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Sample records for porous carbon nanofibers

  1. Facile synthesis of carbon nanofibers-bridged porous carbon nanosheets for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yuting; Yan, Jun; Wu, Xiaoliang; Shan, Dandan; Zhou, Qihang; Jiang, Lili; Yang, Deren; Fan, Zhuangjun

    2016-03-01

    A facile and one-step method is demonstrated to prepare carbon nanofibers (CNFs)-bridged porous carbon nanosheets (PCNs) through carbonization of the mixture of bacterial cellulose and potassium citrate. The CNFs bridge PCNs to form integrated porous carbon architecture with high specific surface area of 1037 m2 g-1, much higher than those of pure PCNs (381 m2 g-1) and CNFs (510 m2 g-1). As a consequence, the PCN/CNF composite displays high specific capacitance of 261 F g-1, excellent rate capability and outstanding cycling stability (97.6% of capacitance retention after 10000 cycles). Moreover, the assembled symmetric supercapacitor with PCN/CNF electrodes delivers an ultrahigh energy density of 20.4 Wh kg-1 and outstanding cycling life (94.8% capacitance retention after 10000 cycles) in an aqueous electrolyte.

  2. Synthesis and photocatalytic property of porous metal oxides nanowires based on carbon nanofiber template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Weiqiang; Li, Meng; Xu, Jinfu; Bai, Hongye; Zhang, Rongxian; Chen, Chao

    2015-11-01

    A series of porous metal oxides nanowires (Fe2O3, Co3O4, NiO and CuO) have been successfully synthesized, where commercial carbon nanofibers were used as the template. The obtained samples were systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance (UV-Vis DR) spectra and transmission electron microscope (TEM). According to the photodegradation data, the porous metal oxides nanowires exhibit significantly photocatalytic activity for degrading tetracycline (TC). Furthermore, the porous Fe2O3 nanowires show the best photocatalytic performance among all the samples.

  3. Polyaniline-coated freestanding porous carbon nanofibers as efficient hybrid electrodes for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Chau; Singhal, Richa; Lawrence, Daniel; Kalra, Vibha

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional, free-standing, hybrid supercapacitor electrodes combining polyaniline (PANI) and porous carbon nanofibers (P-CNFs) were fabricated with the aim to integrate the benefits of both electric double layer capacitors (high power, cyclability) and pseudocapacitors (high energy density). A systematic investigation of three different electropolymerization techniques, namely, potentiodynamic, potentiostatic, and galvanostatic, for electrodeposition of PANI on freestanding carbon nanofiber mats was conducted. It was found that the galvanostatic method, where the current density is kept constant and can be easily controlled facilitates conformal and uniform coating of PANI on three-dimensional carbon nanofiber substrates. The electrochemical tests indicated that the PANI-coated P-CNFs exhibit excellent specific capacitance of 366 F g-1 (vs. 140 F g-1 for uncoated porous carbon nanofibers), 140 F cm-3 volumetric capacitance, and up to 2.3 F cm-2 areal capacitance at 100 mV s-1 scan rate. Such excellent performance is attributed to a thin and conformal coating of PANI achieved using the galvanostatic electrodeposition technique, which not only provides pseudocapacitance with high rate capability, but also retains the double-layer capacitance of the underlying P-CNFs.

  4. Carbon-Encapsulated Hollow Porous Vanadium-Oxide Nanofibers for Improved Lithium Storage Properties.

    PubMed

    An, Geon-Hyoung; Lee, Do-Young; Ahn, Hyo-Jin

    2016-08-01

    Carbon-encapsulated hollow porous vanadium-oxide (C/HPV2O5) nanofibers have been fabricated using electrospinning and postcalcination. By optimized postcalcination of vanadium-nitride and carbon-nanofiber composites at 400 °C for 30 min, we synthesized a unique architecture electrode with interior void spaces and well-defined pores as well as a uniform carbon layer on the V2O5 nanofiber surface. The optimized C/HPV2O5 electrode postcalcined at 400 °C for 30 min showed improved lithium storage properties with high specific discharge capacities, excellent cycling durability (241 mA h g(-1) at 100 cycles), and improved high-rate performance (155 mA h g(-1) at 1000 mA g(-1)), which is the highest performance in comparison with previously reported V2O5-based cathode materials. The improved electrochemical feature is due to the attractive properties of the carbon-encapsulated hollow porous structure: (I) excellent cycling durability with high specific capacity relative to the adoption of carbon encapsulation as a physical buffer layer and the effective accommodation of volume changes due to the hollow porous structure, (II) improved high-rate performance because of a shorter Li-ion diffusion pathway resulting from interior void spaces and well-defined pores at the surface. This unique electrode structure can potentially provide new cathode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. PMID:27404906

  5. Porous Carbon Nanofibers from Electrospun Biomass Tar/Polyacrylonitrile/Silver Hybrids as Antimicrobial Materials.

    PubMed

    Song, Kunlin; Wu, Qinglin; Zhang, Zhen; Ren, Suxia; Lei, Tingzhou; Negulescu, Ioan I; Zhang, Quanguo

    2015-07-15

    A novel route to fabricate low-cost porous carbon nanofibers (CNFs) using biomass tar, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and silver nanoparticles has been demonstrated through electrospinning and subsequent stabilization and carbonization processes. The continuous electrospun nanofibers had average diameters ranging from 392 to 903 nm. The addition of biomass tar resulted in increased fiber diameters, reduced thermal stabilities, and slowed cyclization reactions of PAN in the as-spun nanofibers. After stabilization and carbonization, the resultant CNFs showed more uniformly sized and reduced average diameters (226-507 nm) compared to as-spun nanofibers. The CNFs exhibited high specific surface area (>400 m(2)/g) and microporosity, attributed to the combined effects of phase separations of the tar and PAN and thermal decompositions of tar components. These pore characteristics increased the exposures and contacts of silver nanoparticles to the bacteria including Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli, leading to excellent antimicrobial performances of as-spun nanofibers and CNFs. A new strategy is thus provided for utilizing biomass tar as a low-cost precursor to prepare functional CNFs and reduce environmental pollutions associated with direct disposal of tar as an industrial waste. PMID:26110209

  6. Porous block nanofiber composite filters

    DOEpatents

    Ginley, David S.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Weiss, Alan J.; Paddock, Arnold

    2016-08-09

    Porous block nano-fiber composite (110), a filtration system (10) and methods of using the same are disclosed. An exemplary porous block nano-fiber composite (110) includes a porous block (100) having one or more pores (200). The porous block nano-fiber composite (110) also includes a plurality of inorganic nano-fibers (211) formed within at least one of the pores (200).

  7. Electrospun carbon nanofibers reinforced 3D porous carbon polyhedra network derived from metal-organic frameworks for capacitive deionization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Ma, Jiaqi; Lu, Ting; Pan, Likun

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers reinforced 3D porous carbon polyhedra network (e-CNF-PCP) was prepared through electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment. The morphology, structure and electrochemical performance of the e-CNF-PCP were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and their electrosorption performance in NaCl solution was studied. The results show that the e-CNF-PCP exhibits a high electrosorption capacity of 16.98 mg g−1 at 1.2 V in 500 mg l−1 NaCl solution, which shows great improvement compared with those of electrospun carbon nanofibers and porous carbon polyhedra. The e-CNF-PCP should be a very promising candidate as electrode material for CDI applications. PMID:27608826

  8. Electrospun carbon nanofibers reinforced 3D porous carbon polyhedra network derived from metal-organic frameworks for capacitive deionization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Ma, Jiaqi; Lu, Ting; Pan, Likun

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers reinforced 3D porous carbon polyhedra network (e-CNF-PCP) was prepared through electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment. The morphology, structure and electrochemical performance of the e-CNF-PCP were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and their electrosorption performance in NaCl solution was studied. The results show that the e-CNF-PCP exhibits a high electrosorption capacity of 16.98 mg g(-1) at 1.2 V in 500 mg l(-1) NaCl solution, which shows great improvement compared with those of electrospun carbon nanofibers and porous carbon polyhedra. The e-CNF-PCP should be a very promising candidate as electrode material for CDI applications. PMID:27608826

  9. Controlling SEI Formation on SnSb-Porous Carbon Nanofibers for Improved Na Ion Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Liwen; Gu, Meng; Shao, Yuyan; Li, Xiaolin; Engelhard, Mark H.; Arey, Bruce W.; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2014-05-14

    Porous carbon nanofiber (CNF)-supported tin-antimony (SnSb) alloys is synthesized and applied as sodium ion battery anode. The chemistry and morphology of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film and its correlation with the electrode performance are studied. The addition of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) in electrolyte significantly reduces electrolyte decomposition and creates a very thin and uniform SEI layer on the cycled electrode surface which could promote the kinetics of Na-ion migration/transportation, leading to excellent electrochemical performance.

  10. Hollow porous carbon nitride immobilized on carbonized nanofibers for highly efficient visible light photocatalytic removal of NO.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongxin; Chen, Dongyun; Li, Najun; Xu, Qingfeng; Li, Hua; He, Jinghui; Lu, Jianmei

    2016-06-01

    With the deterioration of air quality, great efforts were devoted to designing various photocatalysts for effective removal of NOx in air. However, the present photocatalysts have a fatal problem of low photocatalytic efficiency. In this work, a hollow porous carbon nitride nanosphere coupled with reduced graphene oxide (HCNS/rGO) was exploited as a visible-light photocatalyst to remove nitrogen monoxide in air at a low concentration (600 ppb level) under irradiation of an energy saving lamp. HCNS/rGO showed a NO removal ratio of 64%, which was superior to that of most other visible-light photocatalysts. The excellent photocatalytic ability of HCNS/rGO originates from the hollow porous morphology of HCNS and the grafted rGO on the surface. HCNS/rGO was immobilized on porous carbonized polymer nanofibers to obtain a photocatalytic membrane without affecting photocatalytic efficiency. Furthermore, the membrane showed excellent photochemical stability and recyclability. PMID:27245319

  11. Hollow porous carbon nitride immobilized on carbonized nanofibers for highly efficient visible light photocatalytic removal of NO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hongxin; Chen, Dongyun; Li, Najun; Xu, Qingfeng; Li, Hua; He, Jinghui; Lu, Jianmei

    2016-06-01

    With the deterioration of air quality, great efforts were devoted to designing various photocatalysts for effective removal of NOx in air. However, the present photocatalysts have a fatal problem of low photocatalytic efficiency. In this work, a hollow porous carbon nitride nanosphere coupled with reduced graphene oxide (HCNS/rGO) was exploited as a visible-light photocatalyst to remove nitrogen monoxide in air at a low concentration (600 ppb level) under irradiation of an energy saving lamp. HCNS/rGO showed a NO removal ratio of 64%, which was superior to that of most other visible-light photocatalysts. The excellent photocatalytic ability of HCNS/rGO originates from the hollow porous morphology of HCNS and the grafted rGO on the surface. HCNS/rGO was immobilized on porous carbonized polymer nanofibers to obtain a photocatalytic membrane without affecting photocatalytic efficiency. Furthermore, the membrane showed excellent photochemical stability and recyclability.With the deterioration of air quality, great efforts were devoted to designing various photocatalysts for effective removal of NOx in air. However, the present photocatalysts have a fatal problem of low photocatalytic efficiency. In this work, a hollow porous carbon nitride nanosphere coupled with reduced graphene oxide (HCNS/rGO) was exploited as a visible-light photocatalyst to remove nitrogen monoxide in air at a low concentration (600 ppb level) under irradiation of an energy saving lamp. HCNS/rGO showed a NO removal ratio of 64%, which was superior to that of most other visible-light photocatalysts. The excellent photocatalytic ability of HCNS/rGO originates from the hollow porous morphology of HCNS and the grafted rGO on the surface. HCNS/rGO was immobilized on porous carbonized polymer nanofibers to obtain a photocatalytic membrane without affecting photocatalytic efficiency. Furthermore, the membrane showed excellent photochemical stability and recyclability. Electronic supplementary information

  12. Tin nanoparticle-loaded porous carbon nanofiber composite anodes for high current lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhen; Hu, Yi; Chen, Yanli; Zhang, Xiangwu; Wang, Kehao; Chen, Renzhong

    2015-03-01

    Metallic Sn is a promising high-capacity anode material for use in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), but its huge volume variation during lithium ion insertion/extraction typically results in poor cycling stability. To address this, we demonstrate the fabrication of Sn nanoparticle-loaded porous carbon nanofiber (Sn-PCNF) composites via the electrospinning of Sn(II) acetate/mineral oil/polyacrylonitrile precursors in N,N-dimethylformamide solvent and their subsequent carbonization at 700 °C under an argon atmosphere. This is shown to result in an even distribution of pores on the surface of the nanofibers, allowing the Sn-PCNF composite to be used directly as an anode in lithium-ion batteries without the need to add non-active materials such as polymer binders or electrical conductors. With a discharge capacity of around 774 mA h g-1 achieved at a high current of 0.8 A g-1 over 200 cycles, this material clearly has a high rate capability and excellent cyclic stability, and thanks to its unique structure and properties, is an excellent candidate for use as an anode material in high-current rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Free-standing porous carbon nanofiber/ultrathin graphite hybrid for flexible solid-state supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Qin, Kaiqiang; Kang, Jianli; Li, Jiajun; Shi, Chunsheng; Li, Yuxiang; Qiao, Zhijun; Zhao, Naiqin

    2015-01-27

    A micrometer-thin solid-state supercapacitor (SC) was assembled using two pieces of porous carbon nanofibers/ultrathin graphite (pCNFs/G) hybrid films, which were one-step synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using copper foil supported Co catalyst. The continuously ultrathin graphite sheet (∼ 25 nm) is mechanically compliant to support the pCNFs even after etching the copper foil and thus can work as both current collector and support directly with nearly ignorable fraction in a SC stack. The pCNFs are seamlessly grown on the graphite sheet with an ohmic contact between the pCNFs and the graphite sheet. Thus, the accumulated electrons/ions can duly transport from the pCNFs to graphite (current collector), which results in a high rate performance. The maximum energy density and power density based on the whole device are up to 2.4 mWh cm(-3) and 23 W cm(-3), which are even orders higher than those of the most reported electric double-layer capacitors and pseudocapacitors. Moreover, the specific capacitance of the device has 96% retention after 5000 cycles and is nearly constant at various curvatures, suggesting its wide application potential in powering wearable/miniaturized electronics. PMID:25567451

  14. Highly Flexible Freestanding Porous Carbon Nanofibers for Electrodes Materials of High-Performance All-Carbon Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Zhou, Jinyuan; Chen, Lulu; Zhang, Peng; Fu, Wenbin; Zhao, Hao; Ma, Yufang; Pan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhenxing; Han, Weihua; Xie, Erqing

    2015-10-28

    Highly flexible porous carbon nanofibers (P-CNFs) were fabricated by electrospining technique combining with metal ion-assistant acid corrosion process. The resultant fibers display high conductivity and outstanding mechanical flexibility, whereas little change in their resistance can be observed under repeatedly bending, even to 180°. Further results indicate that the improved flexibility of P-CNFs can be due to the high graphitization degree caused by Co ions. In view of electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors, this type of porous nanostructure and high graphitization degree could synergistically facilitate the electrolyte ion diffusion and electron transportation. In the three electrodes testing system, the resultant P-CNFs electrodes can exhibit a specific capacitance of 104.5 F g(-1) (0.2 A g(-1)), high rate capability (remain 56.5% at 10 A g(-1)), and capacitance retention of ∼94% after 2000 cycles. Furthermore, the assembled symmetric supercapacitors showed a high flexibility and can deliver an energy density of 3.22 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 600 W kg(-1). This work might open a way to improve the mechanical properties of carbon fibers and suggests that this type of freestanding P-CNFs be used as effective electrode materials for flexible all-carbon supercapacitors. PMID:26449440

  15. Free-standing porous carbon nanofibers-sulfur composite for flexible Li-S battery cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Linchao; Pan, Fusen; Li, Weihan; Jiang, Yu; Zhong, Xiongwu; Yu, Yan

    2014-07-01

    Flexible and free-standing sulphur/(PCNFs-CNT) composite (S@PCNFs-CNT) electrode was successfully prepared by infiltrating sulfur into microporous carbon nanofibers-carbon nanotube (PCNFs-CNT) composite. When used as a cathode material for Li-S batteries, the S@PCNFs-CNT exhibits much better cycle performance and rate performance compared to CNT-free S@PCNFs. It delivers a reversible capacity of 637 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at 50 mA g-1 and a rate capability of 437 mA h g-1 at 1 A g-1. The improved electrochemical performance is attributed to synergistic effect of the 3D interconnected structure, the additive of CNT, and the uniform distribution of micropores (<2 nm) in the PCNFs-CNT matrix. Our results indicate the potential suitability of PCNFs-CNT for efficient, free-standing, and high-performance batteries.

  16. Free-standing porous carbon nanofibers-sulfur composite for flexible Li-S battery cathode.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Linchao; Pan, Fusen; Li, Weihan; Jiang, Yu; Zhong, Xiongwu; Yu, Yan

    2014-08-21

    Flexible and free-standing sulphur/(PCNFs-CNT) composite (S@PCNFs-CNT) electrode was successfully prepared by infiltrating sulfur into microporous carbon nanofibers-carbon nanotube (PCNFs-CNT) composite. When used as a cathode material for Li-S batteries, the S@PCNFs-CNT exhibits much better cycle performance and rate performance compared to CNT-free S@PCNFs. It delivers a reversible capacity of 637 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles at 50 mA g(-1) and a rate capability of 437 mA h g(-1) at 1 A g(-1). The improved electrochemical performance is attributed to synergistic effect of the 3D interconnected structure, the additive of CNT, and the uniform distribution of micropores (<2 nm) in the PCNFs-CNT matrix. Our results indicate the potential suitability of PCNFs-CNT for efficient, free-standing, and high-performance batteries. PMID:25008943

  17. Carbon-Confined SnO2-Electrodeposited Porous Carbon Nanofiber Composite as High-Capacity Sodium-Ion Battery Anode Material.

    PubMed

    Dirican, Mahmut; Lu, Yao; Ge, Yeqian; Yildiz, Ozkan; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2015-08-26

    Sodium resources are inexpensive and abundant, and hence, sodium-ion batteries are promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries. However, lower energy density and poor cycling stability of current sodium-ion batteries prevent their practical implementation for future smart power grid and stationary storage applications. Tin oxides (SnO2) can be potentially used as a high-capacity anode material for future sodium-ion batteries, and they have the advantages of high sodium storage capacity, high abundance, and low toxicity. However, SnO2-based anodes still cannot be used in practical sodium-ion batteries because they experience large volume changes during repetitive charge and discharge cycles. Such large volume changes lead to severe pulverization of the active material and loss of electrical contact between the SnO2 and carbon conductor, which in turn result in rapid capacity loss during cycling. Here, we introduce a new amorphous carbon-coated SnO2-electrodeposited porous carbon nanofiber (PCNF@SnO2@C) composite that not only has high sodium storage capability, but also maintains its structural integrity while ongoing repetitive cycles. Electrochemical results revealed that this SnO2-containing nanofiber composite anode had excellent electrochemical performance including high-capacity (374 mAh g(-1)), good capacity retention (82.7%), and large Coulombic efficiency (98.9% after 100th cycle). PMID:26252051

  18. Porous Core-Shell Fe3C Embedded N-doped Carbon Nanofibers as an Effective Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guangyuan; Lu, Xianyong; Li, Yunan; Zhu, Ying; Dai, Liming; Jiang, Lei

    2016-02-17

    The development of nonprecious-metal-based electrocatalysts with high oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity, low cost, and good durability in both alkaline and acidic media is very important for application of full cells. Herein, we developed a facile and economical strategy to obtain porous core-shell Fe3C embedded nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (Fe3C@NCNF-X, where X denotes pyrolysis temperature) by electrospinning of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and FeCl3 mixture, chemical vapor phase polymerization of pyrrole, and followed by pyrolysis of composite nanofibers at high temperatures. Note that the FeCl3 and polypyrrole acts as precursor for Fe3C core and N-doped carbon shell, respectively. Moreover, PVDF not only plays a role as carbon resources, but also provides porous structures due to hydrogen fluoride exposure originated from thermal decomposition of PVDF. The resultant Fe3C@NCNF-X catalysts, particularly Fe3C@NCNF-900, showed efficient electrocatalytic performance for ORR in both alkaline and acidic solutions, which are attributed to the synergistic effect between Fe3C and N-doped carbon as catalytic active sites, and carbon shell protects Fe3C from leaching out. In addition, the Fe3C@NCNF-X catalyst displayed a better long-term stability, free from methanol crossover and CO-poisoning effects than those of Pt/C, which is of great significance for the design and development of advanced electrocatalysts based on nonprecious metals. PMID:26808226

  19. Synthesis of SnO2 versus Sn crystals within N-doped porous carbon nanofibers via electrospinning towards high-performance lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongkang; Lu, Xuan; Li, Longchao; Li, Beibei; Cao, Daxian; Wu, Qizhen; Li, Zhihui; Yang, Guang; Guo, Baolin; Niu, Chunming

    2016-04-14

    The design of tin-based anode materials (SnO2 or Sn) has become a major concern for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) owing to their different inherent characteristics. Herein, particulate SnO2 or Sn crystals coupled with porous N-doped carbon nanofibers (denoted as SnO2/PCNFs and Sn/PCNFs, respectively) are fabricated via the electrospinning method. The electrochemical behaviors of both SnO2/PCNFs and Sn/PCNFs are systematically investigated as anodes for LIBs. When coupled with porous carbon nanofibers, both SnO2 nanoparticles and Sn micro/nanoparticles display superior cycling and rate performances. SnO2/PCNFs and Sn/PCNFs deliver discharge capacities of 998 and 710 mA h g(-1) after 140 cycles (at 100, 200, 500 and 1000 mA g(-1) each for 10 cycles and then 100 cycles at 100 mA g(-1)), respectively. However, the Sn/PCNF electrodes show better cycling stability at higher current densities, delivering higher discharge capacities of 700 and 550 mA h g(-1) than that of SnO2/PCNFs (685 and 424 mA h g(-1)) after 160 cycles at 200 and 500 mA g(-1), respectively. The different superior electrochemical performance is attributed to the introduction of porous N-doped carbon nanofibers and their self-constructed networks, which, on the one hand, greatly decrease the charge-transfer resistance due to the high conductivity of N-doped carbon fibers; on the other hand, the porous carbon nanofibers with numerous voids and flexible one-dimensional (1D) structures efficiently alleviate the volume changes of SnO2 and Sn during the Li-Sn alloying-dealloying processes. Moreover, the discussion of the electrochemical behaviors of SnO2vs. Sn would provide new insights into the design of tin-based anode materials for practical applications, and the current strategy demonstrates great potential in the rational design of metallic tin-based anode materials. PMID:26984273

  20. Direct growth of carbon nanofibers to generate a 3D porous platform on a metal contact to enable an oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Pan, David; Ombaba, Matthew; Zhou, Zhi-You; Liu, Yang; Chen, Shaowei; Lu, Jennifer

    2012-12-21

    For carbon nanotube-based electronics to achieve their full performance potential, it is imperative to minimize the contact resistance between macroscale metal contacts and the carbon nanotube (CNT) nanoelectrodes. We have developed a three-dimensional electrode platform that consists of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) that are directly grown on a metal contact, such as copper (Cu). Carbon nanofiber morphology can be tailored by adjusting the annealing time of a thin electrochemically deposited nickel catalyst layer on copper. We demonstrate that increasing the annealing time increases the amount of copper infused into the nickel catalyst layer. This reduces the carbon deposition rate, and consequently a more well-defined CNF 3D architecture can be fabricated. This direct growth of CNFs on a Cu substrate yields an excellent electron transfer pathway, with contact resistance between CNFs and Cu being comparable to that of a Cu-Cu interface. Furthermore, the excellent bonding strength between CNFs and Cu can be maintained over prolonged periods of ultrasonication. The porous 3D platform affixed with intertwined CNFs allows facile surface functionalization. Using a simple solution soaking procedure, the CNF surface has been successfully functionalized with iron(II) phthalocyanine (FePc). FePc functionalized CNFs exhibit excellent oxygen reduction capability, equivalent to platinum-carbon electrodes. This result demonstrates the technological promise of this new 3D electrode platform that can be exploited in other applications that include sensing, battery, and supercapacitors. PMID:23171171

  1. Synthesis of SnO2versus Sn crystals within N-doped porous carbon nanofibers via electrospinning towards high-performance lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongkang; Lu, Xuan; Li, Longchao; Li, Beibei; Cao, Daxian; Wu, Qizhen; Li, Zhihui; Yang, Guang; Guo, Baolin; Niu, Chunming

    2016-03-01

    The design of tin-based anode materials (SnO2 or Sn) has become a major concern for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) owing to their different inherent characteristics. Herein, particulate SnO2 or Sn crystals coupled with porous N-doped carbon nanofibers (denoted as SnO2/PCNFs and Sn/PCNFs, respectively) are fabricated via the electrospinning method. The electrochemical behaviors of both SnO2/PCNFs and Sn/PCNFs are systematically investigated as anodes for LIBs. When coupled with porous carbon nanofibers, both SnO2 nanoparticles and Sn micro/nanoparticles display superior cycling and rate performances. SnO2/PCNFs and Sn/PCNFs deliver discharge capacities of 998 and 710 mA h g-1 after 140 cycles (at 100, 200, 500 and 1000 mA g-1 each for 10 cycles and then 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1), respectively. However, the Sn/PCNF electrodes show better cycling stability at higher current densities, delivering higher discharge capacities of 700 and 550 mA h g-1 than that of SnO2/PCNFs (685 and 424 mA h g-1) after 160 cycles at 200 and 500 mA g-1, respectively. The different superior electrochemical performance is attributed to the introduction of porous N-doped carbon nanofibers and their self-constructed networks, which, on the one hand, greatly decrease the charge-transfer resistance due to the high conductivity of N-doped carbon fibers; on the other hand, the porous carbon nanofibers with numerous voids and flexible one-dimensional (1D) structures efficiently alleviate the volume changes of SnO2 and Sn during the Li-Sn alloying-dealloying processes. Moreover, the discussion of the electrochemical behaviors of SnO2vs. Sn would provide new insights into the design of tin-based anode materials for practical applications, and the current strategy demonstrates great potential in the rational design of metallic tin-based anode materials.The design of tin-based anode materials (SnO2 or Sn) has become a major concern for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) owing to their different inherent

  2. In situ fabrication of three-dimensional nitrogen and boron co-doped porous carbon nanofibers for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lijun; Xia, Guanglin; Guo, Zaiping; Sun, Dalin; Li, Xingguo; Yu, Xuebin

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the fabrication of three-dimensional porous carbon nanofibers network with high doping level of nitrogen (N, 5.17 at.%) and boron (B, 6.87 at.%) through a general electrospinning strategy followed by a calcination process. The employed ammonia borane (NH3BH3, denote as AB) not only functions as a porogen reagent to generate porous structures but also as the heteroatoms source to induce N and B co-doping. Such highly unique nanoarchitectures offer remarkably improved Li storage performance including high reversible capacity (∼910 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1) with good cycling and rate performances.

  3. Direct synthesis of novel vanadium oxide embedded porous carbon nanofiber decorated with iron nanoparticles as a low-cost and highly efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Taha, Ahmed Aboueloyoun; Hriez, Amir A; Wu, Yi-nan; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Fengting

    2014-03-01

    Template-free porous carbon nanofibers embedded by vanadium oxide and decorated with iron nanoparticles (Fe@V-CNF) were prepared in a time and cost-saving manner by combining electrospinning and heat treatment processes. Cost-saving ammonium metavanadate was used as a semiconductor precursor of vanadium oxide (VOx) as well as porogen. The generated pores in the carbon nanofiber (CNFs) matrix formed pathways between the embedded VOx and the surface of CNFs and Fe NPs, thus, facilitate photo-generated electron transfer. The characterization results revealed that Fe@V-CNF comprised graphitic fibers with well-dispersed distribution of nanosized Fe NPs (~7 nm) along the surface of CNF. Thereby, it enhanced the visible-light harvesting. The prepared Fe@V-CNF had remarkable light absorption in the visible region. It demonstrated much higher photocatalytic efficiency of photodegradation of organic dyes compared with the pure CNF and vanadium oxide embedded CNF (V-CNF). Notably, Fe@V-CNF achieved 99.9% dye degradation within 15-20 min. And, it could be conveniently recycled due to its one-dimensional nanostructural property. PMID:24407677

  4. One-dimensional porous nanofibers of Co3O4 on the carbon matrix from human hair with superior lithium ion storage performance

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yanli; Gao, Qiuming; Yang, Chunxiao; Yang, Kai; Tian, Weiqian; Zhu, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) hierarchical porous nanofibers of Co3O4 possessing of (220) facets on the carbon matrix from human hair (H2@Co3O4) with 20–30 nm in width and 3–5 μm in length are prepared by a facile solvothermal and calcination approach. The well crystallized small Co3O4 particles with the diameter of about 8–12 nm were closely aggregated together in the nanofibers. Electrochemical analyses show that the first discharge capacity of H2@Co3O4 electrode is 1368 mAh g−1 at the current density of 0.1 A g−1 based on the total mass of composite. A high reversible capacity of 916 mAh g −1 was obtained over 100 cycles at 0.1 A g−1, presenting a good cycling stability. When cycled at a high current density of 1 and 2 A g−1, the specific capacity of 659 and 573 mAh g−1 could be still achieved, respectively, indicating a superior power capability. PMID:26201874

  5. One-dimensional porous nanofibers of Co3O4 on the carbon matrix from human hair with superior lithium ion storage performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yanli; Gao, Qiuming; Yang, Chunxiao; Yang, Kai; Tian, Weiqian; Zhu, Lihua

    2015-07-01

    One-dimensional (1D) hierarchical porous nanofibers of Co3O4 possessing of (220) facets on the carbon matrix from human hair (H2@Co3O4) with 20-30 nm in width and 3-5 μm in length are prepared by a facile solvothermal and calcination approach. The well crystallized small Co3O4 particles with the diameter of about 8-12 nm were closely aggregated together in the nanofibers. Electrochemical analyses show that the first discharge capacity of H2@Co3O4 electrode is 1368 mAh g-1 at the current density of 0.1 A g-1 based on the total mass of composite. A high reversible capacity of 916 mAh g -1 was obtained over 100 cycles at 0.1 A g-1, presenting a good cycling stability. When cycled at a high current density of 1 and 2 A g-1, the specific capacity of 659 and 573 mAh g-1 could be still achieved, respectively, indicating a superior power capability.

  6. One-dimensional porous nanofibers of Co3O4 on the carbon matrix from human hair with superior lithium ion storage performance.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yanli; Gao, Qiuming; Yang, Chunxiao; Yang, Kai; Tian, Weiqian; Zhu, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) hierarchical porous nanofibers of Co3O4 possessing of (220) facets on the carbon matrix from human hair (H2@Co3O4) with 20-30 nm in width and 3-5 μm in length are prepared by a facile solvothermal and calcination approach. The well crystallized small Co3O4 particles with the diameter of about 8-12 nm were closely aggregated together in the nanofibers. Electrochemical analyses show that the first discharge capacity of H2@Co3O4 electrode is 1368 mAh g(-1) at the current density of 0.1 A g(-1) based on the total mass of composite. A high reversible capacity of 916 mAh g (-1) was obtained over 100 cycles at 0.1 A g(-1), presenting a good cycling stability. When cycled at a high current density of 1 and 2 A g(-1), the specific capacity of 659 and 573 mAh g(-1) could be still achieved, respectively, indicating a superior power capability. PMID:26201874

  7. Electrospinning Directly Synthesized Porous TiO2 Nanofibers Modified by Graphitic Carbon Nitride Sheets for Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation Activity under Solar Light Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Surya Prasad; Awasthi, Ganesh Prasad; Kim, Han Joo; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2016-06-21

    We report a direct approach to the fabrication of a composite made of porous TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) sheets, by means of an angled two-nozzle electrospinning combined with calcination process. Different wt % amounts of g-C3N4 particles in a polymer solution from one nozzle and TiO2 precursors containing the same polymer solution from another nozzle were electrospun and deposited on the collector. Structural characterizations confirm a well-defined morphology of the TiO2/g-C3N4 composite in which the TiO2 NFs are uniformly attached on the g-C3N4 sheet. This proper attachment of TiO2 NFs on the g-C3N4 sheets occurred during calcination. The prepared composites showed the enhanced photocatalytic activity over the photodegradation of rhodamine B and reactive black 5 under natural sunlight. Here, the synergistic effect between the g-C3N4 sheets and the TiO2 NFs having anisotropic properties enhanced the photogenerated electron-hole pair separation and migration, which was confirmed by the measurement of photoluminescence spectra, cyclic voltammograms, and electrochemical impedance spectra. The direct synthesis approach that is established here for such kinds of sheetlike structure and porous NFs composites could provide new insights for the design of high-performance energy conversion catalysts. PMID:27254544

  8. Silicon Whisker and Carbon Nanofiber Composite Anode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Junqing (Inventor); Newman, Aron (Inventor); Lennhoff, John (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A carbon nanofiber can have a surface and include at least one crystalline whisker extending from the surface of the carbon nanofiber. A battery anode composition can be formed from a plurality of carbon nanofibers each including a plurality of crystalline whiskers.

  9. A rapid and sensitive method for hydroxyl radical detection on a microfluidic chip using an N-doped porous carbon nanofiber modified pencil graphite electrode.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Jun; Li, Zhong-Qiu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Chen; Wang, Jiong; Xia, Xing-Hua; Zhou, Guo-Jun

    2014-07-01

    Hydroxyl radicals (˙OH) play an important role in human diseases. Traditional detection methods are time consuming and require expensive instruments. Here, we present a simple and sensitive method for the detection of hydroxyl radicals on a microfluidic chip using an electrochemical technique. Aniline monomer is electrochemically polymerized on the surface of a pencil graphite electrode and carbonized at 800 °C. The resulting N-doped porous carbon nanofiber-modified pencil graphite electrode is embedded into a microfluidic chip directly as a working electrode. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA) is selected as the trapping agent owing to its unique 3,4-DHBA product and high trapping efficiency. A low detection limit of 1.0 × 10(-6) M is achieved on the microfluidic chip. As a demonstration, the microfluidic chip is successfully utilized for the detection of ˙OH in cigarette smoke. The strong π-π stacking and hydrophobic interactions between the nitrogen-doped carbon materials and the pencil graphite make the modified electrode well-suited for the microfluidic chip. PMID:24834984

  10. Foamed mesoporous carbon/silicon composite nanofiber anode for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuxin; Wen, Xiufang; Chen, Juan; Wang, Shengnian

    2015-05-01

    A new porous composite nanofiber manufacturing route, combining electrospinning and foaming processes, was developed. In this process, aluminum acetylacetonate (AACA) was introduced as the foaming agent in nanofibers made of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/silicon (Si) nanoparticles. PAN/Si composite nanofibers were first produced through an electrospinning process and mesopores were then generated by foaming nanofibers via AACA sublimation. After further carbonization, the obtained mesoporous carbon/silicon composite nanofiber mats were tested as the anode material for lithium ion batteries. Within this composite anode, mesopores provide needed buffering space to accommodate the large volume expansion and consequent stress induced inside silicon during lithiation. This effectively mitigates silicon pulverization issue and helps achieve higher reversible capacity and better capacity retention in later battery tests when compared with anodes made of nonporous composites nanofibers and carbon nanofibers alone.

  11. WAXS investigations on Polyethylene -- Carbon Nanofibers Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian; Li, Jianhua; Benitez, Rogelio; Lozano, Karen; Chipara, Mircea; Cristian Chipara, Alin; Dorina Chipara, Magdalena; Sellmyer, David J.

    2008-03-01

    Nanocomposites have been obtained by high-shear mixing of isotactic polyethylene with various amounts of purified nanofiller (vapor grown carbon nanofibers type PR-24AG from Pyrograf Products, Inc) by utilizing a HAAKE Rheomix at 65 rpm and 180 ^oC for 9 min followed by an additional mixing at 90 rpm for 5 min. Composites loaded with various amounts of vapor grown carbon nanofibers have been prepared. Various spectroscopic techniques have been used to assess the interactions between the polymeric matrix and carbon nanofibers. Wide angle X - Ray scattering investigations focused on the effect of carbon nanofibers on the crystalline phases of polypropylene and on the overall crystallinity degree of the polymeric matrix. This research aims at a better understanding of the nature and structure of the polymer -- carbon nanofibers interface.

  12. Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Intelligence Bulletin 65: Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... composed of engineered nanoparticles, such as metal oxides, nanotubes, nanowires, quantum dots, and carbon fullerenes (buckyballs), among ...

  13. Spectroscopic Investigations on Polypropylene -- Carbon Nanofibers Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipara, Mircea; Brian, Jones; Lozano, Karen; Villareal, John R.; Cristian Chipara, Alin; Hernandez, Anna; Dorina Chipara, Magdalena; Sellmyer, David J.

    2008-03-01

    Nanocomposites were obtained by high-shear mixing of isotactic polypropylene (Marlex HLN-120-01; Philips Sumika Polypropylene Company) with various amounts of vapor grown carbon nanofibers (PR-24AG; Pyrograf Products, Inc) by utilizing a HAAKE Rheomix at 65 rpm and 180 ^oC for 9 min followed by an additional mixing at 90 rpm for 5 min. Composites loaded with various amounts of vapor grown carbon nanofibers have been prepared. Wide angle X-Ray scattering investigations focus on the effect of carbon nanofibers on the crystalline phases of polypropylene and on the overall crystallinity degree of the polymeric matrix. Raman spectroscopy analysis concentrates on D and G bands. X-band electron spin resonance investigations aim at a better understanding of the purity of carbon nanofibers and of the ratio between conducting and paramagnetic.

  14. Metal filled porous carbon

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Adam F.; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping; Salguero, Tina T.

    2011-03-22

    A porous carbon scaffold with a surface and pores, the porous carbon scaffold containing a primary metal and a secondary metal, where the primary metal is a metal that does not wet the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold but wets the surface of the secondary metal, and the secondary metal is interspersed between the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold and the primary metal.

  15. Electrospun Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Nanofiber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Mm; Hee Kim, Sung; Choi, Myong Soo; Lee, Jun Young

    2016-03-01

    We fabricated multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) reinforced polyurethane (PU) nanofiber (MWNT-PU) web via electrospinning. In order to optimize the electrospinning conditions, we investigated the effects of various parameters including kind of solvent, viscosity of the spinning solution, and flow rate on the spinnability and properties of nanofiber. N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), tetrahydrofuran (THF) and their mixture with various volume ratio were used as the spinning solvent. Morphology of the nanofiber was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), confirming successful fabrication of MWNT-PU nanofiber web with uniform dispersion of MWNT in longitudinal direction of the fiber. The MWNT-PU nanofiber web exhibited two times higher tensile strength than PU nanofiber web. We also fabricated electrically conducting MWNT-PU nanofiber web by coating poly(3,4-ehtylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) on the surface of MWNT-PU nanofiber web for electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding application. The electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) was quite high as 25 dB in the frequency range from 50 MHz to 10 GHz. PMID:27455732

  16. Facile Synthesis of Porous Silicon Nanofibers by Magnesium Reduction for Application in Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Cho, Daehwan; Kim, Moonkyoung; Hwang, Jeonghyun; Park, Jay Hoon; Joo, Yong Lak; Jeong, Youngjin

    2015-12-01

    We report a facile fabrication of porous silicon nanofibers by a simple three-stage procedure. Polymer/silicon precursor composite nanofibers are first fabricated by electrospinning, a water-based spinning dope, which undergoes subsequent heat treatment and then reduction using magnesium to be converted into porous silicon nanofibers. The porous silicon nanofibers are coated with a graphene by using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for use as an anode material of lithium ion batteries. The porous silicon nanofibers can be mass-produced by a simple and solvent-free method, which uses an environmental-friendly polymer solution. The graphene-coated silicon nanofibers show an improved cycling performance of a capacity retention than the pure silicon nanofibers due to the suppression of the volume change and the increase of electric conductivity by the graphene. PMID:26510445

  17. Facile Synthesis of Porous Silicon Nanofibers by Magnesium Reduction for Application in Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Daehwan; Kim, Moonkyoung; Hwang, Jeonghyun; Park, Jay Hoon; Joo, Yong Lak; Jeong, Youngjin

    2015-10-01

    We report a facile fabrication of porous silicon nanofibers by a simple three-stage procedure. Polymer/silicon precursor composite nanofibers are first fabricated by electrospinning, a water-based spinning dope, which undergoes subsequent heat treatment and then reduction using magnesium to be converted into porous silicon nanofibers. The porous silicon nanofibers are coated with a graphene by using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for use as an anode material of lithium ion batteries. The porous silicon nanofibers can be mass-produced by a simple and solvent-free method, which uses an environmental-friendly polymer solution. The graphene-coated silicon nanofibers show an improved cycling performance of a capacity retention than the pure silicon nanofibers due to the suppression of the volume change and the increase of electric conductivity by the graphene.

  18. Fractal Analysis of Gas Diffusion in Porous Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Boqi; Fan, Jintu; Wang, Zongchi; Cai, Xin; Zhao, Xige

    2015-02-01

    In this study, with the consideration of pore size distribution and tortuosity of capillaries, the analytical model for gas diffusivity of porous nanofibers is derived based on fractal theory. The proposed fractal model for the normalized gas diffusivity (De/D0) is found to be a function of the porosity, the area fractal dimensions of pore and the fractal dimension of tortuous capillaries. It is found that the normalized gas diffusivity decreases with increasing of the tortuosity fractal dimension. However, the normalized gas diffusivity is positively correlated with the porosity. The prediction of the proposed fractal model for porous nanofibers with porosity less than 0.75 is highly consistent with the experimental and analytical results found in the literature. The model predictions are compared with the previously reported experimental data, and are in good agreement between the model predictions and experimental data is found. The validity of the present model is thus verified. Every parameter of the proposed formula of calculating the normalized gas diffusivity has clear physical meaning. The proposed fractal model can reveal the physical mechanisms of gas diffusion in porous nanofibers.

  19. Surface Characterization and Functionalization of Carbon Nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Kate L; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich; McKnight, Timothy E; Retterer, Scott T; Rack, Philip D; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Joy, David Charles; Simpson, Michael L

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers are high-aspect ratio graphitic materials that have been investigated for numerous applications due to their unique physical properties such as high strength, low density, metallic conductivity, tunable morphology, chemical and environmental stability, as well as compatibility with organochemical modification. Surface studies are extremely important for nanomaterials because not only is the surface structurally and chemically quite different from the bulk, but its properties tend to dominate at the nanoscale due to the drastically increased surface-to-volume ratio. This review surveys recent developments in surface analysis techniques used to characterize the surface structure and chemistry of carbon nanofibers and related carbon materials. These techniques include scanning probe microscopy, infrared and electron spectroscopy, electron microscopy, ion spectrometry, temperature programmed desorption and atom probe analysis. In addition, this article evaluates the methods used to modify the surface of carbon nanofibers in order to enhance their functionality to perform across an exceedingly diverse application space.

  20. Large-Scale and Selective Synthesis of Carbon Nanofiber Bundles, Curved Carbon Nanofibers and Helical Carbon Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Qi, X S; Ding, Q; Zhong, W; Deng, C Y; Du, Y W

    2015-03-01

    Through the pyrolysis of acetylene at 250 °C, large quantities of carbon nanofiber bundles (CNFBs), curved carbon nanofibers (CCNFs) and helical carbon nanofibers (HCNFs) can be synthesized selectively by controlling the Fe:Cu molar ratio of Fe-Cu nanoparticles. In this study, the systematic experimental results indicated that the Cu content in the Fe-Cu nanoparticles and pyrolysis temperature had great impact on the yield and structure of the final samples. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopic observation indicated that the catalyst nanoparticles were enwrapped tightly by graphite layers, and the obtained HCNFs show good magnetic property. Compared to the methods reported in the literature, the approach described herein has the advantages of being simple, low-cost, and environment-friendly. It is suitable for the controllable and mass production of CNFBs, CCNFs and HCNFs. PMID:26413672

  1. Purification process for vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Cattien V.; Delziet, Lance; Matthews, Kristopher; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Individual, free-standing, vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes or nanofibers are ideal for sensor and electrode applications. Our plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition techniques for producing free-standing and vertically aligned carbon nanofibers use catalyst particles at the tip of the fiber. Here we present a simple purification process for the removal of iron catalyst particles at the tip of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers derived by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The first step involves thermal oxidation in air, at temperatures of 200-400 degrees C, resulting in the physical swelling of the iron particles from the formation of iron oxide. Subsequently, the complete removal of the iron oxide particles is achieved with diluted acid (12% HCl). The purification process appears to be very efficient at removing all of the iron catalyst particles. Electron microscopy images and Raman spectroscopy data indicate that the purification process does not damage the graphitic structure of the nanotubes.

  2. Highly porous 3D nanofiber scaffold using an electrospinning technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geunhyung; Kim, WanDoo

    2007-04-01

    A successful 3D tissue-engineering scaffold must have a highly porous structure and good mechanical stability. High porosity and optimally designed pore size provide structural space for cell accommodation and migration and enable the exchange of nutrients between the scaffold and environment. Poly(epsilon-carprolactone) fibers were electrospun using an auxiliary electrode and chemical blowing agent (BA), and characterized according to porosity, pore size, and their mechanical properties. We also investigated the effect of the BA on the electrospinning processability. The growth characteristic of human dermal fibroblasts cells cultured in the webs showed the good adhesion with the blown web relative to a normal electrospun mat. The blown nanofiber web had good tensile properties and high porosity compared to a typical electrospun nanofiber scaffold. PMID:16924612

  3. Tunable Graphitic Carbon Nano-Onions Development in Carbon Nanofibers for Multivalent Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Haiqing L.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a novel porous graphitic carbon nanofiber material using a synthesis strategy combining electrospinning and catalytic graphitization. RF hydrogel was used as carbon precursors, transition metal ions were successfully introduced into the carbon matrix by binding to the carboxylate groups of a resorcinol derivative. Transition metal particles were homogeneously distributed throughout the carbon matrix, which are used as in-situ catalysts to produce graphitic fullerene-like nanostructures surrounding the metals. The success design of graphitic carbons with enlarged interlayer spacing will enable the multivalent ion intercalation for the development of multivalent rechargeable batteries.

  4. Carbon nano-chain and carbon nano-fibers based gas diffusion layers for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Arunachala M.; Munukutla, Lakshmi

    Gas diffusion layers (GDL) for proton exchange membrane fuel cell have been developed using a partially ordered graphitized nano-carbon chain (Pureblack ® carbon) and carbon nano-fibers. The GDL samples' characteristics such as, surface morphology, surface energy, bubble-point pressure and pore size distribution were characterized using electron microscope, inverse gas chromatograph, gas permeability and mercury porosimetry, respectively. Fuel cell performance of the GDLs was evaluated using single cell with hydrogen/air at ambient pressure, 70 °C and 100% RH. The GDLs with combination of vapor grown carbon nano-fibers with Pureblack carbon showed significant improvement in mechanical robustness as well as fuel cell performance. The micro-porous layer of the GDLs as seen under scanning electron microscope showed excellent surface morphology showing the reinforcement with nano-fibers and the surface homogeneity without any cracks.

  5. Preparation and characterization of silica nanoparticulate polyacrylonitrile composite and porous nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Liwen; Saquing, Carl; Khan, Saad A.; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2008-02-01

    In this study, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) composite nanofibers containing different amounts of silica nanoparticulates have been obtained via electrospinning. The surface morphology, thermal properties and crystal structure of PAN/silica nanofibers are characterized using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, wide-angle x-ray diffraction (WAXD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicate that the addition of silica nanoparticulates affects the structure and properties of the nanofibers. In addition to PAN/silica composite nanofibers, porous PAN nanofibers have been prepared by selective removal of the silica component from PAN/silica composite nanofibers using hydrofluoric (HF) acid. ATR-FTIR and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments validate the removal of silica nanoparticulates by HF acid, whereas SEM and TEM results reveal that the porous nanofibers obtained from composite fibers with higher silica contents exhibited more nonuniform surface morphology. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of porous PAN nanofibers made from PAN/silica (5 wt%) composite precursors is higher than that of pure nonporous PAN nanofibers.

  6. A synergetic description of the carbon nanofiber growth.

    SciTech Connect

    Merkulov, Igor A; Simpson, Michael L; Klein, Kate L

    2009-01-01

    The self-consistent mathematical model has been developed for the catalytic chemical vapor deposition carbon nanofiber growth. This model includes the balance equation for the carbon transport through the catalyst and the equation for mechanical and chemical balance in the catalyst nanofiber system. It is demonstrated that the most important parameter that governs the catalyst-nanofiber growth system behavior is the difference of the carbon chemical potentials in catalyst and nanofiber. This parameter determines the carbon transport to the nanofiber. It is also responsible for the catalyst shape and topology of the interface between catalyst and nanofiber. Model solutions are in agreement with numerous experimental results. The model can be used for planning new experiments and explaining existing results. It leaves the opportunity for more precise and complicated mathematical calculations of different parts of the growth process.

  7. The synthesis of titanium carbide-reinforced carbon nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Pinwen; Hong, Youliang; Liu, Bingbing; Zou, Guangtian

    2009-06-01

    Tailoring hard materials into nanoscale building blocks can greatly extend the applications of hard materials and, at the same time, also represents a significant challenge in the field of nanoscale science. This work reports a novel process for the preparation of carbon-based one-dimensional hard nanomaterials. The titanium carbide-carbon composite nanofibers with an average diameter of 90 nm are prepared by an electrospinning technique and a high temperature pyrolysis process. A composite solution containing polyacrylonitrile and titanium sources is first electrospun into the composite nanofibers, which are subsequently pyrolyzed to produce the desired products. The x-ray diffraction pattern and transmission electron microscopy results show that the main phase of the as-synthesized nanofibers is titanium carbide. The Raman analyses show that the composite nanofibers have low graphite clusters in comparison with the pure carbon nanofibers originating from the electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers. The mechanical property tests demonstrate that the titanium carbide-carbon nanofiber membranes have four times higher tensile strength than the carbon nanofiber membranes, and the Young's modulus of the titanium carbide-carbon nanofiber membranes increases in direct proportion to the titanium quantity.

  8. Synthesis of carbon nanofibers on copper particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kol'tsova, T. S.; Larionova, T. V.; Shusharina, N. N.; Tolochko, O. V.

    2015-08-01

    We analyze the synthesis of carbon nanostructures from the gas phase (mixture of acetylene or ethylene with hydrogen) on the surface of copper particles without using other catalysts. The synthesized structures (multilayer graphene and carbon nanofibers) are analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering. It is shown that the fiber structure is determined by the C: H ratio in the gas phase. The kinetics of synthesis is analyzed in terms of the formal kinetics of conversion in accordance with the Johnson—Mehl—Avrami equation.

  9. Electrospun La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 nanofibers for a high-temperature electrochemical carbon monoxide sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Mingjia; Koneru, Anveeksh; Yang, Feng; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Li, Jing; Wu, Nianqiang

    2012-08-01

    Lanthanum strontium manganite (La0.8Sr0.2MnO3, LSM) nanofibers have been synthesized by the electrospinning method. The electrospun nanofibers are intact without morphological and structural changes after annealing at 1050 °C. The LSM nanofibers are employed as the sensing electrode of an electrochemical sensor with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte for carbon monoxide detection at high temperatures over 500 °C. The electrospun nanofibers form a porous network electrode, which provides a continuous pathway for charge transport. In addition, the nanofibers possess a higher specific surface area than conventional micron-sized powders. As a result, the nanofiber electrode exhibits a higher electromotive force and better electro-catalytic activity toward CO oxidation. Therefore, the sensor with the nanofiber electrode shows a higher sensitivity, lower limit of detection and faster response to CO than a sensor with a powder electrode.

  10. Synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from porous anodic alumina.

    PubMed

    Jha, Himendra; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Sakairi, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2008-10-01

    A novel method for the synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from a porous anodic oxide film of aluminum is demonstrated. In the present method, the porous anodic alumina not only acts as a template, but also serves as the starting material for the synthesis. The porous anodic alumina film is hydrothermally treated for pore-sealing, which forms aluminum oxy-hydroxide inside the pores of the oxide film as well as on the surface of the film. The hydrothermally sealed porous oxide film is immersed in the sodium citrate solution, which selectively etches the porous aluminum oxide from the film, leaving the oxy-hydroxide intact. The method is simple and gives highly uniform aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers. Moreover, the diameter of the nanofibers can be controlled by controlling the pore size of the porous anodic alumina film, which depends on the anodizing conditions. Nanofibers with diameters of about 38-85 nm, having uniform shape and size, were successfully synthesized using the present method. PMID:21832599

  11. Enhancement of conductivity by diameter control of polyimide-based electrospun carbon nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Xuyen, Nguyen Thi; Ra, Eun Ju; Geng, Hong-Zhang; Kim, Ki Kang; An, Kay Hyeok; Lee, Young Hee

    2007-10-01

    Oxydianiline-pyromellitic dianhydride poly(amic acid) (ODA-PMDA PAA) was polymerized with a catalyst support of triethyl amine for controlling molecular weight. This polymer was used for electrospinning in the preparation of PAA nanofibers, a precursor of carbon nanofibers. Here the amount of catalyst and concentration of PAA solution were optimized to produce polyimide-based carbon nanofibers approximately 80 nm in diameter. The effects of molecular weight of PAA, bias voltage, and spinning rate on the morphology of electrospun PAA and polyimide nanofibers have been evaluated. We showed that the conductivity of the carbon nanofiber mat decreased with increasing nanofiber diameter, where the conductivity of polyimide-based carbon nanofiber mat was much higher than those of other types of carbon nanofiber mat. The key ingredient to increase conductivity in a carbon nanofiber mat was found to be the number of cross junctions between nanofibers. PMID:17850139

  12. Interfacial engineering of carbon nanofiber-graphene-carbon nanofiber heterojunctions in flexible lightweight electromagnetic shielding networks.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei-Li; Wang, Jia; Fan, Li-Zhen; Li, Yong; Wang, Chan-Yuan; Cao, Mao-Sheng

    2014-07-01

    Lightweight carbon materials of effective electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding have attracted increasing interest because of rapid development of smart communication devices. To meet the requirement in portable electronic devices, flexible shielding materials with ultrathin characteristic have been pursued for this purpose. In this work, we demonstrated a facile strategy for scalable fabrication of flexible all-carbon networks, where the insulting polymeric frames and interfaces have been well eliminated. Microscopically, a novel carbon nanofiber-graphene nanosheet-carbon nanofiber (CNF-GN-CNF) heterojunction, which plays the dominant role as the interfacial modifier, has been observed in the as-fabricated networks. With the presence of CNF-GN-CNF heterojunctions, the all-carbon networks exhibit much increased electrical properties, resulting in the great enhancement of EMI shielding performance. The related mechanism for engineering the CNF interfaces based on the CNF-GN-CNF heterojunctions has been discussed. Implication of the results suggests that the lightweight all-carbon networks, whose thickness and density are much smaller than other graphene/polymer composites, present more promising potential as thin shielding materials in flexible portable electronics. PMID:24914611

  13. Catalytic Growth of Macroscopic Carbon Nanofibers Bodies with Activated Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, N.; Muhammad, I. S.; Hamid, S. B. Abd.; Rinaldi, A.; Su, D. S.; Schlogl, R.

    2009-06-01

    Carbon-carbon composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofibers have been synthesized by growing Carbon nanofiber (CNF) on Palm shell-based Activated carbon (AC) with Ni catalyst. The composites are in an agglomerated shape due to the entanglement of the defective CNF between the AC particles forming a macroscopic body. The macroscopic size will allow the composite to be used as a stabile catalyst support and liquid adsorbent. The preparation of CNT/AC nanocarbon was initiated by pre-treating the activated carbon with nitric acid, followed by impregnation of 1 wt% loading of nickel (II) nitrate solutions in acetone. The catalyst precursor was calcined and reduced at 300 deg. C for an hour in each step. The catalytic growth of nanocarbon in C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/H{sub 2} was carried out at temperature of 550 deg. C for 2 hrs with different rotating angle in the fluidization system. SEM and N{sub 2} isotherms show the level of agglomeration which is a function of growth density and fluidization of the system. The effect of fluidization by rotating the reactor during growth with different speed give a significant impact on the agglomeration of the final CNF/AC composite and thus the amount of CNFs produced. The macrostructure body produced in this work of CNF/AC composite will have advantages in the adsorbent and catalyst support application, due to the mechanical and chemical properties of the material.

  14. Improved fire retardancy of thermoset composites modified with carbon nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhongfu; Gou, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Multifunctional thermoset composites were made from polyester resin, glass fiber mats and carbon nanofiber sheets (CNS). Their flaming behavior was investigated with cone calorimeter under well-controlled combustion conditions. The heat release rate was lowered by pre-planting carbon nanofiber sheets on the sample surface with the total fiber content of only 0.38 wt.%. Electron microscopy showed that carbon nanofiber sheet was partly burned and charred materials were formed on the combusting surface. Both the nanofibers and charred materials acted as an excellent insulator and/or mass transport barrier, improving the fire retardancy of the composite. This behavior agrees well with the general mechanism of fire retardancy in various nanoparticle-thermoplastic composites.

  15. A miniature microbial fuel cell with conducting nanofibers-based 3D porous biofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Huawei; Halverson, Larry J.; Dong, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Miniature microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has received growing interest due to its potential applications in high-throughput screening of bacteria and mutants to elucidate mechanisms of electricity generation. This paper reports a novel miniature MFC with an improved output power density and short startup time, utilizing electrospun conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanofibers as a 3D porous anode within a 12 μl anolyte chamber. This device results in 423 μW cm-3 power density based on the volume of the anolyte chamber, using Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 as a model biocatalyst without any optimization of bacterial culture. The device also excels in a startup time of only 1hr. The high conductivity of the electrospun nanofibers makes them suitable for efficient electron transfer. The mean pore size of the conducting nanofibers is several micrometers, which is favorable for bacterial penetration and colonization of surfaces of the nanofibers. We demonstrate that S. oneidensis can fully colonize the interior region of this nanofibers-based porous anode. This work represents a new attempt to explore the use of electrospun PEDOT nanofibers as a 3D anode material for MFCs. The presented miniature MFC potentially will provide a high-sensitivity, high-throughput tool to screen suitable bacterial species and mutant strains for use in large-size MFCs.

  16. Supercapacitor Electrodes Based on High-Purity Electrospun Polyaniline and Polyaniline-Carbon Nanotube Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Simotwo, Silas K; DelRe, Christopher; Kalra, Vibha

    2016-08-24

    Freestanding, binder-free supercapacitor electrodes based on high-purity polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers were fabricated via a single step electrospinning process. The successful electrospinning of nanofibers with an unprecedentedly high composition of PANI (93 wt %) was made possible due to blending ultrahigh molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) with PANI in solution to impart adequate chain entanglements, a critical requirement for electrospinning. To further enhance the conductivity and stability of the electrodes, a small concentration of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was added to the PANI/PEO solution prior to electrospinning to generate PANI/CNT/PEO nanofibers (12 wt % CNTs). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) porosimetry were conducted to characterize the external morphology of the nanofibers. The electrospun nanofibers were further probed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The electroactivity of the freestanding PANI and PANI/CNT nanofiber electrodes was examined using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Competitive specific capacitances of 308 and 385 F g(-1) were achieved for PANI and PANI-CNT based electrodes, respectively, at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1). Moreover, specific capacitance retentions of 70 and 81.4% were observed for PANI and PANI-CNT based electrodes, respectively, after 1000 cycles. The promising electrochemical performance of the fabricated electrodes, we believe, stems from the porous 3-D electrode structure characteristic of the nonwoven interconnected nanostructures. The interconnected nanofiber network facilitates efficient electron conduction while the inter- and intrafiber porosity enable excellent electrolyte penetration within the polymer matrix, allowing fast ion transport to the active sites. PMID:27467445

  17. Improvement of thermal contact resistance by carbon nanotubes and nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Helen F.; Cooper, Sarah M.; Meyyappan, M.; Cruden, Brett A.

    2004-01-01

    Interfacial thermal resistance results of various nanotube and nanofiber coatings, prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods, are reported at relatively low clamping pressures. The five types of samples examined include multi-walled and single-walled nanotubes growth by CVD, multi-walled nanotubes grown by plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD) and carbon nanofibers of differing aspect ratio grown by PECVD. Of the samples examined, only high aspect ratio nanofibers and thermally grown multi-walled nanotubes show an improvement in thermal contact resistance. The improvement is approximately a 60% lower thermal resistance than a bare Si-Cu interface and is comparable to that attained by commercially available thermal interface materials.

  18. Patterned Growth of Carbon Nanotubes or Nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance D.

    2004-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the growth of carbon nanotubes or nanofibers in a desired pattern has been invented. The essence of the method is to grow the nanotubes or nanofibers by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) onto a patterned catalyst supported by a substrate. The figure schematically depicts salient aspects of the method and apparatus in a typical application. A substrate is placed in a chamber that contains both ion-beam sputtering and CVD equipment. The substrate can be made of any of a variety of materials that include several forms of silicon or carbon, and selected polymers, metals, ceramics, and even some natural minerals and similar materials. Optionally, the substrate is first coated with a noncatalytic metal layer (which could be a single layer or could comprise multiple different sublayers) by ion-beam sputtering. The choice of metal(s) and thickness(es) of the first layer (if any) and its sublayers (if any) depends on the chemical and electrical properties required for subsequent deposition of the catalyst and the subsequent CVD of the carbon nanotubes. A typical first-sublayer metal is Pt, Pd, Cr, Mo, Ti, W, or an alloy of two or more of these elements. A typical metal for the second sublayer or for an undivided first layer is Al at a thickness .1 nm or Ir at a thickness .5 nm. Proper choice of the metal for a second sublayer of a first layer makes it possible to use a catalyst that is chemically incompatible with the substrate. In the next step, a mask having holes in the desired pattern is placed over the coated substrate. The catalyst is then deposited on the coated substrate by ion-beam sputtering through the mask. Optionally, the catalyst could be deposited by a technique other than sputtering and/or patterned by use of photolithography, electron- beam lithography, or another suitable technique. The catalytic metal can be Fe, Co, Ni, or an alloy of two or more of these elements, deposited to a typical thickness in the range from 0.1 to 20 nm.

  19. Functionalized carbon nanotubes and nanofibers for biosensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-07-30

    This review summarizes the recent advances of carbon nanotube (CNT) and carbon nanofiber (CNF)-based electrochemical biosensors with an emphasis on the applications of CNTs. Carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers have unique electric, electrocatalytic, and mechanical properties which make them efficient materials for the use in electrochemical biosensor development. In this article, the functionalization of CNTs for biosensors is simply discussed. The electrochemical biosensors based on CNT and their various applications, e.g., measurement of small biological molecules and environmental pollutants, detection of DNA, and immunosensing of disease biomarkers, are reviewed. Moreover, the development of carbon nanofiber-based electrochemical biosensors and their applications are outlined. Finally, some challenges are discussed in the conclusion.

  20. Carbon Nanofiber Nanoelectrodes for Biosensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehne, Jessica Erin

    2014-01-01

    A sensor platform based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) has been developed. Their inherent nanometer scale, high conductivity, wide potential window, good biocompatibility and well-defined surface chemistry make them ideal candidates as biosensor electrodes. Here, we report two studies using vertically aligned CNF nanoelectrodes for biomedical applications. CNF arrays are investigated as neural stimulation and neurotransmitter recording electrodes for application in deep brain stimulation (DBS). Polypyrrole coated CNF nanoelectrodes have shown great promise as stimulating electrodes due to their large surface area, low impedance, biocompatibility and capacity for highly localized stimulation. CNFs embedded in SiO2 have been used as sensing electrodes for neurotransmitter detection. Our approach combines a multiplexed CNF electrode chip, developed at NASA Ames Research Center, with the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor (WINCS) system, developed at the Mayo Clinic. Preliminary results indicate that the CNF nanoelectrode arrays are easily integrated with WINCS for neurotransmitter detection in a multiplexed array format. In the future, combining CNF based stimulating and recording electrodes with WINCS may lay the foundation for an implantable smart therapeutic system that utilizes neurochemical feedback control while likely resulting in increased DBS application in various neuropsychiatric disorders. In total, our goal is to take advantage of the nanostructure of CNF arrays for biosensing studies requiring ultrahigh sensitivity, high-degree of miniaturization, and selective biofunctionalization.

  1. Silane coupling agent structures on carbon nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Palencia, Cristina; Rubio, Juan; Rubio, Fausto; Fierro, José Luis G; Oteo, José Luis

    2011-05-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are considered ideal materials for reinforcing polymers due to their excellent mechanical properties, among others. In order to obtain composites of optimal properties the clue is to enhance the interaction between reinforcement (CNFs) and polymer matrix. Surface modification of CNFs with silane coupling agents (SCAs) has revealed as one of the most interesting methods. The silanization process has been carried out mixing at room temperature and for one minute the hydrolysed silane with CNFs. We have use four different SCAs: 3-aminopropyltriethoxyxilane (APS), 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AMMO), N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-(aminopropyltrimethoxysilane) (DAMO), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GLYMO), in order to elucidate the SCA-CNFs interaction and the silane structures formed on CNFs surface. XPS and FTIR-ATR techniques have pointed out that each silane adsorbs on CNFs surface through chemical bonding, forming multilayers. Silane nature determines the structure taken on CNFs surface. APS and AMO silanes adsorb taking vertical structures on CNFs surface, while DMO and GMO adsorb on CNFs taking horizontal structures, stabilized by zwitterions formed through H-bonds with hydroxyl groups from CNFs surface. PMID:21780418

  2. Treated Carbon Nanofibers for Storing Energy in Aqueous KOH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firsich, David W.

    2004-01-01

    A surface treatment has been found to enhance the performances of carbon nanofibers as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors in which aqueous solutions of potassium hydroxide are used as the electrolytes. In the treatment, sulfonic acid groups are attached to edge plane sites on carbon atoms. The treatment is applicable to a variety of carbon nanofibers, including fibrils and both single- and multiple-wall nanotubes. The reason for choosing nanofibers over powders and other forms of carbon is that nanofibers offer greater power features. In previous research, it was found that the surface treatment of carbon nanofibers increased energy-storage densities in the presence of acid electrolytes. Now, it has been found that the same treatment increases energy-storage densities of carbon nanofibers in the presence of alkaline electrolytes when the carbon is paired with a NiOOH electrode. This beneficial effect varies depending on the variety of carbon substrate to which it is applied. It has been conjectured that the sulfonic acid groups, which exist in a deprotonated state in aqueous KOH solutions, undergo reversible electro-chemical reactions that are responsible for the observed increases in energystorage capacities. The increases can be considerable: For example, in one case, nanofibers exhibited a specific capacitance of 34 Farads per gram before treatment and 172 Farads per gram (an increase of about 400 percent) after treatment. The most promising application of this development appears to lie in hybrid capacitors, which are devices designed primarily for storing energy. These devices are designed to be capable of (1) discharge at rates greater than those of batteries and (2) storing energy at densities approaching those of batteries. A hybrid capacitor includes one electrode like that of a battery and one electrode like that of an electrochemical capacitor. For example, a hybrid capacitor could contain a potassium hydroxide solution as the electrolyte

  3. Preparation of Electrically Conductive Polystyrene/Carbon Nanofiber Nanocomposite Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Luyi; O'Reilly, Jonathan Y.; Tien, Chi-Wei; Sue, Hung-Jue

    2008-01-01

    A simple and effective approach to prepare conductive polystyrene/carbon nanofiber (PS/CNF) nanocomposite films via a solution dispersion method is presented. Inexpensive CNF, which has a structure similar to multi-walled carbon nanotubes, is chosen as a nanofiller in this experiment to achieve conductivity in PS films. A good dispersion is…

  4. Electromagnetic interference shielding characteristics of carbon nanofiber-polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yonglai; Guptal, Mool C; Dudley, Kenneth L; Lawrence, Roland W

    2007-02-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding characteristics of carbon nanofiber-polystyrene composites were investigated in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz (Ku-band). It was observed that the shielding effectiveness of such composites was frequency independent, and increased with increasing carbon nanofiber loading within Ku-band. The experimental data exhibited that the shielding effectiveness of the polymer composite containing 20 wt% carbon nanofibers could reach more than 36 dB in the measured frequency region, indicating such composites can be applied to the potential EMI shielding materials. In addition, the results showed that the contribution of reflection to the EMI shielding effectiveness was much larger than that of absorption, implying the primary EMI shielding mechanism of such composites was reflection of electromagnetic radiation within Ku-band. PMID:17450793

  5. Morphology of PEG-Stabilized Carbon Nanofibers in Water

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jian; Schaefer, Dale W.

    2009-09-02

    Small-angle light scattering is used to assess the dispersion of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-functionalized carbon nanofibers suspended in water. Analysis of these data elucidates the mechanism by which the functionalized nanofibers are solubilized in water. Linear, tube-like morphology is observed for the PEG-functionalized nanofibers dispersed in water. However, dispersion is not down to the individual tube level as determined by analysis of the light scattering data in conjunction with transmission electron micrographs. Rather, scattering entities are polydisperse side-by-side fiber aggregates (bundles). Because of the presence of water-soluble PEG oligomers on the surfaces of the nanofibers these small-scale aggregates do not agglomerate to form the large-scale clusters that are observed for untreated and acid-treated nanofibers. Acid-treated nanofibers, by contrast, do agglomerate, but in an unusual fashion, showing a 10-h induction period of followed by linear growth of large-scale agglomerates. PEG-functionalization of the acid-treated fibers leads to stabilization by inhibiting formation of the large-scale agglomerates, not by disrupting the side-by-side bundles.

  6. Porous SiO2 nanofiber grafted novel bioactive glass-ceramic coating: A structural scaffold for uniform apatite precipitation and oriented cell proliferation on inert implant.

    PubMed

    Das, Indranee; De, Goutam; Hupa, Leena; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2016-05-01

    A composite bioactive glass-ceramic coating grafted with porous silica nanofibers was fabricated on inert glass to provide a structural scaffold favoring uniform apatite precipitation and oriented cell proliferation. The coating surfaces were investigated thoroughly before and after immersion in simulated body fluid. In addition, the proliferation behavior of fibroblast cells on the surface was observed for several culture times. The nanofibrous exterior of this composite bioactive coating facilitated homogeneous growth of flake-like carbonated hydroxyapatite layer within a short period of immersion. Moreover, the embedded porous silica nanofibers enhanced hydrophilicity which is required for proper cell adhesion on the surface. The cells proliferated well following a particular orientation on the entire coating by the assistance of nanofibrous scaffold-like structural matrix. This newly engineered composite coating was effective in creating a biological structural matrix favorable for homogeneous precipitation of calcium phosphate, and organized cell growth on the inert glass surface. PMID:26952416

  7. Hemocompatible and antibacterial porous membranes with heparinized copper hydroxide nanofibers as separation layer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Jing; Zhu, Li-Ping; Yi, Zhuan; Jiang, Jin-Hong; Zhu, Bao-Ku; Xu, You-Yi

    2013-10-01

    Here we report the fabrication of a novel heparinized copper hydroxide (Cu(OH)2) nanofiberous membrane with satisfying hemocompatibility and antibacterial properties. The positively charged Cu(OH)2 nanofibers were prepared in a weakly alkaline copper nitrate solution in the presence of 2-aminoethanol. A heparin (Hep) solution was then added dropwise into the solution of nanofibers to immobilize negatively charged heparin onto the Cu(OH)2 nanofibers by electrostatic interaction. A composite Hep@Cu(OH)2 nanofiberous membrane was prepared by filtration and deposition of the heparinized nanofibers onto a polysulfone (PSF) porous membrane. Chemical composition analysis of membrane surface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the successful immobilization of heparin on Cu(OH)2 nanofibers. The amount of immobilized heparin on nanofiberous membrane was determined by a colorimetric assay of toluidine blue dye and the results showed that the amount of immobilized heparin was strongly dependent on the heparin dosage in reaction solution. The results of contact angle measurement indicated that the hydrophilicity of Cu(OH)2 nanofiberous membranes was enhanced by the immobilization of heparin. The adhesion, activation and transmutation of platelets on Hep@Cu(OH)2 membrane were suppressed remarkably due to the introduction of heparin, which suggested that the Hep@Cu(OH)2 membranes had good hemocompatibility. In addition, Cu(OH)2 and Hep@Cu(OH)2 nanofiberous membranes exhibited very good antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphyloccocus aureus. PMID:23707848

  8. Encapsulation of MnO Nanocrystals in Electrospun Carbon Nanofibers as High-Performance Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Hu, Xianluo; Xu, Henghui; Luo, Wei; Sun, Yongming; Huang, Yunhui

    2014-01-01

    A novel and controllable approach is developed for the synthesis of MnO nanocrystals embedded in carbon nanofibers (MnO/CNFs) through an electrospinning process. The as-formed MnO/CNFs have a porous structure with diameters of 100–200 nm and lengths up to several millimeters. When used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the resulting MnO/CNFs exhibit superior electrochemical performances with high specific capacity, good cyclability, and excellent rate capability. The unique porous carbon nanofibers (PCNFs) can not only improve the contact area between the electrode and the electrolyte, but also alleviate the impact of the large volume effect of MnO during the electrochemical cycling. It is expected that the present synthetic strategy can be extended to synthesize other nanostructured oxides encapsulated in carbon nanofibers for extensive energy transfer and storage applications. PMID:24598639

  9. Surface functionalization of carbon nanofibers by sol gel coating of zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Dongfeng; Wei, Qufu; Zhang, Liwei; Cai, Yibing; Jiang, Shudong

    2008-08-01

    In this paper the functional carbon nanofibers were prepared by the carbonization of ZnO coated PAN nanofibers to expand the potential applications of carbon nanofibers. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers were obtained by electrospinning. The electrospun PAN nanofibers were then used as substrates for depositing the functional layer of zinc oxide (ZnO) on the PAN nanofiber surfaces by sol-gel technique. The effects of coating, pre-oxidation and carbonization on the surface morphology and structures of the nanofibers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results of SEM showed a significant increase of the size of ZnO nanograins on the surface of nanofibers after the treatments of coating, pre-oxidation and carbonization. The observations by SEM also revealed that ZnO nanoclusters were firmly and clearly distributed on the surface of the carbon nanofibers. FTIR examination also confirmed the deposition of ZnO on the surface of carbon nanofibers. The XRD analysis indicated that the crystal structure of ZnO nanograins on the surface of carbon nanofibers.

  10. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of multiwalled carbon nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Kristopher; Cruden, Brett A.; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M.; Delzeit, Lance

    2002-01-01

    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is used to grow vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanofibers (MWNFs). The graphite basal planes in these nanofibers are not parallel as in nanotubes; instead they exhibit a small angle resembling a stacked cone arrangement. A parametric study with varying process parameters such as growth temperature, feedstock composition, and substrate power has been conducted, and these parameters are found to influence the growth rate, diameter, and morphology. The well-aligned MWNFs are suitable for fabricating electrode systems in sensor and device development.

  11. Improvement of thermal contact resistance by carbon nanotubes and nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Helen F; Cooper, Sarah M; Meyyappan, M; Cruden, Brett A

    2004-11-01

    Interfacial thermal resistance results of various nanotube and nanofiber coatings, prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods, are reported at relatively low clamping pressures. The five types of samples examined include multi-walled and single-walled nanotubes growth by CVD, multi-walled nanotubes grown by plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD) and carbon nanofibers of differing aspect ratio grown by PECVD. Of the samples examined, only high aspect ratio nanofibers and thermally grown multi-walled nanotubes show an improvement in thermal contact resistance. The improvement is approximately a 60% lower thermal resistance than a bare Si-Cu interface and is comparable to that attained by commercially available thermal interface materials. PMID:15656186

  12. Electrochemical Properties of Electrospun Ni Doped Carbon Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yarong; Li, Chunping; Bai, Jie; Huang, Guofang; Sun, Weiyan; Wang, Junzhong

    2016-06-01

    The materials of Ni nanoparticles/carbon nanofibers (Ni NPs/CNFs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by electrospinning the Ni doped precursor solutions. The Ni doped nanofibers with the diameter of 200-300 nm possess the uniform morphology and smooth surface. These nanofibers were carbonized at 600 degrees C for 2 h. The Ni NPs/CNFs composite was characterized with SEM (scanning electro microscope), XRD (X-ray diffraction) and FT-IR (Infrared spectroscopy). The Ni NPs/CNFs electrode was investigated through the cyclic voltammetry measurement. The average specific capacity was calculated to be 113 F x g(-1) at the scan rate of 2 mV x s(-1). The high specific capacity was larger than the CNFs owing to the Ni NPs. The specific capacity retention also maintains 72% after 5 cycles, suggesting that the electrode possess good reversibility. The Ni NPs/CNFs composite material with excellent electrochemical properties will be a promising material which can be used for energy storage. PMID:27427729

  13. Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of Carbon Nanofibers and SiO2/Carbon Nanofiber Composite on Ni-Cu/C-Fiber Textiles.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki-Mok; Park, Heai-Ku; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2015-11-01

    In this study, carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were grown by chemical vapor deposition on C-fiber textiles that had Ni and Cu catalyst deposited via electrophoretic deposition. Before the CNFs were coated with silica layer via hydrolysis of TEOS (Tetraethyl orthosilicate), the carbon nanofibers were oxidized by nitric acid. Due to oxidation, the hydroxyl group was created on the carbon nanofibers and this was used as an activation site for the SiO2. The physicochemical properties of the grown carbon nanofibers were investigated with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The structures of SiO2-coated carbon nanofibers were characterized by XPS and TEM. The electrochemical properties and the capacitance of the materials were investigated by galvanostatic charge-discharge and cyclic voltammetry. Different types of carbon nanofibers were grown upon the deposition utilizing catalysts, with the SiO2 uniformly coated on the surface of carbon nanofibers. When used as an anode material for the Li secondary battery, the SiO2/CNFs composite had a lower capacity maintenance and a greater discharge capacity as compared to the carbon nanofibers. PMID:26726630

  14. Carbon Nanofibers (CNFs) Surface Modification to Fabricate Carbon Nanofibers_Nanopaper Integrated Polymer Composite Material.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianjun; Zhao, Ziwei; Deng, Chao; Liu, Fa; Li, Dejia; Fang, Liangchao; Zhang, Dan; Castro Jose M; Chen, Feng; Lee, L James

    2016-06-01

    Carbon Nanofibers (CNFs) have shown great potential to improve the physical and mechanical properties of conventional Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites (FRPCs) surface. Excellent dispersion CNFs into water or polymer matrix was very crucial to get good quality CNFs enhanced FRPCs. Because of the hydrophobic properties of CNFs, we apply the reversible switching principles to transfer the hydrophobic surface into hydrophilic surface by growing polyaniline nanograss on the surface of CNFs which was carried out in hydrochloric acid condition. Incorporating CNFs into FRPCs as a surface layer named CNFs Nanopaper to increase the erosion resistance and electrical conductivity in this research which was very important in the wind energy field. In order to get high quality dispersed CNFs suspension, a sonication unit was used to detangle and uniform disperse the functionalized CNFs. A filter with vacuum pressure used to filter the suspension of CNFs onto Carbon veil to make CNFs Nanopaper. Vacuum Aided Resin Transfer Modeling (VARTM) process was used to fabricate Nano-enhanced FRPCs samples. In order to characterize the mechanical properties, three point bending experiment was measured. The flexural strength capacity and deformation resistance and behavior were compared and analyzed. In this paper, we discussed the methods used and provided experimental parameter and experimental results. PMID:27427606

  15. A nanobursa mesh: a graded electrospun nanofiber mesh with metal nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senturk-Ozer, Semra; Chen, Tao; Degirmenbasi, Nebahat; Gevgilili, Halil; Podkolzin, Simon G.; Kalyon, Dilhan M.

    2014-07-01

    A new type of material, a ``nanobursa'' mesh (from ``bursa'' meaning ``sac or pouch''), is introduced. This material consists of sequential layers of porous polymeric nanofibers encapsulating carbon nanotubes, which are functionalized with different metal nanoparticles in each layer. The nanobursa mesh is fabricated via a novel combination of twin-screw extrusion and electrospinning. Use of this hybrid process at industrially-relevant rates is demonstrated by producing a nanobursa mesh with graded layers of Pd, Co, Ag, and Pt nanoparticles. The potential use of the fabricated nanobursa mesh is illustrated by modeling of catalytic hydrocarbon oxidation.A new type of material, a ``nanobursa'' mesh (from ``bursa'' meaning ``sac or pouch''), is introduced. This material consists of sequential layers of porous polymeric nanofibers encapsulating carbon nanotubes, which are functionalized with different metal nanoparticles in each layer. The nanobursa mesh is fabricated via a novel combination of twin-screw extrusion and electrospinning. Use of this hybrid process at industrially-relevant rates is demonstrated by producing a nanobursa mesh with graded layers of Pd, Co, Ag, and Pt nanoparticles. The potential use of the fabricated nanobursa mesh is illustrated by modeling of catalytic hydrocarbon oxidation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental methods and computational details. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01145g

  16. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber based Biosensor Platform for Glucose Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Al Mamun, Khandaker A.; Tulip, Fahmida S.; MacArthur, Kimberly; McFarlane, Nicole; Islam, Syed K.; Hensley, Dale

    2014-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) have recently become an important tool for biosensor design. Carbon nanofibers (CNF) have excellent conductive and structural properties with many irregularities and defect sites in addition to exposed carboxyl groups throughout their surfaces. These properties allow a better immobilization matrix compared to carbon nanotubes and offer better resolution when compared with the FET-based biosensors. VACNFs can be deterministically grown on silicon substrates allowing optimization of the structures for various biosensor applications. Two VACNF electrode architectures have been employed in this study and a comparison of their performances has been made in terms of sensitivity, sensing limitations, dynamic range, and response time. The usage of VACNF platform as a glucose sensor has been verified in this study by selecting an optimum architecture based on the VACNF forest density. Read More: http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0129156414500062

  17. Synthesis of amorphous carbon nanofibers using iron nanoparticles as catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mokhtar; Ramana, G. Venkata; Padya, Balaji; Srikanth, V. V. S. S.; Jain, P. K.

    2013-06-01

    Amongst various carbon nanomaterials, carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have lately attracted considerable interest as a promising reinforcement in polymer matrix composites. CNFs are often synthesized using copper nanoparticles as catalysts and by using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). In this work iron (Fe) nanoparticles are used as catalysts to synthesize amorphous carbon nanofibers. This owes significance since Fe nanoparticles often lead to tubes rather than fibers. Fe nanoparticles (size ˜30-60nm) are prepared by first mixing an appropriate quantity of potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate salt with iron (II) chloride dehydrate to obtain iron tartrate and then dried and heated in vacuum oven at about 250°C to remove tartrate. In a subsequent step, CNFs are obtained by using CVD. Acetylene was used as the carbon source in the CVD process. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy show the formation of nanofibers whose diameter is dependent on the size of Fe catalysts. Raman scattering from the fibers show that they are made up of carbon and are amorphous.

  18. Hierarchical carbon nanostructure design: ultra-long carbon nanofibers decorated with carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mel, A. A.; Achour, A.; Xu, W.; Choi, C. H.; Gautron, E.; Angleraud, B.; Granier, A.; Le Brizoual, L.; Djouadi, M. A.; Tessier, P. Y.

    2011-10-01

    Hierarchical carbon nanostructures based on ultra-long carbon nanofibers (CNF) decorated with carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been prepared using plasma processes. The nickel/carbon composite nanofibers, used as a support for the growth of CNT, were deposited on nanopatterned silicon substrate by a hybrid plasma process, combining magnetron sputtering and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of spherical nanoparticles randomly dispersed within the carbon nanofibers. The nickel nanoparticles have been used as a catalyst to initiate the growth of CNT by PECVD at 600 °C. After the growth of CNT onto the ultra-long CNF, SEM imaging revealed the formation of hierarchical carbon nanostructures which consist of CNF sheathed with CNTs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that reducing the growth temperature of CNT to less than 500 °C leads to the formation of carbon nanowalls on the CNF instead of CNT. This simple fabrication method allows an easy preparation of hierarchical carbon nanostructures over a large surface area, as well as a simple manipulation of such material in order to integrate it into nanodevices.

  19. Hierarchical carbon nanostructure design: ultra-long carbon nanofibers decorated with carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    El Mel, A A; Achour, A; Xu, W; Choi, C H; Gautron, E; Angleraud, B; Granier, A; Le Brizoual, L; Djouadi, M A; Tessier, P Y

    2011-10-28

    Hierarchical carbon nanostructures based on ultra-long carbon nanofibers (CNF) decorated with carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been prepared using plasma processes. The nickel/carbon composite nanofibers, used as a support for the growth of CNT, were deposited on nanopatterned silicon substrate by a hybrid plasma process, combining magnetron sputtering and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of spherical nanoparticles randomly dispersed within the carbon nanofibers. The nickel nanoparticles have been used as a catalyst to initiate the growth of CNT by PECVD at 600°C. After the growth of CNT onto the ultra-long CNF, SEM imaging revealed the formation of hierarchical carbon nanostructures which consist of CNF sheathed with CNTs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that reducing the growth temperature of CNT to less than 500°C leads to the formation of carbon nanowalls on the CNF instead of CNT. This simple fabrication method allows an easy preparation of hierarchical carbon nanostructures over a large surface area, as well as a simple manipulation of such material in order to integrate it into nanodevices. PMID:21971265

  20. Synthesis and characterization of multiwalled CNT-PAN based composite carbon nanofibers via electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Narinder; Kumar, Vipin; Dhakate, Sanjay R

    2016-01-01

    Electrospun fibrous membranes find place in diverse applications like sensors, filters, fuel cell membranes, scaffolds for tissue engineering, organic electronics etc. The objectives of present work are to electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers and PAN-CNT nanocomposite nanofibers and convert into carbon nanofiber and carbon-CNT composite nanofiber. The work was divided into two parts, development of nanofibers and composite nanofiber. The PAN nanofibers were produced from 9 wt% PAN solution by electrospinning technique. In another case PAN-CNT composite nanofibers were developed from different concentrations of MWCNTs (1-3 wt%) in 9 wt% PAN solution by electrospinning. Both types of nanofibers were undergone through oxidation, stabilization, carbonization and graphitization. At each stage of processing of carbon and carbon-CNT composite nanofibers were characterized by SEM, AFM, TGA and XRD. It was observed that diameter of nanofiber varies with processing parameters such as applied voltage tip to collector distance, flow rate of solution and polymer concentrations etc. while in case of PAN-CNT composite nanofiber diameter decreases with increasing concentration of CNT in PAN solution. Also with stabilization, carbonization and graphitization diameter of nanofiber decreases. SEM images shows that the minimum fiber diameter in case of 3 wt% of CNT solution because as viscosity increases it reduces the phase separation of PAN and solvent and as a consequence increases in the fiber diameter. AFM images shows that surface of film is irregular which give idea about mat type orientation of fibers. XRD results show that degree of graphitization increases on increasing CNT concentration because of additional stresses exerting on the nanofiber surface in the immediate vicinity of CNTs. TGA results shows wt loss decreases as CNT concentration increases in fibers. PMID:27217998

  1. Facile Synthesis of Coaxial CNTs/MnOx-Carbon Hybrid Nanofibers and Their Greatly Enhanced Lithium Storage Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zunxian; Lv, Jun; Pang, Haidong; Yan, Wenhuan; Qian, Kun; Guo, Tailiang; Guo, Zaiping

    2015-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/MnOx-Carbon hybrid nanofibers have been successfully synthesized by the combination of a liquid chemical redox reaction (LCRR) and a subsequent carbonization heat treatment. The nanostructures exhibit a unique one-dimensional core/shell architecture, with one-dimensional CNTs encapsulated inside and a MnOx-carbon composite nanoparticle layer on the outside. The particular porous characteristics with many meso/micro holes/pores, the highly conductive one-dimensional CNT core, as well as the encapsulating carbon matrix on the outside of the MnOx nanoparticles, lead to excellent electrochemical performance of the electrode. The CNTs/MnOx-Carbon hybrid nanofibers exhibit a high initial reversible capacity of 762.9 mAhg-1, a high reversible specific capacity of 560.5 mAhg-1 after 100 cycles, and excellent cycling stability and rate capability, with specific capacity of 396.2 mAhg-1 when cycled at the current density of 1000 mAg-1, indicating that the CNTs/MnOx-Carbon hybrid nanofibers are a promising anode candidate for Li-ion batteries.

  2. Facile Synthesis of Coaxial CNTs/MnOx-Carbon Hybrid Nanofibers and Their Greatly Enhanced Lithium Storage Performance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zunxian; Lv, Jun; Pang, Haidong; Yan, Wenhuan; Qian, Kun; Guo, Tailiang; Guo, Zaiping

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/MnOx-Carbon hybrid nanofibers have been successfully synthesized by the combination of a liquid chemical redox reaction (LCRR) and a subsequent carbonization heat treatment. The nanostructures exhibit a unique one-dimensional core/shell architecture, with one-dimensional CNTs encapsulated inside and a MnOx-carbon composite nanoparticle layer on the outside. The particular porous characteristics with many meso/micro holes/pores, the highly conductive one-dimensional CNT core, as well as the encapsulating carbon matrix on the outside of the MnOx nanoparticles, lead to excellent electrochemical performance of the electrode. The CNTs/MnOx-Carbon hybrid nanofibers exhibit a high initial reversible capacity of 762.9 mAhg(-1), a high reversible specific capacity of 560.5 mAhg(-1) after 100 cycles, and excellent cycling stability and rate capability, with specific capacity of 396.2 mAhg(-1) when cycled at the current density of 1000 mAg(-1), indicating that the CNTs/MnOx-Carbon hybrid nanofibers are a promising anode candidate for Li-ion batteries. PMID:26621615

  3. Facile Synthesis of Coaxial CNTs/MnOx-Carbon Hybrid Nanofibers and Their Greatly Enhanced Lithium Storage Performance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zunxian; Lv, Jun; Pang, Haidong; Yan, Wenhuan; Qian, Kun; Guo, Tailiang; Guo, Zaiping

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/MnOx-Carbon hybrid nanofibers have been successfully synthesized by the combination of a liquid chemical redox reaction (LCRR) and a subsequent carbonization heat treatment. The nanostructures exhibit a unique one-dimensional core/shell architecture, with one-dimensional CNTs encapsulated inside and a MnOx-carbon composite nanoparticle layer on the outside. The particular porous characteristics with many meso/micro holes/pores, the highly conductive one-dimensional CNT core, as well as the encapsulating carbon matrix on the outside of the MnOx nanoparticles, lead to excellent electrochemical performance of the electrode. The CNTs/MnOx-Carbon hybrid nanofibers exhibit a high initial reversible capacity of 762.9 mAhg−1, a high reversible specific capacity of 560.5 mAhg−1 after 100 cycles, and excellent cycling stability and rate capability, with specific capacity of 396.2 mAhg−1 when cycled at the current density of 1000 mAg−1, indicating that the CNTs/MnOx-Carbon hybrid nanofibers are a promising anode candidate for Li-ion batteries. PMID:26621615

  4. Direct imaging of copper catalyst migration inside helical carbon nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lifeng; Yu, Liyan; Cui, Zuolin; Dong, Hongzhou; Ercius, Peter; Song, Chengyu; Duden, Thomas

    2012-01-27

    By using a double-aberration-corrected (scanning) transmission electron microscope (STEM/TEM) at an acceleration voltage of only 80 kV, we demonstrate that, due to the low solubility of copper (Cu) in carbon and its affinity with oxygen (O), single-crystal Cu catalysts dissociate into small cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanoparticles after the growth of carbon nanofibers, and Cu2O nanoparticles ultimately localize on the fiber surfaces. This new finding is a step toward a better understanding of the interactions between Cu catalysts and carbon nanomaterials and could suggest a simple and effective method for eliminating Cu impurities from the fibers. PMID:22172975

  5. Template Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibers Containing Linear Mesocage Arrays

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers containing linear mesocage arrays were prepared via evaporation induced self-assembly method within AAO template with an average channel diameter of about 25 nm. The TEM results show that the mesocages have an elongated shape in the transversal direction. The results of N2 adsorption–desorption analysis indicate that the sample possesses a cage-like mesoporous structure and the average mesopore size of the sample is about 18 nm. PMID:20671793

  6. Preparation of Surface Adsorbed and Impregnated Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube/Nylon-6 Nanofiber Composites and Investigation of their Gas Sensing Ability

    PubMed Central

    Lala, Neeta L.; Thavasi, Velmurugan; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2009-01-01

    We have prepared electrospun Nylon-6 nanofibers via electrospinning, and adsorbed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) onto the surface of Nylon-6 fibers using Triton® X-100 to form a MWCNTs/Nylon-6 nanofiber composite. The dispersed MWCNTs have been found to be stable in hexafluoroisopropanol for several months without precipitation. A MWCNTs/Nylon-6 nanofiber composite based chemical sensor has demonstrated its responsiveness towards a wide range of solvent vapours at room temperature and only mg quantities of MWCNTs were expended. The large surface area and porous nature of the electrospun Nylon-6/MWCNT nanofibers facilitates greater analyte permeability. The experimental analysis has indicated that the dipole moment, functional group and vapour pressure of the analytes determine the magnitude of the responsiveness. PMID:22389589

  7. Effect of carbon nanofiber dispersion on the properties of PIP-SiC/SiC composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, T.; Hasegawa, Y.; Shamoto, S.

    2011-10-01

    SiC/SiC composites with and without dispersed carbon nanofiber were fabricated by the polymer impregnation and pyrolysis process. The effect of dispersing carbon nanofiber on the mechanical and thermal properties of SiC/SiC composites was investigated. The bending strength and elastic modulus of SiC/SiC composites with carbon nanofiber decreased slightly compared to those of the SiC/SiC composites without the nanofiber. On the other hand, the thermal conductivity of SiC/SiC composites increased with increasing amount of dispersed nanofiber. The dominant reason is considered to be that the pore shape changed from an oblong shape perpendicular to the direction of heat flow to an isotropic. The shape change resulted from the dispersed carbon nanofiber.

  8. Decreased functions of astrocytes on carbon nanofiber materials.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Janice L; Waid, Michael C; Shi, Riyi; Webster, Thomas J

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers possess excellent conductivity properties, which may be beneficial in the design of more effective neural prostheses; however, limited evidence on their cytocompatibility properties currently exists. The objective of the present in vitro study was to determine cytocompatibility properties of formulations containing carbon nanofibers pertinent to neural implant applications. Substrates were prepared from four different types of carbon fibers, two with nanoscale diameters (nanophase, or less than or equal to 100 nm) and two with conventional diameters (or greater than 100 nm). Within these two categories, both a high and a low surface energy fiber were investigated and tested. Carbon fibers were compacted in a manual hydraulic press via a uniaxial loading cycle. Astrocytes (glial scar tissue-forming cells) were seeded onto the substrates for adhesion, proliferation, and long-term function studies (such as total intracellular protein and alkaline phosphatase activity). Results provided the first evidence that astrocytes preferentially adhered and proliferated on carbon fibers that had the largest diameter and the lowest surface energy. Based on these results, composite substrates were also formed using different weight percentages (0-25 wt%) of the nanophase, high surface energy fibers in a polycarbonate urethane matrix. Results provided the first evidence of decreased adhesion of astrocytes with increasing weight percents of the high surface energy carbon nanofibers in the polymer composite; this further demonstrates that formulations containing carbon fibers in the nanometer regime may limit astrocyte functions leading to decreased glial scar tissue formation. Positive interactions with neurons, and, at the same time, limited astrocyte functions leading to decreased gliotic scar tissue formation are essential for increased neuronal implant efficacy. PMID:14643605

  9. Porous Carbon Nanoparticle Networks with Tunable Absorbability

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wei; Kim, Seong Jin; Seong, Won-Kyeong; Kim, Sang Hoon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Kim, Ho-Young; Moon, Myoung-Woon

    2013-01-01

    Porous carbon materials with high specific surface areas and superhydrophobicity have attracted much research interest due to their potential application in the areas of water filtration, water/oil separation, and oil-spill cleanup. Most reported superhydrophobic porous carbon materials are fabricated by complex processes involving the use of catalysts and high temperatures but with low throughput. Here, we present a facile single-step method for fabricating porous carbon nanoparticle (CNP) networks with selective absorbability for water and oils via the glow discharge of hydrocarbon plasma without a catalyst at room temperature. Porous CNP networks were grown by the continuous deposition of CNPs at a relatively high deposition pressure. By varying the fluorine content, the porous CNP networks exhibited tunable repellence against liquids with various degrees of surface tension. These porous CNP networks could be applied for the separation of not only water/oil mixtures but also mixtures of liquids with different surface tension levels. PMID:23982181

  10. Physicochemical investigations of carbon nanofiber supported Cu / ZrO2 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Din, Israf Ud; Shaharun, Maizatul S.; Subbarao, Duvvuri; Naeem, A.

    2014-10-01

    Zirconia-promoted copper/carbon nanofiber catalysts (Cu - ZrO2/ CNF ) were prepared by the sequential deposition precipitation method. The Herringbone type of carbon nanofiber GNF-100 (Graphite nanofiber) was used as a catalyst support. Carbon nanofiber was oxidized to (CNF-O) with 5% and 65 % concentration of nitric acid (HNO3). The CNF activated with 5% HNO3 produced higher surface area which is 155 m2/g. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and N2 adsorption-desorption. The results showed that increase of HNO3 concentration reduced the surface area and porosity of the catalyst.

  11. Functionalized carbon nanotubes and nanofibers for biosensing applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-01-01

    This review summarizes recent advances in electrochemical biosensors based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with an emphasis on applications of CNTs. CNTs and CNFs have unique electric, electrocatalytic and mechanical properties, which make them efficient materials for developing electrochemical biosensors. We discuss functionalizing CNTs for biosensors. We review electrochemical biosensors based on CNTs and their various applications (e.g., measurement of small biological molecules and environmental pollutants, detection of DNA, and immunosensing of disease biomarkers). Moreover, we outline the development of electrochemical biosensors based on CNFs and their applications. Finally, we discuss some future applications of CNTs. PMID:19122842

  12. Carbon nanofibers synthesized by decomposition of alcohol at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, N.; Koie, R.; Inaoka, T.; Shintani, Y.; Nishimura, K.; Hiraki, A.

    2002-07-01

    In the present study, we fabricated the carbon nanofibers (CNFs) by decomposition of methyl alcohol at atmospheric pressure. The CNFs were grown on Ni/Si substrates using simplified hot-filament chemical vapor deposition equipment. The deposits mainly consist of the semicrystalline CNFs, in which a few of carbon nanotubes are included. On the 30-nm-thick Ni/Si substrates, the mean length of the CNFs is 2-3 mum, and their average diameter is less than 100 nm. The as-deposited CNFs were evaluated by both scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The field-electron-emission properties of CNFs were characterized as well.

  13. High-capacity Li2Mn0.8Fe0.2SiO4/carbon composite nanofiber cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shu; Li, Ying; Xu, Guanjie; Li, Shuli; Lu, Yao; Toprakci, Ozan; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2012-09-01

    Li2MnSiO4 has been considered as a promising cathode material with an extremely high theoretically capacity of 332 mAh g-1. However, due to its low intrinsic conductivity and poor structural stability, only about half of the theoretical capacity has been realized in practice and the capacity decays rapidly during cycling. To realize the high capacity and improve the cycling performance, Li2Mn0.8Fe0.2SiO4/carbon composite nanofibers were prepared by the combination of iron doping and electrospinning. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electronic microscope were applied to characterize the Li2Mn0.8Fe0.2SiO4/carbon nanofibers. It was found that Li2Mn0.8Fe0.2SiO4 nanoparticles were embedded into continuous carbon nanofiber matrices, which formed free-standing porous mats that could be used as binder-free cathodes. The iron doping improved the conductivity and purity of the active material, and the carbon nanofiber matrix facilitated ion transfer and charge diffusion. As a result, Li2Mn0.8Fe0.2SiO4/carbon nanofiber cathodes showed promising improvement on reversible capacity and cycling performance.

  14. Catalyst-loaded porous WO3 nanofibers using catalyst-decorated polystyrene colloid templates for detection of biomarker molecules.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seon-Jin; Kim, Sang-Joon; Koo, Won-Tae; Cho, Hee-Jin; Kim, Il-Doo

    2015-02-14

    Pore-loaded WO3 nanofibers (NFs) functionalized with spherical catalyst films were achieved via electrospinning combined by the sacrificial templating route using layer-by-layer (LbL) catalyst assembled polystyrene (PS) colloids. The catalyst-loaded porous WO3 NFs exhibited significantly improved toluene and acetone detection capability for potential application in exhaled breath analysis. PMID:25572467

  15. Occupational nanosafety considerations for carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Castranova, Vincent; Schulte, Paul A; Zumwalde, Ralph D

    2013-03-19

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are carbon atoms arranged in a crystalline graphene lattice with a tubular morphology. CNTs exhibit high tensile strength, possess unique electrical properties, are durable, and can be functionalized. These properties allow applications as structural materials, in electronics, as heating elements, in batteries, in the production of stain-resistant fabric, for bone grafting and dental implants, and for targeted drug delivery. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are strong, flexible fibers that are currently used to produce composite materials. Agitation can lead to aerosolized CNTs and CNFs, and peak airborne particulate concentrations are associated with workplace activities such as weighing, transferring, mixing, blending, or sonication. Most airborne CNTs or CNFs found in workplaces are loose agglomerates of micrometer diameter. However, due to their low density, they linger in workplace air for a considerable time, and a large fraction of these structures are respirable. In rat and mouse models, pulmonary exposure to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), or CNFs causes the following pulmonary reactions: acute pulmonary inflammation and injury, rapid and persistent formation of granulomatous lesions at deposition sites of large CNT agglomerates, and rapid and progressive alveolar interstitial fibrosis at deposition sites of more dispersed CNT or CNF structures. Pulmonary exposure to SWCNTs can induce oxidant stress in aortic tissue and increases plaque formation in an atherosclerotic mouse model. Pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs depresses the ability of coronary arterioles to respond to dilators. These cardiovascular effects may result from neurogenic signals from sensory irritant receptors in the lung. Pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs also upregulates mRNA for inflammatory mediators in selected brain regions, and pulmonary exposure to SWCNTs upregulates the baroreceptor reflex. In addition, pulmonary exposure to

  16. The effect of embedded carbon nanotubes on the morphological evolution during the carbonization of poly(acrylonitrile) nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Prilutsky, Sabina; Zussman, Eyal; Cohen, Yachin

    2008-04-23

    Hybrid nanofibers with different concentrations of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were fabricated using the electrospinning technique and subsequently carbonized. The morphology of the fabricated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) at different stages of the carbonization process was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The polycrystalline nature of the CNFs was shown, with increasing content of ordered crystalline regions having enhanced orientation with increasing content of MWCNTs. The results indicate that embedded MWCNTs in the PAN nanofibers nucleate the growth of carbon crystals during PAN carbonization. PMID:21825647

  17. Oxygen adsorption-induced surface segregation of titanium oxide by activation in carbon nanofibers for maximizing photocatalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-In; Jo, Seong-Mu; Joh, Han-Ik; Lee, Myong-Hoon; Lee, Sungho

    2015-02-14

    This research demonstrates a simple method for synthesizing titanium dioxide nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanofibers. These nanofibers showed highly efficient degradation of methylene blue under UV light because of the synergistic effects of the large surface-active sites of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and the carbon nanofibers on the photocatalytic properties. PMID:25575123

  18. Reverse Kebab Structure Formed inside Carbon Nanofibers via Nanochannel Flow.

    PubMed

    Nie, Min; Kalyon, Dilhan M; Fisher, Frank T

    2015-09-15

    The morphology of polymers inside a confined space has raised great interest in recent years. However, polymer crystallization within a one-dimensional carbon nanostructure is challenging due to the difficulty of polar solvents carrying polymers to enter a nonpolar graphitic nanotube in bulk solution at normal temperature and pressure. Here we describe a method whereby nylon-11 was crystallized and periodically distributed on the individual graphitic nanocone structure within hollow carbon nanofibers (CNF). Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction indicate that the nylon polymer is in the crystalline phase. A mechanism is suggested for the initiation of nanochannel flow in a bulk solvent as a prerequisite condition to achieve interior polymer crystallization. Selective etching of polymer crystals on the outer wall of CNF indicates that both surface tension and viscosity affect the flow within the CNF. This approach provides an opportunity for the interior functionalization of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers for applications in the biomedical, energy, and related fields. PMID:26313253

  19. Functionalized ultra-porous titania nanofiber membranes as nuclear waste separation and sequestration scaffolds for nuclear fuels recycle.

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Haiqing; Bell, Nelson Simmons; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Sava, Dorina Florentina; Nenoff, Tina Maria

    2012-09-01

    Advanced nuclear fuel cycle concept is interested in reducing separations to a simplified, one-step process if possible. This will benefit from the development of a one-step universal getter and sequestration material so as a simplified, universal waste form was proposed in this project. We have developed a technique combining a modified sol-gel chemistry and electrospinning for producing ultra-porous ceramic nanofiber membranes with controllable diameters and porous structures as the separation/sequestration materials. These ceramic nanofiber materials have been determined to have high porosity, permeability, loading capacity, and stability in extreme conditions. These porous fiber membranes were functionalized with silver nanoparticles and nanocrystal metal organic frameworks (MOFs) to introduce specific sites to capture gas species that are released during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Encapsulation into a durable waste form of ceramic composition was also demonstrated.

  20. Investigation of Lithium-Air Battery Discharge Product Formed on Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Robert Revell, III

    Carbon nanotubes have been actively investigated for integration in a wide variety of applications since their discovery over 20 years ago. Their myriad desirable material properties including exceptional mechanical strength, high thermal conductivities, large surface-to-volume ratios, and considerable electrical conductivities, which are attributable to a quantum mechanical ability to conduct electrons ballistically, have continued to motivate interest in this material system. While a variety of synthesis techniques exist, carbon nanotubes and nanofibers are most often conveniently synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), which involves their catalyzed growth from transition metal nanoparticles. Vertically-aligned nanotube and nanofiber carpets produced using CVD have been utilized in a variety of applications including those related to energy storage. Li-air (Li-O2) batteries have received much interest recently because of their very high theoretical energy densities (3200 Wh/kgLi2O2 ). which make them ideal candidates for energy storage devices for future fully-electric vehicles. During operation of a Li-air battery O2 is reduced on the surface a porous air cathode, reacting with Li-ions to form lithium peroxide (Li-O2). Unlike the intercalation reactions of Li-ion batteries, discharge in a Li-air cell is analogous to an electrodeposition process involving the nucleation and growth of the depositing species on a foreign substrate. Carbon nanofiber electrodes were synthesized on porous substrates using a chemical vapor deposition process and then assembled into Li-O2 cells. The large surface to volume ratio and low density of carbon nanofiber electrodes were found to yield a very high gravimetric energy density in Li-O 2 cells, approaching 75% of the theoretical energy density for Li 2O2. Further, the carbon nanofiber electrodes were found to be excellent platforms for conducting ex situ electron microscopy investigations of the deposition Li2O2 phase

  1. One-Pot Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibers from CO2.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiawen; Li, Fang-Fang; Lau, Jason; González-Urbina, Luis; Licht, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    Carbon nanofibers, CNFs, due to their superior strength, conductivity, flexibility, and durability have great potential as a material resource but still have limited use due to the cost intensive complexities of their synthesis. Herein, we report the high-yield and scalable electrolytic conversion of atmospheric CO2 dissolved in molten carbonates into CNFs. It is demonstrated that the conversion of CO2 → CCNF + O2 can be driven by efficient solar, as well as conventional, energy at inexpensive steel or nickel electrodes. The structure is tuned by controlling the electrolysis conditions, such as the addition of trace transition metals to act as CNF nucleation sites, the addition of zinc as an initiator and the control of current density. A less expensive source of CNFs will facilitate its adoption as a societal resource, and using carbon dioxide as a reactant to generate a value added product such as CNFs provides impetus to consume this greenhouse gas to mitigate climate change. PMID:26237131

  2. Fabrication and characterization of carbon nanofiber@mesoporous carbon core-shell composite for the Li-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Myeong Jun; Shin, Moo Whan

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we successfully design and synthesize the mesoporous carbon coated carbon nanofibers (CNF@mesoCs) for the Li-air battery. The composites are fabricated via electrospinning technique and nanocasting strategy. After mesoporous carbon coating process, the composites have retained their original one-dimensional structure as pristine carbon nanofibers. Every nanofiber entangles with each other to form a three-dimensional cross-linked web structure. Because of the mesoporous carbon coating on carbon nanofibers, the surface area increases from 708 m2 g-1 to 2194 m2 g-1. We confirm that the mesoporous carbon coated on carbon nanofibers is well-graphitized by analysis of Raman spectra. The graphitized surface of CNF@mesoCs (4.638 S cm-1) is believed to result in their higher electrical conductivity than that of pristine carbon nanofibers (3.0759 S cm-1). Without employment of any binders and metal foams, the cathode of CNF@mesoCs exhibits high discharge capacity of 4000 mA h g-1, which is much higher than that from pristine carbon nanofibers (2750 mA h g-1). This work demonstrates that the fabricated CNF@mesoCs structures have a great potential to be employed as light-weight and efficient electrode for energy storage and conversion devices.

  3. Faulting in porous carbonate grainstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tondi, Emanuele; Agosta, Fabrizio

    2010-05-01

    In the recent past, a new faulting mechanism has been documented within porous carbonate grainstones. This mechanism is due to strain localization into narrow tabular bands characterized by both volumetric and shear strain; for this reason, these features are named compactive shear bands. In the field, compactive shear bands are easily recognizable because they are lightly coloured with respect to the parent rock, and/or show a positive relief because of their increased resistance to weathering. Both characteristics, light colours and positive relief, are a consequence of the compaction processes that characterize these bands, which are the simplest structure element that form within porous carbonate grainstones. With ongoing deformation, the single compactive shear bands, which solve only a few mm of displacement, may evolve into zone of compactive shear bands and, finally, into well-developed faults characterized by slip surfaces and fault rocks. Field analysis conducted in key areas of Italy allow us to documented different modalities of interaction and linkage among the compactive shear bands: (i) a simple divergence of two different compactive shear bands from an original one, (ii) extensional and contractional jogs formed by two continuous, interacting compactive shear bands, and (iii) eye structures formed by collinear interacting compactive shear bands, which have been already described for deformation bands in sandstones. The last two types of interaction may localize the formation of compaction bands, which are characterized by pronounced component of compaction and negligible components of shearing, and/or pressure solution seams. All the aforementioned types of interaction and linkage could happen at any deformation stage, single bands, zone of bands or well developed faults. The transition from one deformation process to another, which is likely to be controlled by the changes in the material properties, is recorded by different ratios and

  4. A novel carbon fiber based porous carbon monolith

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, T.D.; Klett, J.W.; Weaver, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    A novel porous carbon material based on carbon fibers has been developed. The material, when activated, develops a significant micro- or mesopore volume dependent upon the carbon fiber type utilized (isotropic pitch or polyacrylonitrile). The materials will find applications in the field of fluid separations or as a catalyst support. Here, the manufacture and characterization of our porous carbon monoliths are described. A novel adsorbent carbon composite material has been developed comprising carbon fibers and a binder. The material, called carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS), was developed through a joint research program between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research (UKCAER).

  5. A comparative study of EMI shielding properties of carbon nanofiber and multi-walled carbon nanotube filled polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yonglai; Gupta, Mool C; Dudley, Kenneth L; Lawrence, Roland W

    2005-06-01

    Electromagnetic interference shielding properties of carbon nanofiber- and multi-walled carbon nanotube-filled polystyrene composites were investigated in the frequency range of 8.2-12.4 GHz (X-band). It was observed that the shielding effectiveness of composites was frequency independent, and increased with the increase of carbon nanofiber or nanotube loading. At the same filler loading, multi-walled carbon nanotube-filled polystyrene composites exhibited higher shielding effectiveness compared to those filled with carbon nanofibers. In particular, carbon nanotubes were more effective than nanofibers in providing high EMI shielding at low filler loadings. The experimental data showed that the shielding effectiveness of the composite containing 7 wt% carbon nanotubes could reach more than 26 dB, implying that such a composite can be used as a potential electromagnetic interference shielding material. The dominant shielding mechanism of carbon nanotube-filled polystyrene composites was also discussed. PMID:16060155

  6. Thermal conductivity of tubrostratic carbon nanofiber networks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bauer, Matthew L.; Saltonstall, Chris B.; Leseman, Zayd C.; Beechem, Thomas E.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Norris, Pamela M.

    2016-01-01

    Composite material systems composed of a matrix of nano materials can achieve combinations of mechanical and thermophysical properties outside the range of traditional systems. While many reports have studied the intrinsic thermal properties of individual carbon fibers, to be useful in applications in which thermal stability is critical, an understanding of heat transport in composite materials is required. In this work, air/ carbon nano fiber networks are studied to elucidate the system parameters influencing thermal transport. Sample thermal properties are measured with varying initial carbon fiber fill fraction, environment pressure, loading pressure, and heat treatment temperature through a bidirectional modificationmore » of the 3ω technique. The nanostructures of the individual fibers are characterized with small angle x-ray scattering and Raman spectroscopy providing insight to individual fiber thermal conductivity. Measured thermal conductivity varied from 0.010 W/(m K) to 0.070 W/(m K). An understanding of the intrinsic properties of the individual fibers and the interactions of the two phase composite is used to reconcile low measured thermal conductivities with predictive modeling. This methodology can be more generally applied to a wide range of fiber composite materials and their applications.« less

  7. Thermal conductivity of tubrostratic carbon nanofiber networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Matthew L.; Saltonstall, Chris B.; Leseman, Zayd C.; Beechem, Thomas E.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Norris, Pamela M.

    2016-01-01

    Composite material systems composed of a matrix of nano materials can achieve combinations of mechanical and thermophysical properties outside the range of traditional systems. While many reports have studied the intrinsic thermal properties of individual carbon fibers, to be useful in applications in which thermal stability is critical, an understanding of heat transport in composite materials is required. In this work, air/ carbon nano fiber networks are studied to elucidate the system parameters influencing thermal transport. Sample thermal properties are measured with varying initial carbon fiber fill fraction, environment pressure, loading pressure, and heat treatment temperature through a bidirectional modification of the 3ω technique. The nanostructures of the individual fibers are characterized with small angle x-ray scattering and Raman spectroscopy providing insight to individual fiber thermal conductivity. Measured thermal conductivity varied from 0.010 W/(m K) to 0.070 W/(m K). An understanding of the intrinsic properties of the individual fibers and the interactions of the two phase composite is used to reconcile low measured thermal conductivities with predictive modeling. This methodology can be more generally applied to a wide range of fiber composite materials and their applications.

  8. Carbon nanofiber polymer composites: evaluation of life cycle energy use.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Vikas; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2009-03-15

    Holistic evaluation of emerging nanotechnologies using systems analysis is pivotal for guiding their safe and sustainable development. While toxicity studies of engineered nanomaterials are essential, understanding of the potential large scale impacts of nanotechnology is also critical for developing sustainable nanoproducts. This work evaluates the life cycle energetic impact associated with the production and use of carbon nanofiber (CNF) reinforced polymer nanocomposites (PNC). Specifically, both simple CNF and carbon nanofiber-glass fiber (CNF-GF) hybrid PNCs are evaluated and compared with steel for equal stiffness design. Life cycle inventory is developed based on published literature and best available engineering information. A cradle-to-gate comparison suggests that for equal stiffness design, CNF reinforced PNCs are 1.6-12 times more energy intensive than steel. It is anticipated that the product use phase may strongly influence whether any net savings in life cycle energy consumption can be realized. A case study involving the use of CNF and CNF-GF reinforced PNCs in the body panels of automobiles highlights that the use of PNCs with lower CNF loading ratios has the potential for net life cycle energy savings relative to steel owing to improved fuel economy benefits. Other factors such as cost, toxicity impact of CNF, and end-of-life issues specific to CNFs need to be considered to evaluate the final economic and environmental performance of CNF reinforced PNC materials. PMID:19368217

  9. Chlorine effect on the formation of carbon nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wang-Hua; Takahashi, Yusuke; Li, Yuan-Yao; Sakoda, Akiyoshi

    2012-12-01

    Platelet graphite nanofibers (GNFs) and turbostratic carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are synthesized by the thermal evaporation and decomposition of a polymer-based mixture at 700 degrees C using Ni as a catalyst. The mixture consists of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), serving as the carbon source, and hydrochloric acid solution (HCl(aq)), serving as the promoter/additive for the growth of CNFs. High-purity zigzag-shaped platelet GNFs form with 10 wt% HCl(aq) as an additive in the PEG. The diameters of the platelet GNFs are in the range of 40-60 nm, with lengths of a few micrometers. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images indicate a high degree of graphitization and well ordered graphene layers along the fiber axis. In contrast, high-purity turbostratic CNFs form with 20 wt% HCl(aq) in the PEG. The diameter and length of the turbostratic CNFs are 20-40 nm and a few micrometers, respectively. The participation of HCl in the thermal process leads to the formation of Ni-Cl compounds. The amount of chlorine affects the shape of the Ni catalyst, which determines the type of CNF formed. PMID:23447943

  10. Carbon nanofibers derived from cellulose nanofibers as a long-life anode material for rechargeable sodium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, W; Schardt, J; Bommier, C; Wang, B; Razink, J; Simonsen, J; Ji, XL

    2013-01-01

    A highly reversible anode is indispensable to the future success of sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Herein, carbon nanofibers (CNFs) derived from cellulose nanofibers are investigated as an anode material for SIBs. The CNFs exhibit very promising electrochemical properties, including a high reversible capacity (255 mA h g(-1) at 40 mA g(-1)), good rate capability (85 mA h g(-1) at 2000 mA g(-1)), and excellent cycling stability (176 mA h g(-1) at 200 mA g(-1) over 600 cycles).

  11. High performance carbon nanotube - polymer nanofiber hybrid fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Ozkan; Stano, Kelly; Faraji, Shaghayegh; Stone, Corinne; Willis, Colin; Zhang, Xiangwu; Jur, Jesse S.; Bradford, Philip D.

    2015-10-01

    Stable nanoscale hybrid fabrics containing both polymer nanofibers and separate and distinct carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are highly desirable but very challenging to produce. Here, we report the first instance of such a hybrid fabric, which can be easily tailored to contain 0-100% millimeter long CNTs. The novel CNT - polymer hybrid nonwoven fabrics were created by simultaneously electrospinning nanofibers onto aligned CNT sheets which were drawn and collected on a grounded, rotating mandrel. Due to the unique properties of the CNTs, the hybrids show very high tensile strength, very small pore size, high specific surface area and electrical conductivity. In order to further examine the hybrid fabric properties, they were consolidated under pressure, and also calendered at 70 °C. After calendering, the fabric's strength increased by an order of magnitude due to increased interactions and intermingling with the CNTs. The hybrids are highly efficient as aerosol filters; consolidated hybrid fabrics with a thickness of 20 microns and areal density of only 8 g m-2 exhibited ultra low particulate (ULPA) filter performance. The flexibility of this nanofabrication method allows for the use of many different polymer systems which provides the opportunity for engineering a wide range of nanoscale hybrid materials with desired functionalities.Stable nanoscale hybrid fabrics containing both polymer nanofibers and separate and distinct carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are highly desirable but very challenging to produce. Here, we report the first instance of such a hybrid fabric, which can be easily tailored to contain 0-100% millimeter long CNTs. The novel CNT - polymer hybrid nonwoven fabrics were created by simultaneously electrospinning nanofibers onto aligned CNT sheets which were drawn and collected on a grounded, rotating mandrel. Due to the unique properties of the CNTs, the hybrids show very high tensile strength, very small pore size, high specific surface area and electrical

  12. Method for production of polymer and carbon nanofibers from water-soluble polymers.

    PubMed

    Spender, Jonathan; Demers, Alexander L; Xie, Xinfeng; Cline, Amos E; Earle, M Alden; Ellis, Lucas D; Neivandt, David J

    2012-07-11

    Nanometer scale carbon fibers (carbon nanofibers) are of great interest to scientists and engineers in fields such as materials science, composite production, and energy storage due to their unique chemical, physical, and mechanical properties. Precursors currently used for production of carbon nanofibers are primarily from nonrenewable resources. Lignin is a renewable natural polymer existing in all high-level plants that is a byproduct of the papermaking process and a potential feedstock for carbon nanofiber production. The work presented here demonstrates a process involving the rapid freezing of an aqueous lignin solution, followed by sublimation of the resultant ice, to form a uniform network comprised of individual interconnected lignin nanofibers. Carbonization of the lignin nanofibers yields a similarly structured carbon nanofiber network. The methodology is not specific to lignin; nanofibers of other water-soluble polymers have been successfully produced. This nanoscale fibrous morphology has not been observed in traditional cryogel processes, due to the relatively slower freezing rates employed compared to those achieved in this study. PMID:22716198

  13. Effects of Microstructure of Carbon Nanofibers for Amperometric Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhizhou; Cui, Xiaoli; Zheng, Junsheng; Wang, Qingfei; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-08-10

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with different microstructures, including platelet-carbon nanofibers (PCNFs), fish-bone-carbon nanofibers (FCNFs), and tube-carbon nanofibers (TCNFs), were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for electrochemical sensing of hydrogen peroxide. The CNFs studied here can show several microstructures in which various stacked morphologies and their sizes and graphite-layer ordering can be well controlled. Glassy carbon (GC) electrodes modified by CNFs were fabricated and compared for amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide. Sensors of PCNFs/GC, FCNFs/GC, and TCNFs/GC were used in the amperometric detection of H2O2 in a solution of 0.05 M phosphate buffered saline solution (pH 7.4).

  14. Thermal Expansion of Carbon Nanofiber-Reinforced Multiscale Polymer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveda, Ronald L.; Achar, Sriniket; Gupta, Nikhil

    2012-10-01

    Improved dimensional stability of composites is desired in applications where they are exposed to varying temperature conditions. The current study aims at analyzing the effect of vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on the thermal expansion behavior of epoxy matrix composites and hollow particle-filled composites (syntactic foams). CNFs have a lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) than epoxy resin, which results in composites with increased dimensional stability as the CNF content is increased. The experimental measurements show that with 10 wt.% CNF, the composite has about 11.6% lower CTE than the matrix resin. In CNF-reinforced syntactic foams, the CTE of the composite decreases with increasing wall thickness and volume fraction of hollow particle inclusions. With respect to neat epoxy resin, a maximum decrease of 38.4% is also observed in the CNF/syntactic foams with microballoon inclusions that range from 15 vol.% to 50 vol.% in all composite mixtures. The experimental results for CNF/syntactic foam are in agreement with a modified version of Kerner's model. A combination of hollow microparticles and nanofibers has resulted in the ability to tailor the thermal expansion of the composite over a wide range.

  15. Imaging, Spectroscopy, Mechanical, Alignment and Biocompatibility Studies of Electrospun Medical Grade Polyurethane (Carbothane™ 3575A) Nanofibers and Composite Nanofibers Containing Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Faheem A.; Macossay, Javier; Cantu, Travis; Zhang, Xujun; Hassan, M. Shamshi; Salinas, M. Esther; Farhangi, Chakavak S.; Ahmad, Hassan; Kim, Hern; Bowlin, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we discuss the electrospinning of medical grade polyurethane (Carbothane™ 3575A) nanofibers containing multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes (MWCNTs). A simple method that does not depend on additional foreign chemicals has been employed to disperse MWCNTs through high intensity sonication. Typically, a polymer solution consisting of polymer/MWCNTs has been electrospun to form nanofibers. Physiochemical aspects of prepared nanofibers were evaluated by SEM, TEM, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, confirming nanofibers containing MWCNTs. The biocompatibility and cell attachment of the produced nanofiber mats were investigated while culturing them in the presence of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. The results from these tests indicated non-toxic behavior of the prepared nanofiber mats and had a significant attachment of cells towards nanofibers. The incorporation of MWCNTs into polymeric nanofibers led to an improvement in tensile stress from 11.40 ± 0.9 to 51.25 ± 5.5 MPa. Furthermore, complete alignment of the nanofibers resulted in an enhancement on tensile stress to 72.78 ± 5.5 MPa. Displaying these attributes of high mechanical properties and non-toxic nature of nanofibers are recommended for an ideal candidate for future tendon and ligament grafts. PMID:25460415

  16. Microfluidic Immuno-Biochip for Detection of Breast Cancer Biomarkers Using Hierarchical Composite of Porous Graphene and Titanium Dioxide Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Md Azahar; Mondal, Kunal; Jiao, Yueyi; Oren, Seval; Xu, Zhen; Sharma, Ashutosh; Dong, Liang

    2016-08-17

    We report on a label-free microfluidic immunosensor with femtomolar sensitivity and high selectivity for early detection of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (EGFR2 or ErbB2) proteins. This sensor utilizes a uniquely structured immunoelectrode made of porous hierarchical graphene foam (GF) modified with electrospun carbon-doped titanium dioxide nanofibers (nTiO2) as an electrochemical working electrode. Due to excellent biocompatibility, intrinsic surface defects, high reaction kinetics, and good stability for proteins, anatase nTiO2 are ideal for electrochemical sensor applications. The three-dimensional and porous features of GF allow nTiO2 to penetrate and attach to the surface of the GF by physical adsorption. Combining GF with functional nTiO2 yields high charge transfer resistance, large surface area, and porous access to the sensing surface by the analyte, resulting in new possibilities for the development of electrochemical immunosensors. Here, the enabling of EDC-NHS chemistry covalently immobilized the antibody of ErbB2 (anti-ErbB2) on the GF-nTiO2 composite. To obtain a compact sensor architecture, the composite working electrode was designed to hang above the gold counter electrode in a microfluidic channel. The sensor underwent differential pulse voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to quantify breast cancer biomarkers. The two methods had high sensitivities of 0.585 μA μM(-1) cm(-2) and 43.7 kΩ μM(-1) cm(-2) in a wide concentration range of target ErbB2 antigen from 1 × 10(-15) M (1.0 fM) to 0.1 × 10(-6) M (0.1 μM) and from 1 × 10(-13) M (0.1 pM) to 0.1 × 10(-6) M (0.1 μM), respectively. Utilization of the specific recognition element, i.e., anti-ErbB2, results in high specificity, even in the presence of identical members of the EGFR family of receptor tyrosine kinases, such as ErbB3 and ErbB4. Many promising applications in the field of electrochemical detection of chemical and biological species will derive from the

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon Nanofibers on Transition Metal Catalysts by Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Yura; Park, Eun-Sil; Mees, Karina; Park, Ho-Seon; Willert-Porada, Monika; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2015-09-01

    Carbon nanofibers were synthesized on transition metal (Fe, Co, Cu) catalysts by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). The variations of thickness and surface of the fibers were investigated according to the concentration of the transition metal. In order to prepare the metal catalysts for synthesis, transition metal nitrate and copper nitrate at a weight ratio were dissolved in distilled water. The obtained catalyst precipitates were filtered and then dried for more than 24 hours at 110 degrees C. Carbon nanofibers were synthesized by using ethylene gas of carbon source by CVD after pulverization of the fully-dried catalyst precipitates. They were characterized by SEM, EDS, Raman, XRD, XPS and TG/DTA, and their specific surface area was measured by BET. The characteristics of the synthesized carbon nanofibers were greatly influenced by the concentration ratio of the metal catalysts. Especially, uniform carbon nanofibers grew when the concentration ratio of Fe and Cu was 7:3, and that of Co and Cu was 6:4. Carbon nanofibers synthesized under such concentration conditions had the best crystallizability, compared to carbon nanofibers synthesized with metal catalysts of different concentration ratios, and revealed high amorphicity as well as high specific surface area. PMID:26716326

  18. Cu-Ni composition gradient for the catalytic synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Kate L; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich; Rack, Philip D; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Meyer III, Harry M; Simpson, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    The influence of catalyst alloy composition on the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers was studied using Cu-Ni thin films. Metals were co-sputtered onto a substrate to form a thin film alloy with a wide compositional gradient, as determined by Auger analysis. Carbon nanofibers were then grown from the gradient catalyst film by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The alloy composition produced substantial differences in the resulting nanofibers, which varied from branched structures at 81%Ni-19%Cu to high aspect ratio nanocones at 80%Cu-20%Ni. Electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques also revealed segregation of the initial alloy catalyst particles at certain concentrations.

  19. Vertically aligned carbon nanofiber nanoelectrode arrays: electrochemical etching and electrode reusability

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rakesh K.; Meyyappan, M.; Koehne, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers in the form of nanoelectrode arrays were grown on nine individual electrodes, arranged in a 3 × 3 array geometry, in a 2.5 cm2 chip. Electrochemical etching of the carbon nanofibers was employed for electrode activation and enhancing the electrode kinetics. Here, we report the effects of electrochemical etching on the fiber height and electrochemical properties. Electrode regeneration by amide hydrolysis and electrochemical etching is also investigated for electrode reusability. PMID:25089188

  20. Lithium intercalation in porous carbon anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, T.D.; Pekala, R.W.; Mayer, S.T.

    1994-11-23

    Carbon foams derived from the phase separation of polyacrylonitrile/solvent mixtures were investigated as lithium intercalation anodes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. The carbon foams have a bulk density of 0.35--0.5 g/cm{sup 3}, low surface area (< 50 m{sup 2}/g), and an average cell size of 5--10 {mu}m. Polyacrylonitrile-based carbon foams doped with phosphoric acid had capacity as high as 450 mAh/g. Carbon capacity increased with increasing phosphoric acid concentration in the doping solution. The doped porous carbon anodes exhibited good cyclability and excellent coulombic efficiency.

  1. Characterization of Plasma Synthesized Vertical Carbon Nanofibers for Nanoelectronics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jaesung; Feng, Philip X.-L.; Kaul, Anupama B.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the material characterization of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) which are assembled into a three-dimensional (3D) configuration for making new nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray electron dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) are employed to decipher the morphology and chemical compositions of the CNFs at various locations along individual CNFs grown on silicon (Si) and refractory nitride (NbTiN) substrates, respectively. The measured characteristics suggest interesting properties of the CNF bodies and their capping catalyst nanoparticles, and growth mechanisms on the two substrates. Laser irradiation on the CNFs seems to cause thermal oxidation and melting of catalyst nanoparticles. The structural morphology and chemical compositions of the CNFs revealed in this study should aid in the applications of the CNFs to nanoelectronics and NEMS.

  2. Electron gun using carbon-nanofiber field emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Y.; Haga, A.; Sugita, S.; Kita, S.; Tanaka, S.-I.; Okuyama, F.; Kobayashi, N.

    2007-01-01

    An electron gun constructed using carbon-nanofiber (CNF) emitters and an electrostatic Einzel lens system has been characterized for the development of a high-resolution x-ray source. The CNFs used were grown on tungsten and palladium tips by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition. Electron beams with the energies of 10

  3. Electron gun using carbon-nanofiber field emitter

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Y.; Haga, A.; Sugita, S.; Kita, S.; Tanaka, S.-I.; Okuyama, F.; Kobayashi, N.

    2007-01-15

    An electron gun constructed using carbon-nanofiber (CNF) emitters and an electrostatic Einzel lens system has been characterized for the development of a high-resolution x-ray source. The CNFs used were grown on tungsten and palladium tips by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition. Electron beams with the energies of 10

  4. Fabrication and Characterization of Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Shape Memory Epoxy (CNFR-SME) Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiuyang

    Shape memory polymers have a wide range of applications due to their ability to mechanically change shapes upon external stimulus, while their achievable composite counterparts prove even more versatile. An overview of literature on shape memory materials, fillers and composites was provided to pave a foundation for the materials used in the current study and their inherent benefits. This study details carbon nanofiber and composite fabrication and contrasts their material properties. In the first section, the morphology and surface chemistry of electrospun-poly(acrylonitrile)-based carbon nanofiber webs were tailored through various fabrication methods and impregnated with a shape memory epoxy. The morphologies, chemical compositions, thermal stabilities and electrical resistivities of the carbon nanofibers and composites were then characterized. In the second section, an overview of thermal, mechanical and shape memory characterization techniques for shape memory polymers and their composites was provided. Thermal and mechanical properties in addition to the kinetic and dynamic shape memory performances of neat epoxy and carbon nanofiber/epoxy composites were characterized. The various carbon nanofiber web modifications proved to have notable influence on their respective composite performances. The results from these two sections lead to an enhanced understanding of these carbon nanofiber reinforced shape memory epoxy composites and provided insight for future studies to tune these composites at will.

  5. Anodes for glucose fuel cells made of carbonized nanofibers with embedded carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prilutsky, Sabina; Cohen, Yachin; Zussman, Eyal; Makarov, Vadim; Bubis, Eugenia; Schechner, Pinchas

    2010-03-01

    Electrodes made of carbonized polyacrylonitryle nanofibers, with and without embedded multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were fabricated by the electrospinning (ES) process and evaluated as anodes in a glucose fuel cell (FC). The effect of several processing and structural characteristics, such as the presence of MWCNTs, polymer concentration in the ES solution and silver electroless plating, on FC performance were measured The carbon electrodes were successful as anodes showing significant activity even without additional silver catalyst, with noticeable improvement by incorporation of MWCNTs. The orientation of graphitic layers along the fiber axis and the coherence of layer packing were shown to be important for enhanced electrode activity. The maximal values of open circuit voltage (OCV) and peak of power density (PPD) of unmetallized electrodes, 0.4 V and 30 μW/cm^2, were found for composite carbon nanofiber electrode. Electroless silver metallization leads to enhanced performance. Maximal values of OCV and PPD of silvered electrodes were measured to be about 0.9 V and 400 μW/cm^2. Thus, carbonized nanofibers with embedded MWCNTs may form a good basis for glucose FC anodes, but better metallization and cell-configuration allowing proper mixing are required.

  6. Carbon Nanofiber/3D Nanoporous Silicon Hybrids as High Capacity Lithium Storage Materials.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeong-Il; Sohn, Myungbeom; Kim, Dae Sik; Park, Cheolho; Choi, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Hansu

    2016-04-21

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF)/3D nanoporous (3DNP) Si hybrid materials were prepared by chemical etching of melt-spun Si/Al-Cu-Fe alloy nanocomposites, followed by carbonization using a pitch. CNFs were successfully grown on the surface of 3DNP Si particles using residual Fe impurities after acidic etching, which acted as a catalyst for the growth of CNFs. The resulting CNF/3DNP Si hybrid materials showed an enhanced cycle performance up to 100 cycles compared to that of the pristine Si/Al-Cu-Fe alloy nanocomposite as well as that of bare 3DNP Si particles. These results indicate that CNFs and the carbon coating layer have a beneficial effect on the capacity retention characteristics of 3DNP Si particles by providing continuous electron-conduction pathways in the electrode during cycling. The approach presented here provides another way to improve the electrochemical performances of porous Si-based high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:26970098

  7. Physicochemical investigations of carbon nanofiber supported Cu/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Din, Israf Ud E-mail: maizats@petronas.com.my; Shaharun, Maizatul S. E-mail: maizats@petronas.com.my; Subbarao, Duvvuri; Naeem, A.

    2014-10-24

    Zirconia-promoted copper/carbon nanofiber catalysts (Cu‐ZrO{sub 2}/CNF) were prepared by the sequential deposition precipitation method. The Herringbone type of carbon nanofiber GNF-100 (Graphite nanofiber) was used as a catalyst support. Carbon nanofiber was oxidized to (CNF-O) with 5% and 65 % concentration of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). The CNF activated with 5% HNO{sub 3} produced higher surface area which is 155 m{sup 2}/g. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption. The results showed that increase of HNO{sub 3} concentration reduced the surface area and porosity of the catalyst.

  8. Neural adhesion, growth, and activity on carbon nanotubes and carbonized nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franca, Eric William

    This dissertation focuses on how the physical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbonized nanofibers (CNFs) affect the physiological and electrophysiological properties of neurons and neural networks and how this may affect the efficacy of these nanomaterials as microelectrode materials. In general, the pursuit of increasing electrode sensitivity while maintaining low noise levels is addressed by investigating and utilizing novel electrode materials. Carbon nanomaterials have a native conductivity and nano-scale roughness that should decrease microelectrode noise levels and impedance by virtue of a substantially increased surface area. In addition to the beneficial microelectrode properties, these carbon nanomaterials could increase the integration of the electrode to the neural tissue. The work here is an investigation of how selected CNT and CNF materials affect the viability, outgrowth, and adhesion of cortical neurons in vitro and how the physical and chemical properties of each substrate correlates to these measurements. The intent is that properties detailed in vitro can be assumed to extrapolate to performance in vivo assuming the same materials are utilized for invasive, implanted microelectrodes. Carbon nanotubes were deposited by a layer-by-layer (LBL) method with poly(ethylenimine) (PEI). Carbon nanofiber substrates were prepared in conjunction with collaborators via electrospinning a photosensitive polymer (SU-8), photopatterning, and pyrolyzing the depositions. In addition to these substrates, control samples were prepared in the form of PEI-treated glass coverslips, carbonized thin films, SU-8 thin films, and SU-8 nanofibers. The primary variable between all of these substrates is the roughness or topography of each deposition (ranging from 0.26 nm to 160 nm average roughness). Physical and chemical characteristics of the depositions are presented in addition to the electrical characteristics which make them attractive as

  9. Zinc oxide nanorod assisted rapid single-step process for the conversion of electrospun poly(acrylonitrile) nanofibers to carbon nanofibers with a high graphitic content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nain, Ratyakshi; Singh, Dhirendra; Jassal, Manjeet; Agrawal, Ashwini K.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of incorporation of rigid zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures on carbonization behavior of electrospun special acrylic fiber grade poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN-SAF) nanofibers was investigated. ZnO nanorods with high aspect ratios were incorporated into a PAN-N,N-dimethylformamide system and the composite nanofibers reinforced with aligned ZnO rods up to 50 wt% were successfully electrospun, and subsequently, carbonized. The morphology and the structural analysis of the resultant carbon nanofibers revealed that the rigid ZnO nanorods, present inside the nanofibers, possibly acted as scaffolds (temporary support structures) for immobilization of polymer chains and assisted in uniform heat distribution. This facilitated rapid and efficient conversion of the polymer structure to the ladder, and subsequently, the graphitized structure. At the end of the process, the ZnO nanorods were found to completely separate from the carbonized fibers yielding pure carbon nanofibers with a high graphitic content and surface area. The approach could be used to eliminate the slow, energy intensive stabilization step and achieve fast conversion of randomly laid carbon nanofiber webs in a single step to carbon nanofibers without the application of external tension or internal templates usually employed to achieve a high graphitic content in such systems.The effect of incorporation of rigid zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures on carbonization behavior of electrospun special acrylic fiber grade poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN-SAF) nanofibers was investigated. ZnO nanorods with high aspect ratios were incorporated into a PAN-N,N-dimethylformamide system and the composite nanofibers reinforced with aligned ZnO rods up to 50 wt% were successfully electrospun, and subsequently, carbonized. The morphology and the structural analysis of the resultant carbon nanofibers revealed that the rigid ZnO nanorods, present inside the nanofibers, possibly acted as scaffolds (temporary support structures) for

  10. Membranes of MnO Beading in Carbon Nanofibers as Flexible Anodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Du, Yuxuan; Jin, Lei; Yang, Yang; Wu, Shuilin; Li, Weihan; Yu, Yan; Zhu, Yanwu; Zhang, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Freestanding yet flexible membranes of MnO/carbon nanofibers are successfully fabricated through incorporating MnO2 nanowires into polymer solution by a facile electrospinning technique. During the stabilization and carbonization processes of the as-spun membranes, MnO2 nanowires are transformed to MnO nanoparticles coincided with a conversion of the polymer from an amorphous state to a graphitic structure of carbon nanofibers. The hybrids consist of isolated MnO nanoparticles beading in the porous carbon and demonstrate superior performance when being used as a binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries. With an optimized amount of MnO (34.6 wt%), the anode exhibits a reversible capacity of as high as 987.3 mAh g−1 after 150 discharge/charge cycles at 0.1 A g−1, a good rate capability (406.1 mAh g−1 at 3  A g−1) and an excellent cycling performance (655 mAh g−1 over 280 cycles at 0.5 A g−1). Furthermore, the hybrid anode maintains a good electrochemical performance at bending state as a flexible electrode. PMID:26374601

  11. Membranes of MnO Beading in Carbon Nanofibers as Flexible Anodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin; Du, Yuxuan; Jin, Lei; Yang, Yang; Wu, Shuilin; Li, Weihan; Yu, Yan; Zhu, Yanwu; Zhang, Qinghua

    2015-09-01

    Freestanding yet flexible membranes of MnO/carbon nanofibers are successfully fabricated through incorporating MnO2 nanowires into polymer solution by a facile electrospinning technique. During the stabilization and carbonization processes of the as-spun membranes, MnO2 nanowires are transformed to MnO nanoparticles coincided with a conversion of the polymer from an amorphous state to a graphitic structure of carbon nanofibers. The hybrids consist of isolated MnO nanoparticles beading in the porous carbon and demonstrate superior performance when being used as a binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries. With an optimized amount of MnO (34.6 wt%), the anode exhibits a reversible capacity of as high as 987.3 mAh g-1 after 150 discharge/charge cycles at 0.1 A g-1, a good rate capability (406.1 mAh g-1 at 3  A g-1) and an excellent cycling performance (655 mAh g-1 over 280 cycles at 0.5 A g-1). Furthermore, the hybrid anode maintains a good electrochemical performance at bending state as a flexible electrode.

  12. First Introduction of NiSe2 to Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries: A Hybrid of Graphene-Wrapped NiSe2/C Porous Nanofiber

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jung Sang; Lee, Seung Yeon; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-01-01

    The first-ever study of nickel selenide materials as efficient anode materials for Na-ion rechargeable batteries is conducted using the electrospinning process. NiSe2-reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-C composite nanofibers are successfully prepared via electrospinning and a subsequent selenization process. The electrospun nanofibers giving rise to these porous-structured composite nanofibers with optimum amount of amorphous C are obtained from the polystyrene to polyacrylonitrile ratio of 1/4. These composite nanofibers also consist of uniformly distributed single-crystalline NiSe2 nanocrystals that have a mean size of 27 nm. In contrast, the densely structured bare NiSe2 nanofibers formed via selenization of the pure NiO nanofibers consist of large crystallites. The initial discharge capacities of the NiSe2-rGO-C composite and bare NiSe2 nanofibers at a current density of 200 mA g−1 are 717 and 755 mA h g−1, respectively. However, the respective 100th-cycle discharge capacities of the former and latter are 468 and 35 mA h g−1. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal the structural stability of the composite nanofibers during repeated Na-ion insertion and extraction processes. The excellent Na-ion storage properties of these nanofibers are attributed to this structural stability. PMID:26997350

  13. First Introduction of NiSe2 to Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries: A Hybrid of Graphene-Wrapped NiSe2/C Porous Nanofiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jung Sang; Lee, Seung Yeon; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-03-01

    The first-ever study of nickel selenide materials as efficient anode materials for Na-ion rechargeable batteries is conducted using the electrospinning process. NiSe2-reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-C composite nanofibers are successfully prepared via electrospinning and a subsequent selenization process. The electrospun nanofibers giving rise to these porous-structured composite nanofibers with optimum amount of amorphous C are obtained from the polystyrene to polyacrylonitrile ratio of 1/4. These composite nanofibers also consist of uniformly distributed single-crystalline NiSe2 nanocrystals that have a mean size of 27 nm. In contrast, the densely structured bare NiSe2 nanofibers formed via selenization of the pure NiO nanofibers consist of large crystallites. The initial discharge capacities of the NiSe2-rGO-C composite and bare NiSe2 nanofibers at a current density of 200 mA g‑1 are 717 and 755 mA h g‑1, respectively. However, the respective 100th-cycle discharge capacities of the former and latter are 468 and 35 mA h g‑1. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal the structural stability of the composite nanofibers during repeated Na-ion insertion and extraction processes. The excellent Na-ion storage properties of these nanofibers are attributed to this structural stability.

  14. First Introduction of NiSe2 to Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries: A Hybrid of Graphene-Wrapped NiSe2/C Porous Nanofiber.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung Sang; Lee, Seung Yeon; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-01-01

    The first-ever study of nickel selenide materials as efficient anode materials for Na-ion rechargeable batteries is conducted using the electrospinning process. NiSe2-reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-C composite nanofibers are successfully prepared via electrospinning and a subsequent selenization process. The electrospun nanofibers giving rise to these porous-structured composite nanofibers with optimum amount of amorphous C are obtained from the polystyrene to polyacrylonitrile ratio of 1/4. These composite nanofibers also consist of uniformly distributed single-crystalline NiSe2 nanocrystals that have a mean size of 27 nm. In contrast, the densely structured bare NiSe2 nanofibers formed via selenization of the pure NiO nanofibers consist of large crystallites. The initial discharge capacities of the NiSe2-rGO-C composite and bare NiSe2 nanofibers at a current density of 200 mA g(-1) are 717 and 755 mA h g(-1), respectively. However, the respective 100(th)-cycle discharge capacities of the former and latter are 468 and 35 mA h g(-1). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal the structural stability of the composite nanofibers during repeated Na-ion insertion and extraction processes. The excellent Na-ion storage properties of these nanofibers are attributed to this structural stability. PMID:26997350

  15. Processing, characterization and modeling of carbon nanofiber modified carbon/carbon composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samalot Rivera, Francis J.

    Carbon/Carbon (C/C) composites are used in high temperature applications because they exhibit excellent thermomechanical properties. There are several challenges associated with the processing of C/C composites that include long cycle times, formation of closed porosity within fabric woven architecture and carbonization induced cracks that can lead to reduction of mechanical properties. This work addresses various innovative approaches to reduce processing uncertainties and thereby improve thermomechanical properties of C/C by using vapor grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNFs) in conjunction with carbon fabric and precursor phenolic matrix. The different aspects of the proposed research contribute to understanding of the translation of VGCNFs properties in a C/C composite. The specific objectives of the research are; (a) To understand the mechanical properties and microstructural features of phenolic resin precursor with and without modification with VGCNFs; (b) To develop innovative processing concepts that incorporate VGCNFs by spraying them on carbon fabric and/or adding VGCNFs to the phenolic resin precursor; and characterizing the process induced thermal and mechanical properties; and (c) To develop a finite element model to evaluate the thermal stresses developed in the carbonization of carbon/phenolic with and without VGCNFs. Addition of VGCNFs to phenolic resin enhanced the thermal and physical properties in terms of flexure and interlaminar properties, storage modulus and glass transition temperature and lowered the coefficient of thermal expansion. The approaches of spraying VGCNFs on the fabric surface and mixing VGCNFs with the phenolic resin was found to be effective in enhancing mechanical and thermal properties of the resulting C/C composites. Fiber bridging, improved carbon yield and minimization of carbonization-induced damage were the benefits of incorporating VGCNFs in C/C composites. Carbonization induced matrix cracking predicted by the finite

  16. Method for production of carbon nanofiber mat or carbon paper

    SciTech Connect

    Naskar, Amit K.

    2015-08-04

    Method for the preparation of a non-woven mat or paper made of carbon fibers, the method comprising carbonizing a non-woven mat or paper preform (precursor) comprised of a plurality of bonded sulfonated polyolefin fibers to produce said non-woven mat or paper made of carbon fibers. The preforms and resulting non-woven mat or paper made of carbon fiber, as well as articles and devices containing them, and methods for their use, are also described.

  17. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOEpatents

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Tran, Tri D.; Feikert, John H.; Mayer, Steven T.

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m.sup.2 /gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  18. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOEpatents

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.

    1997-06-10

    Fabrication is described for conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive deionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m{sup 2}/gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon composites with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced. 1 fig.

  19. Cobalt/copper-decorated carbon nanofibers as novel non-precious electrocatalyst for methanol electrooxidation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Co/Cu-decorated carbon nanofibers are introduced as novel electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation. The introduced nanofibers have been prepared based on graphitization of poly(vinyl alcohol) which has high carbon content compared to many polymer precursors for carbon nanofiber synthesis. Typically, calcination in argon atmosphere of electrospun nanofibers composed of cobalt acetate tetrahydrate, copper acetate monohydrate, and poly(vinyl alcohol) leads to form carbon nanofibers decorated by CoCu nanoparticles. The graphitization of the poly(vinyl alcohol) has been enhanced due to presence of cobalt which acts as effective catalyst. The physicochemical characterization affirmed that the metallic nanoparticles are sheathed by thin crystalline graphite layer. Investigation of the electrocatalytic activity of the introduced nanofibers toward methanol oxidation indicates good performance, as the corresponding onset potential was small compared to many reported materials; 310 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl electrode) and a current density of 12 mA/cm2 was obtained. Moreover, due to the graphite shield, good stability was observed. Overall, the introduced study opens new avenue for cheap and stable transition metals-based nanostructures as non-precious catalysts for fuel cell applications. PMID:24387682

  20. Cobalt/copper-decorated carbon nanofibers as novel non-precious electrocatalyst for methanol electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakat, Nasser A. M.; El-Newehy, Mohamed; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Kim, Hak Yong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Co/Cu-decorated carbon nanofibers are introduced as novel electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation. The introduced nanofibers have been prepared based on graphitization of poly(vinyl alcohol) which has high carbon content compared to many polymer precursors for carbon nanofiber synthesis. Typically, calcination in argon atmosphere of electrospun nanofibers composed of cobalt acetate tetrahydrate, copper acetate monohydrate, and poly(vinyl alcohol) leads to form carbon nanofibers decorated by CoCu nanoparticles. The graphitization of the poly(vinyl alcohol) has been enhanced due to presence of cobalt which acts as effective catalyst. The physicochemical characterization affirmed that the metallic nanoparticles are sheathed by thin crystalline graphite layer. Investigation of the electrocatalytic activity of the introduced nanofibers toward methanol oxidation indicates good performance, as the corresponding onset potential was small compared to many reported materials; 310 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl electrode) and a current density of 12 mA/cm2 was obtained. Moreover, due to the graphite shield, good stability was observed. Overall, the introduced study opens new avenue for cheap and stable transition metals-based nanostructures as non-precious catalysts for fuel cell applications.

  1. Molecular monolayers for attaching electroactive molecules to vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landis, Elizabeth C.

    Integrating molecular monolayers with nanoscale carbon materials is attractive for a variety of applications including electroanalysis, sensing, and electrocatalysis due to the high stability and high surface area of nanoscale carbon. Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers are particularly interesting because their molecular structure indicates that they may have relatively reactive surfaces compared to other types of nanoscale carbon. This work explores the use of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers as a platform for electrocatalysis. We determined the morphology and binding locations of molecular layers on the nanofiber surface, then describe two methods for covalently binding electroactive molecules to the surface. The electron transfer process through the molecular layers was studied with emphasis on understanding the effects of the molecular linkage between the electroactive molecule and the surface and understanding the role of solvent and electrolyte in the electron transfer process. We determined that the electron transfer mechanism through monolayers on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers is controlled by the morphology of the molecular layers on the surface. Several potential catalysts were attached to the surface to evaluate the carbon nanofibers as scaffolds for electrocatalytic reactions.

  2. Hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur cathodes for high specific capacity rechargeable lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guangyuan; Yang, Yuan; Cha, Judy J; Hong, Seung Sae; Cui, Yi

    2011-10-12

    Sulfur has a high specific capacity of 1673 mAh/g as lithium battery cathodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to polysulfides dissolution presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur cathode for effective trapping of polysulfides and demonstrate experimentally high specific capacity and excellent electrochemical cycling of the cells. The hollow carbon nanofiber arrays were fabricated using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, through thermal carbonization of polystyrene. The AAO template also facilitates sulfur infusion into the hollow fibers and prevents sulfur from coating onto the exterior carbon wall. The high aspect ratio of the carbon nanofibers provides an ideal structure for trapping polysulfides, and the thin carbon wall allows rapid transport of lithium ions. The small dimension of these nanofibers provides a large surface area per unit mass for Li(2)S deposition during cycling and reduces pulverization of electrode materials due to volumetric expansion. A high specific capacity of about 730 mAh/g was observed at C/5 rate after 150 cycles of charge/discharge. The introduction of LiNO(3) additive to the electrolyte was shown to improve the Coulombic efficiency to over 99% at C/5. The results show that the hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur structure could be a promising cathode design for rechargeable Li/S batteries with high specific energy. PMID:21916442

  3. Preparation and characterization of carbon nanofiber-polymide composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaobing

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are potentially excellent reinforcements in polymer-based composites due to very good mechanical properties, thermal and electrical conductivity, and low cost to manufacture. The dispersion of fibers and the interfacial interaction with the polymer matrix need to be improved for CNF composites to achieve this potential. Treatment of the nanofiber surface with groups that are compatible with the polymer is key to addressing these issues. Attached functional groups may enhance the adhesion between reinforcement phase and matrix phase and reduce the slip of polymer chains on the surfaces of fibers. As a result, load can be transferred to fibers efficiently. In this investigation, CNFs were used as reinforcements in a polyimide (PI) matrix to produce a composite. To improve dispersion of fibers as well as interfacial adhesion, oxidized carbon nanofibers (OCNFs) were functionalized by covalently attaching 1,4-phenylenediamine (1,4-PDA) or polyimide oligomer to the surfaces. The functionalization with diamine was carried out either through direct reaction with OCNFs in dimethylacetimide (DMAc) solvent or through a two-step approach in which oxidized fibers were reacted with thionyl chloride (SOCl2) to improve surface reactivity followed by reaction with PDA in DMAc. The PDA was successfully bonded to the surfaces of fibers using both strategies. The further attachment of oligomer proceeded as expected in DMAc. The functionalized CNFs were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to confirm the functionalization reaction. Raman spectra and XPS spectra qualitatively indicated target chemical bonds were formed in each reaction step. Quantifications of TGA and XPS consistently supported that desired chemical moieties were present on the surfaces of fibers. In short, the interfaces of fibers were tailored with groups that would mimic the structure of polyimide and can

  4. Direct synthesis of mesostructured carbon nanofibers decorated with silver-nanoparticles as a multifunctional membrane for water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboueloyoun Taha, Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    One-dimensional (1D) porous carbon nanofibers (CNFs) decorated by silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using a one-pot/self-template synthesis strategy by combining electrospinning and carbonization methods. The characterization results revealed that AgNPs were homogenously distributed along the CNFs and possessed a relatively uniform nano-size of about 12 nm. The novel membrane distinctively displayed enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. The membrane exhibited excellent dye degradation and bacteria disinfection in batch experiments. The high photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the highly accessible surface areas, good light absorption capability, and high separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The as-prepared membranes can be easily recycled because of their 1D property.

  5. Experimental study and modeling of swelling and bubble growth in carbon nanofiber filled mesophase pitch during carbonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calebrese, Christopher

    Graphite and all carbon bipolar plates show corrosion resistance in fuel cells and provide good electrical conductivity. These materials typically need to be individually machined, a time consuming and costly process. Mesophase pitch is used to manufacture carbon fibers and carbon-carbon composites. This material provides a good starting point for the production of a moldable, all carbon bipolar plate. However, processing of mesophase pitch to produce all carbon materials requires a time intensive oxidation step to prevent swelling during carbonization. In this work, carbon nanofibers were used to reduce swelling in mesophase pitch. It was found that the increase in viscosity with the addition of carbon nanofibers was responsible for the reduction in swelling. The influence of the filler became apparent above the percolation threshold. At loadings below the percolation threshold, the swelling of the mesophase pitch was not reduced after carbonization. The swelling of the mesophase pitch at a given carbon nanofiber loading was also dependent on the length of the carbon nanofibers. Longer carbon nanofibers led to greater increases in the viscosity of the melt and thus led to greater reduction in swelling. The final carbon product was evaluated for use as a low temperature fuel cell bipolar plate material. Constraining the mesophase pitch during carbonization led to a final product with strength and electrical conductivity comparable to current composite bipolar plate materials. The addition of micron size chopped glass fibers with a softening point near 850°C and carbon nanofibers led to a final product with air permeability less than that of graphite. A spherically symmetric, single bubble growth model was also developed. The model included temperature dependence, liquid to bubble mass transfer and reactions in the system. Results from simulations showed that that the increase in viscosity due to the addition of carbon nanofibers slows the growth of bubbles, but

  6. Pt/Carbon Nanofiber Nanocomposites as Electrocatalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells: Prominent Effects of Carbon Nanofiber Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhizhou; Cui, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xinsheng; Wang, Qingfei; Shao, Yuyan; Lin, Yuehe

    2009-04-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with different microstructures, including platelet-CNFs (PCNFs), fish-bone-CNFs, and tube-CNFs, were synthesized, characterized and evaluated toward methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). The CNFs studied here showed several structures in which various stacked morphologies as well as the ordering of their size and graphite layers can be well controlled. Platinum nanoparticles have been electrodeposited on CNFs surfaces, and their electrocatalytic activities toward MOR have been studied by using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and linear sweep voltammograms. Morphologies, textural properties, and the crystalline structure of the CNFs supports and catalysts have been characterized with transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The comparative tests conclude that Pt/PCNFs have the best electrocatalytic performance and good stability at room temperature. The high electrocatalytic activity and stability can be attributed to the specific microstructure of PCNFs, which have large numbers of edge-active carbon atoms on the surface of the CNFs as well as synergistic effects between CNFs and the platinum nanoparticles. The results suggest that PCNFs are excellent potential candidates as catalyst supports in direct methanol fuel cells.

  7. Application of packed porous nanofibers-solid-phase extraction for the detection of sulfonamide residues from environmental water samples by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Na; Hao, Lijun; Li, Li; Guo, Xinyan; Zhang, Junchi; Hu, Yuzhu; Shen, Weiyang

    2015-03-01

    Porous electrospun nanofibers, as new materials for solid-phase extraction, were synthesized by electrospinning and coupled with ultra high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to determine sulfonamide residues in environmental water. Aligned porous polystyrene electrospun nanofibers were fabricated under the mechanism of phase separation. The high-specific surface of these nanofibers (70 m(2)/g) could improve recoveries of the target sulfonamides 4-10 times compared with that of polystyrene nonporous material (3.8 m(2)/g). Under the optimized conditions, 13 sulfonamide residues showed an excellent linear relationship in the range of 0.125-12.5 ng/mL with a linear correlation coefficient (r(2)) greater than 0.99, and the detection limits of sulfonamides were as low as 0.80-5.0 ng/L. Compared to the commercial C18 and HLB columns, the homemade porous nanofibers columns had some merits including simple fabrication and extraction process, short process time and environmental friendliness. The optimized method was applied to eight water samples collected from different livestock farms (Xuzhou, China). The results showed that polystyrene porous nanofibers were promising to preconcentrate sulfonamides of different polarities in the waste water. PMID:25546059

  8. Graphitic Carbon Nitride/Nitrogen-Rich Carbon Nanofibers: Highly Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution without Cocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Han, Qing; Wang, Bing; Gao, Jian; Qu, Liangti

    2016-08-26

    An interconnected framework of mesoporous graphitic-C3 N4 nanofibers merged with in situ incorporated nitrogen-rich carbon has been prepared. The unique composition and structure of the nanofibers as well as strong coupling between the components endow them with efficient light-harvesting properties, improved charged separation, and a multidimensional electron transport path that enhance the performance of hydrogen production. The as-obtained catalyst exhibits an extremely high hydrogen-evolution rate of 16885 μmol h(-1)  g(-1) , and a remarkable apparent quantum efficiency of 14.3 % at 420 nm without any cocatalysts, which is much higher than most reported g-C3 N4 -based photocatalysts even in the presence of Pt-based cocatalysts. PMID:27467255

  9. CMOS compatible on-chip decoupling capacitor based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, A. M.; Göransson, G.; Desmaris, V.; Enoksson, P.

    2015-05-01

    On-chip decoupling capacitor of specific capacitance 55 pF/μm2 (footprint area) which is 10 times higher than the commercially available discrete and on-chip (65 nm technology node) decoupling capacitors is presented. The electrodes of the capacitor are based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) capable of being integrated directly on CMOS chips. The carbon nanofibers employed in this study were grown on CMOS chips using direct current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (DC-PECVD) technique at CMOS compatible temperature. The carbon nanofibers were grown at temperature from 390 °C to 550 °C. The capacitance of the carbon nanofibers was measured by cyclic voltammetry and thus compared. Futhermore the capacitance of decoupling capacitor was measured using different voltage scan rate to show their high charge storage capability and finally the cyclic voltammetry is run for 1000 cycles to assess their suitability as electrode material for decoupling capacitor. Our results show the high specific capacitance and long-term reliability of performance of the on-chip decoupling capacitors. Moreover, the specific capacitance shown is larger for carbon nanofibers grown at higher temperature.

  10. A novel nano-nonwoven fabric with three-dimensionally dispersed nanofibers: entrapment of carbon nanofibers within nonwovens using the wet-lay process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karwa, Amogh N.; Barron, Troy J.; Davis, Virginia A.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2012-05-01

    This study demonstrates, for the first time, the manufacturing of novel nano-nonwovens that are comprised of three-dimensionally distributed carbon nanofibers within the matrices of traditional wet-laid nonwovens. The preparation of these nano-nonwovens involves dispersing and flocking carbon nanofibers, and optimizing colloidal chemistry during wet-lay formation. The distribution of nanofibers within the nano-nonwoven was verified using polydispersed aerosol filtration testing, air permeability, low surface tension liquid capillary porometry, SEM and cyclic voltammetry. All these characterization techniques indicated that nanofiber flocks did not behave as large solid clumps, but retained the ‘nanoporous’ structure expected from nanofibers. These nano-nonwovens showed significant enhancements in aerosol filtration performance. The reduction-oxidation reactions of the functional groups on nanofibers and the linear variation of electric double-layer capacitance with nanofiber loading were measured using cyclic voltammetry. More than 65 m2 (700 ft2) of the composite were made during the demonstration of process scalability using a Fourdrinier-type continuous pilot papermaking machine. The scalability of the process with the control over pore size distribution makes these composites very promising for filtration and other nonwoven applications.

  11. A novel nano-nonwoven fabric with three-dimensionally dispersed nanofibers: entrapment of carbon nanofibers within nonwovens using the wet-lay process.

    PubMed

    Karwa, Amogh N; Barron, Troy J; Davis, Virginia A; Tatarchuk, Bruce J

    2012-05-11

    This study demonstrates, for the first time, the manufacturing of novel nano-nonwovens that are comprised of three-dimensionally distributed carbon nanofibers within the matrices of traditional wet-laid nonwovens. The preparation of these nano-nonwovens involves dispersing and flocking carbon nanofibers, and optimizing colloidal chemistry during wet-lay formation. The distribution of nanofibers within the nano-nonwoven was verified using polydispersed aerosol filtration testing, air permeability, low surface tension liquid capillary porometry, SEM and cyclic voltammetry. All these characterization techniques indicated that nanofiber flocks did not behave as large solid clumps, but retained the 'nanoporous' structure expected from nanofibers. These nano-nonwovens showed significant enhancements in aerosol filtration performance. The reduction-oxidation reactions of the functional groups on nanofibers and the linear variation of electric double-layer capacitance with nanofiber loading were measured using cyclic voltammetry. More than 65 m² (700 ft²) of the composite were made during the demonstration of process scalability using a Fourdrinier-type continuous pilot papermaking machine. The scalability of the process with the control over pore size distribution makes these composites very promising for filtration and other nonwoven applications. PMID:22498976

  12. Effects of carbon nanofiber on physiology of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shin-Hae; Lee, Hye-Yeon; Lee, Eun-Ji; Khang, Dongwoo; Min, Kyung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    As nanomaterials are now widely utilized in a wide range of fields for both medical and industrial applications, concerns over their potential toxicity to human health and the environment have increased. To evaluate the toxicity of long-term exposure to carbon nanofibers (CNFs) in an in vivo system, we selected Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. Oral administration of CNFs at a concentration of 1,000 μg/mL had adverse effects on fly physiology. Long-term administration of a high dose of CNFs (1,000 μg/mL) reduced larval viability based on the pupa:egg ratio, adult fly lifespan, reproductive activity, climbing activity, and survival rate in response to starvation stress. However, CNFs at a low concentration (100 μg/mL) did not show any significant deleterious effect on developmental rate or fecundity. Furthermore, long-term administration of a low dose of CNFs (100 μg/mL) increased lifespan and climbing ability, coincident with mild reactive oxygen species generation and stimulation of the antioxidant system. Taken together, our data suggest that a high dose of CNFs has obvious physiological toxicity, whereas low-dose chronic exposure to CNFs can actually have beneficial effects via stimulation of the antioxidant defense system. PMID:26056448

  13. Manipulation of Bacteriophages with Dielectrophoresis on Carbon Nanofiber Nanoelectrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Madiyar, Foram Ranjeet; Syed, Lateef Uddin; Culbertson, Christopher; Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    This work describes efficient manipulation of bacteriophage virus particles using a nanostructured dielectrophoresis (DEP) device. The non-uniform electric field for DEP is created by utilizing a nanoelectrode array (NEA) made of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) versus a macroscopic indium tin oxide electrode in a “points-and-lid” configuration integrated in a microfluidic channel. The capture of the virus particles has been systematically investigated versus the flow velocity, sinusoidal AC frequency, peak-to-peak voltage, and virus concentration. The DEP capture at all conditions is reversible and the captured virus particles are released immediately when the voltage is turned off. At the low virus concentration (8.9×104 pfu·ml−1), the DEP capture efficiency up to 60% can be obtained. The virus particles are individually captured at isolated nanoelectrode tips and accumulate linearly with time. Due to the comparable size, it is more effective to capture virus particles than larger bacterial cells with such NEA based DEP devices. This technique can be potentially utilized as a fast sample preparation module in a microfluidic chip to capture, separate, and concentrate viruses and other biological particles in small volumes of dilute solutions in a portable detection system for field applications. PMID:23348683

  14. Effect of twist and porosity on the electrical conductivity of carbon nanofiber yarns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, S.; Naraghi, M.; Davoudi, A.

    2013-06-01

    This study focuses on the effect of twist and porosity on the electrical conductivity of carbon nanofiber (CNF) yarns. The process of fabrication of CNF yarns included the synthesis of aligned ribbons of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers via electrospinning. The PAN ribbons were twisted into yarns with twist levels ranging from zero twist to high twists of 1300 turn per meter (tpm). The twist imposed on the ribbons substantially improved the interactions between nanofibers and reduced the porosity. The PAN yarns were subsequently stabilized in air, and then carbonized in nitrogen at 1100 ° C for 1 h. Compressive stresses developed between the PAN nanofibers as a result of twist promoted interfusion between neighboring nanofibers, which was accelerated by heating the yarns during stabilization to temperatures above the glass transition of PAN. The electrical conductivity of the yarns was measured with a four point probe measurement technique. Although increasing the twist promotes electrical conductivity between nanofibers by forming junctions between them, our results indicate that the electrical conductivity does not continuously increase with increasing twist, but reaches a threshold value after which it starts to decrease. The causes for this behavior were studied through experimental techniques and further explored using a yarn-equivalent electrical circuit model.

  15. Towards Scalable Binderless Electrodes: Carbon Coated Silicon Nanofiber Paper via Mg Reduction of Electrospun SiO2 Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Favors, Zachary; Bay, Hamed Hosseini; Mutlu, Zafer; Ahmed, Kazi; Ionescu, Robert; Ye, Rachel; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.

    2015-01-01

    The need for more energy dense and scalable Li-ion battery electrodes has become increasingly pressing with the ushering in of more powerful portable electronics and electric vehicles (EVs) requiring substantially longer range capabilities. Herein, we report on the first synthesis of nano-silicon paper electrodes synthesized via magnesiothermic reduction of electrospun SiO2 nanofiber paper produced by an in situ acid catalyzed polymerization of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in-flight. Free-standing carbon-coated Si nanofiber binderless electrodes produce a capacity of 802 mAh g−1 after 659 cycles with a Coulombic efficiency of 99.9%, which outperforms conventionally used slurry-prepared graphite anodes by over two times on an active material basis. Silicon nanofiber paper anodes offer a completely binder-free and Cu current collector-free approach to electrode fabrication with a silicon weight percent in excess of 80%. The absence of conductive powder additives, metallic current collectors, and polymer binders in addition to the high weight percent silicon all contribute to significantly increasing capacity at the cell level. PMID:25655007

  16. Towards Scalable Binderless Electrodes: Carbon Coated Silicon Nanofiber Paper via Mg Reduction of Electrospun SiO2 Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favors, Zachary; Bay, Hamed Hosseini; Mutlu, Zafer; Ahmed, Kazi; Ionescu, Robert; Ye, Rachel; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.

    2015-02-01

    The need for more energy dense and scalable Li-ion battery electrodes has become increasingly pressing with the ushering in of more powerful portable electronics and electric vehicles (EVs) requiring substantially longer range capabilities. Herein, we report on the first synthesis of nano-silicon paper electrodes synthesized via magnesiothermic reduction of electrospun SiO2 nanofiber paper produced by an in situ acid catalyzed polymerization of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in-flight. Free-standing carbon-coated Si nanofiber binderless electrodes produce a capacity of 802 mAh g-1 after 659 cycles with a Coulombic efficiency of 99.9%, which outperforms conventionally used slurry-prepared graphite anodes by over two times on an active material basis. Silicon nanofiber paper anodes offer a completely binder-free and Cu current collector-free approach to electrode fabrication with a silicon weight percent in excess of 80%. The absence of conductive powder additives, metallic current collectors, and polymer binders in addition to the high weight percent silicon all contribute to significantly increasing capacity at the cell level.

  17. Towards scalable binderless electrodes: carbon coated silicon nanofiber paper via Mg reduction of electrospun SiO2 nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Favors, Zachary; Bay, Hamed Hosseini; Mutlu, Zafer; Ahmed, Kazi; Ionescu, Robert; Ye, Rachel; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2015-01-01

    The need for more energy dense and scalable Li-ion battery electrodes has become increasingly pressing with the ushering in of more powerful portable electronics and electric vehicles (EVs) requiring substantially longer range capabilities. Herein, we report on the first synthesis of nano-silicon paper electrodes synthesized via magnesiothermic reduction of electrospun SiO2 nanofiber paper produced by an in situ acid catalyzed polymerization of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in-flight. Free-standing carbon-coated Si nanofiber binderless electrodes produce a capacity of 802 mAh g(-1) after 659 cycles with a Coulombic efficiency of 99.9%, which outperforms conventionally used slurry-prepared graphite anodes by over two times on an active material basis. Silicon nanofiber paper anodes offer a completely binder-free and Cu current collector-free approach to electrode fabrication with a silicon weight percent in excess of 80%. The absence of conductive powder additives, metallic current collectors, and polymer binders in addition to the high weight percent silicon all contribute to significantly increasing capacity at the cell level. PMID:25655007

  18. Facile electrospinning preparation of phosphorus and nitrogen dual-doped cobalt-based carbon nanofibers as bifunctional electrocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhuang; Zuo, Pengjian; Fan, Liquan; Han, Jianan; Xiong, Yueping; Yin, Geping

    2016-04-01

    A novel electrochemical catalyst of phosphorus and nitrogen dual-doped cobalt-based carbon nanofibers (Cosbnd Nsbnd P-CNFs) is prepared by a facile and cost-effective electrospinning technique. Excellent features of the porous carbon nanofibers with large amounts of Co atoms, N/P-doping effect, abundant pyridinic-N and Cosbnd Nx clusters as catalytic active sites, and the advantages of the structure and composition result in a high catalytic efficiency. In alkaline or acidic media, Cosbnd Nsbnd P-CNFs exhibits remarkable electrocatalytic activities and kinetics for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), superior methanol tolerance and stability, and a similar four-electron pathway. In addition, Cosbnd Nsbnd P-CNFs also shows excellent performance for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), offering a low onset potential of -0.216 V and a stable current density of 10 mA cm-2 at potential of -0.248 V. The mechanism of ORR and HER catalytic active site arises from the doping of N/P atoms in the Co-based CNFs, which is responsible for the excellent electrocatalytic performance. Due to the excellent catalytic efficiencies, Cosbnd Nsbnd P-CNFs act as a promising catalyst material for fuel cells and water splitting technologies.

  19. Carbon nanofiber-based luminol-biotin probe for sensitive chemiluminescence detection of protein.

    PubMed

    Baj, Stefan; Krawczyk, Tomasz; Pradel, Natalia; Azam, Md Golam; Shibata, Takayuki; Dragusha, Shpend; Skutil, Krzysztof; Pawlyta, Miroslawa; Kai, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    A carbon nanofiber-based luminol-biotin probe was synthesized for the sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) detection of a target protein by grafting luminol and biotin onto an oxidized carbon nanofiber. This carbon nanofiber was prepared by chemical vapor-deposition with methane in the presence of the Ni-Cu-MgO catalyst, which was followed by oxidization with HNO3-H2SO4 to produce a carboxyl group on the surface of the nanofiber. The material was grafted with luminol and biotin by means of a standard carbodiimide activation of COOH groups to produce corresponding amides. The substance was water-soluble and thus could be utilized as a sensitive CL probe for a protein assay. The probe showed highly specific affinity towards the biotin-labeled antibody via a streptavidin-biotin interaction. The detection limit for this model assay was approximately 0.2 pmol of the biotinized IgG spotted on a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Nonspecific binding to other proteins was not observed. Therefore, the synthesized carbon nanofiber-based CL probe may be useful for a sensitive and specific analysis of the target protein. PMID:25382040

  20. High-performance supercapacitor electrode from cellulose-derived, inter-bonded carbon nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jie; Niu, Haitao; Wang, Hongxia; Shao, Hao; Fang, Jian; He, Jingren; Xiong, Hanguo; Ma, Chengjie; Lin, Tong

    2016-08-01

    Carbon nanofibers with inter-bonded fibrous structure show high supercapacitor performance when being used as electrode materials. Their preparation is highly desirable from cellulose through a pyrolysis technique, because cellulose is an abundant, low cost natural material and its carbonization does not emit toxic substance. However, interconnected carbon nanofibers prepared from electrospun cellulose nanofibers and their capacitive behaviors have not been reported in the research literature. Here we report a facile one-step strategy to prepare inter-bonded carbon nanofibers from partially hydrolyzed cellulose acetate nanofibers, for making high-performance supercapacitors as electrode materials. The inter-fiber connection shows considerable improvement in electrode electrochemical performances. The supercapacitor electrode has a specific capacitance of ∼241.4 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 current density. It maintains high cycling stability (negligible 0.1% capacitance reduction after 10,000 cycles) with a maximum power density of ∼84.1 kW kg-1. They may find applications in the development of efficient supercapacitor electrodes for energy storage applications.

  1. Functionalization of carbon nanotube and nanofiber electrodes with biological macromolecules: Progress toward a nanoscale biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Sarah E.

    The integration of nanoscale carbon-based electrodes with biological recognition and electrical detection promises unparalleled biological detection systems. First, biologically modified carbon-based materials have been shown to have superior long-term chemical stability when compared to other commonly used materials for biological detection such as silicon, gold, and glass surfaces. Functionalizing carbon electrodes for biological recognition and using electrochemical methods to transduce biological binding information will enable real-time, hand-held, lower cost and stable biosensing devices. Nanoscale carbon-based electrodes allow the additional capability of fabricating devices with high densities of sensing elements, enabling multi-analyte detection on a single chip. We have worked toward the integration of these sensor components by first focusing on developing and characterizing the chemistry required to functionalize single-walled carbon nanotubes and vertically aligned carbon nanofibers with oligonucleotides and proteins for specific biological recognition. Chemical, photochemical and electrochemical methods for functionalizing these materials with biological molecules were developed. We determined, using fluorescence and colorimetric techniques, that these biologically modified nanoscale carbon electrodes are biologically active, selective, and stable. A photochemical functionalization method enabled facile functionalization of dense arrays vertically aligned carbon nanofiber forests. We found that much of the vertically aligned carbon nanofiber sidewalls were functionalized and biologically accessible by this method---the absolute number of DNA molecules hybridized to DNA-functionalized nanofiber electrodes was ˜8 times higher than the number of DNA molecules hybridized to flat glassy carbon electrodes and implies that nanofiber forest sensors may facilitate higher sensitivity to target DNA sequences per unit area. We also used the photochemical method

  2. Carbon Nanotubes/Nanofibers by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teo, K. B. K.; Hash, D. B.; Bell, M. S.; Chhowalla, M.; Cruden, B. A.; Amaratunga, G. A. J.; Meyyappan, M.; Milne, W. I.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) has been recently used for the production of vertically aligned carbon nanotubedfibers (CN) directly on substrates. These structures are potentially important technologically as electron field emitters (e.g. microguns, microwave amplifiers, displays), nanoelectrodes for sensors, filter media, superhydrophobic surfaces and thermal interface materials for microelectronics. A parametric study on the growth of CN grown by glow discharge dc-PECVD is presented. In this technique, a substrate containing thin film Ni catalyst is exposed to C2H2 and NH3 gases at 700 C. Without plasma, this process is essentially thermal CVD which produces curly spaghetti-like CN as seen in Fig. 1 (a). With the plasma generated by biasing the substrate at -6OOV, we observed that the CN align vertically during growth as shown in Fig. l(b), and that the magnitude of the applied substrate bias affects the degree of alignment. The thickness of the thin film Ni catalyst was found to determine the average diameter and inversely the length of the CN. The yield and density of the CN were controlled by the use of different diffusion barrier materials under the Ni catalyst. Patterned CN growth [Fig. l(c)], with la variation in CN diameter of 4.1% and 6.3% respectively, is achieved by lithographically defining the Ni thin film prior to growth. The shape of the structures could be varied from very straight nanotube-like to conical tip-like nanofibers by increasing the ratio of C2H2 in the gas flow. Due to the plasma decomposition of C2H2, amorphous carbon (a-C) is an undesirable byproduct which could coat the substrate during CN growth. Using a combination of depth profiled Auger electron spectroscopy to study the substrate and in-situ mass spectroscopy to examine gas phase neutrals and ions, the optimal conditions for a-C free growth of CN is determined.

  3. Extraordinary improvement of the graphitic structure of continuous carbon nanofibers templated with double wall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Papkov, Dimitry; Beese, Allison M; Goponenko, Alexander; Zou, Yan; Naraghi, Mohammad; Espinosa, Horacio D; Saha, Biswajit; Schatz, George C; Moravsky, Alexander; Loutfy, Raouf; Nguyen, Sonbinh T; Dzenis, Yuris

    2013-01-22

    Carbon nanotubes are being widely studied as a reinforcing element in high-performance composites and fibers at high volume fractions. However, problems with nanotube processing, alignment, and non-optimal stress transfer between the nanotubes and surrounding matrix have so far prevented full utilization of their superb mechanical properties in composites. Here, we present an alternative use of carbon nanotubes, at a very small concentration, as a templating agent for the formation of graphitic structure in fibers. Continuous carbon nanofibers (CNF) were manufactured by electrospinning from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) with 1.2% of double wall nanotubes (DWNT). Nanofibers were oxidized and carbonized at temperatures from 600 °C to 1850 °C. Structural analyses revealed significant improvements in graphitic structure and crystal orientation in the templated CNFs, with the largest improvements observed at lower carbonization temperatures. In situ pull-out experiments showed good interfacial bonding between the DWNT bundles and the surrounding templated carbon matrix. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of templated carbonization confirmed oriented graphitic growth and provided insight into mechanisms of carbonization initiation. The obtained results indicate that global templating of the graphitic structure in fine CNFs can be achieved at very small concentrations of well-dispersed DWNTs. The outcomes reveal a simple and inexpensive route to manufacture continuous CNFs with improved structure and properties for a variety of mechanical and functional applications. The demonstrated improvement of graphitic order at low carbonization temperatures in the absence of stretch shows potential as a promising new manufacturing technology for next generation carbon fibers. PMID:23249440

  4. Effect of carbon nanofibers on the infiltration and thermal conductivity of carbon/carbon composites

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jinsong; Luo, Ruiying; Yan, Ying

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} The CNFs improve the infiltration rate and thermal properties of carbon/carbon composites. {yields} The densification rate increases with the CNF content increasing at the beginning of infiltration. {yields} The values of the thermal conductivity of the composite obtain their maximum values at 5 wt.%. -- Abstract: Preforms containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt.% carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were fabricated by spreading layers of carbon cloth, and infiltrated using the electrified preform heating chemical vapor infiltration method (ECVI) under atmospheric pressure. Initial thermal gradients were determined. Resistivity and density evolutions with infiltration time have been recorded. Scanning electron microscopy, polarized light micrograph and X-ray diffraction technique were used to analyze the experiment results. The results showed that the infiltration rate increased with the rising of CNF content, and after 120 h of infiltration, the density was the highest when the CNF content was 5 wt.%, but the composite could not be densified efficiently as the CNF content ranged from 10 wt.% to 20 wt.%. CNF-reinforced C/C composites have enhanced thermal conductivity, the values at 5 wt.% were increased by nearly 5.5-24.1% in the X-Y direction and 153.8-251.3% in the Z direction compared to those with no CNFs. When the additive content was increased to 20 wt.%, due to the holes and cavities in the CNF web and between carbon cloth and matrix, the thermal conductivities in the X-Y and Z directions decreased from their maximum values at 5 wt.%.

  5. High performance supercapacitor based on Ni3S2/carbon nanofibers and carbon nanofibers electrodes derived from bacterial cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wendan; Lin, Worong; Shao, Xiaofeng; Hu, Zhaoxia; Li, Ruchun; Yuan, Dingsheng

    2014-12-01

    The Ni3S2 nanoparticles have been successfully grown on the carbon nanofibers (CNFs) derived from bacterial cellulose via a hydrothermal method, which the as-prepared composite exhibited high specific capacitance (883 F g-1 at 2 A g-1), much more than CNFs (108 F g-1 at 2 A g-1), and good cycle stability. The asymmetric supercapacitor was designed to contain the CNFs coated Ni3S2 nanoparticles (Ni3S2/CNFs) as positive electrode and CNFs as negative electrode in 2 M KOH electrolyte. Due to the synergistic effects of the two electrodes, asymmetric cell showed superior electrochemical performances. The optimized asymmetric supercapacitor gave a operating potential of 1.7 V in 2 M KOH aqueous solution, exhibiting a high specific capacitance of 56.6 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and considerably high energy density of 25.8 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 425 W kg-1. Meanwhile, Ni3S2/CNFs//CNFs asymmetric supercapacitor showed excellent cycling stability with 97% specific capacitance retained after 2500 cycles.

  6. Genotoxicity of carbon nanofibers: are they potentially more or less dangerous than carbon nanotubes or asbestos?

    PubMed Central

    Kisin, E. R.; Murray, A.R.; Sargent, L.; Lowry, D.; Chirila, M.; Siegrist, K.J.; Schwegler-Berry, D.; Leonard, S.; Castranova, V.; Fadeel, B.; Kagan, V.E.; Shvedova, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The production of carbon nanofibers and nanotubes (CNF/CNT) and their composite products is increasing globally. CNF are generating great interest in industrial sectors such as energy production and electronics, where alternative materials may have limited performance or are produced at a much higher cost. However, despite the increasing industrial use of carbon nanofibers, information on their potential adverse health effects is limited. In the current study, we examine the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of carbon-based nanofibers (Pyrograf®-III) and compare this material with the effects of asbestos fibers (crocidolite) or single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). The genotoxic effects in the lung fibroblast (V79) cell line were examined using two complementary assays: the comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test. In addition, we utilized fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect the chromatin pan-centromeric signals within the MN indicating their origin by aneugenic (chromosomal malsegregation) or clastogenic (chromosome breakage) mechanisms. Cytotoxicity tests revealed a concentration- and time-dependent loss of V79 cell viability after exposure to all tested materials in the following sequence: asbestos>CNF>SWCNT. Additionally, cellular uptake and generation of oxygen radicals was seen in the murine RAW264.7 macrophages following exposure to CNF or asbestos but not after administration of SWCNT. DNA damage and MN induction were found after exposure to all tested materials with the strongest effect seen for CNF. Finally, we demonstrated that CNF induced predominately centromere-positive MN in primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) indicating aneugenic events. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the possible mechanisms involved in CNF-induced genotoxicity. PMID:21310169

  7. Genotoxicity of carbon nanofibers: Are they potentially more or less dangerous than carbon nanotubes or asbestos?

    SciTech Connect

    Kisin, E.R.; Murray, A.R.; Sargent, L.; Lowry, D.; Chirila, M.; Siegrist, K.J.; Schwegler-Berry, D.; Leonard, S.; Castranova, V.; Fadeel, B.; Kagan, V.E.; Shvedova, A.A.

    2011-04-01

    The production of carbon nanofibers and nanotubes (CNF/CNT) and their composite products is increasing globally. CNF are generating great interest in industrial sectors such as energy production and electronics, where alternative materials may have limited performance or are produced at a much higher cost. However, despite the increasing industrial use of carbon nanofibers, information on their potential adverse health effects is limited. In the current study, we examine the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of carbon-based nanofibers (Pyrograf (registered) -III) and compare this material with the effects of asbestos fibers (crocidolite) or single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). The genotoxic effects in the lung fibroblast (V79) cell line were examined using two complementary assays: the comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test. In addition, we utilized fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect the chromatin pan-centromeric signals within the MN indicating their origin by aneugenic (chromosomal malsegregation) or clastogenic (chromosome breakage) mechanisms. Cytotoxicity tests revealed a concentration- and time-dependent loss of V79 cell viability after exposure to all tested materials in the following sequence: asbestos > CNF > SWCNT. Additionally, cellular uptake and generation of oxygen radicals was seen in the murine RAW264.7 macrophages following exposure to CNF or asbestos but not after administration of SWCNT. DNA damage and MN induction were found after exposure to all tested materials with the strongest effect seen for CNF. Finally, we demonstrated that CNF induced predominately centromere-positive MN in primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) indicating aneugenic events. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the possible mechanisms involved in CNF-induced genotoxicity.

  8. Mesoporous Carbon Nanofibers Embedded with MoS2 Nanocrystals for Extraordinary Li-Ion Storage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shan; Chen, Wen; Uchaker, Evan; Zhou, Jing; Cao, Guozhong

    2015-12-01

    MoS2 nanocrystals embedded in mesoporous carbon nanofibers are synthesized through an electrospinning process followed by calcination. The resultant nanofibers are 100-150 nm in diameter and constructed from MoS2 nanocrystals with a lateral diameter of around 7 nm with specific surface areas of 135.9 m(2)  g(-1) . The MoS2 @C nanofibers are treated at 450 °C in H2 and comparison samples annealed at 800 °C in N2 . The heat treatments are designed to achieve good crystallinity and desired mesoporous microstructure, resulting in enhanced electrochemical performance. The small amount of oxygen in the nanofibers annealed in H2 contributes to obtaining a lower internal resistance, and thus, improving the conductivity. The results show that the nanofibers obtained at 450 °C in H2 deliver an extraordinary capacity of 1022 mA h g(-1) and improved cyclic stability, with only 2.3 % capacity loss after 165 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) , as well as an outstanding rate capability. The greatly improved kinetics and cycling stability of the mesoporous MoS2 @C nanofibers can be attributed to the crosslinked conductive carbon nanofibers, the large specific surface area, the good crystallinity of MoS2 , and the robust mesoporous microstructure. The resulting nanofiber electrodes, with short mass- and charge-transport pathways, improved electrical conductivity, and large contact area exposed to electrolyte, permitting fast diffusional flux of Li ions, explains the improved kinetics of the interfacial charge-transfer reaction and the diffusivity of the MoS2 @C mesoporous nanofibers. It is believed that the integration of MoS2 nanocrystals and mesoporous carbon nanofibers may have a synergistic effect, giving a promising anode, and widening the applicability range into high performance and mass production in the Li-ion battery market. PMID:26515375

  9. Synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers for interfacing with live systems

    SciTech Connect

    Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich; Desikan, Ramya; McKnight, Timothy E; Klein, Kate L; Rack, P. D.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to synthesize carbon nanofibers with a high degree of control over their geometry, location, and structure via catalytic plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition has expanded the possibility of new applications. The nanoscale dimensions and high aspect ratio of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs), along with favorable physical and chemical characteristics, has provided a nanostructured material with properties that are well-suited for interfacing with live cells and tissues. This review surveys the aspects of synthesis, integration, and functionalization of VACNFs, followed by examples of how VACNFs have been used to interface with live systems for a variety of advanced nanoscale biological applications.

  10. Electrochemical enzymatic biosensors using carbon nanofiber nanoelectrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Li, Yi-fen; Swisher, Luxi Z.; Syed, Lateef U.; Prior, Allan M.; Nguyen, Thu A.; Hua, Duy H.

    2012-10-01

    The reduction of electrode size down to nanometers could dramatically enhance detection sensitivity and temporal resolution. Nanoelectrode arrays (NEAs) are of particular interest for ultrasensitive biosensors. Here we report the study of two types of biosensors for measuring enzyme activities using NEAs fabricated with vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs). VACNFs of ~100 nm in average diameter and 3-5 μm in length were grown on conductive substrates as uniform vertical arrays which were then encapsulated in SiO2 matrix leaving only the tips exposed. We demonstrate that such VACNF NEAs can be used in profiling enzyme activities through monitoring the change in electrochemical signals induced by enzymatic reactions to the peptides attached to the VACNF tip. The cleavage of the tetrapeptide with a ferrocene tag by a cancerrelated protease (legumain) was monitored with AC voltammetry. Real-time electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) was used for fast label-free detection of two reversible processes, i.e. phosphorylation by c-Src tyrosine kinase and dephosphorylation by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). The REIS data of phosphorylation were slow and unreliable, but those of dephosphorylation showed large and fast exponential decay due to much higher activity of phosphatase PTP1B. The kinetic data were analyzed with a heterogeneous Michaelis-Menten model to derive the "specificity constant" kcat/Km, which is 8.2x103 M-1s-1 for legumain and (2.1 ± 0.1) x 107 M-1s-1 for phosphatase (PTP1B), well consistent with literature. It is promising to develop VACNF NEA based electrochemical enzymatic biosensors as portable multiplex electronic techniques for rapid cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring.

  11. Strong and stiff aramid nanofiber/carbon nanotube nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiaqi; Cao, Wenxin; Yue, Mingli; Hou, Ying; Han, Jiecai; Yang, Ming

    2015-03-24

    Small but strong carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are fillers of choice for composite reinforcement owing to their extraordinary modulus and strength. However, the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites are still much below those for mechanical parameters of individual nanotubes. The gap between the expectation and experimental results arises not only from imperfect dispersion and poor load transfer but also from the unavailability of strong polymers that can be effectively utilized within the composites of nanotubes. Aramid nanofibers (ANFs) with analogous morphological features to nanotubes represent a potential choice to complement nanotubes given their intrinsic high mechanical performance and the dispersible nature, which enables solvent-based processing methods. In this work, we showed that composite films made from ANFs and multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) by vacuum-assisted flocculation and vacuum-assisted layer-by-layer assembly exhibited high ultimate strength of up to 383 MPa and Young's modulus (stiffness) of up to 35 GPa, which represent the highest values among all the reported random CNT nanocomposites. Detailed studies using different imaging and spectroscopic characterizations suggested that the multiple interfacial interactions between nanotubes and ANFs including hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking are likely the key parameters responsible for the observed mechanical improvement. Importantly, our studies further revealed the attractive thermomechanical characteristics of these nanocomposites with high thermal stability (up to 520 °C) and ultralow coefficients of thermal expansion (2-6 ppm·K(-1)). Our results indicated that ANFs are promising nanoscale building blocks for functional ultrastrong and stiff materials potentially extendable to nanocomposites based on other nanoscale fillers. PMID:25712334

  12. A novel methanol sensor based on gas-penetration through a porous polypyrrole-coated polyacrylonitrile nanofiber mat.

    PubMed

    Jun, Tae-Sun; Ho, Thi Anh; Rashid, Muhammad; Kim, Yong Shin

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we propose a novel chemoresistive gas sensor operated under a vertical analyte flow passing through a permeable sensing membrane. Such a configuration is different from the use of a planar sensor implemented under a conventional horizontal flow. A highly porous core-shell polyacrylonitrile-polypyrrole (PAN@PPy) nanofiber mat was prepared as the sensing element via electrospinning and two-step vapor-phase polymerization (VPP). Various analysis methods such as SEM, TEM, FT-IR and XPS measurements were employed in order to characterize structural features of the porous sensing mat. These analyses confirmed that very thin (ca. 10 nm) conductive PPy sheath layers were deposited by VPP on electrospun PAN nanofibers with an average diameter of 258 nm. Preliminary results revealed that the gas penetration-type PAN@PPy sensor had a higher sensor response and shorter detection and recovery times upon exposure to methanol analyte when compared with a conventional horizontal flow sensor due to efficient and fast analyte transfer into the sensing layer. PMID:24205639

  13. Theoretical and practical aspects of chemical functionalization of carbon nanofibers (CNFs): DFT calculations and adsorption study.

    PubMed

    Rokhina, Ekaterina V; Lahtinen, Manu; Makarova, Katerina; Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Virkutyte, Jurate

    2012-06-01

    The nitric acid-functionalized commercial carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were comprehensively studied by instrumental (XRD, BET, SEM, TGA) and theoretical (DFT calculations) methods. The detailed surface study revealed the variation in the characteristics of functionalized CNFs, such as a decreased (up to 34%) surface area and impacted structural, electronic and chemical properties. The effects of functional groups were studied by comparison with pristine nanofibers. The results showed that the C-C bond lengths of the modified CNFs varied significantly. Chemical functionalization altered the frontier orbitals of the pristine material, and therefore altered the nature of their interactions with other substances. Moreover, the pristine and modified CNFs were tested for the removal of phenol from aqueous solutions. It was observed that surface modification tuned the adsorption capacity of carbon nanofibers (up to 0.35 mmol g(-1)), whereas original fibers did not demonstrate any adsorption capacity of phenol. PMID:22209137

  14. Carbon functionalized TiO2 nanofibers for high efficiency photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghava Reddy, Kakarla; Gomes, Vincent G.; Hassan, Mahbub

    2014-03-01

    TiO2 nanofibers (30-50 nm diameter), fabricated by the electro-spinning process, were modified with organo-silane agents via a coupling reaction and were grafted with carbohydrate molecules. The mixture was carbonized to produce a uniform coating of amorphous carbon on the surface of the TiO2 nanofibers. The TiO2@C nanofibers were characterized by high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic property of the functional TiO2 and carbon nanocomposite was tested via the decomposition of an organic pollutant. The catalytic activity of the covalently functionalized nanocomposite was found to be significantly enhanced in comparison to unfunctionalized composite and pristine TiO2 due to the synergistic effect of nanostructured TiO2 and amorphous carbon bound via covalent bonds. The improvement in performance is due to bandgap modification in the 1D co-axial nanostructure where the anatase phase is bound by nano-carbon, providing a large surface to volume ratio within a confined space. The superior photocatalytic performance and recyclability of 1D TiO2@C nanofiber composites for water purification were established through dye degradation experiments.

  15. Electrospun carbon nanofibers for improved electrical conductivity of fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarifi, Ibrahim M.; Alharbi, Abdulaziz; Khan, Waseem S.; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2015-04-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF), and then electrospun to generate nanofibers using various electrospinning conditions, such as pump speeds, DC voltages and tip-to-collector distances. The produced nanofibers were oxidized at 270 °C for 1 hr, and then carbonized at 850 °C in an argon gas for additional 1 hr. The resultant carbonized PAN nanofibers were placed on top of the pre-preg carbon fiber composites as top layers prior to the vacuum oven curing following the pre-preg composite curing procedures. The major purpose of this study is to determine if the carbonized nanofibers on the fiber reinforced composites can detect the structural defects on the composite, which may be useful for the structural health monitoring (SHM) of the composites. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the electrospun PAN fibers were well integrated on the pre-preg composites. Electrical conductivity studies under various tensile loads revealed that nanoscale carbon fibers on the fiber reinforced composites detected small changes of loads by changing the resistance values. Electrically conductive composite manufacturing can have huge benefits over the conventional composites primarily used for the military and civilian aircraft and wind turbine blades.

  16. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on hierarchically structured cobalt nanoparticle/carbon nanofiber/carbon felt composites.

    PubMed

    Zarubova, Sarka; Rane, Shreyas; Yang, Jia; Yu, Yingda; Zhu, Ye; Chen, De; Holmen, Anders

    2011-07-18

    The hierarchically structured carbon nanofibers (CNFs)/carbon felt composites, in which CNFs were directly grown on the surface of microfibers in carbon felt, forming a CNF layer on a micrometer range that completely covers the microfiber surfaces, were tested as a novel support material for cobalt nanoparticles in the highly exothermic Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis. A compact, fixed-bed reactor, made of disks of such composite materials, offered the advantages of improved heat and mass transfer, relatively low pressure drop, and safe handling of immobilized CNFs. An efficient 3-D thermal conductive network in the composite provided a relatively uniform temperature profile, whereas the open structure of the CNF layer afforded an almost 100 % effectiveness of Co nanoparticles in the F-T synthesis in the fixed bed. The greatly improved mass and heat transport makes the compact reactor attractive for applications in the conversion of biomass, coal, and natural gas to liquids. PMID:21563315

  17. One-step catalytic growth of carbon nanofiber arrays vertically aligned on carbon substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xun; State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 ; Xu, Zheng

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ► Acetylene as carbon resource and copper foil as catalyst. ► Three carbon nanostructures are synthesized by modulating feeding gas compositions. ► NH{sub 3} is a key factor in the growth of VA-CNF arrays. -- Abstract: Vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (VA-CNF) arrays on carbon substrate have been synthesized via one-step chemical vapor deposition process on copper foil, by using acetylene as carbon resource. Three types of carbon nanostructures, viz. bare carbon films, CNFs and VA-CNFs grown on carbon substrate, could be selectively synthesized by only modulating the concentration of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} in the feeding gases. It was found that NH{sub 3} was a key factor in the growth of VA-CNF arrays, which could increase the diffusion capability of copper atoms in carbon materials, therefore promote forming larger spherical Cu NPs catalysts for the growth of VA-CNFs. Furthermore, a growth mechanism in different feeding gas compositions was proposed.

  18. Remarkable improvement in microwave absorption by cloaking a micro-scaled tetrapod hollow with helical carbon nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Jian, Xian; Chen, Xiangnan; Zhou, Zuowan; Li, Gang; Jiang, Man; Xu, Xiaoling; Lu, Jun; Li, Qiming; Wang, Yong; Gou, Jihua; Hui, David

    2015-02-01

    Helical nanofibers are prepared through in situ growth on the surface of a tetrapod-shaped ZnO whisker (T-ZnO), by employing a precursor decomposition method then adding substrate. After heat treatment at 900 °C under argon, this new composite material, named helical nanofiber-T-ZnO, undergoes a significant change in morphology and structure. The T-ZnO transforms from a solid tetrapod ZnO to a micro-scaled tetrapod hollow carbon film by reduction of the organic fiber at 900 °C. Besides, helical carbon nanofibers, generated from the carbonization of helical nanofibers, maintain the helical morphology. Interestingly, HCNFs with the T-hollow exhibit remarkable improvement in electromagnetic wave loss compared with the pure helical nanofibers. The enhanced loss ability may arise from the efficient dielectric friction, interface effect in the complex nanostructures and the micro-scaled tetrapod-hollow structure. PMID:25510199

  19. Flame Synthesis Of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes And Nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wal, Randy L. Vander; Berger, Gordon M.; Ticich, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are widely sought for a variety of applications including gas storage, intercalation media, catalyst support and composite reinforcing material [1]. Each of these applications will require large scale quantities of CNTs. A second consideration is that some of these applications may require redispersal of the collected CNTs and attachment to a support structure. If the CNTs could be synthesized directly upon the support to be used in the end application, a tremendous savings in post-synthesis processing could be realized. Therein we have pursued both aerosol and supported catalyst synthesis of CNTs. Given space limitations, only the aerosol portion of the work is outlined here though results from both thrusts will be presented during the talk. Aerosol methods of SWNT, MWNT or nanofiber synthesis hold promise of large-scale production to supply the tonnage quantities these applications will require. Aerosol methods may potentially permit control of the catalyst particle size, offer continuous processing, provide highest product purity and most importantly, are scaleable. Only via economy of scale will the cost of CNTs be sufficient to realize the large-scale structural and power applications on both earth and in space. Present aerosol methods for SWNT synthesis include laser ablation of composite metalgraphite targets or thermal decomposition/pyrolysis of a sublimed or vaporized organometallic [2]. Both approaches, conducted within a high temperature furnace, have produced single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs). The former method requires sophisticated hardware and is inherently limited by the energy deposition that can be realized using pulsed laser light. The latter method, using expensive organometallics is difficult to control for SWNT synthesis given a range of gasparticle mixing conditions along variable temperature gradients; multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs) are a far more likely end products. Both approaches require large energy expenditures and

  20. "Covalent functionalization and electron-transfer properties of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers: The importance of edge-plane sites"

    SciTech Connect

    Landis, Elizabeth; Klein, Kate; Albert, Liao; Pop, Eric; Hensley, Dale K; Melechko, Anatoli; Hamers, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The use of covalently bonded molecular layers provides a way to combine the outstanding stability and electrochemical properties of carbon-based structures with the unique properties of molecular structures for applications such as electrocatalysis and solar conversion. The functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) with 1-alkenes, using ultraviolet light, was investigated as a potential way to impart a variety of different functional groups onto the nanofiber sidewalls. We report how variations in the nanofiber growth rate impact both the amount of exposed edge-plane sites and the resulting electrochemical activity toward Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 3+/2+} and Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} redox couples. Measurements of the distribution of surface oxides show that surface oxides are unaffected by the grafting of alkenes to the nanofibers. Carbon nanofiber reactivity was also compared to multiwalled and single-walled carbon nanotubes. Our results demonstrate that edge-plane sites are preferred sites for photochemical grafting, but that the grafting of molecular layers only slightly reduces the overall electrochemical activity of the nanofibers toward the Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 3+/2+} couple. These results provide new insights into the relationships between the chemical reactivity and electrochemical properties of nanostructured carbon materials and highlight the crucial role that exposed edge-plane sites play in the electrochemical properties of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers.

  1. Carbothermal transformation of a graphitic carbon nanofiber/silica aerogel composite to a SiC/silica nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weijie; Steigerwalt, Eve S; Moore, Joshua T; Sullivan, Lisa M; Collins, W Eugene; Lukehart, C M

    2004-09-01

    Carbon nanofiber/silica aerogel composites are prepared by sol-gel processing of surface-enhanced herringbone graphitic carbon nanofibers (GCNF) and Si(OMe)4, followed by supercritical CO2 drying. Heating the resulting GCNF/silica aerogel composites to 1650 degrees C under a partial pressure of Ar gas initiates carbothermal reaction between the silica aerogel matrix and the carbon nanofiber component to form SiC/silica nanocomposites. The SiC phase is present as nearly spherical nanoparticles, having an average diameter of ca. 8 nm. Formation of SiC is confirmed by powder XRD and by Raman spectroscopy. PMID:15570963

  2. Egg-Box Structure in Cobalt Alginate: A New Approach to Multifunctional Hierarchical Mesoporous N-Doped Carbon Nanofibers for Efficient Catalysis and Energy Storage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials with both doped heteroatom and porous structure represent a new class of carbon nanostructures for boosting electrochemical application, particularly sustainable electrochemical energy conversion and storage applications. We herein demonstrate a unique large-scale sustainable biomass conversion strategy for the synthesis of earth-abundant multifunctional carbon nanomaterials with well-defined doped heteroatom level and multimodal pores through pyrolyzing electrospinning renewable natural alginate. The key part for our chemical synthesis is that we found that the egg-box structure in cobalt alginate nanofiber can offer new opportunity to create large mesopores (∼10–40 nm) on the surface of nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers. The as-prepared hierarchical carbon nanofibers with three-dimensional pathway for electron and ion transport are conceptually new as high-performance multifunctional electrochemical materials for boosting the performance of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), lithium ion batteries (LIBs), and supercapacitors (SCs). In particular, they show amazingly the same ORR activity as commercial Pt/C catalyst and much better long-term stability and methanol tolerance for ORR than Pt/C via a four-electron pathway in alkaline electrolyte. They also exhibit a large reversible capacity of 625 mAh g–1 at 1 A g–1, good rate capability, and excellent cycling performance for LIBs, making them among the best in all the reported carbon nanomaterials. They also represent highly efficient carbon nanomaterials for SCs with excellent capacitive behavior of 197 F g–1 at 1 A g–1 and superior stability. The present work highlights the importance of biomass-derived multifunctional mesoporous carbon nanomaterials in enhancing electrochemical catalysis and energy storage. PMID:27162980

  3. Egg-Box Structure in Cobalt Alginate: A New Approach to Multifunctional Hierarchical Mesoporous N-Doped Carbon Nanofibers for Efficient Catalysis and Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Li, Daohao; Lv, Chunxiao; Liu, Long; Xia, Yanzhi; She, Xilin; Guo, Shaojun; Yang, Dongjiang

    2015-08-26

    Carbon nanomaterials with both doped heteroatom and porous structure represent a new class of carbon nanostructures for boosting electrochemical application, particularly sustainable electrochemical energy conversion and storage applications. We herein demonstrate a unique large-scale sustainable biomass conversion strategy for the synthesis of earth-abundant multifunctional carbon nanomaterials with well-defined doped heteroatom level and multimodal pores through pyrolyzing electrospinning renewable natural alginate. The key part for our chemical synthesis is that we found that the egg-box structure in cobalt alginate nanofiber can offer new opportunity to create large mesopores (∼10-40 nm) on the surface of nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers. The as-prepared hierarchical carbon nanofibers with three-dimensional pathway for electron and ion transport are conceptually new as high-performance multifunctional electrochemical materials for boosting the performance of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), lithium ion batteries (LIBs), and supercapacitors (SCs). In particular, they show amazingly the same ORR activity as commercial Pt/C catalyst and much better long-term stability and methanol tolerance for ORR than Pt/C via a four-electron pathway in alkaline electrolyte. They also exhibit a large reversible capacity of 625 mAh g(-1) at 1 A g(-1), good rate capability, and excellent cycling performance for LIBs, making them among the best in all the reported carbon nanomaterials. They also represent highly efficient carbon nanomaterials for SCs with excellent capacitive behavior of 197 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) and superior stability. The present work highlights the importance of biomass-derived multifunctional mesoporous carbon nanomaterials in enhancing electrochemical catalysis and energy storage. PMID:27162980

  4. Elastic and hierarchical porous carbon nanofibrous membranes incorporated with NiFe2O4 nanocrystals for highly efficient capacitive energy storage.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jianlong; Fan, Gang; Si, Yang; He, Jianxin; Kim, Hak-Yong; Ding, Bin; Al-Deyab, Salem S; El-Newehy, Mohamed; Yu, Jianyong

    2016-01-28

    Flexible membranes created from porous carbon nanofibers (CNFs) hold great promise in the next generation wearable energy storage devices, but challenges still remain due to the poor mechanical properties of porous carbon nanofibers. Here, we report a facile strategy to fabricate elastic and hierarchical porous CNF membranes with NiFe2O4 nanocrystals embedded via multicomponent electrospinning and nano-doping methods. Benefiting from the scattering effect of NiFe2O4 nanocrystals and graphitized carbon layers for the condensed stress, the resultant CNF membranes exhibit an enhanced elasticity with a bending radius <12 μm, rapid recovery from the deformations, and a superior softness. Quantitative pore size distribution and fractal analysis reveal that the CNFs possessed tunable porous structures with a high surface area of 493 m(2) g(-1) and a pore volume of 0.31 cm(3) g(-1). Benefiting from the robust mechanical stability, hierarchical porous structures and good electrochemical properties, the NiFe2O4 doped CNF membranes demonstrate a high electrical capacitance of 343 F g(-1), and good reversibility with a cycling efficiency of 97.4% even after 10,000 cycles. The successful synthesis of elastic porous CNF membranes also provided a versatile platform for the design and development of functional CNF based materials for various applications. PMID:26731700

  5. DC Plasma Synthesis of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers for Biointerfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Ryan Christopher

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) are a class of materials whose nanoscale dimensions and physical properties makes them uniquely suitable as functional elements in many applications for biodetection and biointerfacing on a cellular level. Control of VACNF synthesis by catalytic plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) presents many challenges in integration into devices and structures designed for biointerfacing, such as transparent or flexible substrates. This dissertation addresses ways to overcome many of these issues in addition to deepening the fundamental understanding of nano-synthesis in catalytic PECVD. First, a survey of the field of VACNF synthesis and biointerfacing is presented, identifying the present challenges and greatest experimental applications. It is followed by experimental observations that elucidate the underlying mechanism to fiber alignment during synthesis, a critical step for deterministic control of fiber growth. Using a grid of electrodes patterned by photolithography on an insulating substrate, it was found that the alignment of the fibers is controlled by the anisotropic etching provided by ions during dc-PECVD synthesis. The VACNFs that have been utilized for many cellular interfacing experiments have unique mechanical and fluorescent properties due to a SiNx coating. The mechanism for SiNx deposition to VACNF sidewalls during synthesis is explored in addition to a detailed study of the optical properties of the coating. To explain the optical properties of this coating it is proposed that the source of photoluminescence for the SiNx coated VACNFs is quantum confinement effects due to the presence of silicon nanoclusters embedded in a Si3N4 matrix. These luminescent fibers have proven useful as registry markers in cell impalefection studies. To realize VACNF arrays used as an inflatable angioplasty balloon with embedded fibers to deliver drugs across the blood-brain barrier, a method for transferring fibers to

  6. Polyaniline nanofiber/large mesoporous carbon composites as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huan; Xu, Bin; Jia, Mengqiu; Zhang, Mei; Cao, Bin; Zhao, Xiaonan; Wang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    A composite of polyaniline nanofiber/large mesoporous carbon (PANI-F/LMC) hybrid was prepared by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer with nano-CaCO3 templated LMC as host matrix for supercapacitors. The morphology, composition and electronic structure of the composites (PANI-F/LMC) together with pure PANI nanofibers and the LMC were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the PANI nanofibers were incorporated into the large mesochannels of LMC with interpenetrating framework formed. Such unique structure endows the PANI-F/LMC composite with a high capacitance of 473 F g-1 at a current load of 0.1 A g-1 with good rate performance and cycling stability, suggesting its potential application in the electrode material for supercapacitors.

  7. Use of facile mechanochemical method to functionalize carbon nanofibers with nanostructured polyaniline and their electrochemical capacitance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A facile approach to functionalize carbon nanofibers [CNFs] with nanostructured polyaniline was developed via in situ mechanochemical polymerization of polyaniline in the presence of chemically treated CNFs. The nanostructured polyaniline grafting on the CNF was mainly in a form of branched nanofibers as well as rough nanolayers. The good dispersibility and processability of the hybrid nanocomposite could be attributed to its overall nanostructure which enhanced its accessibility to the electrolyte. The mechanochemical oxidation polymerization was believed to be related to the strong Lewis acid characteristic of FeCl3 and the Lewis base characteristic of aniline. The growth mechanism of the hierarchical structured nanofibers was also discussed. After functionalization with the nanostructured polyaniline, the hybrid polyaniline/CNF composite showed an enhanced specific capacitance, which might be related to its hierarchical nanostructure and the interaction between the aromatic polyaniline molecules and the CNFs. PMID:22315992

  8. Use of facile mechanochemical method to functionalize carbon nanofibers with nanostructured polyaniline and their electrochemical capacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xusheng; Liu, Hong-Yuan; Cai, Guipeng; Mai, Yiu-Wing; Baji, Avinash

    2012-02-01

    A facile approach to functionalize carbon nanofibers [CNFs] with nanostructured polyaniline was developed via in situ mechanochemical polymerization of polyaniline in the presence of chemically treated CNFs. The nanostructured polyaniline grafting on the CNF was mainly in a form of branched nanofibers as well as rough nanolayers. The good dispersibility and processability of the hybrid nanocomposite could be attributed to its overall nanostructure which enhanced its accessibility to the electrolyte. The mechanochemical oxidation polymerization was believed to be related to the strong Lewis acid characteristic of FeCl3 and the Lewis base characteristic of aniline. The growth mechanism of the hierarchical structured nanofibers was also discussed. After functionalization with the nanostructured polyaniline, the hybrid polyaniline/CNF composite showed an enhanced specific capacitance, which might be related to its hierarchical nanostructure and the interaction between the aromatic polyaniline molecules and the CNFs.

  9. Enhancing capacitive deionization performance of electrospun activated carbon nanofibers by coupling with carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qiang; Wang, Gang; Wu, Tingting; Peng, Senpei; Qiu, Jieshan

    2015-05-15

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an alternative, effective and environmentally friendly technology for desalination of brackish water. The performance of the CDI device is highly determined by the electrode materials. In this paper, a composite of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) embedded in activated carbon nanofiber (ACF) was prepared by a direct co-electrospinning way and subsequent CO2 activation. The introduction of CNTs can greatly improve the conductivity while the CO2-mediated activation can render the final product with high porosity. As such, the hybrid structure can provide an excellent storage space and pathways for ion adsorption and conduction. When evaluated as electrode materials for CDI, the as-prepared CNT/ACF composites with higher electrical conductivity and mesopore ratios exhibited higher electrosorption capacity and good regeneration performance in comparison with the pure ACF. PMID:25595622

  10. Carbon Nanotubes-Adsorbed Electrospun PA66 Nanofiber Bundles with Improved Conductivity and Robust Flexibility.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiaoyang; Zheng, Guoqiang; Dai, Kun; Liu, Chuntai; Yan, Xingru; Shen, Changyu; Guo, Zhanhu

    2016-06-01

    Electrospun polyamide (PA) 66 nanofiber bundles with high conductivity, improved strength, and robust flexibility were successfully manufactured through simply adsorbing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on the surface of electrospun PA66 nanofibers. The highest electrical conductivity (0.2 S/cm) and tensile strength (103.3 MPa) were achieved for the bundles immersed in the suspension with 0.05 wt % MWNTs, indicating the formation of conductive network from adsorbed MWNTs on the surface of PA66 nanofibers. The decrease of porosity for the bundles immersed in the MWNT dispersion and the formation of hydrogen bond between PA66 nanofibers and MWNTs suggest a superb interfacial interaction, which is responsible for the excellent mechanical properties of the nanocomposite bundles. Furthermore, the resistance fluctuation under bending is less than 3.6%, indicating a high flexibility of the nanocomposite bundles. The resistance of the nanocomposite bundle had a better linear dependence on the temperature applied between 30 and 150 °C. More importantly, such highest working temperature of 150 °C far exceeded that of other polymer-based temperature sensors previously reported. This suggests that such prepared MWNTs-adsorbed electrospun PA66 nanofiber bundles have great potentials in high temperature detectors. PMID:27172292

  11. Ultrasensitive, Label Free, Chemiresistive Nanobiosensor Using Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Embedded Electrospun SU-8 Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Durga Prakash, Matta; Vanjari, Siva Rama Krishna; Sharma, Chandra Shekhar; Singh, Shiv Govind

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and fabrication of aligned electrospun nanofibers derived out of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) embedded SU-8 photoresist, which are targeted towards ultrasensitive biosensor applications. The ultrasensitivity (detection in the range of fg/mL) and the specificity of these biosensors were achieved by complementing the inherent advantages of MWCNTs such as high surface to volume ratio and excellent electrical and transduction properties with the ease of surface functionalization of SU-8. The electrospinning process was optimized to precisely align nanofibers in between two electrodes of a copper microelectrode array. MWCNTs not only enhance the conductivity of SU-8 nanofibers but also act as transduction elements. In this paper, MWCNTs were embedded way beyond the percolation threshold and the optimum percentage loading of MWCNTs for maximizing the conductivity of nanofibers was figured out experimentally. As a proof of concept, the detection of myoglobin, an important biomarker for on-set of Acute Myocardial Infection (AMI) has been demonstrated by functionalizing the nanofibers with anti-myoglobin antibodies and carrying out detection using a chemiresistive method. This simple and robust device yielded a detection limit of 6 fg/mL. PMID:27563905

  12. Influence of oxygen on nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber growth directly on nichrome foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Shinde, Sachin M.; Saufi Rosmi, Mohamad; Takahashi, Chisato; Papon, Remi; Mahyavanshi, Rakesh D.; Ishii, Yosuke; Kawasaki, Shinji; Kalita, Golap; Tanemura, Masaki

    2016-09-01

    The synthesis of various nitrogen-doped (N-doped) carbon nanostructures has been significantly explored as an alternative material for energy storage and metal-free catalytic applications. Here, we reveal a direct growth technique of N-doped carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on flexible nichrome (NiCr) foil using melamine as a solid precursor. Highly reactive Cr plays a critical role in the nanofiber growth process on the metal alloy foil in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process. Oxidation of Cr occurs in the presence of oxygen impurities, where Ni nanoparticles are formed on the surface and assist the growth of nanofibers. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) clearly show the transformation process of the NiCr foil surface with annealing in the presence of oxygen impurities. The structural change of NiCr foil assists one-dimensional (1D) CNF growth, rather than the lateral two-dimensional (2D) growth. The incorporation of distinctive graphitic and pyridinic nitrogen in the graphene lattice are observed in the synthesized nanofiber, owing to better nitrogen solubility. Our finding shows an effective approach for the synthesis of highly N-doped carbon nanostructures directly on Cr-based metal alloys for various applications.

  13. Influence of oxygen on nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber growth directly on nichrome foil.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Shinde, Sachin M; Rosmi, Mohamad Saufi; Takahashi, Chisato; Papon, Remi; Mahyavanshi, Rakesh D; Ishii, Yosuke; Kawasaki, Shinji; Kalita, Golap; Tanemura, Masaki

    2016-09-01

    The synthesis of various nitrogen-doped (N-doped) carbon nanostructures has been significantly explored as an alternative material for energy storage and metal-free catalytic applications. Here, we reveal a direct growth technique of N-doped carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on flexible nichrome (NiCr) foil using melamine as a solid precursor. Highly reactive Cr plays a critical role in the nanofiber growth process on the metal alloy foil in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process. Oxidation of Cr occurs in the presence of oxygen impurities, where Ni nanoparticles are formed on the surface and assist the growth of nanofibers. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) clearly show the transformation process of the NiCr foil surface with annealing in the presence of oxygen impurities. The structural change of NiCr foil assists one-dimensional (1D) CNF growth, rather than the lateral two-dimensional (2D) growth. The incorporation of distinctive graphitic and pyridinic nitrogen in the graphene lattice are observed in the synthesized nanofiber, owing to better nitrogen solubility. Our finding shows an effective approach for the synthesis of highly N-doped carbon nanostructures directly on Cr-based metal alloys for various applications. PMID:27479000

  14. Ultrafine Mo2C nanoparticles encapsulated in N-doped carbon nanofibers with enhanced lithium storage performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruirui; Wang, Shuguang; Wang, Wei; Cao, Minhua

    2015-10-14

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries (LIBs) have attracted extensive attention globally due to their good cycling stability, high energy density, and rapid-rate capability, while the rational design of electrode materials can significantly improve their electrochemical performance. In this work, ultrafine Mo2C nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully encapsulated in one dimensional (1D) N-doped porous carbon nanofibers to form a hybrid (Mo2C-NCNFs) through a single-nozzle electrospinning approach coupled with post-pyrolysis. The sizes of the Mo2C NPs were in the range of 2-4 nm and the ultrafine Mo2C NPs were uniformly encapsulated in the N-doped carbon nanofibers forming a highly conductive and interconnecting network, which can facilitate fast electronic transport. When evaluated as an anode material for LIBs, the resultant hybrid exhibits stable cycling performance and excellent rate behavior. More remarkably, the Mo2C-NCNFs hybrid is capable of delivering a specific capacity of 658.0 mA h g(-1) under 100 mA g(-1) after 50 cycles. Even under 2000 mA g(-1), a relatively high specific capacity of 411.9 mA h g(-1) can be achieved, which surpasses the theoretical capacity of graphite (372 mA h g(-1)). The excellent lithium storage performance can be attributed to its unique nanostructure with a strong interaction between the ultrafine Mo2C NPs and N-doped carbon that effectively tolerates the volume change, suppresses the agglomeration of Mo2C NPs, and provides conductive pathways for highly efficient charge transfer during lithium insertion and extraction. PMID:26344047

  15. Carbon nanofiber mesoporous films: efficient platforms for bio-hydrogen oxidation in biofuel cells.

    PubMed

    de Poulpiquet, Anne; Marques-Knopf, Helena; Wernert, Véronique; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie Thérèse; Gadiou, Roger; Lojou, Elisabeth

    2014-01-28

    The discovery of oxygen and carbon monoxide tolerant [NiFe] hydrogenases was the first necessary step toward the definition of a novel generation of hydrogen fed biofuel cells. The next important milestone is now to identify and overcome bottlenecks limiting the current densities, hence the power densities. In the present work we report for the first time a comprehensive study of herringbone carbon nanofiber mesoporous films as platforms for enhanced biooxidation of hydrogen. The 3D network allows mediatorless hydrogen oxidation by the membrane-bound hydrogenase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus. We investigate the key physico-chemical parameters that enhance the catalytic efficiency, including surface chemistry and hierarchical porosity of the biohybrid film. We also emphasize that the catalytic current is limited by mass transport inside the mesoporous carbon nanofiber film. Provided hydrogen is supplied inside the carbon film, the combination of the hierarchical porosity of the carbon nanofiber film with the hydrophobicity of the treated carbon material results in very high efficiency of the bioelectrode. By optimization of the whole procedure, current densities as high as 4.5 mA cm(-2) are reached with a turnover frequency of 48 s(-1). This current density is almost 100 times higher than when hydrogenase is simply adsorbed at a bare graphite electrode, and more than 5 times higher than the average of the previous reported current densities at carbon nanotube modified electrodes, suggesting that carbon nanofibers can be efficiently used in future sustainable H2/O2 biofuel cells. PMID:24296569

  16. Synthesis of Porous NiO and ZnO Submicro- and Nanofibers from Electrospun Polymer Fiber Templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yejun; Yu, Jie; Zhou, Xiaosong; Tan, Cuili; Yin, Jing

    2009-02-01

    Porous nickel oxide (NiO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) submicro- and nanofibers were synthesized by impregnating electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber templates with corresponding metal nitrate aqueous solutions and subsequent calcination. The diameter of the NiO and ZnO fibers was closely related to that of the template fibers and larger diameters were obtained when using the template fibers with larger diameter. SEM results showed that the NiO and ZnO fibers have a large amount of pores with diameters ranging from 5 nm to 20 nm and 50 nm to 100 nm, respectively. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns testified that the obtained materials were NiO and ZnO with high purity.

  17. Carbon nanofibers grafted on activated carbon as an electrode in high-power supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Gryglewicz, Grażyna; Śliwak, Agata; Béguin, François

    2013-08-01

    A hybrid electrode material for high-power supercapacitors was fabricated by grafting carbon nanofibers (CNFs) onto the surface of powdered activated carbon (AC) through catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). A uniform thin layer of disentangled CNFs with a herringbone structure was deposited on the carbon surface through the decomposition of propane at 450 °C over an AC-supported nickel catalyst. CNF coating was controlled by the reaction time and the nickel content. The superior CNF/AC composite displays excellent electrochemical performance in a 0.5 mol L(-1) solution of K2 SO4 due to its unique structure. At a high scan rate (100 mV s(-1) ) and current loading (20 A g(-1) ), the capacitance values were three- and fourfold higher than those for classical AC/carbon black composites. Owing to this feature, a high energy of 10 Wh kg(-1) was obtained over a wide power range in neutral medium at a voltage of 0.8 V. The significant enhancement of charge propagation is attributed to the presence of herringbone CNFs, which facilitate the diffusion of ions in the electrode and play the role of electronic bridges between AC particles. An in situ coating of AC with short CNFs (below 200 nm) is a very attractive method for producing the next generation of carbon composite materials with a high power performance in supercapacitors working in neutral medium. PMID:23794416

  18. Photocatalytic Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds Over Electrospun Activated TIO2/CARBON Nanofiber Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholamvand, Zahra; Aboutalebi, Seyed Hamed; Keyanpour-Rad, Mansoor

    In this study, TiO2/PAN-based fibers were prepared by electrospinning a composite solution containing both the desirable contents of TiO2 and a 10 wt. % PAN polymer solution dissolved in N, N-dimethylformamide. The TiO2 loaded electrospun PAN nanofibers were then carbonized at 1000 °C in N2 atmosphere furnace after stabilization at 230 °C in air. Then CNF/TiO2 nanofibers were oxidized at 450 °C in air. The morphology and structure of the TiO2-embeded carbon nanofibers were investigated by SEM and Raman spectroscopy. Specific surface area was determined using BET equation from N2 adsorption analysis. Photocatalytic tests were conducted in a UV illuminated set-up specialized for the filters using ethanol vapor. The results have shown that ethanol vapor was efficiently degraded on TiO2/CNF composite nanofiber mat under UV illumination. The aim of this study was to further investigate the feasibility of TiO2/ACF for practical indoor air purification.

  19. Protection of porous carbon fuel particles from boudouard corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, John F.

    2015-05-26

    A system for producing energy that includes infusing porous carbon particles produced by pyrolysis of carbon-containing materials with an off-eutectic salt composition thus producing pore-free carbon particles, and reacting the carbon particles with oxygen in a fuel cell according to the reaction C+O.sub.2=CO.sub.2 to produce electrical energy.

  20. High photocatalytic activity of V-doped SrTiO3 porous nanofibers produced from a combined electrospinning and thermal diffusion process

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Panpan; Su, Qing; Xie, Erqing

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this letter, we report a novel V-doped SrTiO3 photocatalyst synthesized via electrospinning followed by a thermal diffusion process at low temperature. The morphological and crystalline structural investigations reveal not only that the V-doped SrTiO3 photocatalyst possesses a uniform, porous, fibrous structure, but also that some V5+ ions are introduced into the SrTiO3 lattice. The photocatalytic capability of V-doped SrTiO3 porous nanofibers was evaluated through photodegrading methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solution under artificial UV–vis light. The results indicated that V-doped SrTiO3 porous nanofibers have excellent catalytic efficiency. Furthermore, the excellent catalytic activity was maintained even after five cycle tests, indicating that they have outstanding photocatalytic endurance. It is suggested that the excellent photocatalytic performance of doped SrTiO3 nanofibers is possibly attributed to the V5+ ion doping increasing the light utilization as well as to the outstanding porous features, the excellent component and structure stability. PMID:26199831

  1. Laccase Biosensor Based on Electrospun Copper/Carbon Composite Nanofibers for Catechol Detection

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jiapeng; Qiao, Hui; Li, Dawei; Luo, Lei; Chen, Ke; Wei, Qufu

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the biosensing properties of laccase biosensors based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and copper/carbon composite nanofibers (Cu/CNFs). The two kinds of nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning and carbonization under the same conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy were employed to investigate the morphologies and structures of CNFs and Cu/CNFs. The amperometric results indicated that the Cu/CNFs/laccase(Lac)/Nafion/glass carbon electrode (GCE) possessed reliable analytical performance for the detection of catechol. The sensitivity of the Cu/CNFs/Lac/Nafion/GCE reached 33.1 μA/mM, larger than that of CNFs/Lac/Nafion/GCE. Meanwhile, Cu/CNFs/Lac/Nafion/GCE had a wider linear range from 9.95 × 10−6 to 9.76 × 10−3 M and a lower detection limit of 1.18 μM than CNFs/Lac/Nafion/GCE. Moreover, it exhibited a good repeatability, reproducibility, selectivity and long-term stability, revealing that electrospun Cu/CNFs have great potential in biosensing. PMID:24561403

  2. Anchoring Fe3O4 nanoparticles on three-dimensional carbon nanofibers toward flexible high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yizao; Yang, Zhiwei; Xiong, Guangyao; Guo, Ruisong; Liu, Ze; Luo, Honglin

    2015-10-01

    There is growing interest in flexible, cost-effective, and binder-free energy storage devices to meet the special needs of modern electronic systems. Herein we report a general, scalable, eco-friendly, and cost-effective approach for the fabrication of nano-Fe3O4-anchored three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanofiber (CNFs) aerogels (Fe3O4@BC-CNFs). The preparation processes include the anchoring of Fe2O3 nanoparticles on bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers with intrinsic 3D network structure and subsequent carbonization at different temperatures. The aerogel carbonized at 600 °C (Fe3O4@BC-CNFs-600) is highly flexible and was directly used as working electrodes in lithium-ion batteries without metal current collectors, conducting additives, or binders. The Fe3O4@BC-CNFs-600 demonstrates greatly improved electrochemical performance in comparison to the bare Fe3O4 nanoparticles. In addition to its excellent flexibility, a stable capacity of 755 mAh g-1 for up to 80 cycles is also higher than most of carbon-Fe3O4 hybrids. The high reversible capacity and excellent rate capability are attributed to its 3D porous network structure with well-dispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surfaces of CNFs.

  3. Electrospun polyvinyl alcohol/carbon dioxide modified polyethyleneimine composite nanofiber scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Wu, Han-Bing; Bremner, David H; Nie, Hua-Li; Quan, Jing; Zhu, Li-Min

    2015-05-01

    A novel biocompatible polyvinyl alcohol/carbon dioxide modified polyethyleneimine (PVA/PEI-CO2) composite nanofiber was fabricated by a green and facile protocol, which reduces the cytotoxicity of PEI through the surface modification of the PEI with CO2. The (13)C NMR spectrum, elemental analysis, and TGA show that CO2 has been incorporated in the PEI surface resulting in a relatively stable structure. The resulting PVA/PEI-CO2 composite nanofibers have been characterized by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), contact angle, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the average diameters of the nanofibers range from 265 ± 53 nm to 423 ± 80 nm. The cytotoxicity of PVA/PEI-CO2 composite nanofibers was assessed by cytotoxicity evaluation using the growth and cell proliferation of normal mice Schwann cells. SEM and the MTT assay demonstrated the promotion of cell growth and proliferation on the PVA/PEI-CO2 composite scaffold. It suggests that PEI-CO2 can have tremendous potential applications in biological material research. PMID:25540321

  4. Self-floating graphitic carbon nitride/zinc phthalocyanine nanofibers for photocatalytic degradation of contaminants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tiefeng; Ni, Dongjing; Chen, Xia; Wu, Fei; Ge, Pengfei; Lu, Wangyang; Hu, Hongguang; Zhu, ZheXin; Chen, Wenxing

    2016-11-01

    The effective elimination of micropollutants by an environmentally friendly method has received extensive attention recently. In this study, a photocatalyst based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-supported graphitic carbon nitride coupled with zinc phthalocyanine nanofibers (g-C3N4/ZnTcPc/PAN nanofibers) was successfully prepared, where g-C3N4/ZnTcPc was introduced as the catalytic entity and the PAN nanofibers were employed as support to overcome the defects of easy aggregation and difficult recycling. Herein, rhodamine B (RhB), 4-chlorophenol and carbamazepine (CBZ) were selected as the model pollutants. Compared with the typical hydroxyl radical-dominated catalytic system, g-C3N4/ZnTcPc/PAN nanofibers displayed the targeted adsorption and degradation of contaminants under visible light or solar irradiation in the presence of high additive concentrations. According to the results of the radical scavenging techniques and the electron paramagnetic resonance technology, the degradation of target substrates was achieved by the attack of active species, including photogenerated hole, singlet oxygen, superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radicals. Based on the results of ultra-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, the role of free radicals on the photocatalytic degradation intermediates was identified and the final photocatalytic degradation products of both RhB and CBZ were some biodegradable small molecules. PMID:27239724

  5. Preparation of flexible zinc oxide/carbon nanofiber webs for mid-temperature desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soojung; Bajaj, Bharat; Byun, Chang Ki; Kwon, Soon-Jin; Joh, Han-Ik; Yi, Kwang Bok; Lee, Sungho

    2014-11-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) derived carbon nanofiber (CNF) webs loaded with zinc oxide (ZnO) were synthesized using electrospinning and heat treatment at 600 °C. Uniformly dispersed ZnO nanoparticles, clarified by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, were observed on the surface of the nanofiber composites containing 13.6-29.5 wt% of ZnO. The further addition of ZnO up to 34.2 wt% caused agglomeration with a size of 50-80 nm. Higher ZnO contents led the concentrated ZnO nanoparticles on the surface of the nanofibers rather than uniform dispersion along the cross-section of the fiber. The flexible composite webs were crushed and tested for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) adsorption at 300 °C. Breakthrough experiments with the ZnO/CNF composite containing 25.7 wt% of ZnO for H2S adsorption showed three times higher ZnO utilization efficiency compared to pure ZnO nano powders, attributed to chemisorption of the larger surface area of well dispersed ZnO particles on nanofibers and physical adsorption of CNF.

  6. Controllable synthesis of helical, straight, hollow and nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers and their magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xun; Xu, Zheng

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The helical, straight and hollow carbon nanofibers can be selectively synthesized by adjusting either the reaction temperature or feed gas composition. Display Omitted Highlights: ► CNFs were synthesized via pyrolysis of acetylene on copper NPs. ► The helical, straight, hollow and N-doped CNFs can be selectively synthesized. ► The growth mechanism of different types of CNFs was proposed. -- Abstract: Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with various morphologies were synthesized by catalytic pyrolysis of acetylene on copper nanoparticles which were generated from the in situ decomposition of copper acetylacetonate. The morphology of the pristine and acid-washed CNFs was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. Helical, straight and hollow CNFs can be selectively synthesized by adjusting either the reaction temperature or feed gas composition. The growth mechanism for these three types of CNFs was proposed.

  7. Vertically aligned carbon nanofiber as nano-neuron interface for monitoring neural function

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, Milton Nance; McKnight, Timothy E; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich; Simpson, Michael L; Morrison, Barclay; Yu, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Neural chips, which are capable of simultaneous, multi-site neural recording and stimulation, have been used to detect and modulate neural activity for almost 30 years. As a neural interface, neural chips provide dynamic functional information for neural decoding and neural control. By improving sensitivity and spatial resolution, nano-scale electrodes may revolutionize neural detection and modulation at cellular and molecular levels as nano-neuron interfaces. We developed a carbon-nanofiber neural chip with lithographically defined arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanofiber electrodes and demonstrated its capability of both stimulating and monitoring electrophysiological signals from brain tissues in vitro and monitoring dynamic information of neuroplasticity. This novel nano-neuron interface can potentially serve as a precise, informative, biocompatible, and dual-mode neural interface for monitoring of both neuroelectrical and neurochemical activity at the single cell level and even inside the cell.

  8. Preparation and Study on Nickel Oxide Reduction of Polyacrylonitrile-Based Carbon Nanofibers by Thermal Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Ju; Kim, Hyun Bin; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Lee, Dae Soo; Koo, Dong Hyun; Kang, Phil Hyun

    2015-08-01

    Carbon materials containing magnetic nanopowder have been attractive in technological applications such as electrochemical capacitors and electromagnetic wave shielding. In this study, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers containing nickel nanoparticles were prepared using an electrospinning method and thermal stabilization. The reduction of nickel oxide was investigated under a nitrogen atmosphere within a temperature range of 600 to 1,000 °C. Carbon nanofibers containing nickel nanoparticles were characterized by FE-SEM, EDS, XRD, TGA, and VSM. It was found that nickel nanoparticles were formed by a NiO reduction in PAN as a function of the thermal treatment. These results led to an increase in the coercivity of nanofibers and a decrease in the remanence magnetization. PMID:26369192

  9. Effects of vapor grown carbon nanofibers on electrical and mechanical properties of a thermoplastic elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basaldua, Daniel Thomas

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF) reinforced composites are exceptional materials that exhibit superior properties compared to conventional composites. This paper presents the development of a vapor grown carbon nanofiber (VGCNF) thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composite by a melt mixing process. Dispersion and distribution of CNFs inside the TPU matrix were examined through scanning electron microscopy to determine homogeneity. The composite material underwent durometer, thermal gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, heat transfer, hysteresis, dynamic modulus, creep, tensile, abrasion, and electrical conductivity testing to characterize its properties and predict behavior. The motivation for this research is to develop an elastomer pad that is an electrically conductive alternative to the elastomer pads currently used in railroad service. The material had to be a completely homogenous electrically conductive CNF composite that could withstand a harsh dynamically loaded environment. The new material meets mechanical and conductive requirements for use as an elastomer pad in a rail suspension.

  10. High-strength porous carbon and its multifunctional applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtowicz, Marek A; Rubenstein, Eric P; Serio, Michael A; Cosgrove, Joseph E

    2013-12-31

    High-strength porous carbon and a method of its manufacture are described for multifunctional applications, such as ballistic protection, structural components, ultracapacitor electrodes, gas storage, and radiation shielding. The carbon is produced from a polymer precursor via carbonization, and optionally by surface activation and post-treatment.

  11. Label-Free Detection of Cardiac Troponin-I Using Carbon Nanofiber Based Nanoelectrode Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Periyakaruppan, Adaikkappan; Koehne, Jessica Erin; Gandhiraman, Ram P.; Meyyappan, M.

    2013-01-01

    A sensor platform based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) has been developed. Their inherent nanometer scale, high conductivity, wide potential window, good biocompatibility and well-defined surface chemistry make them ideal candidates as biosensor electrodes. A carbon nanofiber (CNF) multiplexed array has been fabricated with 9 sensing pads, each containing 40,000 carbon nanofibers as nanoelectrodes. Here, we report the use of vertically aligned CNF nanoelectrodes for the detection of cardiac Troponin-I for the early diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Antibody, antitroponin, probe immobilization and subsequent binding to human cardiac troponin-I were characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry techniques. Each step of the modification process resulted in changes in electrical capacitance or resistance to charge transfer due to the changes at the electrode surface upon antibody immobilization and binding to the specific antigen. This sensor demonstrates high sensitivity, down to 0.2 ng/mL, and good selectivity making this platform a good candidate for early stage diagnosis of myocardial infarction.

  12. Electrochemical properties of oxygenated cup-stacked carbon nanofiber-modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ko, Seongjae; Tatsuma, Tetsu; Sakoda, Akiyoshi; Sakai, Yasuyuki; Komori, Kikuo

    2014-06-28

    Oxygenated cup-stacked carbon nanofibers (CSCNFs), the surface of which provides highly ordered graphene edges and oxygen-containing functional groups, were investigated as electrode materials by using typical redox species in electrochemistry, Fe(2+/3+), [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-), and dopamine. The electron transfer rates for these redox species at oxygenated CSCNF electrodes were higher than those at edge-oriented pyrolytic graphite and glassy carbon electrodes. In addition, the oxygen-containing functional groups also contributed to the electron transfer kinetics at the oxygenated CSCNF surface. The electron transfer rate of Fe(2+/3+) was accelerated and that of [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) was decelerated by the oxygen-containing groups, mainly due to the electrostatic attraction and repulsion, respectively. The electrochemical reaction selectivities at the oxygenated CSCNF surface were tunable by controlling the amount of nanofibers and the oxygen/carbon atomic ratio at the nanofiber surface. Thus, the oxygenated CSCNFs would be useful electrode materials for energy-conversion, biosensing, and other electrochemical devices. PMID:24817367

  13. Growth of carbon nanofibers on carbon fabric with Ni nanocatalyst prepared using pulse electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Kai-Hsuan; Tzeng, Shinn-Shyong; Kuo, Wen-Shyong; Wei, Bingqing; Ko, Tse-Hao

    2008-07-01

    The pulse electrodeposition (PED) technique was utilized to deposit nanosized (<=10 nm) Ni catalysts on carbon fabric (CF). Via an in situ potential profile, the PED technique can control the Ni catalyst loading, which is an important parameter for the growth of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on CF. The preparation of CNF-coated CF (carpet-like CF) was carried out in a thermal chemical vapor deposition system with an optimum loading of Ni catalysts deposited in the PED pulse range from 20 to 320 cycles. CNFs grown at 813 K using different pulse cycles had a narrow diameter distribution, around 15 ± 5 nm to 29 ± 7 nm they have a hydrophobic surface, like lotus leaves. Transmission electron microscopy images confirmed the graphene structural transformation of CNFs with the growth temperature. Solid wire CNFs were initially grown at 813 K with graphene edges exposed on the external surface. At elevated growth temperatures (1073 and 1173 K), bamboo-like CNFs were obtained, with herringbone structures and intersectional hollow cores.

  14. Chemical vapor-deposited carbon nanofibers on carbon fabric for supercapacitor electrode applications

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Entangled carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were synthesized on a flexible carbon fabric (CF) via water-assisted chemical vapor deposition at 800°C at atmospheric pressure utilizing iron (Fe) nanoparticles as catalysts, ethylene (C2H4) as the precursor gas, and argon (Ar) and hydrogen (H2) as the carrier gases. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron dispersive spectroscopy were employed to characterize the morphology and structure of the CNFs. It has been found that the catalyst (Fe) thickness affected the morphology of the CNFs on the CF, resulting in different capacitive behaviors of the CNF/CF electrodes. Two different Fe thicknesses (5 and 10 nm) were studied. The capacitance behaviors of the CNF/CF electrodes were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry measurements. The highest specific capacitance, approximately 140 F g−1, has been obtained in the electrode grown with the 5-nm thickness of Fe. Samples with both Fe thicknesses showed good cycling performance over 2,000 cycles. PMID:23181897

  15. Antitumor Activity of Doxorubicin-Loaded Carbon Nanotubes Incorporated Poly(Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) Electrospun Composite Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yuan; Kong, Lijun; Li, Lan; Li, Naie; Yan, Peng

    2015-08-01

    The drug-loaded composite electrospun nanofiber has attracted more attention in biomedical field, especially in cancer therapy. In this study, a composite nanofiber was fabricated by electrospinning for cancer treatment. Firstly, the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were selected as carriers to load the anticancer drug—doxorubicin (DOX) hydrochloride. Secondly, the DOX-loaded CNTs (DOX@CNTs) were incorporated into the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanofibers via electrospinning. Finally, a new drug-loaded nanofibrous scaffold (PLGA/DOX@CNTs) was formed. The properties of the prepared composite nanofibrous mats were characterized by various techniques. The release profiles of the different DOX-loaded nanofibers were measured, and the in vitro antitumor efficacy against HeLa cells was also evaluated. The results showed that DOX-loaded CNTs can be readily incorporated into the nanofibers with relatively uniform distribution within the nanofibers. More importantly, the drug from the composite nanofibers can be released in a sustained and prolonged manner, and thereby, a significant antitumor efficacy in vitro is obtained. Thus, the prepared composite nanofibrous mats are a promising alternative for cancer treatment.

  16. Preparation and electrochemical properties of carbon-coated LiFePO4 hollow nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Bin-bin; Wu, Yan-bo; Yu, Fang-yuan; Zhou, Ya-nan

    2016-04-01

    Carbon-coated LiFePO4 hollow nanofibers as cathode materials for Li-ion batteries were obtained by coaxial electrospinning. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area analysis, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed to investigate the crystalline structure, morphology, and electrochemical performance of the as-prepared hollow nanofibers. The results indicate that the carbon-coated LiFePO4 hollow nanofibers have good long-term cycling performance and good rate capability: at a current density of 0.2C (1.0C = 170 mA·g-1) in the voltage range of 2.5-4.2 V, the cathode materials achieve an initial discharge specific capacity of 153.16 mAh·g-1 with a first charge-discharge coulombic efficiency of more than 97%, as well as a high capacity retention of 99% after 10 cycles; moreover, the materials can retain a specific capacity of 135.68 mAh·g-1, even at 2C.

  17. Exposure and Emissions Monitoring during Carbon Nanofiber Production—Part II: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    BIRCH, M. EILEEN

    2015-01-01

    Production of carbon nanofibers and nanotubes (CNFs/CNTs) and their composite products is increasing globally. High-volume production may increase the exposure risks for workers who handle these materials. Though health effects data for CNFs/CNTs are limited, some studies raise serious health concerns. Given the uncertainty about their potential hazards, there is an immediate need for toxicity data and field studies to assess exposure to CNFs/CNTs. An extensive study was conducted at a facility that manufactures and processes CNFs. Filter, sorbent, cascade impactor, bulk, and microscopy samples, combined with direct-reading instruments, provided complementary information on air contaminants. Samples were analyzed for organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with EC as a measure of CNFs. Transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy also was applied. Fine/ultrafine iron-rich soot, PAHs, and carbon monoxide were production byproducts. Direct-reading instrument results were reported previously [Evans DE et al. (Aerosol monitoring during carbon nanofiber production: mobile direct-reading sampling. Ann Occup Hyg 2010; 54:514–31)]. Results for time-integrated samples are reported as companion papers in this issue. OC and EC, metals, and microscopy results are reported in Part I [Birch ME et al. (Exposure and emissions monitoring during carbon nanofiber production—Part I: elemental carbon and iron–soot aerosols. Ann Occup Hyg 2011; 55: 1016–36.)] whereas results for PAHs are reported here. Naphthalene and acenaphthylene were the dominant PAHs with average concentrations ranging from 115 to 336 μg m−3 and 35 to 84 μg m−3, respectively. Concentrations of other PAHs ranged from ~1 to 10 μg m−3. PMID:21976308

  18. Preparation and characterization of Polyacrylonitrile/ Manganese Dioxides- based Carbon Nanofibers via electrospinning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che Othman, F. E.; Yusof, N.; Jaafar, J.; Ismail, A. F.; Hasbullah, H.; Abdullah, N.; Ismail, M. S.

    2016-06-01

    This research reports the production of precursor polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/ manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanofibers (NFs) via electrospinning method followed by stabilization and carbonization processes. Nowadays, electrospinning has become a suitable method in manufacturing continuous NFs, thus it is employed to fabricate NFs in this study. The microstructural properties and adsorption competencies of the produced NFs were also studied. The NFs were prepared by electrospinning the polymer solution of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and Manganese Dioxide (MnO2) in, N, N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent. The factors considered in this study were various polymer PAN/MnO2 concentrations which will significantly affect the specific surface area, fiber morphology and the diameter of the NFs prepared. Subsequently, heat treatment is applied by setting up the stabilization temperature at 275 °C and carbonization temperature at 800 °C with constant dwelling time (30 min). Nitrogen gas at constant rate 0.2 L/min was used for stabilization and carbonization with the stabilization rate (2 °C/min) and carbonization rate (5 °C/min). The carbon nanofibers (CNFs) produced were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Brunauer Emmett and Teller (BET) surface area and Fourier Transmission Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). It was found that the PAN/MnO2 CNFs were successfully produced with the carbonization temperature of 800 °C. The prepared PAN/MnO2 CNFs prepared showed an enhanced in specific surface area about two times compared to it precursor NFs.

  19. Characterization of carbon nanofiber mats produced from electrospun lignin-g-polyacrylonitrile copolymer.

    PubMed

    Youe, Won-Jae; Lee, Soo-Min; Lee, Sung-Suk; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Yong Sik

    2016-01-01

    The graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) onto methanol-soluble kraft lignin (ML) was achieved through a two-step process in which AN was first polymerized with an α,α'-azobisisobutyronitrile initiator, followed by radical coupling with activated ML. A carbon nanofiber material was obtained by electrospinning a solution of this copolymer in N,N-dimethylformamide, then subjecting it to a heat treatment including thermostabilization at 250°C and subsequent carbonization at 600-1400°C. Increasing the carbonization temperature was found to increase the carbon content of the resulting carbon nanofibers from 70.5 to 97.1%, which had the effect of increasing their tensile strength from 35.2 to 89.4 MPa, their crystallite size from 13.2 to 19.1 nm, and their electrical conductivity from ∼0 to 21.3 Scm(-1). The morphology of the mats, in terms of whether they experienced beading or not, was found to be dependent on the concentration of the initial electrospinning solution. From these results, it is proposed that these mats could provide the basis for a new class of carbon fiber material. PMID:26459170

  20. Iron Carbide Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Mesoporous Fe-N-Doped Carbon Nanofibers for Efficient Electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhen-Yu; Xu, Xing-Xing; Hu, Bi-Cheng; Liang, Hai-Wei; Lin, Yue; Chen, Li-Feng; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2015-07-01

    Exploring low-cost and high-performance nonprecious metal catalysts (NPMCs) for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries is crucial for the commercialization of these energy conversion and storage devices. Here we report a novel NPMC consisting of Fe3 C nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous Fe-N-doped carbon nanofibers, which is synthesized by a cost-effective method using carbonaceous nanofibers, pyrrole, and FeCl3 as precursors. The electrocatalyst exhibits outstanding ORR activity (onset potential of -0.02 V and half-wave potential of -0.140 V) closely comparable to the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst in alkaline media, and good ORR activity in acidic media, which is among the highest reported activities of NPMCs. PMID:26014581

  1. Aerosynthesis: Growths of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers with Air DC Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kodumagulla, A; Varanasi, V; Pearce, Ryan; Wu, W-C; Hensley, Dale K; Tracy, Joseph B; McKnight, Timothy E; Melechko, Anatoli

    2014-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNF) have been synthesized in a mixture of acetone and air using catalytic DC plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Typically, ammonia or hydrogen is used as etchant gas in the mixture to remove carbon that otherwise passivates the catalyst surface and impedes growth. Our demonstration of using air as the etchant gas opens up a possibility that ion etching could be sufficient to maintain the catalytic activity state during synthesis. It also demonstrates the path toward growing VACNFs in open atmosphere.

  2. Reinforcement and rupture behavior of carbon nanotubes-polymer nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Haihui; Lam, Hoa; Titchenal, Nick; Gogotsi, Yury; Ko, Frank

    2004-09-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy examination of carbon nanotube-polyacrylonitrile composite fibers synthesized by electrospinning was conducted. Both single-wall carbon nanotubes and multi-wall carbon nanotubes have been used to reinforce the polymer fibers. A two-stage rupture behavior of the composite fibers under tension, including crazing of polymer matrix and pull-out of carbon nanotubes, has been observed. Carbon nanotubes reinforce the polymer fibers by hindering crazing extension, reducing stress concentration, and dissipating energy by pullout. Distribution of nanotubes in the polymer matrix and interfacial adhesion between nanotubes and polymers are two major factors to determine the reinforcement effect of carbon nanotubes in polymer fibers.

  3. Influence of the support on the structural characteristics of carbon nanofibers produced from the metal-catalyzed decomposition of ethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.E.; Rodriguez, N.M.

    2000-03-01

    The notion of using support materials to achieve high dispersions of metal particles has been extended to the synthesis of carbon nanofibers from the catalyzed decomposition of ethylene. By using this approach it has been possible to generate nanofibers whose widths are dictated by the dimensions of the supported metal particles. In addition, the support may alter the state of the bulk and/or the surface of the catalyst particle through metal-support interactions, and the impact of this effect is manifested by modifications in the structural characteristics of the nanofibers deposits. In an attempt to gain a clearer insight into the influence of metal-support interaction on the growth characteristics of GNF, three metals, FE,Ni, and Co that are known to be active catalysts for this process were impregnated onto silica, graphite, and well-characterized graphite nanofiber supports. Characterization of the solid carbon products was performed by a variety of approaches including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), gas-phase analysis, and thermal-programmed oxidation (TPO). The goal of this study was to correlate each nanofiber product with the behavior of the specific metal/support precursor system. The advantages of using selected support materials to control the morphologies and sizes of nanofibers is present.

  4. Method for the preparation of ferrous low carbon porous material

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Curtis Jack

    2014-05-27

    A method for preparing a porous metal article using a powder metallurgy forming process is provided which eliminates the conventional steps associated with removing residual carbon. The method uses a feedstock that includes a ferrous metal powder and a polycarbonate binder. The polycarbonate binder can be removed by thermal decomposition after the metal article is formed without leaving a carbon residue.

  5. Mass-transport-controlled, large-area, uniform deposition of carbon nanofibers and their application in gas diffusion layers of fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xian; Xie, Zhiyong; Huang, Qizhong; Chen, Guofen; Hou, Ming; Yi, Baolian

    2015-05-01

    The effect of mass transport on the growth characteristics of large-area vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was investigated by adjusting the substrate deposition angle (α). The catalyst precursor solution was coated onto one side of a 2D porous carbon paper substrate via a decal printing method. The results showed that the CNFs were grown on only one side of the substrate and α was found to significantly affect the growth uniformity. At α = 0°, the growth thickness, the density, the microstructure and the yield of the CNF film were uniform across the substrate surface, whereas the growth uniformity decreased with increasing α, suggesting that the large-area CNF deposition processes were mass-transport-controlled. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of the gas diffusion processes revealed the homogeneous distributions of the carbon-source-gas concentration, pressure, and velocity near the substrate surface at α = 0°, which were the important factors in achieving the mass-transport-limited uniform CNF growth. The homogeneity of the field distributions decreased with increasing α, in accordance with the variation in the growth uniformity with α. When used as a micro-porous layer, the uniform CNF film enabled higher proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance in comparison with commercial carbon black by virtue of its improved electronic and mass-transport properties confirmed by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results. PMID:25865711

  6. A general approach to fabricate free-standing metal sulfide@carbon nanofiber networks as lithium ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Fei, Ling; Williams, Brian Patrick; Yoo, Sang Ha; Carlin, Joseph Michael; Joo, Yong Lak

    2016-01-25

    A general approach for fabricating free-standing metal sulfide and carbon nanofiber mats is developed via electrospinning, starting with cheap and abundant raw materials. The prepared free-standing samples have metal sulfide nanoparticles dispersed throughout the interconnected carbon fibers. When applied to LIB, the composites demonstrate excellent cyclability and rate capability. PMID:26659850

  7. Elastic and hierarchical porous carbon nanofibrous membranes incorporated with NiFe2O4 nanocrystals for highly efficient capacitive energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jianlong; Fan, Gang; Si, Yang; He, Jianxin; Kim, Hak-Yong; Ding, Bin; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; El-Newehy, Mohamed; Yu, Jianyong

    2016-01-01

    Flexible membranes created from porous carbon nanofibers (CNFs) hold great promise in the next generation wearable energy storage devices, but challenges still remain due to the poor mechanical properties of porous carbon nanofibers. Here, we report a facile strategy to fabricate elastic and hierarchical porous CNF membranes with NiFe2O4 nanocrystals embedded via multicomponent electrospinning and nano-doping methods. Benefiting from the scattering effect of NiFe2O4 nanocrystals and graphitized carbon layers for the condensed stress, the resultant CNF membranes exhibit an enhanced elasticity with a bending radius <12 μm, rapid recovery from the deformations, and a superior softness. Quantitative pore size distribution and fractal analysis reveal that the CNFs possessed tunable porous structures with a high surface area of 493 m2 g-1 and a pore volume of 0.31 cm3 g-1. Benefiting from the robust mechanical stability, hierarchical porous structures and good electrochemical properties, the NiFe2O4 doped CNF membranes demonstrate a high electrical capacitance of 343 F g-1, and good reversibility with a cycling efficiency of 97.4% even after 10 000 cycles. The successful synthesis of elastic porous CNF membranes also provided a versatile platform for the design and development of functional CNF based materials for various applications.Flexible membranes created from porous carbon nanofibers (CNFs) hold great promise in the next generation wearable energy storage devices, but challenges still remain due to the poor mechanical properties of porous carbon nanofibers. Here, we report a facile strategy to fabricate elastic and hierarchical porous CNF membranes with NiFe2O4 nanocrystals embedded via multicomponent electrospinning and nano-doping methods. Benefiting from the scattering effect of NiFe2O4 nanocrystals and graphitized carbon layers for the condensed stress, the resultant CNF membranes exhibit an enhanced elasticity with a bending radius <12 μm, rapid recovery

  8. Control of physical properties of carbon nanofibers obtained from coaxial electrospinning of PMMA and PAN with adjustable inner/outer nozzle-ends.

    PubMed

    Kaerkitcha, Navaporn; Chuangchote, Surawut; Sagawa, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    Hollow carbon nanofibers (HCNFs) were prepared by electrospinning method with several coaxial nozzles, in which the level of the inner nozzle-end is adjustable. Core/shell nanofibers were prepared from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a pyrolytic core and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a carbon shell with three types of normal (viz. inner and outer nozzle-ends are balanced in the same level), inward, and outward coaxial nozzles. The influence of the applied voltage on these three types of coaxial nozzles was studied. Specific surface area, pore size diameter, crystallinity, and degree of graphitization of the hollow and mesoporous structures of carbon nanofibers obtained after carbonization of the as spun PMMA/PAN nanofibers were characterized by BET analyses, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy in addition to the conductivity measurements. It was found that specific surface area, crystallinity, and graphitization degree of the HCNFs affect the electrical conductivity of the carbon nanofibers. PMID:27067734

  9. Control of physical properties of carbon nanofibers obtained from coaxial electrospinning of PMMA and PAN with adjustable inner/outer nozzle-ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaerkitcha, Navaporn; Chuangchote, Surawut; Sagawa, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    Hollow carbon nanofibers (HCNFs) were prepared by electrospinning method with several coaxial nozzles, in which the level of the inner nozzle-end is adjustable. Core/shell nanofibers were prepared from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a pyrolytic core and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a carbon shell with three types of normal (viz . inner and outer nozzle-ends are balanced in the same level), inward, and outward coaxial nozzles. The influence of the applied voltage on these three types of coaxial nozzles was studied. Specific surface area, pore size diameter, crystallinity, and degree of graphitization of the hollow and mesoporous structures of carbon nanofibers obtained after carbonization of the as spun PMMA/PAN nanofibers were characterized by BET analyses, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy in addition to the conductivity measurements. It was found that specific surface area, crystallinity, and graphitization degree of the HCNFs affect the electrical conductivity of the carbon nanofibers.

  10. Carbon nanotube-templated polyaniline nanofibers: synthesis, flash welding and ultrafiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yaozu; Yu, Deng-Guang; Wang, Xia; Chain, Wei; Li, Xin-Gui; Hoek, Eric M V; Kaner, Richard B

    2013-05-01

    Electro-active switchable ultrafiltration membranes are of great interest due to the possibility of external control over permeability, selectivity, anti-fouling and cleaning. Here, we report on hybrid single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-polyaniline (PANi) nanofibers synthesized by in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of oxidized SWCNTs. The composite nanofibers exhibit unique morphology of core-shell (SWCNT-PANi) structures with average total diameters of 60 nm with 10 to 30 nm thick PANi coatings. The composite nanofibers are easily dispersed in polar aprotic solvents and cast into asymmetric membranes via a nonsolvent induced phase separation. The hybrid SWCNT-PANi membranes are electrically conductive at neutral pH and exhibit ultrafiltration-like permeability and selectivity when filtering aqueous suspensions of 6 nm diameter bovine serum albumin and 48 nm diameter silica particles. A novel flash welding technique is utilized to tune the morphology, porosity, conductivity, permeability and nanoparticle rejection of the SWCNT-PANi composite ultrafiltration membranes. Upon flash welding, both conductivity and pure water permeability of the membranes improves by nearly a factor of 10, while maintaining silica nanoparticle rejection levels above 90%. Flash welding of SWCNT-PANi composite membranes holds promise for formation of electrochemically tunable membranes. PMID:23525119

  11. Exposure and Emissions Monitoring during Carbon Nanofiber Production—Part I: Elemental Carbon and Iron–Soot Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Birch, M. Eileen; Ku, Bon-Ki; Evans, Douglas E.; Ruda-Eberenz, Toni A.

    2015-01-01

    Production of carbon nanofibers and nanotubes (CNFs/CNTs) and their composite products is increasing globally. High volume production may increase the exposure risks for workers who handle these materials. Though health effects data for CNFs/CNTs are limited, some studies raise serious health concerns. Given the uncertainty about their potential hazards, there is an immediate need for toxicity data and field studies to assess exposure to CNFs/CNTs. An extensive study was conducted at a facility that manufactures and processes CNFs. Filter, sorbent, cascade impactor, bulk, and microscopy samples, combined with direct-reading instruments, provided complementary information on air contaminants. Samples were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with EC as a measure of CNFs. Transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy also was applied. Fine/ultrafine iron-rich soot, PAHs, and carbon monoxide were production byproducts. Direct-reading instrument results were reported previously [Evans DE et al. (Aerosol monitoring during carbon nanofiber production: mobile direct-reading sampling. Ann Occup Hyg 2010;54:514–31.)] Results for time-integrated samples are reported as companion papers in this Issue. OC and EC, metals, and microscopy results are reported here, in Part I, while results for PAHs are reported in Part II [Birch ME. (Exposure and Emissions Monitoring during Carbon Nanofiber Production—Part II: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Ann. Occup. Hyg 2011; 55: 1037–47.)]. Respirable EC area concentrations inside the facility were about 6–68 times higher than outdoors, while personal breathing zone samples were up to 170 times higher. PMID:21965464

  12. Diamond synthesis from carbon nanofibers at low temperature and low pressure

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Chengzhi; Qi, Xiang; Pan, Chunxu; Yang, Wenge

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report a new route to synthesize diamond by converting “solid” carbon nanofibers with a Spark Plasma Sintering system under low temperature and pressure (even at atmospheric pressure). Well-crystallized diamond crystals are obtained at the tips of the carbon nanofibers after sintering at 1500 °C and atmospheric pressure. Combining with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron-energy loss spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy observations, we propose the conversion mechanism as follows: the disorder “solid” carbon nanofibers → well crystallined carbon nanofibers → bent graphitic sheets → onion-liked rings → diamond single crystal → the bigger congregated diamond crystal. It is believed that the plasma generated by low-voltage, vacuum spark, via a pulsed DC in Spark Plasma Sintering process, plays a critical role in the low temperature and low pressure diamond formation. This Spark Plasma Sintering process may provide a new route for diamond synthesis in an economical way to a large scale. PMID:26351089

  13. Diamond synthesis from carbon nanofibers at low temperature and low pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chengzhi; Qi, Xiang; Pan, Chunxu; Yang, Wenge

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we report a new route to synthesize diamond by converting “solid” carbon nanofibers with a Spark Plasma Sintering system under low temperature and pressure (even at atmospheric pressure). Well-crystallized diamond crystals are obtained at the tips of the carbon nanofibers after sintering at 1500 °C and atmospheric pressure. Combining with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron-energy loss spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy observations, we propose the conversion mechanism as follows: the disorder “solid” carbon nanofibers → well crystallined carbon nanofibers → bent graphitic sheets → onion-liked rings → diamond single crystal → the bigger congregated diamond crystal. It is believed that the plasma generated by low-voltage, vacuum spark, via a pulsed DC in Spark Plasma Sintering process, plays a critical role in the low temperature and low pressure diamond formation. This Spark Plasma Sintering process may provide a new route for diamond synthesis in an economical way to a large scale.

  14. Diamond synthesis from carbon nanofibers at low temperature and low pressure.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chengzhi; Qi, Xiang; Pan, Chunxu; Yang, Wenge

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report a new route to synthesize diamond by converting "solid" carbon nanofibers with a Spark Plasma Sintering system under low temperature and pressure (even at atmospheric pressure). Well-crystallized diamond crystals are obtained at the tips of the carbon nanofibers after sintering at 1500 °C and atmospheric pressure. Combining with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron-energy loss spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy observations, we propose the conversion mechanism as follows: the disorder "solid" carbon nanofibers→well crystallined carbon nanofibers→bent graphitic sheets→onion-liked rings→diamond single crystal→the bigger congregated diamond crystal. It is believed that the plasma generated by low-voltage, vacuum spark, via a pulsed DC in Spark Plasma Sintering process, plays a critical role in the low temperature and low pressure diamond formation. This Spark Plasma Sintering process may provide a new route for diamond synthesis in an economical way to a large scale. PMID:26351089

  15. Hierarchically porous carbon nanosheets from waste coffee grounds for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Yun, Young Soo; Park, Min Hong; Hong, Sung Ju; Lee, Min Eui; Park, Yung Woo; Jin, Hyoung-Joon

    2015-02-18

    The nanostructure design of porous carbon-based electrode materials is key to improving the electrochemical performance of supercapacitors. In this study, hierarchically porous carbon nanosheets (HP-CNSs) were fabricated using waste coffee grounds by in situ carbonization and activation processes using KOH. Despite the simple synthesis process, the HP-CNSs had a high aspect ratio nanostructure (∼20 nm thickness to several micrometers in lateral size), a high specific surface area of 1945.7 m(2) g(-1), numerous heteroatoms, and good electrical transport properties, as well as hierarchically porous characteristics (0.5-10 nm in size). HP-CNS-based supercapacitors showed a specific energy of 35.4 Wh kg(-1) at 11250 W kg(-1) and of 23 Wh kg(-1) for a 3 s charge/discharge current rate corresponding to a specific power of 30000 W kg(-1). Additionally, the HP-CNS supercapacitors demonstrated good cyclic performance over 5000 cycles. PMID:25612009

  16. The effect of filler aspect ratio on the electromagnetic properties of carbon-nanofibers reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect

    De Vivo, B.; Lamberti, P.; Spinelli, G. Tucci, V.; Guadagno, L.; Raimondo, M.

    2015-08-14

    The effect of filler aspect ratio on the electromagnetic properties of epoxy-amine resin reinforced with carbon nanofibers is here investigated. A heat treatment at 2500 °C of carbon nanofibers seems to increase their aspect ratio with respect to as-received ones most likely due to a lowering of structural defects and the improvement of the graphene layers within the dixie cup conformation. These morphological differences revealed by Raman's spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses may be responsible for the different electrical properties of the resulting composites. The DC characterization of the nanofilled material highlights an higher electrical conductivity and a lower electrical percolation threshold for the heat-treated carbon nanofibers based composites. In fact, the electrical conductivity is about 0.107 S/m and 1.36 × 10{sup −3} S/m for the nanocomposites reinforced with heat-treated and as received fibers, respectively, at 1 wt. % of nanofiller loading, while the electrical percolation threshold falls in the range [0.05–0.32]wt. % for the first nanocomposites and above 0.64 wt. % for the latter. Moreover, also a different frequency response is observed since the critical frequency, which is indicative of the transition from a resistive to a capacitive-type behaviour, shifts forward of about one decade at the same filler loading. The experimental results are supported by theoretical and simulation studies focused on the role of the filler aspect ratio on the electrical properties of the nanocomposites.

  17. Performance Evaluation of Activated Carbon Nanofiber as Carbon Supports to Improve the Cyclability of Li-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Park, Inyeong; Kim, Heeyun; Shim, Sang Eun; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon

    2015-11-01

    This study addresses the effects of the pore structures of carbon materials used as cathodes for non-aqueous lithium-air batteries on cycle life. Carbon Nanofibers (CNFs) were synthesized by electrospinning polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and carbonization. The synthesized CNF was then converted to activated carbon nanofibers (ACNFs) under flowing CO2. The specific surface areas CNFs were increased on activation. ACNFs were arranged randomly to form a web-like structure providing both oxygen pathways and a means of discharging products. To examine the electrochemical properties of ACNF, charge-discharge tests were conducted using a Swagelok-type cell at a constant current density of 0.2 mA/cm2; impedance tests were also conducted. ACNF sheet electrodes had cycle lives of up to 50 cycles, which was attributed to high surface area and porosity, although overpotentials for both charge and discharge were high. This cycling performance showed that the pore structure of sheet ACNF is more suitable for the transport of oxygen and for the storage of discharge products than carbon powders. PMID:26726643

  18. Controlled Growth of NiCo2O4 Nanorods and Ultrathin Nanosheets on Carbon Nanofibers for High-performance Supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Genqiang; (David) Lou, Xiong Wen

    2013-01-01

    Two one-dimensional hierarchical hybrid nanostructures composed of NiCo2O4 nanorods and ultrathin nanosheets on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are controllably synthesized through facile solution methods combined with a simple thermal treatment. The structure of NiCo2O4 can be easily controlled to be nanorods or nanosheets by using different additives in the synthesis. These two different nanostructures are evaluated as electrodes for high performance supercapacitors, in view of their apparent advantages, such as high electroactive surface area, ultrathin and porous features, robust mechanical strength, shorter ion and electron transport path. Their electrochemical performance is systematically studied, and both of these two hierarchical hybrid nanostructures exhibit high capacitance and excellent cycling stability. The remarkable electrochemical performance will undoubtedly make these hybrid structures attractive for high-performance supercapacitors with high power and energy densities. PMID:23503561

  19. Effects of ligand monolayers on catalytic nickel nanoparticles for synthesizing vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Sarac, Mehmet; Robert, Wilson; Johnsont-Peck, Aaron; Wang, Junwei; Pearce, Ryan; Klein, Kate; Melechko, Anatoli; Tracy, Joseph

    2011-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) were synthesized using ligand-stabilized Ni nanoparticle (NP) catalysts and plasmaenhanced chemical vapor deposition. Using chemically synthesized Ni NPs enables facile preparation of VACNF arrays with monodisperse diameters below the size limit of thin film lithography. During pregrowth heating, the ligands catalytically convert into graphitic shells that prevent the catalyst NPs from agglomerating and coalescing, resulting in a monodisperse VACNF size distribution. In comparison, significant agglomeration occurs when the ligands are removed before VACNF growth, giving a broad distribution of VACNF sizes. The ligand shells are also promising for patterning the NPs and synthesizing complex VACNF arrays.

  20. Plum-branch-like carbon nanofibers decorated with SnO2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zunxian; Du, Guodong; Guo, Zaiping; Yu, Xuebin; Li, Sean; Chen, Zhixin; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Huakun

    2010-06-01

    Novel plum-branch-like carbon nanofibers (CNFs) decorated with SnO2 nanocrystals have been synthesized by electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment in an Ar/H2O atmosphere. The morphologies of the as-synthesized SnO2/CNF composites and the contents of carbon and SnO2 can be controlled by adjusting the heat treatment temperature. It is proposed that the growth of SnO2/CNF composites follows the outward diffusion of tin composites from the as-spun tin composite/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers, pyrolysis of PAN and oxidation of tin composites, and then formation of SnO2 nanocrystals around the CNFs. This novel 1D SnO2/CNF composite may have potential application in nanobatteries, nano fuel cells, and nanosensors. A preliminary result has revealed that the SnO2/CNF composite presents favourable electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries.Novel plum-branch-like carbon nanofibers (CNFs) decorated with SnO2 nanocrystals have been synthesized by electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment in an Ar/H2O atmosphere. The morphologies of the as-synthesized SnO2/CNF composites and the contents of carbon and SnO2 can be controlled by adjusting the heat treatment temperature. It is proposed that the growth of SnO2/CNF composites follows the outward diffusion of tin composites from the as-spun tin composite/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers, pyrolysis of PAN and oxidation of tin composites, and then formation of SnO2 nanocrystals around the CNFs. This novel 1D SnO2/CNF composite may have potential application in nanobatteries, nano fuel cells, and nanosensors. A preliminary result has revealed that the SnO2/CNF composite presents favourable electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Figures S1-S6. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00009d

  1. Cu grown carbon nanofibers - Variation of their chemical and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoware, Shrikant; Maubane, Manoko S.; Phaahlamohlaka, Tumelo; Shaikjee, Ahmed; Coville, Neil J.

    2013-07-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by passing a mixture of acetylene/H2 or acetylene/N2 over different Cu catalysts. The Soxhlet extracted CNFs were characterized by TEM, TGA and IR spectroscopy and revealed that the morphology, diameter distribution and crystallinity of the CNFs varied with gas atmosphere and Cu particle size. TEM images revealed that coiled CNFs were only produced from Cu/SiO2 grown in the presence of H2. It is thus revealed that the CNFs produced by different Cu catalysts have different chemical and physical properties and that these properties correlate with catalyst particle size and the gas mixtures used.

  2. CdS loaded on coal based activated carbon nanofibers with enhanced photocatalytic property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jixi; Guo, Mingxi; Jia, Dianzeng; Song, Xianli; Tong, Fenglian

    2016-08-01

    The coal based activated carbon nanofibers (CBACFs) were prepared by electrospinning a mixture of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and acid treated coal. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles loaded on CBACFs were fabricated by solvothermal method. The obtained samples were characterized by FESEM, TEM, and XRD. The results reveal that the CdS nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed on the surfaces of CBACFs. The CdS/CBACFs nanocomposites exhibited higher photoactivity for photodegradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible light irradiation than pure CdS nanoparticles. CBACFs can be used as low cost support materials for the preparation of nanocomposites with high photocatalytic activity.

  3. Thermal decomposition of alkane hydrocarbons inside a porous Ni anode for fuel supply of direct carbon fuel cell: Effects of morphology and crystallinity of carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengguo; Yi, Hakgyu; Jalalabadi, Tahereh; Lee, Donggeun

    2015-10-01

    This study improved the physical contact between anode and fuel in a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) by directly generating carbon in a porous Ni anode through thermal decomposition of three kinds of hydrocarbons (CH4, C2H6, C3H8). From electron microscope observations of the carbon particles generated from each hydrocarbon, carbon spheres (CS), carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanofibers (CNF) were identified with increasing carbon number. Raman scattering analysis was performed to determine the crystallinity of the carbon samples. As a result, the carbon samples (CS, CNT, and CNF) produced from CH4, C2H6 and C3H8 were found to be less crystalline and more flexible with increasing the carbon number. DCFC performance was measured at 700 °C for the anode fueled with the same mass of the carbon sample. It was found that the 1-dimensional CNT and CNF were more active to produce 148% and 210% times higher power density than the CS. The difference was partly attributed to the finding that the less-crystalline CNT and CNF had much lower charge transfer resistances than the CS. A lifetime test found that the CNT and CNF, which are capable of transporting electrons for much longer periods, maintained the power density much longer, as compared to the CS which can lose their point contacts between the particles shortly at high current density.

  4. WO3-x Nanoplates Grown on Carbon Nanofibers for an Efficient Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, JiaDong; Yu, DanNi; Liao, WeiSha; Zheng, MengDan; Xiao, LongFei; Zhu, Han; Zhang, Ming; Du, MingLiang; Yao, JuMing

    2016-07-20

    The search for non-noble metal catalysts with high activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is crucial for efficient hydrogen production at low cost and on a large scale. Herein, we report a novel WO3-x catalyst synthesized on carbon nanofiber mats (CFMs) by electrospinning and followed by a carbonization process in a tubal furnace. The morphology and composition of the catalysts were tailored via a simple method, and the hybrid catalyst mats were used directly as cathodes to investigate their HER performance. Notably, the as-prepared catalysts exhibit substantially enhanced activity for the HER, demonstrating a small overpotential, a high exchange current density, and a large cathodic current density. The remarkable electrocatalytic performances result from the poor crystallinity of WO3-x, the high electrical conductivity of WO3-x, and the use of electrospun CNFs. The present work outlines a straightforward approach for the synthesis of transition metal oxide (TMO)-based carbon nanofiber mats with promising applications for the HER. PMID:27356101

  5. Tin nanoparticles encapsulated in porous multichannel carbon microtubes: preparation by single-nozzle electrospinning and application as anode material for high-performance Li-based batteries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan; Gu, Lin; Zhu, Changbao; van Aken, Peter A; Maier, Joachim

    2009-11-11

    Tin nanoparticles encapsulated in porous multichannel carbon microtubes (denoted as SPMCTs) were prepared by carbonization of electrospun PAN-PMMA-tin octoate nanofibers fabricated using a single-nozzle electrospinning technique. This material exhibited excellent characteristics for lithium ion battery anode applications in terms of reversible capacities, cycling performance, and rate capability. Undertaking such a production configuration allows the long-existing problem of obtaining a high packing density of tin particles while retaining sufficient spare space to buffer the volume variation during lithium alloying and dealloying processes to be properly addressed. Furthermore, the porous carbon shell preserves both the mechanical and chemical stability of the function-active Sn metal, which also serves as a highly conductive medium allowing Li(+) to access. PMID:19886691

  6. Novel strategy for the synthesis of vertically orientated carbon nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Cabero, M.; Kuvshinov, D.; Guerrero-Ruiz, A.; Rodriguez-Ramos, I.

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a first approach of a simple way to obtain vertically orientated carbon nanotubes. The used catalytic system consisted of quartz or graphite plates, on which some iron solutions (of precursors such as nitrates or phthalocyanines) were deposited by simple impregnation, generating homogeneous films. After drying, the plates were submitted to reduction and reaction procedure, which consisted in acetylene decomposition at 750 deg. C during 1 h. Samples after reaction were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, which confirmed the formation of homogeneous and vertically orientated structures of carbon nanotubes over the plates.

  7. A reagentless enzymatic amperometric biosensor using vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNF)

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, Martha L; Rahman, Touhidur; Frymier, Paul Dexter; Islam, Syed K; McKnight, Timothy E

    2008-01-01

    A reagentless amperometric enzymatic biosensor is constructed on a carbon substrate for detection of ethanol. Yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH), an oxidoreductase, and its cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) are immobilized by adsorption and covalent attachment to the carbon substrate. Carbon nanofibers grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) are chosen as the electrode material due to their excellent structural and electrical properties. Electrochemical techniques are employed to test the functionality and performance of the biosensor using reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) which also determines the oxidation peak potential of NADH. Subsequently, amperometric measurements are conducted for detection of ethanol to determine the electrical current response due to the increase in analyte concentration. The detection range, storage stability, reusability, and response time of the biosensor are also examined.

  8. Magnetic properties of NiFe2O4/carbon nanofibers from Venezuelan petcoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, Sarah; Silva, Pedro; Molina, Wilmer; Brämer-Escamilla, Werner; Alcalá, Olgi; Cañizales, Edgard

    2015-05-01

    NiFe2O4/carbon nanofibers (NiFe2O4/CNFs) have been successfully synthesized by hydrotermal method using Venezuelan petroleum coke (petcoke) as carbon source and NiFe2O4 as catalyst. The morphology, structural and magnetic properties of nanocomposite products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). XRD analysis revealed a cubic spinel structure and ferrite phase with high crystallinity. HR-TEM reveals the presence of CNFs with diameters of 4±2 nm. At room temperature, NiFe2O4/CNFs show superparamagnetic behavior with a maximum magnetization of 15.35 emu/g. Our findings indicate that Venezuelan petroleum coke is suitable industrial carbon source for the growth of magnetic CNFs.

  9. Properties that Influence the Specific Surface Areas of Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    BIRCH, M. EILEEN; RUDA-EBERENZ, TONI A.; CHAI, MING; ANDREWS, RONNEE; HATFIELD, RANDAL L.

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available carbon nanotubes and nanofibers were analyzed to examine possible relationships between their Brunauer–Emmett–Teller specific surface areas (SSAs) and their physical and chemical properties. Properties found to influence surface area were number of walls/diameter, impurities, and surface functionalization with hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Characterization by electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis, and elemental analysis indicates that SSA can provide insight on carbon nanomaterials properties, which can differ vastly depending on synthesis parameters and post-production treatments. In this study, how different properties may influence surface area is discussed. The materials examined have a wide range of surface areas. The measured surface areas differed from product specifications, to varying degrees, and between similar products. Findings emphasize the multiple factors that influence surface area and mark its utility in carbon nanomaterial characterization, a prerequisite to understanding their potential applications and toxicities. Implications for occupational monitoring are discussed. PMID:24029925

  10. Design and evaluation of carbon nanofiber and silicon materials for neural implant applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Janice L.

    Reduction of glial scar tissue around central nervous system implants is necessary for improved efficacy in chronic applications. Design of materials that possess tunable properties inspired by native biological tissue and elucidation of pertinent cellular interactions with these materials was the motivation for this study. Since nanoscale carbon fibers possess the fundamental dimensional similarities to biological tissue and have attractive material properties needed for neural biomaterial implants, this present study explored cytocompatibility of these materials as well as modifications to traditionally used silicon. On silicon materials, results indicated that nanoscale surface features reduced astrocyte functions, and could be used to guide neurite extension from PC12 cells. Similarly, it was determined that astrocyte functions (key cells in glial scar tissue formation) were reduced on smaller diameter carbon fibers (125 nm or less) while PC12 neurite extension was enhanced on smaller diameter carbon fibers (100 nm or less). Further studies implicated laminin adsorption as a key mechanism in enhancing astrocyte adhesion to larger diameter fibers and at the same time encouraging neurite extension on smaller diameter fibers. Polycarbonate urethane (PCU) was then used as a matrix material for the smaller diameter carbon fibers (100 and 60 nm). These composites proved very versatile since electrical and mechanical properties as well as cell functions and directionality could be influenced by changing bulk and surface composition and features of these matrices. When these composites were modified to be smooth at the micronscale and only rough at the nanoscale, P19 cells actually submerged philopodia, extensions, or whole cells bodies beneath the PCU in order to interact with the carbon nanofibers. These carbon nanofiber composites that have been formulated are a promising material to coat neural probes and thereby enhance functionality at the tissue interface. This