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Sample records for porous anodic oxide

  1. Morphological instability leading to formation of porous anodic oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Kurt R.; Albu, Sergiu P.; Paramasivam, Indhumati; Schmuki, Patrik

    2012-02-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of metals, in solutions where the oxide is somewhat soluble, produces anodic oxides with highly regular arrangements of pores. Although porous aluminium and titanium oxides have found extensive use in functional nanostructures, pore initiation and self-ordering are not yet understood. Here we present an analysis that examines the roles of oxide dissolution and ionic conduction in the morphological stability of anodic films. We show that patterns of pores with a minimum spacing are possible only within a narrow range of the oxide formation efficiency (the fraction of oxidized metal atoms retained in the film), which should exist when the metal ion charge exceeds two. Experimentally measured efficiencies, over diverse anodizing conditions on both aluminium and titanium, lie within the different ranges predicted for each metal. On the basis of these results, the relationship between dissolution chemistry and the conditions for pore initiation can now be understood in quantitative terms.

  2. Morphological instability leading to formation of porous anodic oxide films.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Kurt R; Albu, Sergiu P; Paramasivam, Indhumati; Schmuki, Patrik

    2012-02-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of metals, in solutions where the oxide is somewhat soluble, produces anodic oxides with highly regular arrangements of pores. Although porous aluminium and titanium oxides have found extensive use in functional nanostructures, pore initiation and self-ordering are not yet understood. Here we present an analysis that examines the roles of oxide dissolution and ionic conduction in the morphological stability of anodic films. We show that patterns of pores with a minimum spacing are possible only within a narrow range of the oxide formation efficiency (the fraction of oxidized metal atoms retained in the film), which should exist when the metal ion charge exceeds two. Experimentally measured efficiencies, over diverse anodizing conditions on both aluminium and titanium, lie within the different ranges predicted for each metal. On the basis of these results, the relationship between dissolution chemistry and the conditions for pore initiation can now be understood in quantitative terms. PMID:22138790

  3. Formation of Porous Anodic Oxide Film on Titanium in Phosphoric Acid Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Thompson, G. E.

    2015-01-01

    A sequential breakdown anodizing conditions on cp-Ti in phosphoric acid has been investigated in the present study. Anodic oxide films were formed at 100, 150, and 200 V, examined by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectrometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A porous oxide texture was formed at each voltage. The thickness of anodic porous oxide increased with the increase of anodic voltage. Nano-particulates were formed around and within the pores, and the size of pores increased with increased voltage due to the expansion of particulates. The amorphous-to-crystalline transition was initiated during the film growth. The degree of crystallinity in the anodic oxide film fabricated at 200 V is more abundant than 150 and 100 V. Increased content of the phosphorus species was incorporated into the porous film with the increase of anodic voltage, stabilizing for the nanocrystals developed within the oxide.

  4. A Highly Controllable Electrochemical Anodization Process to Fabricate Porous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuanjing; Lin, Qingfeng; Liu, Xue; Gao, Yuan; He, Jin; Wang, Wenli; Fan, Zhiyong

    2015-12-01

    Due to the broad applications of porous alumina nanostructures, research on fabrication of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) with nanoporous structure has triggered enormous attention. While fabrication of highly ordered nanoporous AAO with tunable geometric features has been widely reported, it is known that its growth rate can be easily affected by the fluctuation of process conditions such as acid concentration and temperature during electrochemical anodization process. To fabricate AAO with various geometric parameters, particularly, to realize precise control over pore depth for scientific research and commercial applications, a controllable fabrication process is essential. In this work, we revealed a linear correlation between the integrated electric charge flow throughout the circuit in the stable anodization process and the growth thickness of AAO membranes. With this understanding, we developed a facile approach to precisely control the growth process of the membranes. It was found that this approach is applicable in a large voltage range, and it may be extended to anodization of other metal materials such as Ti as well.

  5. A Highly Controllable Electrochemical Anodization Process to Fabricate Porous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membranes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuanjing; Lin, Qingfeng; Liu, Xue; Gao, Yuan; He, Jin; Wang, Wenli; Fan, Zhiyong

    2015-12-01

    Due to the broad applications of porous alumina nanostructures, research on fabrication of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) with nanoporous structure has triggered enormous attention. While fabrication of highly ordered nanoporous AAO with tunable geometric features has been widely reported, it is known that its growth rate can be easily affected by the fluctuation of process conditions such as acid concentration and temperature during electrochemical anodization process. To fabricate AAO with various geometric parameters, particularly, to realize precise control over pore depth for scientific research and commercial applications, a controllable fabrication process is essential. In this work, we revealed a linear correlation between the integrated electric charge flow throughout the circuit in the stable anodization process and the growth thickness of AAO membranes. With this understanding, we developed a facile approach to precisely control the growth process of the membranes. It was found that this approach is applicable in a large voltage range, and it may be extended to anodization of other metal materials such as Ti as well. PMID:26706687

  6. Electrophoretic deposition of PTFE particles on porous anodic aluminum oxide film and its tribological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongya; Dong, Guangneng; Chen, Yinjuan; Zeng, Qunfeng

    2014-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composite film was successfully fabricated by depositing PTFE particles into porous anodic aluminum oxide film using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. Firstly, porous anodic aluminum oxide film was synthesized by anodic oxidation process in sulphuric acid electrolyte. Then, PTFE particles in suspension were directionally deposited into the porous substrate. Finally, a heat treatment at 300 °C for 1 h was utilized to enhance PTFE particles adhesion to the substrate. The influence of anodic oxidation parameters on the morphology and micro-hardness of the porous anodic aluminum oxide film was studied and the PTFE particles deposited into the pores were authenticated using energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Tribological properties of the PTFE composite film were investigated under dry sliding. The experimental results showed that the composite film exhibit remarkable low friction. The composite film had friction coefficient of 0.20 which deposited in 15% PTFE emulsion at temperature of 15 °C and current density of 3 A/dm2 for 35 min. In addition, a control specimen of porous anodic aluminum oxide film and the PTFE composite film were carried out under the same test condition, friction coefficient of the PTFE composite film was reduced by 60% comparing with the control specimen at 380 MPa and 100 mm/s. The lubricating mechanism was that PTFE particles embedded in porous anodic aluminum oxide film smeared a transfer film on the sliding path and the micro-pores could support the supplement of solid lubricant during the sliding, which prolonged the lubrication life of the aluminum alloys.

  7. Facile synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-porous silicon composite as superior anode material for lithium-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Lian-Sheng; Liu, Jin-Yu; Li, Hong-Yan; Wu, Tong-Shun; Li, Fenghua; Wang, Hao-Yu; Niu, Li

    2016-05-01

    We report a new method for synthesizing reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-porous silicon composite for lithium-ion battery anodes. Rice husks were used as a as a raw material source for the synthesis of porous Si through magnesiothermic reduction process. The as-obtained composite exhibits good rate and cycling performance taking advantage of the porous structure of silicon inheriting from rice husks and the outstanding characteristic of graphene. A considerably high delithiation capacity of 907 mA h g-1 can be retained even at a rate of 16 A g-1. A discharge capacity of 830 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 was delivered after 200 cycles. This may contribute to the further advancement of Si-based composite anode design.

  8. Facile synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-porous silicon composite as superior anode material for lithium-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Lian-Sheng; Liu, Jin-Yu; Li, Hong-Yan; Wu, Tong-Shun; Li, Fenghua; Wang, Hao-Yu; Niu, Li

    2016-05-01

    We report a new method for synthesizing reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-porous silicon composite for lithium-ion battery anodes. Rice husks were used as a as a raw material source for the synthesis of porous Si through magnesiothermic reduction process. The as-obtained composite exhibits good rate and cycling performance taking advantage of the porous structure of silicon inheriting from rice husks and the outstanding characteristic of graphene. A considerably high delithiation capacity of 907 mA h g-1 can be retained even at a rate of 16 A g-1. A discharge capacity of 830 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 was delivered after 200 cycles. This may contribute to the further advancement of Si-based composite anode design.

  9. Modelling the growth process of porous aluminum oxide film during anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryslanova, E. M.; Alfimov, A. V.; Chivilikhin, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Currently it has become important for the development of metamaterials and nanotechnology to obtain regular self-assembled structures. One such structure is porous anodic alumina film that consists of hexagonally packed cylindrical pores. In this work we consider the anodization process, our model takes into account the influence of layers of aluminum and electrolyte on the rate of growth of aluminum oxide, as well as the effect of surface diffusion. In present work we consider those effects. And as a result of our model we obtain the minimum distance between centers of alumina pores in the beginning of anodizing process.

  10. Electrodeposited porous metal oxide films with interconnected nanoparticles applied as anode of lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Anguo Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Highly porous NiO film is prepared by a co-electrodeposition method. • Porous NiO film is composed of interconnected nanoparticles. • Porous structure is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. • Porous NiO film shows good lithium ion storage properties. - Abstract: Controllable synthesis of porous metal oxide films is highly desirable for high-performance electrochemical devices. In this work, a highly porous NiO film composed of interconnected nanoparticles is prepared by a simple co-electrodeposition method. The nanoparticles in the NiO film have a size ranging from 30 to 100 nm and construct large-quantity pores of 20–120 nm. As an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the highly porous NiO film electrode delivers a high discharge capacity of 700 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.2 C, as well as good high-rate performance. After 100 cycles at 0.2 C, a specific capacitance of 517 mA h g{sup −1} is attained. The good electrochemical performance is attributed to the interconnected porous structure, which facilitates the diffusion of ion and electron, and provides large reaction surface area leading to improved performance.

  11. Model of porous aluminium oxide growth during initial stage of anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryslanova, E. M.; Alfimov, A. V.; Chivilikhin, S. A.

    2014-10-01

    Currently, the development of nanotechnology and metamaterials requires the ability to obtain regular self-assembled structures with different parameters. One such structure is porous alumina in which the pores grow perpendicular to the substrate and are hexagonally packed. Pore size and the distance between them can be varied depending on the anodization voltage, the electrolyte and the anodization time (pore diameter - from 2 to 350 nm, the distance between the pores - from 5 to 50 nm). At the moment, there are different models describing the process of anodizing aluminum, in this paper we propose a model that takes into account the effect of layers of aluminum, aluminum oxide, and the electrolyte, as well as the influence of the effect of surface diffusion.

  12. Electrodeposition of cerium oxide on porous silicon via anodization and enhancement of photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuhata, Minoru; Kubo, Yohei; Maki, Hideshi

    2016-02-01

    A porous Si/cerium oxide composite (PSi/CeO2) was synthesized by electrodeposition of CeO2 via anodic oxidation on PSi. The PSi photoluminescence (PL) was enhanced. The anodically oxidized PSi substrates in HF solution had macropores (diameter 2 μm), mesopores (diameter 15 nm), and micropores (diameter less than 4 nm). Emission at 700 nm from microporous PSi (microPSi) was observed under ultraviolet irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy showed that in microPSi/CeO2, the oxide was infiltrated into microPSi by anodization. The deposited amount of CeO2 depended on the reaction time, applied voltage, temperature, and reaction species concentrations in anodization. Emission by microPSi/CeO2 at 650 nm was observed; the PL intensity was higher (about 10-30 times) than that of PSi because of energy transfer from CeO2 to nanosized Si in porous layers produced by HF etching. The lifetime of the PL of microPSi/CeO2 was longer than that of microPSi. Excitation spectra of microPSi/CeO2 at 650 nm and diffuse-reflectance spectra showed that the excitation peak for microPSi/CeO2 was similar to the absorbance of CeO2, and excitation of microPSi/CeO2 gave two peaks, at 3.7 and 4.4 eV; these peaks originated from the absorptions of CeO2 and Si nanocrystals. The PL of PSi was enhanced in microPSi/CeO2 because of efficient energy transfer from CeO2 to the Si nanocrystal.

  13. Design of capillary flows with functionally graded porous titanium oxide films fabricated by anodization instability.

    PubMed

    Joung, Young Soo; Figliuzzi, Bruno Michel; Buie, Cullen R

    2014-06-01

    We have developed an electrochemical fabrication method utilizing breakdown anodization (BDA) to yield capillary flows that can be expressed as functions of capillary height. This method uses anodization instability with high electric potentials and mildly acidic electrolytes that are maintained at low temperature. BDA produces highly porous micro- and nano-structured surfaces composed of amorphous titanium oxide on titanium substrates, resulting in high capillary pressure and capillary diffusivity. With this fabrication technique the capillary flow properties can be controlled by varying the applied electric field and electrolyte temperature. Furthermore, they can be expressed as functions of capillary height when customized electric fields are used in BDA. To predict capillary flows on BDA surfaces, we developed a conceptual model of highly wettable porous films, which are modeled as multiple layers of capillary tubes oriented in the flow direction. From the model, we derived a general capillary flow equation of motion in terms of capillary pressure and capillary diffusivity, both of which can be expressed as functions of capillary height. The theoretical model was verified by comparisons with experimental capillary flows, showing good agreement. From investigation of the surface morphology we found that the surface structures were also functionally graded with respect to the capillary height (i.e. applied electric field). The suggested fabrication method and the theoretical model offer novel design methodologies for microscale liquid transport devices requiring control over propagation speed. PMID:24703679

  14. The role of stress in self-ordered porous anodic oxide formation and corrosion of aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capraz, Omer Ozgur

    The phenomenon of plastic flow induced by electrochemical reactions near room temperature is significant in porous anodic oxide (PAO) films, charging of lithium batteries and stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). As this phenomenon is poorly understood, fundamental insight into flow from our work may provide useful information for these problems. In-situ monitoring of the stress state allows direct correlation between stress and the current or potential, thus providing fundamental insight into technologically important deformation and failure mechanisms induced by electrochemical reactions. A phase-shifting curvature interferometry was designed to investigate the stress generation mechanisms on different systems. Resolution of our curvature interferometry was found to be ten times more powerful than that obtained by state-of-art multiple deflectometry technique and the curvature interferometry helps to resolve the conflicting reports in the literature. During this work, formation of surface patterns during both aqueous corrosion of aluminum and formation of PAO films were investigated. Interestingly, for both cases, stress induced plastic flow controls the formation of surface patterns. Pore formation mechanisms during anodizing of the porous aluminum oxide films was investigated . PAO films are formed by the electrochemical oxidation of metals such as aluminum and titanium in a solution where oxide is moderately soluble. They have been used extensively to design numerous devices for optical, catalytic, and biological and energy related applications, due to their vertically aligned-geometry, high-specific surface area and tunable geometry by adjusting process variables. These structures have developed empirically, in the absence of understanding the process mechanism. Previous experimental studies of anodizing-induced stress have extensively focused on the measurement of average stress, however the measurement of stress evolution during anodizing does not provide

  15. Short time proton dynamics in bulk ice and in porous anode solid oxide fuel cell materials

    SciTech Connect

    Basoli, Francesco; Senesi, Roberto; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Licoccia, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen reduction and incorporation into solid electrolytes and the reverse reaction of oxygen evolution play a cru-cial role in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) applications. However a detailed un derstanding of the kinetics of the cor-responding reactions, i.e. on reaction mechanisms, rate limiting steps, reaction paths, electrocatalytic role of materials, is still missing. These include a thorough characterization of the binding potentials experienced by protons in the lattice. We report results of Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) measurements of the vibrational state of the protons in Ni- YSZ highly porous composites (75% to 90% ), a ceramic-metal material showing a high electrical conductivity and ther mal stability, which is known to be most effectively used as anodes for solid ox ide fuel cells. The results are compared with INS and Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) experiments on the proton binding states in bulk ice.

  16. Optical properties of one-dimensional photonic crystals based on porous films of anodic aluminum oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Klimonsky, S. O.; Filatov, V. V.; Napolskii, K. S.

    2016-04-01

    The optical properties of one-dimensional photonic crystals based on porous anodic aluminum oxide films have been studied by measuring transmittance and specular reflectance spectra in the visible and UV spectral regions. Angular dependences of the spectral positions of optical stop bands are obtained. It is shown that the reflectance within the first stop band varies from point to point on the sample surface, reaching a level of 98-99% at some points. The dispersion relation for electromagnetic waves in the model of infinite periodic structure is calculated for the samples under study. The possibility of using models with an infinite or finite number of layers to calculate reflectance spectra near the first optical stop band is discussed.

  17. Stability of the anodic growth porous tungsten oxide in different solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, Y.; Yam, F. K.; Hassan, Z.

    2015-05-15

    This article presents the study of the stability of the anodic growth porous tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) film in different solutions. As-anodized films are relatively stable in acidic electrolytes like sulphuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), hydrochloric acid (HCl) but not in oxalic acid. In higher pH solution, rate of dissolution of the WO{sub 3} film is higher. Annealing at 400 °C for 2 h transform the as-grown sample from amorphous phase to the crystalline phase and this significantly improve the stability of the film in high pH solution. Photocurrent measurements reveal that there is no significant difference of the electrolyte used (0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 0.33 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, 0.1 M sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4})) on the photocurrent. As-annealed films exhibit good stablility for the long photoelectrochemical (PEC) measurements (1700 s) in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 0.1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. There is no effect on the photocurrent for the variation of the concentration of the acidic solution (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). However, lower photocurrent was obtained as the concentration of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was increased.

  18. Investigation into the diffusion and oxidation behavior of the interface between a plasma-sprayed anode and a porous steel support for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shan-Lin; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu; Liu, Meilin; Yang, Guan-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Porous metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have attracted much attention because their potential to dramatically reduce the cost while enhancing the robustness and manufacturability. In particular, 430 ferritic steel (430L) is one of the popular choice for SOFC support because of its superior performance and low cost. In this study, we investigate the oxidation and diffusion behavior of the interface between a Ni-based anode and porous 430L support exposed to a humidified (3% H2O) hydrogen atmosphere at 700 °C. The Ni-GDC (Ce0.8Gd0.2O2-δ) cermet anodes are deposited on the porous 430L support by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The effect of exposure time on the microstructure and phase structure of the anode and the supports is studied and the element diffusion across the support/anode interface is characterized. Results indicate that the main oxidation product of the 430L support is Cr2O3, and that Cr and Fe will diffuse to the anode and the diffusion thickness increases with the exposure time. The diffusion thickness of Cr and Fe reach about 5 and 2 μm, respectively, after 1000 h exposure. However, the element diffusion and oxidation has little influence on the area-specific resistance, indicating that the porous 430L steel and plasma sprayed Ni-GDC anode are promising for durable SOFCs.

  19. Fabrication of super slippery sheet-layered and porous anodic aluminium oxide surfaces and its anticorrosion property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Tingting; Liu, Qi; Liu, Jingyuan; Yang, Wanlu; Chen, Rongrong; Jing, Xiaoyan; Takahashi, Kazunobu; Wang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Inspired by natural plants such as Nepenthes pitcher plants, super slippery surfaces have been developed to improve the attributes of repellent surfaces. In this report, super slippery porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) surfaces have fabricated by a simple and reproducible method. Firstly, the aluminium substrates were treated by an anodic process producing micro-nano structured sheet-layered pores, and then immersed in Methyl Silicone Oil, Fluororalkylsilane (FAS) and DuPont Krytox, respectively, generating super slippery surfaces. Such a good material with excellent anti-corrosion property through a simple and repeatable method may be potential candidates for metallic application in anti-corrosion and extreme environment.

  20. Study and characterization of porous copper oxide produced by electrochemical anodization for radiometric heat absorber.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Sonia; Achour, Zahra Ben; Thamri, Kamel; Touayar, Oualid

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to optimize the different parameters for realization of an absorbing cavity to measure the incident absolute laser energy. Electrochemical oxidation is the background process that allowed the copper blackening. A study of the blackened surface quality was undertaken using atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis and ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectrophotometry using a Shimadzu spectrophotometer. A two-dimensional and three-dimensional visualization by AFM of the formed oxide coating showed that the copper surfaces became porous after electrochemical etching with different roughness. This aspect is becoming more and more important with decreasing current density anodization. In a 2 mol L(-1) of NaOH solution, at a temperature of 90°C, and using a 16 mA cm(2) constant density current, the copper oxide formed has a reflectivity of around 3% in the spectral range between 300 and 1,800 nm. Using the 'mirage effect' technique, the obtained Cu2O diffusivity and thermal conductivity are respectively equal to (11.5 ± 0.5) 10 to 7 m(2) s(-1) and (370 ± 20) Wm(-1) K(-1). This allows us to consider that our Cu2O coating is a good thermal conductor. The results of the optical and thermal studies dictate the choice of the cavity design. The absorbing cavity is a hollow cylinder machined to its base at an angle of 30°. If the included angle of the plane is 30° and the interior surface gives specular reflection, an incoming ray parallel to the axis will undergo five reflections before exit. So the absorption of the surface becomes closely near 0.999999. PMID:25349555

  1. Study and characterization of porous copper oxide produced by electrochemical anodization for radiometric heat absorber

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to optimize the different parameters for realization of an absorbing cavity to measure the incident absolute laser energy. Electrochemical oxidation is the background process that allowed the copper blackening. A study of the blackened surface quality was undertaken using atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis and ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectrophotometry using a Shimadzu spectrophotometer. A two-dimensional and three-dimensional visualization by AFM of the formed oxide coating showed that the copper surfaces became porous after electrochemical etching with different roughness. This aspect is becoming more and more important with decreasing current density anodization. In a 2 mol L -1 of NaOH solution, at a temperature of 90°C, and using a 16 mA cm2 constant density current, the copper oxide formed has a reflectivity of around 3% in the spectral range between 300 and 1,800 nm. Using the ‘mirage effect’ technique, the obtained Cu2O diffusivity and thermal conductivity are respectively equal to (11.5 ± 0.5) 10 to 7 m2 s-1 and (370 ± 20) Wm-1 K-1. This allows us to consider that our Cu2O coating is a good thermal conductor. The results of the optical and thermal studies dictate the choice of the cavity design. The absorbing cavity is a hollow cylinder machined to its base at an angle of 30°. If the included angle of the plane is 30° and the interior surface gives specular reflection, an incoming ray parallel to the axis will undergo five reflections before exit. So the absorption of the surface becomes closely near 0.999999. PMID:25349555

  2. Study and characterization of porous copper oxide produced by electrochemical anodization for radiometric heat absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Salem, Sonia; Achour, Zahra Ben; Thamri, Kamel; Touayar, Oualid

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work is to optimize the different parameters for realization of an absorbing cavity to measure the incident absolute laser energy. Electrochemical oxidation is the background process that allowed the copper blackening. A study of the blackened surface quality was undertaken using atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis and ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectrophotometry using a Shimadzu spectrophotometer. A two-dimensional and three-dimensional visualization by AFM of the formed oxide coating showed that the copper surfaces became porous after electrochemical etching with different roughness. This aspect is becoming more and more important with decreasing current density anodization. In a 2 mol L -1 of NaOH solution, at a temperature of 90°C, and using a 16 mA cm2 constant density current, the copper oxide formed has a reflectivity of around 3% in the spectral range between 300 and 1,800 nm. Using the `mirage effect' technique, the obtained Cu2O diffusivity and thermal conductivity are respectively equal to (11.5 ± 0.5) 10 to 7 m2 s-1 and (370 ± 20) Wm-1 K-1. This allows us to consider that our Cu2O coating is a good thermal conductor. The results of the optical and thermal studies dictate the choice of the cavity design. The absorbing cavity is a hollow cylinder machined to its base at an angle of 30°. If the included angle of the plane is 30° and the interior surface gives specular reflection, an incoming ray parallel to the axis will undergo five reflections before exit. So the absorption of the surface becomes closely near 0.999999.

  3. Plasmon-induced optical switching of electrical conductivity in porous anodic aluminum oxide films encapsulated with silver nanoparticle arrays.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Han; Lin, Hsing-Ying; Lau, Ben-Chao; Liu, Chih-Yi; Chui, Hsiang-Chen; Tzeng, Yonhua

    2010-12-20

    We report on plasmon induced optical switching of electrical conductivity in two-dimensional (2D) arrays of silver (Ag) nanoparticles encapsulated inside nanochannels of porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films. The reversible switching of photoconductivity greatly enhanced by an array of closely spaced Ag nanoparticles which are isolated from each other and from the ambient by thin aluminum oxide barrier layers are attributed to the improved electron transport due to the localized surface plasmon resonance and coupling among Ag nanoparticles. The photoconductivity is proportional to the power, and strongly dependent on the wavelength of light illumination. With Ag nanoparticles being isolated from the ambient environments by a thin layer of aluminum oxide barrier layer of controlled thickness in nanometers to tens of nanometers, deterioration of silver nanoparticles caused by environments is minimized. The electrochemically fabricated nanostructured Ag/AAO is inexpensive and promising for applications to integrated plasmonic circuits and sensors. PMID:21197062

  4. Syntheses of rare-earth metal oxide nanotubes by the sol-gel method assisted with porous anodic aluminum oxide templates

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang Qin; Lin Zhiwei; Lian Wei; Jiang Zhiyuan; Xie Zhaoxiong Huang Rongbin; Zheng Lansun

    2007-04-15

    In this paper, we report a versatile synthetic method of ordered rare-earth metal (RE) oxide nanotubes. RE (RE=Y, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) oxide nanotubes were successfully prepared from corresponding RE nitrate solution via the sol-gel method assisted with porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been employed to characterize the morphology and composition of the as-prepared nanotubes. It is found that as-prepared RE oxides evolve into bamboo-like nanotubes and entirely hollow nanotubes. A new possible formation mechanism of RE oxide nanotubes in the AAO channels is proposed. These high-quantity RE oxide nanotubes are expected to have promising applications in many areas such as luminescent materials, catalysts, magnets, etc. - Graphical abstract: A versatile synthetic method for the preparation of ordered rare-earth (RE) oxide nanotubes is reported, by which RE (RE=Y, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) oxide nanotubes were successfully prepared from corresponding RE nitrate solution via the sol-gel method assisted with porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates.

  5. Modelling the initial stage of porous alumina growth during anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryslanova, E. M.; Alfimov, A. V.; Chivilikhin, S. A.

    2013-05-01

    Artificially on the surface of aluminum there may be build a thick layer of Al2O3, which has a porous structure. In this paper we present a model of growth of porous alumina in the initial stage of anodizing, identifying dependencies anodizing parameters on the rate of growth of the film and the distance between the pores and as a result of the created model equations were found for changes in the disturbance of alumina for the initial stage of anodizing aluminum oxide porous border aluminum-alumina and alumina-electrolyte, with the influence of surface diffusion of aluminum oxide.

  6. Fabrication of Pd Micro-Membrane Supported on Nano-Porous Anodized Aluminum Oxide for Hydrogen Separation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taegyu

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, nano-porous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as a support of the Pd membrane. The AAO fabrication process consists of an electrochemical polishing, first/second anodizing, barrier layer dissolving and pores widening. The Pd membrane was deposited on the AAO support using an electroless plating with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a plating agent. The AAO had the regular pore structure with the maximum pore diameter of ~100 nm so it had a large opening area but a small free standing area. The 2 µm-thick Pd layer was obtained by the electroless plating for 3 hours. The Pd layer thickness increased with increasing the plating time. However, the thickness was limited to ~5 µm in maximum. The H2 permeation flux was 0.454 mol/m2-s when the pressure difference of 66.36 kPa0.5 was applied at the Pd membrane under 400 °C. PMID:26369167

  7. Fabrication of SERS-active substrates using silver nanofilm-coated porous anodic aluminum oxide for detection of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Feng, Shaolong; Gao, Fang; Grant, Edward; Xu, Jie; Wang, Shuo; Huang, Qian; Lu, Xiaonan

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a silver nanofilm-coated porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrate for the detection of trace level of chloramphenicol, a representative antibiotic in food systems. The ordered aluminum template generated during the synthesis of AAO serves as a patterned matrix on which a coated silver film replicates the patterned AAO matrix to form a 2-dimensional ordered nanostructure. We used atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images to determine the morphology of this nanosubstrate, and characterized its localized surface plasmon resonance by ultraviolet-visible reflection. We gauged the SERS effect of this nanosubstrate by confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy (782-nm laser), finding a satisfactory and consistent performance with enhancement factors of approximately 2 × 10(4) and a limit of detection for chloramphenicol of 7.5 ppb. We applied principal component analysis to determine the limit of quantification for chloramphenicol of 10 ppb. Using electromagnetic field theory, we developed a detailed mathematical model to explain the mechanism of Raman signal enhancement of this nanosubstrate. With simple sample pretreatment and separation steps, this silver nanofilm-coated AAO substrate could detect 50 ppb chloramphenicol in milk, indicating good potential as a reliable SERS-active substrate for rapid detection of chemical contaminants in agricultural and food products. PMID:25736080

  8. Influence of wet etching time cycles on morphology features of thin porous Anodic Aluminum oxide (AAO) template for nanostructure's synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahrour, Khaled M.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Hashim, M. R.; Elfadill, Nezar G.; Al-Diabat, Ahmad M.; Bououdina, M.

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the influence of chemical wet etching time cycles on the morphological features of thin porous AAO template. Pore widening via wet-etching treatment at room temperature was found to modify the pore quality of AAO template and reduces the barrier layer on the bottom of AAO pore array in order to facilitate uniform electrodeposition of nanostructures onto AAO template. High quality AAO pore arrays with different mean pore diameters (64, 70, and 87 nm) were prepared under controllable pore-widening time cycles of 10, 30 and 45 min at room temperature, respectively. The AAO templates and the produced Cu nanorods were characterized using FESEM, EDX, XRD and AFM. The results indicate that the morphology of the aligned arrays of Cu nanorods is strongly affected by the duration of etching and the removal of AAO template. This study showed that the optimum etching duration required to maintain the aligned nanorods without any fracture is approximately 5 min. In addition, the regular hemispherical concave Al surface ensuring the self-ordering of AAO pore can be established when striping is employed for 45 min. Thus, it can be inferred that the duration of wet etching treatment (striping) of Al oxide film performed after the first-step anodization plays a vital role in the final arrangement of nanopores.

  9. Metallizing porous scaffolds as an alternative fabrication method for solid oxide fuel cell anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Trejo, Enrique; Atkinson, Alan; Brandon, Nigel P.

    2015-04-01

    A combination of electroless and electrolytic techniques is used to incorporate nickel into a porous Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.90 scaffold. First a porous backbone was screen printed into a YSZ electrolyte using an ink that contains sacrificial pore formers. Once sintered, the scaffold was coated with silver using Tollens' reaction followed by electrodeposition of nickel in a Watts bath. At high temperatures the silver forms droplets enabling direct contact between the gadolinia-doped ceria and nickel. Using impedance spectroscopy analysis in a symmetrical cell a total area specific resistance of 1 Ωcm2 at 700 °C in 97% H2 with 3% H2O was found, indicating the potential of this fabrication method for scaling up.

  10. Doped, porous iron oxide films and their optical functions and anodic photocurrents for solar water splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Kronawitter, Coleman X.; Mao, Samuel S.; Antoun, Bonnie R.

    2011-02-28

    The fabrication and morphological, optical, and photoelectrochemical characterization of doped iron oxide films is presented. The complex index of refraction and absorption coefficient of polycrystalline films are determined through measurement and modeling of spectral transmission and reflection data using appropriate dispersion relations. Photoelectrochemical characterization for water photo-oxidation reveals that the conversion efficiencies of electrodes are strongly influenced by substrate temperature during their oblique-angle physical vapor deposition. These results are discussed in terms of the films' morphological features and the known optoelectronic limitations of iron oxide films for application in solar water splitting devices.

  11. ZIRCONIUM OXIDE NANOSTRUCTURES PREPARED BY ANODIC OXIDATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, Y. Y.; Bhuiyan, M.S.; Paranthaman, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Zirconium oxide is an advanced ceramic material highly useful for structural and electrical applications because of its high strength, fracture toughness, chemical and thermal stability, and biocompatibility. If highly-ordered porous zirconium oxide membranes can be successfully formed, this will expand its real-world applications, such as further enhancing solid-oxide fuel cell technology. Recent studies have achieved various morphologies of porous zirconium oxide via anodization, but they have yet to create a porous layer where nanoholes are formed in a highly ordered array. In this study, electrochemical methods were used for zirconium oxide synthesis due to its advantages over other coating techniques, and because the thickness and morphology of the ceramic fi lms can be easily tuned by the electrochemical parameters, such as electrolyte solutions and processing conditions, such as pH, voltage, and duration. The effects of additional steps such as pre-annealing and post-annealing were also examined. Results demonstrate the formation of anodic porous zirconium oxide with diverse morphologies, such as sponge-like layers, porous arrays with nanoholes ranging from 40 to 75 nm, and nanotube layers. X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicates a cubic crystallographic structure in the zirconium oxide. It was noted that increased voltage improved the ability of the membrane to stay adhered to the zirconium substrate, whereas lower voltages caused a propensity for the oxide fi lm to fl ake off. Further studies are needed to defi ne the parameters windows that create these morphologies and to investigate other important characteristics such as ionic conductivity.

  12. Zirconium Oxide Nanostructures Prepared by Anodic Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, Ying Yi; Bhuiyan, Md S; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2008-01-01

    Zirconium oxide is an advanced ceramic material highly useful for structural and electrical applications because of its high strength, fracture toughness, chemical and thermal stability, and biocompatibility. If highly-ordered porous zirconium oxide membranes can be successfully formed, this will expand its real-world applications, such as further enhancing solid-oxide fuel cell technology. Recent studies have achieved various morphologies of porous zirconium oxide via anodization, but they have yet to create a porous layer where nanoholes are formed in a highly ordered array. In this study, electrochemical methods were used for zirconium oxide synthesis due to its advantages over other coating techniques, and because the thickness and morphology of the ceramic films can be easily tuned by the electrochemical parameters, such as electrolyte solutions and processing conditions, such as pH, voltage, and duration. The effects of additional steps such as pre-annealing and post-annealing were also examined. Results demonstrate the formation of anodic porous zirconium oxide with diverse morphologies, such as sponge-like layers, porous arrays with nanoholes ranging from 40 to 75 nm, and nanotube layers. X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicates a cubic crystallographic structure in the zirconium oxide. It was noted that increased voltage improved the ability of the membrane to stay adhered to the zirconium substrate, whereas lower voltages caused a propensity for the oxide film to flake off. Further studies are needed to define the parameters windows that create these morphologies and to investigate other important characteristics such as ionic conductivity.

  13. Growth behavior of anodic porous alumina formed in malic acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2013-11-01

    The growth behavior of anodic porous alumina formed on aluminum by anodizing in malic acid solutions was investigated. High-purity aluminum plates were electropolished in CH3COOH/HClO4 solutions and then anodized in 0.5 M malic acid solutions at 293 K and constant cell voltages of 200-350 V. The anodic porous alumina grew on the aluminum substrate at voltages of 200-250 V, and a black, burned oxide film was formed at higher voltages. The nanopores of the anodic oxide were only formed at grain boundaries of the aluminum substrate during the initial stage of anodizing, and then the growth region extended to the entire aluminum surface as the anodizing time increased. The anodic porous alumina with several defects was formed by anodizing in malic acid solution at 250 V, and oxide cells were approximately 300-800 nm in diameter.

  14. Analysis of possibilities for carbon removal from porous anode of solid oxide fuel cells after different failure modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subotić, Vanja; Schluckner, Christoph; Schroettner, Hartmuth; Hochenauer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the investigation of possibilities for carbon removal from the fuel electrode of anode supported solid oxide fuel cells (ASC-SOFCs) after different degradation modes. To design the conditions which generally lead the cell in the range of carbon depositions the performed thermodynamic calculations show that the SOFC operating temperature range seems to be appropriate for formation of elemental carbon in various types. Concerning this the loaded large planar single SOFCs are fed with synthetic diesel reformate thus simulating realistic operating conditions and enabling the formation and deposition of carbon on the anode side. A mixture of hydrogen/water vapor/nitrogen is used to remove the detected carbon depositions in a cell-protecting manner. For the purpose of this investigation several failure modes are induced after which determination the already defined regeneration strategy is applied. The cathode degradation is first induced and secondly the fuel supply is interrupted to induce re-oxidation of nickel (Ni) on the anode side. The undertaken investigations determine that carbon can be fully removed from the anode surface after nickel oxidation, while cathode degradation disables the complete cell regeneration.

  15. Electrophoretic deposition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on porous anodic aluminum oxide using ionic liquid as a dispersing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hekmat, F.; Sohrabi, B.; Rahmanifar, M. S.; Jalali, A.

    2015-06-01

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MW-CNTs) have been arranged in nanochannels of anodic aluminum oxide template (AAO) by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) to make a vertically-aligned carbon nanotube (VA-CNT) based electrode. Well ordered AAO templates were prepared by a two-step anodizing process by applying a constant voltage of 45 V in oxalic acid solution. The stabilized CNTs in a water-soluble room temperature ionic liquid (1-methyl-3-octadecylimidazolium bromide), were deposited in the pores of AAO templates which were conductive by deposition of Ni nanoparticles in the bottom of pores. In order to obtain ideal results, different EPD parameters, such as concentration of MWCNTs and ionic liquid on stability of MWCNT suspensions, deposition time and voltage which are applied in EPD process and also optimal conditions for anodizing of template were investigated. The capacitive performance of prepared electrodes was analyzed by measuring the specific capacitance from cyclic voltammograms and the charge-discharge curves. A maximum value of 50 Fg-1 at the scan rate of 20 mV s-1was achieved for the specific capacitance.

  16. Chemical Synthesis, Characterisation, and Biocompatibility of Nanometre Scale Porous Anodic Aluminium Oxide Membranes for Use as a Cell Culture Substrate for the Vero Cell Line: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Le, Xuan Thi; Becker, Thomas; Fawcett, Derek

    2014-01-01

    In this preliminary study we investigate for the first time the biomedical potential of using porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes as a cell substrate for culturing the Cercopithecus aethiops (African green monkey) Kidney (Vero) epithelial cell line. One advantage of using the inorganic AAO membrane is the presence of nanometre scale pore channels that allow the exchange of molecules and nutrients across the membrane. The size of the pore channels can be preselected by adjusting the controlling parameters of a temperature controlled two-step anodization process. The cellular interaction and response of the Vero cell line with an in-house synthesised AAO membrane, a commercially available membrane, and a glass control were assessed by investigating cell adhesion, morphology, and proliferation over a 72 h period. The number of viable cells proliferating over the respective membrane surfaces revealed that the locally produced in-house AAO membrane had cells numbers similar to the glass control. The study revealed evidence of focal adhesion sites over the surface of the nanoporous membranes and the penetration of cellular extensions into the pore structure as well. The outcome of the study has revealed that nanometre scale porous AAO membranes have the potential to become practical cell culture scaffold substrates with the capability to enhance adhesion and proliferation of Vero cells. PMID:24579077

  17. Chemical synthesis, characterisation, and biocompatibility of nanometre scale porous anodic aluminium oxide membranes for use as a cell culture substrate for the vero cell line: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Le, Xuan Thi; O'Dea, Mark; Becker, Thomas; Fawcett, Derek

    2014-01-01

    In this preliminary study we investigate for the first time the biomedical potential of using porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes as a cell substrate for culturing the Cercopithecus aethiops (African green monkey) Kidney (Vero) epithelial cell line. One advantage of using the inorganic AAO membrane is the presence of nanometre scale pore channels that allow the exchange of molecules and nutrients across the membrane. The size of the pore channels can be preselected by adjusting the controlling parameters of a temperature controlled two-step anodization process. The cellular interaction and response of the Vero cell line with an in-house synthesised AAO membrane, a commercially available membrane, and a glass control were assessed by investigating cell adhesion, morphology, and proliferation over a 72 h period. The number of viable cells proliferating over the respective membrane surfaces revealed that the locally produced in-house AAO membrane had cells numbers similar to the glass control. The study revealed evidence of focal adhesion sites over the surface of the nanoporous membranes and the penetration of cellular extensions into the pore structure as well. The outcome of the study has revealed that nanometre scale porous AAO membranes have the potential to become practical cell culture scaffold substrates with the capability to enhance adhesion and proliferation of Vero cells. PMID:24579077

  18. Impedance spectroscopy of highly ordered nano-porous electrodes based on Au-AAO (anodic aluminum oxide) structure.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jaehwan; Cho, Sungbo; Min, Junhong

    2013-11-01

    Electrochemical measurements using the microelectrodes are increasingly utilized for the label-free detection of the small amount of biological materials such as DNA, protein, and cells. However, the interfacial electrode impedance increases and may hinder the detection of weak signals as the size of electrode decreases. To enhance the measurement sensitivity while reducing the electrode size, in this study, microelectrodes employing a nanoporous structure were fabricated and characterized by using electrical impedance spectroscopy. We made the highly ordered honeycomb nanoporous structure of Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) by electrochemical anodizing and formed Au layer on the surface of AAO (Au/AAO) by electroless Au plating method. The electrical characteristics of the fabricated Au/AAO electrodes were evaluated by using de Levie's model derived for the pore electrodes. As a result, the interfacial electrode impedance of the fabricated Au/AAO electrodes was 2-3 order lower than the value of the planar electrodes at frequencies below 1 kHz. It implies this nanoporous electrode could be directly applied to label free detection of biomaterials. PMID:24245278

  19. Lithium intercalation in porous carbon anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, T.D.; Pekala, R.W.; Mayer, S.T.

    1994-11-23

    Carbon foams derived from the phase separation of polyacrylonitrile/solvent mixtures were investigated as lithium intercalation anodes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. The carbon foams have a bulk density of 0.35--0.5 g/cm{sup 3}, low surface area (< 50 m{sup 2}/g), and an average cell size of 5--10 {mu}m. Polyacrylonitrile-based carbon foams doped with phosphoric acid had capacity as high as 450 mAh/g. Carbon capacity increased with increasing phosphoric acid concentration in the doping solution. The doped porous carbon anodes exhibited good cyclability and excellent coulombic efficiency.

  20. Growth behavior of anodic oxide formed by aluminum anodizing in glutaric and its derivative acid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Daiki; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-12-01

    The growth behavior of anodic oxide films formed via anodizing in glutaric and its derivative acid solutions was investigated based on the acid dissociation constants of electrolytes. High-purity aluminum foils were anodized in glutaric, ketoglutaric, and acetonedicarboxylic acid solutions under various electrochemical conditions. A thin barrier anodic oxide film grew uniformly on the aluminum substrate by glutaric acid anodizing, and further anodizing caused the film to breakdown due to a high electric field. In contrast, an anodic porous alumina film with a submicrometer-scale cell diameter was successfully formed by ketoglutaric acid anodizing at 293 K. However, the increase and decrease in the temperature of the ketoglutaric acid resulted in non-uniform oxide growth and localized pitting corrosion of the aluminum substrate. An anodic porous alumina film could also be fabricated by acetonedicarboxylic acid anodizing due to the relatively low dissociation constants associated with the acid. Acid dissociation constants are an important factor for the fabrication of anodic porous alumina films.

  1. Fabrication of porous anodic alumina using normal anodization and pulse anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, I. K.; Yam, F. K.; Hassan, Z.

    2015-05-01

    This article reports on the fabrication of porous anodic alumina (PAA) by two-step anodizing the low purity commercial aluminum sheets at room temperature. Different variations of the second-step anodization were conducted: normal anodization (NA) with direct current potential difference; pulse anodization (PA) alternate between potential differences of 10 V and 0 V; hybrid pulse anodization (HPA) alternate between potential differences of 10 V and -2 V. The method influenced the film homogeneity of the PAA and the most homogeneous structure was obtained via PA. The morphological properties are further elucidated using measured current-transient profiles. The absent of current rise profile in PA indicates the anodization temperature and dissolution of the PAA structure were greatly reduced by alternating potential differences.

  2. Anodic oxidation of benzoquinone using diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Panizza, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The anodic degradation of 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), one of the most toxic xenobiotic, was investigated by electrochemical oxidation at boron-doped diamond anode. The electrolyses have been performed in a single-compartment flow cell in galvanostatic conditions. The influence of applied current (0.5-2 A), BQ concentration (1-2 g dm(-3)), temperature (20-45 °C) and flow rate (100-300 dm(3) h(-1)) has been studied. BQ decay kinetic, the evolution of its oxidation intermediates and the mineralization of the aqueous solutions were monitored during the electrolysis by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements. The results obtained show that the use of diamond anode leads to total mineralization of BQ in any experimental conditions due to the production of oxidant hydroxyl radicals electrogenerated from water discharge. The decay kinetics of BQ removal follows a pseudo-first-order reaction, and the rate constant increases with rising current density. The COD removal rate was favoured by increasing of applied current, recirculating flow rate and it is almost unaffected by solution temperature. PMID:24710725

  3. Synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from porous anodic alumina.

    PubMed

    Jha, Himendra; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Sakairi, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2008-10-01

    A novel method for the synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from a porous anodic oxide film of aluminum is demonstrated. In the present method, the porous anodic alumina not only acts as a template, but also serves as the starting material for the synthesis. The porous anodic alumina film is hydrothermally treated for pore-sealing, which forms aluminum oxy-hydroxide inside the pores of the oxide film as well as on the surface of the film. The hydrothermally sealed porous oxide film is immersed in the sodium citrate solution, which selectively etches the porous aluminum oxide from the film, leaving the oxy-hydroxide intact. The method is simple and gives highly uniform aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers. Moreover, the diameter of the nanofibers can be controlled by controlling the pore size of the porous anodic alumina film, which depends on the anodizing conditions. Nanofibers with diameters of about 38-85 nm, having uniform shape and size, were successfully synthesized using the present method. PMID:21832599

  4. Novel structure formation at the bottom surface of porous anodic alumina fabricated by single step anodization process.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ghafar; Ahmad, Maqsood; Akhter, Javed Iqbal; Maqbool, Muhammad; Cho, Sung Oh

    2010-08-01

    A simple approach for the growth of long-range highly ordered nanoporous anodic alumina film in H(2)SO(4) electrolyte through a single step anodization without any additional pre-anodizing procedure is reported. Free-standing porous anodic alumina film of 180 microm thickness with through hole morphology was obtained. A simple and single step process was used for the detachment of alumina from aluminum substrate. The effect of anodizing conditions, such as anodizing voltage and time on the pore diameter and pore ordering is discussed. The metal/oxide and oxide/electrolyte interfaces were examined by high resolution scanning transmission electron microscope. The arrangement of pores on metal/oxide interface was well ordered with smaller diameters than that of the oxide/electrolyte interface. The inter-pore distance was larger in metal/oxide interface as compared to the oxide/electrolyte interface. The size of the ordered domain was found to depend strongly upon anodizing voltage and time. PMID:20493719

  5. Controlling the anodizing conditions in preparation of an nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazemi, Azadeh; Abolfazl, Seyed; Sadjadi, Seyed

    2014-12-01

    Porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) template is commonly used in the synthesis of one-dimensional nanostructures, such as nanowires and nanorods, due to its simple fabrication process. Controlling the anodizing conditions is important because of their direct influence on the size of AAO template pores; it affects the size of nanostructures that are fabricated in AAO template. In present study, several alumina templates were fabricated by a two-step electrochemical anodization in different conditions, such as the time of first process, its voltage, and electrolyte concentration. The effect of these factors on pore diameters of AAO templates was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  6. Impurity-defect structure of anodic aluminum oxide produced by two-sided anodizing in tartaric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyakova, K. V.; Vrublevsky, I. A.; Ivanovskaya, M. I.; Kotsikau, D. A.

    2012-03-01

    Porous aluminum oxide is prepared in a 0.4 M aqueous solution of tartaric acid by two-sided anodizing. Fourier Transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR) data reveal the presence, in the alumina, of unoxidized tartarate ions, as well as products of their partial (radical organic products and CO) and complete (CO2) oxidation. Carboxylate ions and elemental carbon contained in the anodic oxide impart a gray color to the films.

  7. Photoluminescence structure, and composition of laterally anodized porous Si

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, K. H.; Shih, S.; Kwong, D. L.; George, T.; Lin, T. L.; Liu, H. Y.; Zavada, J.

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the photoluminescence (PL), structure, and composition of laterally anodized porous Si. Broad PL peaks were observed centered between about 620-720 nm with strong intensities measured from 500 to 860 nm. Macroscopic variations in PL intensities and peak positions are explained in terms of the structure and anodization process. Structural studies suggest that the PL appears to originate from a multilayered porous Si structure in which the top two layers are amorphous. X-ray diffraction spectra also suggest the presence of a significant amorphous phase. In addition to high concentrations of B and N, we have measured extremely high concentrations much greater than 10 exp 20 cu cm of H, C, O, and F. Our results indicate that laterally anodized porous Si does not fit the crystalline Si quantum wire model prevalent in the literature suggesting that some other structure is responsible for the observed luminescence.

  8. Ultrafast excited state deactivation of doped porous anodic alumina membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhal, Abhinandan; Sarkar, Soumik; Pal, Samir Kumar; Yan, Hongdan; Wulferding, Dirk; Cetin, Fatih; Lemmens, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Free-standing, bi-directionally permeable and ultra-thin anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes establish attractive templates (host) for the synthesis of nano-dots and rods of various materials (guest). This is due to their chemical and structural integrity and high periodicity on length scales of 5-150 nm which are often used to host photoactive nano-materials for various device applications including dye-sensitized solar cells. In the present study, AAO membranes are synthesized by using electrochemical methods and a detailed structural characterization using FEG-SEM, XRD and TGA confirms the porosity and purity of the material. Defect-mediated photoluminescence quenching of the porous AAO membrane in the presence of an electron accepting guest organic molecule (benzoquinone) is studied by means of steady-state and picosecond/femtosecond-resolved luminescence measurements. Using time-resolved luminescence transients, we have also revealed light harvesting of complexes of porous alumina impregnated with inorganic quantum dots (Maple Red) or gold nanowires. Both the Förster resonance energy transfer and the nano-surface energy transfer techniques are employed to examine the observed quenching behavior as a function of the characteristic donor-acceptor distances. The experimental results will find their relevance in light harvesting devices based on AAOs combined with other materials involving a decisive energy/charge transfer dynamics.

  9. Porous aluminum room temperature anodizing process in a fluorinated-oxalic acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhahri, S.; Fazio, E.; Barreca, F.; Neri, F.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2016-08-01

    Anodizing of aluminum is used for producing porous insulating films suitable for different applications in electronics and microelectronics. Porous-type aluminum films are most simply realized by galvanostatic anodizing in aqueous acidic solutions. The improvement in application of anodizing technique is associated with a substantial reduction of the anodizing voltage at appropriate current densities as well as to the possibility to carry out the synthesis process at room temperature in order to obtain a self-planarizing dielectric material incorporated in array of super-narrow metal lines. In this work, the anodizing of aluminum to obtain porous oxide was carried out, at room temperature, on three different substrates (glass, stainless steel and aluminum), using an oxalic acid-based electrolyte with the addition of a relatively low amount of 0.4 % of HF. Different surface morphologies, from nearly spherical to larger porous nanostructures with smooth edges, were observed by means of scanning electron microscopy. These evidences are explained by considering the formation, transport and adsorption of the fluorine species which react with the Al3+ ions. The behavior is also influenced by the nature of the original substrate.

  10. Formation of anodic aluminum oxide with serrated nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongdong; Zhao, Liang; Jiang, Chuanhai; Lu, Jia G

    2010-08-11

    We report a simple and robust method to self-assemble porous anodic aluminum oxide membranes with serrated nanochannels by anodizing in phosphoric acid solution. Due to high field conduction and anionic incorporation, an increase of anodizing voltage leads to an increase of the impurity levels and also the field strength across barrier layer. On the basis of both experiment and simulation results, the initiation and formation of serrated channels are attributed to the evolution of oxygen gas bubbles followed by plastic deformation in the oxide film. Alternating anodization in oxalic and phosphoric acids is applied to construct multilayered membranes with smooth and serrated channels, demonstrating a unique way to design and construct a three-dimensional hierarchical system with controllable morphology and composition. PMID:20617804

  11. Inward Lithium-Ion Breathing of Hierarchically Porous Silicon Anodes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Fang; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhongyi; et al

    2015-11-05

    Silicon has been identified as one of the most promising candidates as anode for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The key challenge for Si anodes is the large volume change induced chemomechanical fracture and subsequent rapid capacity fading upon cyclic charge and discharge. Improving capacity retention thus critically relies on smart accommodation of the volume changes through nanoscale structural design. In this work, we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. Upon charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward expansion/contraction with negligible particle-levelmore » outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such a unique volume-change accommodation mechanism is enabled by the much stiffer modulus of the lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer and the low flow stress of the porous structure. Such inward expansion shields the hp-SiNSs from fracture, opposite to the outward expansion in solid Si during lithiation. Lithium ion battery assembled with this new nanoporous material exhibits high capacity, high power, long cycle life and high coulombic efficiency, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. We find the low cost synthesis approach reported here provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties.« less

  12. Inward Lithium-Ion Breathing of Hierarchically Porous Silicon Anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Fang; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhongyi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.; Lu, Yunfeng; Cai, Mei

    2015-11-05

    Silicon has been identified as one of the most promising candidates as anode for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The key challenge for Si anodes is the large volume change induced chemomechanical fracture and subsequent rapid capacity fading upon cyclic charge and discharge. Improving capacity retention thus critically relies on smart accommodation of the volume changes through nanoscale structural design. In this work, we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. Upon charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward expansion/contraction with negligible particle-level outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such a unique volume-change accommodation mechanism is enabled by the much stiffer modulus of the lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer and the low flow stress of the porous structure. Such inward expansion shields the hp-SiNSs from fracture, opposite to the outward expansion in solid Si during lithiation. Lithium ion battery assembled with this new nanoporous material exhibits high capacity, high power, long cycle life and high coulombic efficiency, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. We find the low cost synthesis approach reported here provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties.

  13. Inward Lithium-Ion Breathing of Hierarchically Porous Silicon Anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Fang; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhongyi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.; Lu, Yunfeng; Cai, Mei

    2015-11-05

    Silicon has been identified as one of the most promising candidates as anode for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The key challenge for Si anodes is the large volume change induced chemomechanical fracture and subsequent rapid capacity fading upon cyclic charge and discharge. Improving capacity retention thus critically relies on smart accommodation of the volume changes through nanoscale structural design. In this work, we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. Upon charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward expansion/contraction with negligible particle-level outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such a unique volume-change accommodation mechanism is enabled by the much stiffer modulus of the lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer and the low flow stress of the porous structure. Such inward expansion shields the hp-SiNSs from fracture, opposite to the outward expansion in solid Si during lithiation. Lithium ion battery assembled with this new nanoporous material exhibits high capacity, high power, long cycle life and high coulombic efficiency, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. The low cost synthesis approach reported here provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties.

  14. Effect of the local electric field on the formation of an ordered structure in porous anodic alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarouk, S. K.; Katsuba, P. S.; Leshok, A. A.; Vysotskii, V. B.

    2015-09-01

    Experimental data and a model are presented, and the electric field that appears in porous alumina during electrochemical anodic oxidation of aluminum in electrolytes based on an aqueous solution of oxalic acid at a voltage of 90-250 V is calculated. It is found that the electric field in the layers with a porosity of 1-10% in growing alumina reaches 109-1010 V/m, which exceeds the electric strength of the material and causes microplasma patterns emitting visible light at the pore bottom, the self-organization of the structure of porous alumina, and the anisotropy of local porous anodizing. Moreover, other new effects are to be expected during aluminum anodizing under the conditions that ensure a high electric field inside the barrier layer of porous oxide.

  15. Structural evolution and adhesion of titanium oxide film containing phosphorus and calcium on titanium by anodic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Lin, C S; Chen, M T; Liu, J H

    2008-05-01

    This study investigated the microstructure evolution and defects of the titanium oxide layer containing calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) formed by anodic oxidation in a solution containing Ca and P compounds. Results show that the anodic film exhibited a two-layer structure: a pore-containing amorphous titanium oxide layer dispersed with nano-sized crystallites formed prior to sparking, and a porous overlay dotted with craters formed after sparking. Ca and P were predominantly incorporated in the porous overlay, in which the amorphous region contained more Ca and P than the crystalline region regardless of the anodizing voltages. Moreover, the ratio of amorphous to crystalline regions in the porous overlay changed insignificantly with anodizing voltage. Increasing anodizing voltage enhanced the incorporation of Ca and P in the anodic film, but deteriorated the adhesion of the anodic film to the substrate. This deterioration was related to two inherent adhesive weaknesses: the aligned pores in the titanium oxide layer and the craters in the major overlay, signifying that a new anodic oxidation process that can produce high Ca- and P-containing oxide film at relatively-low anodizing voltages, i.e. approximately 200 V, is a necessity. PMID:17688247

  16. Inward lithium-ion breathing of hierarchically porous silicon anodes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Fang; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhongyi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chongmin; Lu, Yunfeng; Cai, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Silicon has been identified as a highly promising anode for next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The key challenge for Si anodes is large volume change during the lithiation/delithiation cycle that results in chemomechanical degradation and subsequent rapid capacity fading. Here we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. On charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward Li breathing with negligible particle-level outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such inward expansion is enabled by the much stiffer lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer. LIBs assembled with the hp-SiNSs exhibit high capacity, high power and long cycle life, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. The low-cost synthesis approach provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties. PMID:26538181

  17. Inward lithium-ion breathing of hierarchically porous silicon anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Fang; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhongyi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chongmin; Lu, Yunfeng; Cai, Mei

    2015-11-01

    Silicon has been identified as a highly promising anode for next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The key challenge for Si anodes is large volume change during the lithiation/delithiation cycle that results in chemomechanical degradation and subsequent rapid capacity fading. Here we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. On charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward Li breathing with negligible particle-level outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such inward expansion is enabled by the much stiffer lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer. LIBs assembled with the hp-SiNSs exhibit high capacity, high power and long cycle life, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. The low-cost synthesis approach provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties.

  18. Inward lithium-ion breathing of hierarchically porous silicon anodes

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Fang; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhongyi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chongmin; Lu, Yunfeng; Cai, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Silicon has been identified as a highly promising anode for next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The key challenge for Si anodes is large volume change during the lithiation/delithiation cycle that results in chemomechanical degradation and subsequent rapid capacity fading. Here we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. On charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward Li breathing with negligible particle-level outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such inward expansion is enabled by the much stiffer lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer. LIBs assembled with the hp-SiNSs exhibit high capacity, high power and long cycle life, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. The low-cost synthesis approach provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties. PMID:26538181

  19. Preparation of porous nickel-titania cermets and their application to anode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Taimatsu, H.; Kudo, K.; Kaneko, H.; Matsukaze, N.; Iwata, T.

    1995-12-31

    Porous nickel-titania cermets have been prepared as new-type anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells using the solid-state displacement reaction method. The microstructures of the cermets were interwoven aggregate-type, differently from those of conventional nickel-YSZ cermets: nickel and titania phases three-dimensionally entangled each other. These cermets revealed good properties in compatibility of thermal expansion with YSZ, strength, gas permeation and electrical conduction.

  20. Fano resonance in anodic aluminum oxide based photonic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Guo Liang; Fei, Guang Tao; Zhang, Yao; Yan, Peng; Xu, Shao Hui; Ouyang, Hao Miao; De Zhang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide based photonic crystals with periodic porous structure have been prepared using voltage compensation method. The as-prepared sample showed an ultra-narrow photonic bandgap. Asymmetric line-shape profiles of the photonic bandgaps have been observed, which is attributed to Fano resonance between the photonic bandgap state of photonic crystal and continuum scattering state of porous structure. And the exhibited Fano resonance shows more clearly when the sample is saturated ethanol gas than air-filled. Further theoretical analysis by transfer matrix method verified these results. These findings provide a better understanding on the nature of photonic bandgaps of photonic crystals made up of porous materials, in which the porous structures not only exist as layers of effective-refractive-index material providing Bragg scattering, but also provide a continuum light scattering state to interact with Bragg scattering state to show an asymmetric line-shape profile. PMID:24398625

  1. Variation of nanopore diameter along porous anodic alumina channels by multi-step anodization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Hong; Lim, Xin Yuan; Wai, Kah Wing; Romanato, Filippo; Wong, Chee Cheong

    2011-02-01

    In order to form tapered nanocapillaries, we investigated a method to vary the nanopore diameter along the porous anodic alumina (PAA) channels using multi-step anodization. By anodizing the aluminum in either single acid (H3PO4) or multi-acid (H2SO4, oxalic acid and H3PO4) with increasing or decreasing voltage, the diameter of the nanopore along the PAA channel can be varied systematically corresponding to the applied voltages. The pore size along the channel can be enlarged or shrunken in the range of 20 nm to 200 nm. Structural engineering of the template along the film growth direction can be achieved by deliberately designing a suitable voltage and electrolyte together with anodization time. PMID:21456152

  2. Two-dimensional porous anodic alumina for optoelectronics and photocatalytic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoroshko, L. S.

    2015-11-01

    Fabrication of porous anodic alumina film structures using anodizing, sol-gel synthesis and photolithography is reported. The structures receive interest as planar waveguides due to strong photoluminescence of the embedded trivalent lanthanides. Mesoporous structures comprising sol-gel derived titania in porous anodic alumina play a role of effective catalyst for water purification.

  3. Advanced morphological analysis of patterns of thin anodic porous alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Toccafondi, C.; Stępniowski, W.J.; Leoncini, M.; Salerno, M.

    2014-08-15

    Different conditions of fabrication of thin anodic porous alumina on glass substrates have been explored, obtaining two sets of samples with varying pore density and porosity, respectively. The patterns of pores have been imaged by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and analyzed by innovative methods. The regularity ratio has been extracted from radial profiles of the fast Fourier transforms of the images. Additionally, the Minkowski measures have been calculated. It was first observed that the regularity ratio averaged across all directions is properly corrected by the coefficient previously determined in the literature. Furthermore, the angularly averaged regularity ratio for the thin porous alumina made during short single-step anodizations is lower than that of hexagonal patterns of pores as for thick porous alumina from aluminum electropolishing and two-step anodization. Therefore, the regularity ratio represents a reliable measure of pattern order. At the same time, the lower angular spread of the regularity ratio shows that disordered porous alumina is more isotropic. Within each set, when changing either pore density or porosity, both regularity and isotropy remain rather constant, showing consistent fabrication quality of the experimental patterns. Minor deviations are tentatively discussed with the aid of the Minkowski measures, and the slight decrease in both regularity and isotropy for the final data-points of the porosity set is ascribed to excess pore opening and consequent pore merging. - Highlights: • Thin porous alumina is partly self-ordered and pattern analysis is required. • Regularity ratio is often misused: we fix the averaging and consider its spread. • We also apply the mathematical tool of Minkowski measures, new in this field. • Regularity ratio shows pattern isotropy and Minkowski helps in assessment. • General agreement with perfect artificial patterns confirms the good manufacturing.

  4. Electronic currents and the formation of nanopores in porous anodic alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xu-Fei; Song, Ye; Liu, Lin; Wang, Chen-Yu; Zheng, Jie; Jia, Hong-Bing; Wang, Xin-Long

    2009-11-01

    The formation processes of barrier anodic alumina (BAA) and porous anodic alumina (PAA) are discussed in detail. The anodizing current JT within the oxide includes ionic current jion and electronic current je during the anodizing process. The jion is used to form an oxide and the je is used to give rise to oxygen gas or sparking. The je results from the impurity centers within the oxide. For a given electrolyte, the je is dependent on the impurity centers and independent of the JT. The formation of nanopores can be ascribed to the oxygen evolution within the oxide. Oxygen gas will begin to be released at the critical thickness dc. The manner of the development of PAA is in accordance with that of BAA. The differences between PAA and BAA are the magnitude of je or the continuity of oxygen evolution. There are two competitive reactions, i.e. oxide growth (\\mathrm {2Al^{3+}+3O^{2-}} \\to \\mathrm {Al_{2}O_{3}} ) and oxygen evolution (\\mathrm {2O^{2-}} \\to \\mathrm {O_{2}} {\\uparrow } +4\\rme ). The former keeps the wall of the channel lengthened, the latter keeps the channel open. By controlling the release rate of oxygen gas under different pressures, the shape of the channels can be adjusted. The present results may open up some opportunities for fabricating special templates.

  5. Formation of Anodic Aluminum Oxide with Branched and Meshed Pores.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byeol; Lee, Jin Seok

    2016-06-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), with a self-ordered hexagonal array, is important for various applications in nanofabrication including as the fabrication of nanotemplates and other nanostructures. With the consideration, there have been many efforts to control the characteristic parameters of porous anodic alumina by adjustment of the anodizing conditions such as the electrolyte, temperature, applied potential, and Al purity. In particular, impurities in Al are changing the morphology of an alumina film; however, the formation mechanism has not yet been explained. In this work, we anodized a high purity (99.999%, Al(high)) and low purity (99.8%, Al(low)) aluminum foil by a two-step anodization process in an oxalic acid solution or phosphoric acid. It was found that the purity of aluminum foil has influenced the morphology of the alumina film resulting in branched and meshed pores. Also, electrochemical analysis indicated that the branched and meshed pores in the low-purity Al foil formed by the presence of impurities. Impurities act as defects and change the general growth mechanism for pore formation by inducing an electric field imbalance during anodization. This work contributes to the research field of topographical chemistry and applied fields including nanofabrication. PMID:27427755

  6. Cellular porous anodic alumina grown in neutral organic electrolyte. 1. Structure, composition, and properties of the films

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Alwitt, R.S.; Shimizu, K.

    2000-04-01

    Anodic alumina films with cellular porous structure grow in neutral organic electrolytes with low water content and containing ethylene glycol and a large dicarboxylic acid. An Al carboxylate precipitates in the pore and is extruded from the coating. The porous structure develops even though the current efficiency for film formation is near 95%. The coating matrix contains substantial organic material, 15 wt % by thermal analysis. It is an oxide/organic composite with higher field strength and lower dielectric constant than pure anodic alumina.

  7. Evidence for electrohydrodynamic convection as a source of spontaneous self-ordering in porous anodic alumina films.

    PubMed

    Pashchanka, Mikhail; Schneider, Jörg J

    2016-03-01

    A comparative study of self-ordering behaviour of anodic alumina films fabricated in a series of diluted (down to 0.05 M) oxalic acid electrolytes allowed developing a relationship between the supporting electrolyte concentration and self-ordering voltages for the formation of porous oxide materials. Besides its practical importance, this work elucidates some fundamental principles of porous alumina formation, e.g. it suggests that the cell patterning arises from the electrohydrodynamic (EHD) convection process rather than the interfacial tension gradients near the anode surface (Marangoni-type instability). PMID:26881337

  8. Fabrication of Porous Anodic Alumina with Ultrasmall Nanopores

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Anodization of Al foil under low voltages of 1–10 V was conducted to obtain porous anodic aluminas (PAAs) with ultrasmall nanopores. Regular nanopore arrays with pore diameter 6–10 nm were realized in four different electrolytes under 0–30°C according to the AFM, FESEM, TEM images and current evolution curves. It is found that the pore diameter and interpore distance, as well as the barrier layer thickness, are not sensitive to the applied potentials and electrolytes, which is totally different from the rules of general PAA fabrication. The brand-new formation mechanism has been revealed by the AFM study on the samples anodized for very short durations of 2–60 s. It is discovered for the first time that the regular nanoparticles come into being under 1–10 V at the beginning of the anodization and then serve as a template layer dominating the formation of ultrasmall nanopores. Under higher potentials from 10 to 40 V, the surface nanoparticles will be less and less and nanopores transform into general PAAs. PMID:20676199

  9. Fabrication of Porous Anodic Alumina with Ultrasmall Nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Gu Qiao; Yang, Rong; Ding, Jian Ning; Yuan, Ning Yi; Zhu, Yuan Yuan

    2010-08-01

    Anodization of Al foil under low voltages of 1-10 V was conducted to obtain porous anodic aluminas (PAAs) with ultrasmall nanopores. Regular nanopore arrays with pore diameter 6-10 nm were realized in four different electrolytes under 0-30°C according to the AFM, FESEM, TEM images and current evolution curves. It is found that the pore diameter and interpore distance, as well as the barrier layer thickness, are not sensitive to the applied potentials and electrolytes, which is totally different from the rules of general PAA fabrication. The brand-new formation mechanism has been revealed by the AFM study on the samples anodized for very short durations of 2-60 s. It is discovered for the first time that the regular nanoparticles come into being under 1-10 V at the beginning of the anodization and then serve as a template layer dominating the formation of ultrasmall nanopores. Under higher potentials from 10 to 40 V, the surface nanoparticles will be less and less and nanopores transform into general PAAs.

  10. Porous graphene for high capacity lithium ion battery anode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yusheng; Zhang, Qiaoli; Jia, Min; Yang, Dapeng; Wang, Jianjun; Li, Meng; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Qiang; Jia, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Based on density functional theory calculations, we studied the Li dispersed on porous graphene (PG) for its application as Li ion battery anode material. The hybridization of Li atoms and the carbon atoms enhanced the interaction between Li atoms and the PG. With holes of specific size, the PG can provide excellent mobility with moderate barriers of 0.37-0.39 eV. The highest Li storage composite can be LiC0.75H0.38 which corresponds to a specific capacity of 2857.7 mA h/g. Both specific capacity and binding energy are significantly larger than the corresponding value of graphite, this makes PG a promising candidate for the anode material in battery applications. The interactions between the Li atoms and PG can be easily tuned by an applied strain. Under biaxial strain of 16%, the binding energy of Li to PG is increased by 17% compared to its unstrained state.

  11. Effect of intermetallic phases on the anodic oxidation and corrosion of 5A06 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Song-mei; Li, Ying-dong; Zhang, You; Liu, Jian-hua; Yu, Mei

    2015-02-01

    Intermetallic phases were found to influence the anodic oxidation and corrosion behavior of 5A06 aluminum alloy. Scattered intermetallic particles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) after pretreatment. The anodic film was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and its corrosion resistance was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization in NaCl solution. The results show that the size of Al-Fe-Mg-Mn particles gradually decreases with the iron content. During anodizing, these intermetallic particles are gradually dissolved, leading to the complex porosity in the anodic film beneath the particles. After anodizing, the residual particles are mainly silicon-containing phases, which are embedded in the anodic film. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the porous anodic film layer is easily penetrated, and the barrier plays a dominant role in the overall protection. Meanwhile, self-healing behavior is observed during the long immersion time.

  12. Pilot demonstration of cerium oxide coated anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, J.S.; Frederick, M.S.; Shingler, M.J.; Alcorn, T.R.

    1992-10-01

    Cu cermet anodes were tested for 213 to 614 hours with an in-situ deposited CEROX coating in a pilot cell operated by Reynolds Manufacturing Technology Laboratory. At high bath ratio ([approximately]1.5) and low current density (0.5 A/cm[sup 2]), a [ge]1 mm thick dense CEROX coating was deposited on the anodes. At lower bath ratios and higher current density, the CEROX coating was thinner and less dense, but no change in corrosion rate was noted. Regions of low current density on the anodes and sides adjacent to the carbon anode sometimes had thin or absent CEROX coatings. Problems with cracking and oxidation of the cermet substrates led to higher corrosion rates in a pilot cell than would be anticipated from lab scale results.

  13. Functional optical devices using highly ordered hole array architectures of anodic porous alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Hideki; Kondo, Toshiaki; Nishio, Kazuyuki

    2011-12-01

    The fabrication of highly ordered anodic porous alumina and its application to the fabrication of several types of functional optical devices are described. Highly ordered hole array structures of anodic porous alumina, which were formed under appropriate anodizing conditions, were applied as a starting structure in several processes for the fabrication of ordered structures used for the functional optical devices. On the basis of these processes, twodimensional photonic crystals and localized surface plasmonic devices were prepared.

  14. The thermomechanical stability of micro-solid oxide fuel cells fabricated on anodized aluminum oxide membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Chang-Woo; Lee, Jae-Il; Kim, Ki-Bum; Lee, Hae-Weon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Son, Ji-Won

    2012-07-01

    The thermomechanical stability of micro-solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs) fabricated on an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane template is investigated. The full structure consists of the following layers: AAO membrane (600 nm)/Pt anode/YSZ electrolyte (900 nm)/porous Pt cathode. The utilization of a 600-nm-thick AAO membrane significantly improves the thermomechanical stability due to its well-known honeycomb-shaped nanopore structure. Moreover, the Pt anode layer deposited in between the AAO membrane and the YSZ electrolyte preserves its integrity in terms of maintaining the triple-phase boundary (TPB) and electrical conductivity during high-temperature operation. Both of these results guarantee thermomechanical stability of the micro-SOFC and extend the cell lifetime, which is one of the most critical issues in the fabrication of freestanding membrane-type micro-SOFCs.

  15. Use of Ionic Liquid in Fabrication, Characterization, and Processing of Anodic Porous Alumina

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Two different ionic liquids have been tested in the electrochemical fabrication of anodic porous alumina in an aqueous solution of oxalic acid. It was found that during galvanostatic anodization of the aluminum at a current density of 200 mA/cm2, addition of 0.5% relative volume concentration of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoborate resulted in a three-fold increase of the growth rate, as compared to the bare acidic solution with the same acid concentration. This ionic liquid was also used successfully for an assessment of the wettability of the outer surface of the alumina, by means of liquid contact angle measurements. The results have been discussed and interpreted with the aid of atomic force microscopy. The observed wetting property allowed to use the ionic liquid for protection of the pores during a test removal of the oxide barrier layer. PMID:20596395

  16. Impact of anode microstructure on solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshio; Hasan, Zahir; Funahashi, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Toshiaki; Fujishiro, Yoshinobu; Awano, Masanobu

    2009-08-14

    We report a correlation between the microstructure of the anode electrode of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and its electrochemical performance for a tubular design. It was shown that the electrochemical performance of the cell was extensively improved when the size of constituent particles was reduced so as to yield a highly porous microstructure. The SOFC had a power density of greater than 1 watt per square centimeter at an operating temperature as low as 600 degrees C with a conventional zirconia-based electrolyte, a nickel cermet anode, and a lanthanum ferrite perovskite cathode material. The effect of the hydrogen fuel flow rate (linear velocity) was also examined for the optimization of operating conditions. Higher linear fuel velocity led to better cell performance for the cell with higher anode porosity. A zirconia-based cell could be used for a low-temperature SOFC system under 600 degrees C just by optimizing the microstructure of the anode electrode and operating conditions. PMID:19679808

  17. Microstructural Models of Alumina Nanotubes and Anodic Porous Alumina Film Formed in Sulphuric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Lin; Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Tan, Chao; Yang, Zheng; Zou, Jian-Ping; Bao, Xi-Mao; Feng, Duan; Shi, Yi; Zheng, You-Dou

    2002-03-01

    Electrochemical stepwise anodization of aluminium in dilute sulphuric acid results in the formation of alumina nanotubes (ANTs) due to the hexagonal split of the anodic porous alumina (APA) film along the cell boundaries containing many voids; that is, the ANTs are the completely detached cell of the APA film. The inner diameters of the ANTs are in the range of 10-20 nm, and the aspect ratio (inner diameter/length) of the ANTs can be about 80. The relations found for pore diameter, cell diameter and barrier layer thickness are around 1, 2.7 and 0.85 nm/V, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the ANT wall has a three-shell structure: an outer shell (metal/oxide interface) consisting of pure alumina oxide, a middle shell of the hydrated oxide or/and hydroxide and an inner shell (oxide/electrolyte interface) of anion incorporated oxide with the thickness ratio of 1:1:2. The structural change of ANTs induced by e-beam irradiation in TEM indicates that the thermal instability of the hydrated oxide or/and hydroxide within the cell wall might be an alternative origin contributing to the self-organization of the cells, leading to a densely packed triangular cell lattice of the APA film.

  18. Osseointegration of multiphase anodic spark deposition treated porous titanium implants in an ovine model.

    PubMed

    Bertollo, Nicky; Sandrini, Enrico; Dalla Pria, Paolo; Walsh, William R

    2015-03-01

    Modification of titanium oxide by multiphase anodic spark deposition (ASD) has the potential to increase bioactivity and hasten osseointegration and biological fixation in uncemented arthroplasty. This study assessed the in vivo performance of control (Ti), plasma-sprayed HA-coated (TiHA) and ASD (Biospark) treated (TiAn) porous titanium implants with a solid core using a standard uncemented implant fixation sheep model. Cortical interfacial shear-strength and bone ingrowth in cortical and cancellous sites were quantified following 12 weeks in situ. Ultimate shear-strength for the Ti, TiHA and TiAn coatings was 33±9.5, 35.4±8.4 and 33.8±7.8 MPa, respectively, which was limited by coating delamination. ASD treatment was associated with significantly higher mean bone ingrowth at both sites. These results support the osteoconductive potential of the BioSpark treatment of porous titanium. PMID:25540993

  19. Mathematical modeling of sustainability of porous Al2O3 growth during two-stage anodization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryslanova, Elizaveta M.; Alfimov, Anton V.; Chivilikhin, Sergey A.

    2015-06-01

    Currently, due to the development of nanotechnology and metamaterials, it has become important to obtain regular nanoporous structures with different parameters, such as porous anodic alumina films that are used for synthesis of various nanocomposites. In this work we consider the motion of the interfaces between electrolyte and alumina layers, and between alumina and aluminum layers. We also took into account the dynamics of moving boundaries and the change of small perturbations of these boundaries. Each area under Laplace's equation is solved for the potential of the electric field. The growth of porous alumina is described with the theory of small perturbations. Small perturbations of the interface are considered, which lead to small changes in potential and current in the boundaries. As a result of the developed model we obtained the minimum distance between centers of aluminum oxide pores in the beginning of anodizing process and the wavelength of porous structure irregularities.

  20. Nanoscale Porous Lithium Titanate Anode for Superior High Temperature Performance.

    PubMed

    Alaboina, Pankaj K; Ge, Yeqian; Uddin, Md-Jamal; Liu, Yang; Lee, Dongsuek; Park, Seiung; Zhang, Xiangwu; Cho, Sung-Jin

    2016-05-18

    In this work, nanoscale porous lithium titanate (LTO) anode material was synthesized by using aqueous spray drying method after ball milling. The size of the LTO nanoparticles was optimized to 200 nm because of its considerable moisture absorption levels for stable performance and its cooperation to make good quality electrodes found with testing. The electrochemical performance of the synthesized LTO nanoparticles was found to be very stable at high operating temperature (50 °C) and high current rate (5 C) which was worth noticing than its usual unfavorable behaviors (gas generation and surface phase transitions) at higher temperatures. In the postanalysis on the aged LTO cells, high-resolution-transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and fast Fourier transform (FFT) measurements reveal that the LTO phase transitions are maintained to very thin surface level (3-5 nm) even after 500 cycles at 50 °C. Moreover, the synthesized LTO material showed stable cycling with a high capacity of 138.74 mA h g(-1) at 1 C rate and 111.53 mA h g(-1) at 5 C rate. Furthermore, high columbic efficiency and excellent capacity retention over 500 cycles at 50 °C was achieved. The enhanced electrochemical properties can be attributed to the increase in surface area and shortened Li(+) diffusion lengths because of the nanoscale primary particles and porous structure of the synthesized LTO particles. PMID:27135524

  1. Confined Porous Graphene/SnOx Frameworks within Polyaniline-Derived Carbon as Highly Stable Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Song, Wei-Li; Li, Xiaogang; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2016-06-01

    Tin oxides are promising anode materials for their high theoretical capacities in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, poor stability usually limits the practical application owing to the large volume variation during the cycling process. Herein, a novel carbon confined porous graphene/SnOx framework was designed using a silica template assisted nanocasting method followed by a polyaniline-derived carbon coating process. In this process, silica served as a template to anchor SnOx nanoparticles on porous framework and polyaniline was used as the carbon source for coating on the porous graphene/SnOx framework. The synthesized carbon confined porous graphene/SnOx frameworks demonstrate substantially improved rate capacities and enhanced cycling stability as the anode materials in LIBs, showing a high reversible capacity of 907 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 100 mA g(-1) and 555 mAh g(-1) after 400 cycles at 1000 mA g(-1). The remarkably improved electrochemical performance could be assigned to the unique porous architecture, which effectively solves the drawbacks of SnOx including poor electrical conductivity and undesirable volume expansion during cycling process. Consequently, such design concept for promoting SnOx performance could provide a novel stage for improving anode stability in LIBs. PMID:27169479

  2. Fabrication of anodic aluminum oxide with incorporated chromate ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Norek, Małgorzata; Michalska-Domańska, Marta; Bombalska, Aneta; Nowak-Stępniowska, Agata; Kwaśny, Mirosław; Bojar, Zbigniew

    2012-10-01

    The anodization of aluminum in 0.3 M chromic acid is studied. The influence of operating conditions (like anodizing voltage and electrolyte's temperature) on the nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide geometry (including pore diameter, interpore distance, the oxide layer thickness and pores density) is thoroughly investigated. The results revealed typical correlations of the anodic alumina nanopore geometry with operating conditions, such as linear increase of pore diameter and interpore distance with anodizing voltage. The anodic aluminum oxide is characterized by a low pores arrangement, as determined by Fast Fourier transforms analyses of the FE-SEM images, which translates into a high concentration of oxygen vacancies. Moreover, an optimal experimental condition where chromate ions are being successfully incorporated into the anodic alumina walls, have been determined: the higher oxide growth rate the more chromate ions are being trapped. The trapped chromate ions and a high concentration of oxygen vacancies make the anodic aluminum oxide a promising luminescent material.

  3. Conversion Reaction-Based Oxide Nanomaterials for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seung-Ho; Lee, Soo Hong; Lee, Dong Jun; Sung, Yung-Eun; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2016-04-01

    Developing high-energy-density electrodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is of primary importance to meet the challenges in electronics and automobile industries in the near future. Conversion reaction-based transition metal oxides are attractive candidates for LIB anodes because of their high theoretical capacities. This review summarizes recent advances on the development of nanostructured transition metal oxides for use in lithium ion battery anodes based on conversion reactions. The oxide materials covered in this review include oxides of iron, manganese, cobalt, copper, nickel, molybdenum, zinc, ruthenium, chromium, and tungsten, and mixed metal oxides. Various kinds of nanostructured materials including nanowires, nanosheets, hollow structures, porous structures, and oxide/carbon nanocomposites are discussed in terms of their LIB anode applications. PMID:26627913

  4. Electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasevich, M. R.; Korchagin, O. V.; Kuzov, A. V.

    2013-11-01

    The results of fundamental and applied studies in the field of electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol in fuel cells are considered. Features of the mechanism of ethanol electrooxidation are discussed as well as the structure and electrochemical properties of the most widely used catalysts of this process. The prospects of further studies of direct ethanol fuel cells with alkaline and acidic electrolytes are outlined. The bibliography includes 166 references.

  5. Numerical simulation of the baking of porous anode carbon in a vertical flue ring furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, M.; Melaaen, M.C.

    1998-11-13

    The interaction of pitch pyrolysis in porous anode carbon during heating and volatiles combustion in the flue gas channel has been analyzed to gain insight in the anode baking process. A two-dimensional geometry of a flue gas channel adjacent to a porous flue gas wall, packing coke, and an anode was used for studying the effect of heating rate on temperature gradients and internal gas pressure in the anodes. The mathematical model included porous heat and mass transfer, pitch pyrolysis, combustion of volatiles, radiation, and turbulent channel flow. The mathematical model was developed through source code modification of the computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT. The model was useful for studying the effects of heating rate, geometry, and anode properties.

  6. Operational characteristics of thin film solid oxide fuel cells with ruthenium anode in natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Yuto; Kerman, Kian; Ko, Changhyun; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2013-12-01

    Direct utilization of hydrocarbons in low temperature solid oxide fuel cells is of growing interest in the landscape of alternative energy technologies. Here, we report on performance of self-supported micro-solid oxide fuel cells (μSOFCs) with ruthenium (Ru) nano-porous thin film anodes operating in natural gas and methane. The μSOFCs consist of 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia thin film electrolytes, porous platinum cathodes and porous Ru anodes, and were tested with dry natural gas and methane as fuels and air as the oxidant. At 500 °C, comparable power densities of 410 mW cm-2 and 440 mW cm-2 were obtained with dry natural gas and methane, respectively. In weakly humidified natural gas, open circuit voltage of 0.95 V at 530 °C with peak power density of 800 mW cm-2 was realized. The μSOFC was continuously operated at constant voltage of 0.7 V with methane, where quasi-periodic oscillatory behavior of the performance was observed. Through post-operation XPS studies it was found that the oxidation state of Ru anode surfaces significantly differs depending on the fuel used, oxidation being enhanced with methane or natural gas. The nature of the oscillation is discussed based on the transition in surface oxygen coverage states and electro-catalytic activity of Ru anodes.

  7. Microstructural coarsening effects on redox instability and mechanical damage in solid oxide fuel cell anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdeljawad, F.; Haataja, M.

    2013-11-01

    In state-of-the-art high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), a porous composite of nickel and yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ) is employed as the anode. The rapid oxidation of Ni into NiO is regarded as the main cause of the so-called reduction-oxidation (redox) instability in Ni/YSZ anodes, due to the presence of extensive bulk volume changes associated with this reaction. As a consequence, the development of internal stresses can lead to performance degradation and/or structural failure. In this study, we employ a recently developed continuum formalism to quantify the mechanical deformation behavior and evolution of internal stresses in Ni/YSZ porous anodes due to re-oxidation. In our approach, a local failure criterion is coupled to the continuum framework in order to account for the heterogeneous damage accumulation in the YSZ phase. The hallmark of our approach is the ability to track the spatial evolution of mechanical damage and capture the interaction of YSZ damaged regions with the local microstructure. Simulation results highlight the importance of the microstructure characterized by Ni to YSZ particle size ratio on the redox behavior and damage accumulation in as-synthesized SOFC anode systems. Moreover, a redox-strain-to-failure criterion is developed to quantify the degree by which coarsened anode microstructures become more susceptible to mechanical damage during re-oxidation.

  8. Analysis of gene expression on anodic porous alumina microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Nicolini, Claudio; Singh, Manjul; Spera, Rosanna; Felli, Lamberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of anodic porous alumina as an advancement on chip laboratory for gene expressions. The surface was prepared by a suitable electrolytic process to obtain a regular distribution of deep micrometric holes and printed bypen robot tips under standard conditions. The gene expression within the Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Array (NAPPA) is realized in a confined environment of 16 spots, containing circular DNA plasmids expressed using rabbit reticulocyte lysate. Authors demonstrated the usefulness of APA in withholding the protein expression by detecting with a CCD microscope the photoluminescence signal emitted from the complex secondary antibody anchored to Cy3 and confined in the pores. Friction experiments proved the mechanical resistance under external stresses by the robot tip pens printing. So far, no attempts have been made to directly compare APA with any other surface/substrate; the rationale for pursuing APA as a potential surface coating is that it provides advantages over the simple functionalization of a glass slide, overcoming concerns about printing and its ability to generate viable arrays. PMID:23783000

  9. Stimulated emission from aluminium anode oxide films doped with rhodamine 6G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrayev, N. Kh; Zeinidenov, A. K.; Aimukhanov, A. K.; Napolskii, K. S.

    2015-07-01

    The spectral and luminescent properties of the rhodamine 6G dye in a porous matrix of aluminium anode oxide are studied. The films with a highly-ordered porous structure are produced using the method of two-stage anodic oxidation. By means of raster electron microscopy it is found that the diameter of the pores amounts to nearly 50 nm and the separation between the adjacent channels is almost 105 nm. The thickness of the films is equal to 55 μm, and the specific surface area measured using the method of nitrogen capillary condensation is 15.3 m2 g-1. Fluorescence and absorption spectra of rhodamine 6G molecules injected into the pores of the aluminium anode oxide are measured. It is found that under the excitation of samples with the surface dye concentration 0.3 × 1014 molecules m-2 by the second harmonic of the Nd : YAG laser in the longitudinal scheme with the pumping intensity 0.4 MW cm-2, a narrow band of stimulated emission with the intensity maximum at the wavelength 572 nm appears against the background of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum. A further increase in the pumping radiation intensity leads to the narrowing of the stimulated emission band and an increase in its intensity. The obtained results demonstrate the potential possibility of using the porous films of aluminium anode oxide, doped with laser dyes, in developing active elements for quantum electronics.

  10. Electrochemical reduction of UO2 in LiCl-Li2O molten salt using porous and nonporous anode shrouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Won, Chan Yeon; Cha, Ju-Sun; Park, Wooshin; Im, Hun Suk; Hong, Sun-Seok; Hur, Jin-Mok

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical reductions of uranium oxide in a molten LiCl-Li2O electrolyte were carried out using porous and nonporous anode shrouds. The study focused on the effect of the type of anode shroud on the current density by running experiments with six anode shrouds. Dense ceramics, MgO, and MgO (3 wt%) stabilized ZrO2 (ZrO2-MgO) were used as nonporous shrouds. STS 20, 100, and 300 meshes and ZrO2-MgO coated STS 40 mesh were used as porous shrouds. The current densities (0.34-0.40 A cm-2) of the electrolysis runs using the nonporous anode shrouds were much lower than those (0.76-0.79 A cm-2) of the runs using the porous shrouds. The ZrO2-MgO shroud (600-700 MPa at 25 °C) showed better bending strength than that of MgO (170 MPa at 25 °C). The high current densities achieved in the electrolysis runs using the porous anode shrouds were attributed to the transport of O2- ions through the pores in meshes of the shroud wall. ZrO2-MgO coating on STS mesh was chemically unstable in a molten LiCl-Li2O electrolyte containing Li metal. The electrochemical reduction runs using STS 20, 100, and 300 meshes showed similar current densities in spite of their different opening sizes. The STS mesh shrouds which were immersed in a LiCl-Li2O electrolyte were stable without any damage or corrosion.

  11. Ordered three-dimensional interconnected nanoarchitectures in anodic porous alumina.

    PubMed

    Martín, Jaime; Martín-González, Marisol; Francisco Fernández, Jose; Caballero-Calero, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures combine properties of nanoscale materials with the advantages of being macro-sized pieces when the time comes to manipulate, measure their properties or make a device. However, the amount of compounds with the ability to self-organize in ordered 3D nanostructures is limited. Therefore, template-based fabrication strategies become the key approach towards 3D nanostructures. Here we report the simple fabrication of a template based on anodic aluminium oxide, having a well-defined, ordered, tunable, homogeneous 3D nanotubular network in the sub 100-nm range. The 3D templates are then employed to achieve 3D, ordered nanowire networks in Bi2Te3 and polystyrene. Finally, we demonstrate the photonic crystal behaviour of both the template and the polystyrene 3D nanostructure. Our approach may establish the foundations for future high-throughput, cheap, photonic materials and devices made of simple commodity plastics, metals and semiconductors. PMID:25342247

  12. Enhanced hydrogen oxidation activity and H2S tolerance of Ni-infiltrated ceria solid oxide fuel cell anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirfakhraei, Behzad; Paulson, Scott; Thangadurai, Venkataraman; Birss, Viola

    2013-12-01

    The effect of Ni infiltration into porous Gd-doped ceria (GDC) anodes on their H2 oxidation performance, with and without added 10 ppm H2S, is reported here. Porous GDC anodes (ca. 10 μm thick) were deposited on yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) supports and then infiltrated with catalytic amounts of a Ni nitrate solution, followed by electrochemical testing in a 3-electrode half-cell setup at 500-800 °C. Infiltration of 3 wt.% Ni into the porous GDC anode lowered the polarization resistance by up to 85%, affecting mainly the low frequency impedance arc. When exposed to 10 ppm H2S, the Ni-infiltrated anodes exhibited a ca. 5 times higher tolerance toward sulfur poisoning compared to GDC anodes alone, also showing excellent long-term stability in 10 ppm H2S. In the presence of H2S, it is proposed that Ni, likely distributed as a nanophase, helps to maintain a clean GDC surface at the Ni/GDC interface at which the H2 oxidation reaction takes place. In turn, the GDC will readily supply oxygen anions to the adjacent Ni surfaces, thus helping to remove adsorbed sulfur.

  13. Electrochemical coating of dental implants with anodic porous titania for enhanced osteointegration

    PubMed Central

    Shayganpour, Amirreza; Rebaudi, Alberto; Cortella, Pierpaolo; Diaspro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Summary Clinical long-term osteointegration of titanium-based biomedical devices is the main goal for both dental and orthopedical implants. Both the surface morphology and the possible functionalization of the implant surface are important points. In the last decade, following the success of nanostructured anodic porous alumina, anodic porous titania has also attracted the interest of academic researchers. This material, investigated mainly for its photocatalytic properties and for applications in solar cells, is usually obtained from the anodization of ultrapure titanium. We anodized dental implants made of commercial grade titanium under different experimental conditions and characterized the resulting surface morphology with scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer. The appearance of nanopores on these implants confirm that anodic porous titania can be obtained not only on ultrapure and flat titanium but also as a conformal coating on curved surfaces of real objects made of industrial titanium alloys. Raman spectroscopy showed that the titania phase obtained is anatase. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that by carrying out the anodization in the presence of electrolyte additives such as magnesium, these can be incorporated into the porous coating. The proposed method for the surface nanostructuring of biomedical implants should allow for integration of conventional microscale treatments such as sandblasting with additive nanoscale patterning. Additional advantages are provided by this material when considering the possible loading of bioactive drugs in the porous cavities. PMID:26665091

  14. Effects of anodizing parameters and heat treatment on nanotopographical features, bioactivity, and cell culture response of additively manufactured porous titanium.

    PubMed

    Amin Yavari, S; Chai, Y C; Böttger, A J; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2015-06-01

    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. PMID

  15. Chemical Dealloying Derived 3D Porous Current Collector for Li Metal Anodes.

    PubMed

    Yun, Qinbai; He, Yan-Bing; Lv, Wei; Zhao, Yan; Li, Baohua; Kang, Feiyu; Yang, Quan-Hong

    2016-08-01

    A 3D porous Cu current collector is fabricated through chemical dealloying from a commerial Cu-Zn alloy tape. The interlinked porous framework naturally integrated can accommodate Li deposition, suppressing dendrite growth and alleviating the huge volume change during cycling. The Li metal anode combined with such a porous Cu collector demonstrates excellent performance and commerial potentials in Li-based secondary batteries. PMID:27219349

  16. Rapid fabrication of self-ordered porous alumina with 10-/sub-10-nm-scale nanostructures by selenic acid anodizing.

    PubMed

    Nishinaga, Osamu; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O

    2013-01-01

    Anodic porous alumina has been widely investigated and used as a nanostructure template in various nanoapplications. The porous structure consists of numerous hexagonal cells perpendicular to the aluminum substrate and each cell has several tens or hundreds of nanoscale pores at its center. Because the nanomorphology of anodic porous alumina is limited by the electrolyte during anodizing, the discovery of additional electrolytes would expand the applicability of porous alumina. In this study, we report a new self-ordered nanoporous alumina formed by selenic acid (H2SeO4) anodizing. By optimizing the anodizing conditions, anodic alumina possessing 10-nm-scale pores was rapidly assembled (within 1 h) during selenic acid anodizing without any special electrochemical equipment. Novel sub-10-nm-scale spacing can also be achieved by selenic acid anodizing and metal sputter deposition. Our new nanoporous alumina can be used as a nanotemplate for various nanostructures in 10-/sub-10-nm-scale manufacturing. PMID:24067318

  17. Effects of the Use of Pore Formers on Performance of an Anode supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Haslam, J J; Pham, A; Chung, B W; DiCarlo, J F; Glass, R S

    2003-12-04

    The effects of amount of pore former used to produce porosity in the anode of an anode supported planar solid oxide fuel cell were examined. The pore forming material utilized was rice starch. The reduction rate of the anode material was measured by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) to qualitatively characterize the gas transport within the porous anode materials. Fuel cells with varying amounts of porosity produced by using rice starch as a pore former were tested. The performance of the fuel cell was the greatest with an optimum amount of pore former used to create porosity in the anode. This optimum is believed to be related to a trade off between increasing gas diffusion to the active three-phase boundary region of the anode and the loss of performance due to the replacement of active three-phase boundary regions of the anode with porosity.

  18. Highly porous nickel@carbon sponge as a novel type of three-dimensional anode with low cost for high catalytic performance of urea electro-oxidation in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ke; Zhang, Dongming; Guo, Fen; Cheng, Kui; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2015-06-01

    Highly porous nickel@carbon sponge electrode with low cost is synthesized via a facile sponge carbonization method coupled with a direct electrodeposition of Ni. The obtained electrodes are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The catalytic performances of urea electro-oxidation in alkaline medium are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). The Ni@carbon sponge electrode exhibits three-dimensional open network structures with a large surface area. Remarkably, the Ni@carbon sponge electrode shows much higher electrocatalytic activity and lower onset oxidation potential towards urea electro-oxidation compared to a Ni/Ti flat electrode synthesized by the same procedure. The Ni@carbon sponge electrode achieves an onset oxidation potential of 0.24 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and a peak current density of 290 mA cm-2 in 5 mol L-1 NaOH and 0.10 mol L-1 urea solutions accompanied with a desirable stability. The impressive electrocatalytic activity is largely attributed to the high intrinsic electronic conductivity, superior porous network structures and rich surface Ni active species, which can largely boost the interfacial electroactive sites and charge transfer rates for urea electro-oxidation in alkaline medium, indicating promising applications in fuel cells.

  19. Effects of Complex Structured Anodic Oxide Dielectric Layer Grown in Pore Matrix for Aluminum Capacitor.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin-Ha; Yun, Sook Young; Lee, Chang Hyoung; Park, Hwa-Sun; Suh, Su-Jeong

    2015-11-01

    Anodization of aluminum is generally divided up into two types of anodic aluminum oxide structures depending on electrolyte type. In this study, an anodization process was carried out in two steps to obtain high dielectric strength and break down voltage. In the first step, evaporated high purity Al on Si wafer was anodized in oxalic acidic aqueous solution at various times at a constant temperature of 5 degrees C. In the second step, citric acidic aqueous solution was used to obtain a thickly grown sub-barrier layer. During the second anodization process, the anodizing potential of various ranges was applied at room temperature. An increased thickness of the sub-barrier layer in the porous matrix was obtained according to the increment of the applied anodizing potential. The microstructures and the growth of the sub-barrier layer were then observed with an increasing anodizing potential of 40 to 300 V by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An impedance analyzer was used to observe the change of electrical properties, including the capacitance, dissipation factor, impedance, and equivalent series resistance (ESR) depending on the thickness increase of the sub-barrier layer. In addition, the breakdown voltage was measured. The results revealed that dielectric strength was improved with the increase of sub-barrier layer thickness. PMID:26726615

  20. Ordered three-dimensional interconnected nanoarchitectures in anodic porous alumina

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Jaime; Martín-González, Marisol; Fernández, Jose Francisco; Caballero-Calero, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional nanostructures combine properties of nanoscale materials with the advantages of being macro-sized pieces when the time comes to manipulate, measure their properties, or make a device. However, the amount of compounds with the ability to self-organize in ordered three-dimensional nanostructures is limited. Therefore, template-based fabrication strategies become the key approach towards three-dimensional nanostructures. Here we report the simple fabrication of a template based on anodic aluminum oxide, having a well-defined, ordered, tunable, homogeneous 3D nanotubular network in the sub 100 nm range. The three-dimensional templates are then employed to achieve three-dimensional, ordered nanowire-networks in Bi2Te3 and polystyrene. Lastly, we demonstrate the photonic crystal behavior of both the template and the polystyrene three-dimensional nanostructure. Our approach may establish the foundations for future high-throughput, cheap, photonic materials and devices made of simple commodity plastics, metals, and semiconductors. PMID:25342247

  1. Electrochemical oxidation of phenol using graphite anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Awad, Y.M.; Abuzaid, N.S.

    1999-02-01

    The effects of current and pH on the electrochemical oxidation of phenol on graphite electrodes is investigated in this study. There was no sign of deterioration of the graphite bed after 5 months of operation. Phenol removal efficiency was a function of the current applied and was around 70% at a current of 2.2 A. The increase of phenol removal efficiency with current is attributed to the increase of ionic transport which increases the rate of electrode reactions responsible for the removal process. The percentage of complete oxidation of phenol increases with current, with a maximum value of about 50%. However, at pH 0.2 it is slightly higher than that at pH 0.5 at all currents. The phenol removal rate increases with increases of current and pH. While the current (CO{sub 2}) efficiency reaches a maximum value in the current range of 1.0--1.2 A, it increases with an increase of acid concentration. The findings of this study have important implications: while anodic oxidation of phenol on graphite can achieve acceptable removal of phenol, the extent of oxidation should not be overlooked.

  2. Influence of anodization parameters on the volume expansion of anodic aluminum oxide formed in mixed solution of phosphoric and oxalic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Tzung-Ta; Chang, Yao-Chung

    2014-01-01

    The growth of anodic alumina oxide was conducted in the mixed solution of phosphoric and oxalic acids. The influence of anodizing voltage, electrolyte temperature, and concentration of phosphoric and oxalic acids on the volume expansion of anodic aluminum oxide has been investigated. Either anodizing parameter is chosen to its full extent of range that allows the anodization process to be conducted without electric breakdown and to explore the highest possible volume expansion factor. The volume expansion factors were found to vary between 1.25 and 1.9 depending on the anodizing parameters. The variation is explained in connection with electric field, ion transport number, temperature effect, concentration, and activity of acids. The formation of anodic porous alumina at anodizing voltage 160 V in 1.1 M phosphoric acid mixed with 0.14 M oxalic acid at 2 °C showed the peak volume expansion factor of 1.9 and the corresponding moderate growth rate of 168 nm/min.

  3. Porous Si spheres encapsulated in carbon shells with enhanced anodic performance in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hui; Wu, Ping Shi, Huimin; Lou, Feijian; Tang, Yawen; Zhou, Tongge; Zhou, Yiming Lu, Tianhong

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • In situ magnesiothermic reduction route for the formation of porous Si@C spheres. • Unique microstructural characteristics of both porous sphere and carbon matrix. • Enhanced anodic performance in term of cycling stability for lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: A novel type of porous Si–C micro/nano-hybrids, i.e., porous Si spheres encapsulated in carbon shells (porous Si@C spheres), has been constructed through the pyrolysis of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and subsequent magnesiothermic reduction methodology by using SiO{sub 2} spheres as precursors. The as-synthesized porous Si@C spheres have been applied as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), and exhibit enhanced anodic performance in term of cycling stability compared with bare Si spheres. For example, the porous Si@C spheres are able to exhibit a high reversible capacity of 900.0 mA h g{sup −1} after 20 cycles at a current density of 0.05 C (1 C = 4200 mA g{sup −1}), which is much higher than that of bare Si spheres (430.7 mA h g{sup −1})

  4. Pore-Scale Investigation of Mass Transport and Electrochemistry in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode

    SciTech Connect

    Grew, Kyle N.; Joshi, Abhijit S.; Peracchio, Aldo A.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.

    2009-10-31

    The development and validation of a model for the study of pore-scale transport phenomena and electrochemistry in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) anode are presented in this work. This model couples mass transport processes with a detailed reaction mechanism, which is used to model the electrochemical oxidation kinetics. Detailed electrochemical oxidation reaction kinetics, which is known to occur in the vicinity of the three-phase boundary (TPB) interfaces, is discretely considered in this work. The TPB regions connect percolating regions of electronic and ionic conducting phases of the anode, nickel (Ni) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), respectively; with porous regions supporting mass transport of the fuel and product. A two-dimensional (2D), multi-species lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to describe the diffusion process in complex pore structures that are representative of the SOFC anode. This diffusion model is discretely coupled to a kinetic electrochemical oxidation mechanism using localized flux boundary conditions. The details of the oxidation kinetics are prescribed as a function of applied activation overpotential and the localized hydrogen and water mole fractions. This development effort is aimed at understanding the effects of the anode microstructure within TPB regions. This work describes the methods used so that future studies can consider the details of SOFC anode microstructure.

  5. Development and Testing of High Surface Area Iridium Anodes for Molten Oxide Electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; McKechnie, Timothy; Sadoway, Donald R.; Paramore, James; Melendez, Orlando; Curreri, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lunar regolith into oxygen for habitat and propulsion is needed to support future space missions. Direct electrochemical reduction of molten regolith is an attractive method of processing, because no additional chemical reagents are needed. The electrochemical processing of molten oxides requires high surface area, inert anodes. Such electrodes need to be structurally robust at elevated temperatures (1400-1600 C), be resistant to thermal shock, have good electrical conductivity, be resistant to attack by molten oxide (silicate), be electrochemically stable and support high current density. Iridium with its high melting point, good oxidation resistance, superior high temperature strength and ductility is the most promising candidate for anodes in high temperature electrochemical processes. Several innovative concepts for manufacturing such anodes by electrodeposition of iridium from molten salt electrolyte (EL-Form process) were evaluated. Iridium electrodeposition to form of complex shape components and coating was investigated. Iridium coated graphite, porous iridium structure and solid iridium anodes were fabricated. Testing of electroformed iridium anodes shows no visible degradation. The result of development, manufacturing and testing of high surface, inert iridium anodes will be presented.

  6. Development and Testing of High Surface Area Iridium Anodes for Molten Oxide Electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; McKechnie, Timothy; Sadoway, Donald R.; Paramore, James; Melendez, Orlando; Curreri, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lunar regolith into oxygen for habitat and propulsion is needed to support future space missions. Direct electrochemical reduction of molten regolith is an attractive method of processing, because no additional chemical reagents are needed. The electrochemical processing of molten oxides requires high surface area, inert anodes. Such electrodes need to be structurally robust at elevated temperatures (1400-1600?C), be resistant to thermal shock, have good electrical conductivity, be resistant to attack by molten oxide (silicate), be electrochemically stable and support high current density. Iridium with its high melting point, good oxidation resistance, superior high temperature strength and ductility is the most promising candidate for anodes in high temperature electrochemical processes. Several innovative concepts for manufacturing such anodes by electrodeposition of iridium from molten salt electrolyte (EL-Form? process) were evaluated. Iridium electrodeposition to form of complex shape components and coating was investigated. Iridium coated graphite, porous iridium structure and solid iridium anodes were fabricated. Testing of electroformed iridium anodes shows no visible degradation. The result of development, manufacturing and testing of high surface, inert iridium anodes will be presented.

  7. Highly Ordered Porous Anodic Alumina with Large Diameter Pores Fabricated by an Improved Two-Step Anodization Approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohong; Ni, Siyu; Zhou, Xingping

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare highly ordered porous anodic alumina (PAA) with large pore sizes (> 200 nm) by an improved two-step anodization approach which combines the first hard anodization in oxalic acid-water-ethanol system and second mild anodization in phosphoric acid-water-ethanol system. The surface morphology and elemental composition of PAA are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The effects of matching of two-step anodizing voltages on the regularity of pore arrangement is evaluated and discussed. Moreover, the pore formation mechanism is also discussed. The results show that the nanopore arrays on all the PAA samples are in a highly regular arrangement and the pore size is adjustable in the range of 200-300 nm. EDS analysis suggests that the main elements of the as-prepared PAA are oxygen, aluminum and a small amount of phosphorus. Furthermore, the voltage in the first anodization must match well with that in the second anodization, which has significant influence on the PAA regularity. The addition of ethanol to the electrolytes effectively accelerates the diffusion of the heat that evolves from the sample, and decreases the steady current to keep the steady growth of PAA film. The improved two-step anodization approach in this study breaks through the restriction of small pore size in oxalic acid and overcomes the drawbacks of irregular pore morphology in phosphoric acid, and is an efficient way to fabricate large diameter ordered PAA. PMID:26353721

  8. Atomic force microscopy and anodic porous allumina of nucleic acid programmable protein arrays.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, Claudio; Correia, Tercio Bezerra; Stura, Enrico; Larosa, Claudio; Spera, Rosanna; Pechkova, Eugenia

    2013-08-01

    The methodological aspects are here presented for the NAPPA (Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays) characterization by atomic force microscopy and anodic porous alumina. Anodic Porous Alumina represents also an advanced on chip laboratory for gene expression contained in an engineered plasmid vector. The results obtained with CdK2, CDKN1A, p53 and Jun test genes expressed on NAPPA and the future developments are discussed in terms of our pertinent and recent Patents and of their possibility to overcome some limitations of present fluorescence detection in probing protein-protein interaction in both basic sciences and clinical studies. PMID:23848275

  9. Evolution of insoluble eutectic Si particles in anodic oxidation films during adipic-sulfuric acid anodizing processes of ZL114A aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Lei; Liu, Jian-hua; Li, Song-mei; Yu, Mei; Wang, Lei; Cui, Yong-xin

    2015-03-01

    The effects of insoluble eutectic Si particles on the growth of anodic oxide films on ZL114A aluminum alloy substrates were investigated by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The anodic oxidation was performed at 25°C and a constant voltage of 15 V in a solution containing 50 g/L sulfuric acid and 10 g/L adipic acid. The thickness of the formed anodic oxidation film was approximately 7.13 μm. The interpore distance and the diameters of the major pores in the porous layer of the film were within the approximate ranges of 10-20 nm and 5-10 nm, respectively. Insoluble eutectic Si particles strongly influenced the morphology of the anodic oxidation films. The anodic oxidation films exhibited minimal defects and a uniform thickness on the ZL114A substrates; in contrast, when the front of the oxide oxidation films encountered eutectic Si particles, defects such as pits and non-uniform thickness were observed, and pits were observed in the films.

  10. Air-Impregnated Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Layers for Enhancing the Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chanyoung; Lee, Junghoon; Sheppard, Keith; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2015-10-13

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layers were fabricated on aluminum substrates with systematically varied pore diameters (20-80 nm) and oxide thicknesses (150-500 nm) by controlling the anodizing voltage and time and subsequent pore-widening process conditions. The porous nanostructures were then coated with a thin (only a couple of nanometers thick) Teflon film to make the surface hydrophobic and trap air in the pores. The corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate was evaluated by a potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution (saltwater). Results showed that the hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer significantly enhanced the corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate compared to a hydrophilic oxide layer of the same nanostructures, to bare (nonanodized) aluminum with only a natural oxide layer on top, and to the latter coated with a thin Teflon film. The hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer with the largest pore diameter and the thickest oxide layer (i.e., the maximized air fraction) resulted in the best corrosion resistance with a corrosion inhibition efficiency of up to 99% for up to 7 days. The results demonstrate that the air impregnating the hydrophobic nanopores can effectively inhibit the penetration of corrosive media into the pores, leading to a significant improvement in corrosion resistance. PMID:26393523

  11. Simulation of Flow Through Porous Anode in Mfc at Higher Power Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, W. W.; Xu, Y. S.; Yan, W. W.; Liu, Y.

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a new environmental friendly energy device which has received greatly attention due to its technology for producing electricity directly from organic or inorganic matter using bacteria as catalyst. To date, many studies have been carried out on advective flow through porous anode in a continuous flow MFC. However, the precise mechanical mechanism of flow through porous anode and the quantified relationship between porous media and MFC performance are not yet clearly understood. It has been found experimentally the power density can be increased apparently at certain spacing configuration. Based on these available experimental data, we studied the effect of spacing between electrodes and the Darcy number of porous anode on the power generation performance of MFC using lattice Boltzmann method. The simulation results indicated that the spacing between electrodes significantly influence the flow velocity profile and residence time in the MFC. Moreover, it was found that the Darcy number of porous anode could regulate the output efficiency of MFC. Our results would be helpful to optimize MFC design.

  12. The anodic oxidation of p-benzoquinone and maleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bock, C.; MacDougall, B.

    1999-08-01

    The oxidation of organics, in particular of p-benzoquinone and maleic acid, at high anodic potentials has been studied using a range of anode materials such as noble-metal-based oxides and antimony-doped tin oxides. The influence of the current density was also investigated showing that the oxidation rate of p-benzoquinone increased only slightly with increasing current density. The efficiency of the p-benzoquinone oxidation was found to depend on several properties of the anode material, not just its chemical nature. Furthermore, efficiencies for the partial oxidation of p-benzoquinone using specially prepared noble-metal-oxide-based anodes were found to be only somewhat smaller or even as high as those observed for PbO{sub 2} or antimony-doped tin oxide anodes, respectively. The anodic electrolysis of maleic acid solutions was found to decrease the activity of IrO{sub 2} for the oxidation of organic compounds. This was not observed when PbO{sup 2} was employed for the oxidation of maleic acid.

  13. Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide with a long-range order and tunable cell sizes by phosphoric acid anodization on pre-patterned substrates

    PubMed Central

    Surawathanawises, Krissada; Cheng, Xuanhong

    2014-01-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) has been explored for various applications due to its regular cell arrangement and relatively easy fabrication processes. However, conventional two-step anodization based on self-organization only allows the fabrication of a few discrete cell sizes and formation of small domains of hexagonally packed pores. Recent efforts to pre-pattern aluminum followed with anodization significantly improve the regularity and available pore geometries in AAO, while systematic study of the anodization condition, especially the impact of acid composition on pore formation guided by nanoindentation is still lacking. In this work, we pre-patterned aluminium thin films using ordered monolayers of silica beads and formed porous AAO in a single-step anodization in phosphoric acid. Controllable cell sizes ranging from 280 nm to 760 nm were obtained, matching the diameters of the silica nanobead molds used. This range of cell size is significantly greater than what has been reported for AAO formed in phosphoric acid in the literature. In addition, the relationships between the acid concentration, cell size, pore size, anodization voltage and film growth rate were studied quantitatively. The results are consistent with the theory of oxide formation through an electrochemical reaction. Not only does this study provide useful operational conditions of nanoindentation induced anodization in phosphoric acid, it also generates significant information for fundamental understanding of AAO formation. PMID:24535886

  14. Characterization of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane with Variation of Crystallizing Temperature for pH Sensor.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jin-Ho; Lee, Sung-Gap; Jo, Ye-Won; Jung, Hye-Rin

    2015-11-01

    We fabricated electrolyte-dielectric-metal (EDM) device incorporating a high-k Al2O3 sensing membrane from a porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) using a two step anodizing process for pH sensors. In order to change the properties of the AAO template, the crystallizing temperature was varied from 400 degrees C to 700 degrees C over 2 hours. The structural properties were observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The pH sensitivity increased with an increase in the crystallizing temperature from 400 degrees C to 600 degrees C. However at 700 degrees C, deformation occurred. The porous AAO sensor with a crystallizing temperature of 600 degrees C displayed the good sensitivity and long-term stability and the values were 55.7 mV/pH and 0.16 mV/h, respectively. PMID:26726567

  15. Understanding and Shaping the Morphology of the Barrier Layer of Supported Porous Anodized Alumina on Gold Underlayers.

    PubMed

    Berger, Nele; Es-Souni, Mohammed

    2016-07-12

    Large-area ordered nanorod (NR) arrays of various functional materials can be easily and cost-effectively processed using on-substrate anodized porous aluminum oxide (PAO) films as templates. However, reproducibility in the processing of PAO films is still an issue because they are prone to delamination, and control of fabrication parameters such as electrolyte type and concentration and anodizing time is critical for making robust templates and subsequently mechanically reliable NR arrays. In the present work, we systematically investigate the effects of the fabrication parameters on pore base morphology, devise a method to avoid delamination, and control void formation under the barrier layer of PAO films on gold underlayers. Via systematic control of the anodization parameters, particularly the anodization current density and time, we follow the different stages of void development and discuss their formation mechanisms. The practical aspect of this work demonstrates how void size can be controlled and how void formation can be utilized to control the shape of NR bases for improving the mechanical stability of the NRs. PMID:27315420

  16. Hollow/porous nanostructures derived from nanoscale metal-organic frameworks towards high performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lin; Chen, Qianwang

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), owing to their high energy density, light weight, and long cycle life, have shown considerable promise for storage devices. The successful utilization of LIBs depends strongly on the preparation of nanomaterials with outstanding lithium storage properties. Recent progress has demonstrated that hollow/porous nanostructured oxides are very attractive candidates for LIBs anodes due to their high storage capacities. Here, we aim to provide an overview of nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs)-templated synthesis of hollow/porous nanostructured oxides and their LIBs applications. By choosing some typical NMOFs as examples, we present a comprehensive summary of synthetic procedures for nanostructured oxides, such as binary, ternary and composite oxides. Hollow/porous structures are readily obtained due to volume loss and release of internally generated gas molecules during the calcination of NMOFs in air. Interestingly, the NMOFs-derived hollow/porous structures possess several special features: pores generated from gas molecules release will connect to each other, which are distinct from ``dead pores'' pore size often appears to be <10 nm; in terms of surface chemistry, the pore surface is hydrophobic. These structural features are believed to be the most critical factors that determine LIBs' performance. Indeed, it has been shown that these NMOFs-derived hollow/porous oxides exhibit excellent electrochemical performance as anode materials for LIBs, including high storage capacity, good cycle stability, and so on. For example, a high charge capacity of 1465 mA h g-1 at a rate of 300 mA g-1 was observed after 50 cycles for NMOFs-derived Co3O4 porous nanocages, which corresponds to 94.09% of the initial capacity (1557 mA h g-1), indicating excellent stability. The capacity of NMOFs-derived Co3O4 is higher than that of other Co3O4 nanostructures obtained by a conventional two-step route, including nanosheets (1450 mA h g-1 at 50 mA g-1

  17. Cell Adhesion and Growth on the Anodized Aluminum Oxide Membrane.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Su; Moon, Dalnim; Kim, Jin-Seok; Lee, Jin Seok

    2016-03-01

    Nanotopological cues are popular tools for in vivo investigation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cellular microenvironments. The ECM is composed of multiple components and generates a complex microenvironment. The development of accurate in vivo methods for the investigation of ECM are important for disease diagnosis and therapy, as well as for studies on cell behavior. Here, we fabricated anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes using sulfuric and oxalic acid under controlled voltage and temperature. The membranes were designed to possess three different pore and interpore sizes, AAO-1, AAO-2, and AAO-3 membranes, respectively. These membranes were used as tools to investigate nanotopology-signal induced cell behavior. Cancerous cells, specifically, the OVCAR-8 cell-line, were cultured on porous AAO membranes and the effects of these membranes on cell shape, proliferation, and viability were studied. AAO-1 membranes bearing small sized pores were found to maintain the spreading shape of the cultured cells. Cells cultured on AAO-2 and AAO-3 membranes, bearing large pore-sized AAO membranes, changed shape from spreading to rounding. Furthermore, cellular area decreased when cells were cultured on all three AAO membranes that confirmed decreased levels of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Additionally, OVCAR-8 cells exhibited increased proliferation on AAO membranes possessing various pore sizes, indicating the importance of the nanosurface structure in regulating cell behaviors, such as cell proliferation. Our results suggest that porous-AAO membranes induced nanosurface regulated cell behavior as focal adhesion altered the intracellular organization of the cytoskeleton. Our results may find potential applications as tools in in vivo cancer research studies. PMID:27280255

  18. Porous silicon based anode material formed using metal reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Masarapu, Charan; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Sujeet; Lopez, Herman A.

    2015-09-22

    A porous silicon based material comprising porous crystalline elemental silicon formed by reducing silicon dioxide with a reducing metal in a heating process followed by acid etching is used to construct negative electrode used in lithium ion batteries. Gradual temperature heating ramp(s) with optional temperature steps can be used to perform the heating process. The porous silicon formed has a high surface area from about 10 m.sup.2/g to about 200 m.sup.2/g and is substantially free of carbon. The negative electrode formed can have a discharge specific capacity of at least 1800 mAh/g at rate of C/3 discharged from 1.5V to 0.005V against lithium with in some embodiments loading levels ranging from about 1.4 mg/cm.sup.2 to about 3.5 mg/cm.sup.2. In some embodiments, the porous silicon can be coated with a carbon coating or blended with carbon nanofibers or other conductive carbon material.

  19. Fast fabrication of self-ordered anodic porous alumina on oriented aluminum grains by high acid concentration and high temperature anodization.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chuan; Ngan, Alfonso H W

    2013-05-31

    Anodic porous alumina, which exhibits a characteristic nanohoneycomb structure, has been used in a wide range of nanotechnology applications. The conventional fabrication method of mild anodization (MA) requires a prolonged anodization time which is impractical for batch processing, and self-ordered porous structures can only be formed within narrow processing windows so that the dimensions of the resultant structures are extremely limited. The alternative hard anodization (HA) may easily result in macroscopic defects on the alumina surface. In this work, by systematically varying the anodization conditions including the substrate grain orientation, electrolyte concentration, temperature, voltage, and time, a new oxalic acid based anodization method, called high acid concentration and high temperature anodization (HHA), is found, which can result in far better self-ordering of the porous structures at rates 7-26 times faster than MA, under a continuous voltage range of 30-60 V on (001) oriented Al grains. Unlike HA, no macroscopic defects appear under the optimum self-ordered conditions of HHA at 40 V, even for pore channels grown up to high aspect ratios of more than 3000. Compared to MA and HA, HHA provides more choices of self-ordered nano-porous structures with fast and mechanically stable formation features for practical applications. PMID:23619572

  20. Electrochemical fabrication and optical properties of porous tin oxide films with structural colors

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Hua; Shu, Shiwei; Lee, Chris; Zeng, Shanshan; Lu, Zhouguang; Lu, Jian E-mail: yangli@cityu.edu.hk; Li, Yang Yang E-mail: yangli@cityu.edu.hk

    2014-10-21

    Photonic crystals with porous features not only provide the capability to control light but also enable structural colors that are environmentally sensitive. Here, we report a novel kind of tin oxide-based photonic crystal featuring periodically arranged air pores fabricated by the periodic anodization of tin foil. The existence of a photonic band gap in the fabricated structure is verified by its vivid color, and its reflective spectra which are responsive to environmental stimuli. Furthermore, the sample colors (i.e., the photonic band gap positions) can be easily adjusted by manipulating the anodization parameters. The theoretical modeling results of these tin oxide photonic crystals agree well with the reported experimental ones.

  1. Effect of processing on structural features of anodic aluminum oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, Pembe; Birol, Yucel

    2012-09-01

    Morphological features of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates fabricated by electrochemical oxidation under different processing conditions were investigated. The selection of the polishing parameters does not appear to be critical as long as the aluminum substrate is polished adequately prior to the anodization process. AAO layers with a highly ordered pore distribution are obtained after anodizing in 0.6 M oxalic acid at 20 °C under 40 V for 5 minutes suggesting that the desired pore features are attained once an oxide layer develops on the surface. While the pore features are not affected much, the thickness of the AAO template increases with increasing anodization treatment time. Pore features are better and the AAO growth rate is higher at 20 °C than at 5 °C; higher under 45 V than under 40 V; higher with 0.6 M than with 0.3 M oxalic acid.

  2. Recent anode advances in solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chunwen; Stimming, Ulrich

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrochemical reactors that can directly convert the chemical energy of a fuel gas into electrical energy with high efficiency and in an environment-friendly way. The recent trends in the research of solid oxide fuel cells concern the use of available hydrocarbon fuels, such as natural gas. The most commonly used anode material Ni/YSZ cermet exhibits some disadvantages when hydrocarbons were used as fuels. Thus it is necessary to develop alternative anode materials which display mixed conductivity under fuel conditions. This article reviews the recent developments of anode in SOFCs with principal emphasis on the material aspects. In addition, the mechanism and kinetics of fuel oxidation reactions are also addressed. Various processes used for the cost-effective fabrication of anode have also been summarized. Finally, this review will be concluded with personal perspectives on the future research directions of this area.

  3. On the anodic aluminium oxide refractive index of nanoporous templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A.; Rocha-Rodrigues, P.; Valdés-Bango, F.; Alameda, J. M.; Jorge, P. A. S.; Santos, J. L.; Araujo, J. P.; Teixeira, J. M.; Guerreiro, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we have determined the intrinsic refractive index of anodic aluminium oxide, which is originated by the formation of nanoporous alumina templates. Different templates have been fabricated by the conventional two-step anodization procedure in oxalic acid. Their porosities were modified by chemical wet etching allowing the tuning of their effective refractive indexes (air-filled nanopores  +  anodic aluminium oxide). By standard spectroscopic light transmission measurements, the effective refractive index for each different template was extracted in the VIS-NIR region. The determination of the intrinsic anodic aluminium oxide refractive index was performed by using the Maxwell-Garnett homogenization theory. The results are coincident for all the fabricated samples. The obtained refractive index (~1.55) is quite lower (~22%) than the commonly used Al2O3 handbook value (~1.75), showing that the amorphous nature of the anodic oxide structure strongly conditions its optical properties. This difference is critical for the correct design and modeling of optical plasmonic metamaterials based on anodic aluminium oxide nanoporous templates.

  4. Novel Carbon-Encapsulated Porous SnO2 Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries with Much Improved Cyclic Stability.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Li, Xinhai; Pei, Yi; Li, Shuang; Cao, Xi; Massé, Robert C; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-04-01

    Porous SnO2 submicrocubes (SMCs) are synthesized by annealing and HNO3 etching of CoSn(OH)6 SMCs. Bare SnO2 SMCs, as well as bare commercial SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs), show very high initial discharge capacity when used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. However, during the following cycles most of the Li ions previously inserted cannot be extracted, resulting in considerable irreversibility. Porous SnO2 cubes have been proven to possess better electrochemical performance than the dense nanoparticles. After being encapsulated by carbon shell, the obtained yolk-shell SnO2 SMCs@C exhibits significantly enhanced reversibility for lithium-ions storage. The reversibility of the conversion between SnO2 and Sn, which is largely responsible for the enhanced capacity, has been discussed. The porous SnO2 SMCs@C shows much increased capacity and cycling stability, demonstrating that the porous SnO2 core is essential for better lithium-ion storage performance. The strategy introduced in this paper can be used as a versatile way to fabrication of various metal-oxide-based composites. PMID:26882498

  5. Growth control of carbon nanotubes using by anodic aluminum oxide nano templates.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong Seob; Choi, Won Seek; Yi, Junsin; Lee, Jaehyeong

    2014-05-01

    Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) template prepared in acid electrolyte possess regular and highly anisotropic porous structure with pore diameter range from five to several hundred nanometers, and with a density of pores ranging from 10(9) to 10(11) cm(-2). AAO can be used as microfilters and templates for the growth of CNTs and metal or semiconductor nanowires. Varying anodizing conditions such as temperature, electrolyte, applied voltage, anodizing and widening time, one can control the diameter, the length, and the density of pores. In this work, we deposited Al thin film by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method to fabricate AAO nano template and synthesized multi-well carbon nanotubes on a glass substrate by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD). AAO nano-porous templates with various pore sizes and depths were introduced to control the dimension and density of CNT arrays. The AAO nano template was synthesize on glass by two-step anodization technique. The average diameter and interpore distance of AAO nano template are about 65 nm and 82 nm. The pore density and AAO nano template thickness are about 2.1 x 10(10) pores/cm2 and 1 microm, respectively. Aligned CNTs on the AAO nano template were synthesized by MPECVD at 650 degrees C with the Ni catalyst layer. The length and diameter of CNTs were grown 2 microm and 50 nm, respectively. PMID:24734654

  6. Model of the radial distribution function of pores in a layer of porous aluminum oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkas, N. L.; Cherkas, S. L.

    2016-03-01

    An empirical formula is derived to describe the quasi-periodic structure of a layer of porous aluminum oxide obtained by anodization. The formula accounts for two mechanisms of the transition from the ordered state (2D crystal) to the amorphous state. The first mechanism infers that vacancy-type defects arise, but the crystal lattice remains undestroyed. The second mechanism describes the lattice destruction. The radial distribution function of the pores in porous aluminum oxide is obtained using the Bessel transform. Comparison with a real sample is performed.

  7. Fabrication of polymeric nano-batteries array using anodic aluminum oxide templates.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiang; Cui, Xiaoli; Chen, Ling; Liu, Ling; Sun, Zhenkun; Jiang, Zhiyu

    2009-02-01

    Rechargeable nano-batteries were fabricated in the array pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template, combining template method and electrochemical method. The battery consisted of electropolymerized PPy electrode, porous TiO2 separator, and chemically polymerized PAn electrode was fabricated in the array pores of two-step anodizing aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, based on three-step assembling method. It performs typical electrochemical battery behavior with good charge-discharge ability, and presents a capacity of 25 nAs. AFM results show the hexagonal array of nano-batteries' top side. The nano-battery may be a promising device for the development of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), and Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS). PMID:19441424

  8. Long-term cycling stability of porous Sn anode for sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Changhyeon; Lee, Ki-Young; Kim, Icpyo; Park, Jinsoo; Cho, Gyubong; Kim, Ki-Won; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon; Ahn, Hyo-Jun

    2016-06-01

    A phase-inversion technique is introduced to produce a porous Sn anode for sodium batteries, which can accommodate volume changes during sodiation and desodiation. The Sn electrode shows two plateaus with a capacity of 1066 mAh g-1 during the first sodiation and four flat plateaus with a charge capacity of 674 mAh g-1 at the first desodiation process. During 500 cycles, the Sn electrode shows reversible capacity more than 519 mAh g-1 with Coulombic efficiency of nearly 99%. The Sn electrode with a porous structure is a possible solution to the electrode degradation.

  9. Efficient suppression of nanograss during porous anodic TiO2 nanotubes growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Qunfang; Yu, Dongliang; Li, Dongdong; Song, Ye; Zhu, Xufei; Cao, Liu; Zhang, Shaoyu; Ma, Weihua; You, Shiyu

    2014-09-01

    When Ti foil was anodized in fluoride-containing electrolyte for a long time, undesired etching-induced “nanograss” would inevitably generate on the top of porous anodic TiO2 nanotubes (PATNTs). The nanograss will hinder the ions transport and in turn yield depressed (photo) electrochemical performance. In order to obtain nanograss-free nanotubes, a modified three-step anodization and two-layer nanostructure of PATNTs were designed to avoid the nanograss. The first layer (L1) nanotubes were obtained by the conventional two-step anodization. After washing and drying processes, the third-step anodization was carried out with the presence of L1 nanotubes. The L1 nanotubes, serving as a sacrificed layer, was etched and transformed into nanograss, while the ultralong nanotubes (L2) were maintained underneath the L1. The bi-layer nanostructure of the nanograss/nanotubes (L1/L2) was then ultrasonically rinsed in deionized water to remove the nanograss (L1 layer). Then much longer nanotubes (L2 layer) with intact nanotube mouths could be obtained. Using this novel approach, the ultralong nanotubes without nanograss can be rationally controlled by adjusting the anodizing times of two layers.

  10. High-performance anode based on porous Co3O4 nanodiscs

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Anqiang; Wang, Yaping; Xu, Wu; Nie, Zhiwei; Liang, Shuquan; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Chong M.; Cao, Guozhong; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-06-01

    In this article, two-dimensional, Co3O4 hexagonal nanodiscs are prepared using a hydrothermal method without surfactants. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been employed to characterize the structural properties. As revealed by the SEM and TEM experiments, the thickness of our as-fabricated Co3O4 hexagonal nanodiscs is about 20 nm, and the pore diameters range from several nanometers to 30 nm. As an anode for lithium-ion batteries, porous Co3O4 nanodiscs exhibit an average discharge voltage of ~1 V (Vs. Li/Li+) and a high specific charge capacity of 1161 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles. They also demonstrate excellent rate performance and high Coloumbic efficiency at various rates. These results indicate that porous Co3O4 nanodiscs are good candidates as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  11. A Microsystem Based on Porous Silicon-Glass Anodic Bonding for Gas and Liquid Optical Sensing

    PubMed Central

    De Stefano, Luca; Malecki, Krzysztof; Della Corte, Francesco G.; Moretti, Luigi; Rea, Ilaria; Rotiroti, Lucia; Rendina, Ivo

    2006-01-01

    We have recently presented an integrated silicon-glass opto-chemical sensor for lab-on-chip applications, based on porous silicon and anodic bonding technologies. In this work, we have optically characterized the sensor response on exposure to vapors of several organic compounds by means of reflectivity measurements. The interaction between the porous silicon, which acts as transducer layer, and the organic vapors fluxed into the glass sealed microchamber, is preserved by the fabrication process, resulting in optical path increase, due to the capillary condensation of the vapors into the pores. Using the Bruggemann theory, we have calculated the filled pores volume for each substance. The sensor dynamic has been described by time-resolved measurements: due to the analysis chamber miniaturization, the response time is only of 2 s. All these results have been compared with data acquired on the same PSi structure before the anodic bonding process.

  12. Superstructured Carbon Nanotube/Porous Silicon Hybrid Materials for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jun-Ki; Kang, Shin-Hyun; Choi, Sung-Min

    2015-03-01

    High energy Li-ion batteries (LIBs) are in great demand for electronics, electric-vehicles, and grid-scale energy storage. To further increase the energy and power densities of LIBs, Si anodes have been intensively explored due to their high capacity, and high abundance compared with traditional carbon anodes. However, the poor cycle-life caused by large volume expansion during charge/discharge process has been an impediment to its applications. Recently, superstructured Si materials were received attentions to solve above mentioned problem in excellent mechanical properties, large surface area, and fast Li and electron transportation aspects, but applying superstructures to anode is in early stage yet. Here, we synthesized superstructured carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/porous Si hybrid materials and its particular electrochemical properties will be presented. Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering

  13. Rapid fabrication of self-ordered porous alumina with 10-/sub-10-nm-scale nanostructures by selenic acid anodizing

    PubMed Central

    Nishinaga, Osamu; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2013-01-01

    Anodic porous alumina has been widely investigated and used as a nanostructure template in various nanoapplications. The porous structure consists of numerous hexagonal cells perpendicular to the aluminum substrate and each cell has several tens or hundreds of nanoscale pores at its center. Because the nanomorphology of anodic porous alumina is limited by the electrolyte during anodizing, the discovery of additional electrolytes would expand the applicability of porous alumina. In this study, we report a new self-ordered nanoporous alumina formed by selenic acid (H2SeO4) anodizing. By optimizing the anodizing conditions, anodic alumina possessing 10-nm-scale pores was rapidly assembled (within 1 h) during selenic acid anodizing without any special electrochemical equipment. Novel sub-10-nm-scale spacing can also be achieved by selenic acid anodizing and metal sputter deposition. Our new nanoporous alumina can be used as a nanotemplate for various nanostructures in 10-/sub-10-nm-scale manufacturing. PMID:24067318

  14. Model anodes and anode models for understanding the mechanism of hydrogen oxidation in solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Bessler, Wolfgang G; Vogler, Marcel; Störmer, Heike; Gerthsen, Dagmar; Utz, Annika; Weber, André; Ivers-Tiffée, Ellen

    2010-11-14

    This article presents a literature review and new results on experimental and theoretical investigations of the electrochemistry of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model anodes, focusing on the nickel/yttria-stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ) materials system with operation under H(2)/H(2)O atmospheres. Micropatterned model anodes were used for electrochemical characterization under well-defined operating conditions. Structural and chemical integrity was confirmed by ex situ pre-test and post-test microstructural and chemical analysis. Elementary kinetic models of reaction and transport processes were used to assess reaction pathways and rate-determining steps. The comparison of experimental and simulated electrochemical behaviors of pattern anodes shows quantitative agreement over a wide range of operating conditions (p(H(2)) = 8×10(2) - 9×10(4) Pa, p(H(2)O) = 2×10(1) - 6×10(4) Pa, T = 400-800 °C). Previously published experimental data on model anodes show a strong scatter in electrochemical performance. Furthermore, model anodes exhibit a pronounced dynamics on multiple time scales which is not reproduced in state-of-the-art models and which is also not observed in technical cermet anodes. Potential origin of these effects as well as consequences for further steps in model anode and anode model studies are discussed. PMID:20820576

  15. Adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast-like cells on anodic porous alumina substrates with different morphology.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Marco; Caneva-Soumetz, Federico; Pastorino, Laura; Patra, Niranjan; Diaspro, Alberto; Ruggiero, Carmelina

    2013-06-01

    We have fabricated nanoporous alumina surfaces by means of anodization in oxalic acid in different conditions and used them as the substrates for the growth of cells from a human osteoblast-like cell line. The rough nanoporous alumina substrates have been compared both with smooth standard Petri dishes used as the control and with commercial substrates of similar material. The viability of the cells has been assessed at different culture times of 4, 11, 18, and 25 days in vitro. It turned out that the porous side of the galvanostatically fabricated alumina performed similar to the control and better than the commercial porous alumina, whereas the potentiostatically fabricated porous alumina performed better than all the other substrates at all times, and in particular at the two shortest time periods of 4 and 11 days in vitro. The best performance of the substrates is associated with intermediate surface roughness and feature spacing. PMID:23722279

  16. Water Decontamination With New Porous Oxide Photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarei Chaleshtori, M.; Saupe, G. B.

    2008-12-01

    Water pollution is major environmental problem worldwide. Many common industrial organic compounds that make their way into water systems can be carcinogenic at trace levels and are difficult and costly to remove completely with conventional technologies. Heterogeneous photocatalysts like titanium dioxide have the potential to completely mineralize organic compounds in water under ultraviolet light. We are proposing to develop new porous oxide semiconductor materials made up of titanium and niobium mixed oxide nanocomposites. The porous catalysts retain high catalytic activity while being easy to handle and filter out of product streams. New synthetic methods are to be developed that optimize physical properties and the catalyst's ability to photo-degrade organic contaminants in water.

  17. Review on anode material development in solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siong @ Mahmud, Lily; Muchtar, Andanastuti; Somalu, Mahendra Rao

    2015-05-01

    New developments in technology require highly efficient, affordable, and green electrical energy. The materials to be used must also be reusable and environment friendly. These characteristics are among the major factors that may lead to the production of new and highly efficient power generation systems. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have become major devices in producing electricity that emphasize the advance usage of material science and technological development. As part of the key elements of SOFCs, anodes have the primary function of stimulating the electrochemical oxidation of fuel. In this review, the progress in developing anode materials for SOFCs is briefly discussed.

  18. Anodic oxidation of titanium: from technical aspects to biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Diamanti, Maria Vittoria; Del Curto, Barbara; Pedeferri, Mariapia

    2011-01-01

    Titanium biomaterials are widely employed to produce medical components, such as hip and knee-joint prostheses, bone plates and screws, dental implants, pacemaker cases, surgical equipment, etc. Their diffusion is ascribed to the broad spectrum of optimal mechanical and surface properties, such as the corrosion resistance and correlated low ionic release, the biocompatibility, and especially, the enhanced osseointegration that can be achieved by surface modifications, particularly by suitable anodizing treatments. This review is intended to provide a survey of the wide class of anodic oxidation treatments on titanium, focusing on the oxide structures, morphologies, and compositions that best apply to the variegated fields of titanium applications. PMID:21607937

  19. Lithium ion battery application of porous composite oxide microcubes prepared via metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xia; Tang, Yong-Bing; Huang, Xing; Xue, Hong Tao; Kang, Wen Pei; Li, Wen Yue; Ng, Tsz-Wai; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2015-06-01

    Prussian Blue (PB, Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3) is utilized to synthesize bimetallic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) (Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3/Mx[Fe(CN)6], M = Cu, Ni, Co, etc.) by cation exchange, driven by differences in solubility product constant (Ksp) of monometallic MOFs. Upon decomposition, the bimetallic MOFs convert to porous composite metal oxides (Fe2O3/MOx, M = Cu, Ni, Co, etc.) while keeping the original cubic morphology. This study demonstrates a general approach for preparing bimetallic MOFs and porous composite oxides. We also demonstrate the good electrochemical performance (specific capacity of 774 mAh g-1 after 120 cycles at 500 mA g-1) of the synthesized porous Fe2O3-CuO composite as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. And according to references, this composite exhibit better or comparable rate capability and cycle stability compared with other hybrid transition metal oxides.

  20. An alternative route for the synthesis of silicon nanowires via porous anodic alumina masks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Amorphous Si nanowires have been directly synthesized by a thermal processing of Si substrates. This method involves the deposition of an anodic aluminum oxide mask on a crystalline Si (100) substrate. Fe, Au, and Pt thin films with thicknesses of ca. 30 nm deposited on the anodic aluminum oxide-Si substrates have been used as catalysts. During the thermal treatment of the samples, thin films of the metal catalysts are transformed in small nanoparticles incorporated within the pore structure of the anodic aluminum oxide mask, directly in contact with the Si substrate. These homogeneously distributed metal nanoparticles are responsible for the growth of Si nanowires with regular diameter by a simple heating process at 800°C in an Ar-H2 atmosphere and without an additional Si source. The synthesized Si nanowires have been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman. PMID:21849077

  1. Non-aqueous electrodeposition of porous tin-based film as an anode for lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, C. D.; Mai, Y. J.; Zhou, J. P.; You, Y. H.; Tu, J. P.

    2012-09-01

    Porous tin-based films are electrodeposited on copper foils from a choline chloride/ethylene glycol based electrolyte containing SnCl2·2H2O without any complexing agent or additive. Increasing the deposition time and voltage produces thicker films. The initially deposited Sn grains are relatively uniform with an average size of 200-300 nm and a kind of self-assembly distribution constructing an open and bicontinuous porous network. The architecture of these films possesses a double-layer structure, i.e. SnO2 (superficial layer)/Sn-Cu alloy (bottom layer), which is revealed by X-ray diffractometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrochemical performance of the porous tin-based films as anode for lithium-ion batteries is measured. Although the capacity fades gradually with repeated cycling, a reversible capacity of 300-350 mAh g-1 is maintained for more than 50 cycles, which suggests that the in situ formed Sn--Cu alloy could provide an interlocking interface between active materials and current collector. Therefore, the tin's shedding from the current collector can be restrained. Moreover, the inactive materials, such as the oxide in the superficial layer and the Cu in the bottom layer, could also act as buffers to relieve the induced volume expansion of Sn during the repeated lithiathion/delithiation process, thus giving the good cycle performances.

  2. Outstanding supercapacitive properties of Mn-doped TiO2 micro/nanostructure porous film prepared by anodization method

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Xuewen; Wang, Xixin; Yu, Xiaofei; Zhao, Jianling; Wang, Mingli; Li, Haoran; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Mn-doped TiO2 micro/nanostructure porous film was prepared by anodizing a Ti-Mn alloy. The film annealed at 300 °C yields the highest areal capacitance of 1451.3 mF/cm2 at a current density of 3 mA/cm2 when used as a high-performance supercapacitor electrode. Areal capacitance retention is 63.7% when the current density increases from 3 to 20 mA/cm2, and the capacitance retention is 88.1% after 5,000 cycles. The superior areal capacitance of the porous film is derived from the brush-like metal substrate, which could greatly increase the contact area, improve the charge transport ability at the oxide layer/metal substrate interface, and thereby significantly enhance the electrochemical activities toward high performance energy storage. Additionally, the effects of manganese content and specific surface area of the porous film on the supercapacitive performance were also investigated in this work. PMID:26940546

  3. Outstanding supercapacitive properties of Mn-doped TiO2 micro/nanostructure porous film prepared by anodization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Xuewen; Wang, Xixin; Yu, Xiaofei; Zhao, Jianling; Wang, Mingli; Li, Haoran; Yang, Yang

    2016-03-01

    Mn-doped TiO2 micro/nanostructure porous film was prepared by anodizing a Ti-Mn alloy. The film annealed at 300 °C yields the highest areal capacitance of 1451.3 mF/cm2 at a current density of 3 mA/cm2 when used as a high-performance supercapacitor electrode. Areal capacitance retention is 63.7% when the current density increases from 3 to 20 mA/cm2, and the capacitance retention is 88.1% after 5,000 cycles. The superior areal capacitance of the porous film is derived from the brush-like metal substrate, which could greatly increase the contact area, improve the charge transport ability at the oxide layer/metal substrate interface, and thereby significantly enhance the electrochemical activities toward high performance energy storage. Additionally, the effects of manganese content and specific surface area of the porous film on the supercapacitive performance were also investigated in this work.

  4. Outstanding supercapacitive properties of Mn-doped TiO2 micro/nanostructure porous film prepared by anodization method.

    PubMed

    Ning, Xuewen; Wang, Xixin; Yu, Xiaofei; Zhao, Jianling; Wang, Mingli; Li, Haoran; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Mn-doped TiO2 micro/nanostructure porous film was prepared by anodizing a Ti-Mn alloy. The film annealed at 300 °C yields the highest areal capacitance of 1451.3 mF/cm(2) at a current density of 3 mA/cm(2) when used as a high-performance supercapacitor electrode. Areal capacitance retention is 63.7% when the current density increases from 3 to 20 mA/cm(2), and the capacitance retention is 88.1% after 5,000 cycles. The superior areal capacitance of the porous film is derived from the brush-like metal substrate, which could greatly increase the contact area, improve the charge transport ability at the oxide layer/metal substrate interface, and thereby significantly enhance the electrochemical activities toward high performance energy storage. Additionally, the effects of manganese content and specific surface area of the porous film on the supercapacitive performance were also investigated in this work. PMID:26940546

  5. The experimental dielectric function of porous anodic alumina in the infrared region; a comparison with the Maxwell-Garnett model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wäckelgård, Ewa

    1996-06-01

    The infrared reflectance from thin alumina films on metal substrates has a deep minimum for p-polarized light at oblique incidence. This originates from absorption when light couples with a longitudinal optical (LO) phonon mode with k-vector zero. The absorption band is wide for amorphous alumina and is shifted to longer wavelengths for porous oxides compared to non-porous ones. Anodic alumina, prepared in phosphoric acid, with a pore volume fraction of 0.3, has been investigated. The s- and p-polarized reflectance has been measured for selected angles of incidence between 0953-8984/8/23/019/img1 and 0953-8984/8/23/019/img2, and the dielectric function has been determined from these measurements. The effective dielectric function has been calculated using Maxwell-Garnett effective-medium theory for a two-component anisotropic medium consisting of air-filled cylindrical pores perpendicular to the surface in an alumina matrix with optical constants of non-porous evaporated alumina. The theoretical and experimental results are in good agreement, which shows that the redshift of the LO mode absorption for p-polarized light can be explained by the presence of pores.

  6. Synthesis, Characterization, and Optimization of Novel Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Elizabeth C.

    This dissertation presents research on the development of novel materials and fabrication procedures for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes. The work discussed here is divided into three main categories: all-oxide anodes, catalyst exsolution oxide anodes, and Ni-infiltrated anodes. The all-oxide and catalyst exsolution anodes presented here are further classi?ed as Ni-free anodes operating at the standard 700-800°C SOFC temperature while the Ni-infiltrated anodes operate at intermediate temperatures (≤650°C). Compared with the current state-of-the-art Ni-based cermets, all-oxide, Ni-free SOFC anodes offer fewer coking issues in carbon-containing fuels, reduced degradation due to fuel contaminants, and improved stability during redox cycling. However, electrochemical performance has proven inferior to Ni-based anodes. The perovskite oxide Fe-substituted strontium titanate (STF) has shown potential as an anode material both as a single phase electrode and when combined with Gd-doped ceria (GDC) in a composite electrode. In this work, STF is synthesized using a modified Pechini processes with the aim of reducing STF particle size and increasing the electrochemically active area in the anode. The Pechini method produced particles ? 750 nm in diameter, which is signi°Cantly smaller than the typically micron-sized solid state reaction powder. In the first iteration of anode fabrication with the Pechini powder, issues with over-sintering of the small STF particles limited gas di?usion in the anode. However, after modifying the anode firing temperature, the Pechini cells produced power density comparable to solid state reaction based cells from previous work by Cho et al. Catalyst exsolution anodes, in which metal cations exsolve out of the lattice under reducing conditions and form nanoparticles on the oxide surface, are another Ni-free option for standard operating temperature SOFCs. Little information is known about the onset of nanoparticle formation, which

  7. Effect of anodizing voltage on the sorption of water molecules on porous alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrublevsky, I.; Chernyakova, K.; Bund, A.; Ispas, A.; Schmidt, U.

    2012-05-01

    The amount of water adsorbed on different centers on the surface of oxalic acid alumina films is a function of the anodizing voltage. It is decreased with increasing the anodizing voltage from 20 up to 50 V, came up to maximum value at 20-30 V and slightly increased at voltages above 50 V. Water adsorption by oxide films formed at voltages below 50 V can be due to the negative surface charge that is present on the alumina surface. The negative surface charge disappears in the films formed at voltages higher than 50 V, and thus, the water is adsorbed on aluminum ions in a tetrahedral and octahedral environment. The correlation between anodizing conditions of aluminum in oxalic acid and the structure and composition of anodic alumina was established by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG/DTA).

  8. Fabrication of canonical nanoporous templates by variational anodic oxidation of aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Ataur; Wallace, Patrick

    2013-03-01

    The interesting effects of quantum confinement critically depend on the shape and size of the nanocrystals. Preliminary results of an experimental study of production of templates with conical profiles are presented here. These templates will be ideal for fabrication of nanocrytals with the same profile. Templates were fabricated in aluminum with the anodic oxidation process by carefully controlling the anodization parameters to control the shape of the resulting templates. Different combinations of theses parameters such as electrolyte, pH of the solution, applied voltage, and current density were studied to ascertain the right condition of growth for conically porous templates. The most dominant parameter was the applied voltage and the voltage was continuously changed slowly during the process of growth. Attempt was made to control the pore diameter to a size less than 20 nm with an aspect ratio of about 1.0. Structural and morphological studies were done with AFM and SEM. The details of the results will be presented.

  9. Adsorption on ordered and disordered duplex layers of porous anodic alumina.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Lorenzo; Mistura, Giampaolo; Phadungbut, Poomiwat; Do, D D; Nicholson, D; Mayamei, Yashar; Lee, Woo

    2015-05-01

    We have carried out systematic experiments and numerical simulations of the adsorption on porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) duplex layers presenting either an ordered or a disordered interconnecting interface between the large (cavity) and small (constriction) sections of the structured pores. Selective blocking of the pore openings resulted in three different pore topologies: open structured pores, funnel pores, and ink-bottle pores. In the case of the structured pores having an ordered interface, the adsorption isotherms present a rich phenomenology characterized by the presence of two steps in the condensation branch and the opening of one (two) hysteresis loops during evaporation for the ink-bottle (open and funnel) pores. The isotherms can be obtained by summing the isotherms measured on uniform pores having the dimensions of the constrictions or of the cavities. The numerical analysis of the three different pore topologies indicates that the shape of the junction between the two pore sections is only important for the adsorption branch. In particular, a conic junction which resembles that of the AAO pores represents the experimental isotherms for the open and funnel pores better, but the shape of the junction in the ink bottle pores does not matter. The isotherms for the duplex layers with a disordered interface display the same general features found for the ordered duplex layers. In both cases, the adsorption branches coincide and have two steps which are shifted to lower relative pressures compared to those for the ordered duplex. Furthermore, the desorption branches comprise hysteresis loops much wider than those of the ordered duplex layers. Overall, this study highlights the important role played by morphologies where there are interconnections between large and small pores. PMID:25871845

  10. Solid oxide fuel cells having porous cathodes infiltrated with oxygen-reducing catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Meilin; Liu, Ze; Liu, Mingfei; Nie, Lifang; Mebane, David Spencer; Wilson, Lane Curtis; Surdoval, Wayne

    2014-08-12

    Solid-oxide fuel cells include an electrolyte and an anode electrically coupled to a first surface of the electrolyte. A cathode is provided, which is electrically coupled to a second surface of the electrolyte. The cathode includes a porous backbone having a porosity in a range from about 20% to about 70%. The porous backbone contains a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) of a first material infiltrated with an oxygen-reducing catalyst of a second material different from the first material.

  11. Highly regular anatase nanotubule arrays fabricated in porous anodic templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michailowski, Alexej; AlMawlawi, Diyaa; Cheng, Guosheng; Moskovits, Martin

    2001-11-01

    Compact, continuous and uniform anatase nanotubules with diameters in the range 50-70 nm were produced inside PAO nano-templates by pressure impregnating the PAO pores with titanium isopropoxide then oxidatively decomposing the reagent at 500 °C. Cleaning the surface of the template and repeating the process several times produced titania nanotubules with a wall thickness ˜3 nm per impregnation. The tube exteriors appeared to be faithful replicas of the pores in which they were formed. The crystallinity and form (anatase) of the titania were determined using XRD and Raman spectroscopy. Tubules in this low diameter range could not be produced using sol-gel.

  12. High-speed growth and photoluminescence of porous anodic alumina films with controllable interpore distances over a large range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. B.; Zheng, M. J.; Ma, L.

    2007-08-01

    Highly ordered porous anodic alumina (PAA) films are fabricated with high efficiency by stable high-field anodization in oxalic acid/ethanol/water electrolytes at 100-180V and sulfuric acid/oxalic acid/ethanol/water electrolytes at 30-80V, giving interpore distances in the range of 225-450nm and 70-140nm, respectively. The photoluminescence of PAA films prepared by high-field anodization shows remarkable redshift of the peak position and decrease of the intensity compared to that of PAA films formed by conventional low-field anodization.

  13. Monodisperse porous silicon spheres as anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Favors, Zachary; Ionescu, Robert; Ye, Rachel; Bay, Hamed Hosseini; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2015-01-01

    Highly monodisperse porous silicon nanospheres (MPSSs) are synthesized via a simple and scalable hydrolysis process with subsequent surface-protected magnesiothermic reduction. The spherical nature of the MPSSs allows for a homogenous stress-strain distribution within the structure during lithiation and delithiation, which dramatically improves the electrochemical stability. To fully extract the real performance of the MPSSs, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were added to enhance the electronic conductivity within the composite electrode structure, which has been verified to be an effective way to improve the rate and cycling performance of anodes based on nano-Si. The Li-ion battery (LIB) anodes based on MPSSs demonstrate a high reversible capacity of 3105 mAh g(-1). In particular, reversible Li storage capacities above 1500 mAh g(-1) were maintained after 500 cycles at a high rate of C/2. We believe this innovative approach for synthesizing porous Si-based LIB anode materials by using surface-protected magnesiothermic reduction can be readily applied to other types of SiOx nano/microstructures. PMID:25740298

  14. Monodisperse Porous Silicon Spheres as Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Favors, Zachary; Ionescu, Robert; Ye, Rachel; Bay, Hamed Hosseini; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.

    2015-01-01

    Highly monodisperse porous silicon nanospheres (MPSSs) are synthesized via a simple and scalable hydrolysis process with subsequent surface-protected magnesiothermic reduction. The spherical nature of the MPSSs allows for a homogenous stress-strain distribution within the structure during lithiation and delithiation, which dramatically improves the electrochemical stability. To fully extract the real performance of the MPSSs, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were added to enhance the electronic conductivity within the composite electrode structure, which has been verified to be an effective way to improve the rate and cycling performance of anodes based on nano-Si. The Li-ion battery (LIB) anodes based on MPSSs demonstrate a high reversible capacity of 3105 mAh g−1. In particular, reversible Li storage capacities above 1500 mAh g−1 were maintained after 500 cycles at a high rate of C/2. We believe this innovative approach for synthesizing porous Si-based LIB anode materials by using surface-protected magnesiothermic reduction can be readily applied to other types of SiOx nano/microstructures. PMID:25740298

  15. Monodisperse Porous Silicon Spheres as Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Favors, Zachary; Ionescu, Robert; Ye, Rachel; Bay, Hamed Hosseini; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.

    2015-03-01

    Highly monodisperse porous silicon nanospheres (MPSSs) are synthesized via a simple and scalable hydrolysis process with subsequent surface-protected magnesiothermic reduction. The spherical nature of the MPSSs allows for a homogenous stress-strain distribution within the structure during lithiation and delithiation, which dramatically improves the electrochemical stability. To fully extract the real performance of the MPSSs, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were added to enhance the electronic conductivity within the composite electrode structure, which has been verified to be an effective way to improve the rate and cycling performance of anodes based on nano-Si. The Li-ion battery (LIB) anodes based on MPSSs demonstrate a high reversible capacity of 3105 mAh g-1. In particular, reversible Li storage capacities above 1500 mAh g-1 were maintained after 500 cycles at a high rate of C/2. We believe this innovative approach for synthesizing porous Si-based LIB anode materials by using surface-protected magnesiothermic reduction can be readily applied to other types of SiOx nano/microstructures.

  16. Three-dimensional porous carbon nanotube sponges for high-performance anodes of microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbay, Celal; Yang, Gang; de Figueiredo, Paul; Sadr, Reza; Yu, Choongho; Han, Arum

    2015-12-01

    Highly-porous, light-weight, and inexpensive three-dimensional (3D) sponges consisting of interconnected carbon nanotubes (CNTs) without base materials are synthesized with a facile and scalable one-step chemical vapor deposition process as anode of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The MFCs generates higher power densities of 2150 W m-3 (per anode volume) or 170 W m-3 (per anode chamber volume), comparable to those of commercial 3D carbon felt electrodes under the same conditions. The high performances are due to excellent charge transfer between CNTs and microbes owing to 13 times lower charge transfer resistance compared to that of carbon felt. The material cost of producing these CNT sponge estimates to be ∼0.1/gCNT, significantly lower than that of other methods. In addition, the high production rate of about 3.6 g h-1 compared to typical production rate of 0.02 g h-1 of other CNT-based materials makes this process economically viable. The one-step synthesis method allowing self-assembly of 3D CNT sponges as they grow is low cost and scalable, making this a promising method for manufacturing high-performance anodes of MFCs, with broad applicability to microbial electrochemical systems in general.

  17. Synthesis of iridescent Ni-containing anodic aluminum oxide films by anodization in oxalic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qin; Ma, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Li, Ru-Song; Sun, Hui-Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Ni-containing anodic aluminum oxide films with highly saturated colors were synthesized using an ac electrodeposition method, and the optical and magnetic characteristics of the films were characterized. Precisely controllable color tuning could be obtained using wet-chemical etching to thin and widen the anodic aluminum oxide films pores isotropically before Ni deposition. Magnetic measurements indicate that such colored composite films not exhibit obvious easy magnetization direction. The resulted short (200 nm in length) and wide (50 nm in diameter) Ni nanowires present only fcc phase. The magnetization reversal mechanism is in good agreement with the symmetric fanning reversal mode which is discussed in detail. Such films may find applications in decoration, display and multifunctional anti-counterfeiting applications.

  18. Vertical single- and double-walled carbon nanotubes grown from modified porous anodic alumina templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maschmann, Matthew R.; Franklin, Aaron D.; Amama, Placidus B.; Zakharov, Dmitri N.; Stach, Eric A.; Sands, Timothy D.; Fisher, Timothy S.

    2006-08-01

    Vertical single-walled and double-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT and DWNT) arrays have been grown using a catalyst embedded within the pore walls of a porous anodic alumina (PAA) template. The initial film structure consisted of a SiOx adhesion layer, a Ti layer, a bottom Al layer, a Fe layer, and a top Al layer deposited on a Si wafer. The Al and Fe layers were subsequently anodized to create a vertically oriented pore structure through the film stack. CNTs were synthesized from the catalyst layer by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The resulting structure is expected to form the basis for development of vertically oriented CNT-based electronics and sensors.

  19. Facile synthesis of a mechanically robust and highly porous NiO film with excellent electrocatalytic activity towards methanol oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Luoyuan; Zhang, Guoge; Liu, Yan; Li, Wenfang; Lu, Wei; Huang, Haitao

    2016-05-01

    Considerable research is being conducted in searching for effective anode catalysts in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Although significant progress has been achieved, it is still challenging to prepare non-Pt catalysts with both excellent activity and good durability. Herein, a highly porous NiO film is developed by a facile and fast anodization approach. The anodic NiO film demonstrates a high surface area, large mesopore volume and small crystallite size, leading to facilitated adsorption of reaction species, easy electrolyte penetration and fast reaction kinetics. Furthermore, as anodic NiO is grown in situ on a metallic substrate with strong adhesion strength and good electrical contact, it can be used directly as an anode catalyst for methanol oxidation without the need to add any binder or conducting agent. Such an additive-free approach greatly expedites the catalyst preparation process. The anodic NiO shows lower methanol oxidation potential, higher oxidation current and better catalytic durability than most of the state-of-the-art Ni-based catalysts reported elsewhere. As anodization is a simple, low cost and easily scaled up method, the work described here provides an exciting direction to speed up the practical application of alkaline DMFCs.Considerable research is being conducted in searching for effective anode catalysts in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Although significant progress has been achieved, it is still challenging to prepare non-Pt catalysts with both excellent activity and good durability. Herein, a highly porous NiO film is developed by a facile and fast anodization approach. The anodic NiO film demonstrates a high surface area, large mesopore volume and small crystallite size, leading to facilitated adsorption of reaction species, easy electrolyte penetration and fast reaction kinetics. Furthermore, as anodic NiO is grown in situ on a metallic substrate with strong adhesion strength and good electrical contact

  20. Synthesis of nanoporous activated iridium oxide films by anodized aluminum oxide templated atomic layer deposition.

    SciTech Connect

    Comstock, D. J.; Christensen, S. T.; Elam, J. W.; Pellin, M. J.; Hersam, M. C.

    2010-08-01

    Iridium oxide (IrOx) has been widely studied due to its applications in electrochromic devices, pH sensing, and neural stimulation. Previous work has demonstrated that both Ir and IrOx films with porous morphologies prepared by sputtering exhibit significantly enhanced charge storage capacities. However, sputtering provides only limited control over film porosity. In this work, we demonstrate an alternative scheme for synthesizing nanoporous Ir and activated IrOx films (AIROFs). This scheme utilizes atomic layer deposition to deposit a thin conformal Ir film within a nanoporous anodized aluminum oxide template. The Ir film is then activated by potential cycling in 0.1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to form a nanoporous AIROF. The morphologies and electrochemical properties of the films are characterized by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. The resulting nanoporous AIROFs exhibit a nanoporous morphology and enhanced cathodal charge storage capacities as large as 311 mC/cm{sup 2}.

  1. Fabrication of Crystalline Indium Tin Oxide Nanobasket Electrodes using Aluminum Anodic Oxide Template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gou-Jen; Chen, He-Tsing; Yang, Hsihang

    2008-07-01

    Fabrication of crystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) nanobasket electrodes shaped by an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template for better electron conductivity is presented. ITO films were deposited on porous AAO templates by RF magnetron sputtering. The sputter-coated ITO films were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) to illustrate the nanobasket morphologies. The compositions of the ITO films were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was conducted to evaluate the crystallinity. The crystallinity can be enhanced by annealing at 300 °C. Although the conductivity of the ITO nanobasket film is larger than that of the conventional ITO thin film, the harvest efficiency can be markedly increased due to the nanobasket structure which enables most of the photoexcited electrons to reach their nearest electrode before losing their momentum. The presented ITO nanobasket films can be further used as a more effective electrode material for photovoltaics such as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

  2. Luminescence of Terbium and Neodymium Ions in Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Xerogels on Porous Anodic Alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, M. V.; Gaponenko, N. V.; Mudryi, A. V.; Orekhovskaya, T. I.

    2016-03-01

    Luminescent structures of yttrium aluminum garnet doped with rare-earth elements Tb and Nd (YAG:Tb3+ and YAG:Nd3+) were formed by the sol-gel route on films of porous anodic alumina. The morphology, phase composition, and luminescence of the fabricated structures were investigated. Photoluminescence spectra of the YAG:Tb3+ and YAG:Nd3+ structures revealed emission bands due to electronic transitions of the relevant rare-earth elements. Fine structure was observed in the luminescence bands of all fabricated samples and was associated with the manifestation of a Stark effect.

  3. Collimated microfiber spectroscopy for optical characterization of disordered porous anodic alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, Satoshi; Kimura, Saho; Yamaguchi, Akira; Kimura, Daiki; Ohkoshi, Yutaka; Yamanaka, Shigeru; Usami, Hisanao

    2016-02-01

    A novel collimated microfiber spectroscopy technique using an optical fiber probe with microball lens was developed to observe the photonic crystalline characteristics of porous anodized alumina (PAA) slabs with disordered arrays of holes. Transmittance spectra of the PAA slab observed by the microfiber probe with ball lens showed a broad valley at ∼410 nm; conversely, no significant valley was observed by an ordinary microfiber spectroscope without ball lens. The broad valley was comparable with that observed in a spectrum simulated for a model based on a scanning electron microscopy image of the PAA slab by using the finite-difference time-domain method.

  4. Organic solar cells on indium tin oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Kerstin; Maennig, Bert; Leo, Karl; Tomita, Yuto; May, Christian; Hüpkes, Jürgen; Brier, Eduard; Reinold, Egon; Bäuerle, Peter

    2007-08-01

    The authors compare organic solar cells using two different transparent conductive oxides as anode: indium tin oxide (ITO) and three kinds of aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZAO). These anodes with different work functions are used for small molecule photovoltaic devices based on an oligothiophene derivative as donor and fullerene C60 as acceptor molecule. It turns out that cells on ITO and ZAO have virtually identical properties. In particular, the authors demonstrate that the work function of the anode does not influence the Voc of the photovoltaic device due to the use of doped transport layers.

  5. Accounting for the Dynamic Oxidative Behavior of Nickel Anodes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rodney D L; Berlinguette, Curtis P

    2016-02-10

    The dynamic behavior of the anodic peak for amorphous nickel oxy/hydroxide (a-NiOx) films in basic media was investigated. Chronocoulometry of films with known nickel concentrations reveals that a total of four electrons per nickel site comprise the signature anodic peak at 1.32 V during the first oxidative scan, and two electrons are passed through the associated cathodic peak on the reverse scan. The anodic and cathodic signals each contain two electrons on the successive scans. Catalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) was detected within the anodic peak, which is at a lower potential than is widely assumed. In order to rationalize these experimental results, we propose that the four-electron oxidation event is the conversion of the film from nickel(II) hydroxide ([Ni(II)-OH](-)) to a higher valent nickel peroxide species (e.g., Ni(IV)-OO or Ni(III)-OO·). The subsequent reduction of the nickel peroxide species is confined by a chemical step resulting in the accumulation of [Ni(II)-OOH](-), which is then oxidized by two electrons to form Ni(IV)-OO during the subsequent oxidative scan on the time scale of a cyclic voltammetric experiment. Our proposed mechanism and the experimental determination that each nickel site is oxidized by four electrons helps link the myriad of seemingly disparate literature data related to OER catalysis by nickel electrodes. The faster catalysis that occurs at higher oxidative potentials is derived from a minority species and is not elaborated here. PMID:26829375

  6. Designed construction and validation of carbon-free porous MnO spheres with hybrid architecture as anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Remith, Pongilat; Kalaiselvi, Nallathamby

    2016-06-21

    Porous micro/nanostructures of earth abundant and ecobenign metals are emerging as advanced green materials for use in electrochemical energy storage devices. We present here the custom designed construction of a hybrid architecture containing porous MnO microspheres, formed out of hierarchically assembled nanoparticles using a template-free co-precipitation method, wherein the sacrificial template growth of porous spheres has been obtained by a solution mediated and time dependent oxidation strategy. The nanoporous channels in the MnO microspheres and the nanosized primary particles of MnO anodes in synergy increase the electrolyte percolation, resulting in a discharge capacity of 1200 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 50 mA g(-1) and a capacity as high as 450 mA h g(-1) under the 1000 mA g(-1) condition. The study assumes importance based on the fact that engineering of electrode materials is typically challenging, wherein design, preparation and fabrication of tailor-made electrodes with a desirable micro/nanocrystalline assembly play a critical role, especially when recommended for high capacity and high-rate applications in electrochemical energy storage devices. Further, this communication elaborates the designed construction and validation of porous MnO microspheres engineered through a time dependent process protocol as economically viable and environmentally benign anodes for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:27233053

  7. Effect of Sulfuric Acid Concentration on Electrochemical Characteristics of Nano Porous Structure Formed by Anodizing Process.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Hyung; Lee, Seung-Jun; Kim, Seong-Jong

    2016-02-01

    Aluminum alloy is a very strong reactivity material, but it has excellent corrosion resistance due to protective oxide film created in air. However, it is not practical because the film thickness is uneven and varies depending on the generation condition. Therefore, aluminum anodizing was performed to form film with commercially applicable hardness, corrosion resistance, and wear resistance. This offers such advantages as commercial applicability to large areas and low prices. In this study, the electrochemical characteristics with concentration of sulfuric acid electrolyte were compared with the two-step anodizing method which is widely used. A surface observation revealed regular structures and pores with the size of several tens of nm, and the anodized film presented excellent corrosion resistance with considerably low corrosion current density in sea water. PMID:27433656

  8. The potential and challenges of thin-film electrolyte and nanostructured electrode for yttria-stabilized zirconia-base anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Ho-Sung; Yoon, Kyung Joong; Kim, Byung-Kook; Je, Hae-June; Lee, Hae-Weon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Son, Ji-Won

    2014-02-01

    Thin-film electrolytes and nanostructured electrodes are essential components for lowering the operation temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs); however, reliably implementing thin-film electrolytes and nano-structure electrodes over a realistic SOFC platform, such as a porous anode-support, has been extremely difficult. If these components can be created reliably and reproducibly on porous substrates as anode supports, a more precise assessment of their impact on realistic SOFCs would be possible. In this work, structurally sound thin-film and nano-structured SOFC components consisting of a nano-composite NiO-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode interlayer, a thin YSZ and gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) bi-layer electrolyte, and a nano-structure lanthanum strontium cobaltite (LSC)-base cathode, are sequentially fabricated on a porous NiO-YSZ anode support using thin-film technology. Using an optimized cell testing setup makes possible a more exact investigation of the potential and challenges of thin-film electrolyte and nanostructured electrode-based anode-supported SOFCs. Peak power densities obtained at 500 °C surpass 500 mW cm-2, which is an unprecedented low-temperature performance for the YSZ-based anode-supported SOFC. It is found that this critical, low-temperature performance for the anode-supported SOFC depends more on the electrode performance than the resistance of the thin-film electrolyte during lower temperature operation.

  9. 3D Non-destructive morphological analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell anode using full-field X-ray nano-tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karen Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen; Cronin, J. Scott; Yuan, Qingxi; Yakal-Kremski, Kyle J.; Barnett, Scott A.; Wang, Jun

    2012-11-01

    An accurate 3D morphological analysis is critically needed to study the process-structure-property relationship in many application fields such as battery electrodes, fuel cells and porous materials for sensing and actuating. Here we present the application of a newly developed full field X-ray nano-scale transmission microscopy (TXM) imaging for a non-destructive, comprehensive 3D morphology analysis of a porous Ni-YSZ solid oxide fuel cell anode. A unique combination of improved 3D resolution and large analyzed volume (˜3600 μm3) yields structural data with excellent statistical accuracy. 3D morphological parameters quantified include phase volume fractions, surface and interfacial area densities, phase size distribution, directional connectivity, tortuosity, and electrochemically active triple phase boundary density. A prediction of electrochemical anode polarization resistance based on this microstructural data yielded good agreement with a measured anode resistance via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The Mclachlan model is used to estimate the anode electrical conductivity.

  10. X-Ray-, Cathodo-, and Photoluminescence of Yttrium-Aluminum Composites on Porous Anodic Alumina Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoroshko, L. S.; Kortov, V. S.; Gaponenko, N. V.; Raichyonok, T. F.; Tikhomirov, S. A.; Pustovarov, V. A.

    2016-07-01

    Yttrium-aluminum composites doped with terbium were synthesized by precipitation on porous anodic alumina fi lms grown on silicon substrates. The fabricated structures demonstrated x-ray-, cathodo-, and photoluminescence with characteristic bands of trivalent terbium upon excitation by Cu Kα x-rays of energy 8.86 keV, a 180-keV electron beam, and optical UV radiation, respectively. The terbium luminescence bands increased in intensity as the terbium concentration increased from 0.01 to 0.25 mol%. The intensity of a broad band in the blue spectral region with a maximum at 410 nm that was due to photoluminescence of the porous anodic alumina fi lm increased as the excitation wavelength increased from 260 to 340 nm. Simultaneously, the intensities of luminescence bands in the range 480-650 nm associated with Tb 3 + 5 D 4 - 7 F j ( j = 3, 4, 5, 6) transitions decreased. The possibility of practical application of the synthesized luminescent structures was discussed.

  11. Fabrication of TiO2 Crystalline Coatings by Combining Ti-6Al-4V Anodic Oxidation and Heat Treatments.

    PubMed

    Vera, María Laura; Rosenberger, Mario Roberto; Schvezov, Carlos Enrique; Ares, Alicia Esther

    2015-01-01

    The bio- and hemocompatibility of titanium alloys are due to the formation of a TiO2 layer. This natural oxide may have fissures which are detrimental to its properties. Anodic oxidation is used to obtain thicker films. By means of this technique, at low voltages oxidation, amorphous and low roughness coatings are obtained, while, above a certain voltage, crystalline and porous coatings are obtained. According to the literature, the crystalline phases of TiO2, anatase, and rutile would present greater biocompatibility than the amorphous phase. On the other hand, for hemocompatible applications, smooth and homogeneous surfaces are required. One way to obtain crystalline and homogeneous coatings is by heat treatments after anodic oxidation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of heat treatments on the thickness, morphology, and crystalline structure of the TiO2 anodic coatings. The characterization was performed by optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray reflectometry. Coatings with different colors of interference were obtained. There were no significant changes in the surface morphology and roughness after heat treatment of 500°C. Heat treated coatings have different proportions of the crystalline phases, depending on the voltage of anodic oxidation and the temperature of the heat treatment. PMID:25784939

  12. Fabrication of TiO2 Crystalline Coatings by Combining Ti-6Al-4V Anodic Oxidation and Heat Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Schvezov, Carlos Enrique; Ares, Alicia Esther

    2015-01-01

    The bio- and hemocompatibility of titanium alloys are due to the formation of a TiO2 layer. This natural oxide may have fissures which are detrimental to its properties. Anodic oxidation is used to obtain thicker films. By means of this technique, at low voltages oxidation, amorphous and low roughness coatings are obtained, while, above a certain voltage, crystalline and porous coatings are obtained. According to the literature, the crystalline phases of TiO2, anatase, and rutile would present greater biocompatibility than the amorphous phase. On the other hand, for hemocompatible applications, smooth and homogeneous surfaces are required. One way to obtain crystalline and homogeneous coatings is by heat treatments after anodic oxidation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of heat treatments on the thickness, morphology, and crystalline structure of the TiO2 anodic coatings. The characterization was performed by optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray reflectometry. Coatings with different colors of interference were obtained. There were no significant changes in the surface morphology and roughness after heat treatment of 500°C. Heat treated coatings have different proportions of the crystalline phases, depending on the voltage of anodic oxidation and the temperature of the heat treatment. PMID:25784939

  13. Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation at fuel cell anodes

    DOEpatents

    Adzic, Radoslav; Kowal, Andrzej

    2011-11-02

    In some embodiments a ternary electrocatalyst is provided. The electrocatalyst can be used in an anode for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst may include a noble metal particle having a surface decorated with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh. The noble metal particles may include platinum, palladium, ruthenium, iridium, gold, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst includes SnO.sub.2 particles having a surface decorated with clusters of a noble metal and Rh. Some ternary electrocatalysts include noble metal particles with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh at their surfaces. In some embodiments the electrocatalyst particle cores are nanoparticles. Some embodiments of the invention provide a fuel cell including an anode incorporating the ternary electrocatalyst. In some aspects a method of using ternary electrocatalysts of Pt, Rh, and SnO.sub.2 to oxidize an alcohol in a fuel cell is described.

  14. Bio-Derived, Binderless, Hierarchically Porous Carbon Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Brennan; Ionescu, Robert; Favors, Zachary; Ozkan, Cengiz S.; Ozkan, Mihrimah

    2015-09-01

    Here we explore the electrochemical performance of pyrolyzed skins from the species A. bisporus, also known as the Portobello mushroom, as free-standing, binder-free, and current collector-free Li-ion battery anodes. At temperatures above 900 °C, the biomass-derived carbon nanoribbon-like architectures undergo unique processes to become hierarchically porous. During heat-treatment, the oxygen and heteroatom-rich organics and potassium compounds naturally present in the mushroom skins play a mutual role in creating inner void spaces throughout the resulting carbon nanoribbons, which is a process analogous to KOH-activation of carbon materials seen in literature. The pores formed in the pyrolytic carbon nanoribbons range in size from sub-nanometer to tens of nanometers, making the nanoribbons micro, meso, and macroporous. Detailed studies were conducted on the carbon nanoribbons using SEM and TEM to study morphology, as well as XRD and EDS to study composition. The self-supporting nanoribbon anodes demonstrate significant capacity increase as they undergo additional charge/discharge cycles. After a pyrolysis temperature of 1100 °C, the pristine anodes achieve over 260 mAh/g after 700 cycles and a Coulombic efficiency of 101.1%, without the use of harmful solvents or chemical activation agents.

  15. Bio-Derived, Binderless, Hierarchically Porous Carbon Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Brennan; Ionescu, Robert; Favors, Zachary; Ozkan, Cengiz S.; Ozkan, Mihrimah

    2015-01-01

    Here we explore the electrochemical performance of pyrolyzed skins from the species A. bisporus, also known as the Portobello mushroom, as free-standing, binder-free, and current collector-free Li-ion battery anodes. At temperatures above 900 °C, the biomass-derived carbon nanoribbon-like architectures undergo unique processes to become hierarchically porous. During heat-treatment, the oxygen and heteroatom-rich organics and potassium compounds naturally present in the mushroom skins play a mutual role in creating inner void spaces throughout the resulting carbon nanoribbons, which is a process analogous to KOH-activation of carbon materials seen in literature. The pores formed in the pyrolytic carbon nanoribbons range in size from sub-nanometer to tens of nanometers, making the nanoribbons micro, meso, and macroporous. Detailed studies were conducted on the carbon nanoribbons using SEM and TEM to study morphology, as well as XRD and EDS to study composition. The self-supporting nanoribbon anodes demonstrate significant capacity increase as they undergo additional charge/discharge cycles. After a pyrolysis temperature of 1100 °C, the pristine anodes achieve over 260 mAh/g after 700 cycles and a Coulombic efficiency of 101.1%, without the use of harmful solvents or chemical activation agents. PMID:26415917

  16. Tin nanoparticle-loaded porous carbon nanofiber composite anodes for high current lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhen; Hu, Yi; Chen, Yanli; Zhang, Xiangwu; Wang, Kehao; Chen, Renzhong

    2015-03-01

    Metallic Sn is a promising high-capacity anode material for use in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), but its huge volume variation during lithium ion insertion/extraction typically results in poor cycling stability. To address this, we demonstrate the fabrication of Sn nanoparticle-loaded porous carbon nanofiber (Sn-PCNF) composites via the electrospinning of Sn(II) acetate/mineral oil/polyacrylonitrile precursors in N,N-dimethylformamide solvent and their subsequent carbonization at 700 °C under an argon atmosphere. This is shown to result in an even distribution of pores on the surface of the nanofibers, allowing the Sn-PCNF composite to be used directly as an anode in lithium-ion batteries without the need to add non-active materials such as polymer binders or electrical conductors. With a discharge capacity of around 774 mA h g-1 achieved at a high current of 0.8 A g-1 over 200 cycles, this material clearly has a high rate capability and excellent cyclic stability, and thanks to its unique structure and properties, is an excellent candidate for use as an anode material in high-current rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Bio-Derived, Binderless, Hierarchically Porous Carbon Anodes for Li-ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Brennan; Ionescu, Robert; Favors, Zachary; Ozkan, Cengiz S; Ozkan, Mihrimah

    2015-01-01

    Here we explore the electrochemical performance of pyrolyzed skins from the species A. bisporus, also known as the Portobello mushroom, as free-standing, binder-free, and current collector-free Li-ion battery anodes. At temperatures above 900 °C, the biomass-derived carbon nanoribbon-like architectures undergo unique processes to become hierarchically porous. During heat-treatment, the oxygen and heteroatom-rich organics and potassium compounds naturally present in the mushroom skins play a mutual role in creating inner void spaces throughout the resulting carbon nanoribbons, which is a process analogous to KOH-activation of carbon materials seen in literature. The pores formed in the pyrolytic carbon nanoribbons range in size from sub-nanometer to tens of nanometers, making the nanoribbons micro, meso, and macroporous. Detailed studies were conducted on the carbon nanoribbons using SEM and TEM to study morphology, as well as XRD and EDS to study composition. The self-supporting nanoribbon anodes demonstrate significant capacity increase as they undergo additional charge/discharge cycles. After a pyrolysis temperature of 1100 °C, the pristine anodes achieve over 260 mAh/g after 700 cycles and a Coulombic efficiency of 101.1%, without the use of harmful solvents or chemical activation agents. PMID:26415917

  18. Novel light-weight, high-performance anode-supported microtubular solid oxide fuel cells with an active anode functional layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tong; Wang, Yao; Ren, Cong; Fang, Shumin; Mao, Yating; Chen, Fanglin

    2015-10-01

    Influence of the air-gap, the distance from the tube-in-orifice spinneret to the upper surface of the external coagulant bath during the extrusion/phase-inversion process, on the microstructure of nickel - yttria-stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) hollow fibers has been systematically studied. When the air-gap is 0 cm, the obtained Ni-YSZ hollow fiber has a sandwich microstructure. However, when the air-gap is increased to 15 cm, a bi-layer Ni-YSZ hollow fiber consisting of a thin layer with small pores and a thick support with highly porous fingerlike macrovoids has been achieved. The output power density of microtubular solid oxide fuel cells (MT-SOFCs) with a cell configuration of Ni-YSZ/YSZ/YSZ-LSM increases from 594 mW cm-2 for the cells with the Ni-YSZ anode of sandwich microstructure to 832 mW cm-2 for the cells with the Ni-YSZ anode of bi-layer microstructure at 750 °C, implying that to achieve the same output power density, the weight of the cells with the bi-layer anode support can be reduced to 41.5% compared with that of the cells with the sandwich anode support. Thermal-cycling test shows no obvious degradation on the open-circuit-voltage (OCV), indicating that the MT-SOFCs have robust resistance to thermal cycling.

  19. Submicron fabrication by local anodic oxidation of germanium thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. B.; Medeiros-Ribeiro, G.; Azevedo, A.

    2009-08-01

    Here we describe a lithography scheme based on the local anodic oxidation of germanium film by a scanning atomic force microscope in a humidity-controlled atmosphere. The oxidation kinetics of the Ge film were investigated by a tapping mode, in which a pulsed bias voltage was synchronized and applied with the resonance frequency of the cantilever, and by a contact mode, in which a continuous voltage was applied. In the tapping mode we clearly identified two regimes of oxidation as a function of the applied voltage: the trench width increased linearly during the vertical growth and increased exponentially during the lateral growth. Both regimes of growth were interpreted taking into consideration the Cabrera-Mott mechanism of oxidation applied to the oxide/Ge interface. We also show the feasibility of the bottom-up fabrication process presented in this work by showing a Cu nanowire fabricated on top of a silicon substrate.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of anodized titanium-oxide nanotube arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Michael Z.; Lai, Peng; Bhuiyan, Md S; Tsouris, Costas; Gu, Baohua; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Gabitto, Jorge; Harrison, L. D.

    2009-01-01

    Anodized titanium-oxide containing highly ordered, vertically oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays is a nanomaterial architecture that shows promise for diverse applications. In this paper, an anodization synthesis using HF-free aqueous solution is described. The anodized TiO2 film samples (amorphous, anatase, and rutile) on titanium foils were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. Additional characterization in terms of photocurrent generated by an anode consisting of a titanium foil coated by TiO2 nanotubes was performed using an electrochemical cell. A platinum cathode was used in the electrochemical cell. Results were analyzed in terms of the efficiency of the current generated, defined as the ratio of the difference between the electrical energy output and the electrical energy input divided by the input radiation energy, with the goal of determining which phase of TiO2 nanotubes leads to more efficient hydrogen production. It was determined that the anatase crystalline structure converts light into current more efficiently and is therefore a better photocatalytic material for hydrogen production via photoelectrochemical splitting of water.

  1. Chemical compatibility and properties of suspension plasma-sprayed SrTiO3-based anodes for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shan-Lin; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2014-10-01

    La-doped strontium titanate (LST) is a promising, redox-stable perovskite material for direct hydrocarbon oxidation anodes in intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). In this study, nano-sized LST and Sm-doped ceria (SDC) powders are produced by the sol-gel and glycine-nitrate processes, respectively. The chemical compatibility between LST and electrolyte materials is studied. A LST-SDC composite anode is prepared by suspension plasma spraying (SPS). The effects of annealing conditions on the phase structure, microstructure, and chemical stability of the LST-SDC composite anode are investigated. The results indicate that the suspension plasma-sprayed LST-SDC anode has the same phase structure as the original powders. LST exhibits a good chemical compatibility with SDC and Mg/Sr-doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM). The anode has a porosity of ∼40% with a finely porous structure that provides high gas permeability and a long three-phase boundary for the anode reaction. Single cells assembled with the LST-SDC anode, La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O3 electrolyte, and La0.8Sr0.2CoO3-SDC cathode show a good performance at 650-800 °C. The annealing reduces the impedances due to the enhancement in the bonding between the particles in the anode and interface of anode and LSGM electrolyte, thus improving the output performance of the cell.

  2. LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES

    SciTech Connect

    Anil V. Virkar

    2001-09-26

    Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells with Ni + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode, YSZ-samaria-doped ceria (SDC) bi-layer electrolyte and Sr-doped LaCoO{sub 3} (LSC) + SDC cathode were fabricated. Fuel used consisted of H{sub 2} diluted with He, N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O or CO{sub 2}, mixtures of H{sub 2} and CO, and mixtures of CO and CO{sub 2}. Cell performance was measured at 800 C with above-mentioned fuel gas mixtures and air as oxidant. For a given concentration of the diluent, the cell performance was higher with He as the diluent than with N{sub 2} as the diluent. Mass transport through porous Ni-YSZ anode for H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O, CO-CO{sub 2} binary systems and H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-diluent gas ternary systems was analyzed using multicomponent gas diffusion theory. At high concentrations of the diluent, the maximum achievable current density was limited by the anodic concentration polarization. From this measured limiting current density, the corresponding effective gas diffusivity was estimated. Highest effective diffusivity was estimated for fuel gas mixtures containing H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-He mixtures ({approx}0.34 cm{sup 2}/s), and the lowest for CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures ({approx}0.07 cm{sup 2}/s). The lowest performance was observed with CO-CO{sub 2} mixture as a fuel, which in part was attributed to the lowest effective diffusivity of the fuels tested.

  3. Direct oxidation solid oxide fuel cell: Aspects of anode performance optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa-Nunes, Olga

    I have examined the impact of high fuel utilization and anode catalyst stability for Cu-based anodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). First, the performance of SOFC with Cu-ceria-YSZ anodes was studied in n-butane at 973 K as a function of fuel conversion. Conversion led to dilution of the fuel which resulted in a significant decrease in performance at higher fuel conversions. I demonstrated that the inclusion of a steam-reforming catalyst within the anode compartment of direct-oxidation SOFC improved performance at high fuel utilization. The performance of a Cu-CeO2-YSZ SOFC was compared to a conventional SOFC with Ni-YSZ anode while operating on H2, CO, and syngas fuels. Cells with Cu-CeO2-YSZ anodes exhibit similar performance when operating on H2 or CO fuels, while cells with Ni-YSZ anodes exhibited substantially lower performance when operating on CO compared to H2. My work demonstrated that dilution of H2 by H2O has little effect on the kinetics of H2 oxidation on both the Cu-CeO 2-YSZ and Ni-YSZ anodes. In addition, I have investigated the thermal stability of the anode catalyst, ceria, was using thin ceria films supported on YSZ. Special attention was given to the interactions between ceria and YSZ under high temperature treatments in reducing and oxidizing environments. My results have shown that ceria films on YSZ are highly mobile at relatively moderate temperatures and their morphology depends on the gas environment to which they have been exposed. Studies with alpha-Al2O3 assisted in clarifying the role of the substrate in the treatment effects on ceria.

  4. Nitric oxide-releasing porous silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafshgari, Morteza Hasanzadeh; Cavallaro, Alex; Delalat, Bahman; Harding, Frances J.; McInnes, Steven JP; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Vasilev, Krasimir; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the ability of porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) to entrap and deliver nitric oxide (NO) as an effective antibacterial agent is tested against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. NO was entrapped inside PSi NPs functionalized by means of the thermal hydrocarbonization (THC) process. Subsequent reduction of nitrite in the presence of d-glucose led to the production of large NO payloads without reducing the biocompatibility of the PSi NPs with mammalian cells. The resulting PSi NPs demonstrated sustained release of NO and showed remarkable antibacterial efficiency and anti-biofilm-forming properties. These results will set the stage to develop antimicrobial nanoparticle formulations for applications in chronic wound treatment.

  5. Porous Nickel Oxide Film Sensor for Formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cindemir, U.; Topalian, Z.; Österlund, L.; Granqvist, C. G.; Niklasson, G. A.

    2014-11-01

    Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound and a harmful indoor pollutant contributing to the "sick building syndrome". We used advanced gas deposition to fabricate highly porous nickel oxide (NiO) thin films for formaldehyde sensing. The films were deposited on Al2O3 substrates with prefabricated comb-structured electrodes and a resistive heater at the opposite face. The morphology and structure of the films were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Porosity was determined by nitrogen adsorption isotherms with the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. Gas sensing measurements were performed to demonstrate the resistive response of the sensors with respect to different concentrations of formaldehyde at 150 °C.

  6. Nitric oxide-releasing porous silicon nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the ability of porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) to entrap and deliver nitric oxide (NO) as an effective antibacterial agent is tested against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. NO was entrapped inside PSi NPs functionalized by means of the thermal hydrocarbonization (THC) process. Subsequent reduction of nitrite in the presence of d-glucose led to the production of large NO payloads without reducing the biocompatibility of the PSi NPs with mammalian cells. The resulting PSi NPs demonstrated sustained release of NO and showed remarkable antibacterial efficiency and anti-biofilm-forming properties. These results will set the stage to develop antimicrobial nanoparticle formulations for applications in chronic wound treatment. PMID:25114633

  7. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  8. Facile synthesis of a mechanically robust and highly porous NiO film with excellent electrocatalytic activity towards methanol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Luoyuan; Zhang, Guoge; Liu, Yan; Li, Wenfang; Lu, Wei; Huang, Haitao

    2016-06-01

    Considerable research is being conducted in searching for effective anode catalysts in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Although significant progress has been achieved, it is still challenging to prepare non-Pt catalysts with both excellent activity and good durability. Herein, a highly porous NiO film is developed by a facile and fast anodization approach. The anodic NiO film demonstrates a high surface area, large mesopore volume and small crystallite size, leading to facilitated adsorption of reaction species, easy electrolyte penetration and fast reaction kinetics. Furthermore, as anodic NiO is grown in situ on a metallic substrate with strong adhesion strength and good electrical contact, it can be used directly as an anode catalyst for methanol oxidation without the need to add any binder or conducting agent. Such an additive-free approach greatly expedites the catalyst preparation process. The anodic NiO shows lower methanol oxidation potential, higher oxidation current and better catalytic durability than most of the state-of-the-art Ni-based catalysts reported elsewhere. As anodization is a simple, low cost and easily scaled up method, the work described here provides an exciting direction to speed up the practical application of alkaline DMFCs. PMID:27189412

  9. Eutectic Nano-Droplet Template Injection into Bulk Silicon to Construct Porous Frameworks with Concomitant Conformal Coating as Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Fei; Li, Chilin; Wang, Zumin; Wen, Yuren; Richter, Gunther; Strunk, Horst P.

    2015-05-01

    Building porosity in monolithic materials is highly desired to design 3D electrodes, however ex-situ introduction or in-situ generation of nano-scale sacrificial template is still a great challenge. Here Al-Si eutectic droplet templates are uniformly injected into bulk Si through Al-induced solid-solid convection to construct a highly porous Si framework. This process is concomitant with process-inherent conformal coating of ion-conductive oxide. Such an all-in-one method has generated a (continuously processed) high-capacity Si anode integrating longevity and stable electrolyte-anode diaphragm for Li-ion batteries (e.g. a reversible capacity as large as ~1800 mAh/g or ~350 μAh/cm2-μm with a CE of ~99% at 0.1 C after long-term 400 cycles).

  10. Eutectic Nano-Droplet Template Injection into Bulk Silicon to Construct Porous Frameworks with Concomitant Conformal Coating as Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Fei; Li, Chilin; Wang, Zumin; Wen, Yuren; Richter, Gunther; Strunk, Horst P.

    2015-01-01

    Building porosity in monolithic materials is highly desired to design 3D electrodes, however ex-situ introduction or in-situ generation of nano-scale sacrificial template is still a great challenge. Here Al-Si eutectic droplet templates are uniformly injected into bulk Si through Al-induced solid-solid convection to construct a highly porous Si framework. This process is concomitant with process-inherent conformal coating of ion-conductive oxide. Such an all-in-one method has generated a (continuously processed) high-capacity Si anode integrating longevity and stable electrolyte-anode diaphragm for Li-ion batteries (e.g. a reversible capacity as large as ~1800 mAh/g or ~350 μAh/cm2-μm with a CE of ~99% at 0.1 C after long-term 400 cycles). PMID:25988370

  11. Eutectic nano-droplet template injection into bulk silicon to construct porous frameworks with concomitant conformal coating as anodes for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Qu, Fei; Li, Chilin; Wang, Zumin; Wen, Yuren; Richter, Gunther; Strunk, Horst P

    2015-01-01

    Building porosity in monolithic materials is highly desired to design 3D electrodes, however ex-situ introduction or in-situ generation of nano-scale sacrificial template is still a great challenge. Here Al-Si eutectic droplet templates are uniformly injected into bulk Si through Al-induced solid-solid convection to construct a highly porous Si framework. This process is concomitant with process-inherent conformal coating of ion-conductive oxide. Such an all-in-one method has generated a (continuously processed) high-capacity Si anode integrating longevity and stable electrolyte-anode diaphragm for Li-ion batteries (e.g. a reversible capacity as large as ~1800 mAh/g or ~350 μAh/cm(2)-μm with a CE of ~99% at 0.1 C after long-term 400 cycles). PMID:25988370

  12. Ultra-structural evaluation of an anodic oxidated titanium dental implant.

    PubMed

    Yamagami, Akiyoshi; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Nakamura, Mariko; Shirai, Hajime; Matsumoto, Takuya; Suzuki, Kazuomi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Anodic oxidation is used for the surface treatment of commercial implants to improve their functional properties for clinical success. Here we conducted ultrastructural and chemical investigations into the micro- and nanostructure of the anodic oxide film of a titanium implant. The anodic oxidized layer of a Ti6Al4V alloy implant was examined ultrastructurally by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). They were also analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The TEM revealed that the oxide layer of the Ti6Al4V implant prepared through anodic oxidation was separated into two layers. Al and V were not present on the top surface of the anodic oxide. This can be attributed to the biocompatibility of the anodic oxidized Ti6Al4V alloy implant, because the release of harmful metal ions such as Al and V can be suppressed by the biocompatibility. PMID:25483382

  13. LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Anil V. Virkar

    2003-05-23

    This report summarizes the work done during the entire project period, between October 1, 1999 and March 31, 2003, which includes a six-month no-cost extension. During the project, eight research papers have, either been, published, accepted for publication, or submitted for publication. In addition, several presentations have been made in technical meetings and workshops. The project also has provided support for four graduate students working towards advanced degrees. The principal technical objective of the project was to analyze the role of electrode microstructure on solid oxide fuel cell performance. Prior theoretical work conducted in our laboratory demonstrated that the particle size of composite electrodes has a profound effect on cell performance; the finer the particle size, the lower the activation polarization, the better the performance. The composite cathodes examined consisted of electronically conducting perovskites such as Sr-doped LaMnO{sub 3} (LSM) or Sr-doped LaCoO{sub 3} (LSC), which is also a mixed conductor, as the electrocatalyst, and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or rare earth oxide doped CeO{sub 2} as the ionic conductor. The composite anodes examined were mixtures of Ni and YSZ. A procedure was developed for the synthesis of nanosize YSZ by molecular decomposition, in which unwanted species were removed by leaching, leaving behind nanosize YSZ. Anode-supported cells were made using the as-synthesized powders, or using commercially acquired powders. The electrolyte was usually a thin ({approx}10 microns), dense layer of YSZ, supported on a thick ({approx}1 mm), porous Ni + YSZ anode. The cathode was a porous mixture of electrocatalyst and an ionic conductor. Most of the cell testing was done at 800 C with hydrogen as fuel and air as the oxidant. Maximum power densities as high as 1.8 W/cm{sup 2} were demonstrated. Polarization behavior of the cells was theoretically analyzed. A limited amount of cell testing was done using liquid

  14. Porous mixed metal oxides: design, formation mechanism, and application in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fangfang; Bai, Jing; Feng, Jinkui; Xiong, Shenglin

    2015-10-01

    The relentless pursuit of new electrode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) has been conducted for decades. Structures with either porous or nanostructure configurations have been confirmed as advantageous candidates for energy storage/conversion applications. The integration of the two features into one structure can provide another chance to improve the electroactivities. Recently, single-phased mixed metal oxides (MMOs) containing different metal cations, in particular, have confirmed high electrochemical activities because of their complex chemical composition, interfacial effects, and the synergic effects of the multiple metal species. In this review, we will focus on recent research advances of MMOs with porous architectures as anode materials in the matter of structural arrangement and compositional manipulation. Moreover, the application of self-supported MMO-based porous structures as LIB anodes is also explained herein. More importantly, investigations on the synthetic system and formation mechanism of porous MMOs will be highlighted. Some future trends for the innovative design of new electrode materials are also discussed in this review. The challenges and prospects will draw many researchers' attention.

  15. Porous anodic alumina on galvanically grown PtSi layer for application in template-assisted Si nanowire growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelakaki, Irini; Nassiopoulou, Androula G.; Stavrinidou, Eleni; Breza, Katerina; Frangis, Nikos

    2011-06-01

    We report on the fabrication and morphology/structural characterization of a porous anodic alumina (PAA)/PtSi nano-template for use as matrix in template-assisted Si nanowire growth on a Si substrate. The PtSi layer was formed by electroless deposition from an aqueous solution containing the metal salt and HF, while the PAA membrane by anodizing an Al film deposited on the PtSi layer. The morphology and structure of the PtSi layer and of the alumina membrane on top were studied by Scanning and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopies (SEM, HRTEM). Cross sectional HRTEM images combined with electron diffraction (ED) were used to characterize the different interfaces between Si, PtSi and porous anodic alumina.

  16. Application of 8YSZ Nanopowder Synthesized by the Modified Solvothermal Process for Anode Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Meepho, Malinee; Wattanasiriwech, Suthee; Angkavatana, Pavadee; Wattanasiriwech, Darunee

    2015-03-01

    Thin electrolyte yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) films were coated on the porous solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode substrates for the use at an intermediate temperature range. Nano-8YSZ powder with a particle size of about 5 nm was synthesized using the modified solvothermal process. The electrolyte suspension was prepared by dispersion the synthesized 8YSZ nanopowder in ethanol, with PVB and 1,3-propanediol as a binder and a charging agent respectively. The 8YSZ suspension was subsequently deposited on the pre-sintered NiO-YSZ porous substrates by the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique. In order to obtain high quality electrolyte films, preparation process was optimized through two strategic approaches; (i) adjustment of suspension's rheological property and (ii) compatibility of anode-electrolyte sintering shrinkage. Rheological property of the suspension was improved with an addition of 1,3-propanediol. The zeta potential of this suspension was increased and reached the value of +24 mV so the well-dispersed slurry was finally obtained. The second approach was achieved by using a proper composite anode powders. Dense and uniform 8YSZ electrolyte films with a thickness of about 1 thickness successfully be formed on the NiO-YSZ porous substrates after co-sintering at 1400 °C for 2 h. PMID:26413707

  17. Properties and composition of anodic oxide layers of indium antimonide

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokin, I.N.; Gat'ko, L.E.; Nikitina, N.G.

    1985-09-01

    In recent years a number of optoelectronic devices based on narrowgap semiconductors of the AIIIBV type have been developed. One of the factors preventing widespread production of such devices is the inadequate study of the effect of the technology on the properties of insulator-semiconductor systems, of which anodic oxide films (AOF)--indium antimonide--are most promising. In this work the authors studied the dielectric properties and chemical composition of indium antimonide AOF as a function of their thicknesses and conditions of formation. It is determined that anodic indium antimonide oxide layers 90-110nm thick have high dielectric properties. It is also determined that an increase of the film thickness above 80100nm is accompanied by a decrease in the relative antimony content. The ratio of indium and antimony in oxide layers depends on the electrical conditions of oxidation of the semiconductor: the relative antimony content increases as a result of a decrease in the field intensity under conditions of constant voltage.

  18. Electrochemical fabrication of 2D and 3D nickel nanowires using porous anodic alumina templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebed, A. M.; Abd-Elnaiem, Alaa M.; Al-Hosiny, Najm M.

    2016-06-01

    Mechanically stable nickel (Ni) nanowires array and nanowires network were synthesized by pulse electrochemical deposition using 2D and 3D porous anodic alumina (PAA) templates. The structures and morphologies of as-prepared films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The grown Ni nanowire using 3D PAA revealed more strength and larger surface area than has grown Ni use 2D PAA template. The prepared nanowires have a face-centered cubic crystal structure with average grain size 15 nm, and the preferred orientation of the nucleation of the nanowires is (111). The diameter of the nanowires is about 50-70 nm with length 3 µm. The resulting 3D Ni nanowire lattice, which provides enhanced mechanical stability and an increased surface area, benefits energy storage and many other applications which utilize the large surface area.

  19. Structural and wetting properties of porous anodic alumina templates prepared by different electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchitra S., M.; Reddy, P. Ramana; Udayashankar, N. K.

    2016-05-01

    Porous anodic alumina (PAA) has been extensively studied in recent years due to their unique properties and applications for manufacturing nanostructured materials. In this article, we report our studies on structural and wetting properties of PAA membranes prepared using different electrolytes such as sulphuric, oxalic and phosphoric acids. The morphological parameters such as pore diameter and porosity were measured using SEM and analysed using image-J software. The structural investigation of PAA membranes was carried out through X-ray diffraction analysis and it was confirmed that PAA membranes were amorphous in nature. The wetting behaviour of PAA membranes were measured using contact angle measurement technique. The results show that PAA membranes were hydrophilic in nature with contact angles 26.03°, 35.21° and 42.0° for sulphuric, oxalic and phosphoric acids respectively.

  20. Terbium luminescence in alumina xerogel fabricated in porous anodic alumina matrix under various excitation conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gaponenko, N. V.; Kortov, V. S.; Orekhovskaya, T. I.; Nikolaenko, I. A.; Pustovarov, V. A.; Zvonarev, S. V.; Slesarev, A. I.; Prislopski, S. Ya.

    2011-07-15

    Terbium-doped alumina xerogel layers are synthesized by the sol-gel method in pores of a porous anodic alumina film 1 {mu}m thick with a pore diameter of 150-180 nm; the film is grown on a silicon substrate. The fabricated structures exhibit terbium photoluminescence with bands typical of trivalent terbium terms. Terbium X-ray luminescence with the most intense band at 542 nm is observed for the first time for such a structure. Morphological analysis of the structure by scanning electron microscopy shows the presence of xerogel clusters in pore channels, while the main pore volume remains unfilled and pore mouths remain open. The data obtained confirm the promising applications of fabricated structures for developing matrix converters of X-rays and other ionizing radiations into visible light. The possibilities of increasing luminescence intensity in the matrix converter are discussed.

  1. Fabrication and optical property of metal nanowire arrays embedded in anodic porous alumina membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takase, Kouichi; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Sugawa, Kosuke; Aono, Takashige; Shirai, Yuma; Nishida, Tomohiko; Shingubara, Shoso

    2016-06-01

    Nanowires embedded in nanopores are potentially tough against surface scraping and agglomeration. In this study, we have fabricated Au and Ni nanowires embedded into anodic porous alumina (APA) and investigated their reflectance to study the effects of surface plasmon absorption properties and conversion from solar energy to thermal energy. Au nanowires embedded into APA show typical gold surface plasmon absorption at approximately 530 nm. On the other hand, Ni nanowires show quite a low reflectance under 600 nm. In the temperature elevation test, both Au and Ni nanowire samples present the same capability to warm up water. It means that Ni nanowires embedded into APA have almost the same photothermal activity as Au nanowires.

  2. Formation and disruption of current paths of anodic porous alumina films by conducting atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyoshi, K.; Nigo, S.; Inoue, J.; Sakai, O.; Kitazawa, H.; Kido, G.

    2010-11-01

    Anodic porous alumina (APA) films have a honeycomb cell structure of pores and a voltage-induced bi-stable switching effect. We have applied conducting atomic force microscopy (CAFM) as a method to form and to disrupt current paths in the APA films. A bi-polar switching operation was confirmed. We have firstly observed terminals of current paths as spots or areas typically on the center of the triangle formed by three pores. In addition, though a part of the current path showed repetitive switching, most of them were not observed again at the same position after one cycle of switching operations in the present experiments. This suggests that a part of alumina structure and/or composition along the current paths is modified during the switching operations.

  3. Porous cubes constructed by cobalt oxide nanocrystals with graphene sheet coatings for enhanced lithium storage properties.

    PubMed

    Geng, Hongbo; Guo, Yuanyuan; Ding, Xianguang; Wang, Huangwen; Zhang, Yufei; Wu, Xinglong; Jiang, Jiang; Zheng, Junwei; Yang, Yonggang; Gu, Hongwei

    2016-04-14

    In this manuscript, graphene-encapsulated porous cobalt oxide cubes (Co3O4@G) are fabricated through a facile precipitation reaction with subsequent calcination and a self-assembly process. The synthesized porous Co3O4 cubes anchored in the conductive graphene network can realize superior electrical conductivity, withstand volume variation upon prolonged cycling and shorten the diffusion path of lithium ions. When evaluated as anode materials, the Co3O4@G electrode shows excellent electrochemical properties in terms of both stable cycling performance and good rate capabilities. For example, a reversible discharge capacity of 980 mA h g(-1) is delivered after 80 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g(-1). Introducing a conductive graphene network to modify other metal oxides with poor electric conductivity and large volume excursions is of great interest in the development of lithium ion battery technologies. PMID:26997536

  4. Electrolytic LiCl precipitation from LiCl-KCl melt in porous Li-Al anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallet, C. E.; Heatherly, D. E.; Heatherly, L., Jr.; Braunstein, J.

    1983-12-01

    Composition gradients such as those predicted to occur during discharge of porous Li-Al negative electrodes of Li/S batteries with LiCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte were generated and measured in the LiCl-KCl anolyte of an electrolysis cell with Li-Al electrodes. Precipitation of lithium chloride during electrolysis was observed by two-dimensional scanning of electrolyte composition in the front part of quenched porous Li-Al anode sections using SEM/EDX. The distribution of sites of increased or decreased LiCl concentration, LiCl saturation and precipitation was mapped. Cathodic regions were observed near the cell walls. Preliminary results of analysis by Auger spectroscopy confirm LiCl precipitation in the porous anode.

  5. Solid oxide fuel cell bi-layer anode with gadolinia-doped ceria for utilization of solid carbon fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, Isaiah D.; Koylu, Umit O.; Dogan, Fatih

    Pyrolytic carbon was used as fuel in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and a bi-layer anode composed of nickel oxide gadolinia-doped ceria (NiO-GDC) and NiO-YSZ. The common problems of bulk shrinkage and emergent porosity in the YSZ layer adjacent to the GDC/YSZ interface were avoided by using an interlayer of porous NiO-YSZ as a buffer anode layer between the electrolyte and the NiO-GDC primary anode. Cells were fabricated from commercially available component powders so that unconventional production methods suggested in the literature were avoided, that is, the necessity of glycine-nitrate combustion synthesis, specialty multicomponent oxide powders, sputtering, or chemical vapor deposition. The easily-fabricated cell was successfully utilized with hydrogen and propane fuels as well as carbon deposited on the anode during the cyclic operation with the propane. A cell of similar construction could be used in the exhaust stream of a diesel engine to capture and utilize soot for secondary power generation and decreased particulate pollution without the need for filter regeneration.

  6. In vitro apatite formation on porous anodic alumina induced by a phosphorylation treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohong; Ni, Siyu; Webster, Thomas J

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a phosphorylation treatment of porous anodic alumina (PAA) was performed by wet impregnation in phosphoric acid and a subsequent heat treatment. The PAA and phosphorylated PAA specimens were analyzed using a field emission scanning electron microscope, an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The apatite-forming ability of the phosphorylated PAA was evaluated by soaking the specimens in simulated body fluid for 1, 3, and 7 days. The surface microstructures and chemical property changes after soaking in simulated body fluid were again characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results of this study demonstrated that the functional -PO4 groups introduced onto the PAA surface dramatically promoted the deposition of bone-like apatite on PAA. The results from this study indicated that the phosphorylation treatment of anodic alumina is an effective method for inducing bone-like apatite formation, and this phosphorylated PAA can be a promising candidate to be used as bioactive surface coatings on implant metals and alloys for orthopedic and dental applications. PMID:24598060

  7. Image measurements of unsteady pressure fluctuation by a pressure-sensitive coating on porous anodized aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameda, M.; Tabei, T.; Nakakita, K.; Sakaue, H.; Asai, K.

    2005-12-01

    Pressure-sensitive luminescent coating on porous anodized aluminium (AA-PSP) was applied to measure non-periodic unsteady pressure distribution on a wind-tunnel model. A high-speed digital video camera was used to capture the PSP signal. The pressure-sensitive dye was tris(4,7-diphenylphenanthroline) ruthenium(II) ([Ru(dpp)3]2+). The coating has a short response time of O(10 µs), although it exhibits temperature and humidity sensitivities. A hydrophobic coating was applied on the anodized aluminium surface to suppress the humidity sensitivity. A temperature sensitive paint was used to obtain the temperature distribution instantaneously with the pressure. The temperature data were used to correct the PSP response. An appropriate data acquisition procedure as well as digital image processing algorithm was established to compensate for the error from the temperature and humidity sensitivities. The present system was applied to measure the pressure distribution on a delta wing at a high angle of attack in transonic flow, whose flow is unsteady due to the interaction between shock waves and leading edge vortices. The non-periodic unsteady pressure distribution on the delta wing was successfully measured with the sampling rate of 1 kHz and within a few per cent error in absolute pressure level.

  8. Infiltrated lanthanum strontium chromite anodes for solid oxide fuel cells: Structural and catalytic aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Tae-Sik; Yu, Anthony S.; Adijanto, Lawrence; Gorte, Raymond J.; Vohs, John M.

    2014-09-01

    Infiltration is a widely used fabrication method for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) composite electrodes. Here we report a study of the structure and electrocatalytic properties of SOFC anodes composed of a layer of lanthanum, strontium chromite (La0.8Sr0.2CrO3, LSCr), both with and without added transition metal dopants, infiltrated into a porous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) matrix. The structural evolution of the electrode upon reduction and under typical SOFC operating conditions is compared to that reported previously for La0.8Sr0.2Cr0.5Mn0.5O3-YSZ composite anodes. For the transition metal doped materials, a portion of the metal dopants were found to be exsolved from the LSCr lattice upon reduction and to be effective in promoting electro-oxidation of hydrogen. Exsolved cobalt particles were also found to be relatively stable when exposed to hydrocarbon fuels with low activity for the formation of carbon deposits.

  9. Anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control for selective and effective particulate matter filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Su; Wang, Yang; Tan, Yingling; Zhu, Jianfeng; Liu, Kai; Zhu, Jia

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is widely considered as one of the most pressing environmental health issues. Particularly, atmospheric particulate matters (PM), a complex mixture of solid or liquid matter suspended in the atmosphere, are a harmful form of air pollution due to its ability to penetrate deep into the lungs and blood streams, causing permanent damages such as DNA mutations and premature death. Therefore, porous materials which can effectively filter out particulate matters are highly desirable. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control fabricated through a scalable process can serve as effective and selective filtering materials for different types of particulate matters (such as PM2.5, PM10). Combining selective and dramatic filtering effect, fine pore size control and a scalable process, this type of anodic aluminum oxide templates can potentially serve as a novel selective filter for different kinds of particulate matters, and a promising and complementary solution to tackle this serious environmental issue.

  10. Steam reforming of methanol over copper loaded anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) prepared through electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linga Reddy, E.; Karuppiah, J.; Lee, Hyun Chan; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2014-12-01

    In order to study the steam reforming of methanol (SRM) to produce hydrogen for fuel cells, porous γ-alumina support is developed on Al substrate using anodic oxidation process and copper catalyst particles are deposited homogeneously over anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) surface by electrodeposition method. We investigated the effect of electrodeposition time and hot water treatment (HWT) on the activity of catalysts for SRM reaction in the temperature range between 160 and 360 °C. The experimental results indicate that the SRM activity, CO2 and dimethyl ether (DME) selectivity's over Cu catalysts increased as the electrodeposition time increased from 30 to 120 s, further increment in deposition time of Cu have no significant effect on it. The rates of SRM conversion are found to be higher for the catalysts made from the supports obtained after HWT, which may be due to the enhancement in the surface area of AAO support. It is found that the SRM activity and CO2 selectivity strongly depended upon the free exposed copper sites available for methanol adsorption and reaction, and DME in products is mainly observed in the reaction temperature range between 300 and 350 °C and it is higher for the catalysts with low Cu content.

  11. Porous cubes constructed by cobalt oxide nanocrystals with graphene sheet coatings for enhanced lithium storage properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Hongbo; Guo, Yuanyuan; Ding, Xianguang; Wang, Huangwen; Zhang, Yufei; Wu, Xinglong; Jiang, Jiang; Zheng, Junwei; Yang, Yonggang; Gu, Hongwei

    2016-03-01

    In this manuscript, graphene-encapsulated porous cobalt oxide cubes (Co3O4@G) are fabricated through a facile precipitation reaction with subsequent calcination and a self-assembly process. The synthesized porous Co3O4 cubes anchored in the conductive graphene network can realize superior electrical conductivity, withstand volume variation upon prolonged cycling and shorten the diffusion path of lithium ions. When evaluated as anode materials, the Co3O4@G electrode shows excellent electrochemical properties in terms of both stable cycling performance and good rate capabilities. For example, a reversible discharge capacity of 980 mA h g-1 is delivered after 80 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1. Introducing a conductive graphene network to modify other metal oxides with poor electric conductivity and large volume excursions is of great interest in the development of lithium ion battery technologies.In this manuscript, graphene-encapsulated porous cobalt oxide cubes (Co3O4@G) are fabricated through a facile precipitation reaction with subsequent calcination and a self-assembly process. The synthesized porous Co3O4 cubes anchored in the conductive graphene network can realize superior electrical conductivity, withstand volume variation upon prolonged cycling and shorten the diffusion path of lithium ions. When evaluated as anode materials, the Co3O4@G electrode shows excellent electrochemical properties in terms of both stable cycling performance and good rate capabilities. For example, a reversible discharge capacity of 980 mA h g-1 is delivered after 80 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1. Introducing a conductive graphene network to modify other metal oxides with poor electric conductivity and large volume excursions is of great interest in the development of lithium ion battery technologies. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01024e

  12. Analysis of nanopore arrangement of porous alumina layers formed by anodizing in oxalic acid at relatively high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaraska, Leszek; Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Jaskuła, Marian; Sulka, Grzegorz D.

    2014-06-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) layers were formed by a simple two-step anodization in 0.3 M oxalic acid at relatively high temperatures (20-30 °C) and various anodizing potentials (30-65 V). The effect of anodizing conditions on structural features of as-obtained oxides was carefully investigated. A linear and exponential relationships between cell diameter, pore density and anodizing potential were confirmed, respectively. On the other hand, no effect of temperature and duration of anodization on pore spacing and pore density was found. Detailed quantitative and qualitative analyses of hexagonal arrangement of nanopore arrays were performed for all studied samples. The nanopore arrangement was evaluated using various methods based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) images, Delaunay triangulations (defect maps), pair distribution functions (PDF), and angular distribution functions (ADF). It was found that for short anodizations performed at relatively high temperatures, the optimal anodizing potential that results in formation of nanostructures with the highest degree of pore order is 45 V. No direct effect of temperature and time of anodization on the nanopore arrangement was observed.

  13. Graphene-Assisted Chemical Etching of Silicon Using Anodic Aluminum Oxides as Patterning Templates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungkil; Lee, Dae Hun; Kim, Ju Hwan; Choi, Suk-Ho

    2015-11-01

    We first report graphene-assisted chemical etching (GaCE) of silicon by using patterned graphene as an etching catalyst. Chemical-vapor-deposition-grown graphene transferred on a silicon substrate is patterned to a mesh with nanohole arrays by oxygen plasma etching using an anodic- aluminum-oxide etching mask. The prepared graphene mesh/silicon is immersed in a mixture solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydro peroxide with various molecular fractions at optimized temperatures. The silicon underneath graphene mesh is then selectively etched to form aligned nanopillar arrays. The morphology of the nanostructured silicon can be controlled to be smooth or porous depending on the etching conditions. The experimental results are systematically discussed based on possible mechanisms for GaCE of Si. PMID:26473800

  14. Hierarchical Sandwich-Like Structure of Ultrafine N-Rich Porous Carbon Nanospheres Grown on Graphene Sheets as Superior Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhiqiang; He, Ziyang; Feng, Xuhui; Xu, Wangwang; Cui, Xiaodan; Zhang, Jiuhong; Yan, Cheng; Carreon, Moises A; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Ying

    2016-04-27

    A sandwich-like, graphene-based porous nitrogen-doped carbon (PNCs@Gr) has been prepared through facile pyrolysis of zeolitic imidazolate framework nanoparticles in situ grown on graphene oxide (GO) (ZIF-8@GO). Such sandwich-like nanostructure can be used as anode material in lithium ion batteries, exhibiting remarkable capacities, outstanding rate capability, and cycling performances that are some of the best results among carbonaceous electrode materials and exceed most metal oxide-based anode materials derived from metal orgainc frameworks (MOFs). Apart from a high initial capacity of 1378 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1), this PNCs@Gr electrode can be cycled at high specific currents of 500 and 1000 mA g(-1) with very stable reversible capacities of 1070 and 948 mAh g(-1) to 100 and 200 cycles, respectively. At a higher specific current of 5000 mA g(-1), the electrode still delivers a reversible capacity of over 530 mAh g(-1) after 400 cycles, showing a capacity retention of as high as 84.4%. Such an impressive electrochemical performance is ascribed to the ideal combination of hierarchically porous structure, a highly conductive graphene platform, and high-level nitrogen doping in the sandwich-like PNCs@Gr electrode obtained via in situ synthesis. PMID:27071473

  15. Kinetic features of the oxide formation on {111} polar planes upon anode treatment of n-GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, A. M.; Yavtushenko, I. O.; Makhmud-Akhunov, M. Yu.

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism and kinetics of anode destruction of {111} polar planes of n-GaAs and morphological features of forming oxide films in the potentiostatic mode of polarization in weakly acid solutions of electrolytes have been studied. It has been found that anode polarization of the gallium plane (111) Ga provides the formation of a porous structure of both the single-crystal matrix and oxide film, which has a planar topology. In this case, the pore density is always commensurable with the surface dope concentration. In contrast to the gallium plane, the anode polarization of the arsenic plane overline {( {111} )} As provides the tangential mechanism of destruction of the semiconductor matrix and the island-type morphology of the oxide. Equal crystallographic orientation of islands is determined by the directive action of the family of oxidized planes { {1overline {11} } } GaAs. However, regardless of the crystallographic orientation of the polar plane, the forming oxide is represented by polycrystalline As2O3 and amorphous Ga2O3.

  16. Composite anodes based on nanotube titanium oxide from electro-oxidation of Ti metal substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozio, A.; Carewska, M.; Mura, F.; D'Amato, R.; Falconieri, M.; De Francesco, M.; Appetecchi, G. B.

    2014-02-01

    In this manuscript is reported an investigation on lithium-ion battery composite anodes based on nanotube titanium oxide active material obtained from electrochemical oxidation of titanium metal substrates. Nanotube TiO2 showed a good nominal capacity, particularly taking into account that no electronic conductive additive as well as no binder was incorporated into the TiO2 material. The performance of nanotube titanium oxide anode tapes was compared with that of electrodes based on TiO2 both commercially available and obtained from laser pyrolysis. Cycling tests have indicated that the anodes based on electrosynthesized nanotube TiO2 exhibit the best performance in terms of capacity values and rate capability in combination with very good capacity retention and coulombic efficiency leveling 100% even at high rates.

  17. Hierarchical porous nickel oxide-carbon nanotubes as advanced pseudocapacitor materials for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Aldwin D.; Zhang, Xiang; Rinaldi, Ali; Nguyen, Son T.; Liu, Huihui; Lei, Zhibin; Lu, Li; Duong, Hai M.

    2013-03-01

    Hierarchical porous carbon anode and metal oxide cathode are promising for supercapacitor with both high energy density and high power density. This Letter uses NiO and commercial carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors with high energy storage capacities. Experimental results show that the specific capacitance of the electrode materials for 10%, 30% and 50% CNTs are 279, 242 and 112 F/g, respectively in an aqueous 1 M KOH electrolyte at a charge rate of 0.56 A/g. The maximum specific capacitance is 328 F/g at a charge rate of 0.33 A/g.

  18. Oxidation behaviors of porous Haynes 214 alloy at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Yong; Tang, Huiping; Li, Weijie

    2015-09-15

    The oxidation behaviors of porous Haynes 214 alloy at temperatures from 850 to 1000 °C were investigated. The porous alloys before and after the oxidation were examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The oxidation kinetics of the porous alloy approximately follows a parabolic rate law and exhibits two stages controlled by different oxidation courses. Complex oxide scales composed of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are formed on the oxidized porous alloys, and the formation of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on its outer layer is promoted with the oxidation proceeding. The rough surface as well as the micropores in the microstructures of the porous alloy caused by the manufacturing process provides fast diffusion paths for oxygen so as to affect the formation of the oxide layers. Both the maximum pore size and the permeability of the porous alloys decrease with the increase of oxidation temperature and exposure time, which may limit its applications. - Highlights: • Two-stage oxidation kinetics controlled by different oxidation courses is showed. • Oxide scale mainly consists of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Rough surface and micropores lead to the formation of uneven oxide structure. • Content of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the outer layer of the scale increases with time at 1000 °C. • Maximum pore size and permeability decrease with increasing temperature and time.

  19. Comparative study on ammonia oxidation over Ni-based cermet anodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molouk, Ahmed Fathi Salem; Yang, Jun; Okanishi, Takeou; Muroyama, Hiroki; Matsui, Toshiaki; Eguchi, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    In the current work, we investigate the performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with Ni‒yttria-stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) and Ni‒gadolinia-dope ceria (Ni-GDC) cermet anodes fueled with H2 or NH3 in terms of the catalytic activity of ammonia decomposition. The cermet of Ni-GDC shows higher catalytic activity for ammonia decomposition than Ni-YSZ. In response to this, the performance of direct NH3-fueled SOFC improved by using Ni-GDC anode. Moreover, we observe further enhancement in the cell performance and the catalytic activity for ammonia decomposition with applying Ni-GDC anode synthesised by the glycine-nitrate combustion process. These results reveal that the high performance of Ni-GDC anode for the direct NH3-fueled SOFC results from its mixed ionic-electronic conductivity as well as high catalytic activity for ammonia decomposition.

  20. Anodic deposition of hydrous ruthenium oxide for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chi-Chang; Liu, Ming-Jue; Chang, Kuo-Hsin

    This communication demonstrates the success in the anodic deposition of hydrous ruthenium oxide (denoted as RuO 2· xH 2O) from RuCl 3· xH 2O in aqueous media with/without adding acetate ions (CH 3COO -, AcO -) as the complex agent. The benefits of as-deposited RuO 2· xH 2O include the low electron-hopping resistance and the low contact resistance at the Ti-RuO 2· xH 2O interface which are clarified in electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) studies. The cycling stability, specific capacitance, and power performance of as-deposited RuO 2· xH 2O are further improved by annealing in air at 150 °C for 2 h. The morphologies of as-deposited and annealed RuO 2· xH 2O films, examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), are very similar to that of thermally decomposed RuO 2. The high onset frequencies of 660 and 1650 Hz obtained from EIS spectra for the as-deposited and annealed RuO 2· xH 2O films, respectively, definitely illustrate the high-power merits of both oxide films prepared by means of the anodic deposition without considering the advantages of its simplicity, one-step, reliability, low cost, and versatility for electrode preparation.

  1. Ultra-high density single nanometer-scale anodic alumina nanofibers fabricated by pyrophosphoric acid anodizing.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Nishinaga, Osamu; Nakajima, Daiki; Kawashima, Jun; Natsui, Shungo; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Suzuki, Ryosuke O

    2014-01-01

    Anodic oxide fabricated by anodizing has been widely used for nanostructural engineering, but the nanomorphology is limited to only two oxides: anodic barrier and porous oxides. Therefore, the discovery of an additional anodic oxide with a unique nanofeature would expand the applicability of anodizing. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a third-generation anodic oxide, specifically, anodic alumina nanofibers, by anodizing in a new electrolyte, pyrophosphoric acid. Ultra-high density single nanometer-scale anodic alumina nanofibers (10(10) nanofibers/cm(2)) consisting of an amorphous, pure aluminum oxide were successfully fabricated via pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The nanomorphologies of the anodic nanofibers can be controlled by the electrochemical conditions. Anodic tungsten oxide nanofibers can also be fabricated by pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The aluminum surface covered by the anodic alumina nanofibers exhibited ultra-fast superhydrophilic behavior, with a contact angle of less than 1°, within 1 second. Such ultra-narrow nanofibers can be used for various nanoapplications including catalysts, wettability control, and electronic devices. PMID:25491282

  2. Ultra-High Density Single Nanometer-Scale Anodic Alumina Nanofibers Fabricated by Pyrophosphoric Acid Anodizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Nishinaga, Osamu; Nakajima, Daiki; Kawashima, Jun; Natsui, Shungo; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-12-01

    Anodic oxide fabricated by anodizing has been widely used for nanostructural engineering, but the nanomorphology is limited to only two oxides: anodic barrier and porous oxides. Therefore, the discovery of an additional anodic oxide with a unique nanofeature would expand the applicability of anodizing. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a third-generation anodic oxide, specifically, anodic alumina nanofibers, by anodizing in a new electrolyte, pyrophosphoric acid. Ultra-high density single nanometer-scale anodic alumina nanofibers (1010 nanofibers/cm2) consisting of an amorphous, pure aluminum oxide were successfully fabricated via pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The nanomorphologies of the anodic nanofibers can be controlled by the electrochemical conditions. Anodic tungsten oxide nanofibers can also be fabricated by pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The aluminum surface covered by the anodic alumina nanofibers exhibited ultra-fast superhydrophilic behavior, with a contact angle of less than 1°, within 1 second. Such ultra-narrow nanofibers can be used for various nanoapplications including catalysts, wettability control, and electronic devices.

  3. Ultra-High Density Single Nanometer-Scale Anodic Alumina Nanofibers Fabricated by Pyrophosphoric Acid Anodizing

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Nishinaga, Osamu; Nakajima, Daiki; Kawashima, Jun; Natsui, Shungo; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-01-01

    Anodic oxide fabricated by anodizing has been widely used for nanostructural engineering, but the nanomorphology is limited to only two oxides: anodic barrier and porous oxides. Therefore, the discovery of an additional anodic oxide with a unique nanofeature would expand the applicability of anodizing. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a third-generation anodic oxide, specifically, anodic alumina nanofibers, by anodizing in a new electrolyte, pyrophosphoric acid. Ultra-high density single nanometer-scale anodic alumina nanofibers (1010 nanofibers/cm2) consisting of an amorphous, pure aluminum oxide were successfully fabricated via pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The nanomorphologies of the anodic nanofibers can be controlled by the electrochemical conditions. Anodic tungsten oxide nanofibers can also be fabricated by pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The aluminum surface covered by the anodic alumina nanofibers exhibited ultra-fast superhydrophilic behavior, with a contact angle of less than 1°, within 1 second. Such ultra-narrow nanofibers can be used for various nanoapplications including catalysts, wettability control, and electronic devices. PMID:25491282

  4. Performance studies of copper-iron/ceria-yttria stabilized zirconia anode for electro-oxidation of butane in solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Basu, Suddhasatwa

    2013-11-01

    Addition of second metal to Cu is useful for electro-oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In this work, electro-catalysts based on Cu-Fe bimetallic anode for use of both H2 and n-C4H10 in SOFC is prepared by wet impregnation method into a porous CeO2-YSZ matrix. The prepared Cu-Fe/CeO2-YSZ anodes are then characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental dispersive X-ray (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Carbonaceous deposits formed on Cu-Fe/CeO2-YSZ anodes after exposure to n-C4H10 are studied using a combination of i-V characteristics and TGA measurements. It is observed that the addition of Fe to Cu in CeO2-YSZ cermet anode enhance the performance in H2 and n-C4H10 fuels. The performance of cell having molar ratio of Cu-Fe of 1:1 in Cu-Fe/CeO2-YSZ anode shows power density of 240 mW cm-2 and 260 mW cm-2 in n-C4H10 and in H2 after n-C4H10 flow at 800 °C. The i-V curve shows that the conductivity of the anode improves after exposure to n-C4H10. No apparent degradation in performance is observed after n-C4H10 flow except for carbon fibre formation indicating Cu-Fe bimetallic is worth considering as an anode for direct butane SOFC.

  5. Crystal structure and nanotopographical features on the surface of heat-treated and anodized porous titanium biomaterials produced using selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin Yavari, S.; Wauthle, R.; Böttger, A. J.; Schrooten, J.; Weinans, H.; Zadpoor, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Porous titanium biomaterials manufactured using additive manufacturing techniques such as selective laser melting are considered promising materials for orthopedic applications where the biomaterial needs to mimic the properties of bone. Despite their appropriate mechanical properties and the ample pore space they provide for bone ingrowth and osseointegration, porous titanium structures have an intrinsically bioinert surface and need to be subjected to surface bio-functionalizing procedures to enhance their in vivo performance. In this study, we used a specific anodizing process to build a hierarchical oxide layer on the surface of porous titanium structures made by selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V ELI powder. The hierarchical structure included both nanotopographical features (nanotubes) and micro-features (micropits). After anodizing, the biomaterial was heat treated in Argon at different temperatures ranging between 400 and 600 °C for either 1 or 2 h to improve its bioactivity. The effects of applied heat treatment on the crystal structure of TiO2 nanotubes and the nanotopographical features of the surface were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was shown that the transition from the initial crystal structure, i.e. anatase, to rutile occurs between 500 and 600 °C and that after 2 h of heat treatment at 600 °C the crystal structure is predominantly rutile. The nanotopographical features of the surface were found to be largely unchanged for heat treatments carried out at 500 °C or below, whereas they were partially or largely disrupted after heat treatment at 600 °C. The possible implications of these findings for the bioactivity of porous titanium structures are discussed.

  6. Preparation of Aluminum Nanomesh Thin Films from an Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template as Transparent Conductive Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiwen; Chen, Yulong; Qiu, Mingxia; Yu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xinhai; Sun, Xiao Wei; Chen, Rui

    2016-02-01

    We have employed anodic aluminum oxide as a template to prepare ultrathin, transparent, and conducting Al films with a unique nanomesh structure for transparent conductive electrodes. The anodic aluminum oxide template is obtained through direct anodization of a sputtered Al layer on a glass substrate, and subsequent wet etching creates the nanomesh metallic film. The optical and conductive properties are greatly influenced by experimental conditions. By tuning the anodizing time, transparent electrodes with appropriate optical transmittance and sheet resistance have been obtained. The results demonstrate that our proposed strategy can serve as a potential method to fabricate low-cost TCEs to replace conventional indium tin oxide materials.

  7. Preparation of Aluminum Nanomesh Thin Films from an Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template as Transparent Conductive Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiwen; Chen, Yulong; Qiu, Mingxia; Yu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xinhai; Sun, Xiao Wei; Chen, Rui

    2016-01-01

    We have employed anodic aluminum oxide as a template to prepare ultrathin, transparent, and conducting Al films with a unique nanomesh structure for transparent conductive electrodes. The anodic aluminum oxide template is obtained through direct anodization of a sputtered Al layer on a glass substrate, and subsequent wet etching creates the nanomesh metallic film. The optical and conductive properties are greatly influenced by experimental conditions. By tuning the anodizing time, transparent electrodes with appropriate optical transmittance and sheet resistance have been obtained. The results demonstrate that our proposed strategy can serve as a potential method to fabricate low-cost TCEs to replace conventional indium tin oxide materials. PMID:26831759

  8. Preparation of Aluminum Nanomesh Thin Films from an Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template as Transparent Conductive Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yiwen; Chen, Yulong; Qiu, Mingxia; Yu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xinhai; Sun, Xiao Wei; Chen, Rui

    2016-01-01

    We have employed anodic aluminum oxide as a template to prepare ultrathin, transparent, and conducting Al films with a unique nanomesh structure for transparent conductive electrodes. The anodic aluminum oxide template is obtained through direct anodization of a sputtered Al layer on a glass substrate, and subsequent wet etching creates the nanomesh metallic film. The optical and conductive properties are greatly influenced by experimental conditions. By tuning the anodizing time, transparent electrodes with appropriate optical transmittance and sheet resistance have been obtained. The results demonstrate that our proposed strategy can serve as a potential method to fabricate low-cost TCEs to replace conventional indium tin oxide materials. PMID:26831759

  9. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant with an anode recycle loop turbocharger

    DOEpatents

    Saito, Kazuo; Skiba, Tommy; Patel, Kirtikumar H.

    2015-07-14

    An anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) has a turbocharger turbine (102) secured in fluid communication with a compressed oxidant stream within an oxidant inlet line (218) downstream from a compressed oxidant supply (104), and the anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) also includes a turbocharger compressor (106) mechanically linked to the turbocharger turbine (102) and secured in fluid communication with a flow of anode exhaust passing through an anode exhaust recycle loop (238) of the solid oxide fuel cell power plant (200). All or a portion of compressed oxidant within an oxidant inlet line (218) drives the turbocharger turbine (102) to thereby compress the anode exhaust stream in the recycle loop (238). A high-temperature, automotive-type turbocharger (100) replaces a recycle loop blower-compressor (52).

  10. OXIDATION OF DRY HYDROCARBONS AT HIGH-POWER DENSITY ANODES

    SciTech Connect

    K.Krist; O. Spaldon-Stewart; R. Remick

    2004-03-01

    This work builds upon discoveries by the University of Pennsylvania and others pertaining to the oxidation of dry hydrocarbon fuels in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells. The work reported here was restricted primarily to dry methane and confirms that YSZ-based cells, having ceria in the anode as a catalyst and copper in the anode as a current collector, can operate on dry methane for extended periods. Thirty-three lab-scale cells of various designs were fabricated and operated under a variety of conditions. The longest-lived cell gave stable performance on dry methane at 800 C for over 305 hours. Only slight carbon deposition was noted at the completion of the test. A corresponding nickel/YSZ-based anode would have lasted for less than an hour under these test conditions (which included open circuit potential measurements) before carbon fouling essentially destroyed the cell. The best performing cell achieved 112 mW/cm{sub 2} on dry methane at 800 C. Several problems were encountered with carbon fouling and declining open circuit voltages in many of the test cells after switching from operation on hydrogen to dry methane. Although not rigorously confirmed by experimentation, the results suggested that air infiltration through less than perfect perimeter seals or pinholes in the electrolytes, or both gave rise to conditions that caused the carbon fouling and OCV decline. Small amounts of air reacting with methane in a partial oxidation reaction could produce carbon monoxide that, in turn, would deposit the carbon. If this mechanism is confirmed, it implies that near perfect hardware is required for extended operation. Some evidence was also found for the formation of electrical shorts, probably from carbon deposits bridging the electrolyte. Work with odorized methane and with methane containing 100-ppm hydrogen sulfide confirmed that copper is stable at 800 C in dry hydrocarbon fuels in the presence of sulfur. In a number of cases, but not exclusively, the

  11. Effect of annealing on photoluminescence and optical properties of porous anodic alumina films formed in sulfuric acid for solar energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghrib, Mondher; Ouertani, Rachid; Gaidi, Monir; Khedher, Najoua; Salem, Mohamed Ben; Ezzaouia, Hatem

    2012-04-01

    Photoluminescence and optical properties of porous oxide films formed by two-step aluminum anodization at a fixed current 200 mA have been investigated. It was found that the crystallographic structure depend strongly on the annealing temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals an amorphisation of the porous oxide films after annealing. This evolution has been confirmed by Raman spectroscopy measurement. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) in the UV-vis and near infra red (IR) spectra shows that refraction index n increases and the extinction coefficient k decreases with annealing temperature. This observation has been confirmed with reflectivity measurements. As a consequence the reflectivity reaches 97% when porous alumina films were annealed at 650 °C. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements show two PL peaks in the emission and excitation spectra. The first emission peak is centered at 460 nm (α-band) and the second (β-band) shifts from 500 to 525 nm, depending on excitation wavelength. For excitation spectra, one spectral peak is located at 271 nm and the second shifts to longer wavelengths with increasing emission wavelength. The results indicate the existence of two PL centers. One is associated with oxygen adsorption at the pore wall and oxygen vacancies inside the alumina. The other is related to the adsorption of water and/or OH groups at the surface of the pore wall and to structure defects and sulfur inclusion inside the films.

  12. An unexpected large capacity of ultrafine manganese oxide as a sodium-ion battery anode.

    PubMed

    Weng, Yu-Ting; Huang, Tzu-Yang; Lim, Chek-Hai; Shao, Pei-Sian; Hy, Sunny; Kuo, Chao-Yen; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Wu, Nae-Lih

    2015-12-21

    MnO2 is shown for the first time to be electrochemically active as a conversion anode for Na-ion batteries (NIBs). Space-confined ultrafine (UF)-MnO2, with an average crystal size of 4 nm, synthesized using a porous silicon dioxide templated hydrothermal process exhibits a high reversible sodiation capacity of 567 mA h g(-1), in contrast to the negligible activity shown by the aggregates of larger (14 nm) MnO2 nanocrystallites. The remarkably enhanced sodiation activity of the UF-MnO2 is attributable to its greatly reduced crystal size, which facilitates diffusion of Na ions, along with high surface energy arising from extensive heterogeneous interfacial bonding with the SiO2 surrounding. The UF-MnO2 anode exhibits an exceptional rate and cycle performance, exhibiting >70% capacity retention after 500 cycles. In operando synchrotron X-ray absorption near-edge structural analysis reveals combined charge-storage mechanisms involving conversion reaction between Mn(III) and Mn(II) oxides, Mn(III)-O1.5 + Na(+) + e(-)- ↔ 1/2Na2O + Mn(II)-O, and non-Mn-centered redox reactions. The finding suggests a new strategy for "activating" the potential electrochemical electrode materials that appear inactive in the bulk form. PMID:26567463

  13. Porous Ni0.14Mn0.86O1.43 hollow microspheres as high-performing anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhong; Yuan, Xianxia; Li, Lin; Ma, Zi-Feng; Zhang, Lei; Mai, Liqiang; Zhang, Jiujun

    2015-09-01

    A uniformly dispersed bi-component nanocompotise of transition metal oxide (Mn2O3)/mixed transition metal oxide (NiMn2O4) with a porous and hollow microspheric sructure has been successfully prepared with a facile method based on the complexation between Ni2+ and NH3. The obtained nanocomposite of 0.29 Mn2O3/0.14 NiMn2O4, expressed as Ni0.14Mn0.86O1.43, with nanometer-sized building blocks exhibits a high reversible capacity of 615 mA h g-1, which is about 90% of theoretical value at the current density of 800 mA h g-1, and long lifespan with retained capacities of 553 and 408 mA h g-1 after 150 cycles at 200 and 800 mA g-1, respectively, as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Anodic luminescence, structural, photoluminescent, and photocatalytic properties of anodic oxide films grown on niobium in phosphoric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojadinović, Stevan; Tadić, Nenad; Radić, Nenad; Stefanov, Plamen; Grbić, Boško; Vasilić, Rastko

    2015-11-01

    This article reports on properties of oxide films obtained by anodization of niobium in phosphoric acid before and after the dielectric breakdown. Weak anodic luminescence of barrier oxide films formed during the anodization of niobium is correlated to the existence of morphological defects in the oxide layer. Small sized sparks generated by dielectric breakdown of formed oxide film cause rapid increase of luminescence intensity. The luminescence spectrum of obtained films on niobium under spark discharging is composed of continuum radiation and spectral lines caused by electronic spark discharging transitions in oxygen and hydrogen atoms. Oxide films formed before the breakdown are amorphous, while after the breakdown oxide films are partly crystalline and mainly composed of Nb2O5 hexagonal phase. The photocatalytic activity of obtained oxide films after the breakdown was investigated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange. Increase of the photocatalytic activity with time is related to an increase of oxygen vacancy defects in oxide films formed during the process. Also, higher concentration of oxygen vacancy defects in oxide films results in higher photoluminescence intensity.

  15. [Preparation of anodic oxidation layer on the surface of pure titanium and its biological activity study].

    PubMed

    Gao, Shuchun; Zhai, Yuchun; Hu, Jinling

    2010-09-01

    This paper introduces how TiO2 film was prepared on pure titanium by anodic oxidation. Surface morphology and composition of the oxide film were analyzed by SEM coupled with EDAX. The deposition ability of hydroxyapatite of the anodized titanium in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 degrees C was evaluated. The results indicated that the oxide film was rough and honeycomb holes, connecting with each other, could be found on the surface. The holes with the diameter of 1-2 microm were distributed uniformly, which was typical for anodic oxidation. After alkaline treatment, hydroxyapatite deposition on the oxidized specimens in SBF was improved significantly. PMID:21179705

  16. Influence of sodium borate concentration on properties of anodic coatings obtained by micro arc oxidation on magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. F.; Zhang, S. F.; Shen, Y. L.; Zhang, L. H.; Liu, T. Z.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Guo, S. B.

    2012-06-01

    The influence of sodium borate concentration on the formation and properties of anodic coatings obtained by micro arc oxidation (MAO) on magnesium alloys was systematically studied in an alkaline solution with addition of 0-40 g/L sodium borate. It is shown that sodium borate can decrease the solution conductivity, take part in the coating formation and increase the coating thickness. With the increase of sodium borate concentration, the boron content in the coatings increases in the range of 10-20 g/L but decreases within the range of 20-40 g/L. Sodium borate cannot further improve the corrosion resistance attributed to the development of porous or rough anodic coatings.

  17. Functionalizing Aluminum Oxide by Ag Dendrite Deposition at the Anode during Simultaneous Electrochemical Oxidation of Al.

    PubMed

    Rafailović, Lidija D; Gammer, Christoph; Rentenberger, Christian; Trišović, Tomislav; Kleber, Christoph; Karnthaler, Hans Peter

    2015-11-01

    A novel synthesis strategy is presented for depositing metallic Ag at the anode during simultaneous electrochemical oxidation of Al. This unexpected result is achieved based on galvanic coupling. Metallic dendritic nanostructures well-anchored in a high surface area supporting matrix are envisioned to open up a new avenue of applications. PMID:26398487

  18. Fabrication of silica moth-eye structures by photo-nanoimprinting using ordered anodic porous alumina molds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagishita, Takashi; Endo, Takahide; Nishio, Kazuyuki; Masuda, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Moth-eye structures composed of an ordered array of tapered SiO2 pillars were fabricated by photo-nanoimprinting using anodic porous alumina as a mold. The formation of SiO2 moth-eye structures was carried out using a photosensitive polysilane solution as a precursor of silica. The SiO2 moth-eye structures formed on the surface of a glass plate effectively suppressed the reflection of incident light.

  19. Nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanosheets as low-cost, high-performance anode material for sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng-guo; Wu, Zhong; Meng, Fan-lu; Ma, De-long; Huang, Xiao-lei; Wang, Li-min; Zhang, Xin-bo

    2013-01-01

    Between the sheets: Sodium-ion batteries are an attractive, low-cost alternative to lithium-ion batteries. Nitrogen-doped porous carbon sheets are prepared by chemical activation of polypyrrole-functionalized graphene sheets. When using the sheets as anode material in sodium-ion batteries, their unique compositional and structural features result in high reversible capacity, good cycling stability, and high rate capability. PMID:23225752

  20. Scalable synthesis of interconnected porous silicon/carbon composites by the Rochow reaction as high-performance anodes of lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zailei; Wang, Yanhong; Ren, Wenfeng; Tan, Qiangqiang; Chen, Yunfa; Li, Hong; Zhong, Ziyi; Su, Fabing

    2014-05-12

    Despite the promising application of porous Si-based anodes in future Li ion batteries, the large-scale synthesis of these materials is still a great challenge. A scalable synthesis of porous Si materials is presented by the Rochow reaction, which is commonly used to produce organosilane monomers for synthesizing organosilane products in chemical industry. Commercial Si microparticles reacted with gas CH3 Cl over various Cu-based catalyst particles to substantially create macropores within the unreacted Si accompanying with carbon deposition to generate porous Si/C composites. Taking advantage of the interconnected porous structure and conductive carbon-coated layer after simple post treatment, these composites as anodes exhibit high reversible capacity and long cycle life. It is expected that by integrating the organosilane synthesis process and controlling reaction conditions, the manufacture of porous Si-based anodes on an industrial scale is highly possible. PMID:24700513

  1. Removal of organic contaminants from secondary effluent by anodic oxidation with a boron-doped diamond anode as tertiary treatment.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Keller, Jürg; Brillas, Enric; Radjenovic, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) have been widely investigated as promising technologies to remove trace organic contaminants from water, but have rarely been used for the treatment of real waste streams. Anodic oxidation with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode was applied for the treatment of secondary effluent from a municipal sewage treatment plant containing 29 target pharmaceuticals and pesticides. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed from the contaminants decay, dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand removal. The effect of applied current and pH was evaluated. Almost complete mineralization of effluent organic matter and trace contaminants can be obtained by this EAOP primarily due to the action of hydroxyl radicals formed at the BDD surface. The oxidation of Cl(-) ions present in the wastewater at the BDD anode gave rise to active chlorine species (Cl2/HClO/ClO(-)), which are competitive oxidizing agents yielding chloramines and organohalogen byproducts, quantified as adsorbable organic halogen. However, further anodic oxidation of HClO/ClO(-) species led to the production of ClO3(-) and ClO4(-) ions. The formation of these species hampers the application as a single-stage tertiary treatment, but posterior cathodic reduction of chlorate and perchlorate species may reduce the risks associated to their presence in the environment. PMID:25464295

  2. Carbon-Confined SnO2-Electrodeposited Porous Carbon Nanofiber Composite as High-Capacity Sodium-Ion Battery Anode Material.

    PubMed

    Dirican, Mahmut; Lu, Yao; Ge, Yeqian; Yildiz, Ozkan; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2015-08-26

    Sodium resources are inexpensive and abundant, and hence, sodium-ion batteries are promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries. However, lower energy density and poor cycling stability of current sodium-ion batteries prevent their practical implementation for future smart power grid and stationary storage applications. Tin oxides (SnO2) can be potentially used as a high-capacity anode material for future sodium-ion batteries, and they have the advantages of high sodium storage capacity, high abundance, and low toxicity. However, SnO2-based anodes still cannot be used in practical sodium-ion batteries because they experience large volume changes during repetitive charge and discharge cycles. Such large volume changes lead to severe pulverization of the active material and loss of electrical contact between the SnO2 and carbon conductor, which in turn result in rapid capacity loss during cycling. Here, we introduce a new amorphous carbon-coated SnO2-electrodeposited porous carbon nanofiber (PCNF@SnO2@C) composite that not only has high sodium storage capability, but also maintains its structural integrity while ongoing repetitive cycles. Electrochemical results revealed that this SnO2-containing nanofiber composite anode had excellent electrochemical performance including high-capacity (374 mAh g(-1)), good capacity retention (82.7%), and large Coulombic efficiency (98.9% after 100th cycle). PMID:26252051

  3. Oxide-dispersion strengthening of porous powder metalurgy parts

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, Roddie R.

    2002-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthening of porous metal articles includes the incorporation of dispersoids of metallic oxides in elemental metal powder particles. Porous metal articles, such as filters, are fabricated using conventional techniques (extrusion, casting, isostatic pressing, etc.) of forming followed by sintering and heat treatments that induce recrystallization and grain growth within powder grains and across the sintered grain contact points. The result is so-called "oxide dispersion strengthening" which imparts, especially, large increases in creep (deformation under constant load) strength to the metal articles.

  4. Studies of porous anodic alumina using spin echo scattering angle measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stonaha, Paul

    The properties of a neutron make it a useful tool for use in scattering experiments. We have developed a method, dubbed SESAME, in which specially designed magnetic fields encode the scattering signal of a neutron beam into the beam's average Larmor phase. A geometry is presented that delivers the correct Larmor phase (to first order), and it is shown that reasonable variations of the geometry do not significantly affect the net Larmor phase. The solenoids are designed using an analytic approximation. Comparison of this approximate function with finite element calculations and Hall probe measurements confirm its validity, allowing for fast computation of the magnetic fields. The coils were built and tested in-house on the NBL-4 instrument, a polarized neutron reflectometer whose construction is another major portion of this work. Neutron scattering experiments using the solenoids are presented, and the scattering signal from porous anodic alumina is investigated in detail. A model using the Born Approximation is developed and compared against the scattering measurements. Using the model, we define the necessary degree of alignment of such samples in a SESAME measurement, and we show how the signal retrieved using SESAME is sensitive to range of detectable momentum transfer.

  5. Study of fluid and transport properties of porous anodic aluminum membranes by dynamic atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chu; Leese, Hannah S; Mattia, Davide; Dagastine, Raymond R; Chan, Derek Y C; Tabor, Rico F

    2013-07-16

    Recent work on carbon nanotubes (CNT) has focused on their potential application in water treatment as a result of their predicted and observed enhanced flow rates. Recent work on the lesser-known porous anodic alumina membranes (PAAMs) has also shown flow enhancement, albeit at only a fraction of what has been observed in CNTs. Despite their potential applications, little research has been conducted on PAAMs' hydrodynamic properties, and in this Article we present experimental results and theoretical models that explore the fluid flow behavior around and through these membranes. The experiments were conducted using an atomic force microscope (AFM) that pushed a solid silica particle against PAAMs that were characterized with different pore diameters. Furthermore, the PAAMs were classified as either closed or open, with the latter allowing fluid to pass through. The theoretical model developed to describe the experimental data incorporates Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) effects, cantilever drag, and hydrodynamic forces. By using the slip boundary condition for the hydrodynamic forces, we were able to fit the model to experimental findings and also demonstrate that the difference between closed and open PAAMs was negligible. The slip lengths did not correspond to any physical feature of the PAAMs, but our model does provide a simple yet effective means of describing the hydrodynamics for not only PAAMs but for membranes in general. PMID:23750974

  6. Optical properties of ordered carbon nanotube arrays grown in porous anodic alumina templates.

    PubMed

    Zuidema, John; Ruan, Xiulin; Fisher, Timothy S

    2013-09-23

    We have synthesized ordered carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays in porous anodic alumina (PAA) matrix, and have characterized their total optical reflectance and bi-directional reflectance distribution function after each processing step of the microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition process (MPCVD). For a PAA sample without CNT growth, the reflectance shows an oscillating pattern with wavelength that agrees reasonably with a multilayer model. During the MPCVD process, heating the sample significantly reduces the reflectance by 30-40%, the plasma treatment reduces the reflectance by another 5-10%, and the CNT growth further reduces the reflectance by 2-3%. After an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process, the reflectance increases to the embedded CNT arrays. After etching and exposure of CNT tips, the reflectance almost returns to the original pattern with slightly higher reflectance. Bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements show that the CNT-PAA surface is quite specular as indicated by a large lobe at the specular angle, while the secondary lobe can be attributed to surface roughness. PMID:24104097

  7. Additional Electrochemical Treatment Effects on the Switching Characteristics of Anodic Porous Alumina Resistive Switching Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Shintaro; Takeda, Ryouta; Furuya, Saeko; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Shingubara, Shouso; Iwata, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Tadataka; Takano, Yoshiki; Takase, Kouichi

    2012-06-01

    We have investigated the current-voltage characteristics of a resistive switching memory (ReRAM), especially the reproducibility of the switching voltage between an insulating state and a metallic state. The poor reproducibility hinders the practical use of this memory. According to a filament model, the variation of the switching voltage may be understood in terms of the random choice of filaments with different conductivities and lengths at each switching. A limitation of the number of conductive paths is expected to lead to the suppression of the variation of switching voltage. In this study, two strategies for the limitation have been proposed using an anodic porous alumina (APA). The first is the reduction of the number of conductive paths by restriction of the contact area between the top electrodes and the insulator. The second is the lowering of the resistivity of the insulator, which makes it possible to grow filaments with the same characteristics by electrochemical treatments using a pulse-electroplating technique.

  8. Thermally Engineered Blue Photoluminescence of Porous Anodic Alumina Membranes for Promising Optical Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Sang Don; Cho, Sam Yeon; Choi, Yong Chan; Kim, Jin Woo; Han, Jin Kyu; Kwak, Jin Ho; Yang, Sun A.

    Optical biosensors based on porous anodic alumina membranes (PAAMs) have shown to be an effective device because of their unique optical properties and biocompatibility. Among various optical properties, photoluminescence (PL) emission derived from PAAMs is one of the most suitable characteristics. However, the origin of PL from PAA is unclear and still in doubt. Therefore, it is essential for further potential practical applications to understand the origin of PL and PL variations. Here, we investigate the effects of post-annealing temperatures on the blue PL of amorphous PAAMs fabricated in oxalic acid. We find that the blue PL emission is strongly dependent on the thermal properties. A strong blue PL at a peak of ~460 nm is observed from the initial PAAM (not annealed PAAM) and this PL band can be divided into two Gaussian components at 458 ~ +/- ~ 4 nm (P1 band) and 517 ~ +/- 7nm (P2 band). As the temperature increases to 600 ° C , the intensities of two PL bands gradually increase. During temperature increases from 600 to 700 ° C , the P2 band increases but the P1 band decreases. The analyses of electron paramagnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy show that the P1 and P2 bands originate from the unstable carboxylates and the stable carboxylates, respectively.

  9. Ceria-Based Anodes for Next Generation Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirfakhraei, Behzad

    Mixed ionic and electronic conducting materials (MIECs) have been suggested to represent the next generation of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes, primarily due to their significantly enhanced active surface area and their tolerance to fuel components. In this thesis, the main focus has been on determining and tuning the physicochemical and electrochemical properties of ceria-based MIECs in the versatile perovskite or fluorite crystal structures. In one direction, BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.1 M0.1O3-delta (M = Fe, Ni, Co and Yb) (BZCY-M) perovskites were synthesized using solid-state or wet citric acid combustion methods and the effect of various transition metal dopants on the sintering behavior, crystal structure, chemical stability under CO2 and H 2S, and electrical conductivity, was investigated. BZCY-Ni, synthesized using the wet combustion method, was the best performing anode, giving a polarization resistance (RP) of 0.4 O.cm2 at 800 °C. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that this was due to the exsolution of catalytic Ni nanoparticles onto the oxide surface. Evolving from this promising result, the effect of Mo-doped CeO 2 (nCMO) or Ni nanoparticle infiltration into a porous Gd-doped CeO 2 (GDC) anode (in the fluorite structure) was studied. While 3 wt. % Ni infiltration lowered RP by up to 90 %, giving 0.09 O.cm2 at 800 °C and exhibiting a ca. 5 times higher tolerance towards 10 ppm H2, nCMO infiltration enhanced the H2 stability by ca. 3 times, but had no influence on RP. In parallel work, a first-time study of the Ce3+ and Ce 4+ redox process (pseudocapacitance) within GDC anode materials was carried out using cyclic voltammetry (CV) in wet H2 at high temperatures. It was concluded that, at 500-600 °C, the Ce3+/Ce 4+ reaction is diffusion controlled, probably due to O2- transport limitations in the outer 5-10 layers of the GDC particles, giving a very high capacitance of ca. 70 F/g. Increasing the temperature ultimately

  10. Porous carbon nanotubes decorated with nanosized cobalt ferrite as anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lingyan; Zhuo, Linhai; Cheng, Haiyang; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Fengyu

    2015-06-01

    Generally, the fast ion/electron transport and structural stability dominate the superiority in lithium-storage applications. In this work, porous carbon nanotubes decorated with nanosized CoFe2O4 particles (p-CNTs@CFO) have been rationally designed and synthesized by the assistance of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). When tested as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the p-CNTs@CFO composite exhibits outstanding electrochemical behavior with high lithium-storage capacity (1077 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles) and rate capability (694 mAh g-1 at 3 A g-1). These outstanding electrochemical performances are attributed to the synergistic effect of porous p-CNTs and nanosized CFO. Compared to pristine CNTs, the p-CNTs with substantial pores in the tubes possess largely increased specific surface area and rich oxygen-containing functional groups. The porous structure can not only accommodate the volume change during lithiation/delithiation processes, but also provide bicontinuous electron/ion pathways and large electrode/electrolyte interface, which facilitate the ion diffusion kinetics, improving the rate performance. Moreover, the CFO particles are bonded strongly to the p-CNTs through metal-oxygen bridges, which facilitate the electron fast capture from p-CNTs to CFO, and thus resulting in a high reversible capacity and excellent rate performance. Overall, the porous p-CNTs provide an efficient way for ion diffusion and continuous electron transport as anode materials.