigs slaughtered in Antananarivo abattoirs. Firstly, the diagnostic performance of two antigen-ELISA techniques (B158B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an immunoblotting method were compared with meat inspection procedures on a sample of pigs suspected to be infected with (group 1; n=250) or free of (group 2; n=250) T. solium based on direct veterinary inspection in Madagascar. Sensitivity and specificity of the antigen ELISAs were then estimated using a Bayesian approach for detection of porcine cysticercosis in the absence of a gold standard. Then, a third set of pig sera (group 3, n=250) was randomly collected in Antananarivo slaughterhouses and tested to estimate the overall prevalence of T. solium contamination in pork meat traded in Antananarivo. The antigen ELISAs showed a high sensitivity (>84%), but the B158B60 Ag-ELISA appeared to be more specific than the HP10 Ag-ELISA (model 1: 95% vs 74%; model 2: 87% vs 71%). The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Antananarivo slaughterhouses was estimated at 2.3% (95% credibility interval [95%CrI]: 0.09-9.1%) to 2.6% (95%CrI: 0.1-10.3%) depending on the model and priors used. Since the sample used in this study is not representative of the national pig population, village-based surveys and longitudinal monitoring at slaughter are needed to better estimate the overall prevalence, geographical patterns and main risk factors for T. solium contamination, in order to improve control policies. PMID:26342625

  8. A comparison of different vitrification devices and the effect of blastocoele collapse on the cryosurvival of in vitro produced porcine embryos

    PubMed Central

    BARTOLAC, Louise Katherine; LOWE, Jenna Louise; KOUSTAS, George; SJÖBLOM, Cecilia; GRUPEN, Christopher Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimum conditions for vitrifying in vitro produced day 7 porcine embryos using different vitrification devices and blastocoele collapse methods. Firstly embryos were collapsed by micro-pipetting, needle puncture and sucrose with and without conducting vitrification. In the next experiment, non-collapsed embryos were vitrified in an open device using either superfine open-pulled straws (SOPS) or the CryoLoopTM system, or vitrified in a closed device using either the CryoTipTM or Cryo BioTM’s high security vitrification system (HSV). The post-thaw survival of embryos vitrified in the open devices did not differ significantly (SOPS: 37.3%; CryoLoopTM: 37.3%) nor did the post-thaw survival of embryos vitrified in the closed devices (CryoTip™: 38.5%; HSV: 42.5%). The re-expansion rate of embryos that were collapsed via micro-pipetting (76.0%) did not differ from those that were punctured (75.0%) or collapsed via sucrose (79.6%) when vitrification was not performed. However, embryos collapsed via sucrose solutions (24.5%) and needle puncture (16.0%) prior to vitrification were significantly less likely to survive vitrification than the control (non-collapsed) embryos (53.6%, P < 0.05). The findings show that both open and closed vitrification devices were equally effective for the vitrification of porcine blastocysts. Collapsing blastocysts prior to vitrification did not improve survival, which is inconsistent with the findings of studies in other species. This may be due to the extremely sensitive nature of porcine embryos, and/or the invasiveness of the collapsing procedures. PMID:26211782

  9. A dosimetric comparison of whole-lung treatment techniques in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Bosarge, Christina L; Ewing, Marvene M; DesRosiers, Colleen M; Buchsbaum, Jeffrey C

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate the dosimetric advantages and disadvantages of standard anteroposterior-posteroanterior (S-AP/PAAAA), inverse-planned AP/PA (IP-AP/PA) and volumetry-modulated arc (VMAT) radiotherapies in the treatment of children undergoing whole-lung irradiation. Each technique was evaluated by means of target coverage and normal tissue sparing, including data regarding low doses. A historical approach with and without tissue heterogeneity corrections is also demonstrated. Computed tomography (CT) scans of 10 children scanned from the neck to the reproductive organs were used. For each scan, 6 plans were created: (1) S-AP/PAAAA using the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), (2) IP-AP/PA, (3) VMAT, (4) S-AP/PANONE without heterogeneity corrections, (5) S-AP/PAPB using the Pencil-Beam algorithm and enforcing monitor units from technique 4, and (6) S-AP/PAAAA[FM] using AAA and forcing fixed monitor units. The first 3 plans compare modern methods and were evaluated based on target coverage and normal tissue sparing. Body maximum and lower body doses (50% and 30%) were also analyzed. Plans 4 to 6 provide a historic view on the progression of heterogeneity algorithms and elucidate what was actually delivered in the past. Averages of each comparison parameter were calculated for all techniques. The S-AP/PAAAA technique resulted in superior target coverage but had the highest maximum dose to every normal tissue structure. The IP-AP/PA technique provided the lowest dose to the esophagus, stomach, and lower body doses. VMAT excelled at body maximum dose and maximum doses to the heart, spine, and spleen, but resulted in the highest dose in the 30% body range. It was, however, superior to the S-AP/PAAAA approach in the 50% range. Each approach has strengths and weaknesses thus associated. Techniques may be selected on a case-by-case basis and by physician preference of target coverage vs normal tissue sparing. PMID:26778010

  10. Antithrombin III and its interaction with heparin. Comparison of the human, bovine, and porcine proteins by /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gettins, P.

    1987-03-10

    /sup 1/H NMR has been used to characterize and compare the structures of antithrombin III from human, bovine, and porcine plasma as well as to investigate the interactions of each of these proteins with heparin fragments of defined length. The amino acid compositions of the three proteins are very similar, which is reflected in the gross features of their /sup 1/H NMR spectra. Human antithrombin III has five histidine residues, bovine has six, and porcine has five. The C(2) proton from each of these residues gives a narrow resonance and titrates with pH; the pK/sub a/'s are in the range 5.15-7.25. It is concluded that all histidines in each protein are surface residues with considerable independent mobility. The carbohydrate chains in each protein also give sharp resonances consistent with a surface location and motional flexibility. The /sup 1/H spectra are sensitive to heparin binding. Although heparin resonances obscure protein resonances in the region 3.2-6.0 ppm, difference spectra between antithrombin III with and without heparin show clear perturbation of a small number of aromatic and aliphatic protein protons. For human antithrombin III, it was shown that heparin fragments 8, 10, and 16 sugar residues in length result in almost identical perturbations to the protein. In contrast, tetrasaccharide results in fewer perturbations. Significantly, intact high molecular weight heparin causes the same spectral perturbations as the 16-residue fragment. These data are discussed in terms of requirements for heparin binding.

  11. Radiographic comparison of human lung shape during normal gravity and weightlessness.

    PubMed

    Michels, D B; Friedman, P J; West, J B

    1979-10-01

    Human lung shape was measured during zero gravity (0 G) to decide whether the normal vertical regional differences in ventilation are due directly to distortion of the elastic lung by its own weight, or instead, due indirectly to the effect of gravity on the shape of the rib cage and diaphragm. This was important because we previously established that weightlessness virtually abolishes the normal topographical inequality of ventilation (J. Appl. Physiol.: Respirat. Environ. Exercise Physiol. 45: 987-998, 1978). Chest radiographs were made after 10 s of a weightless flight trajectory aboard a NASA-Ames Research Center Learjet in both posterior-anterior and left lateral projections on five seated volunteers at residual volume, functional residual capacity, and total lung capacity. Lung shape was assessed by measuring lung heights and widths in upper, middle, and lower lung regions. We found no significant differences between any of the normal gravity (1 G) and o G measurements, although there was a slight tendency for the lung to become shorter and wider at o G (mean changes generally less than 3% or about 0.5 cm). By contrast, Grassino et al. (J. Appl. Physiol. 39: 997-1003, 1975) found no change in the vertical distribution of ventilation after voluntarily changing lung dimensions by more than 1 cm by moving the abdomen in or out. We conclude that gravity produces the topographical distribution of ventilation in the upright human lung by distorting the elastic lung tissue within the chest rather than by altering the shape of the rib cage and diaphragm. PMID:511694

  12. Porcine Head Response to Blast

    PubMed Central

    Shridharani, Jay K.; Wood, Garrett W.; Panzer, Matthew B.; Capehart, Bruce P.; Nyein, Michelle K.; Radovitzky, Raul A.; Bass, Cameron R. ‘Dale’

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300–2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2 = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are

  13. Comparison of particle lung doses from the fine and coarse fractions of urban PM-10 aerosols.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, C; Kao, A S

    1999-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently revised the national ambient air quality standards to include a new PM-2.5 particulate standard. We examine the contributions of fine (PM-2.5) and coarse (PM-2.5 to -10) fraction of typical urban aerosols to particle doses in different lung airways resulting from 24-h exposure to the standard concentration of 150 microg m-3. The aerosol is assumed to have a bimodal lognormal mass distribution with mass median diameters of 0.2 and 5 microm, and geometric standard deviation of 1.7 and 57% of the mass in the fine (PM-2.5) mode. The daily mass dose from exposure to 150 microg m-3 of PM-10 in the nasopharyngeal (NPL) region is 20-51 microg day-1 (1.5% of inhaled fines) and 377-687 microg day-1 (30% of inhaled coarse), respectively, of fine and coarse mass filtered in the nose. Similar daily mass doses from fine and coarse fractions, respectively, to the tracheobronchial (TBL) region are 28-38 (1.5%) and 40-52 (4%) microg day-1 and to the pulmonary (PUL) region are 18-194 (6%) and 32-55 microg day-1 (2%). The daily number dose in the NPL region is 5-15 x 10(8) (0.06% of inhaled fines) and 5-10 x 10(6) day-1 (13% of inhaled coarse) respectively, of fine and coarse particles. Similar number doses to the TBL region are 2.2-3.1 x 10(10) (2%) and 7.1-11. 1 x 10(5) (2%) day-1 and to the PUL region are 1.6-16.7 x 10(10) (9%) and 2.9-17.0 x 10(5) (3%) day-1. The daily surface mass dose (microg cm-2 day-1) from coarse fraction particles is large in generations 3-5. The daily number dose (particles day-1) and surface number dose (particles cm-2 day-1) are higher from the fine than the coarse fraction, by about 10(3) to 10(5) times in all lung airways. Fine fraction particles result in 10,000 times greater particle number dose per macrophage than coarse fraction particles. Particle number doses do not follow trends in mass doses, are much larger from fine than coarse fraction, and must be considered in assessing PM health

  14. A cost comparison of hospice care in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Elman, Lauren B; Stanley, Lisa; Gibbons, Patricia; McCluskey, Leo

    2006-01-01

    The authors compare the cost of hospice care provided to 25 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and 159 lung cancer patients by the Wissahickon Hospice of the University of Pennsylvania. The mean length of stay was 86.7 days for ALS patients and 35.0 days for patients with lung cancer (P = .011). The mean per patient cost was 5622.93 dollars for the ALS patients and 2658.91 dollars for patients with lung cancer (P = .057) The average operating margin excluding administrative costs was 5293.04 dollars for ALS patients and 2126.74 dollars for patients with lung cancer (P = .008). The longer length of stay (LOS) accounts for this difference. Longer LOS can be accomplished by close clinical monitoring of ALS patients for the development of life threatening respiratory and/or nutritional compromise and by liberalizing the present hospice admission guidelines. PMID:17060281

  15. Quantitative assessment of emphysema from whole lung CT scans: comparison with visual grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Brad M.; Reeves, Anthony P.; Apanosovich, Tatiyana V.; Wang, Jianwei; Yankelevitz, David F.; Henschke, Claudia I.

    2009-02-01

    Emphysema is a disease of the lungs that destroys the alveolar air sacs and induces long-term respiratory dysfunction. CT scans allow for imaging of the anatomical basis of emphysema and for visual assessment by radiologists of the extent present in the lungs. Several measures have been introduced for the quantification of the extent of disease directly from CT data in order to add to the qualitative assessments made by radiologists. In this paper we compare emphysema index, mean lung density, histogram percentiles, and the fractal dimension to visual grade in order to evaluate the predictability of radiologist visual scoring of emphysema from low-dose CT scans through quantitative scores, in order to determine which measures can be useful as surrogates for visual assessment. All measures were computed over nine divisions of the lung field (whole lung, individual lungs, and upper/middle/lower thirds of each lung) for each of 148 low-dose, whole lung scans. In addition, a visual grade of each section was also given by an expert radiologist. One-way ANOVA and multinomial logistic regression were used to determine the ability of the measures to predict visual grade from quantitative score. We found that all measures were able to distinguish between normal and severe grades (p<0.01), and between mild/moderate and all other grades (p<0.05). However, no measure was able to distinguish between mild and moderate cases. Approximately 65% prediction accuracy was achieved from using quantitative score to predict visual grade, with 73% if mild and moderate cases are considered as a single class.

  16. Comparison of Airflows in Weibel-based and CT-based Human Lung Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ching-Long; Hoffman, Eric A.

    2004-11-01

    The need for patient specific lung geometry for study of pulmonary air flow and drug delivery has been emphasized recently due to the complexity of individual airway tree geometry. The objective of this paper is to assess the notion of patient specific geometry by comparing airflows in an idealized Weibel-based lung model and two realistic human lung geometries. The Weibel-based model is composed of cylinders of differing diameters for various branching and has been used extensively for modeling airflow in lungs. Here a 4-generation Weibel model is considered. The realistic lung geometries are segmented and reconstructured from computerized tomography (CT) images as part of an effort to build a normative atlas (NIH HL-04368) documenting airway geometry over 4 decades of age in healthy and disease-state adult humans. The custom developed Taylor-Galerkin finite element code, which solves the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, is applied to simulate airflows in these lung geometries. The velocity wave form recorded from a mechanical ventilator is adopted as the inlet pulsatile boundary condition. At the outlets, both the pressure and outflow boundary conditions are applied and compared. The counter-rotating vortices are observed in the Weibel model during both the inspiratory and expiratory cycles, being consistent with previous studies. The flow structures in the CT-based models are much more complicated and counter-rotating vortices are only evident in some regions.

  17. Lung deposition of budesonide inhaled via Turbuhaler: a comparison with terbutaline sulphate in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Borgström, L; Bondesson, E; Morén, F; Trofast, E; Newman, S P

    1994-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate whether lung deposition of budesonide and terbutaline sulphate differs, and to determine lung deposition of budesonide inhaled at different peak inspiratory flows, through Turbuhaler. Lung deposition of budesonide, a lipophilic substance, and of terbutaline sulphate, a hydrophilic substance, was therefore compared, after administration via an inspiratory flow-driven, multi-dose, powder inhaler (Turbuhaler, Astra Draco AB) to 10 healthy volunteers. The radionuclide 99mTc was used to label drug particles, and radioactivity, indicating drug deposition, was measured using a gamma camera. Budesonide was inhaled at a normal flow of 58 l.min-1 and at a slow flow of 36 l-min-1. At the faster flow, a mean +/- SD 27.7 +/- 9.5% of the metered dose was deposited in the lung and at the slower flow 14.8 +/- 3.3% was deposited (p < 0.001). Mean lung deposition of terbutaline sulphate inhaled at 57 l.min-1 was 27.0 +/- 7.7%. We conclude that inspiratory flow has an important effect on lung deposition, but water solubility appears to have no effect. PMID:8143834

  18. Lung cancer screening: review and performance comparison under different risk scenarios.

    PubMed

    Tota, Joseph E; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Franco, Eduardo L

    2014-02-01

    Lung cancer is currently one of the most common malignant diseases and is responsible for substantial mortality worldwide. Compared with never smokers, former smokers remain at relatively high risk for lung cancer, accounting for approximately half of all newly diagnosed cases in the US. Screening offers former smokers the best opportunity to reduce their risk of advanced stage lung cancer and there is now evidence that annual screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is effective in preventing mortality. Studies are being conducted to evaluate whether the benefits of LDCT screening outweigh its costs and potential harms and to determine the most appropriate workup for patients with screen-detected lung nodules. Program efficiency would be optimized by targeting high-risk current smokers, but low uptake among this group is a concern. Former smokers may be invited for screening; however, if fewer long-term current smokers and more former smokers with long quit duration elect to attend, this could have very adverse effects on cost and screening test parameters. To illustrate this point, we present three possible screening scenarios with lung cancer prevalence ranging from between 0.62 and 5.0 %. In summary, cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening may be improved if linked to successful smoking cessation programs and if better approaches are developed to reach very high-risk patients, e.g., long-term current smokers or others based on more accurate risk prediction models. PMID:24153450

  19. Assessment of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae-induced Pneumonia using Different Lung Lesion Scoring Systems: a Comparative Review.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Morante, B; Segalés, J; Fraile, L; Pérez de Rozas, A; Maiti, H; Coll, T; Sibila, M

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the primary aetiological agent of swine enzootic pneumonia (EP) and one of the major contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Gross lung lesions in pigs affected by EP consist of cranioventral pulmonary consolidation (CVPC), usually distributed bilaterally in the apical, intermediate, accessory and cranial parts of the diaphragmatic lobes. Several lung scoring methods are currently in place for the evaluation of CVPC. The aims of this study were (1) to review the lung lesion scoring systems used to assess pneumonia associated with M. hyopneumoniae infection, and (2) to evaluate eight of these scoring systems by applying them to the lungs of 76 pigs with experimentally-induced M. hyopneumoniae pneumonia. A significant correlation between all lung lesion scoring systems was observed and the coefficients of determination in a regression analysis were very high between each pair-wise comparison, except for a unique scoring system based on image analysis. A formula of equivalence between lung scoring methods was developed in order to compare the results obtained with these methods. The present review provides a basis for comparison (even retrospectively) of lesions evaluated using different lung scoring systems. PMID:26774274

  20. Ozone inhalation effects in females varying widely in lung size: Comparison with males

    SciTech Connect

    Messineo, T.D.; Adams, W.C. )

    1990-07-01

    It has been suggested that lung size accounts for observed gender differences in responsiveness to the same total inhaled dose of O3. To test the hypothesis that lung size is a determinant of magnitude of response within a gender, two groups of 14 healthy young adult females differing significantly in forced vital capacity (FVC; i.e., small-lung group mean = 3.74 liters (range 3.2-4.0) and large-lung group mean = 5.11 liters (range 4.5-6.2)) were exposed for 1 h to filtered air (FA) and to 0.18 and 0.30 ppm O3. On each occasion, subjects exercised continuously on a cycle ergometer at a work rate that elicited a mean minute ventilation of approximately 47 l/min. For the small-lung group (mean total lung capacity (TLC) = 4.52 liters) exercise O2 uptake was 67% of maximal O2 uptake (VO2max), and that for the large-lung group (TLC 6.37 liters) was 61% of VO2max. Statistical analysis revealed significant decrements for both groups in FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0), and forced expiratory flow rate in the middle half of FVC on exposure to 0.18 and 0.30 ppm O3. Exercise respiratory frequency increased, and tidal volume decreased significantly in both groups in response to 0.18 and 0.30 ppm O3 exposure. On exposure to 0.30 ppm O3, the number of individual subjective symptoms reported and their severity were significantly greater for both groups than those reported for the FA and 0.18 ppm O3 exposures. Both groups evidenced similar percent changes in pulmonary function and exercise ventilation response, and in subjective symptom response.

  1. Comparison of external lung monitoring with end-tidal air detection using the xenon-133 inhalation method

    SciTech Connect

    Hazelrig, J.B.; Halsey, J.H. Jr.; Wilson, E.M.; Wills, E.L.

    1985-11-01

    When the 133Xe inhalation method is employed for measuring regional cerebral blood flow, the arterial 133Xe concentration is usually approximated by the end-tidal air concentration. However, this approximation may be invalid in the presence of certain lung pathologies or when the breathing pattern is irregular. Jaggi and Obrist, using an intravenous injection of 133Xe, suggested that the counts detected by an external lung probe could provide an alternative estimate for arterial blood concentration once the noise produced by 133Xe in superficial tissues is removed from the signal. A mathematical model, based on hypotheses similar to theirs is presented here together with a new computational procedure for removing the noise. Results from normal rest studies on ten healthy young males indicate that the approximations for arterial blood concentration obtained from end-tidal air and from corrected lung counts are not equivalent when 133Xe is administered by inhalation. The concentration-time curves have different shapes, and these differences are reflected in blood flow values computed by head channel. However, there is no effect on comparisons between homologous regions of the left and right hemispheres.

  2. Distribution of aerosolized particles in healthy and emphysematous rat lungs: comparison between experimental and numerical studies.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Jessica M; Marsden, Alison L; Grandmont, Céline; Darquenne, Chantal; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E

    2015-04-13

    In silico models of airflow and particle deposition in the lungs are increasingly used to determine the therapeutic or toxic effects of inhaled aerosols. While computational methods have advanced significantly, relatively few studies have directly compared model predictions to experimental data. Furthermore, few prior studies have examined the influence of emphysema on particle deposition. In this work we performed airflow and particle simulations to compare numerical predictions to data from our previous aerosol exposure experiments. Employing an image-based 3D rat airway geometry, we first compared steady flow simulations to coupled 3D-0D unsteady simulations in the healthy rat lung. Then, in 3D-0D simulations, the influence of emphysema was investigated by matching disease location to the experimental study. In both the healthy unsteady and steady simulations, good agreement was found between numerical predictions of aerosol delivery and experimental deposition data. However, deposition patterns in the 3D geometry differed between the unsteady and steady cases. On the contrary, satisfactory agreement was not found between the numerical predictions and experimental data for the emphysematous lungs. This indicates that the deposition rate downstream of the 3D geometry is likely proportional to airflow delivery in the healthy lungs, but not in the emphysematous lungs. Including small airway collapse, variations in downstream airway size and tissue properties, and tracking particles throughout expiration may result in a more favorable agreement in future studies. PMID:25682537

  3. [Comparison between the bacterial flora airways and of the lung tissue].

    PubMed

    Budzko, D B; Roncoroni, A J

    1965-01-01

    In 44 patients tracheotomized and under mechanical ventilation bacteriological studies were carried out, inmediately after death, in bronchial secretions and in a small piece of lung obtained by thoracotomy. The more frequently found bacterium in bronchial secretions or the lung was the Pseudomona aeruginosa (Table 1). In order of decreasing frequency: Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Proteus, etc. were found in the lung while in bronchial secretions the order was inverse by predominance of Proteus. Total bacteriological coincidence was found in 14 cases while it was partial in 8 more patients where another bacterium was added in bronchial secretions. Bacteria were different in 6 cases (Table 2) in 4 of them: staphylococcus was obtained in the lung while Pseudomonae, Proteus and Klebsiellae were present in bronchial secretions (Table 3). In 16 cases cultures of the piece of lung taken were negative. Not taking into account these last ones, it is possible to conclude that from the therapeutic stand point culture of bronchial secretions was useful in antibiotic selection in 22 out of 28 cases. PMID:15154229

  4. To Screen or not to Screen: Low Dose Computed Tomography in Comparison to Chest Radiography or Usual Care in Reducing Morbidity and Mortality from Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kamdar, Jay; Moats, Austin; Nguyen, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has the highest mortality rate of all cancers. This paper seeks to address the question: Can the mortality of lung cancer be decreased by screening with low-dose computerized tomography (LDCT) in higher risk patients compared to chest X-rays (CXR) or regular patient care? Currently, CXR screening is recommended for certain high-risk patients. Several recent trials have examined the effectiveness of LDCT versus chest radiography or usual care as a control. These trials include National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), Detection And screening of early lung cancer with Novel imaging TEchnology (DANTE), Lung Screening Study (LSS), Depiscan, Italian Lung (ITALUNG), and Dutch-Belgian Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trial (Dutch acronym: NELSON study). NLST, the largest trial (n=53, 454), demonstrated a decrease in mortality from lung cancer in the LDCT group (RRR=20%, P=0.004). LSS demonstrated a greater sensitivity in detecting both early stage and any stage of lung cancer in comparison to traditional CXR. Although the DANTE trial yielded data consistent with findings in LSS, it also showed that via LDCT screening a greater proportion of patients were placed under unnecessary surgical procedures. The Depiscan trial yielded a high nodule detection rate at the cost of a high false-positive rate compared to CXR screening. The ITALUNG and NELSON trials demonstrated the early detection capabilities of LDCT for lung cancers compared to usual care without surveillance imaging. False-positive findings with unnecessary workup, intervention, and radiation exposure remain significant concerns for routine LDCT screening. However, current data suggests LDCT may provide a highly sensitive and specific means for detecting lung cancers and reducing mortality. PMID:27375974

  5. To Screen or not to Screen: Low Dose Computed Tomography in Comparison to Chest Radiography or Usual Care in Reducing Morbidity and Mortality from Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dajac, Joshua; Kamdar, Jay; Moats, Austin; Nguyen, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has the highest mortality rate of all cancers. This paper seeks to address the question: Can the mortality of lung cancer be decreased by screening with low-dose computerized tomography (LDCT) in higher risk patients compared to chest X-rays (CXR) or regular patient care? Currently, CXR screening is recommended for certain high-risk patients. Several recent trials have examined the effectiveness of LDCT versus chest radiography or usual care as a control. These trials include National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), Detection And screening of early lung cancer with Novel imaging TEchnology (DANTE), Lung Screening Study (LSS), Depiscan, Italian Lung (ITALUNG), and Dutch-Belgian Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trial (Dutch acronym: NELSON study). NLST, the largest trial (n=53, 454), demonstrated a decrease in mortality from lung cancer in the LDCT group (RRR=20%, P=0.004). LSS demonstrated a greater sensitivity in detecting both early stage and any stage of lung cancer in comparison to traditional CXR. Although the DANTE trial yielded data consistent with findings in LSS, it also showed that via LDCT screening a greater proportion of patients were placed under unnecessary surgical procedures. The Depiscan trial yielded a high nodule detection rate at the cost of a high false-positive rate compared to CXR screening. The ITALUNG and NELSON trials demonstrated the early detection capabilities of LDCT for lung cancers compared to usual care without surveillance imaging. False-positive findings with unnecessary workup, intervention, and radiation exposure remain significant concerns for routine LDCT screening. However, current data suggests LDCT may provide a highly sensitive and specific means for detecting lung cancers and reducing mortality. PMID:27375974

  6. Construction of recombinant Lactobacillus casei efficiently surface displayed and secreted porcine parvovirus VP2 protein and comparison of the immune responses induced by oral immunization

    PubMed Central

    Yigang, X U; Yijing, L I

    2008-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 was selected as a bacterial carrier for the development of mucosal vaccine against porcine parvovirus (PPV) infection. The PPV major structural polypeptide VP2 was used as the model parvovirus antigen. Two inducible expression systems, namely pPG611.1 of the cell-surface expression system and pPG612.1 of the secretion expression system based on the xylose operon promoter were used to express the VP2 protein. The immunogenicity of recombinant strains producing VP2 protein in two cellular locations, cell-surface exposed and secreted, was compared to each other by immunizing mice through the intragastric administration. The two types of constructs were able to induce strong specific immune responses against VP2 via intragastric administration and maximum titres of IgA and IgG were attained on days 46 post oral immunization, while the highest antibody levels were obtained with the strain producing the VP2 protein in extracellular milieu. The induced antibodies demonstrated neutralizing effects on PPV infection. PMID:18034821

  7. Comparison of gene expression profiles in a porcine infarct model after intracoronary, transthoracic, or transendocardiac injection of heterologous bone marrow mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Barallobre-Barreiro, J; de Ilárduya, O M; Moscoso, I; Calviño, R; Aldama, G; López-Peláez, E; Centeno, A; Doménech, N

    2009-01-01

    An in vivo porcine model of myocardial infarction was developed with the aim of comparing the effectiveness for cardiac repair of intracoronary, transthoracic, or transendocardial delivery strategies for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC) using an analysis of expression levels of transcripts related to various cellular processes at 8 heart regions using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We observed significant rises in cardiomyogenic markers Mef2C, Gata4 and Nkx2.5, and contractibility marker Serca2A at infarcted regions for cell-treated pigs. We also observed differences in Sdf1 expression related to the organ stress response between delivery strategies. Unexpectedly, increased expression of Col1A1 was detected in 2 cell-treated groups at various heart regions. Our results suggest improvements in both contractility and cardiomyogenic capability of damaged tissue after BMMSC injection, but also warned us about the relevance of the chosen delivery strategy and potential undesired effects like increasing fibrosis after treatment. PMID:19715897

  8. Serodiagnostic comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and surface plasmon resonance for the detection of antibody to Porcine circovirus type 2

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ho-Seong; Kim, Tae-Jung; Lee, Jae-Il; Park, Nam-Yong

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the cloning and expression of the capsid protein of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in an Escherichia coli expression system that was used to produce a fusion protein for subsequent immunologic studies: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify the gene encoding the capsid protein from the DNA of PCV2. The protein was then cloned into a pRSET prokaryotic expression vector. Western blot analysis revealed that the recombinant protein gave strong signals on a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane when exposed to the serum from a pig infected with PCV2. The expressed protein was purified and used as an antigen for the ELISA and SPR study. A protein chip based on SPR was developed, and the diagnostic potential of SPR was compared with that of ELISA with the use of 70 serum samples obtained from 6 pig farms. There was a strong positive correlation between the ELISA and SPR titers (r = 0.877, P < 0.01). Therefore, this recombinant capsid protein can be used as an antigen for serologic studies, and the SPR, a label-free method, appears to be a valuable and reproducible tool in the serodiagnosis of a PCV2 infection. PMID:17042378

  9. Development and Characterization of Protective Haemophilus parasuis Subunit Vaccines Based on Native Proteins with Affinity to Porcine Transferrin and Comparison with Other Subunit and Commercial Vaccines ▿

    PubMed Central

    Frandoloso, Rafael; Martínez, Sonia; Rodríguez-Ferri, Elías F.; García-Iglesias, María José; Pérez-Martínez, Claudia; Martínez-Fernández, Beatriz; Gutiérrez-Martín, César B.

    2011-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis is the agent responsible for causing Glässer's disease, which is characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis, and meningitis in pigs. In this study, we have characterized native outer membrane proteins with affinity to porcine transferrin (NPAPT) from H. parasuis serovar 5, Nagasaki strain. This pool of proteins was used as antigen to developed two vaccine formulations: one was adjuvanted with a mineral oil (Montanide IMS 2215 VG PR), while the other was potentiated with a bacterial neuraminidase from Clostridium perfringens. The potential protective effect conferred by these two vaccines was compared to that afforded by two other vaccines, consisting of recombinant transferrin-binding protein (rTbp) A or B fragments from H. parasuis, Nagasaki strain, and by a commercially available inactivated vaccine. Five groups of colostrum-deprived piglets immunized with the vaccines described above, one group per each vaccine, and a group of nonvaccinated control animals were challenged intratracheally with a lethal dose (3 × 108 CFU) of H. parasuis, Nagasaki strain. The two vaccines containing rTbps yielded similar results with minimal protection against death, clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions, and H. parasuis invasion. In contrast, the two vaccines composed of NPAPT antigen and commercial bacterin resulted in a strong protection against challenge (without deaths and clinical signs), mild histopathological changes, and no recovery of H. parasuis, thus suggesting their effectiveness in preventing Glässer's disease outbreaks caused by serovar 5. PMID:20926701

  10. Comparison of host immune responses to homologous and heterologous type II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) challenge in vaccinated and unvaccinated pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Galliher-Beckley, A; Pappan, L; Trible, B; Kerrigan, M; Beck, A; Hesse, R; Blecha, F; Nietfeld, J C; Rowland, R R; Shi, J

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a high-consequence animal disease with current vaccines providing limited protection from infection due to the high degree of genetic variation of field PRRS virus. Therefore, understanding host immune responses elicited by different PRRSV strains will facilitate the development of more effective vaccines. Using IngelVac modified live PRRSV vaccine (MLV), its parental strain VR-2332, and the heterologous KS-06-72109 strain (a Kansas isolate of PRRSV), we compared immune responses induced by vaccination and/or PRRSV infection. Our results showed that MLV can provide complete protection from homologous virus (VR-2332) and partial protection from heterologous (KS-06) challenge. The protection was associated with the levels of PRRSV neutralizing antibodies at the time of challenge, with vaccinated pigs having higher titers to VR-2332 compared to KS-06 strain. Challenge strain did not alter the cytokine expression profiles in the serum of vaccinated pigs or subpopulations of T cells. However, higher frequencies of IFN-γ-secreting PBMCs were generated from pigs challenged with heterologous PRRSV in a recall response when PBMCs were re-stimulated with PRRSV. Thus, this study indicates that serum neutralizing antibody titers are associated with PRRSV vaccination-induced protection against homologous and heterologous challenge. PMID:24719862

  11. Comparison of Host Immune Responses to Homologous and Heterologous Type II Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Challenge in Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, X.; Galliher-Beckley, A.; Pappan, L.; Trible, B.; Kerrigan, M.; Beck, A.; Hesse, R.; Blecha, F.; Nietfeld, J. C.; Rowland, R. R.; Shi, J.

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a high-consequence animal disease with current vaccines providing limited protection from infection due to the high degree of genetic variation of field PRRS virus. Therefore, understanding host immune responses elicited by different PRRSV strains will facilitate the development of more effective vaccines. Using IngelVac modified live PRRSV vaccine (MLV), its parental strain VR-2332, and the heterologous KS-06-72109 strain (a Kansas isolate of PRRSV), we compared immune responses induced by vaccination and/or PRRSV infection. Our results showed that MLV can provide complete protection from homologous virus (VR-2332) and partial protection from heterologous (KS-06) challenge. The protection was associated with the levels of PRRSV neutralizing antibodies at the time of challenge, with vaccinated pigs having higher titers to VR-2332 compared to KS-06 strain. Challenge strain did not alter the cytokine expression profiles in the serum of vaccinated pigs or subpopulations of T cells. However, higher frequencies of IFN-γ-secreting PBMCs were generated from pigs challenged with heterologous PRRSV in a recall response when PBMCs were re-stimulated with PRRSV. Thus, this study indicates that serum neutralizing antibody titers are associated with PRRSV vaccination-induced protection against homologous and heterologous challenge. PMID:24719862

  12. A comparison of antifibrillatory drugs in the heart-lung preparation

    PubMed Central

    Rand, M. J.; Walker, J. M.

    1958-01-01

    Quinidine, amethocaine, Trasentin and atropine have been tested for their ability to stop atrial fibrillation produced in the heart-lung preparation of the dog by stimulating the right atrium in the presence of acetylcholine. The results suggest that atropine acts by specifically antagonizing acetylcholine, but that amethocaine and Trasentin act chiefly by virtue of their quinidine-like properties. PMID:13523146

  13. Abnormal ventilation scans in middle-aged smokers. Comparison with tests of overall lung function

    SciTech Connect

    Barter, S.J.; Cunningham, D.A.; Lavender, J.P.; Gibellino, F.; Connellan, S.J.; Pride, N.B.

    1985-07-01

    The uniformity of regional ventilation during tidal breathing has been assessed using continuous inhalation of krypton-81m in 43 male, lifelong nonsmokers and 46 male, current cigarette smokers (mean daily consumption 24.1 cigarettes/day) between 44 and 61 yr of age and with mild or no respiratory symptoms. All subjects had normal chest radiographs. The results of the ventilation scans were compared with tests of overall lung function (spirometry, maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, and single-breath N2 test). Diffuse abnormalities of the ventilation scan were found in 19 (41%) of the 46 smokers but in none of the nonsmokers. Focal abnormalities were found in 7 smokers and 3 nonsmokers. Smokers showed the expected abnormalities in overall lung function (reduced FEV1 and VC, increased single-breath N2 slope, and closing volume), but in individual smokers there was only a weak relation between the severity of abnormality of overall lung function and an abnormal ventilation scan. Abnormal scans could be found when overall lung function was normal and were not invariably found when significant abnormalities in FEV1/VC or N2 slope were present. There was no relation between the presence of chronic expectoration and an abnormal scan. The prognostic significance of an abnormal ventilation scan in such smokers remains to be established.

  14. TBI lung dose comparisons using bilateral and anteroposterior delivery techniques and tissue density corrections.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Daniel W; Wang, Iris Z; Lakeman, Tara; Hales, Lee D; Singh, Anurag K; Podgorsak, Matthew B

    2015-01-01

    This study compares lung dose distributions for two common techniques of total body photon irradiation (TBI) at extended source-to-surface distance calculated with, and without, tissue density correction (TDC). Lung dose correction factors as a function of lateral thorax separation are approximated for bilateral opposed TBI (supine), similar to those published for anteroposterior-posteroanterior (AP-PA) techniques in AAPM Report 17 (i.e., Task Group 29). 3D treatment plans were created retrospectively for 24 patients treated with bilateral TBI, and for whom CT data had been acquired from the head to the lower leg. These plans included bilateral opposed and AP-PA techniques- each with and without - TDC, using source-to-axis distance of 377 cm and largest possible field size. On average, bilateral TBI requires 40% more monitor units than AP-PA TBI due to increased separation (26% more for 23 MV). Calculation of midline thorax dose without TDC leads to dose underestimation of 17% on average (standard deviation, 4%) for bilateral 6 MV TBI, and 11% on average (standard deviation, 3%) for 23 MV. Lung dose correction factors (CF) are calculated as the ratio of midlung dose (with TDC) to midline thorax dose (without TDC). Bilateral CF generally increases with patient separation, though with high variability due to individual uniqueness of anatomy. Bilateral CF are 5% (standard deviation, 4%) higher than the same corrections calculated for AP-PA TBI in the 6 MV case, and 4% higher (standard deviation, 2%) for 23 MV. The maximum lung dose is much higher with bilateral TBI (up to 40% higher than prescribed, depending on patient anatomy) due to the absence of arm tissue blocking the anterior chest. Dose calculations for bilateral TBI without TDC are incorrect by up to 24% in the thorax for 6 MV and up to 16% for 23 MV. Bilateral lung CF may be calculated as 1.05 times the values published in Table 6 of AAPM Report 17, though a larger patient pool is necessary to better

  15. Comparison of Thermal and Non-Thermal Processing of Swine Feed and the Use of Selected Feed Additives on Inactivation of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV).

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Michaela P; Verma, Harsha; Sampedro, Fernando; Urriola, Pedro E; Shurson, Gerald C; McKelvey, Jessica; Pillai, Suresh D; Goyal, Sagar M

    2016-01-01

    Infection with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes diarrhea, vomiting, and high mortality in suckling pigs. Contaminated feed has been suggested as a vehicle of transmission for PEDV. The objective of this study was to compare thermal and electron beam processing, and the inclusion of feed additives on the inactivation of PEDV in feed. Feed samples were spiked with PEDV and then heated to 120-145°C for up to 30 min or irradiated at 0-50 kGy. Another set of feed samples spiked with PEDV and mixed with Ultracid P (Nutriad), Activate DA (Novus International), KEM-GEST (Kemin Agrifood), Acid Booster (Agri-Nutrition), sugar or salt was incubated at room temperature (~25°C) for up to 21 days. At the end of incubation, the virus titers were determined by inoculation of Vero-81 cells and the virus inactivation kinetics were modeled using the Weibull distribution model. The Weibull kinetic parameter delta represented the time or eBeam dose required to reduce virus concentration by 1 log. For thermal processing, delta values ranged from 16.52 min at 120°C to 1.30 min at 145°C. For eBeam processing, a target dose of 50 kGy reduced PEDV concentration by 3 log. All additives tested were effective in reducing the survival of PEDV when compared with the control sample (delta = 17.23 days). Activate DA (0.81) and KEM-GEST (3.28) produced the fastest inactivation. In conclusion, heating swine feed at temperatures over 130°C or eBeam processing of feed with a dose over 50 kGy are effective processing steps to reduce PEDV survival. Additionally, the inclusion of selected additives can decrease PEDV survivability. PMID:27341670

  16. Comparison of Thermal and Non-Thermal Processing of Swine Feed and the Use of Selected Feed Additives on Inactivation of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV)

    PubMed Central

    Trudeau, Michaela P.; Verma, Harsha; Sampedro, Fernando; Urriola, Pedro E.; Shurson, Gerald C.; McKelvey, Jessica; Pillai, Suresh D.; Goyal, Sagar M.

    2016-01-01

    Infection with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes diarrhea, vomiting, and high mortality in suckling pigs. Contaminated feed has been suggested as a vehicle of transmission for PEDV. The objective of this study was to compare thermal and electron beam processing, and the inclusion of feed additives on the inactivation of PEDV in feed. Feed samples were spiked with PEDV and then heated to 120–145°C for up to 30 min or irradiated at 0–50 kGy. Another set of feed samples spiked with PEDV and mixed with Ultracid P (Nutriad), Activate DA (Novus International), KEM-GEST (Kemin Agrifood), Acid Booster (Agri-Nutrition), sugar or salt was incubated at room temperature (~25°C) for up to 21 days. At the end of incubation, the virus titers were determined by inoculation of Vero-81 cells and the virus inactivation kinetics were modeled using the Weibull distribution model. The Weibull kinetic parameter delta represented the time or eBeam dose required to reduce virus concentration by 1 log. For thermal processing, delta values ranged from 16.52 min at 120°C to 1.30 min at 145°C. For eBeam processing, a target dose of 50 kGy reduced PEDV concentration by 3 log. All additives tested were effective in reducing the survival of PEDV when compared with the control sample (delta = 17.23 days). Activate DA (0.81) and KEM-GEST (3.28) produced the fastest inactivation. In conclusion, heating swine feed at temperatures over 130°C or eBeam processing of feed with a dose over 50 kGy are effective processing steps to reduce PEDV survival. Additionally, the inclusion of selected additives can decrease PEDV survivability. PMID:27341670

  17. Sequence analysis of old and new strains of porcine circovirus associated with congenital tremors in pigs and their comparison with strains involved with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jiwon; Stevenson, Gregory W.; Kiupel, Matti; Harrach, Balázs; Anothayanontha, Lavun; Kanitz, Charles L.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2002-01-01

    The entire genomes of 7 isolates of porcine circovirus (PCV) from pigs with congenital tremors (CT), type A2, or postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) were cloned and sequenced. One isolate (CT-PCV-P7) originated from the late 1960s from a neonatal pig with CT, type A2. Two recent PCV isolates (CT-PCV-P5, CT-PCV-P6) were from 2 affected neonatal pigs, from different farms, with unrelated outbreaks of CT; type A2. Four isolates (PMWS-PCV-P1, PMWS-PCV-P2, PMWS-PCV-P3, PMWS-PCV-P4) originated from pigs with PMWS from 4 different farms. A comparative analysis of these PMWS and PCV isolates demonstrated 99% sequence identity with each other, and over 96% sequence identity with previously sequenced PCV2 isolates. The CT-PCV-P5 and CT-PCV-P6 isolates, however, shared 99% of the same identity with each other, and interestingly also with PMWS PCV isolates. There were no consistent genomic differences between PMWS and recent CT isolates. The CT-PCV-P7 showed 98% identity similarity to PK-15-derived PCV1 and demonstrated only 72% identity similarity to either CT-PCV-P5 or CT-PCV-P6. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the old isolate (CT-PCV-P7), and the new isolates (CT-PCV-P5, CT-PCV-P6, PMWS-PCV-P1, PMWS-PCV-P2, PMWS-PCV-P3, PMWS-PCV-P4) were correctly classified as PCV1 and PCV2, respectively. PMID:12418776

  18. Prospective randomized comparison of endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection and conventional submucosal dissection in the resection of superficial esophageal/gastric lesions in a living porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Gomercic, Cécile; Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Gonzalez, Jean-Michel; Saint-Paul, Marie-Christine; Garcès-Duran, Rodrigo; Garnier, Emmanuelle; Hébuterne, Xavier; Berdah, Stéphane; Barthet, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: To assess experimentally endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection (ESTD) as an alternative technique of endoscopic submucosal resection. Patients and methods: This was a prospective, randomized, comparative experimental animal study carried out over a period of 9 months at the surgical research and teaching center of Aix-Marseille University, France. Virtual esophageal and gastric lesions measuring 3 cm in diameter were resected in pigs weighing 25 to 30 kg. The primary aim was to evaluate ESTD’s efficacy compared with endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). The secondary aims were to determine complication rates as well as to assess procedure time and procedure speed, histologic quality of the resected specimen, and procedure cost. Results: Eighteen procedures (9 ESD and 9 ESTD) were performed in nine pigs. The technical success rate was 88.9 % for both techniques, with one single failure in each. The en bloc resection rate was 100 % for ESTD and 88.9 % for ESD (one failure). The complication rate (22 %) and median procedure time were similar but dissection speed was quicker with ESTD in the esophagus (P = 0.03). Median procedure cost (728 Euros for ESD and ESTD) did not differ. On histologic examination, the lateral margins were healthy in 100 % of ESTD and in 88.9 % of ESD (P = 0.49). Deep resection margins were of better quality in ESTD (median submucosal thickness: 1307.1 µm vs. 884.7 µm; P = 0.039). Conclusions: ESTD is feasible and safe but not superior in the treatment of superficial esophageal/gastric lesions in porcine models compared with ESD. Nevertheless it provides a better quality histologic specimen. PMID:26716116

  19. Optimization of cryoprotectant treatment for the vitrification of immature cumulus-enclosed porcine oocytes: comparison of sugars, combinations of permeating cryoprotectants and equilibration regimens

    PubMed Central

    SOMFAI, Tamás; MEN, Nguyen Thi; NOGUCHI, Junko; KANEKO, Hiroyuki; KASHIWAZAKI, Naomi; KIKUCHI, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to optimize the cryoprotectant treatment for the preservation of immature porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) by solid surface vitrification. In each experiment, the vitrification solution consisted of 50 mg/ml polyvinyl pyrrolidone, 0.3 M of the actual sugar and in total 35% (v/v) of the actual permeating cryoprotectant (pCPA) combination. After warming, the COCs were subjected to in vitro maturation, fertilization and embryo culture. In Experiment 1, trehalose and sucrose were equally effective during vitrification and warming in terms of facilitating oocyte survival and subsequent embryo development. In Experiment 2, when equilibration was performed at 38.5 C in a total of 4% (v/v) pCPA for 15 min, the combination of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol (EG + PG = 1:1) was superior to EG and dimethyl sulfoxide (EG + DMSO = 1:1) in terms of oocyte survival after vitrification and the quality of resultant blastocysts. In Experiment 3, equilibration in 4% (v/v) pCPA for 15 min before vitrification was superior to that in 15% (v/v) CPA for 5 min for achievement of high survival rates irrespective of the pCPA combination used. In Experiment 4, when equilibration was performed in 4% EG + PG for 5 min, 15 min or 25 min, there was no difference in oocyte survival and subsequent embryo development after vitrification and warming; however, the developmental competence of cleaved embryos was tendentiously reduced when equilibration was performed for 25 min. In conclusion, trehalose and sucrose were equally effective in facilitating vitrification, and the optimum pCPA treatment was 5–15 min equilibration in 4% (v/v) of EG + PG followed by vitrification in 35% (v/v) EG + PG. PMID:26411536

  20. Comparison of two lung clearance models based on the dissolution rates of oxidized depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, K.C.

    1984-10-01

    An in-vitro dissolution study was conducted on two respirable oxidized depleted uranium samples. The dissolution rates generated from this study were then utilized in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Task Group lung clearance model and a lung clearance model proposed by Cuddihy. Predictions from both models based on the dissolution rates of the amount of oxidized depleted uranium that would be cleared to blood from the pulmonary region following an inhalation exposure were compared. It was found that the predictions made by both models differed considerably. The difference between the predictions was attributed to the differences in the way each model perceives the clearance from the pulmonary region. 33 references, 11 figures, 9 tables.

  1. Accuracy of patient dose calculation for lung IMRT: A comparison of Monte Carlo, convolution/superposition, and pencil beam computations

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderstraeten, Barbara; Reynaert, Nick; Paelinck, Leen; Madani, Indira; Wagter, Carlos de; Gersem, Werner de; Neve, Wilfried de; Thierens, Hubert

    2006-09-15

    The accuracy of dose computation within the lungs depends strongly on the performance of the calculation algorithm in regions of electronic disequilibrium that arise near tissue inhomogeneities with large density variations. There is a lack of data evaluating the performance of highly developed analytical dose calculation algorithms compared to Monte Carlo computations in a clinical setting. We compared full Monte Carlo calculations (performed by our Monte Carlo dose engine MCDE) with two different commercial convolution/superposition (CS) implementations (Pinnacle-CS and Helax-TMS's collapsed cone model Helax-CC) and one pencil beam algorithm (Helax-TMS's pencil beam model Helax-PB) for 10 intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) lung cancer patients. Treatment plans were created for two photon beam qualities (6 and 18 MV). For each dose calculation algorithm, patient, and beam quality, the following set of clinically relevant dose-volume values was reported: (i) minimal, median, and maximal dose (D{sub min}, D{sub 50}, and D{sub max}) for the gross tumor and planning target volumes (GTV and PTV); (ii) the volume of the lungs (excluding the GTV) receiving at least 20 and 30 Gy (V{sub 20} and V{sub 30}) and the mean lung dose; (iii) the 33rd percentile dose (D{sub 33}) and D{sub max} delivered to the heart and the expanded esophagus; and (iv) D{sub max} for the expanded spinal cord. Statistical analysis was performed by means of one-way analysis of variance for repeated measurements and Tukey pairwise comparison of means. Pinnacle-CS showed an excellent agreement with MCDE within the target structures, whereas the best correspondence for the organs at risk (OARs) was found between Helax-CC and MCDE. Results from Helax-PB were unsatisfying for both targets and OARs. Additionally, individual patient results were analyzed. Within the target structures, deviations above 5% were found in one patient for the comparison of MCDE and Helax-CC, while all differences

  2. Accuracy of patient dose calculation for lung IMRT: A comparison of Monte Carlo, convolution/superposition, and pencil beam computations.

    PubMed

    Vanderstraeten, Barbara; Reynaert, Nick; Paelinck, Leen; Madani, Indira; De Wagter, Carlos; De Gersem, Werner; De Neve, Wilfried; Thierens, Hubert

    2006-09-01

    The accuracy of dose computation within the lungs depends strongly on the performance of the calculation algorithm in regions of electronic disequilibrium that arise near tissue inhomogeneities with large density variations. There is a lack of data evaluating the performance of highly developed analytical dose calculation algorithms compared to Monte Carlo computations in a clinical setting. We compared full Monte Carlo calculations (performed by our Monte Carlo dose engine MCDE) with two different commercial convolution/superposition (CS) implementations (Pinnacle-CS and Helax-TMS's collapsed cone model Helax-CC) and one pencil beam algorithm (Helax-TMS's pencil beam model Helax-PB) for 10 intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) lung cancer patients. Treatment plans were created for two photon beam qualities (6 and 18 MV). For each dose calculation algorithm, patient, and beam quality, the following set of clinically relevant dose-volume values was reported: (i) minimal, median, and maximal dose (Dmin, D50, and Dmax) for the gross tumor and planning target volumes (GTV and PTV); (ii) the volume of the lungs (excluding the GTV) receiving at least 20 and 30 Gy (V20 and V30) and the mean lung dose; (iii) the 33rd percentile dose (D33) and Dmax delivered to the heart and the expanded esophagus; and (iv) Dmax for the expanded spinal cord. Statistical analysis was performed by means of one-way analysis of variance for repeated measurements and Tukey pairwise comparison of means. Pinnacle-CS showed an excellent agreement with MCDE within the target structures, whereas the best correspondence for the organs at risk (OARs) was found between Helax-CC and MCDE. Results from Helax-PB were unsatisfying for both targets and OARs. Additionally, individual patient results were analyzed. Within the target structures, deviations above 5% were found in one patient for the comparison of MCDE and Helax-CC, while all differences between MCDE and Pinnacle-CS were below 5%. For both

  3. Porcine respiratory disease complex: Interaction of vaccination and porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Chae, Chanhee

    2016-06-01

    Porcine respiratory disease is a multifactorial and complex disease caused by a combination of infectious pathogens, environmental stressors, differences in production systems, and various management practices; hence the name porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is used. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are considered to be the most important pathogens that cause PRDC. Although interactions among the three major respiratory pathogens are well documented, it is also necessary to understand the interaction between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae are well known to potentiate PCV2-associated lesions; however, PRRSV and mycoplasmal vaccines can both enhance PCV2 viraemia regardless of the effects of the actual PRRSV or M. hyopneumoniae infection. On the other hand, M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of pneumonia induced by PRRSV, and vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone is also able to decrease PRRSV viraemia and PRRSV-induced lung lesions in dually infected pigs. This review focuses on (1) interactions between PCV2, PRRSV, and M. hyopneumoniae; and (2) interactions between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PMID:27256017

  4. Comparison of robotic and video-assisted thoracic surgery for lung cancer: a propensity-matched analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Feichao; Zhang, Chong; Yang, Yunhai; He, Zhehao; Wang, Luming

    2016-01-01

    Background Reports of comparison between robotic and thoracoscopic surgery for lung cancer are limited, we aimed to compare the perioperative outcomes of robotic and thoracoscopic anatomic pulmonary resection for lung cancer. Methods A total of 184 patients with lung cancer underwent anatomic pulmonary resection by robotics or thoracoscopy. A propensity-matched analysis with incorporated preoperative variables was used to compare the perioperative outcomes between the two procedures. Results Overall, 71 patients underwent robotic pulmonary resection, including 64 lobectomies and 7 segmentectomies, while 113 patients underwent thoracoscopic lobectomy and segmentectomy. Propensity match produced 69 pairs. The mean length of postoperative stay (7.6±4.6 vs. 6.4±2.6 d, P=0.078), chest tube duration (5.3±3.7 vs. 4.4±1.7 d, P=0.056), number of lymph nodes retrieved (17.9±6.9 vs. 17.4±7.0, P=0.660), stations of lymph nodes resected (7.4±1.6 vs. 7.6±1.7, P=0.563), operative blood loss (53.9±29.3 vs. 50.3±37.9 mL, P=0.531), morbidity rates (42.0% vs. 30.4%, P=0.157) were similar between the robotics and thoracoscopy. However, robotics was associated with higher cost ($12,067±1,610 vs. $8,328±1,004, P<0.001), and longer operative time (136±40 vs. 111±28 min, P<0.001). Conclusions Robotics seems to have higher hospital costs and longer operative time, without superior advantages in morbidity rates and oncologic efficiency. Further prospective randomized clinical trials were needed to validate both of its short- and long-term oncologic efficiency. PMID:27499971

  5. Meta-analysis of the independent and cumulative effects of multiple genetic modifications on pig lung xenograft performance during ex vivo perfusion with human blood

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Donald G.; Quinn, Kevin J.; French, Beth M.; Schwartz, Evan; Kang, Elizabeth; Dahi, Siamak; Phelps, Carol J.; Ayares, David L.; Burdorf, Lars; Azimzadeh, Agnes M.; Pierson, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetically modified pigs are a promising potential source of lung xenografts. Ex-vivo xenoperfusion is an effective platform for testing the effect of new modifications, but typical experiments are limited by testing of a single genetic intervention and small sample sizes. The purpose of this study was to analyze the individual and aggregate effects of donor genetic modifications on porcine lung xenograft survival and injury in an extensive pig lung xenoperfusion series. Methods Data from 157 porcine lung xenoperfusion experiments using otherwise unmodified heparinized human blood were aggregated as either continuous or dichotomous variables. Lungs were wild type in 17 perfusions (11% of the study group), while 31 lungs (20% of the study group) had 1 genetic modification, 40 lungs (39%) had 2, and 47 lungs (30%) had 3 or more modifications. The primary endpoint was functional lung survival to 4 hours of perfusion. Secondary analyses evaluated previously identified markers associated with known lung xenograft injury mechanisms. In addition to comparison among all xenografts grouped by survival status, a subgroup analysis was performed of lungs incorporating the GalTKO.hCD46 genotype. Results Each increase in the number of genetic modifications was associated with additional prolongation of lung xenograft survival. Lungs that exhibited survival to 4 hours generally had reduced platelet activation and thrombin generation. GalTKO and the expression of hCD46, HO-1, hCD55 or hEPCR were associated with improved survival. hTBM, HLA-E, and hCD39 were associated with no significant effect on the primary outcome. Conclusion This meta-analysis of an extensive lung xenotransplantation series demonstrates that increasing the number of genetic modifications targeting known xenogeneic lung injury mechanisms is associated with incremental improvements in lung survival. While more detailed mechanistic studies are needed to explore the relationship between gene expression

  6. AP-PA field orientation followed by IMRT reduces lung exposure in comparison to conventional 3D conformal and sole IMRT in centrally located lung tumors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the fact that intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques do not easily enable treatment with opposed beams. Three treatment plans (3 D conformal, IMRT, and combined (anterior-posterior-posterio-anterior (AP-PA) + IMRT) of 7 patients with centrally-located lung cancer were compared for exposure of lung, spinal cord and esophagus. Combined IMRT and AP-PA techniques offer better lung tissue sparing compared to plans predicated solely on IMRT for centrally-located lung tumors. PMID:22340727

  7. AP-PA field orientation followed by IMRT reduces lung exposure in comparison to conventional 3D conformal and sole IMRT in centrally located lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Soyfer, Viacheslav; Meir, Yaron; Corn, Benjamin W; Schifter, Dan; Gez, Eliahu; Tempelhoff, Haim; Shtraus, Natan

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the fact that intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques do not easily enable treatment with opposed beams. Three treatment plans (3 D conformal, IMRT, and combined (anterior-posterior-posterio-anterior (AP-PA) + IMRT) of 7 patients with centrally-located lung cancer were compared for exposure of lung, spinal cord and esophagus. Combined IMRT and AP-PA techniques offer better lung tissue sparing compared to plans predicated solely on IMRT for centrally-located lung tumors. PMID:22340727

  8. Features of complement activation-related pseudoallergy to liposomes with different surface charge and PEGylation: comparison of the porcine and rat responses.

    PubMed

    Dézsi, László; Fülöp, Tamás; Mészáros, Tamás; Szénási, Gábor; Urbanics, Rudolf; Vázsonyi, Csenge; Őrfi, Erik; Rosivall, László; Nemes, Réka; Kok, Robbert Jan; Metselaar, Josbert M; Storm, Gert; Szebeni, János

    2014-12-10

    Pigs are known to provide a sensitive model for studying complement (C) activation-related pseudoallergy (CARPA), a hypersensitivity reaction to liposomal and many other nanomedicines that limits their clinical use. The utility of rats as a CARPA model has, however, not been analyzed to date in detail. The present study compared the two models by inducing CARPA with i.v. bolus injections of two reactogenic liposomes that differed from each other in surface properties: one was AmBisome, a strong anionic, free-surface small unilamellar liposome (SUV), while the other was neutral, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-grafted SUV wherein the 2 kDa-PEG was anchored to the membrane via cholesterol (Chol-PEG). Both in pigs and rats AmBisome caused significant consumption of C3, indicating C activation, along with paralleling massive changes in blood pressure, white blood cell, platelet counts and in plasma thromboxane B2 levels, indicating CARPA. These processes were similar in the two species in terms of kinetics, but significantly differed in the doses that caused major hemodynamic changes (~0.01 and ~22 mg phospholipid (PL)/kg in pigs and rats, respectively). Pigs responded to AmBisome with pulmonary hypertension and systemic hypotension, and the reaction was not tachyphylactic. The major response of rats was systemic hypotension, leukopenia followed by leukocytosis, and thrombocytopenia. Chol-PEG liposomes caused severe reaction in pigs at 0.1 mg/kg, while the reaction they caused in rats was mild even at 300 mg PL/kg. Importantly, the reaction to Chol-PEG in pigs was partly tachyphylactic. These observations highlight fundamental differences in the immune mechanisms of porcine and rat CARPA, and also show a major impact of liposome surface characteristics, determining the presence or absence of tachyphylaxis. The data suggest that rats are 2-3 orders of magnitude less sensitive to liposomal CARPA than pigs; however, the causes of these differences, the PEG

  9. Dosimetric comparison of Acuros XB, AAA, and XVMC in stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuruta, Yusuke; Nakata, Manabu; Higashimura, Kyoji; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Matsuo, Yukinori; Monzen, Hajime; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric performance of Acuros XB (AXB), anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), and x-ray voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) in heterogeneous phantoms and lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) plans. Methods: Water- and lung-equivalent phantoms were combined to evaluate the percentage depth dose and dose profile. The radiation treatment machine Novalis (BrainLab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany) with an x-ray beam energy of 6 MV was used to calculate the doses in the composite phantom at a source-to-surface distance of 100 cm with a gantry angle of 0°. Subsequently, the clinical lung SBRT plans for the 26 consecutive patients were transferred from the iPlan (ver. 4.1; BrainLab AG) to the Eclipse treatment planning systems (ver. 11.0.3; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The doses were then recalculated with AXB and AAA while maintaining the XVMC-calculated monitor units and beam arrangement. Then the dose-volumetric data obtained using the three different radiation dose calculation algorithms were compared. Results: The results from AXB and XVMC agreed with measurements within ±3.0% for the lung-equivalent phantom with a 6 × 6 cm{sup 2} field size, whereas AAA values were higher than measurements in the heterogeneous zone and near the boundary, with the greatest difference being 4.1%. AXB and XVMC agreed well with measurements in terms of the profile shape at the boundary of the heterogeneous zone. For the lung SBRT plans, AXB yielded lower values than XVMC in terms of the maximum doses of ITV and PTV; however, the differences were within ±3.0%. In addition to the dose-volumetric data, the dose distribution analysis showed that AXB yielded dose distribution calculations that were closer to those with XVMC than did AAA. Means ± standard deviation of the computation time was 221.6 ± 53.1 s (range, 124–358 s), 66.1 ± 16.0 s (range, 42–94 s), and 6.7 ± 1.1 s (range, 5–9 s) for XVMC, AXB, and AAA, respectively. Conclusions: In the

  10. A Comparison of Lung Nodule Segmentation Algorithms: Methods and Results from a Multi-institutional Study.

    PubMed

    Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Zhao, Binsheng; Goldgof, Dmitry; Gu, Yuhua; Wang, Xingwei; Yang, Hao; Tan, Yongqiang; Gillies, Robert; Napel, Sandy

    2016-08-01

    Tumor volume estimation, as well as accurate and reproducible borders segmentation in medical images, are important in the diagnosis, staging, and assessment of response to cancer therapy. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a multi-institutional effort to assess the repeatability and reproducibility of nodule borders and volume estimate bias of computerized segmentation algorithms in CT images of lung cancer, and to provide results from such a study. The dataset used for this evaluation consisted of 52 tumors in 41 CT volumes (40 patient datasets and 1 dataset containing scans of 12 phantom nodules of known volume) from five collections available in The Cancer Imaging Archive. Three academic institutions developing lung nodule segmentation algorithms submitted results for three repeat runs for each of the nodules. We compared the performance of lung nodule segmentation algorithms by assessing several measurements of spatial overlap and volume measurement. Nodule sizes varied from 29 μl to 66 ml and demonstrated a diversity of shapes. Agreement in spatial overlap of segmentations was significantly higher for multiple runs of the same algorithm than between segmentations generated by different algorithms (p < 0.05) and was significantly higher on the phantom dataset compared to the other datasets (p < 0.05). Algorithms differed significantly in the bias of the measured volumes of the phantom nodules (p < 0.05) underscoring the need for assessing performance on clinical data in addition to phantoms. Algorithms that most accurately estimated nodule volumes were not the most repeatable, emphasizing the need to evaluate both their accuracy and precision. There were considerable differences between algorithms, especially in a subset of heterogeneous nodules, underscoring the recommendation that the same software be used at all time points in longitudinal studies. PMID:26847203

  11. Comparison of Spine, Carina, and Tumor as Registration Landmarks for Volumetric Image-Guided Lung Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, Jane Bezjak, Andrea; Franks, Kevin; Le, Lisa W.; Cho, B.C.; Payne, David; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility, reproducibility, and accuracy of volumetric lung image guidance using different thoracic landmarks for image registration. Methods and Materials: In 30 lung patients, four independent observers conducted automated and manual image registrations on Day 1 cone-beam computed tomography data sets using the spine, carina, and tumor (720 image registrations). The image registration was timed, and the couch displacements were recorded. The intraclass correlation was used to assess reproducibility, and the Bland-Altman analysis was used to compare the automatic and manual matching methods. Tumor coverage (accuracy) was assessed through grading the tumor position after image matching against the internal target volume and planning target volume. Results: The image-guided process took an average of 1 min for all techniques, with the exception of manual tumor matching, which took 4 min. Reproducibility was greatest for automatic carina matching (intraclass correlation, 0.90-0.93) and lowest for manual tumor matching (intraclass correlation, 0.07-0.43) in the left-right, superoinferior, and anteroposterior directions, respectively. The Bland-Altman analysis showed no significant difference between the automatic and manual registration methods. The tumor was within the internal target volume 62% and 60% of the time and was outside the internal target volume, but within the planning target volume, 38% and 40% of the time after automatic spine and automatic carina matching, respectively. Conclusion: For advanced lung cancer, the spine or carina can be used equally for cone-beam computed tomography image registration without compromising target coverage. The carina was more reproducible than the spine, but additional analysis is required to confirm its validation as a tumor surrogate. Soft-tissue registration is unsuitable at present, given the limitations in contrast resolution and the high interobserver variability.

  12. Evaluation and comparison of New 4DCT based strategies for proton treatment planning for lung tumors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate different strategies for proton lung treatment planning based on four-dimensional CT (4DCT) scans. Methods and Materials Twelve cases, involving only gross tumor volumes (GTV), were evaluated. Single image sets of (1) maximum intensity projection (MIP3) of end inhale (EI), middle exhale (ME) and end exhale (EE) images; (2) average intensity projection (AVG) of all phase images; and (3) EE images from 4DCT scans were selected as primary images for proton treatment planning. Internal target volumes (ITVs) outlined by a clinician were imported into MIP3, AVG, and EE images as planning targets. Initially, treatment uncertainties were not included in planning. Each plan was imported into phase images of 4DCT scans. Relative volumes of GTVs covered by 95% of prescribed dose and mean ipsilateral lung dose of a phase image obtained by averaging the dose in inspiration and expiration phases were used to evaluate the quality of a plan for a particular case. For comparing different planning strategies, the mean of the averaged relative volumes of GTVs covered by 95% of prescribed dose and its standard deviation for each planning strategy for all cases were used. Then, treatment uncertainties were included in planning. Each plan was recalculated in phase images of 4DCT scans. Same strategies were used for plan evaluation except dose-volume histograms of the planning target volumes (PTVs) instead of GTVs were used and the mean and standard deviation of the relative volumes of PTVs covered by 95% of prescribed dose and the ipsilateral lung dose were used to compare different planning strategies. Results MIP3 plans without treatment uncertainties yielded 96.7% of the mean relative GTV covered by 95% of prescribed dose (standard deviations of 5.7% for all cases). With treatment uncertainties, MIP3 plans yielded 99.5% of mean relative PTV covered by 95% of prescribed dose (standard deviations of 0.7%). Inclusion of treatment uncertainties improved PTV dose

  13. The cytological observation of immune adherence of porcine erythrocyte.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yao-Gui; Yin, Wei; Fan, Xin-Feng; Fan, Kuo-Hai; Jiang, Jun-Bing; Li, Hong-Quan

    2012-10-01

    The immune adherence (IA) between the porcine erythrocytes and the opsonized Escherichia coli carried green fluorescent protein gene (GFP-E.coli) were detected by the fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with an attempt to verify the existence of IA between the porcine erythrocytes and complemented-opsonized microbes. Under fluorescence microscopy, GFP-E.coli opsonized by fresh rabbit serum complement adhered to the erythrocytes and could not be detached by PBS washing, and no IA was observed between the erythrocytes and nonopsonized GFP-E.coli after co-incubation. SEM and TEM also revealed the existence of IA between the serum complement-opsonized GFP-E.coli membrane and the erythrocyte membrane. The partial complement receptor type 1 (CR1)-like gene from porcine was generated by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA 3' end (3' RACE) (157bp and 578bp), both of which have high similarity with published mammal's CR1 gene. The sequences were spliced based on homology comparison and submitted to GenBank (GenBank Accession No. JX033989). These results indicated that the porcine erythrocytes were able to bind to the opsonized microorganisms. Furthermore, the sequencing results confirmed that the CR1-like gene exists in porcine. PMID:23150925

  14. CT image construction of a totally deflated lung using deformable model extrapolation

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghi Naini, Ali; Pierce, Greg; Lee, Ting-Yim; and others

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: A novel technique is proposed to construct CT image of a totally deflated lung from a free-breathing 4D-CT image sequence acquired preoperatively. Such a constructed CT image is very useful in performing tumor ablative procedures such as lung brachytherapy. Tumor ablative procedures are frequently performed while the lung is totally deflated. Deflating the lung during such procedures renders preoperative images ineffective for targeting the tumor. Furthermore, the problem cannot be solved using intraoperative ultrasound (U.S.) images because U.S. images are very sensitive to small residual amount of air remaining in the deflated lung. One possible solution to address these issues is to register high quality preoperative CT images of the deflated lung with their corresponding low quality intraoperative U.S. images. However, given that such preoperative images correspond to an inflated lung, such CT images need to be processed to construct CT images pertaining to the lung's deflated state. Methods: To obtain the CT images of deflated lung, we present a novel image construction technique using extrapolated deformable registration to predict the deformation the lung undergoes during full deflation. The proposed construction technique involves estimating the lung's air volume in each preoperative image automatically in order to track the respiration phase of each 4D-CT image throughout a respiratory cycle; i.e., the technique does not need any external marker to form a respiratory signal in the process of curve fitting and extrapolation. The extrapolated deformation field is then applied on a preoperative reference image in order to construct the totally deflated lung's CT image. The technique was evaluated experimentally using ex vivo porcine lung. Results: The ex vivo lung experiments led to very encouraging results. In comparison with the CT image of the deflated lung we acquired for the purpose of validation, the constructed CT image was very similar. The

  15. Comparison of the efficacy of autogenous inactivated Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) vaccines with that of commercial vaccines against homologous and heterologous challenges

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a rapidly evolving pathogen of swine. At present, there is a high demand for safe and more effective vaccines that can be adapted regularly to emerging virus variants. A recent study showed that, by the use of a controlled inactivation procedure, an experimental BEI-inactivated PRRSV vaccine can be developed that offers partial protection against homologous challenge with the prototype strain LV. At present, it is however not known if this vaccine can be adapted to currently circulating virus variants. In this study, two recent PRRSV field isolates (07 V063 and 08 V194) were used for BEI-inactivated vaccine production. The main objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of these experimental BEI-inactivated vaccines against homologous and heterologous challenge and to compare it with an experimental LV-based BEI-inactivated vaccine and commercial inactivated and attenuated vaccines. In addition, the induction of challenge virus-specific (neutralizing) antibodies by the different vaccines was assessed. Results In a first experiment (challenge with 07 V063), vaccination with the experimental homologous (07 V063) inactivated vaccine shortened the viremic phase upon challenge with approximately 2 weeks compared to the mock-vaccinated control group. Vaccination with the commercial attenuated vaccines reduced the duration of viremia with approximately one week compared to the mock-vaccinated control group. In contrast, the experimental heterologous (LV) inactivated vaccine and the commercial inactivated vaccine did not influence viremia. Interestingly, both the homologous and the heterologous experimental inactivated vaccine induced 07 V063-specific neutralizing antibodies upon vaccination, while the commercial inactivated and attenuated vaccines failed to do so. In the second experiment (challenge with 08 V194), use of the experimental homologous (08 V194) inactivated vaccine shortened

  16. Comparison of the sensitivity of three lung derived cell lines to metals from combustion derived particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Riley, Mark R; Boesewetter, Dianne E; Turner, Rachael A; Kim, Aana M; Collier, Jayne M; Hamilton, Amy

    2005-04-01

    While the effects of inhalation of combustion-derived particulate matter have received extensive study, there remains no reliable means to rapidly quantify inhalation toxicity outside of a laboratory setting. Cell-based biosensors provide a potential solution, but few comparisons have been made of the sensitivity of various cell lines to the wide range of inhalation health hazards that are likely to be encountered. This work compares the response of three immortalized lung cell lines (A549 human epithelia, RLE-6TN rat type II epithelia, and NR8383 rat alveolar macrophages) to metals commonly present in combustion-derived particulate matter. Quantifications of the cell response involved measurement of inhibition of cell culture metabolism (mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity) and cell death (release of lactate dehydrogenase). While these three cell types generally ranked metals in ED50 values similarly (Vcomparison of the sensitivity of three cell types provides a basis for selection of cell types for use in cell-based biosensors. PMID:15713548

  17. Comparison of spirometry and abdominal height as four-dimensional computed tomography metrics in lung

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Wei; Low, Daniel A.; Parikh, Parag J.; Nystrom, Michelle M.; El Naqa, Issam M.; Wahab, Sasha H.; Handoko, Maureen; Fooshee, David; Bradley, Jeffrey D.

    2005-07-15

    An important consideration in four-dimensional CT scanning is the selection of a breathing metric for sorting the CT data and modeling internal motion. This study compared two noninvasive breathing metrics, spirometry and abdominal height, against internal air content, used as a surrogate for internal motion. Both metrics were shown to be accurate, but the spirometry showed a stronger and more reproducible relationship than the abdominal height in the lung. The abdominal height was known to be affected by sensor placement and patient positioning while the spirometer exhibited signal drift. By combining these two, a normalization of the drift-free metric to tidal volume may be generated and the overall metric precision may be improved.

  18. Blood gas and hematological changes in experimental peracute porcine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Kiorpes, A L; MacWilliams, P S; Schenkman, D I; Bäckström, L R

    1990-01-01

    The effect of experimental, peracute, porcine pleuropneumonia on arterial blood gases, acid base status, the leukogram, and gross and microscopic lung structure was studied in nine growing pigs (mean weight +/- SD 10.6 +/- 2.0 kg). Pigs were inoculated intranasally with a virulent serotype 5 isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and all showed signs typical of the disease within four hours. Death occurred in all pigs from 4.5 to 32 hours postinoculation (mean 14 hours). Gross and microscopic changes were typical of porcine pleuropneumonia in all pigs. Changes in the leukogram included a rapid decline in total white cells, segmented neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils. Pigs maintained alveolar ventilation throughout the study as arterial CO2 tension was unchanged; however, arterial O2 tension and pH decreased from (mean +/- SD) 95.2 +/- 5.7 torr and 7.463 +/- 0.018 at baseline to 62.1 +/- 12.3 torr and 7.388 +/- 0.045, respectively, within 90 minutes prior to death. The data showed that in this model of peracute porcine pleuropneumonia, progressive ventilatory failure was not a feature of the disease, and the blood gas values and acid base status were maintained within physiological ranges. The histopathological hematological and physiological findings were consistent with the hypothesis that peracute porcine pleuropneumonia resembles septic shock. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2106382

  19. Thermal Ablation of Lung Tissue: In Vivo Experimental Comparison of Microwave and Radiofrequency

    SciTech Connect

    Crocetti, Laura Bozzi, Elena; Faviana, Pinuccia; Cioni, Dania; Della Pina, Clotilde; Sbrana, Alberto; Fontanini, Gabriella; Lencioni, Riccardo

    2010-08-15

    This study was designed to compare feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of microwave (MW) ablation versus radiofrequency (RF) ablation of lung tissue in a rabbit model. Twenty New Zealand White rabbits were submitted to MW (n = 10, group A) or RF ablation (n = 10, group B). The procedures were performed with a prototype MW ablation device with a 1.6-cm radiating section antenna (Valleylab MW Ablation System) and with a 2-cm exposed-tip RF electrode (Cool-tip RF Ablation System). At immediate computed tomography increase in density, maximum diameters (D1-D3) of ablation zones were measured and ablation volume was calculated. Histopathologic assessment was performed 3 and 7 days after the procedure. Technical success was achieved in nine of 10 rabbits in each group. One death occurred in group B. Complications included pneumothorax (group A, n = 4; group B, n = 4), abscess (group A, n = 1; group B, n = 1), and thoracic wall burn (group A, n = 4). No significant differences were demonstrated in attenuation increase (P = 0.73), dimensions (P = 0.28, 0.86, 0.06, respectively, comparing D1-D3) and volume (P = 0.17). At histopathology, ablation zones were similar, with septal necrosis, edema, hemorrhage, and peripheral lymphocytic infiltrate. Complete thrombosis of more than 90% of vessels up to 2 mm in diameter was depicted at the periphery of the ablation zone in group A specimens. In group B specimens, complete thrombosis was depicted in 20% of vessels. Feasibility and safety of MW and RF ablation are similar in a lung rabbit model. MW ablation produces a greater damage to peripheral small vessels inducing thrombosis.

  20. Comparison of measured and estimated maximum skin doses during CT fluoroscopy lung biopsies

    SciTech Connect

    Zanca, F.; Jacobs, A.; Crijns, W.; De Wever, W.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To measure patient-specific maximum skin dose (MSD) associated with CT fluoroscopy (CTF) lung biopsies and to compare measured MSD with the MSD estimated from phantom measurements, as well as with the CTDIvol of patient examinations. Methods: Data from 50 patients with lung lesions who underwent a CT fluoroscopy-guided biopsy were collected. The CT protocol consisted of a low-kilovoltage (80 kV) protocol used in combination with an algorithm for dose reduction to the radiology staff during the interventional procedure, HandCare (HC). MSD was assessed during each intervention using EBT2 gafchromic films positioned on patient skin. Lesion size, position, total fluoroscopy time, and patient-effective diameter were registered for each patient. Dose rates were also estimated at the surface of a normal-size anthropomorphic thorax phantom using a 10 cm pencil ionization chamber placed at every 30°, for a full rotation, with and without HC. Measured MSD was compared with MSD values estimated from the phantom measurements and with the cumulative CTDIvol of the procedure. Results: The median measured MSD was 141 mGy (range 38–410 mGy) while the median cumulative CTDIvol was 72 mGy (range 24–262 mGy). The ratio between the MSD estimated from phantom measurements and the measured MSD was 0.87 (range 0.12–4.1) on average. In 72% of cases the estimated MSD underestimated the measured MSD, while in 28% of the cases it overestimated it. The same trend was observed for the ratio of cumulative CTDIvol and measured MSD. No trend was observed as a function of patient size. Conclusions: On average, estimated MSD from dose rate measurements on phantom as well as from CTDIvol of patient examinations underestimates the measured value of MSD. This can be attributed to deviations of the patient's body habitus from the standard phantom size and to patient positioning in the gantry during the procedure.

  1. Comparison of molecular and biological characteristics of a modified live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine (ingelvac PRRS MLV), the parent strain of the vaccine (ATCC VR2332), ATCC VR2385, and two recent field isolates of PRRSV.

    PubMed

    Opriessnig, T; Halbur, P G; Yoon, K-J; Pogranichniy, R M; Harmon, K M; Evans, R; Key, K F; Pallares, F J; Thomas, P; Meng, X J

    2002-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the molecular and biological characteristics of recent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) field isolates to those of a modified live virus (MLV) PRRS vaccine and its parent strain. One hundred seventeen, 4-week-old pigs were randomly assigned to six groups. Group 1 (n = 20) served as sham-inoculated negative controls, group 2 (n = 19) was inoculated with Ingelvac PRRS MLV vaccine, group 3 (n = 20) was inoculated with the parent strain of the vaccine (ATCC VR2332), group 4 (n = 19) was inoculated with vaccine-like PRRSV field isolate 98-38803, group 5 (n = 19) was inoculated with PRRSV field isolate 98-37120, and group 6 (n = 20) was inoculated with known high-virulence PRRSV isolate ATCC VR2385. The levels of severity of gross lung lesions (0 to 100%) among the groups were significantly different at both 10 (P < 0.0001) and 28 days postinoculation (p.i.) (P = 0.002). At 10 days p.i., VR2332 (26.5% +/- 4.64%) and VR2385 (36.4% +/- 6.51%) induced gross lesions of significantly greater severity than 98-38803 (0.0% +/- 0.0%), 98-37120 (0.8% +/- 0.42%), Ingelvac PRRS MLV (0.9% +/- 0.46%), and negative controls (2.3% +/- 1.26%). At 28 days p.i., 98-37120 (17.2% +/- 6.51%) induced gross lesions of significantly greater severity than any of the other viruses. Analyses of the microscopic-interstitial-pneumonia-lesion scores (0 to 6) revealed that VR2332 (2.9 +/- 0.23) and VR2385 (3.1 +/- 0.35) induced significantly more severe lesions at 10 days p.i. At 28 days p.i., VR2385 (2.5 +/- 0.27), VR2332 (2.3 +/- 0.21), 98-38803 (2.6 +/- 0.29), and 98-37120 (3.0 +/- 0.41) induced significantly more severe lesions than Ingelvac PRRS MLV (0.7 +/- 0.17) and controls (0.7 +/- 0.15). The molecular analyses and biological characterizations suggest that the vaccine-like isolate 98-38803 (99.5% amino acid homology based on the ORF5 gene) induces microscopic pneumonia lesions similar in type to, but different in severity

  2. Identification and Comparison of Aberrant Key Regulatory Networks in Breast, Colon, Liver, Lung, and Stomach Cancers through Methylome Database Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byungtak; Kang, Seongeun; Jeong, Gookjoo; Park, Sung-Bin; Kim, Sun Jung

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant methylation of specific CpG sites at the promoter is widely responsible for genesis and development of various cancer types. Even though the microarray-based methylome analyzing techniques have contributed to the elucidation of the methylation change at the genome-wide level, the identification of key methylation markers or top regulatory networks appearing common in highly incident cancers through comparison analysis is still limited. In this study, we in silico performed the genome-wide methylation analysis on each 10 sets of normal and cancer pairs of five tissues: breast, colon, liver, lung, and stomach. The methylation array covers 27,578 CpG sites, corresponding to 14,495 genes, and significantly hypermethylated or hypomethylated genes in the cancer were collected (FDR adjusted p-value <0.05; methylation difference >0.3). Analysis of the dataset confirmed the methylation of previously known methylation markers and further identified novel methylation markers, such as GPX2, CLDN15, and KL. Cluster analysis using the methylome dataset resulted in a diagram with a bipartite mode distinguishing cancer cells from normal cells regardless of tissue types. The analysis further revealed that breast cancer was closest with lung cancer, whereas it was farthest from colon cancer. Pathway analysis identified that either the “cancer” related network or the “cancer” related bio-function appeared as the highest confidence in all the five cancers, whereas each cancer type represents its tissue-specific gene sets. Our results contribute toward understanding the essential abnormal epigenetic pathways involved in carcinogenesis. Further, the novel methylation markers could be applied to establish markers for cancer prognosis. PMID:24842468

  3. Porcine prion protein amyloid

    PubMed Central

    Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions. PMID:26218890

  4. Effective and Timely Evaluation of Pulmonary Congestion: Qualitative Comparison Between Lung Ultrasound and Thoracic Bioelectrical Impedance in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Donadio, Carlo; Bozzoli, Laura; Colombini, Elisa; Pisanu, Giovanna; Ricchiuti, Guido; Picano, Eugenio; Gargani, Luna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The assessment of pulmonary congestion in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients is challenging. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) can estimate body water compartments. Natriuretic peptides are markers of hemodynamic stress, neurohormonal activation and extracellular volume overload. Lung ultrasound (LUS) has been proposed for the non-invasive estimation of extravascular lung water through B-lines assessment. Up to now, no study evaluated the correlation between B-lines, segmental thoracic BIA, and natriuretic peptides in MHD patients. The aims of this study were: (1) To validate LUS as a tool for an effective and timely evaluation of pulmonary congestion in MHD patients, in comparison with segmental thoracic BIA, and with natriuretic peptides; (2) To compare a comprehensive whole chest ultrasound scanning with a simplified and timely scanning scheme limited to the lateral chest regions. Thirty-one MHD adult patients were examined. LUS, total body and thoracic BIA, and natriuretic peptides were performed immediately before and after a mid-week dialysis session. The number of B-lines assessed by LUS was compared with total body and thoracic impedance data and with natriuretic peptides. Pre-HD B-lines ranged 0–147 (mean 31) and decreased significantly post-HD (mean 16, P < 0.001). A significant correlation was found between the number of B-lines and extra-cellular water index (ECWI, r = 0.45, P < 0.001), with thoracic impedance (r = 0.30, P < 0.05), and with BNP (r = 0.57, P < 0.01). The dynamic changes in B-lines correlated better with thoracic impedance than with total body impedance, and correlated with extra-cellular but not with intra-cellular water index. The correlation between B-lines and ECWI was similar when LUS was limited to the lateral chest regions or performed on the whole chest. Multivariate analysis showed that only segmental thoracic impedance was an independent predictor of residual pulmonary congestion

  5. Expression and genomic imprinting of the porcine Rasgrf1 gene.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yue-Yun; Liu, Li-Yuan; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Huang, Long; Zhang, Shu-Jing; Yin, Zong-Jun

    2014-02-25

    Imprinted genes play important roles in mammalian growth, development and behavior. The Rasgrf1 (Ras protein-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1) gene has been identified as an imprinted gene in mouse and rat. In the present study, we detected its sequence, imprinting status and expression pattern in the domestic pigs. A 228 bp partial sequence located in exon 14 and a 193 bp partial sequence located in exon 1 of the Rasgrf1 gene in domestic pigs were obtained. A G/A transition, was identified in Rasgrf1 exon 14, and then, the reciprocal Berkshire × Wannan black F1 hybrid model and the RT-PCR-RFLP method were used to detect the imprinting status of porcine Rasgrf1 gene at the developmental stage of 1-day-old. The expression profile results indicated that the porcine Rasgrf1 mRNA was highly expressed in brain, pituitary and pancreas, followed by kidney, stomach, lung, testis, small intestine, ovary, spleen and liver, and at low levels of expression in longissimus dorsi, heart, and backfat. The expression levels of Rasgrf1 gene in brain, pituitary and pancreas tissues were significantly different between the two reciprocal F1 hybrids. Imprinting analysis showed that porcine Rasgrf1 gene was maternally expressed in the liver, small intestine, paternally expressed in the lung, but biallelically expressed in brain, heart, spleen, kidney, stomach, pancreas, backfat, testis, ovary, longissimus dorsi and pituitary tissues. PMID:24342659

  6. Comparison of setup error using different reference images: a phantom and lung cancer patients study

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Bo; Dai Jianrong; Zhang Ye; Zhang Ke; Men Kuo; Zhou Zongmei; Liang Jun; Wang Lvhua

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare setup errors obtained with kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and 2 different kinds of reference images, free-breathing 3D localization CT images (FB-CT) and the average images of 4-D localization CT images (AVG-CT) for phantom and lung cancer patients. This study also explored the correlation between the difference of translational setup errors and the gross tumor volume (GTV) motion. A respiratory phantom and 14 patients were enrolled in this study. For phantom and each patient, 3D helical CT and 4D CT images were acquired, and AVG-CT images were generated from the 4D CT. The setup errors were determined based on the image registration between the CBCT and the 2 different reference images, respectively. The data for both translational and rotational setup errors were analyzed and compared. The GTV centroid movement as well as its correlation with the translational setup error differences was also evaluated. In the phantom study, the AVG-CT method was more accurate than the FB-CT method. For patients, the translational setup errors based on FB-CT were significantly larger than those from AVG-CT in the left-right (LR), superior-inferior (SI), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions (p < 0.05). Translational setup errors differed by >1 mm in 32.6% and >2 mm in 12.9% of CBCT scans. The rotational setup errors from FB-CT were significantly different from those from AVG-CT in the LR and AP directions (p < 0.05). The correlation coefficient of the translational setup error differences and the GTV centroid movement in the LR, SI, and AP directions was 0.515 (p = 0.060), 0.902 (p < 0.001), and 0.510 (p = 0.062), respectively. For lung cancer patients, respiration may affect the on-line target position location. AVG-CT provides different reference information than FB-CT. The difference in SI direction caused by the 2 methods increases with the GTV movement. Therefore, AVG-CT should be the prefered choice of reference

  7. Enhanced detection of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in fixed tissues by in situ hybridization following tyramide signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Trang, Nguyen Thi; Hirai, Takuya; Ngan, Pham Hong; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Fuke, Naoyuki; Toyama, Keiko; Yamamoto, Tsukasa; Yamaguchi, Ryoji

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the sensitivity of biotinyl-tyramide-based in situ hybridization (TISH) method by comparison with chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) methods. This study also determined the effect of fixative and fixation time on the detection of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in paraffin-embedded tissues. Lung samples were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) or 10% neutral buffered formalin (NBF) for various times before paraffin embedding. Of 30 paraffin-embedded lung samples, fixed for 1 day in 4% PFA or 10% NBF, 18 (60%) were positive for PRRSV by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (nRT-PCR). All 18 lung samples (100%) also were positive for PRRSV by TISH, but only 10 of these 18 specimens (56%) were positive for PRRSV by IHC and CISH. We demonstrated that TISH can detect PRRSV RNA in paraffin-embedded tissues after up to 90 days of fixation. PRRSV nucleic acids and antigens were better preserved in 4% PFA than in 10% NBF. Compared with CISH and IHC testing methods, TISH appeared to be more sensitive for the detection of PRRSV in paraffin-embedded tissues. PMID:25855364

  8. Comparison of methods for evaluation of aerosol deposition in the model of human lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belka, Miloslav; Lippay, Josef; Lizal, Frantisek; Jedelsky, Jan; Jicha, Miroslav

    2014-03-01

    It seems to be very convenient to receive a medicine by inhalation instead of injection. Unfortunately transport of particles and targeted delivery of a drug in human respiratory airways is very complicated task. Therefore we carried out experiments and tested different methods for evaluation of particle deposition in a model of human lungs. The model included respiratory airways from oral cavity to 7th generation of branching. Particles were dispersed by TSI Small-scale Powder Disperser 3433 and delivered to the model. The model was disassembled into segments after the deposition of the particles and local deposition was measured. Two methods were used to analyse the samples, fluorescence spectroscopy and optical microscopy. The first method was based on measuring the intensity of luminescence, which represented the particle deposition. The second method used the optical microscope with phase-contrast objective. A dispersion of isopropanol and particles was filtrated using a vacuum filtration unit, a filter was placed on glass slide and made transparent. The particles on the filter were counted manually and the deposition was calculated afterwards. The results of the methods were compared and both methods proved to be useful.

  9. Lung stereotactic radiotherapy for oligometastases: comparison of oligo-recurrence and sync-oligometastases†

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Hideomi; Niibe, Yuzuru; Yamamoto, Takaya; Katsui, Kuniaki; Jingu, Keiichi; Kanazawa, Susumu; Terahara, Atsuro; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Background Oligometastases can be divided into sync-oligometastases and oligo-recurrence. The difference is whether the primary site is uncontrolled or controlled. The goal of this multicenter study was to evaluate treatment outcomes and factors affecting survival after stereotactic body radiotherapy for pulmonary oligometastases. Methods The information after stereotactic body radiotherapy from January 2004 to April 2014 was retrospectively collected. Ninety-six patients (65 males, 31 females) were enrolled. Ten cases (10%) were sync-oligometastases, 79 cases (82%) were oligo-recurrences and 7 (7%) were unclassified oligometastases with <6 months of disease-free interval. The median disease-free interval between initial therapy and stereotactic body radiotherapy was 24 months. The median calculated biological effective dose was 105.6 Gy. Results The median follow-up period was 32 months for survivors. The 3-year overall survival and relapse-free survival rates were 53% and 32%, respectively. No Grade 5 toxicity occurred. The median overall survival was 23.9 months for sync-oligometastases and 66.6 months for oligo-recurrence (P = 0.0029). On multivariate analysis, sync-oligometastases and multiple oligometastatic tumors were significant unfavorable factors for both overall survival and relapse-free survival. Conclusions In stereotactic body radiotherapy for oligometastatic lung tumors, the state of oligo-recurrence has the potential of a significant prognostic factor for survival. PMID:27162324

  10. Comparison of 133Xenon Ventilation Equilibrium Scan (XV) and 99mTechnetium Transmission (TT) Scan for Use in Regional Lung Analysis by 2D Gamma Scintigraphy in Healthy and Cystic Fibrosis Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jihong; Donaldson, Scott H.; Bennett, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Quantification of particle deposition in the lung by gamma scintigraphy requires a reference image for location of regions of interest (ROIs) and normalization to lung thickness. In various laboratories, the reference image is made by a transmission scan (57Co or 99mTc) or gas ventilation scan (133Xe or 81Kr). There has not been a direct comparison of measures from the two methods. Methods We compared 99mTc transmission scans to 133Xe equilibrium ventilation scans as reference images for 38 healthy subjects and 14 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients for their effects on measures of regional particle deposition: the central-to-peripheral ratio of lung counts (C/P); and ROI area versus forced vital capacity. Whole right lung ROI was based on either an isocontour threshold of three times the soft tissue transmission (TT) or a threshold of 20% of peak xenon ventilation counts (XV). We used a central ROI drawn to 50% of height and of width of the whole right lung ROI and placed along the left lung margin and centered vertically. Results In general, the correlation of normalized C/P (nC/P) between the two methods was strong. However, the value of nC/P was significantly smaller for the XV method than the TT method. Regression equations for the relationship of nC/P between the two methods were, for healthy subjects, y=0.75x+0.61, R2=0.64 using rectangular ROIs and y=0.76x+0.45, R2=0.66 using isocontour ROIs; and for CF patients, y=0.94x+0.46, R2=0.43 and y=0.85x+0.42, R2=0.41, respectively. Conclusions (1) A transmission scan with an isocontour outline in combination with a rectangular central region to define the lung borders may be more useful than a ventilation scan. (2) Close correlation of nC/Ps measured by transmission or gas ventilation should allow confident comparison of values determined by the two methods. PMID:23421899

  11. Comparison of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy with chemotherapy alone in advanced non-small-lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ning; Wang, Zhehai

    2016-01-01

    Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a first-line treatment for advanced nonsquamous, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in 2006. This study retrospectively compared the efficacy of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy with chemotherapy alone as the first-line and second-line treatment as well as the maintenance treatment for advanced NSCLC patients. A total of 1,352 patients were included and we analyzed the efficacy evaluation according to the criteria of the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST), survival, and adverse reactions. The data showed that for bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as the first-line treatment, the median progression-free survival (mPFS) and median overall survival (mOS) were 11.5 and 17.0 months, respectively, compared to 7.0 and 14 months, respectively, in patients who received chemotherapy alone (P<0.01). With bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as maintenance treatment, the mPFS and mOS were 6.0 and 17.4 months, respectively, compared to 3.0 and 15.0 months, respectively, with chemotherapy alone (P<0.01). With bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as the second-line treatment, the mPFS was 3.0 months compared to only 2.0 months with chemotherapy alone (P<0.01). The overall responses to the different regimens showed that the remission rate with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy was higher than that with chemotherapy alone (31.8% vs 25.5%, P<0.05), although there was no statistical difference in the disease control rate with either first- or second-line treatment. In conclusion, chemotherapy plus bevacizumab as the first-line and maintenance treatment, led to better curative rates and tolerable adverse reactions compared with chemotherapy alone in advanced NSCLC patients. Bevacizumab combined with cytotoxic drugs was suitable as the second-line treatment for such patients. PMID:27536131

  12. Comparison of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy with chemotherapy alone in advanced non-small-lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ning; Wang, Zhehai

    2016-01-01

    Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a first-line treatment for advanced nonsquamous, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in 2006. This study retrospectively compared the efficacy of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy with chemotherapy alone as the first-line and second-line treatment as well as the maintenance treatment for advanced NSCLC patients. A total of 1,352 patients were included and we analyzed the efficacy evaluation according to the criteria of the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST), survival, and adverse reactions. The data showed that for bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as the first-line treatment, the median progression-free survival (mPFS) and median overall survival (mOS) were 11.5 and 17.0 months, respectively, compared to 7.0 and 14 months, respectively, in patients who received chemotherapy alone (P<0.01). With bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as maintenance treatment, the mPFS and mOS were 6.0 and 17.4 months, respectively, compared to 3.0 and 15.0 months, respectively, with chemotherapy alone (P<0.01). With bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as the second-line treatment, the mPFS was 3.0 months compared to only 2.0 months with chemotherapy alone (P<0.01). The overall responses to the different regimens showed that the remission rate with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy was higher than that with chemotherapy alone (31.8% vs 25.5%, P<0.05), although there was no statistical difference in the disease control rate with either first- or second-line treatment. In conclusion, chemotherapy plus bevacizumab as the first-line and maintenance treatment, led to better curative rates and tolerable adverse reactions compared with chemotherapy alone in advanced NSCLC patients. Bevacizumab combined with cytotoxic drugs was suitable as the second-line treatment for such patients. PMID:27536131

  13. A comparison of methods for EGFR mutation testing in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Young, Elizabeth C; Owens, Martina M; Adebiyi, Idowu; Bedenham, Tina; Butler, Rachel; Callaway, Jonathan; Cranston, Treena; Crosby, Charlene; Cree, Ian A; Dutton, Laura; Faulkes, Catherine; Faulkner, Claire; Howard, Emma; Knight, Julia; Huang, Yuanxue; Lavender, Louise; Lazarou, Lazarus P; Liu, Hongxiang; Mair, Debbie; Milano, Antonio; Sandell, Stacey; Skinner, Alison; Wallace, Andrew; Williams, Maggie; Spivey, Vicky; Goodall, John; Frampton, Jonathan; Ellard, Sian

    2013-12-01

    EGFR mutation testing of tumor samples is routinely performed to predict sensitivity to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors for patients with non-small cell lung cancer. At least 9 different methodologies are employed in UK laboratories, and the aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity of different methods for the detection of EGFR mutations. Participating laboratories were sent coded samples with varying mutation loads (from 0% to 15%) to be tested for the p.Leu858Arg (p.L858R) missense mutation and c.2235_2249del exon 19 deletion. The p.L858R mutation and deletions within exon 19 of the EGFR gene account for ∼90% of mutation-positive cases. The 11 laboratories used their standard testing method(s) and submitted 15 sets of results for the p.L858R samples and 10 for the exon 19 deletion. The p.Leu858Arg (p.L858R) mutation was detected at levels between 1% and 7.5% by Sanger sequencing, pyrosequencing, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), amplification refractory mutation system, and capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation analysis. The c.2235_2249del mutation was detected at 1% to 5% by fragment size analysis, Sanger sequencing or real-time PCR. A mutation was detected in 24/25 (96%) of the samples tested which contained 5% mutated DNA. The 1% sensitivity claimed for commercial real-time PCR-targeted EGFR tests was achieved and our results show greater sensitivity for the Sanger sequencing and pyrosequencing screening methods compared to the 10% to 20% detection levels cited on clinical diagnostic reports. We conclude that multiple methodologies are suitable for the detection of acquired EGFR mutations. PMID:24193010

  14. Genetic comparison of mouse lung telocytes with mesenchymal stem cells and fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yonghua; Zhang, Miaomiao; Qian, Mengjia; Wang, Lingyan; Cismasiu, V B; Bai, Chunxue; Popescu, L M; Wang, Xiangdong

    2013-01-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are interstitial cells with telopodes – very long prolongations that establish intercellular contacts with various types of cells. Telocytes have been found in many organs and various species and have been characterized ultrastructurally, immunophenotypically and electrophysiologically (http://www.telocytes.com). Telocytes are distributed through organ stroma forming a three-dimensional network in close contacts with blood vessels, nerve bundles and cells of the local immune system. Moreover, it has been shown that TCs express a broad range of microRNAs, such as pro-angiogenic and stromal-specific miRs. In this study, the gene expression profile of murine lung TCs is compared with other differentiated interstitial cells (fibroblasts) and with stromal stem/progenitor cells. More than 2000 and 4000 genes were found up- or down-regulated, respectively, in TCs as compared with either MSCs or fibroblasts. Several components or regulators of the vascular basement membrane are highly expressed in TCs, such as Nidogen, Collagen type IV and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3). Given that TCs locate in close vicinity of small vessels and capillaries, the data suggest the implication of TCs in vascular branching. Telocytes express also matrix metalloproteases Mmp3 and Mmp10, and thus could regulate extracellular matrix during vascular branching and de novo vessel formation. In conclusion, our data show that TCs are not fibroblasts, as the ultrastructure, immunocytochemistry and microRNA assay previously indicated. Gene expression profile demonstrates that TCs are functionally distinct interstitial cells with specific roles in cell signalling, tissue remodelling and angiogenesis. PMID:23621815

  15. A comparison of long-term retention of plutonium oxide in lung based on excretion data with observed lung burdens at autopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Heid, K.R.; Jech, J.J.; Kathren, R.L.; Sula, M.J.

    1985-05-01

    Experience in the nuclear industry has shown that the most frequent route for significant plutonium deposition in man is by inhalation. After an accidental inhalation exposure to plutonium oxide has occurred, an attempt is usually made to determine the lung burden using in-vivo measurement techniques. However, this will not be possible if the amount deposited is less than the detection capability of the counter. Likewise, it may not be possible for even larger intakes if they are first discovered as a results of a routine examination after much of the plutonium has transferred out of the lungs. Under these conditions, the initial lung burden and dose assessment may, of necessity, be based entirely on excretion date. This paper discusses three plutonium inhalation cases for which autopsy data are available to demonstrate the difficulties and uncertainties of such assessments and to emphasize the need for enhanced routine surveillance of the worker and work place to assure that intakes are detected at the time they occur. An in-depth review of the findings for these three cases suggests that the use of urine excretion data applied to ICRP lung model assumption will result in large uncertainties in estimates of the pulmonary burden and lung dose. These estimates will be improved if the material inhaled can be better characterized and by using clearance half times developed for the individual rather than the default values for Class Y material recommended by the ICRP.

  16. Detection and Characterization of Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus in Porcine Plasma and Porcine Factor VIII

    PubMed Central

    Takefman, Daniel M.; Wong, Susan; Maudru, Thomas; Peden, Keith; Wilson, Carolyn A.

    2001-01-01

    The pig genome contains porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) capable of infecting human cells. Detection of infectious retrovirus in porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endothelial cells suggested to us that pig plasma is likely to contain PERV. Both PERV env sequences and viral reverse transcriptase (RT) activity were detected in all plasma samples isolated from four NIH minipigs. To detect infectious virus from plasma, we performed a culture assay using three cell lines of feline, swine, and human origin that had previously been shown to be permissive for PERV. Infectious virus was successfully cultured from all four NIH minipig plasmas on the swine cell line ST-IOWA. Using RT-PCR with env-specific primers, we could detect expression of PERV class C envelope in the supernatant of ST-IOWA cells that had been exposed to each pig plasma. We next examined a pig plasma derivative, Hyate:C (porcine factor VIII), and found evidence of PERV particles, since all six lots examined were positive for PERV RNA and RT activity. However, infectious virus could not be detected in clinical lots of Hyate:C, suggesting that the manufacturing process might reduce the load of infectious virus to levels below detectable limits of the assay. Detection of infectious virus in porcine plasma confirms and extends the previous findings that certain porcine cells express PERV when manipulated in vitro and clearly demonstrates that there are porcine cells that express infectious PERV constitutively in vivo. PMID:11312325

  17. Dosimetric comparison of flattened and unflattened beams for stereotactic ablative radiotherapy of stage I non-small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hrbacek, Jan; Lang, Stephanie; Graydon, Shaun N.; Klöck, Stephan; Riesterer, Oliver

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To compare contribution and accuracy of delivery for two flattening filter free (FFF) beams of the nominal energy 6 and 10 MV and a 6 MV flattened beam for early stage lung cancer. Methods: For each of 11 patients with stage I nonsmall cell lung cancer three volumetric modulated arc therapy plans were prepared utilizing a 6 MV flattened photon beam (X6FF) and two nonflattened beams of nominal energy 6 and 10 MV (X6FFF, X10FFF). Optimization constraints were set to produce dose distributions that meet the criteria of the RTOG-0915 protocol. The radiation schedule used for plan comparison in all patients was 50 Gy in five fractions. Dosimetric parameters of planning target volume (PTV) and organs-at-risk and delivery times were assessed and compared. All plans were subject to verification using Delta{sup 4} unit (Scandidos, Sweden) and absolutely calibrated gafchromic films in a thorax phantom. Results: All plans had a qualitatively comparable outcome. Obtained dose distributions were conformal (CI < 1.17) and exhibited a steep dose fall-off outside the PTV. The ratio of monitor units for FFF versus FF plans in the authors' study ranged from 0.95 to 1.21 and from 0.93 to 1.25 for X6FFF/X6FF and X10FFF/X6FF comparisons, respectively. The ratio systematically increased with increasing size of the PTV (up to +25% for 150 cm{sup 3} PTV). Yet the integral dose to healthy tissue did not follow this trend. Comparison of cumulative dose volume histograms for a patient's body showed that X6FFF plans exhibit improved conformity and reduced the volume of tissue that received more than 50% of the prescription dose. Parameters related to dose gradient showed statistically significant improvement. CI{sub 50%}, CI{sub 60%}, CI{sub 80%}, and CI{sub 100%} were on average reduced by 4.6% (p < 0.001), 4.6% (p = 0.002), 3.1% (p = 0.002), and 1.2% (p = 0.039), respectively. Gradient measure was on average reduced by 4.2% (p < 0.001). Due to dose reduction in the surrounding lung

  18. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  19. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  20. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  1. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  2. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  3. Percutaneous Transthoracic Lung Biopsy: Comparison Between C-Arm Cone-Beam CT and Conventional CT Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yun-Chung; Tsai, Sheng-Heng; Cheng, Yuchi; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Chai, Jyh-Wen; Chen, Clayton Chi-Chang

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C-arm cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a comparatively novel modality for guiding percutaneous transthoracic lung biopsies (PTLBs), and despite its potential advantages over conventional computed tomography (CCT), a head-to-head comparison of the two techniques has yet to be reported in the literature. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic value and safety of CBCT-guided PTLB compared to CCT-guided biopsy, with cases performed in a single hospital. METHODS: A total of 104 PTLB patients were retrospectively analyzed in this study. 35 PTLBs were performed under CBCT guidance, and 69 PTLBs were performed under CCT guidance. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for malignancy as well as procedure time, radiation dose of patients, and complication rate in the two groups were compared. RESULTS: Total procedure time was significantly lower in the CBCT group (32 ± 11 minutes) compared to the CCT group (38 ± 9.7 minutes; P = .009), especially among patients ≥ 70 years of age (CBCT: 33 ± 12 minutes, CCT: 42 ± 13, P = .022). For lesions in the lower lobes, the CBCT-guided group received significantly reduced effective radiation dose (2.9 ± 1.6 mSv) than CCT-guided patients (3.7 ± 0.80; P = .042). Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for malignancy were comparable between the two groups, as were post-biopsy complication rates. CONCLUSION: CBCT guidance significantly reduces the procedure time and radiation exposure for PTLBs compared with CCT, and should be considered in clinical settings that may be difficult or time-consuming to perform under CCT. PMID:26310371

  4. Estimation of lung vital capacity before and after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: a comparison of incentive spirometer and ventilometry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Measurement of vital capacity (VC) by spirometry is the most widely used technique for lung function evaluation, however, this form of assessment is costly and further investigation of other reliable methods at lower cost is necessary. Objective: To analyze the correlation between direct vital capacity measured with ventilometer and with incentive inspirometer in patients in pre and post cardiac surgery. Methodology Cross-sectional comparative study with patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Respiratory parameters were evaluated through the measurement of VC performed by ventilometer and inspirometer. To analyze data normality the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied, for correlation the Pearson correlation coefficient was used and for comparison of variables in pre and post operative period Student's t test was adopted. We established a level of ignificance of 5%. Data was presented as an average, standard deviation and relative frequency when needed. The significance level was set at 5%. Results We studied 52 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, 20 patients in preoperative with VC-ventilometer: 32.95 ± 11.4 ml/kg and VC-inspirometer: 28.9 ± 11 ml/Kg, r = 0.7 p < 0.001. In the post operatory, 32 patients were evaluated with VC-ventilometer: 28.27 ± 12.48 ml/kg and VC-inspirometer: 26.98 ± 11 ml/Kg, r = 0.95 p < 0.001. Presenting a very high correlation between the evaluation forms studied. Conclusion There was a high correlation between DVC measures with ventilometer and incentive spirometer in pre and post CABG surgery. Despite this, arises the necessity of further studies to evaluate the repercussion of this method in lowering costs at hospitals. PMID:21569437

  5. Comparison of Two Therapeutic Strategies in Patients With Non-squamous Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) With Asymptomatic Brain Metastases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-29

    Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Metastatic; Non Epidermoid; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Adenocarcinoma of Lung Metastatic to Brain; Cerebral Metastases; Cerebral Radiotherapy; Brain Radiotherapy; Bevacizumab

  6. Identification of recently described porcine parvoviruses in archived North American samples from 1996 and association with porcine circovirus associated disease.

    PubMed

    Opriessnig, Tanja; Xiao, Chao-Ting; Gerber, Priscilla F; Halbur, Patrick G

    2014-09-17

    The association of porcine circovirus (PCV) type 2 and porcine parvovirus (PPV) type 1 as a cause of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) is well established. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence rates of classical PPV1 and recently recognized PPV2-5 in serum and lung samples from pigs and farms with known PCV2 status. A total of 586 serum samples and 164 lung homogenates collected from 1996 to 2013 in the USA and Canada were utilized. All samples were tested for PPV1-5 and PCV2. PCV2 was detected in 27.7% (162/586) and PPV in 48.8% (286/586) of the serum samples, whereas 78.7% (129/164) of the lung tissues were positive for PCV2 and 56.7% (93/164) were positive for PPV. Overall, PPV2 had the highest prevalence rates in sera (35.2%) and tissues (42.7%). Concurrent infection of PCV2 and PPV occurred in 14.3% (84/586) of the serum samples and in 49.4% (81/164) of the tissue samples. Moreover, the prevalence of PPV1 or PPV2 DNA was significantly higher in tissues containing high amounts of PCV2 DNA compared to non-PCVAD cases. The frequency of concurrent PPV/PCV2 infection was higher for PCVAD herds compared to negative or subclinically infected herds. PPV2, PPV3 and PPV4 were all identified in samples collected in 1998 and PPV5 was first identified in 2006. The obtained findings indicate that similar to PCV2, PPVs are widespread in North American pigs. Nevertheless, diagnostic investigations into PCVAD cases should give more consideration to the role of PPV1 and PPV2 as contributing cofactors. PMID:25081955

  7. Porcine Dentin Sialophosphoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Lu, Yuhe; Hu, Jan C.-C.; Kim, Jung-Wook; Iwata, Takanori; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Nagano, Takatoshi; Yamakoshi, Fumiko; Hu, Yuanyuan; Fukae, Makoto; Simmer, James P.

    2008-01-01

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is critical for proper mineralization of tooth dentin, and mutations in DSPP cause inherited dentin defects. Dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) is the C-terminal cleavage product of DSPP that binds collagen and induces intrafibrillar mineralization. We isolated DPP from individual pigs and determined that its N-terminal and C-terminal domains are glycosylated and that DPP averages 155 phosphates per molecule. Porcine DPP is unstable at low pH and high temperatures, and complexing with collagen improves its stability. Surprisingly, we observed DPP size variations on SDS-PAGE for DPP isolated from individual pigs. These variations are not caused by differences in proteolytic processing or degrees of phosphorylation or glycosylation, but rather to allelic variations in Dspp. Characterization of the DPP coding region identified 4 allelic variants. Among the 4 alleles, 27 sequence variations were identified, including 16 length polymorphisms ranging from 3 to 63 nucleotides. None of the length variations shifted the reading frame, and all localized to the highly redundant region of the DPP code. The 4 alleles encode DPP domains having 551, 575, 589, or 594 amino acids and completely explain the DPP size variations. DPP length variations are polymorphic and are not associated with dentin defects. PMID:18359767

  8. Functional Lung MRI in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Comparison of T1 Mapping, Oxygen-Enhanced T1 Mapping and Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Jobst, Bertram J.; Triphan, Simon M. F.; Sedlaczek, Oliver; Anjorin, Angela; Kauczor, Hans Ulrich; Biederer, Jürgen; Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Ley, Sebastian; Wielpütz, Mark O.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Monitoring of regional lung function in interventional COPD trials requires alternative endpoints beyond global parameters such as FEV1. T1 relaxation times of the lung might allow to draw conclusions on tissue composition, blood volume and oxygen fraction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential value of lung Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with native and oxygen-enhanced T1 mapping for the assessment of COPD patients in comparison with contrast enhanced perfusion MRI. Materials and Methods 20 COPD patients (GOLD I-IV) underwent a coronal 2-dimensional inversion recovery snapshot flash sequence (8 slices/lung) at room air and during inhalation of pure oxygen, as well as dynamic contrast-enhanced first-pass perfusion imaging. Regional distribution of T1 at room air (T1), oxygen-induced T1 shortening (ΔT1) and peak enhancement were rated by 2 chest radiologists in consensus using a semi-quantitative 3-point scale in a zone-based approach. Results Abnormal T1 and ΔT1 were highly prevalent in the patient cohort. T1 and ΔT1 correlated positively with perfusion abnormalities (r = 0.81 and r = 0.80; p&0.001), and with each other (r = 0.80; p<0.001). In GOLD stages I and II ΔT1 was normal in 16/29 lung zones with mildly abnormal perfusion (15/16 with abnormal T1). The extent of T1 (r = 0.45; p<0.05), ΔT1 (r = 0.52; p<0.05) and perfusion abnormalities (r = 0.52; p<0.05) showed a moderate correlation with GOLD stage. Conclusion Native and oxygen-enhanced T1 mapping correlated with lung perfusion deficits and severity of COPD. Under the assumption that T1 at room air correlates with the regional pulmonary blood pool and that oxygen-enhanced T1 reflects lung ventilation, both techniques in combination are principally suitable to characterize ventilation-perfusion imbalance. This appears valuable for the assessment of regional lung characteristics in COPD trials without administration of i.v. contrast. PMID:25822195

  9. Comparison of highly purified semi-synthetic insulin and highly purified porcine insulin in the treatment of type I diabetes: interim report of a multi-centre randomised single blind study.

    PubMed

    Birtwell, A J; Owens, D R; Jones, I R; Hayes, T M; Beale, D J; el-Shaboury, A H; Arora, P; Reeves, W G

    1984-12-01

    This is an interim report of a long term single-blind study of the effects of changing diabetic patients treated with highly purified porcine insulin to semi-synthetic human insulins of identical formulation. Twenty four insulin dependent diabetics were randomly allocated to continue with porcine insulin (n = 11) or human insulin (n = 13). There were no significant changes within the groups nor differences between the groups in mean preprandial capillary blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin or insulin dose during the first 24 weeks of the study. Insulin antibody levels remained low and did not differ between the groups. No local or systemic adverse reactions were observed. In this group of patients conversion to human insulin did not result in a change in diabetic control or insulin dose. PMID:6397365

  10. Lung Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Lung Transplant? A lung transplant is surgery to remove a person's diseased lung ... a healthy lung from a deceased donor. Lung transplants are used for people who are likely to ...

  11. Comparison of Survival Rate in Primary Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Among Elderly Patients Treated With Radiofrequency Ablation, Surgery, or Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Heon; Jin, Gong Yong Han, Young Min; Chung, Gyung Ho; Lee, Yong Chul; Kwon, Keun Sang; Lynch, David

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: We retrospectively compared the survival rate in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), surgery, or chemotherapy according to lung cancer staging. Materials and Methods: From 2000 to 2004, 77 NSCLC patients, all of whom had WHO performance status 0-2 and were >60 years old, were enrolled in a cancer registry and retrospectively evaluated. RFA was performed on patients who had medical contraindications to surgery/unsuitability for surgery, such as advanced lung cancer or refusal of surgery. In the RFA group, 40 patients with inoperable NSCLC underwent RFA under computed tomography (CT) guidance. These included 16 patients with stage I to II cancer and 24 patients with stage III to IV cancer who underwent RFA in an adjuvant setting. In the comparison group (n = 37), 13 patients with stage I to II cancer underwent surgery; 18 patients with stage III to IV cancer underwent chemotherapy; and 6 patients with stage III to IV cancer were not actively treated. The survival curves for RFA, surgery, and chemotherapy in these patients were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median survival times for patients treated with (1) surgery alone and (2) RFA alone for stage I to II lung cancer were 33.8 and 28.2 months, respectively (P = 0.426). Median survival times for patients treated with (1) chemotherapy alone and (2) RFA with chemotherapy for stage III to IV cancer were 29 and 42 months, respectively (P = 0.03). Conclusion: RFA can be used as an alternative treatment to surgery for older NSCLC patients with stage I to II inoperable cancer and can play a role as adjuvant therapy with chemotherapy for patients with stage III to IV lung cancer.

  12. Isolation, sequence identification and tissue expression profiles of 3 novel porcine genes: ASPA, NAGA, and HEXA.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xianghua; Liu, Yonggang; Yang, Liangyu; Song, Chunlian; Hou, Jiafa

    2008-01-01

    The complete coding sequences of 3 porcine genes - ASPA, NAGA, and HEXA - were amplified by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based on the conserved sequence information of the mouse or other mammals and referenced pig ESTs. These 3 novel porcine genes were then deposited in the NCBI database and assigned GeneIDs: 100142661, 100142664 and 100142667. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the porcine ASPA, NAGA, and HEXA all have closer genetic relationships with the ASPA, NAGA, and HEXA of cattle. Tissue expression profile analysis was also carried out and results revealed that swine ASPA, NAGA, and HEXA genes were differentially expressed in various organs, including skeletal muscle, the heart, liver, fat, kidney, lung, and small and large intestines. Our experiment is the first one to establish the foundation for further research on these 3 swine genes. PMID:18670062

  13. Structural and functional annotation of the porcine immunome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The domestic pig is known as an excellent model for human immunology and the two species share many pathogens. Susceptibility to infectious disease is one of the major constraints on swine performance, yet the structure and function of genes comprising the pig immunome are not well-characterized. The completion of the pig genome provides the opportunity to annotate the pig immunome, and compare and contrast pig and human immune systems. Results The Immune Response Annotation Group (IRAG) used computational curation and manual annotation of the swine genome assembly 10.2 (Sscrofa10.2) to refine the currently available automated annotation of 1,369 immunity-related genes through sequence-based comparison to genes in other species. Within these genes, we annotated 3,472 transcripts. Annotation provided evidence for gene expansions in several immune response families, and identified artiodactyl-specific expansions in the cathelicidin and type 1 Interferon families. We found gene duplications for 18 genes, including 13 immune response genes and five non-immune response genes discovered in the annotation process. Manual annotation provided evidence for many new alternative splice variants and 8 gene duplications. Over 1,100 transcripts without porcine sequence evidence were detected using cross-species annotation. We used a functional approach to discover and accurately annotate porcine immune response genes. A co-expression clustering analysis of transcriptomic data from selected experimental infections or immune stimulations of blood, macrophages or lymph nodes identified a large cluster of genes that exhibited a correlated positive response upon infection across multiple pathogens or immune stimuli. Interestingly, this gene cluster (cluster 4) is enriched for known general human immune response genes, yet contains many un-annotated porcine genes. A phylogenetic analysis of the encoded proteins of cluster 4 genes showed that 15% exhibited an accelerated

  14. Lung and 'end organ' injury due to mechanical ventilation in animals: comparison between the prone and supine positions

    PubMed Central

    Nakos, George; Batistatou, Anna; Galiatsou, Eftychia; Konstanti, Eleonora; Koulouras, Vassilios; Kanavaros, Panayotis; Doulis, Apostolos; Kitsakos, Athanassios; Karachaliou, Angeliki; Lekka, Marilena E; Bai, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Use of the prone position in patients with acute lung injury improves their oxygenation. Most of these patients die from multisystem organ failure and not from hypoxia, however. Moreover, there is some evidence that the organ failure is caused by increased cell apoptosis. In the present study we therefore examined whether the position of the patients affects histological changes and apoptosis in the lung and 'end organs', including the brain, heart, diaphragm, liver, kidneys and small intestine. Methods Ten mechanically ventilated sheep with a tidal volume of 15 ml/kg body weight were studied for 90 minutes. Five sheep were placed in the supine position and five sheep were placed in the prone position during the experiment. Lung changes were analyzed histologically using a semiquantitative scoring system and the extent of apoptosis was investigated with the TUNEL method. Results In the supine position intra-alaveolar hemorrhage appeared predominantly in the dorsal areas, while the other histopathologic lesions were homogeneously distributed throughout the lungs. In the prone position, all histological changes were homogeneously distributed. A significantly higher score of lung injury was found in the supine position than in the prone position (4.63 ± 0.58 and 2.17 ± 0.19, respectively) (P < 0.0001). The histopathologic changes were accompanied by increased apoptosis (TUNEL method). In the supine position, the apoptotic index in the lung and in most of the 'end organs' was significantly higher compared with the prone position (all P < 0.005). Interestingly, the apoptotic index was higher in dorsal areas compared with ventral areas in both the prone and supine positions (P < 0.003 and P < 0.02, respectively). Conclusion Our results suggest that the prone position appears to reduce the severity and the extent of lung injury, and is associated with decreased apoptosis in the lung and 'end organs'. PMID:16507176

  15. Radiation risks in lung cancer screening programs: a comparison with nuclear industry workers and atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    McCunney, Robert J; Li, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that screening with low-dose CT (LDCT) scan reduced lung cancer and overall mortality by 20% and 7%, respectively. The LDCT scanning involves an approximate 2-mSv dose, whereas full-chest CT scanning, the major diagnostic study used to follow up nodules, may involve a dose of 8 mSv. Radiation associated with CT scanning and other diagnostic studies to follow up nodules may present an independent risk of lung cancer. On the basis of the NLST, we estimated the incidence and prevalence of nodules detected in screening programs. We followed the Fleischner guidelines for follow-up of nodules to assess cumulative radiation exposure over 20- and 30-year periods. We then evaluated nuclear worker cohort studies and atomic bomb survivor studies to assess the risk of lung cancer from radiation associated with long-term lung cancer screening programs. The findings indicate that a 55-year-old lung screening participant may experience a cumulative radiation exposure of up to 280 mSv over a 20-year period and 420 mSv over 30 years. These exposures exceed those of nuclear workers and atomic bomb survivors. This assessment suggests that long-term (20-30 years) LDCT screening programs are associated with nontrivial cumulative radiation doses. Current lung cancer screening protocols, if conducted over 20- to 30-year periods, can independently increase the risk of lung cancer beyond cigarette smoking as a result of cumulative radiation exposure. Radiation exposures from LDCT screening and follow-up diagnostic procedures exceed lifetime radiation exposures among nuclear power workers and atomic bomb survivors. PMID:24590022

  16. Lung proliferative and clearance responses to inhaled para-aramid RFP in exposed hamsters and rats: comparisons with chrysotile asbestos fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Warheit, D B; Snajdr, S I; Hartsky, M A; Frame, S R

    1997-01-01

    This study compared pulmonary effects of para-aramid respirable-sized, fiber-shaped particles (RFP) (p-aramid fibrils) and chrysotile asbestos fiber exposures in rats. Additional p-aramid inhalation studies were conducted in hamsters to compare species responses. The hamster results are preliminary. The parameters studied were clearance/biopersistence of inhaled p-aramid RFP or size-separated asbestos fibers as well as pulmonary cell proliferation and inflammation indices after 2-week inhalation exposures. Rats were exposed nose only to chrysotile asbestos fibers at concentrations of 459 and 782 fibers/ml or to p-aramid RFP at 419 or 772 fibrils/ml. Hamsters were exposed whole body to p-aramid RFP at concentrations of 358 and 659 fibrils/ml. Subsequently, animals were assessed immediately (time 0) as well as 5 days (10 days for hamsters), 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postexposure. Lung burdens for the p-aramid-exposed rats were 4.8 x 10(7) and 7.6 x 10(7) fibrils/lung, with similar numbers of chrysotile fibers > 5 microns recovered from the lungs of asbestos-exposed rats. In comparison, 1.4 x 10(6) fibrils/lung were recovered in the high-dose hamster group. Biopersistence studies in p-aramid-exposed rats and hamsters demonstrated an initial increase (relative to time 0) in retained p-aramid fibrils during the first month postexposure, which indicated breakage or shortening of inhaled fibrils. This result was associated with a progressive reduction, and increased residence time in the lung, in the mean lengths of the fibrils, which signified biodegradability of inhaled p-aramid fibrils in both species. In contrast, clearance of short chrysotile asbestos fibers was rapid, but clearance of the long chrysotile fibers was slow or insignificant, as evidenced by a progressive increase over time in the mean lengths of fibers recovered from the lungs of exposed rats. Two-week, high-dose exposures to p-aramid in both rats and hamsters produced transient increases in pulmonary

  17. Lung proliferative and clearance responses to inhaled para-aramid RFP in exposed hamsters and rats: comparisons with chrysotile asbestos fibers.

    PubMed

    Warheit, D B; Snajdr, S I; Hartsky, M A; Frame, S R

    1997-09-01

    This study compared pulmonary effects of para-aramid respirable-sized, fiber-shaped particles (RFP) (p-aramid fibrils) and chrysotile asbestos fiber exposures in rats. Additional p-aramid inhalation studies were conducted in hamsters to compare species responses. The hamster results are preliminary. The parameters studied were clearance/biopersistence of inhaled p-aramid RFP or size-separated asbestos fibers as well as pulmonary cell proliferation and inflammation indices after 2-week inhalation exposures. Rats were exposed nose only to chrysotile asbestos fibers at concentrations of 459 and 782 fibers/ml or to p-aramid RFP at 419 or 772 fibrils/ml. Hamsters were exposed whole body to p-aramid RFP at concentrations of 358 and 659 fibrils/ml. Subsequently, animals were assessed immediately (time 0) as well as 5 days (10 days for hamsters), 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postexposure. Lung burdens for the p-aramid-exposed rats were 4.8 x 10(7) and 7.6 x 10(7) fibrils/lung, with similar numbers of chrysotile fibers > 5 microns recovered from the lungs of asbestos-exposed rats. In comparison, 1.4 x 10(6) fibrils/lung were recovered in the high-dose hamster group. Biopersistence studies in p-aramid-exposed rats and hamsters demonstrated an initial increase (relative to time 0) in retained p-aramid fibrils during the first month postexposure, which indicated breakage or shortening of inhaled fibrils. This result was associated with a progressive reduction, and increased residence time in the lung, in the mean lengths of the fibrils, which signified biodegradability of inhaled p-aramid fibrils in both species. In contrast, clearance of short chrysotile asbestos fibers was rapid, but clearance of the long chrysotile fibers was slow or insignificant, as evidenced by a progressive increase over time in the mean lengths of fibers recovered from the lungs of exposed rats. Two-week, high-dose exposures to p-aramid in both rats and hamsters produced transient increases in pulmonary

  18. Molecular Characterization of Transcriptome-wide Interactions between Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Porcine Alveolar Macrophages in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ping; Zhai, Shanli; Zhou, Xiang; Lin, Ping; Jiang, Tengfei; Hu, Xueying; Jiang, Yunbo; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qingde; Xu, Xuewen; Li, Jin-ping; Liu, Bang

    2011-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infects mainly the porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and causes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). Previous studies have analyzed the global gene expression profiles of lung tissue in vivo and PAMs in vitro following infection with PRRSV, however, transcriptome-wide understanding of the interaction between highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) and PAMs in vivo has not yet been established. In this study, we employed Affymetrix microarrays to investigate the gene expression patterns of PAMs isolated from Tongcheng piglets (a Chinese indigenous breed) after infection with HP-PRRSV. During the infection, Tongcheng piglets exhibited typical clinical signs, e.g. fever, asthma, coughing, anorexia, lethargy and convulsion, but displayed mild regional lung damage at 5 and 7 dpi. Microarray analysis revealed that HP-PRRSV infection has affected PAMs in expression of the important genes involved in cytoskeleton and exocytosis organization, protein degradation and folding, intracellular calcium and zinc homeostasis. Several potential antiviral strategies might be employed in PAMs, including upregulating IFN-induced genes and increasing intracellular zinc ion concentration. And inhibition of the complement system likely attenuated the lung damage during HP-PRRSV infection. Transcriptomic analysis of PAMs in vivo could lead to a better understanding of the HP-PRRSV-host interaction, and to the identification of novel antiviral therapies and genetic components of swine tolerance/susceptibility to HP-PRRS. PMID:21850204

  19. Pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin in porcine plasma, lung tissue, and bronchial fluid and effects of test conditions on in vitro activity against reference strains and field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Rose, M; Menge, M; Bohland, C; Zschiesche, E; Wilhelm, C; Kilp, S; Metz, W; Allan, M; Röpke, R; Nürnberger, M

    2013-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin (Zuprevo(®) 40 mg/mL solution for injection for pigs), a novel 16-membered-ring macrolide for the treatment for swine respiratory disease (SRD), was investigated in studies collecting blood plasma and postmortem samples of lung tissue and bronchial fluid (BF) from swine. In view of factors influencing the in vitro activity of macrolides, and for the interpretation of tildipirosin pharmacokinetics in relation to minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), additional experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere, buffers, and serum on tildipirosin MICs for various reference strains and Actinobacillus (A.) pleuropneumoniae field isolates. After single intramuscular (i.m.) injection at 4 mg/kg body weight, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was 0.9 μg/mL observed within 23 min (Tmax ). Mean residence time from the time of dosing to the time of last measurable concentration (MRTlast) and terminal half-life (T1/2) both were about 4 days. A dose-response relationship with no significant sex effect is observed for area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to the last sampling time with a quantifiable drug concentration (AUClast) over the range of doses up to 6 mg/kg. However, linear dose proportionality could not be proven with statistical methods. The time-concentration profile of tildipirosin in BF and lung far exceeded that in blood plasma. In lung, tildipirosin concentrations reached 3.1 μg/g at 2 h, peaked at 4.3 μg/g at day 1, and slowly declined to 0.8 μg/g at day 17. In BF, tildipirosin levels were 14.3, 7.0, and 6.5 μg/g at days 5, 10, and 14. T1/2 in lung was ∼7 days. Tildipirosin is rapidly and extensively distributed to the respiratory tract followed by slow elimination. Culture media pH and carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere (CO2 -EA) had a marked impact on in vitro activity of tildipirosin in reference strains of various rapidly growing aerobic and

  20. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) first appeared in the late 1980s, though serologic evidence indicates that it had been circulating in swine for some time prior to being recognized. PRRS has since become a highly significant infectious disease affecting swine production worldwid...

  1. Poster — Thur Eve — 76: Dosimetric Comparison of Pinnacle and iPlan Algorithms with an Anthropomorphic Lung Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, P.; Tambasco, M.; LaFontaine, R.; Burns, L.

    2014-08-15

    Our goal is to compare the dosimetric accuracy of the Pinnacle-3 9.2 Collapsed Cone Convolution Superposition (CCCS) and the iPlan 4.1 Monte Carlo (MC) and Pencil Beam (PB) algorithms in an anthropomorphic lung phantom using measurement as the gold standard. Ion chamber measurements were taken for 6, 10, and 18 MV beams in a CIRS E2E SBRT Anthropomorphic Lung Phantom, which mimics lung, spine, ribs, and tissue. The plan implemented six beams with a 5×5 cm{sup 2} field size, delivering a total dose of 48 Gy. Data from the planning systems were computed at the treatment isocenter in the left lung, and two off-axis points, the spinal cord and the right lung. The measurements were taken using a pinpoint chamber. The best results between data from the algorithms and our measurements occur at the treatment isocenter. For the 6, 10, and 18 MV beams, iPlan 4.1 MC software performs the best with 0.3%, 0.2%, and 4.2% absolute percent difference from measurement, respectively. Differences between our measurements and algorithm data are much greater for the off-axis points. The best agreement seen for the right lung and spinal cord is 11.4% absolute percent difference with 6 MV iPlan 4.1 PB and 18 MV iPlan 4.1 MC, respectively. As energy increases absolute percent difference from measured data increases up to 54.8% for the 18 MV CCCS algorithm. This study suggests that iPlan 4.1 MC computes peripheral dose and target dose in the lung more accurately than the iPlan 4.1 PB and Pinnicale CCCS algorithms.

  2. Molecular cloning and characterizations of porcine SAMHD1 and its roles in replication of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shen; Shan, Tongling; Zhou, Yanjun; Jiang, Yifeng; Tong, Wu; Liu, Fei; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Qingzhan; Tong, Guangzhi

    2014-12-01

    The sterile alpha motif and HD domain 1 (SAMHD1) protein is a novel innate immunity restriction factor that inhibits HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells. Here, we cloned the full-length SAMHD1 complementary DNA (cDNA) from porcine peripheral blood lymphocytes. The porcine SAMHD1 cDNA was of 3951 bp with an open reading frame of 1884 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 627 amino acids. Porcine SAMHD1 mRNA was detected in all swine tissues examined, with the higher expression in the tonsil, lung, liver, and lymph node tissues. The SAMHD1 protein was localized to the nucleus. Overexpression of SAMHD1 blocked the proliferation of HuN4, a highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV), in MARC-145 cells, by inhibiting the synthesis of the HuN4 complement RNA. The antiviral effects of the simian SAMHD1 protein were nearly equivalent to those of porcine SAMHD1 in the HuN4-infected MARC-145 cells. Phosphorylation analysis of SAMHD1 showed that overexpressed SAMHD1 protein was in primarily an unphosphorylated state. SAMHD1 overexpression increased the transcript abundance of IFN-stimulated genes ISG15 and ISG56. The mRNA levels of SAMHD1 and ISGs were significantly increased in porcine alveolar macrophages infected with HP-PRRSV. SAMHD1 protein level was also elevated, and the protein was not phosphorylated during infection. Collectively, our data indicate that SAMHDI inhibits HP-PRRSV proliferation through inhibiting the replication of HP-PRRSV. SAMHD1 might be the protein participating in the IFN signaling and is thus an important immunoregulatory protein in innate immunity. PMID:25106914

  3. A comparison of change point models with application to longitudinal lung function measurements in children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Moss, Angela; Juarez-Colunga, E; Nathoo, Farouk; Wagner, Brandie; Sagel, Scott

    2016-05-30

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a hereditary lung disease characterized by loss of lung function over time. Lung function in CF is believed to decline at a higher rate during the adolescence period. It has been also hypothesized that there is a subgroup of individuals for whom lung disease remains relatively stable with only a slight decline over their lifetime. Using data from the University of Colorado CF Children's Registry, we investigate four change point models to model the decline of lung function in children and adolescents: (i) a two-component mixture random change point model, (ii) a two-component mixture-fixed change point model, (iii) a random change point model, and (iv) a fixed change point model. The models are investigated through posterior predictive simulation at the individual and population levels, and a simulation study examining the effects of model misspecification. The data support the mixed random change point model as the preferred model, with roughly 30% of adolescents experiencing a steady decline of 0.5 %FEV1 per year and 70% experiencing an increase in decline of 4.4 %FEV1 per year beginning on average at 14.6 years of age. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27118629

  4. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus–Induced Immunosuppression Exacerbates the Inflammatory Response to Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Alekseev, Konstantin; Jung, Kwonil; Fang, Ying; Saif, Linda J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We performed a comprehensive analysis of innate and adaptive immune responses in dual-virus infected pigs to understand whether a pre-existing immunomodulatory respiratory viral infection affects the overall immunity to a subsequent porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) infection in pigs. Pigs were either mock-infected or infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a virus known to cause immunosuppressive respiratory disease, and then pigs were co-infected with PRCV, which normally causes subclinical respiratory infection. We collected samples for six independent experiments from 178 pigs that were also used for pathological studies. We detected a significant reduction in innate NK-cell-mediated cytotoxic function in PRRSV-infected pigs, which was synergistically further decreased in pigs co-infected with PRCV. Subsequently, in association with clinical signs we observed elevated levels of proinflammatory (IL-6), Th-1 (IL-12), and regulatory (IL-10 and TGF-β) cytokines. Increased frequencies of CD4CD8 double-positive T lymphocytes and myeloid cells, in addition to the elevated Th-1 and proinflammatory cytokines in dual-infected pigs, contributed to the severity of lung disease in pigs. The results of our study clarify how each virus modulates the host innate and adaptive immune responses, leading to inflammatory reactions and lung pathology. Thus measurements of cytokines and frequencies of immune cells may serve as indicators of the progression of respiratory viral co-infections, and provide more definitive approaches for treatment. PMID:20883160

  5. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-induced immunosuppression exacerbates the inflammatory response to porcine respiratory coronavirus in pigs.

    PubMed

    Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Alekseev, Konstantin; Jung, Kwonil; Fang, Ying; Saif, Linda J

    2010-10-01

    We performed a comprehensive analysis of innate and adaptive immune responses in dual-virus infected pigs to understand whether a pre-existing immunomodulatory respiratory viral infection affects the overall immunity to a subsequent porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) infection in pigs. Pigs were either mock-infected or infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a virus known to cause immunosuppressive respiratory disease, and then pigs were co-infected with PRCV, which normally causes subclinical respiratory infection. We collected samples for six independent experiments from 178 pigs that were also used for pathological studies. We detected a significant reduction in innate NK-cell-mediated cytotoxic function in PRRSV-infected pigs, which was synergistically further decreased in pigs co-infected with PRCV. Subsequently, in association with clinical signs we observed elevated levels of proinflammatory (IL-6), Th-1 (IL-12), and regulatory (IL-10 and TGF-β) cytokines. Increased frequencies of CD4CD8 double-positive T lymphocytes and myeloid cells, in addition to the elevated Th-1 and proinflammatory cytokines in dual-infected pigs, contributed to the severity of lung disease in pigs. The results of our study clarify how each virus modulates the host innate and adaptive immune responses, leading to inflammatory reactions and lung pathology. Thus measurements of cytokines and frequencies of immune cells may serve as indicators of the progression of respiratory viral co-infections, and provide more definitive approaches for treatment. PMID:20883160

  6. SU-F-BRD-05: Dosimetric Comparison of Protocol-Based SBRT Lung Treatment Modalities: Statistically Significant VMAT Advantages Over Fixed- Beam IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Best, R; Harrell, A; Geesey, C; Libby, B; Wijesooriya, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to inter-compare and find statistically significant differences between flattened field fixed-beam (FB) IMRT with flattening-filter free (FFF) volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for stereotactic body radiation therapy SBRT. Methods: SBRT plans using FB IMRT and FFF VMAT were generated for fifteen SBRT lung patients using 6 MV beams. For each patient, both IMRT and VMAT plans were created for comparison. Plans were generated utilizing RTOG 0915 (peripheral, 10 patients) and RTOG 0813 (medial, 5 patients) lung protocols. Target dose, critical structure dose, and treatment time were compared and tested for statistical significance. Parameters of interest included prescription isodose surface coverage, target dose heterogeneity, high dose spillage (location and volume), low dose spillage (location and volume), lung dose spillage, and critical structure maximum- and volumetric-dose limits. Results: For all criteria, we found equivalent or higher conformality with VMAT plans as well as reduced critical structure doses. Several differences passed a Student's t-test of significance: VMAT reduced the high dose spillage, evaluated with conformality index (CI), by an average of 9.4%±15.1% (p=0.030) compared to IMRT. VMAT plans reduced the lung volume receiving 20 Gy by 16.2%±15.0% (p=0.016) compared with IMRT. For the RTOG 0915 peripheral lesions, the volumes of lung receiving 12.4 Gy and 11.6 Gy were reduced by 27.0%±13.8% and 27.5%±12.6% (for both, p<0.001) in VMAT plans. Of the 26 protocol pass/fail criteria, VMAT plans were able to achieve an average of 0.2±0.7 (p=0.026) more constraints than the IMRT plans. Conclusions: FFF VMAT has dosimetric advantages over fixed beam IMRT for lung SBRT. Significant advantages included increased dose conformity, and reduced organs-at-risk doses. The overall improvements in terms of protocol pass/fail criteria were more modest and will require more patient data to establish difference

  7. SU-E-T-101: Determination and Comparison of Correction Factors Obtained for TLDs in Small Field Lung Heterogenous Phantom Using Acuros XB and EGSnrc

    SciTech Connect

    Soh, R; Lee, J; Harianto, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine and compare the correction factors obtained for TLDs in 2 × 2cm{sup 2} small field in lung heterogenous phantom using Acuros XB (AXB) and EGSnrc. Methods: This study will simulate the correction factors due to the perturbation of TLD-100 chips (Harshaw/Thermoscientific, 3 × 3 × 0.9mm{sup 3}, 2.64g/cm{sup 3}) in small field lung medium for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT). A physical lung phantom was simulated by a 14cm thick composite cork phantom (0.27g/cm{sup 3}, HU:-743 ± 11) sandwiched between 4cm thick Plastic Water (CIRS,Norfolk). Composite cork has been shown to be a good lung substitute material for dosimetric studies. 6MV photon beam from Varian Clinac iX (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with field size 2 × 2cm{sup 2} was simulated. Depth dose profiles were obtained from the Eclipse treatment planning system Acuros XB (AXB) and independently from DOSxyznrc, EGSnrc. Correction factors was calculated by the ratio of unperturbed to perturbed dose. Since AXB has limitations in simulating actual material compositions, EGSnrc will also simulate the AXB-based material composition for comparison to the actual lung phantom. Results: TLD-100, with its finite size and relatively high density, causes significant perturbation in 2 × 2cm{sup 2} small field in a low lung density phantom. Correction factors calculated by both EGSnrc and AXB was found to be as low as 0.9. It is expected that the correction factor obtained by EGSnrc wlll be more accurate as it is able to simulate the actual phantom material compositions. AXB have a limited material library, therefore it only approximates the composition of TLD, Composite cork and Plastic water, contributing to uncertainties in TLD correction factors. Conclusion: It is expected that the correction factors obtained by EGSnrc will be more accurate. Studies will be done to investigate the correction factors for higher energies where perturbation may be more pronounced.

  8. Antioxidant capacity of hydrolyzed porcine tissues

    PubMed Central

    Damgaard, Trine D; Otte, Jeanette A H; Meinert, Lene; Jensen, Kirsten; Lametsch, René

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidative capacity of seven different porcine tissue hydrolysates (colon, appendix, rectum, pancreas, heart, liver, and lung) were tested by four different assays, including iron chelation, 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and inhibition of lipid oxidation. All hydrolyzed tissues displayed antioxidant capacity in all four assays, with colon, liver, and appendix as the three most potent inhibitors of lipid oxidation (47, 29, and 27 mmol/L trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity [TEAC], respectively) and liver, colon, pancreas, and appendix as the four most potent iron chelators (92% ± 1.1, 79.3% ± 3.2, 77.1% ± 1.8, and 77% ± 2.3, respectively). Furthermore, colon and appendix showed good radical scavenging capacities with ABTS scavenging of 86.4% ± 2.1 and 84.4% ± 2.9 and DPPH scavenging of 17.6% ± 0.3 and 17.1% ± 0.2, respectively. Our results provide new knowledge about the antioxidant capacity of a variety of animal by-products, which can be transformed into antioxidant hydrolysates, thereby creating added value. PMID:24936298

  9. Comparison of the serum fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products with cytokeratin 19 fragment as biomarkers in patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    So, Hee Jin; Hong, Seok-Il; Lee, Jin Kyung; Chang, Yoon Hwan; Kang, Sun Jung; Hong, Young Jun

    2014-09-01

    Lung cancer is one of the main causes of cancer-related mortality. The identification of early diagnostic biomarkers improved outcomes for lung cancer patients. Serum fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) levels are elevated in numerous malignancies due to hemostatic alterations. The serum FDP levels were compared to the levels of cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen (CYFRA 21-1), another well-established biomarker. The serum samples from 193 lung cancer patients, 84 healthy controls and 106 patients with benign respiratory diseases were obtained. The serum FDP level was measured using the DR-70 immunoassay and the CYFRA 21-1 level was measured by electrochemiluminescence using the Roche Analytics E170. Receiver operating characteristics curves were used to assess the predictive sensitivity and specificity. The mean serum FDP level in lung cancer patients (35.01±229.02 μg/ml) was significantly higher compared to the 190 non-cancerous subjects (0.60±0.75 μg/ml; P=0.039). The mean serum CYFRA 21-1 level in lung cancer patients (4.50±6.67 ng/ml) was also significantly higher compared to the non-cancerous subjects (1.40±0.83 ng/ml; P<0.05). FDP exhibited clinical sensitivity and specificity of 86 and 75%, respectively, at an optimal cut-off at 0.67 μg/ml. CYFRA 21-1 exhibited clinical sensitivity and specificity of 77 and 74%, respectively, at a cut-off of 1.65 ng/ml. The serum FDP area under the curve (0.87) was slightly higher compared to CYFRA 21-1 (0.83). Therefore, it is apparent that serum FDP is comparable to CYFRA 21-1 as a lung cancer biomarker and can be used for clinical practice. PMID:25054020

  10. Dose-response comparisons of five lung surfactant factor (LSF) preparations in an animal model of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

    PubMed Central

    Häfner, D.; Beume, R.; Kilian, U.; Krasznai, G.; Lachmann, B.

    1995-01-01

    1. We have examined the effects of five different lung surfactant factor (LSF) preparations in the rat lung lavage model. In this model repetitive lung lavage leads to lung injury with some similarities to adult respiratory distress syndrome with poor gas exchange and protein leakage into the alveolar spaces. These pathological sequelae can be reversed by LSF instillation soon after lavage. 2. The tested LSF preparations were: two bovine: Survanta and Alveofact: two synthetic: Exosurf and a protein-free phospholipid based LSF (PL-LSF) and one Recombinant LSF at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg kg-1 body weight and an untreated control group. 3. Tracheotomized rats (10-12 per dose) were pressure-controlled ventilated (Siemens Servo Ventilator 900C) with 100% oxygen at a respiratory rate of 30 breaths min-1, inspiration expiration ratio of 1:2, peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) of 28 cmH2O at positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 8 cmH2O. Two hours after LSF administration, PEEP and in parallel PIP was reduced from 8 to 6 (1st reduction), from 6 to 3 (2nd reduction) and from 3 to 0 cmH2O (3rd reduction). 4. Partial arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2, mmHg) at 5 min and 120 min after LSF administration and during the 2nd PEEP reduction (PaO2(PEEP23/3)) were used for statistical comparison. All LSF preparations caused a dose-dependent increase for the PaO2(120'), whereas during the 2nd PEEP reduction only bovine and recombinant LSF exhibited dose-dependency. Exosurf did not increase PaO2 after administration of the highest dose. At the highest dose Exosurf exerted no further improvement but rather a tendency to relapse.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7582456