Fractal and Multifractal Models Applied to Porous Media - Editorial
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Given the current high level of interest in the use of fractal geometry to characterize natural porous media, a special issue of the Vadose Zone Journal was organized in order to expose established fractal analysis techniques and cutting-edge new developments to a wider Earth science audience. The ...
Direct sampling from N dimensions to N dimensions applied to porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adler, Pierre; Nguyen, Thang; Coelho, Daniel; Robinet, Jean Charles; Wendling, Jacques
2014-05-01
The reconstruction of porous media starting from some experimental data is still a very challenging problem in terms of random geometry and a very attractive one because of its innumerable industrial applications. The developments of Computed Microtomography (CMT) have not diminished the need for reconstruction methods and the availability of three dimensional data has considerably facilitated the reconstruction of porous media. In the past, several techniques were used such as thresholded Gaussian fields [1], simulated annealing [2] and Boolean models where polydisperse and penetrable spheres are generated randomly (see [3] for a combination with correlation function). Recently, [4] developed the Direct Sampling method (DSM) as an alternative to multiple-point simulations. The purpose of the present work is to develop DSM and to apply it to the reconstruction of porous media made of one or several minerals [5]. Application of this method only necessitates a sample of the medium to reproduce called Training Image (TI). The main feature of DSM can be summarized as follows. Suppose that n points (x1,…,xn) are already known in the Simulated Medium (SM) and that one wants to determine the value of an extra point x; the TI is searched in order to find a configuration (y1,…,yn) where these points have the same colors and relative positions as (x1,…,xn) in the SM; then, the value of the point y in the TI which is in the same relative position with respect to (y1,…,yn) than x with respect to (x1,…,xn) is given to x in the SM. The algorithm and its main features are briefly described. Important advantages of DSM are that it can easily generate media with several phases which are spatially periodic or not. The searching process - i.e. the selected points y in the TI and the corresponding determined points x in the SM - will be illustrated by some short movies. The properties of the resulting SMs (such as the phase probabilities and the correlation functions) will
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scovazzo, P.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Hoehn, A.; Todd, P.
2001-01-01
In traditional applications in soil physics it is convention to scale porous media properties, such as hydraulic conductivity, soil water diffusivity, and capillary head, with the gravitational acceleration. In addition, the Richards equation for water flux in partially saturated porous media also contains a gravity term. With the plans to develop plant habitats in space, such as in the International Space Station, it becomes necessary to evaluate these properties and this equation under conditions of microgravitational acceleration. This article develops models for microgravity steady state two-phase flow, as found in irrigation systems, that addresses critical design issues. Conventional dimensionless groups in two-phase mathematical models are scaled with gravity, which must be assigned a value of zero for microgravity modeling. The use of these conventional solutions in microgravity, therefore, is not possible. This article therefore introduces new dimensionless groups for two-phase models. The microgravity models introduced here determined that in addition to porous media properties, important design factors for microgravity systems include applied water potential and the ratio of inner to outer radii for cylindrical and spherical porous media systems.
Marsden, S.S.
1986-07-01
In 1978 a literature search on selective blocking of fluid flow in porous media was done by Professor S.S. Marsden and two of his graduate students, Tom Elson and Kern Huppy. This was presented as SUPRI Report No. TR-3 entitled ''Literature Preview of the Selected Blockage of Fluids in Thermal Recovery Projects.'' Since then a lot of research on foam in porous media has been done on the SUPRI project and a great deal of new information has appeared in the literature. Therefore we believed that a new, up-to-date search should be done on foam alone, one which would be helpful to our students and perhaps of interest to others. This is a chronological survey showing the development of foam flow, blockage and use in porous media, starting with laboratory studies and eventually getting into field tests and demonstrations. It is arbitrarily divided into five-year time periods. 81 refs.
Imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media
Tomutsa, L.; Doughty, D.; Mahmood, S.; Brinkmeyer, A.; Madden, M.P.
1991-01-01
A detailed understanding of rock structure and its influence on fluid entrapment, storage capacity, and flow behavior can improve the effective utilization and design of methods to increase the recovery of oil and gas from petroleum reservoirs. The dynamics of fluid flow and trapping phenomena in porous media was investigated. Miscible and immiscible displacement experiments in heterogeneous Berea and Shannon sandstone samples were monitored using X-ray computed tomography (CT scanning) to determine the effect of heterogeneities on fluid flow and trapping. The statistical analysis of pore and pore throat sizes in thin sections cut from these sandstone samples enabled the delineation of small-scale spatial distributions of porosity and permeability. Multiphase displacement experiments were conducted with micromodels constructed using thin slabs of the sandstones. The combination of the CT scanning, thin section, and micromodel techniques enables the investigation of how variations in pore characteristics influence fluid front advancement, fluid distributions, and fluid trapping. Plugs cut from the sandstone samples were investigated using high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance imaging permitting the visualization of oil, water or both within individual pores. The application of these insights will aid in the proper interpretation of relative permeability, capillary pressure, and electrical resistivity data obtained from whole core studies. 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.
FLUID TRANSPORT THROUGH POROUS MEDIA
Fluid transport through porous media is a relevant topic to many scientific and engineering fields. Soil scientists, civil engineers, hydrologists and hydrogeologists are concerned with the transport of water, gases and nonaqueous phase liquid contaminants through porous earth m...
Shepodd, Timothy J.
2002-01-01
Highly crosslinked monolithic porous polymer materials for chromatographic applications. By using solvent compositions that provide not only for polymerization of acrylate monomers in such a fashion that a porous polymer network is formed prior to phase separation but also for exchanging the polymerization solvent for a running buffer using electroosmotic flow, the need for high pressure purging is eliminated. The polymer materials have been shown to be an effective capillary electrochromatographic separations medium at lower field strengths than conventional polymer media. Further, because of their highly crosslinked nature these polymer materials are structurally stable in a wide range of organic and aqueous solvents and over a pH range of 2-12.
Dillon, J.
1999-09-01
A 2.8-liter tube-shaped combustion vessel was constructed to study flame propagation and quenching in porous media. For this experiment, hydrogen-air flames propagating horizontally into abed of 6 mm diameter glass beads were studied. Measurements of pressure and temperature along the length of the tube were used to observe flame propagation of quenching. The critical hydrogen concentration for Hz-air mixtures was found to be 11.5%, corresponding to a critical Peclet number of Pe* = 37. This value is substantially less than the value of Pe* = 65 quoted in the literature, for example Babkin et al. (1991). It is hypothesized that buoyancy and a dependence of Pe on the Lewis number account for the discrepancy between these two results.
Regeneratively Cooled Porous Media Jacket
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mungas, Greg (Inventor); Fisher, David J. (Inventor); London, Adam Pollok (Inventor); Fryer, Jack Merrill (Inventor)
2013-01-01
The fluid and heat transfer theory for regenerative cooling of a rocket combustion chamber with a porous media coolant jacket is presented. This model is used to design a regeneratively cooled rocket or other high temperature engine cooling jacket. Cooling jackets comprising impermeable inner and outer walls, and porous media channels are disclosed. Also disclosed are porous media coolant jackets with additional structures designed to transfer heat directly from the inner wall to the outer wall, and structures designed to direct movement of the coolant fluid from the inner wall to the outer wall. Methods of making such jackets are also disclosed.
Natural convection in porous media
Prasad, V.; Hussain, N.A.
1986-01-01
This book presents the papers given at a conference on free convection in porous materials. Topics considered at the conference included heat transfer, nonlinear temperature profiles and magnetic fields, boundary conditions, concentrated heat sources in stratified porous media, free convective flow in a cavity, heat flux, laminar mixed convection flow, and the onset of convection in a porous medium with internal heat generation and downward flow.
Steady flow through porous media
Greenkorn, R.A.
1981-07-01
The movement of materials through porous media is of interest in many disciplines: in chemical engineering - adsorption, chromatography, filtration, flow in packed columns, ion exchange, reactor-engineering; in petroleum engineering - displacement of oil with gas, water and miscible solvents including surface-active agent solutions and description of reservoirs; in hydrology - movement of trace pollutants in water systems, recovery of water for drinking and irrigation, saltwater encroachment into freshwater reservoirs; in soil physics - movement of water, nutrients, and pollutants into plants; and in biophysics. This work reviews the fundamentals of steady flow through porous media. It discusses the pseudotransport coefficients permeability, capillary pressure, and dispersion and relates these coefficients to the geometry of porous media. It discusses single-fluid flow, multifluid immiscible flow, and multifluid miscible flow including the effects of heterogeneity, nonuniformity, and anisotropy of media. 104 references.
Neeper, Donald A.
1994-01-01
Methods for distributing gases throughout the interstices of porous materials and removing volatile substances from the interstices of porous materials. Continuous oscillation of pressures and flows results in increased penetration of the interstices by flowing gases and increased transport of gaseous components out of the interstices. The invention is particularly useful in soil vapor extraction.
Neeper, D.A.
1994-02-22
Methods are presented for distributing gases throughout the interstices of porous materials and removing volatile substances from the interstices of porous materials. Continuous oscillation of pressures and flows results in increased penetration of the interstices by flowing gases and increased transport of gaseous components out of the interstices. The invention is particularly useful in soil vapor extraction. 10 figures.
Basser, Peter J.
2008-12-05
The fields of MR in Porous Media and Neuroradiology have largely developed separately during the past two decades with little appreciation of the problems, challenges and methodologies of the other. However, this trend is clearly changing and possibilities for significant cross-fertilization and synergies are now being realized.
Large scale flow visualization and anemometry applied to lab-on-a-chip models of porous media.
Paiola, Johan; Auradou, Harold; Bodiguel, Hugues
2016-08-01
The following is a report on an experimental technique that allows one to quantify and map the velocity field with very high resolution and simple equipment in large 2D devices. Illumination through a grid is proposed to reinforce the contrast in the images and allow one to detect seeded particles that are pixel-sized or even smaller. The velocimetry technique that we have reported is based on the auto-correlation functions of the pixel intensity, which we have shown are directly related to the magnitude of the local average velocity. The characteristic time involved in the decorrelation of the signal is proportional to the tracer size and inversely proportional to the average velocity. We have reported on a detailed discussion about the optimization of relevant involved parameters, the spatial resolution and the accuracy of the method. The technique is then applied to a model porous medium made of a random channel network. We show that it is highly efficient to determine the magnitude of the flow in each of the channels of the network, opening the door to the fundamental study of the flows of complex fluids. The latter is illustrated with a yield stress fluid, in which the flow becomes highly heterogeneous at small flow rates. PMID:27349888
Fluid Flow Within Fractured Porous Media
Crandall, D.M.; Ahmadi, G.; Smith, D.H.; Bromhal, G.S.
2006-10-01
Fractures provide preferential flow paths to subterranean fluid flows. In reservoir scale modeling of geologic flows fractures must be approximated by fairly simple formulations. Often this is accomplished by assuming fractures are parallel plates subjected to an applied pressure gradient. This is known as the cubic law. An induced fracture in Berea sandstone has been digitized to perform numerical flow simulations. A commercially available computational fluid dynamics software package has been used to solve the flow through this model. Single phase flows have been compared to experimental works in the literature to evaluate the accuracy with which this model can be applied. Common methods of fracture geometry classification are also calculated and compared to experimentally obtained values. Flow through regions of the fracture where the upper and lower fracture walls meet (zero aperture) are shown to induce a strong channeling effect on the flow. This model is expanded to include a domain of surrounding porous media through which the flow can travel. The inclusion of a realistic permeability in this media shows that the regions of small and zero apertures contribute to the greatest pressure losses over the fracture length and flow through the porous media is most prevalent in these regions. The flow through the fracture is shown to be the largest contributor to the net flow through the media. From this work, a novel flow relationship is proposed for flow through fractured media.
Nonlinear flow in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rojas, Sergio Jesus
1998-07-01
Numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in two-dimensional quasi-periodic and quasi-isotropic random media were obtained to analyze the local and large scale aspects of finite Reynolds number flow. For Reynolds number less than one, the results show a first correction to Darcy's law which is cubic in the Darcy (averaged) velocity, while for Reynolds number greater than one, the results are in agreement with Forchheimer equation. That is, the correction to Darcy's law is quadratic in the average (Darcy) velocity. The cubic correction to Darcy's law support Mei and Auriault's (1991) theoretical study, based on homogenization theory. In addition, the results show support to a unifying empirical equation describing fluid flow in porous media of similar structure, first proposed by Beavers and Sparrow (1969). Also, the results show agreement, except by a multiplicative constant, with Sangani and Acrivos (1982) equation for the drag on dilute array of cylinders.
Microscale transport in porous media
Rashidi, M.; Rinker, R.
1996-04-01
In-pore transport processes in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media have been investigated using novel 3D imaging techniques. The experimental system consists of a clear column packed with clear particles and a refractive index-matched fluid seeded with fluorescent tracers and an organic solute dye. By illuminating the porous regions within the column with a planar sheet of laser beam, flow and transport processes through the porous medium can be observed microscopically, and qualitative and quantitative in-pore transport information can be obtained at a good resolution and a high accuracy. Fluorescent images are captured and recorded at every vertical plane location while sweeping back and forth across the test section. These digitized transport images are then analyzed and accumulated over a 3D volume within the column. This paper reports on pore-scale observations of velocity, chemical concentration, and fluxes. Tests were undertaken with two separate columns. One is a rectangular column for chemical transport and bioremediation studies in aqueous heterogeneous systems and the other is a cylindrical column for flow and transport investigations in nonaqueous homogeneous systems.
Gas-phase diffusion in porous media: Comparison of models
Webb, S.W.
1998-09-01
Two models are commonly used to analyze gas-phase diffusion in porous media in the presence of advection, the Advective-Dispersive Model (ADM) and the Dusty-gas Model (DGM). The ADM, which is used in TOUGH2, is based on a simple linear addition of advection calculated by Darcy`s law and ordinary diffusion using Fick`s law with a porosity-tortuosity-gas saturation multiplier to account for the porous medium. Another approach for gas-phase transport in porous media is the Dusty-Gas Model. This model applies the kinetic theory of gases to the gaseous components and the porous media (or dust) to combine transport due to diffusion and advection that includes porous medium effects. The two approaches are compared in this paper.
Perspectives on Porous Media MR in Clinical MRI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sigmund, E. E.
2011-03-01
Many goals and challenges of research in natural or synthetic porous media are mirrored in quantitative medical MRI. This review will describe examples where MR techniques used in porous media (particularly diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)) are applied to physiological pathologies. Tissue microstructure is one area with great overlap with porous media science. Diffusion-weighting (esp. in neurological tissue) has motivated models with explicit physical dimensions, statistical parameters, empirical descriptors, or hybrids thereof. Another clinically relevant microscopic process is active flow. Renal (kidney) tissue possesses significant active vascular / tubular transport that manifests as "pseudodiffusion." Cancerous lesions involve anomalies in both structure and flow. The tools of magnetic resonance and their interpretation in porous media has had great impact on clinical MRI, and continued cross-fertilization of ideas can only enhance the progress of both fields.
Effective permeabilities for model heterogeneous porous media
Otevo, C.; Rusinek, I. ); Saez, A.E. )
1990-01-01
This paper presents a technique to evaluate effective absolute permeabilities for heterogeneous porous media. The technique is based on a perturbation analysis of the equations of motion of a slightly compressible fluid in a homogeneous porous medium at low Reynolds numbers. The effective permeabilities can be calculated once the local geometry of the heterogeneous medium is specified. The technique is used to evaluate two- and three-dimensional effective vertical permeabilities in porous media with shale intercalations, including the case in which the porous matrix is anisotropic.
Multiphase flow in fractured porous media
Firoozabadi, A.
1995-02-01
The major goal of this research project was to improve the understanding of the gas-oil two-phase flow in fractured porous media. In addition, miscible displacement was studied to evaluate its promise for enhanced recovery.
Using TRINET for simulating flow and transport in porous media
Najita, J.; Doughty, C.
1998-08-01
The finite element model TRINET calculates transient or steady-state fluid flow and solute transport on a lattice composed of one-dimensional finite elements (i.e., pipes) of porous medium. TRINET incorporates an adaptive gridding algorithm to minimize numerical dispersion for transport calculations. Although TRINET was originally developed to study fracture networks, the primary interest here is in applying TRINET more generally to simulate transport in porous media (or a fractured medium being treated as an effective continuum). This requires developing expressions to relate TRINET inputs to equivalent parameters used to describe flow and transport in homogeneous porous media. In this report, the authors briefly describe the basic TRINET formulation for flow and transport, present TRINET equivalences for porous medium parameters, and compare TRINET to analytical solutions using the proposed porous medium equivalents.
The significance of biofilms in porous media
Rittmann, B.E. )
1993-07-01
The recent literature contains conflicting claims about the characteristics of attached bacteria in subsurface porous media and how these characteristics affect permeability reduction. Some claim that the bacteria form continuous biofilms that restrict the pore size, while others claim that bacteria are attached in patchy aggregates that accumulate in pore throats. This contribution applies a recently developed tool from biofilm kinetics, the normalized surface loading, to interpret a wide range of experimental data from porous media experiments and biological filtration. The normalized surface loading is the actual substrate flux (i.e., rate of removal per unit surface area) divided by the minimum flux capable of supporting a deep biofilm. The analyses show that biofilms are continuous for normalized surface loadings greater than 1.0, but appear to become discontinuous for values less than about 0.25. For the low-load situation, distinguishing between continuous and discontinuous biofilms is not important when the modeling goal is prediction of substrate removal. However, the distinction is more critical when the modeling goal is to describe the spatial contribution of biomass and permeability loss. 62 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Experimental investigation of contaminant transport in porous media. Research report
Wang, J.C.; Booker, J.R.; Carter, J.P.
1998-10-01
When numerical methods are applied to simulate a real contaminant transport problem, the values of a number of key parameters such as porosity, hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient or dispersivity and Darcy velocity or seepage velocity or seepage velocity are needed. In this paper, two different experimental programs, involving two types of column test and a well simulation test, were designed to demonstrate that the theory developed to explain contaminant transport in porous media is capable of representing the actual phenomenon of contaminant migration in soil. It is demonstrated that experiments can also be carried out to determine the properties necessary to model a real case of contaminant migration in porous media.
Fluid dynamics in porous media with Sailfish
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coelho, Rodrigo C. V.; Neumann, Rodrigo F.
2016-09-01
In this work we show the application of Sailfish to the study of fluid dynamics in porous media. Sailfish is an open-source software based on the lattice-Boltzmann method. This application of computational fluid dynamics is of particular interest to the oil and gas industry and the subject could be a starting point for an undergraduate or graduate student in physics or engineering. We built artificial samples of porous media with different porosities and used Sailfish to simulate the fluid flow through them in order to calculate their permeability and tortuosity. We also present a simple way to obtain the specific superficial area of porous media using Python libraries. To contextualise these concepts, we analyse the applicability of the Kozeny–Carman equation, which is a well-known permeability–porosity relation, to our artificial samples.
Experimental investigation of the permeability for unconsolidated porous media
Lei, S.Y.; Jia, L.Q.; Xia, C.M.; Zheng, G.Y.
1997-07-01
A device was constructed to investigate the permeability of unconsolidated media at low flow rate and small pressure drop. The stability and reliability of the device have been verified through repeated experiments on a given porous medium. The experimental investigation on the porous media demonstrated that the permeability-porosity relation is unique for a given medium. Experiments with the narrow screened sands show that conventional hydrodynamics theory and dimension analysis can not be applied satisfactorily in the study of the capillary porous media. For screened sand whose particle size ranges from 0.10mm to 0.45mm and size rate is 1:1.25, the permeability can be estimated from formula k = 4.89 x 10{sup {minus}4} d{sup 1.465} {phi}{sup 4.69} where k and d are limited in m{sup 2} and m, respectively.
Microscopic interfacial phenomena during flow in porous media
Miksis, M.J.; Ida, M.P.
1996-12-31
A fundamental process during any multiphase flow in porous media is the breaking apart of one of the phases into smaller components. Here the authors investigate this breaking process as applied to a thin liquid film. They study the breaking of both a two dimensional planar film and a cylindrical thread of liquid using both analytical and numerical methods.
Explosion propagation in inert porous media.
Ciccarelli, G
2012-02-13
Porous media are often used in flame arresters because of the high surface area to volume ratio that is required for flame quenching. However, if the flame is not quenched, the flow obstruction within the porous media can promote explosion escalation, which is a well-known phenomenon in obstacle-laden channels. There are many parallels between explosion propagation through porous media and obstacle-laden channels. In both cases, the obstructions play a duel role. On the one hand, the obstruction enhances explosion propagation through an early shear-driven turbulence production mechanism and then later by shock-flame interactions that occur from lead shock reflections. On the other hand, the presence of an obstruction can suppress explosion propagation through momentum and heat losses, which both impede the unburned gas flow and extract energy from the expanding combustion products. In obstacle-laden channels, there are well-defined propagation regimes that are easily distinguished by abrupt changes in velocity. In porous media, the propagation regimes are not as distinguishable. In porous media the entire flamefront is affected, and the effects of heat loss, turbulence and compressibility are smoothly blended over most of the propagation velocity range. At low subsonic propagation speeds, heat loss to the porous media dominates, whereas at higher supersonic speeds turbulence and compressibility are important. This blending of the important phenomena results in no clear transition in propagation mechanism that is characterized by an abrupt change in propagation velocity. This is especially true for propagation velocities above the speed of sound where many experiments performed with fuel-air mixtures show a smooth increase in the propagation velocity with mixture reactivity up to the theoretical detonation wave velocity. PMID:22213663
Modeling isothermal and non-isothermal flows in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohseni Languri, Ehsan
2011-12-01
solutions obtained after applying the stress-continuity and stress-jump boundary conditions are found to work well at low porosities, which is in contradiction with the results achieved earlier by other researchers. The traditional approach of using averaged equations in the regions of sharp gradients in porous media to describe flow and transport is theoretically untenable and perhaps inaccurate. A novel ensemble averaging method is being proposed to test the accuracy of the volume averaged or smoothed description of flows in porous media in the regions of sharp gradients. In the new method, the flow in a certain arrangement of particles (called a realization) is averaged using a small unit cell, much smaller than the REV. Then such an averaged flow variable is further averaged over a whole gamut of randomly-generated particle realizations. First the accuracy of the ensemble averaging method was tested by comparing the permeability of an artificially generated porous medium obtained by the proposed method against the permeability predicted by some established theoretical models of permeability. The proposed method was found to be quite accurate. Later the ensemble average method was applied to the open-channel porous-medium interface region characterized by a sharp gradient in the flow velocities. It was discovered that the volume averaged description of such flows, characterized by the use of the Brinkman equation along with the stress-continuity and stress-jump conditions, is quite accurate for a range of Reynolds numbers. The non-isothermal transport during flow in porous media is examined next. The main focus in this area of research is the thermal dispersion term found in the heat transfer equation for single- and dual-scale porous media. Most of the previous efforts on modeling the heat transfer phenomena in porous media were devoted to isotropic porous media. However, for the anisotropic porous media widely in many industrial applications, not much research on the
Acoustically driven filtration of particulate suspensions in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Sanjay
1997-12-01
A novel method of filtration of liquid suspensions containing micron to millimeter size particles has been developed. A resonant ultrasonic field, applied across a highly porous medium, has been used to trap fine particles inside the large pores (relative to the particle size) of the medium. Three types of porous media, unconsolidated bed of 3 mm glass beads, consolidated open pore aluminum mesh, and reticulated polyester polyurethane foam were investigated as the test media. Reasonable filtration efficiencies were achieved for model aqueous suspensions of 325 mesh polystyrene particles in all three porous media. The expected trends of filtration performance with respect to suspension flow rate, its concentration, and the acoustic field intensity were confirmed. The Filtration phenomena was found to be limited by non-physical saturation of porous media. At saturation, the particles collected inside the media were found to exhibit macroscopic vibrations which allows them to escape with the carrier fluid. The highly porous POLY foam (95% porosity) was found to be the best media for suspension studied in terms of the duration of particle retention and percentage filtration efficiencies. The aluminum mesh performed slightly poorer. The unconsolidated porous media collected the least amount of solids. A simple theoretical development based on particle trajectory around an infinitely long cylindrical fiber, in the presence of acoustic field, has been initiated. In principle, the new filtration method is similar to high gravity magnetic separation but the acoustic method has a wider scope due to inherent acoustic contrast present in most suspensions. The low pressure drop, ease of operation, amenability to large scale operation and reasonable filtration efficiency make the new method highly attractive and suitable for practical applications.
Propagation of polymer slugs through porous media
Lecourtier, J.; Chauveteau, G.
1984-09-01
This paper describes an experimental and theoretical study of the mechanisms governing polymer slug propagation through porous media. An analytical model taking into account the macromolecule exclusion from pore walls is proposed to predict rodlike polymer velocity in porous media and thus the spreading out of polydispersed polymer slugs. Under conditions where this wall exclusion is maximum, i.e. at low shear rates and polymer concentrations, the experiments show that xanthan propagation is effectively predicted by this model. At higher flow rates and polymer concentrations, the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion and viscous fingering are analyzed. A new fractionation method for determining molecular weight distribution of polymers used in EOR is proposed.
Numerical study of porous media thermoelectric converter
Kosaka, Kenichirou; Yamada, Akira
1996-12-31
Thermoelectric conversion is direct conversion technology that has characteristics of being maintenance free. However, the efficiency of the conventional bulk semiconductor thermoelectric device is about 20% for ideal theoretical calculation, and less than 5% for an actual application. The efficiency is very low because the heat conduction in the device and the Joule loss are too large compared with the Peltier heat which is changed into the electric power. The thermoelectric device made by porous media is heated by the radiation and maintains a large temperature difference by the gas which passes in the porous device. Therefore, the influence of the heat conduction in the thermoelectric device is small and the improvement of the conversion efficiency can be attempted. In this paper, the authors report the calculated results and the performance of thermoelectric converter made with porous media.
Capillary thermomechanics in serially porous media, with implications for randomly porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Robert D.
Visions of a single mobile substance present as two rival phases more or less cleanly segregated by capillarity between rival strata of a serially porous medium (a ``discontinuum'') imply explicit testable equations for externally measured capillary thermo-osmotic pressures and capillary thermo-osmosis, with implications for thermomechanical consolidation, dilation, and cracking. Underlying equations assume fluid phases governed by the laws of surface tension and viscous flow, moderated by an appropriate form of the Clapeyron equation. Derived phenomenological coefficients in macroscopic equations for steady coupled transports of mass and heat include only path-length-weighted fluid and heat conductances for rival domains and the heat of phase transformation. Expressions emphasize the phase-specific nature of Onsager's reciprocity principle and apply to serial media held within permeameters set up for measuring either ``isothermal'' or ``adiabatic'' mass transport or held within sealed containers intended for measurements of ``thermal conductivities.'' Results clarify unmet challenges facing modelers of similar processes and attributes in randomly porous media.
Physical Properties of Fractured Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammed, T. E.; Schmitt, D. R.
2015-12-01
The effect of fractures on the physical properties of porous media is of considerable interest to oil and gas exploration as well as enhanced geothermal systems and carbon capture and storage. This work represents an attempt to study the effect fractures have on multiple physical properties of rocks. An experimental technique to make simultaneous electric and ultrasonic measurements on cylindrical core plugs is developed. Aluminum end caps are mounted with ultrasonic transducers to transmit pules along the axis of the cylinder while non-polarizing electrodes are mounted on the sides of the core to make complex conductivity measurements perpendicular to the cylinder axis. Electrical measurements are made by applying a sinusoidal voltage across the measurement circuit that consist of a resister and the sample in series. The magnitude and phase of the signal across the sample is recorded relative to the input signal across a range of frequencies. Synthetic rock analogs are constructed using sintered glass beads with fractures imbedded in them. The fracture location, size and orientation are controlled and each fractured specimen has an unfractured counterpart. Porosity, Permeability, electrical conductivity and ultrasonic velocity measurements are conducted on each sample with the complex electrical conductivities recorded at frequencies from 10hz to 1 Mhz. These measurements allow us to examine the changes induced by these mesoscale fractures on the embedding porous medium. Of particular interest is the effect of fracture orientation on electrical conductivity of the rock. Seismic anisotropy caused by fractures is a well understood phenomenon with many rock physics models dedicated to its understanding. The effect of fractures on electrical conductivity is less well understood with electrical anisotropy scarcely investigated in the literature. None the less, using electrical conductivity to characterize fractures can add an extra constraint to characterization based
Finite volume hydromechanical simulation in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nordbotten, Jan Martin
2014-05-01
Cell-centered finite volume methods are prevailing in numerical simulation of flow in porous media. However, due to the lack of cell-centered finite volume methods for mechanics, coupled flow and deformation is usually treated either by coupled finite-volume-finite element discretizations, or within a finite element setting. The former approach is unfavorable as it introduces two separate grid structures, while the latter approach loses the advantages of finite volume methods for the flow equation. Recently, we proposed a cell-centered finite volume method for elasticity. Herein, we explore the applicability of this novel method to provide a compatible finite volume discretization for coupled hydromechanic flows in porous media. We detail in particular the issue of coupling terms, and show how this is naturally handled. Furthermore, we observe how the cell-centered finite volume framework naturally allows for modeling fractured and fracturing porous media through internal boundary conditions. We support the discussion with a set of numerical examples: the convergence properties of the coupled scheme are first investigated; second, we illustrate the practical applicability of the method both for fractured and heterogeneous media.
Finite volume hydromechanical simulation in porous media
Nordbotten, Jan Martin
2014-01-01
Cell-centered finite volume methods are prevailing in numerical simulation of flow in porous media. However, due to the lack of cell-centered finite volume methods for mechanics, coupled flow and deformation is usually treated either by coupled finite-volume-finite element discretizations, or within a finite element setting. The former approach is unfavorable as it introduces two separate grid structures, while the latter approach loses the advantages of finite volume methods for the flow equation. Recently, we proposed a cell-centered finite volume method for elasticity. Herein, we explore the applicability of this novel method to provide a compatible finite volume discretization for coupled hydromechanic flows in porous media. We detail in particular the issue of coupling terms, and show how this is naturally handled. Furthermore, we observe how the cell-centered finite volume framework naturally allows for modeling fractured and fracturing porous media through internal boundary conditions. We support the discussion with a set of numerical examples: the convergence properties of the coupled scheme are first investigated; second, we illustrate the practical applicability of the method both for fractured and heterogeneous media. PMID:25574061
Chemo-hydrodynamic patterns in porous media.
De Wit, A
2016-10-13
Chemical reactions can interplay with hydrodynamic flows to generate chemo-hydrodynamic instabilities affecting the spatio-temporal evolution of the concentration of the chemicals. We review here such instabilities for porous media flows. We describe the influence of chemical reactions on viscous fingering, buoyancy-driven fingering in miscible systems, convective dissolution as well as precipitation patterns. Implications for environmental systems are discussed.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy and the subsurface'. PMID:27597788
OPM: The Open Porous Media Initiative
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flemisch, B.; Flornes, K. M.; Lie, K.; Rasmussen, A.
2011-12-01
The principal objective of the Open Porous Media (OPM) initiative is to develop a simulation suite that is capable of modeling industrially and scientifically relevant flow and transport processes in porous media and bridge the gap between the different application areas of porous media modeling, including reservoir mechanics, CO2 sequestration, biological systems, and product development of engineered media. The OPM initiative will provide a long-lasting, efficient, and well-maintained open-source software for flow and transport in porous media built on modern software principles. The suite is released under the GNU General Public License (GPL). Our motivation is to provide a means to unite industry and public research on simulation of flow and transport in porous media. For academic users, we seek to provide a software infrastructure that facilitates testing of new ideas on models with industry-standard complexity, while at the same time giving the researcher control over discretization and solvers. Similarly, we aim to accelerate the technology transfer from academic institutions to professional companies by making new research results available as free software of professional standard. The OPM initiative is currently supported by six research groups in Norway and Germany and funded by existing grants from public research agencies as well as from Statoil Petroleum and Total E&P Norge. However, a full-scale development of the OPM initiative requires substantially more funding and involvement of more research groups and potential end users. In this talk, we will provide an overview of the current activities in the OPM initiative. Special emphasis will be given to the demonstration of the synergies achieved by combining the strengths of individual open-source software components. In particular, a new fully implicit solver developed within the DUNE-based simulator DuMux could be enhanced by the ability to read industry-standard Eclipse input files and to run on
Experimental seismic investigations for porous media characterization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Senechal, P.; Bordes, C.; Barrière, J.; Garambois, S.; Brito, D.
2009-12-01
During decades, seismic investigations were based on the hypothesis of elastic media which is generally appropriate for geological imaging. Nevertheless, the necessity to improve non destructive geophysical methods for reservoir characterization implies to take into account the role of pore fluids for the seismic propagation. On the one hand, the water saturation modifies porous media bulk moduli and density and implies strong phase velocity variations. On the other hand, mechanical couplings between solid and fluid phases which can have inertial or viscous origin, generates attenuation and dispersion phenomena. In order to study these phenomena, we develop laboratory experiments for the measurement of seismic propagation in controlled porous media. We choose to work in a broad band [100-10 000 Hz] which includes Biot's frequency by using different seismic source (launched ball, pendulum, piezoelectric spherical source). These investigations are performed on various media from suspension (fresh concrete) to continuous framework (sand). Seismic propagation is recorded by accelerometers, discussed in term of frequency content, velocity analyses, attenuation and dispersion and compared to theoretical models. Moreover, seismoelectric measurements are used to study fluid displacements (filtration) associated to the seismic propagation.
Scaling theory of drying in porous media
Tsimpanogiannis, I.N.; Yortsos, Y.C.; Poulou, S.; Kanellopoulos, N.; Stubos, A.K.
1999-04-01
Concepts of immiscible displacements in porous media driven by mass transfer are utilized to model drying of porous media. Visualization experiments of drying in two-dimensional glass micromodels are conducted to identify pore-scale mechanisms. Then, a pore network approach is used to analyze the advancing drying front. It is shown that in a porous medium, capillarity induces a flow that effectively limits the extent of the front, which would otherwise be of the percolation type, to a finite width. In conjuction with the predictions of a macroscale stable front, obtained from a linear stability analysis, the process is shown to be equivalent to invasion percolation in a stabilizing gradient. A power-law scaling relation of the front width with a diffusion-based capillary number is also obtained. This capillary number reflects the fact that drying is controlled by diffusion in contrast to external drainage. The scaling exponent predicted is compatible with the experimental results of Shaw [Phys Rev. Lett. {bold 59}, 1671 (1987)]. A framework for a continuum description of the upstream drying regimes is also developed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}
Effects of capillarity on microscopic flow in porous media
Miksis, M.J.
1993-01-01
Central theme of this proposal is to study effects of capillarity on motion of a fluid interface and to apply these results to flow in porous media. Here we report on several problems considered this year, the second year of the grant. In particular we have developed a numerical code to study the dynamics of a gas bubble in a pore in order to examine the fundamental mechanism for the generation of a foam in a porous material, we have started an investigation of the stability of a foam lamella in order to understand the stability of foam flow in a porous material and we have derived systematically a slip coefficient for flow over a rough surface, e.g., as in a pore. In addition we report on work on several other problems.
Resistance absorption of some groundwater tracers in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jafari, Fateme
2010-05-01
Absorption of tracer to the aquifer material is among the most important factors which should be considered when a tracing program is considered. In this study, the absorption of the tracer into the porous media is analyzed experimentally for some of the most important and applied tracers as uranine, rhodamine B, eosin, potassium permanganate, sodium chloride and potassium chloride. For each tracer, effect of initial tracer concentration and percentage of fine grain sediments on tracer absorption in porous media is analyzed. According to the final results, rhodamine B and potassium permanganate have the less resistance against absorption to aquifer material, whilst eosin and uranine are the most resistant tracers among the examined ones. Key Words: Tracer, Absorption, Aquifer, Column Method
Uncertainty quantification for porous media flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christie, Mike; Demyanov, Vasily; Erbas, Demet
2006-09-01
Uncertainty quantification is an increasingly important aspect of many areas of computational science, where the challenge is to make reliable predictions about the performance of complex physical systems in the absence of complete or reliable data. Predicting flows of oil and water through oil reservoirs is an example of a complex system where accuracy in prediction is needed primarily for financial reasons. Simulation of fluid flow in oil reservoirs is usually carried out using large commercially written finite difference simulators solving conservation equations describing the multi-phase flow through the porous reservoir rocks. This paper examines a Bayesian Framework for uncertainty quantification in porous media flows that uses a stochastic sampling algorithm to generate models that match observed data. Machine learning algorithms are used to speed up the identification of regions in parameter space where good matches to observed data can be found.
Foam Generation in Homogeneous Porous Media
Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Friedman, F.; Kam, S. I.; Rossen, W. R.
2002-10-01
In steady gas-liquid flow in homogeneous porous media with surfactant present, there is often observed a critical injection velocity or pressure gradient ?grad p min? at which ?weak? or ?coarse? foam is abruptly converted into ?strong foam,? with reduction of one to two orders of magnitude in total mobility: i.e., ?foam generation.? Earlier research on foam generation is extended here with extensive data for a variety of porous media, permeabilities, gases (N2 and C02), surfactants, and temperatures. For bead and sandpacks, ?grad p min? scales like (1/k), where k is permeability, over 2 1/2 orders of magnitude in k; for consolidated media the relation is more complex. For dense C02 foam, ?grad p min? exists but can be less than 1 psi/ft. If pressure drop, rather than flow rates, is fixed, one observes and unstable regime between stable ?strong? and ?coarse? foam regimes; in the unstable regime ?grad p? is nonuniform in space or variable in time.
Upscaling flow and transport properties in synthetic porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jasinski, Lukasz; Dabrowski, Marcin
2015-04-01
Flow and transport through the porous media has instances in nature and industry: contaminant migration in geological formations, gas/oil extraction from proppant filled hydraulic fractures and surrounding porous matrix, underground carbon dioxide sequestration and many others. We would like to understand the behavior of propagating solute front in such medium, mainly flow preferential pathways and the solute dispersion due to the porous medium geometry. The motivation of our investigation is to find connection between the effective flow and transport properties and porous media geometry in 2D and 3D for large system sizes. The challenge is to discover a good way of upscaling flow and transport processes to obtain results comparable to these calculated on pore-scale in much faster way. We study synthetic porous media made of densely packed poly-disperse disk-or spherical-shaped grains in 2D and 3D, respectively. We use various protocols such as the random sequential addition (RSA) algorithm to generate densely packed grains. Imposed macroscopic pressure gradient invokes fluid flow through the pore space of generated porous medium samples. As the flow is considered in the low Reynolds number regime, a stationary velocity field is obtained by solving the Stokes equations by means of finite element method. Void space between the grains is accurately discretized by using body-fitting triangular or tetrahedral mesh. Finally, pure advection of a front carried by the velocity field is studied. Periodicity in all directions is applied to microstructure, flow and transport processes. Effective permeability of the media can be calculated by integrating the velocity field on cross sections, whereas effective dispersion coefficient is deduced by application of centered moment methods on the concentration field of transported solute in time. The effective parameters are investigated as a function of geometrical parameters of the media, such as porosity, specific surface area
Probing porous media with gas diffusion NMR.
Mair, R W; Wong, G P; Hoffmann, D; Hurlimann, M D; Patz, S; Schwartz, L M; Walsworth, R L
1999-10-18
We show that gas diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance (GD-NMR) provides a powerful technique for probing the structure of porous media. In random packs of glass beads, using both laser-polarized and thermally polarized xenon gas, we find that GD-NMR can accurately measure the pore space surface-area-to-volume ratio, S/V rho, and the tortuosity, alpha (the latter quantity being directly related to the system's transport properties). We also show that GD-NMR provides a good measure of the tortuosity of sandstone and complex carbonate rocks. PMID:11543587
Reservoir performance in viscoelastic porous media
Rago, F.M.; Ohkuma, H.; Sepehrnoori, K.; Thompson, T.W.
1982-01-01
The mass balance equations for a two-phase two-component fluid system are written for viscoelastic porous media. The resulting equations are approximated by finite differences and the resulting numerical simulator is used to conduct a sensitivity study on the effects of uniaxial viscoelastic deformation in geopressured aquifers. Results of this study indicate that viscoelastic deformation may have considerable influence on the pressure maintenance of these aquifers. A numerical model of the geopressured aquifer in Brazoria County, Texas, is constructed and the numerical simulator is used to predict the ultimate recovery of solution gas from this viscoelastic geopressured aquifer.
Probing porous media with gas diffusion NMR
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mair, R. W.; Wong, G. P.; Hoffmann, D.; Hurlimann, M. D.; Patz, S.; Schwartz, L. M.; Walsworth, R. L.
1999-01-01
We show that gas diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance (GD-NMR) provides a powerful technique for probing the structure of porous media. In random packs of glass beads, using both laser-polarized and thermally polarized xenon gas, we find that GD-NMR can accurately measure the pore space surface-area-to-volume ratio, S/V rho, and the tortuosity, alpha (the latter quantity being directly related to the system's transport properties). We also show that GD-NMR provides a good measure of the tortuosity of sandstone and complex carbonate rocks.
Experiments with metallic and ceramic porous media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frederking, T. H. K.; Abbassi, P.; Khandhar, P. K.; Luna, Jack
1988-01-01
Work in the area of mechano-caloric phenomena was initiated during 1988 with startup in the Summer 1988 period. The ideal system utilizing He-II super-phenomena is modeled readily, within the frame of thermodynamics energetics, using the concept of an ideal superleak. The real system however uses porous media of non-ideal pore-grain ingredients. The early phase of experimental and related modeling studies is outlined for the time period from Summer 1988 to the end of 1988.
Viscoelastic fluid flow in inhomogeneous porous media
Siginer, D.A.; Bakhtiyarov, S.I.
1996-09-01
The flow of inelastic and viscoelastic fluids in two porous media of different permeabilities and same priority arranged in series has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The fluids are an oil field spacer fluid and aqueous solutions of polyacrylamide. The porous medium is represented by a cylindrical tube randomly packed with glass spheres. Expressions for the friction factor and the resistance coefficient as a function of the Reynolds number have been developed both for shear thinning and viscoelastic fluids based on the linear fluidity and eight constant Oldroyd models, respectively. The authors show that the energy loss is higher if the viscoelastic fluid flows first through the porous medium with the smaller permeability rather than through the section of the cylinder with the larger permeability. This effect is not observed for Newtonian and shear thinning fluids flowing through the same configuration. Energy requirements for the same volume flow rate are much higher than a Newtonian fluid of the same zero shear viscosity as the polymeric solution. Energy loss increases with increasing Reynolds number at a fixed concentration. At a fixed Reynolds number, the loss is a strong function of the concentration and increases with increasing concentration. The behavior of all fluids is predicted qualitatively except the difference in energy requirements.
Dynamics of clogging in drying porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaplan, C. Nadir; Mahadevan, L.
2014-11-01
Drying in porous media pervades a range of phenomena from brine evaporation arrested in porous bricks, causing efflorescence, i.e. salt aggregation on the surface where vapor leaves the medium, to clogging of reservoir rocks via salt precipitation when carbon dioxide is injected for geological storage. During the process of drying, the permeability and porosity of the medium may change due to the solute accumulation as a function of the particle concentration, in turn affecting the evaporation rate and the dynamics of the fluid flow imposed by it. To examine the dynamics of these coupled quantities, we develop a multiphase model of the particulate flow of a saline suspension in a porous medium, induced by evaporation. We further provide dimensional arguments as to how the salt concentration and the resulting change in permeability determine the transition between efflorescence and salt precipitation in the bulk. This research was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) under Award FA9550-09-1-0669-DOD35CAP and the Kavli Institute for Bionano Science and Technology at Harvard University.
MULTIGRID HOMOGENIZATION OF HETEROGENEOUS POROUS MEDIA
Dendy, J.E.; Moulton, J.D.
2000-10-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); this report, however, reports on only two years research, since this project was terminated at the end of two years in response to the reduction in funding for the LDRD Program at LANL. The numerical simulation of flow through heterogeneous porous media has become a vital tool in forecasting reservoir performance, analyzing groundwater supply and predicting the subsurface flow of contaminants. Consequently, the computational efficiency and accuracy of these simulations is paramount. However, the parameters of the underlying mathematical models (e.g., permeability, conductivity) typically exhibit severe variations over a range of significantly different length scales. Thus the numerical treatment of these problems relies on a homogenization or upscaling procedure to define an approximate coarse-scale problem that adequately captures the influence of the fine-scale structure, with a resultant compromise between the competing objectives of computational efficiency and numerical accuracy. For homogenization in models of flow through heterogeneous porous media, We have developed new, efficient, numerical, multilevel methods, that offer a significant improvement in the compromise between accuracy and efficiency. We recently combined this approach with the work of Dvorak to compute bounded estimates of the homogenized permeability for such flows and demonstrated the effectiveness of this new algorithm with numerical examples.
Critical condensate saturation in porous media
Wang, X.; Mohanty, K.K.
1999-06-15
The understanding of gas and condensate flow in porous media is critical to the optimum exploitation of gas-condensate reservoirs. Critical condensate saturation and relative permeabilities are the key parameters for the evaluation of possible recovery strategies. This work is aimed at developing a mechanistic network model for the critical condensate saturation in which phase trapping and connectivity in the pore corners are critically examined. Porous media are modeled by networks of pore bodies interconnected by pore throats. Bodies and throats are characterized by their connectivity, shapes, and radii distributions. Pore-level laws are identified from micromodel experiments with near-critical fluids. A nonzero critical condensate saturation can be obtained in the absence of contact angle hysteresis due to the converging-diverging nature of the throats. The critical saturation at which the condensate flows is found to be a function of pore geometry, water saturation, and interfacial tension (or the Bond number). The modified sphere-pack model underpredicts the critical condensate saturation of typical sandstones. The cubic model adequately predicts the critical saturation and its experimentally observed trends.
Fundamentals of foam transport in porous media
Kovscek, A.R.; Radke, C.J.
1993-10-01
Foam in porous media is a fascinating fluid both because of its unique microstructure and because its dramatic influence on the flow of gas and liquid. A wealth of information is now compiled in the literature describing foam generation, destruction, and transport mechanisms. Yet there are conflicting views of these mechanisms and on the macroscopic results they produce. By critically reviewing how surfactant formulation and porous media topology conspire to control foam texture and flow resistance, we attempt to unify the disparate viewpoints. Evolution of texture during foam displacement is quantified by a population balance on bubble concentration, which is designed specifically for convenient incorporation into a standard reservoir simulator. Theories for the dominant bubble generation and coalescence mechanisms provide physically based rate expressions for the proposed population balance. Stone-type relative permeability functions along with the texture-sensitive and shear-thinning nature of confined foam complete the model. Quite good agreement is found between theory and new experiments for transient foam displacement in linear cores.
Proceedings of heat transfer and flow in porous media
Somerton, C.W.
1990-01-01
The topic of heat transfer and flow in porous media continues to be the focus of considerable research efforts. Certainly, this is partly due to the wide application of porous materials in engineering systems as well as the novel application of a porous media model to a variety of engineering problems. The work presented in this volume deals with such applications as papermaking, insulation materials, heat pipes, buried heating systems, tumor treatment, and cooling of microelectronics. This volume contains a nice mixture of experimental and computational approaches to problems and should provide the reader with a sense of the current state-of-the-art in porous media research.
Stability of Miscible Displacements Across Stratified Porous Media
Shariati, Maryam; Yortsos, Yanis C.
2000-09-11
This report studied macro-scale heterogeneity effects. Reflecting on their importance, current simulation practices of flow and displacement in porous media were invariably based on heterogeneous permeability fields. Here, it was focused on a specific aspect of such problems, namely the stability of miscible displacements in stratified porous media, where the displacement is perpendicular to the direction of stratification.
Simulations on porous media with nanofluids-initial study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeidan, D.; Alnaief, M.; Saghir, M. Ziad; Touma, R.
2016-06-01
Numerical simulations of natural convection heat and mass transfer in a square cavity using Comsol Multiphysics 5.0 software are presented. The effective thermal conductivity of nanofluid in porous media is computed using glass beads as porous media. It is observed that the heat and mass transfer rate increases with the increase of temperature variation as well as nanoparticle volume concentration.
Review of enhanced vapor diffusion in porous media
Webb, S.W.; Ho, C.K.
1998-08-01
Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid has often been treated similar to gas diffusion. The gas diffusion rate in porous media is much lower than in free space due to the presence of the porous medium and any liquid present. However, enhanced vapor diffusion has also been postulated such that the diffusion rate may approach free-space values. Existing data and models for enhanced vapor diffusion, including those in TOUGH2, are reviewed in this paper.
Utilization of Porous Media for Condensing Heat Exchangers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tuan, George C.
2006-01-01
The use of porous media as a mean of separating liquid condensate from the air stream in condensing heat exchangers has been explored in the past inside small plant growth chambers and in the Apollo Command Module. Both applications used a cooled porous media made of sintered stainless steel to cool and separate condensation from the air stream. However, the main issues with the utilization of porous media in the past have been the deterioration of the porous media over long duration, such as clogging and changes in surface wetting characteristics. In addition, for long duration usage, biofilm growth from microorganisms on the porous medial would also be an issue. In developing Porous Media Condensing Heat Exchangers (PMCHX) for future space applications, different porous materials and microbial growth control methods will need to be explored. This paper explores the work performed at JSC and GRC to evaluate different porous materials and microbial control methods to support the development of a Porous Media Condensing Heat Exchanger. It outlines the basic principles for designing a PMCHX and issues that were encountered and ways to resolve those issues. The PMCHX has potential of mass, volume, and power savings over current CHX and water separator technology and would be beneficial for long duration space missions.
P-adic model of transport in porous disordered media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khrennikov, Adrei Yu.; Oleschko, Klaudia
2014-05-01
The soil porosity and permeability are the most important quantitative indicators of soil dynamics under the land-use change. The main problema in the modeling of this dynamic is still poor correlation between the real measuring data and the mathematical and computer simulation models. In order to overpassed this deep divorce we have designed a new technique, able to compare the data arised from the multiscale image analices and time series of the basic physical properties dynamics in porous media studied in time and space. We present a model of the diffusion reaction type describing transport in disordered porous media, e.g., water or oil flow in a complex network of pores. Our model is based on p-adic representation of such networks. This is a kind of fractal representation. We explore advantages of p- adic representation, namely, the possibility to endow p-adic trees with an algebraic structure and ultrametric topology and, hence, to apply analysis which have (at least some) similarities with ordinary real analysis on the straight line. We present the system of two diffusion reaction equations describing propagation of particles in networks of pores in disordered media. As an application, one can consider water transport through the soil pore Networks, or oil flow through capillaries nets. Under some restrictions on potentials and rate coefficients we found the stationary regime corresponding to water content or concentration of oil in a cluster of capillaries. Usage of p-adic analysis (in particular, p-adic wavelets) gives a possibility to find the stationary solution in the analytic form which makes possible to present a clear pedological or geological picture of the process. The mathematical model elaborated in this paper (Khrennikov, 2013) can be applied to variety of problems from water concentration in aquifers to the problem of formation of oil reservoirs in disordered media with porous structures. Another possible application may have real practical
Upscaling diffusion waves in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valdés-Parada, Francisco J.; Álvarez Ramírez, José; Ochoa-Tapia, J. Alberto
2016-04-01
The aim of this work is to derive the effective-medium equations and to estimate the related effective diffusivities for diffusion waves in porous media. Effective diffusivities are estimated within the framework of the volume averaging method, where they are obtained from the solution of the associated closure problems in 2D and 3D periodic unit cells. The results showed that the transport of diffusion waves are governed by the diffusion and co-diffusion mechanisms of harmonic waves. In addition, numerical results showed that the effective diffusivities increase with frequency, while the effective co-diffusivities display a resonance-like behavior. Our results also indicate that geometry plays a more significant effect over the predictions of the co-diffusion coefficient at moderate frequencies and it mainly influences the predictions of the direct diffusivity at low frequencies (i . e .,ω∗ ≪ 1).
Modeling Multi-process Transport of Pathogens in Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, L.; Brusseau, M. L.
2004-12-01
The transport behavior of microorganisms in porous media is of interest with regard to the fate of pathogens associated with wastewater recharge, riverbank filtration, and land application of biosolids. This interest has fomented research on the transport of pathogens in the subsurface environment. The factors influencing pathogen transport within the subsurface environment include advection, dispersion, filtration, and inactivation. The filtration process, which mediates the magnitude and rate of pathogen retention, comprises several mechanisms such as attachment to porous-medium surfaces, straining, and sedimentation. We present a mathematical model wherein individual filtration mechanisms are explicitly incorporated along with advection, dispersion, and inactivation. The performance of the model is evaluated by applying it to several data sets obtained from miscible-displacement experiments conducted using various pathogens. Input parameters are obtained to the extent possible from independent means.
Mechanics of fluids in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bear, Jacob; Corapcioglu, M. Yavuz
Transport of quantities such as mass component of a phase and/or heat occurs in fields as diversified as petroleum reservoir engineering, groundwater hydraulics, soil mechanics, industrial filtration, water purification, wastewater treatment, soil drainage and irrigation, and geothermal energy production. In all these areas, scientists, engineers, and planners make use of mathematical models; these models describe the relevant transport processes that occur within controlled porous medium domains and enable forecasting of the future behavior of these domains in response to planned activities. The mathematical models, in turn, are based on the understanding of phenomena, often within the void space, and on theories that relate these phenomena to measurable quantities.Because of the pressing needs in areas of practical interest such as the development of groundwater energy storage and geothermal energy production, a vast amount of research in all these fields has contributed, especially in the last two decades, to our understanding and ability to describe transport phenomena in porous media. In recent years these research efforts have been significantly accelerated, attracting scientists from many disciplines. The practical needs of solving boundary value problems in heterogeneous domains, irregular boundaries, coupled phenomena and multiple dependent variables led to the development of a variety of powerful numerical techniques. The realization that fields are highly heterogeneous and that the degree of heterogeneity depends on the scale of the problem led to the introduction of stochastic concepts as an additional tool for the description of phenomena.
MULTIPHASE FLOW AND TRANSPORT IN POROUS MEDIA
Multiphase flow and transport of compositionally complex fluids in geologic media is of importance in a number of applied problems which have major social and economic effects. n petroleum reservoir engineering efficient recovery of energy reserves is the principal goal. nfortuna...
Porous Media Approach for Modeling Closed Cell Foam
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghosn, Louis J.; Sullivan, Roy M.
2006-01-01
In order to minimize boil off of the liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen and to prevent the formation of ice on its exterior surface, the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) is insulated using various low-density, closed-cell polymeric foams. Improved analysis methods for these foam materials are needed to predict the foam structural response and to help identify the foam fracture behavior in order to help minimize foam shedding occurrences. This presentation describes a continuum based approach to modeling the foam thermo-mechanical behavior that accounts for the cellular nature of the material and explicitly addresses the effect of the internal cell gas pressure. A porous media approach is implemented in a finite element frame work to model the mechanical behavior of the closed cell foam. The ABAQUS general purpose finite element program is used to simulate the continuum behavior of the foam. The soil mechanics element is implemented to account for the cell internal pressure and its effect on the stress and strain fields. The pressure variation inside the closed cells is calculated using the ideal gas laws. The soil mechanics element is compatible with an orthotropic materials model to capture the different behavior between the rise and in-plane directions of the foam. The porous media approach is applied to model the foam thermal strain and calculate the foam effective coefficient of thermal expansion. The calculated foam coefficients of thermal expansion were able to simulate the measured thermal strain during heat up from cryogenic temperature to room temperature in vacuum. The porous media approach was applied to an insulated substrate with one inch foam and compared to a simple elastic solution without pore pressure. The porous media approach is also applied to model the foam mechanical behavior during subscale laboratory experiments. In this test, a foam layer sprayed on a metal substrate is subjected to a temperature variation while the metal substrate is
Principles of single-phase flow through porous media
Liu, Shijie; Masliyah, J.H.
1996-12-31
Porous media are both permeable and dispersive to a traversing fluid. Flow of a single-phasefluid in porous media is not only of practical interest but also of fundamental significance in characterizing the porous media. In this chapter, the characteristics of porous media are introduced from both fundamental and application points of view. A continuum approach is used. The volume-averaged equations are used to describe the flow, where the momentum dispersion has been neglected. The relations between Darcy`s law-Brinkinans equation and the volume-averaged Navier-Stokes equation are described. The Forchheimer hypothesis, Ergun equation, and Liu-Afacan-Alashyah equation are briefly described in terms of coupling of the viscous and inertial effects oil the single-phaseflow in porous media. Discussions are provided on the concept and modeling of areal porosity, tortuosity, permeability, and shear factor. A curved passage model is discussed in terms of the shear factor and pressure-drop modeling for flow through porous media. Bounding wall effects are discussed through a simple approach. Examples of flow simulations in porous media (i.e., slightly compressible flow in oil reservoirs and incompressible flow infixed beds) are provided. 110 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.
Macroscopic properties of fractured porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jean Francois, T.; Adler, P.; Bogdanov, I.; Mourzenko, V.
2006-12-01
There are two basic problems to be addressed. The first one is to solve precisely the partial differential equations which govern the phenomena which occur in these media and which are of interest in a large number of applications. The second one is to define a methodology in order to be able to estimate the macroscopic properties of real media by using quantities which are easily measurable on the field. Two major steps are needed for the numerical solution (1). First, an unstructured tetrahedral mesh of the fractures and of the porous matrix located in between is constructed; second, the governing partial equations are discretized and solved, in a finite volume formulation. A brief overview of the various problems which have been addressed so far, will be given: single and two phase flows, unsteady flows around a well, dispersion of an active and a passive solute, mechanical properties. This set of codes enabled us to cope with the second basic problem. Our approach is based on the systematic use of the excluded volume of fractures (which will be defined). The number of fractures per unit volume can be replaced by the number ρ ' of fractures per excluded volume. When numerical results such as the percolation threshold, the macroscopic permeability are plotted as functions of ρ ' they become independent of the shapes of the fractures which is a decisive simplification. Then, we show how ρ ' can be estimated from measurements performed along lines (2), planes, and galleries. It is interesting to notice that many stereological relations are actually independent of the size and shapes of fractures provided that they are convex (3); such a property adds a lot of generality to our methodology. Some tentative applications of the methodology are given and they show that the estimations are always in good agreement with the data. References (1) I.I. Bogdanov, V.V. Mourzenko, J.-F. Thovert, P.M. Adler, Effective permeability of fractured porous media in steady
Solute transport in dual-permeability porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leij, Feike J.; Toride, Nobuo; Field, Malcolm S.; Sciortino, Antonella
2012-04-01
A dual-advection dispersion equation (DADE) is presented and solved to describe solute transport in structured or layered porous media with different nonzero flow rates in two distinct pore domains with linear solute transfer between them. This dual-permeability model constitutes a generalized version of the advection-dispersion equation (ADE) for transport in uniform porous media and the mobile-immobile model (MIM) for transport in media with a mobile and an immobile pore domain. Analytical tools for the DADE have mostly been lacking. An analytical solution has therefore been derived using Laplace transformation with time and modal decomposition based on matrix diagonalization, assuming the same dispersivity for both domains. Temporal moments are derived for the DADE and contrasted with those for the ADE and the MIM. The effective dispersion coefficient for the DADE approaches that of the ADE for a similar velocity in both pore domains and large values for the first-order transfer parameter, and approaches that of the MIM for the opposite conditions. The solution of the DADE is used to illustrate how differences in pore water velocity between the domains and low transfer rates will lead to double peaks in the volume- or flux-averaged concentration profiles versus time or position. The DADE is applied to optimize experimental breakthrough curves for an Andisol with a distinct intra- and interaggregate porosity. The DADE improved the description of the breakthrough data compared to the ADE and the MIM.
Evaluation of hydrodynamic scaling in porous media using finger dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selker, John S.; Schroth, Martin H.
1998-08-01
The use of dimensionless scaling is ubiquitous to hydrodynamic analysis, providing a powerful method of extending limited experimetnal results and generalizing theories. Miller and Miller [1956] contributed a scaling framework for immiscible fluid flow through porous media that relied on consistency of the contact angle between systems to be compared. It is common to assume that the effective contact angle will be zero in clean sand material where water is the wetting liquid. The well-documented unstable wetting process of fingered flow is used here as a diagnostic tool for the scaling relationships for infiltration into sandy media. Through comparison of finger cross sections produced using three liquids as well as various concentrations of anionic surfactant, it is shown that the zero contact angle assumption is very poor even for laboratory cleaned silica sand: Experimental results demonstrate effective contact angles approaching 60°. Scaling was effective for a given liquid between sands of differing particle size. These results suggest that caution should be exercised when applying scaling theory to initial wetting of porous media by liquids of differing gas-liquid interfacial tensions.
Fractal Analysis of Stress Sensitivity of Permeability in Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Xiao-Hua; Li, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Jian-Yi; Zhang, Lie-Hui; Cai, Jianchao
2015-12-01
A permeability model for porous media considering the stress sensitivity is derived based on mechanics of materials and the fractal characteristics of solid cluster size distribution. The permeability of porous media considering the stress sensitivity is related to solid cluster fractal dimension, solid cluster fractal tortuosity dimension, solid cluster minimum diameter and solid cluster maximum diameter, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, as well as power index. Every parameter has clear physical meaning without the use of empirical constants. The model predictions of permeability show good agreement with those obtained by the available experimental expression. The proposed model may be conducible to a better understanding of the mechanism for flow in elastic porous media.
Experimental tracking of the evolution of foam in porous media
Cohen, D; Patzek, T.W.; Radke, C.J.
1996-07-01
The authors discuss the experiments that have been done to track the effects of diffusion of gas in foams trapped in porous media. They describe several types of experiments and discuss the difficulties that prevent quantitative results from being obtained in most cases. However, the experiments do help them understand the physics and diffusion-driven coarsening of foams trapped in porous media. This understanding is necessary to simulate the behavior of these foams and predict the mobilization characteristics of foam in porous media. At the end of this paper, they compare the trends and predictions resulting from the experimental work to the predictions of the models which are presented elsewhere.
Molecular diffusion in porous media by PGSE ESR.
Talmon, Yael; Shtirberg, Lazar; Harneit, Wolfgang; Rogozhnikova, Olga Yu; Tormyshev, Victor; Blank, Aharon
2010-06-21
Diffusion in porous media is a general subject that involves many fields of research, such as chemistry (e.g. porous catalytic pallets), biology (e.g. porous cellular organelles), and materials science (e.g. porous polymer matrixes for controlled-release and gas-storage materials). Pulsed-gradient spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance (PGSE NMR) is a powerful technique that is often employed to characterize complex diffusion patterns inside porous media. Typically it measures the motion of at least approximately 10(15) molecules occurring in the milliseconds-to-seconds time scale, which can be used to characterize diffusion in porous media with features of approximately 2-3 mum and above (in common aqueous environments). Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), which operates in the nanoseconds-to-microseconds time scale with much better spin sensitivity, can in principle be employed to measure complex diffusion patterns in porous media with much finer features (down to approximately 10 nm). However, up to now, severe technical constraints precluded the adaptation of PGSE ESR to porous media research. In this work we demonstrate for the first time the use of PGSE ESR in the characterization of molecular restricted diffusion in common liquid solutions embedded in a model system for porous media made of sub-micron glass spheres. A unique ESR resonator, efficient gradient coils and fast gradient current drivers enable these measurements. This work can be further extended in the future to many applications that involve dynamical processes occurring in porous media with features in the deep sub-micron range down to true nanometric length scales. PMID:20372729
Electrokinetic induced solute dispersion in porous media; pore network modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shuai; Schotting, Ruud; Raoof, Amir
2013-04-01
Electrokinetic flow plays an important role in remediation process, separation technique, and chromatography. The solute dispersion is a key parameter to determine transport efficiency. In this study, we present the electrokinetic effects on solute dispersion in porous media at the pore scale, using a pore network model. The analytical solution of the electrokinetic coupling coefficient was obtained to quantity the fluid flow velocity in a cylinder capillary. The effect of electrical double layer on the electrokinetic coupling coefficient was investigated by applying different ionic concentration. By averaging the velocity over cross section within a single pore, the average flux was obtained. Applying such single pore relationships, in the thin electrical double layer limit, to each and every pore within the pore network, potential distribution and the induced fluid flow was calculated for the whole domain. The resulting pore velocities were used to simulate solute transport within the pore network. By averaging the results, we obtained the breakthrough curve (BTC) of the average concentration at the outlet of the pore network. Optimizing the solution of continuum scale advection-dispersion equation to such a BTC, solute dispersion coefficient was estimated. We have compared the dispersion caused by electrokinetic flow and pure pressure driven flow under different Peclet number values. In addition, the effect of microstructure and topological properties of porous media on fluid flow and solute dispersion is presented, mainly based on different pore coordination numbers.
Foam Flows in Analog Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meheust, Y.; Géraud, B.; Jones, S. A.; Cantat, I.; Dollet, B.
2015-12-01
Foams have been used for decades as displacing fluids for EOR and aquifer remediation, and more recently as carriers of chemical amendments for the remediation of the vadose zone. Apart from various interesting physico-chemical and biochemical properties, foams are better injection fluids due to their low sensitivity to gravity and their peculiar rheology: for foams with bubbles on the order of at least the typical pore size, viscous dissipation arises mostly from the contact zones between the soap films and the walls. In most experimental studies no local information of the foam structure is possible, and only global quantities such as the effective viscosity can be measured. We investigate foam flow through a two-dimensional porous medium consisting of circular obstacles positioned randomly in a horizontal transparent Hele-Shaw cell. The local foam structure is recorded in situ, which provides a measure of the spatial distribution of bubble velocities and sizes at regular time intervals. The flow exhibits a rich phenomenology including preferential flow paths and local flow intermittency/non-stationarity despite the imposed permanent global flow rate. Moreover, the medium selects the bubble size distribution through lamella division-triggered bubble fragmentation. Varying the mean bubble size of the injected foam, its water content, and mean velocity, we characterize those processes systematically and show that the distributions of bubble sizes and velocities are to some extent correlated. We furthermore measure the evolution, along the flow direction, of the distribution of bubble sizes, and measure the efficiency of bubble fragmentation as a function of the control parameters. The bubble fragmentation can be modeled numerically and to some extent analytically, based on statistical measures inferred from the experimental data. This study sheds new light on the local rheology of foams in porous media and opens the way towards quantitative characterization of the
Foam Transport in Porous Media - A Review
Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Zhong, Lirong
2009-11-11
Amendment solutions with or without surfactants have been used to remove contaminants from soil. However, it has drawbacks such that the amendment solution often mobilizes the plume, and its movement is controlled by gravity and preferential flow paths. Foam is an emulsion-like, two-phase system in which gas cells are dispersed in a liquid and separated by thin liquid films called lamellae. Potential advantages of using foams in sub-surface remediation include providing better control on the volume of fluids injected, uniformity of contact, and the ability to contain the migration of contaminant laden liquids. It is expected that foam can serve as a carrier of amendments for vadose zone remediation, e.g., at the Hanford Site. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s EM-20 program, a numerical simulation capability will be added to the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) flow simulator. The primary purpose of this document is to review the modeling approaches of foam transport in porous media. However, as an aid to understanding the simulation approaches, some experiments under unsaturated conditions and the processes of foam transport are also reviewed. Foam may be formed when the surfactant concentration is above the critical micelle concentration. There are two main types of foams – the ball foam (microfoam) and the polyhedral foam. The characteristics of bulk foam are described by the properties such as foam quality, texture, stability, density, surface tension, disjoining pressure, etc. Foam has been used to flush contaminants such as metals, organics, and nonaqueous phase liquids from unsaturated soil. Ball foam, or colloidal gas aphrons, reportedly have been used for soil flushing in contaminated site remediation and was found to be more efficient than surfactant solutions on the basis of weight of contaminant removed per gram of surfactant. Experiments also indicate that the polyhedral foam can be used to enhance soil remediation. The
Quantitative Permeability Prediction for Anisotropic Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheng, Q.; Thompson, K. E.
2012-12-01
Pore-scale modeling as a predictive tool has become an integral to both research and commercial simulation in recent years. Permeability is one of the most important of the many properties that can be simulated. Traditionally, permeability is determined using Darcy's law, based on the assumption that the pressure gradient is aligned with the principal flow direction. However, a wide variety of porous media exhibit anisotropic permeability due to particle orientation or laminated structure. In these types of materials, the direction of fluid flow is not aligned with the pressure gradient (except along the principal directions). Thus, it is desirable to predict the full permeability tensor for anisotropic materials using a first-principles pore-scale approach. In this work, we present a fast method to determine the full permeability tensor and the principal directions using a novel network modeling algorithm. We also test the ability of network modeling (which is an approximate method) to detect anisotropy in various structures. Both computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods and network modeling have emerged as effective techniques to predict rock properties. CFD models are more rigorous but computationally expensive. Network modeling involves significant approximations but can be orders-of-magnitude more efficient computationally, which is important for both speed and the ability to model larger scales. This work uses network modeling, with simulations performed on two types of anisotropic materials: laminated packings (with layers of different sized particles) and oriented packings (containing particles with preferential orientation). Pore network models are created from the porous media data, and a novel method is used to determine the permeability tensor and principal flow direction using pore network modeling. The method is verified by comparing the calculated principal directions with the known anisotropy and also by comparing permeability with values from CFD
Statistical mechanics of unsaturated porous media.
Xu, Jin; Louge, Michel Y
2015-12-01
We explore a mean-field theory of fluid imbibition and drainage through permeable porous solids. In the limit of vanishing inertial and viscous forces, the theory predicts the hysteretic "retention curves" relating the capillary pressure applied across a connected domain to its degree of saturation in wetting fluid in terms of known surface energies and void space geometry. To avoid complicated calculations, we adopt the simplest statistical mechanics, in which a pore interacts with its neighbors through narrow openings called "necks," while being either full or empty of wetting fluid. We show how the main retention curves can be calculated from the statistical distribution of two dimensionless parameters λ and α measuring the specific areas of, respectively, neck cross section and wettable pore surface relative to pore volume. The theory attributes hysteresis of these curves to collective first-order phase transitions. We illustrate predictions with a porous domain consisting of a random packing of spheres, show that hysteresis strength grows with λ and weakens as the distribution of α broadens, and reproduce the behavior of Haines jumps observed in recent experiments on an ordered pore network. PMID:26764701
Statistical mechanics of unsaturated porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Jin; Louge, Michel Y.
2015-12-01
We explore a mean-field theory of fluid imbibition and drainage through permeable porous solids. In the limit of vanishing inertial and viscous forces, the theory predicts the hysteretic "retention curves" relating the capillary pressure applied across a connected domain to its degree of saturation in wetting fluid in terms of known surface energies and void space geometry. To avoid complicated calculations, we adopt the simplest statistical mechanics, in which a pore interacts with its neighbors through narrow openings called "necks," while being either full or empty of wetting fluid. We show how the main retention curves can be calculated from the statistical distribution of two dimensionless parameters λ and α measuring the specific areas of, respectively, neck cross section and wettable pore surface relative to pore volume. The theory attributes hysteresis of these curves to collective first-order phase transitions. We illustrate predictions with a porous domain consisting of a random packing of spheres, show that hysteresis strength grows with λ and weakens as the distribution of α broadens, and reproduce the behavior of Haines jumps observed in recent experiments on an ordered pore network.
Parametric study of boiling heat transfer in porous media
Shi, B.; Jones, B.G.; Pan, C.
1996-04-01
Detailed numerical modeling and parametric variation studies were conducted on boiling heat transfer processes in porous deposits with emphasis on applications associated with light water nuclear power reactor systems. The processes of boiling heat transfer in the porous corrosion deposits typically involve phase changes in finite volumetric regions in the porous media. The study examined such processes in two porous media configurations, without chimneys (homogeneous porous structures) and with chimneys (heterogeneous porous structures). A 1-D model and a 2-D model were developed to simulate two-phase flows with phase changes, without dry-out, inside the porous media for both structural configurations. For closure of the governing equations, an empirical correlation of the evaporation rate for phase changes inside the porous media was introduced. In addition, numerical algorithms were developed to solve the coupled nonlinear equations of mass, momentum, energy, capillary pressure, and evaporation rate. The distributions of temperature, thermodynamic saturation, liquid pressure, vapor pressure, liquid velocity, and vapor velocity were predicted. Furthermore, the effects of heat flux, system pressure, porosity, particle diameter, chimney population density, chimney radius, and crud thickness on the all superheat, critical heat flux, and minimum saturation were examined. The predictions were found to be in good agreement with the available experimental results.
Development of correlations to predict biopolymer mobility in porous media
Hejri, S.; Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W. )
1991-02-01
This paper describes the flow and rheological behavior of biopolymer solutions in sandpacks over a wide range of permeability and frontal advance rates. Empirical correlations were developed to estimate polymer mobility in porous media. The correlations are based on porous medium properties, polymer concentration, and rheological parameters for the polymer derived from steady-shear measurements.
Characterization of an impinging jet into porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Cong; Alhani, Salwan; Gharib, Morteza
2015-11-01
In this work, characteristic behavior of a liquid jet into porous hydrophobic / hydrophilic particle media is investigated. In porous media, the capillary effect becomes significant, especially when the jet Reynolds Number is low. To analyze the cavity creation phenomena, the effect of jet's diameter, speed and acceleration as well as particles' size are carefully studied. Such knowledge of fluid behavior will provide guidance for medicine injection process. This work is supported by Caltech GALCIT STEM program.
Unsteady vortical structures in porous media flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finn, Justin; Apte, Sourabh; Wood, Brian
2011-11-01
The pore scale character of moderate Reynolds number, inertial flow through mono-disperse packed beds of spheres is examined using numerical experiments. Direct numerical simulations are performed for flow through (i) a periodic, 3 × 3 × 6 simple cubic arrangement at Rep = 529 , and (ii) a realistic randomly packed tube containing 326 spheres with dtube /dsp = 5 . 96 at Rep = 600 . At these Reynolds numbers, unsteady vortical regions are dominant features at the pore scale, and can have a profound effect on permeability and dispersion properties at the macro-scale. Despite similar Reynolds numbers and mean void fractions, the vortical structures observed in these two flows are remarkably different. The flow through the arranged packing is characterized by spatially and temporally periodic vortex-ring like structures, while the flow through the random packing contains many elongated helical vortices and a wider spectrum of space and time scales. The sensitive dependence of flow length and time scales and the local pore geometry is investigated using the DNS data. Funding: NSF project #0933857, Inertial Effects in Flow Through Porous Media.
Wave simulation in anisotropic, saturated porous media
Carcione, J.M.
1995-12-31
Porous media are anisotropic due to bedding, compaction and the presence of aligned microcracks and fractures. Here, I assume that the skeleton (and not the solid itself) is anisotropic. The rheological model also includes anisotropic tortuosity and permeability. The poroelastic equations are based on a transversely isotropic extension of Biot`s theory, and the problem is of plane strain type, i.e., two dimensional, and describes qP - qS propagation. In the high-frequency case, the (two) viscodynamic operators are approximated by Zener relaxation functions, that allow a close differential formulation of Biot`s equation of motion. The propagation is solved numerically, with a direct grid method and a time splitting integration algorithm, allowing the solution of the stiff part of the differential equations in closed analytical form. Snapshots in sandstone show that three waves propagate when the fluid is ideal (zero viscosity): the fast compressional and shear waves and the slow compressional wave. Anisotropic tortuosity has not a major influence on the faster modes, but significantly affects the slow wavefront. On the other hand, when the fluid is viscous, the slow wave becomes diffusive and appears as a static mode at the source location.
Survival of MEOR systems in porous media
Bryant, R.S.; Douglas, J.
1986-03-01
It was determined that many potential environmental hazards from microbial enhancement of oil recovery (MEOR) technology are extensions of EOR environmental problems. One unique concern of MEOR is that interactions between injected microorganisms and molasses, and those microorganisms already present in the reservoir might pose novel problems. It appeared necessary to obtain information regarding the indigenous microbial flora and the survival characteristics of a MEOR system after it encounters simulated reservoir microbial conditions. We found from laboratory studies that adventitious microbial species present in the molasses overgrew several of the indigenous microorganisms in Berea sandstone cores and also overgrew the injected MEOR microorganisms. From the results of these studies, we conclude that: (1) The introduction of nutrients into a petroleum reservoir could stimulate the growth of indigenous microorganisms. (2) Microorganisms present in injected non-sterile nutrients can overgrow both injected microbes and indigenous microorganisms. (3) Spore-forming bacteria cannot survive time periods in porous media of 4-20 weeks if there are other bacterial types present. 7 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.
Energy dissipation during sublimation from porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keller, H. U.; Skorov, Yu. V.
2002-09-01
Several physical processes during the sublimation from and inside porous media have been investigated in detail in a series our papers (Skorov et al., 1999, Icarus 140, 173, Skorov et al., 2001, Icarus 153, 180, Davidsson and Skorov, 2002, Icarus 156, 223, Davidsson and Skorov, 2002, Icarus, in press) in order to analyse the gas production of cometary nuclei . New features are the absorption of the irradiation within the uppermost layers of the pores (rather than on the surface), taking into account the gas pressure of the coma, and temperature dependent condensation and sublimation coefficients. Detailed kinetic calculations revealed deviations from the canonical gasdynamic models. We will summarize the impact of these new calculations on the physics of sublimation from a cometary nucleus. The absorption of the irradiation below the surface leads to a decrease of sublimation flux near the subsolar point but to an increase near the evening terminator and nightside of a rotating nucleus. More absorbed energy is available to be transferred into the interior of the nucleus. This effect and consequences for the development of cometary nuclei will be discussed.
NMR Studies of Biodegradation Reactions in Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitreiter, I.; Oswald, S. E.; Stallmach, F.
2007-12-01
Subsurface contamination caused by organic compounds is a widespread environmental problem. Biodegradation is the main process to reduce the mass of organic contaminants in soils and groundwater. Often the biodegradation is limited by the supply of electron acceptors at the location of the contaminants, and mixing and diffusion are therefore coupled to the degradation process. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) allows non- invasive and non-destructive insight into diffusion processes and effects of microbial biomass on the pore scale, where the mixing and degradation processes actually are taking place. Studying key processes non-invasively with high temporal resolution will contribute to a better understanding of the effective biodegradation rates of organic contaminants in saturated porous systems. The application of 1H NMR relaxometry and PFG NMR diffusometry provide the possibilities to study diffusive transport at the mixing zones in porous media, where contaminants and electron acceptors show strong concentration gradients due to degradation reactions. Nuclear spin relaxation times of water reflect its interaction with the porous media as well as the biomass. To localize microbial biomass the mobility of the water molecules (relaxation times) can be classified corresponding to bound water in the biomass and bulk water. Oxygen is the most important electron acceptor that stimulate the activity and growth of aerobic microbes, and iron(III) a major one for anaerobes. In our work we applied low field (0.2 T) and high field (3 T) NMR measurements to analyze the diffusion in water and biomass and to monitor the concentration changes of electron acceptors. The experimental setup consists of small columns containing saturated porous media applying inversion recovery (IR) and pulsed field gradient (PFG) sequences. We show that both, oxygen as well as iron(III) affect the relaxation times by their paramagnetic properties, and can be determined by NMR relaxometry in
Dynamic permeability of porous media by the lattice Boltzmann method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pazdniakou, A.; Adler, P. M.
2013-12-01
The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is applied to calculate the dynamic permeability K(ω) of porous media; an oscillating macroscopic pressure gradient is imposed in order to generate oscillating flows. The LBM simulation yields the time dependent seepage velocity of amplitude A and phase shift B which are used to calculate K(ω). The procedure is validated for plane Poiseuille flows where excellent agreement with the analytical solution is obtained. The limitations of the method are discussed. When the ratio between the kinematic viscosity and the characteristic size of the pores is high, the corresponding Knudsen number Kn is high and the numerical values of K(ω) are incorrect with a positive imaginary part; it is only when Kn is small enough that correct values are obtained. The influence of the time discretization of the oscillating body force is studied; simulation results are influenced by an insufficient discretization, i.e., it is necessary to avoid using too high frequencies. The influence of absolute errors in the seepage velocity amplitude δA and the phase shift δB on K(ω) shows that for high ω even small errors in B can cause drastic errors in ReK(ω). The dynamic permeability of reconstructed and real (sandstone) porous media is calculated for a large range of frequencies and the universal scaling behavior is verified. Very good correspondences with the theoretical predictions are observed.
Enhancing nZVI mobility in porous media using humate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmid, Doris; Micic Batka, Vesna; Gondikas, Andreas; Velimirovic, Milica; von der Kammer, Frank; Hofmann, Thilo
2016-04-01
The limited transport of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles in porous media is a major drawback for its use in groundwater remediation. Among other factors, transport of nZVI particles might be negatively affected by mineralogical and physical heterogeneities of the aquifer matrix. Carbonate minerals and iron oxides, for instance, provide positively charged patches which would further increase particle attachment to the sand grains. This study does assess the potential of sodium humate, a salt of humic acids, to enhance the mobility of nZVI particles. Humate is a non-toxic, inexpensive material extracted from natural oxidized lignite and obtained in commercial grade, which makes it advantageous for field applications. Humate is expected to shield the positively charged patches of the sand grains and consequently enhance nZVI mobility in porous media. In this study the humate was injected into an aquifer prior to injection of the nZVI particles. The potential of humate for enhancing the mobility of nZVI particles was tested in an array of columns packed with heterogeneous natural porous media of different mineralogical composition and sediment texture. The results demonstrated that without pre-injection of humates only limited mobility of nZVI particles can be obtained in all tested porous media. After the pre-injection of low concentration of humate (10 mg/L) the mobility of nZVI particles (1 g/L) was enhanced in all tested porous media. The magnitude of this enhancement was depended on the properties of the porous media. The largest improvement of nZVI mobility was observed for homogeneous quartz. This material had also the highest porosity (~ 40%), good sorting, and therefore a higher permeability compared to the other porous media tested. It is assumed that the higher permeability of this porous medium allowed an optimal distribution of humate, resulting in an approximately 6-fold enhancement of nZVI mobility. In carbonate-rich porous medium with a
Homogenization of two fluid flow in porous media
Daly, K. R.; Roose, T.
2015-01-01
The macroscopic behaviour of air and water in porous media is often approximated using Richards' equation for the fluid saturation and pressure. This equation is parametrized by the hydraulic conductivity and water release curve. In this paper, we use homogenization to derive a general model for saturation and pressure in porous media based on an underlying periodic porous structure. Under an appropriate set of assumptions, i.e. constant gas pressure, this model is shown to reduce to the simpler form of Richards' equation. The starting point for this derivation is the Cahn–Hilliard phase field equation coupled with Stokes equations for fluid flow. This approach allows us, for the first time, to rigorously derive the water release curve and hydraulic conductivities through a series of cell problems. The method captures the hysteresis in the water release curve and ties the macroscopic properties of the porous media with the underlying geometrical and material properties.
Porous media heat transfer for injection molding
Beer, Neil Reginald
2016-05-31
The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a porous medium disposed within an injection molding component via a porous medium inlet. The porous medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The porous medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.
Transport of human adenoviruses in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kokkinos, Petros; Syngouna, Vasiliki I.; Tselepi, Maria A.; Bellou, Maria; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V.; Vantarakis, Apostolos
2015-04-01
Groundwater may be contaminated with infective human enteric viruses from various wastewater discharges, sanitary landfills, septic tanks, agricultural practices, and artificial groundwater recharge. Coliphages have been widely used as surrogates of enteric viruses, because they share many fundamental properties and features. Although a large number of studies focusing on various factors (i.e. pore water solution chemistry, fluid velocity, moisture content, temperature, and grain size) that affect biocolloid (bacteria, viruses) transport have been published over the past two decades, little attention has been given toward human adenoviruses (hAdVs). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pore water velocity on hAdV transport in water saturated laboratory-scale columns packed with glass beads. The effects of pore water velocity on virus transport and retention in porous media was examined at three pore water velocities (0.39, 0.75, and 1.22 cm/min). The results indicated that all estimated average mass recovery values for hAdV were lower than those of coliphages, which were previously reported in the literature by others for experiments conducted under similar experimental conditions. However, no obvious relationship between hAdV mass recovery and water velocity could be established from the experimental results. The collision efficiencies were quantified using the classical colloid filtration theory. Average collision efficiency, α, values decreased with decreasing flow rate, Q, and pore water velocity, U, but no significant effect of U on α was observed. Furthermore, the surface properties of viruses and glass beads were used to construct classical DLVO potential energy profiles. The results revealed that the experimental conditions of this study were unfavorable to deposition and that no aggregation between virus particles is expected to occur. A thorough understanding of the key processes governing virus transport is pivotal for public
Postbreakthrough behavior in flow through porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López, Eduardo; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Goldmakher, Leo; Havlin, Shlomo; King, Peter R.; Stanley, H. Eugene
2003-05-01
We numerically simulate the traveling time of a tracer in convective flow between two points (injection and extraction) separated by a distance r in a model of porous media, d=2 percolation. We calculate and analyze the traveling time probability density function for two values of the fraction of connecting bonds p: the homogeneous case p=1 and the inhomogeneous critical threshold case p=pc. We analyze both constant current and constant pressure conditions at p=pc. The homogeneous p=1 case serves as a comparison base for the more complicated p=pc situation. We find several regions in the probability density of the traveling times for the homogeneous case (p=1) and also for the critical case (p=pc) for both constant pressure and constant current conditions. For constant pressure, the first region IP corresponds to the short times before the flow breakthrough occurs, when the probability distribution is strictly zero. The second region IIP corresponds to numerous fast flow lines reaching the extraction point, with the probability distribution reaching its maximum. The third region IIIP corresponds to intermediate times and is characterized by a power-law decay. The fourth region IVP corresponds to very long traveling times, and is characterized by a different power-law decaying tail. The power-law characterizing region IVP is related to the multifractal properties of flow in percolation, and an expression for its dependence on the system size L is presented. The constant current behavior is different from the constant pressure behavior, and can be related analytically to the constant pressure case. We present theoretical arguments for the values of the exponents characterizing each region and crossover times. Our results are summarized in two scaling assumptions for the traveling time probability density; one for constant pressure and one for constant current. We also present the production curve associated with the probability of traveling times, which is of
Dispersion of solutes in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunt, A. G.; Skinner, T. E.; Ewing, R. P.; Ghanbarian-Alavijeh, B.
2011-04-01
A recently introduced theory of solute transport in porous media is tested by comparison with experiment. The solute transport is predicted using an adaptation of the cluster statistics of percolation theory to critical path analysis together with knowledge of how the structure of such percolation clusters affects the time of transport across them. Only the effects of a single scale of medium heterogeneity are incorporated, and a minimal amount of information regarding the structure of the medium is required. This framework is used to find effectively the distributions of solute velocities and travel distances and thus generate arrival time distributions. The comparison with experiment focuses on the dispersivity (the ratio of the second to the first moment of the spatial solute distribution). The predictions of the theory in the absence of diffusion are verified by comparing with over 2200 experiments over length scales from a few microns to 100 km. At larger length scales (centimeters on up) about 95% of the data lie within our predicted bounds. At smaller length scales approximately 99.8% of the data lie where we predict. These comparisons are not trivial as the typical values of the dispersivity increase by ten orders of magnitude over ten orders of magnitude of length scale. Noteworthy is that the classical advection-dispersion (ADE) equation predicts that the dispersivity should be independent of length scale! This agreement with experiment requires rethinking of the relevance of diffusion and multi-scale heterogeneity and would also appear to signal the complete inappropriateness of using the classical ADE or any of its derivatives to model solute transport.
Liquid flow and distribution in unsaturated porous media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alexander, J. Iwan
2004-01-01
Flow and transport in permeable or porous media and microchannels occurs in a variety of situations in micro- and reduced-gravity environments, many of them associated with environmental control and life support systems. While the role of gravity is limited, due to the typically small size scales associated permeable media, gravity, at the very least, affects the overall disposition of fluid in a macroscopic system. This presentation will discuss examples where the absence of gravity affects flow and phase distribution in selected examples of unsaturated flow and transport of heat and mass in porous media and microchannels that are pertinent to spacecraft systems.
Experimental Evidence of Helical Flow in Porous Media.
Ye, Yu; Chiogna, Gabriele; Cirpka, Olaf A; Grathwohl, Peter; Rolle, Massimo
2015-11-01
Helical flow leads to deformation of solute plumes and enhances transverse mixing in porous media. We present experiments in which macroscopic helical flow is created by arranging different materials to obtain an anisotropic macroscopic permeability tensor with spatially variable orientation. The resulting helical flow entails twisting streamlines which cause a significant increase in lateral mass exchange and thus a large enhancement of plume dilution (up to 235%) compared to transport in homogenous media. The setup may be used to effectively mix solutes in parallel streams similarly to static mixers, but in porous media. PMID:26588388
Modern hardware architectures accelerate porous media flow computations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulczewski, Michal; Kurowski, Krzysztof; Kierzynka, Michal; Dohnalik, Marek; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Borujeni, Ali Takbiri
2012-05-01
Investigation of rock properties, porosity and permeability particularly, which determines transport media characteristic, is crucial to reservoir engineering. Nowadays, micro-tomography (micro-CT) methods allow to obtain vast of petro-physical properties. The micro-CT method facilitates visualization of pores structures and acquisition of total porosity factor, determined by sticking together 2D slices of scanned rock and applying proper absorption cut-off point. Proper segmentation of pores representation in 3D is important to solve the permeability of porous media. This factor is recently determined by the means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), a popular method to analyze problems related to fluid flows, taking advantage of numerical methods and constantly growing computing powers. The recent advent of novel multi-, many-core and graphics processing unit (GPU) hardware architectures allows scientists to benefit even more from parallel processing and built-in new features. The high level of parallel scalability offers both, the time-to-solution decrease and greater accuracy - top factors in reservoir engineering. This paper aims to present research results related to fluid flow simulations, particularly solving the total porosity and permeability of porous media, taking advantage of modern hardware architectures. In our approach total porosity is calculated by the means of general-purpose computing on multiple GPUs. This application sticks together 2D slices of scanned rock and by the means of a marching tetrahedra algorithm, creates a 3D representation of pores and calculates the total porosity. Experimental results are compared with data obtained via other popular methods, including Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), helium porosity and nitrogen permeability tests. Then CFD simulations are performed on a large-scale high performance hardware architecture to solve the flow and permeability of porous media. In our experiments we used Lattice Boltzmann
A pore scale study on turbulent combustion in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jouybari, N. F.; Maerefat, M.; Nimvari, M. E.
2016-02-01
This paper presents pore scale simulation of turbulent combustion of air/methane mixture in porous media to investigate the effects of multidimensionality and turbulence on the flame within the pores of porous media. In order to investigate combustion in the pores of porous medium, a simple but often used porous medium consisting of a staggered arrangement of square cylinders is considered in the present study. Results of turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent viscosity ratio, temperature, flame speed, convective heat transfer and thermal conductivity are presented and compared for laminar and turbulent simulations. It is shown that the turbulent kinetic energy increases from the inlet of burner, because of turbulence created by the solid matrix with a sudden jump or reduction at the flame front due to increase in temperature and velocity. Also, the pore scale simulation revealed that the laminarization of flow occurs after flame front in the combustion zone and turbulence effects are important mainly in the preheat zone. It is shown that turbulence enhances the diffusion processes in the preheat zone, but it is not enough to affect the maximum flame speed, temperature distribution and convective heat transfer in the porous burner. The dimensionless parameters associated with the Borghi-Peters diagram of turbulent combustion have been analyzed for the case of combustion in porous media and it is found that the combustion in the porous burner considered in the present study concerns the range of well stirred reactor very close to the laminar flame region.
Surface effects and pressure threshold of wet porous media
Lei, S.Y.; Jia, L.Q.; Wang, B.X.; Xia, C.M.
1997-07-01
The surface effects, a hysteresis switch effect, of the wet saturated porous media resulting from gas flow into the free surface were investigated experimentally. The experiments showed that there is a pressure threshold occurring in a very thin layer of wet porous media when gas is forced into the media. The gas enters and keeps flowing through the media only when the gas pressure reaches the threshold. When the pressure drops down somewhere, the gas flow will be stopped and the resistance to gas being forced into the media will recover. For screened sand naturally deposited in water whose particle size ranges from 0.10mm to 0.45mm and size rate is 1:1.25, the pressure threshold is p{sub th} = 4.94d{sup {minus}0.772} Pa. After defining threshold size of the porous media as d{sub th} = 4{sigma}/p{sub th}, the relative size can be described as d{sub th}/d = 0.0549d{sup {minus}0.237}, which is getting larger as grain getting finer. The variation of d{sub th}/d with d agrees well with that of the dimensionless permeability {radical}k/d for the screened sands. The threshold size of the porous media can unify all the experimental results of the permeability-porosity, including that of full screened soil sand.
Effects of capillarity on microscopic flow in porous media
Not Available
1992-01-01
The central theme of this proposal is to study the effects of capillarity on the motion of a fluid interface and to apply these results to flow in porous media. Here we report on several problems considered this year. In particular we have investigated a new similarity solution of a moving boundary problem driven only by surface tension, we have started an investigation on the effect of roughness on the motion of a contact line and we have started both a numerical and analytical investigation of the motion of fluid interfaces in a pore. In addition we report on a new method to derive macroscopic effective equation of motion of two-phase flows at low volume fraction.
Centrifuge Techniques and Apparatus for Transport Experiments in Porous Media
Earl D. Mattson; Carl D. Paler; Robert W. Smith; Markus Flury
2010-06-01
This paper describes experimental approaches and apparatus that we have developed to study solute and colloid transport in porous media using Idaho National Laboratory's 2-m radius centrifuge. The ex-perimental techniques include water flux scaling with applied acceleration at the top of the column and sub-atmospheric pressure control at the column base, automation of data collection, and remote experimental con-trol over the internet. These apparatus include a constant displacement piston pump, a custom designed liquid fraction collector based on switching valve technology, and modified moisture monitoring equipment. Suc-cessful development of these experimental techniques and equipment is illustrated through application to transport of a conservative tracer through unsaturated sand column, with centrifugal acceleration up to 40 gs. Development of such experimental equipment that can withstand high accelerations enhances the centrifuge technique to conduct highly controlled unsaturated solute/colloid transport experiments and allows in-flight liquid sample collection of the effluent.
Hybrid Models of Reactive Transport in Porous and Fractured Media
Battiato, Ilenia; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Scheibe, Timothy D.
2011-02-02
Darcy-scale models of flow and transport in porous media often fail to describe experimentally observed phenomena, while their pore-scale counterparts are accu- rate but can be computationally prohibitive. Most numerical multi-scale models, which seek to combine these two descriptions, require empirical closures and/or assumptions on the behavior of pore-scale quantities at the continuum (Darcy) scale. We present a general formulation of an iterative hybrid numerical method that links these two scales without resorting to such approximations. The algorithm treats the fluxes exchanged at the internal boundaries between the pore- and continuum-scale domains as unknown, and allows for iteratively determined boundary conditions to be applied at the pore-scale in order to guarantee their continuity. While the algorithm proposed is general, we use it to model Taylor dispersion in a fracture with chemically reactive walls. Results show significant improvement upon standard continuum-scale formulations.
SPH numerical simulation of fluid flow through a porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klapp-Escribano, Jaime; Mayoral-Villa, Estela; Rodriguez-Meza, Mario Alberto; de La Cruz-Sanchez, Eduardo; di G Sigalotti, Leonardo; Inin-Abacus Collaboration; Ivic Collaboration
2013-11-01
We have tested an improved a method for 3D SPH simulations of fluid flow through a porous media using an implementation of this method with the Dual-Physics code. This improvement makes it possible to simulate many particles (of the order of several million) in reasonable computer times because its execution on GPUs processors makes it possible to reduce considerably the simulation cost for large systems. Modifications in the initial configuration have been implemented in order to simulate different arrays and geometries for the porous media. The basic tests were reproduced and the performance was analyzed. Our 3D simulations of fluid flow through a saturated homogeneous porous media shows a discharge velocity proportional to the hydraulic gradient reproducing Darcy's law at small body forces. The results are comparable with values obtained in previous work and published in the literature for simulations of flow through periodic porous media. Our simulations for a non saturated porous media produce adequate qualitative results showing that a non steady state is generated. The relaxation time for these systems were obtained. Work partially supported by Cinvestav-ABACUS, CONACyT grant EDOMEX-2011-C01-165873.
a Fractal Network Model for Fractured Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Peng; Li, Cuihong; Qiu, Shuxia; Sasmito, Agus Pulung
2016-04-01
The transport properties and mechanisms of fractured porous media are very important for oil and gas reservoir engineering, hydraulics, environmental science, chemical engineering, etc. In this paper, a fractal dual-porosity model is developed to estimate the equivalent hydraulic properties of fractured porous media, where a fractal tree-like network model is used to characterize the fracture system according to its fractal scaling laws and topological structures. The analytical expressions for the effective permeability of fracture system and fractured porous media, tortuosity, fracture density and fraction are derived. The proposed fractal model has been validated by comparisons with available experimental data and numerical simulation. It has been shown that fractal dimensions for fracture length and aperture have significant effect on the equivalent hydraulic properties of fractured porous media. The effective permeability of fracture system can be increased with the increase of fractal dimensions for fracture length and aperture, while it can be remarkably lowered by introducing tortuosity at large branching angle. Also, a scaling law between the fracture density and fractal dimension for fracture length has been found, where the scaling exponent depends on the fracture number. The present fractal dual-porosity model may shed light on the transport physics of fractured porous media and provide theoretical basis for oil and gas exploitation, underground water, nuclear waste disposal and geothermal energy extraction as well as chemical engineering, etc.
Adaptive multiresolution modeling of groundwater flow in heterogeneous porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malenica, Luka; Gotovac, Hrvoje; Srzic, Veljko; Andric, Ivo
2016-04-01
different temporal lines and local time stepping control. Critical aspect of time integration accuracy is construction of spatial stencil due to accurate calculation of spatial derivatives. Since common approach applied for wavelets and splines uses a finite difference operator, we developed here collocation one including solution values and differential operator. In this way, new improved algorithm is adaptive in space and time enabling accurate solution for groundwater flow problems, especially in highly heterogeneous porous media with large lnK variances and different correlation length scales. In addition, differences between collocation and finite volume approaches are discussed. Finally, results show application of methodology to the groundwater flow problems in highly heterogeneous confined and unconfined aquifers.
Transport of molecular fluids through three-dimensional porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adler, Pierre; Pazdniakou, Aliaksei
2014-05-01
The main purpose of this study is to extend the analysis which has been made for the double layer theory (summarized by [1]) to situations where the distance between the solid walls is of the order of several molecular diameters. This is of a large interest from a scientific viewpoint and for various engineering applications. The intermolecular forces and their influence on fluid structure and dynamics can be taken into account by using the mesoscopic scale models based on the Boltzmann equation [2]. The numerical methods derived from these models are less demanding in computational resources than conventional molecular dynamics methods and therefore long time evolution of large samples can be considered. Three types of fluid particles are considered, namely the anions, the cations and the solvent. They possess a finite diameter which should be at least a few lattice units. The collision frequency between particles is increased by the pair correlation function for hard spheres. The lattice Boltzmann model is built in three dimensions with 19 velocities; it involves two relaxation times. The particle distribution functions are discretized over a basis of Hermite polynomial tensors. Electric forces are included and a Poisson equation is simultaneously solved by a successive over-relaxation method. The numerical algorithm is detailed; it is devised in order to be able to address any three-dimensional porous media. It involves the determination of the densities of each particle species, of the overall density and of the equilibrium distribution function. Then, the electric forces are determined. Collision operators are applied as well as the boundary conditions. Finally, the propagation step is performed and the algorithm starts a new loop. The influence of parameters can be illustrated by systematic calculations in a plane Poiseuille configuration. The drastic influence of the ratio between the channel width and the particle sizes on the local densities and the
Modeling microbial processes in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murphy, Ellyn M.; Ginn, Timothy R.
The incorporation of microbial processes into reactive transport models has generally proceeded along two separate lines of investigation: (1) transport of bacteria as inert colloids in porous media, and (2) the biodegradation of dissolved contaminants by a stationary phase of bacteria. Research over the last decade has indicated that these processes are closely linked. This linkage may occur when a change in metabolic activity alters the attachment/detachment rates of bacteria to surfaces, either promoting or retarding bacterial transport in a groundwater-contaminant plume. Changes in metabolic activity, in turn, are controlled by the time of exposure of the microbes to electron acceptors/donor and other components affecting activity. Similarly, metabolic activity can affect the reversibility of attachment, depending on the residence time of active microbes. Thus, improvements in quantitative analysis of active subsurface biota necessitate direct linkages between substrate availability, metabolic activity, growth, and attachment/detachment rates. This linkage requires both a detailed understanding of the biological processes and robust quantitative representations of these processes that can be tested experimentally. This paper presents an overview of current approaches used to represent physicochemical and biological processes in porous media, along with new conceptual approaches that link metabolic activity with partitioning of the microorganism between the aqueous and solid phases. Résumé L'introduction des processus microbiologiques dans des modèles de transport réactif a généralement suivi deux voies différentes de recherches: (1) le transport de bactéries sous forme de colloïdes inertes en milieu poreux, et (2) la biodégradation de polluants dissous par une phase stationnaire de bactéries. Les recherches conduites au cours des dix dernières années indiquent que ces processus sont intimement liés. Cette liaison peut intervenir lorsqu
Modeling microbial processes in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murphy, Ellyn M.; Ginn, Timothy R.
The incorporation of microbial processes into reactive transport models has generally proceeded along two separate lines of investigation: (1) transport of bacteria as inert colloids in porous media, and (2) the biodegradation of dissolved contaminants by a stationary phase of bacteria. Research over the last decade has indicated that these processes are closely linked. This linkage may occur when a change in metabolic activity alters the attachment/detachment rates of bacteria to surfaces, either promoting or retarding bacterial transport in a groundwater-contaminant plume. Changes in metabolic activity, in turn, are controlled by the time of exposure of the microbes to electron acceptors/donor and other components affecting activity. Similarly, metabolic activity can affect the reversibility of attachment, depending on the residence time of active microbes. Thus, improvements in quantitative analysis of active subsurface biota necessitate direct linkages between substrate availability, metabolic activity, growth, and attachment/detachment rates. This linkage requires both a detailed understanding of the biological processes and robust quantitative representations of these processes that can be tested experimentally. This paper presents an overview of current approaches used to represent physicochemical and biological processes in porous media, along with new conceptual approaches that link metabolic activity with partitioning of the microorganism between the aqueous and solid phases. Résumé L'introduction des processus microbiologiques dans des modèles de transport réactif a généralement suivi deux voies différentes de recherches: (1) le transport de bactéries sous forme de colloïdes inertes en milieu poreux, et (2) la biodégradation de polluants dissous par une phase stationnaire de bactéries. Les recherches conduites au cours des dix dernières années indiquent que ces processus sont intimement liés. Cette liaison peut intervenir lorsqu
Transport of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Unsaturated Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chahal, Maninder; Flury, Markus
2016-04-01
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are complex organic molecules containing 2 or more fused benzene rings. Being hydrophobic and non-polar, PAHs tend to partition to the organic matter in the soil from bulk aqueous phase. Though transport of these contaminants has been well studied in saturated environment, interactive mechanisms of these fluorescent compounds in unsaturated (identified by presence of air-water interface) porous media is still not well understood. We studied is the transport of fluoranthene in unsaturated porous media as facilitated by moving air-water interfaces. Confocal microscopy was used to visualize the interactions of fluoranthene particles in a glass channel packed with quartz glass beads. The packed glass channel was used to mimic a porous media and effects of an advancing and receding capillary fringe on the detachment of fluoranthene.
Permeability of mono- and bi-dispersed porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byon, C.; Kim, S. J.
2013-04-01
In this study, the permeability of mono- and bi-dispersed porous media is considered. The effects of the particle size distribution and the packing structure of particles on the permeability are investigated experimentally and analytically. Both experimental and analytic results suggest that the particlesize distribution is close to the log-normal distribution, and the permeability of the mono-dispersed porous media quasi-linearly decreases as the range of the particle size distribution increases. On the other hand, the effect of packing structure of particles on the permeability is shown to be negligible.The permeability of the bidispersed porous media quasi-linearly decreases as the range of cluster size increases, and nearly independent of the particle size distribution. The present model is valid over the range of parameters typically found in heat transfer applications.
Fractal analysis of permeability near the wall in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Mingchao; Yu, Boming; Li, Li; Yang, Shanshan; Zou, Mingqing
2014-01-01
In this paper, a fractal model for permeability of porous media is proposed based on Tamayol and Bahrami's method and the fractal theory for porous media. The proposed model is expressed as a function of the mean particle diameter, the length along the macroscopic pressure drop in the medium, porosity, fractal dimensions for pore space and tortuous capillaries, and the ratio of the minimum pore size to the maximum pore size. The relationship between the permeability near the wall and the dimensionless distance from the wall under different conditions is discussed in detail. The predictions by the present fractal model are in good agreement with available experimental data. The present results indicate that the present model may have the potential in comprehensively understanding the mechanisms of flow near the wall in porous media.
Examining Asphaltene Solubility on Deposition in Model Porous Media.
Lin, Yu-Jiun; He, Peng; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Mathew, Nevin Thunduvila; Fatt, Yap Yit; Chai, John C; Goharzadeh, Afshin; Vargas, Francisco M; Biswal, Sibani Lisa
2016-08-30
Asphaltenes are known to cause severe flow assurance problems in the near-wellbore region of oil reservoirs. Understanding the mechanism of asphaltene deposition in porous media is of great significance for the development of accurate numerical simulators and effective chemical remediation treatments. Here, we present a study of the dynamics of asphaltene deposition in porous media using microfluidic devices. A model oil containing 5 wt % dissolved asphaltenes was mixed with n-heptane, a known asphaltene precipitant, and flowed through a representative porous media microfluidic chip. Asphaltene deposition was recorded and analyzed as a function of solubility, which was directly correlated to particle size and Péclet number. In particular, pore-scale visualization and velocity profiles, as well as three stages of deposition, were identified and examined to determine the important convection-diffusion effects on deposition. PMID:27532331
A volume-balance model for flow on porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malaga, Carlos; Mandujano, Francisco; Becerra, Julian
2015-11-01
Volume-balance models are used by petroleum engineers for simulating multiphase and multicomponent flow phenomena in porous media and the extraction process in oil reservoirs. In these models, mass conservation equations and Darcy's law are supplemented by a balance condition for the pore and fluid volumes. This provides a pressure equation suitable for simulating a compressible flow within a compressible solid matrix. Here we present an alternative interpretation of the volume-balance condition that includes the advective transport within a consolidated porous media. We obtain a modified equation for the time evolution of the pressure field. Numerical tests for phase separation under gravity are presented for multiphase three dimensional flow in heterogeneous porous media. The authors acknowledge funding from Fondo Sectorial CONACYT-SENER grant number 42536 (DGAJ-SPI-34-170412-217).
Effects of heat sink compounds on contact resistance of porous media
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
High and low-conductivity heat sink compounds were applied in succession on a thermal probe, which was then used to determine the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of some porous media at room temperature. The experiment was conducted separately under different packing densities and water...
Linking Colloid Deposit Morphology and Clogging in Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roth, E. J.; Mont-eton, M. E.; Mays, D. C.
2012-12-01
Innovations in the field of groundwater remediation have been hampered by delivery limitations in the porous media. For example, colloid deposits (comprising clays or silts) can cause a detrimental reduction in permeability, or clogging, which is problematic for groundwater remediation as well as granular media filtration and aquifer storage and recovery. During remediation, clogging creates preferential pathways in the media, leading to localized rather than spatially extensive contaminant treatment. Consequentially, remediation efforts become more expensive, less effective, and take a very long time. This presentation describes ongoing research investigating the link between colloid deposit morphology and clogging in porous media. As described by Darcy's Law, the velocity of fluid flow through porous media is proportional to permeability, which depends, in part, on porosity. However, changes in permeability are not in accord with changes in porosity as predicted by the Kozeny-Carman equation. It is hypothesized that unmeasured aspects of colloid deposit morphology could be the cause of this anomaly. Colloidal phenomena have important and dynamic effects on the permeability of natural porous media, and several lines of evidence suggest a correlation between clogging in porous media and the fractal dimension of colloid deposits. Here, a custom-built static light scattering apparatus is used to measure the fractal dimension of colloid deposits in refractive index matched porous media within a flow column. The media in our flow column is Nafion, which becomes essentially invisible when saturated by a solution of isopropanol and water. Polystyrene microspheres are then added to the influent through the column as a surrogate for natural colloids. Light from a laser is passed through the column, scattering from the deposited colloids, but not from the index matched Nafion. The resulting intensity of scattered light is measured as a function of scattering angle, and then
Multimodel framework for characterization of transport in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciriello, Valentina; Edery, Yaniv; Guadagnini, Alberto; Berkowitz, Brian
2015-05-01
We consider modeling approaches to characterize solute transport in porous media, integrating them into a unique theoretical and experimental framework for model evaluation and data interpretation. To date, development of (conservative and reactive chemical) transport models and formulation of model calibration methods grounded on sensitivity-based collection of measurements have been pursued in parallel. Key questions that remain include: For a given set of measurements, which conceptual picture of the transport processes, as embodied in a mathematical model or models, is most appropriate? What are the most valuable space-time locations for solute concentration measurements, depending on the model selected? How is model parameter uncertainty propagated to model output, and how does this propagation affect model calibration? We address these questions by merging parallel streams of research—model formulation, reduction, calibration, sensitivity analysis, and discrimination—offering our view on an emerging framework that guides (i) selection of an appropriate number and location of time-dependent concentration measurements given a transport model and (ii) assessment (through discrimination criteria) of the relative benefit of applying any particular model from a set of several models. Our strategy is to employ metrics to quantify the relative contribution of each uncertain model parameter to the variability of the model output. We evaluate these metrics through construction of a surrogate (or "meta") transport model that has the additional benefit of enabling sensitivity analysis and model calibration at a highly reduced computational cost. We demonstrate the applicability of this framework, focusing on transport of reactive chemicals in laboratory-scale porous media.
Freezing in porous media: Phase behavior, dynamics and transport phenomena
Wettlaufer, John S.
2012-12-21
This research was focused on developing the underlying framework for the mechanisms that control the nature of the solidification of a broad range of porous media. To encompass the scope of porous media under consideration we considered material ranging from a dilute colloidal suspension to a highly packed saturated host matrix with a known geometry. The basic physical processes that occur when the interstitial liquid phase solidifies revealed a host of surprises with a broad range of implications from geophysics to materials science and engineering. We now understand that ostensibly microscopic films of unfrozen liquid control both the equilibrium and transport properties of a highly packed saturated host matrix as well as a rather dilute colloidal suspension. However, our description of the effective medium behavior in these settings is rather different and this sets the stage for the future research based on our past results. Once the liquid phase of a saturated relatively densely packed material is frozen, there is a rich dynamical behavior of particles for example due to the directed motion driven by thermomolecular pressure gradients or the confined Brownian motion of the particles. In quite striking contrast, when one freezes a dilute suspension the behavior can be rather more like that of a binary alloy with the particles playing the role of a ``solute''. We probed such systems quantitatively by (i) using X ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne (ii) studying the Argonne cell in the laboratory using optical microscopy and imagery (because it is not directly visible while in the vacuum can). (3) analyzed the general transport phenomena within the framework of both irreversible thermodynamics and alloy solidification and (4) applied the results to the study of the redistribution of solid particles in a frozen interstitial material. This research has gone a long way towards
Combustion and heat transfer in porous media
Sathe, S.B.; Peck, R.E.; Tong, T.W.
1990-06-01
The objective of the present study is to generate fundamental knowledge about heat transfer and combustion in porous radiant burners (PRBs) in order to improve their performance. A theoretical heat transfer and combustion model is developed to study the characteristics of PRBs. The model accounts for non-local thermal equilibrium between the solid and gas phases. The solid is assumed to absorb, emit and scatter radiant energy. Combustion is modeled as a one-step global reaction. It is revealed that the flame speed inside the porous medium is enhanced compared to the adiabatic flame speeds due to the higher conductivity of the solid compared to the gas as well as due to radiative preheating of the reactants. The effects of the properties of the porous material on the flame speeds, radiative outputs and efficiencies were investigated. To improve the radiative output from the burner, it is desirable that the porous layer has an optical thickness of about ten. The radiative output and the efficiency is higher for lower scattering albedo. The heat transfer coupling between the solid and gas phases should be high enough to ensure local thermal equilibrium, by choosing a fine porous matrix. Higher solid phase conduction enhances the flame speed and the radiative output. Experiments are performed on a ceramic foam to verify the theoretical findings. The existence of the two stability regions was verified experimentally.
Percolation models for boiling and bubble growth in porous media
Yortsos, Y.C.
1991-05-01
We analyze the liquid-to-vapor phase change in single-component fluids in porous media at low superheats. Conditions typical to steam injection in porous media are taken. We examine nucleation, phase equilibria and their stability, and the growth of vapor bubbles. Effects of pore structure are emphasized. It is shown that at low supersaturations, bubble growth can be described as a percolation process. In the absence of spatial gradients, macroscopic flow properties are calculated in terms of nucleation parameters. A modification of gradient percolation is also proposed in the case of spatial temperature gradients, when solid conduction predominates. 22 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.
An analytical model for permeability of isotropic porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiaohu; Lu, Tian Jian; Kim, Tongbeum
2014-06-01
We demonstrate that permeability of isotropic porous media e.g., open-cell foams can be analytically presented as a function of two morphological parameters: porosity and pore size. Adopting a cubic unit cell model, an existing tortuosity model from the branching algorithm method is incorporated into a generalized permeability model. The present model shows that dimensionless permeability significantly increases as the porosity of isotropic porous media and unifies the previously reported data in a wide range of porosity (ɛ=0.55-0.98) and pore size (Dp=0.254 mm-5.08 mm).
Heat Transfer through Porous Media in Static Superfluid Helium
Baudouy, B.; Juster, F.-P.; Allain, H.; Maekawa, R.
2006-04-27
Heat transfer through porous media in static saturated superfluid helium is investigated for porous media with different thickness, porosity and pore size. For large pore diameter, data are analyzed with the tortuosity concept in the pure Gorter-Mellink regime. It is shown that the tortuosity is constant over the temperature range investigated. For smaller pore diameter, the analysis reveals that the permeability is temperature-dependent in the Landau regime. In the intermediate regime, a model, including Landau and Gorter-Mellink regime, predicts a constant tortuosity within 10% but falls short predicting correctly the experimental data over the entire range of temperature.
Evaluation of bacterial detachment rates in porous media
Peyton, B.M.; Hooker, B.S.; Skeen, R.S.; Cunningham, A.B.; Lundman, R.W.
1994-05-01
The ability of published biomass detachment rate expressions to describe experimental data obtained from porous media reactors using Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown aerobically on glucose was evaluated. A first-order rate expression on attached biomass concentration best reflected effluent substrate concentration for combined data sets. Detachment rate coefficient k{sub d1} was dependent on initial substrate concentration. Simulation of porous media reactor experiments indicated that responses using higher influent substrate concentrations possessed greater sensitivity to variations in k{sub d1}. Simulations of field bioremediation systems suggest the use of accurate biofilm development kinetics is important in the prediction of well bore biofouling.
Bounds on Transport Coefficients of Porous Media
Berryman, J G
2005-03-21
An analytical formulation of conductivity bounds by Bergman and Milton is used in a different way to obtain rigorous bounds on the real transport coefficients (electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and/or fluid permeability) of a fluid-saturated porous medium. These bounds do not depend explicitly on the porosity, but rather on two formation factors--one associated with the pore space and the other with the solid frame. Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for transport in random polycrystals of porous-material laminates will also be discussed.
Exit flows from highly porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, M. J.; Hiatt, J. P.
1994-02-01
This paper presents laser velocimetry measurements of the streamwise component of mean velocities and turbulence intensities measured downstream from the exit plane of porous ceramic foams through which air is flowed. The recent development and commercial availability of porous ceramic foams has lead to their application in many fields. Their uses have extended to combustion, high-temperature fluid filtering, biotechnology, and as support matrix for catalysts. These applications have created an interest in their pore scale fluid mechanics, both within the porous matrix and along surfaces open to flow. One emerging application is porous ceramic burners which combust liquid or gaseous fuels within the pore matrix or along the surface of the ceramic. The ceramic foams have pore sizes ranging from 4 to 12 pores per cm (ppcm) and porosities of 85%. Mean velocities between 0.3 and 1.5 m/s were examined. Radial distributions of mean velocities show a jet-like structure through the pores, with local mean velocities reaching maximum values over two times the area mean velocity. Negative mean velocities were often observed between pores, suggesting that recirculation zones are present above the web-like struts surrounding the pores. Levels of turbulence intensities normalized by the area mean velocity ranged from 0.05 to 0.6 for the various flow rates and pore sizes. Turbulence intensities were found to increase with increasing pore size for a given flow rate.
Pressure diffusion waves in porous media
Silin, Dmitry; Korneev, Valeri; Goloshubin, Gennady
2003-04-08
Pressure diffusion wave in porous rocks are under consideration. The pressure diffusion mechanism can provide an explanation of the high attenuation of low-frequency signals in fluid-saturated rocks. Both single and dual porosity models are considered. In either case, the attenuation coefficient is a function of the frequency.
On the Study of Lifting Mechanism of a Soft Porous Media under Fast Compression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Qianhong; Santhanam, S.; Nathan, R.; Vucbmss Team
2015-11-01
Fluid flow in a soft porous media under fast compressions is widely observed in biological systems and industrial applications. Despite of much progress, it remains unclear for the lifting mechanisms of the porous media due to the lack of complete experimental verifications of theoretical models. We report herein a unique approach to treat the limitation. The permeability of a synthetic fibrous porous media as a function of its compression was first measured. The material was then employed in a dynamic compression experiment using a porous-walled cylinder piston apparatus. The obtained transient compression of the porous media and the aforementioned permeability data were applied in different theoretical models for the pore pressure generation, which conclusively proved the validity of the consolidation theory developed by Wu et al. (JFM, 542, 281, 2005). Furthermore, the solid phase lifting force was separated from the total reaction force and was characterized by a new viscoelastic model, containing a nonlinear spring in conjunction with a linear viscoelastic Generalized Maxwell mechanical module. Excellent agreement was obtained between the experiment and the theory. Thus, the lifting forces from both the fluid and the solid were determined. This project is supported by NSF Grant 1511096.
Effects of texture on salt precipitation dynamics and deposition patterns in drying porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norouzi Rad, Mansoureh; Shokri, Nima
2015-04-01
Understanding the physics of water evaporation from saline porous media is important in many natural and engineering applications such as durability of building materials and preservation of monuments, CO2 sequestration and water quality. Also excess of salt accumulation in soil may result in soil salinization which is a global problem adversely affecting vegetation, plant growth and crop production. Thus it is important to understand the parameters affecting salt transport and precipitation in porous media. We applied X-ray micro-tomography to investigate the dynamics of salt precipitation during evaporation from porous media as influenced by the particle and pore sizes. The packed beds were saturated with NaCl solution of 3 Molal and the time-lapse X-ray imaging was continued for one day. The results show that the presence of preferential evaporation sites (associated with fine pores) on the surface of the sand columns influences significantly the patterns and dynamics of NaCl precipitation (Norouzi Rad et al., 2013; Norouzi Rad and Shokri, 2014). They confirm the formation of an increasingly thick and discrete salt crust with increasing grain size in the sand column due to the presence of fewer fine pores (preferential precipitation sites) at the surface compared to the sand packs with finer grains. Fewer fine pores on the surface also results in shorter stage-1 precipitation for the columns with larger grain sizes. A simple model for the evolution of salt crust thickness based on this principle shows a good agreement with our experiments. Our results provide new insights regarding the physics of salt precipitation and its complex dynamics in porous media during evaporation. References Norouzi Rad, M., Shokri, N., Sahimi, M. (2013), Pore-Scale Dynamics of Salt Precipitation in Drying Porous Media, Phys. Rev. E, 88, 032404. Norouzi Rad, M., Shokri, N. (2014), Effects of grain angularity on NaCl precipitation in porous media during evaporation, Water Resour. Res
Towards aeroacoustic sound generation by flow through porous media.
Hasert, Manuel; Bernsdorf, Joerg; Roller, Sabine
2011-06-28
In this work, we present single-step aeroacoustic calculations using the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Our application case consists of the prediction of an acoustic field radiating from the outlet of a porous media silencer. It has been proved that the LBM is able to simulate acoustic wave generation and propagation. Our particular aim is to validate the LBM for aeroacoustics in porous media. As a validation case, we consider a spinning vortex pair emitting sound waves as the vortices rotate around a common centre. Non-reflective boundary conditions based on characteristics have been adopted from Navier-Stokes methods and are validated using the time evolution of a Gaussian pulse. We show preliminary results of the flow through the porous medium. PMID:21576161
Overlimiting current and deionization shocks in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bazant, Martin Z.; Deng, Daosheng S.; Mani, Ali; Dydek, E. Victoria
2011-11-01
Salt transport in bulk electrolytes occurs by diffusion and convection, but in microfluidic devices and porous media, surface conduction and electro-osmotic flow also contribute to ionic fluxes. The classical theory of electrokinetic phenomena in porous media assumes linear response to a small voltage, where the electrolyte concentration is only weakly perturbed. When a large voltage or concentration gradient is imposed, some surprising nonlinear electrokinetic phenomena result from the competition between bulk and interfacial transport in a microstructure. At constant voltage, the microstructure can sustain an over-limiting current (exceeding diffusion limitation) without any hydrodynamic or chemical instability. At constant current, a ``deionization shock'' can propagate through the microstructure, leaving behind a macroscopic region depleted of ions and particles. This talk will present experimental evidence for surface-driven overlimiting current and deioniziation shocks in porous glass frits, interpreted with the help of mathematical models, and applications to water deionization by ``shock electrodialysis.'' Supported by the MIT Energy Initiative.
Moisture Content and Migration Dynamics in Unsaturated Porous Media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Homsy, G. M.
1993-01-01
Fundamental studies of fluid mechanics and transport in partially saturated soils are presented. Solution of transient diffusion problems in support of the development of probes for the in-situ measurement of moisture content is given. Numerical and analytical methods are used to study the fundamental problem of meniscus and saturation front propagation in geometric models of porous media.
Acoustic Wave Monitoring of Biofilm Development in Porous Media
Biofilm development in porous media can result in significant changes to the hydrogeological properties of subsurface systems with implications for fluid flow and contaminant transport. As such, a number of numerical models and simulations have been developed in an attempt to qua...
Complete dissolution of trichloroethylene in saturated porous media
Imhoff, P.T.; Arthur, M.H.; Miller, C.T.
1998-08-15
Porous media containing trichloroethylene (TCE) trapped at residual saturation in otherwise water-saturated porous media were flushed with water to asses the dissolution rate of TCE as TCE volumetric fractions approached zero. Careful attention to column design and experimental methods limited the effect of column materials on effluent concentrations. Effluent concentration measurements during TCE dissolution are presented for a glass bead porous medium, a mixed sand, and a treated soil. Effluent concentrations were measured as they decreased below 5 {micro}g/L, the maximum allowable contaminant level, in the glass bead and mixed sand media. Effluent concentrations from columns packed with treated soil were measured down to 20 {micro}g/L. Solvent extraction of the treated soil after the dissolution experiments revealed that extremely small quantities of TCE were retained in this medium. Results from parallel experiments on columns exposed to only aqueous TCE suggest that TCE remaining in the treated soil columns was sorbed to the porous medium. Existing power-law models were capable of describing TCE dissolution in these media, if the exponent on the TCE volume fraction was modified appropriately.
Colloid adhesive parameters for chemical heterogeneous porous media
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
A simple modeling approach was developed to calculate colloid adhesive parameters for chemically heterogeneous porous media. The area of the zone of electrostatic influence between a colloid and solid-water interface (Az) was discretized into a number of equally sized grid cells to capture chemical...
Autocatalytic Reaction and Flow in Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atis, Severine; Auradou, Harold; Talon, Laurent; Salin, Dominique
2011-11-01
Universités Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris Sud and CNRS. Laboratoire FAST, Bâtiment 502, UPS, 91405 ORSAY Cedex France. Coupling between autocatalytic reaction front and simple hydrodynamic flows leads to front patterns revealing the underlying flow field. Flow of a passive tracer, i. e. a dye, through the complex flow field of a porous medium leads to the so-called hydrodynamic dispersion which accounts for the mixing process inside the medium. We have performed experiments and numerical simulations of the propagation of reaction front in a porous medium. We have analyzed the dependences of the shape and velocity of the stationary fronts with the flow rate for a flow either in the same direction than the chemical front propagation or opposite to it. We determine the structure and characteristics of the front as well as the velocity distribution measured along the front. As a result this active, chemical, tracer allows to access to the characteristic of the complex flow field of the porous medium.
Porous media for catalytic renewable energy conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hotz, Nico
2012-05-01
A novel flow-based method is presented to place catalytic nanoparticles into a reactor by sol-gelation of a porous ceramic consisting of copper-based nanoparticles, silica sand, ceramic binder, and a gelation agent. This method allows for the placement of a liquid precursor containing the catalyst into the final reactor geometry without the need of impregnating or coating of a substrate with the catalytic material. The so generated foam-like porous ceramic shows properties highly appropriate for use as catalytic reactor material, e.g., reasonable pressure drop due to its porosity, high thermal and catalytic stability, and excellent catalytic behavior. The catalytic activity of micro-reactors containing this foam-like ceramic is tested in terms of their ability to convert alcoholic biofuel (e.g. methanol) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture with low concentrations of carbon monoxide (up to 75% hydrogen content and less than 0.2% CO, for the case of methanol). This gas mixture is subsequently used in a low-temperature fuel cell, converting the hydrogen directly to electricity. A low concentration of CO is crucial to avoid poisoning of the fuel cell catalyst. Since conventional Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells require CO concentrations far below 100 ppm and since most methods to reduce the mole fraction of CO (such as Preferential Oxidation or PROX) have CO conversions of up to 99%, the alcohol fuel reformer has to achieve initial CO mole fractions significantly below 1%. The catalyst and the porous ceramic reactor of the present study can successfully fulfill this requirement.
Diffusion Driven Combustion Waves in Porous Media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aldushin, A. P.; Matkowsky, B. J.
2000-01-01
Filtration of gas containing oxidizer, to the reaction zone in a porous medium, due, e.g., to a buoyancy force or to an external pressure gradient, leads to the propagation of Filtration combustion (FC) waves. The exothermic reaction occurs between the fuel component of the solid matrix and the oxidizer. In this paper, we analyze the ability of a reaction wave to propagate in a porous medium without the aid of filtration. We find that one possible mechanism of propagation is that the wave is driven by diffusion of oxidizer from the environment. The solution of the combustion problem describing diffusion driven waves is similar to the solution of the Stefan problem describing the propagation of phase transition waves, in that the temperature on the interface between the burned and unburned regions is constant, the combustion wave is described by a similarity solution which is a function of the similarity variable x/square root of(t) and the wave velocity decays as 1/square root of(t). The difference between the two problems is that in the combustion problem the temperature is not prescribed, but rather, is determined as part of the solution. We will show that the length of samples in which such self-sustained combustion waves can occur, must exceed a critical value which strongly depends on the combustion temperature T(sub b). Smaller values of T(sub b) require longer sample lengths for diffusion driven combustion waves to exist. Because of their relatively small velocity, diffusion driven waves are considered to be relevant for the case of low heat losses, which occur for large diameter samples or in microgravity conditions, Another possible mechanism of porous medium combustion describes waves which propagate by consuming the oxidizer initially stored in the pores of the sample. This occurs for abnormally high pressure and gas density. In this case, uniformly propagating planar waves, which are kinetically controlled, can propagate, Diffusion of oxidizer decreases
Imaging spectral electrical properties of variably saturated porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelter, Matthias; Huisman, Johann A.; Kemna, Andreas; Zimmermann, Egon; Vereecken, Harry
2013-04-01
The spatial distribution of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity in the subsurface is of importance for hydrological modeling. Conventional methods to determine unsaturated hydraulic properties in the field are invasive and typically have a poor spatial resolution. In order to overcome these drawbacks, geophysical methods have received much attention in the last decades. Recent results of electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on a range of saturated and unsaturated porous media revealed promising relationships between spectral electrical and hydraulic properties. Therefore, spectral electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a promising method to image hydraulic properties in the subsurface. While this approach is emerging for aquifer characterization, unsaturated hydraulic properties have not yet been determined by EIT. In order to do so, a laboratory setup has been developed to perform controlled infiltration, drainage and stationary flow experiments on soil columns. A lysimeter with a height of 50 cm and a diameter of 22 cm is equipped with 40 electrodes and 4 tensiometers. An irrigation device at the top controlled by a peristaltic pump is used for a constant and homogeneous infiltration. Outflow is controlled by a suction plate at the bottom where an adjustable vacuum of up to 500 hPa can be applied. In a first measurement series, spectral EIT measurements were performed on a homogeneous sand column during stepwise drainage of the saturated porous medium using predefined pressure at the bottom. First results show that with decreasing water content the low frequency phase shift of complex electrical conductivity increases. This is consistent with previously reported EIS results. Calibrated relationships between electrical and hydraulic properties were used to convert the resulting electrical into hydraulic conductivity images.
Heat and mass transfer in unsaturated porous media. Final report
Childs, S.W.; Malstaff, G.
1982-02-01
A preliminary study of heat and water transport in unsaturated porous media is reported. The project provides background information regarding the feasibility of seasonal thermal energy storage in unconfined aquifers. A parametric analysis of the factors of importance, and an annotated bibliography of research findings pertinent to unconfined aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) are presented. This analysis shows that heat and mass transfer of water vapor assume dominant importance in unsaturated porous media at elevated temperature. Although water vapor fluxes are seldom as large as saturated medium liquid water fluxes, they are important under unsaturated conditions. The major heat transport mechanism for unsaturated porous media at temperatures from 50 to 90/sup 0/C is latent heat flux. The mechanism is nonexistent under saturated conditions but may well control design of unconfined aquifer storage systems. The parametric analysis treats detailed physical phenomena which occur in the flow systems study and demonstrates the temperature and moisture dependence of the transport coefficients of importance. The question of design of an unconfined ATES site is also addressed by considering the effects of aquifer temperature, depth to water table, porous medium flow properties, and surface boundary conditions. Recommendations are made for continuation of this project in its second phase. Both scientific and engineering goals are considered and alternatives are presented.
Particle dispersion and deposition in porous media: a computational perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boccardo, Gianluca; Crevacore, Eleonora; Sethi, Rajandrea; Marchisio, Daniele
2015-11-01
This work investigates particle dispersion in porous media, which is of central relevance in a number of applications ranging from groundwater remediation tochemical engineering. The challenge lies in studying the complex fluid dynamics behavior arising at the microscale (very difficult to observe experimentally) and obtaining transport models to be employed at the macroscopic scale of interest. While a wealth of studies have approached this problem, the case of particle transport with a concurrent heterogeneous chemical reaction (e.g.: particle deposition) still lacks a satisfactory description, especially when considering a polydisperse population of solid particles. Moreover, the oft-used simplified descriptions of the porous medium (via array of spheres or similar strategies) fail to fully take into account the effect of the packing structure. Our novel approach relies on an ``in-silico'' procedure where many 3-D realistic porous media models are constructed via rigid-body simulations and fluid flowand particle transport are then investigated through computational fluid dynamics. The results evidence the need for a deeper look, afforded by these methodology, into the influence of the features of realistic porous media on particle transport and deposition.
Modeling transport phenomena in porous media
Bear, J.
1996-12-31
The paper reviews the continuum approach to modelling the transport of mass, momentum and energy, of phases and of their components in a porous medium domain. The review begins with the definition of a porous medium, making use of the concept of a Representative Elementary Volume (REV) as a tool for overcoming the effect of the microscopic heterogeneity resulting from the presence of a solid matrix and a void space. The microscopic and macroscopic levels of description are defined. By averaging the description of a transport phenomenon at the microscopic level over an REV, using certain {open_quote}averaging rules{close_quote}, the macroscopic or continuum description of the same phenomenon is obtained. This methodology is first introduced in general terms for any extensive quantity, and then demonstrated for the transport of mass, momentum and energy. In the process of deriving the macroscopic models, expressions are presented also for the advective, dispersive and diffusive fluxes of extensive quantities that appear in them, in terms of averaged, measurable values of state variables.
Modeling water infiltration in unsaturated porous media by interacting lattice gas-cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
di Pietro, L. B.; Melayah, A.; Zaleski, S.
1994-10-01
A two-dimensional lattice gas-cellular automaton fluid model with long-range interactions (Appert and Zaleski, 1990) is used to simulate saturated and unsaturated water infiltration in porous media. Water and gas within the porous medium are simulated by applying the dense and the light phase, respectively, of the cellular automaton fluid. Various wetting properties can be modeled when adjusting the corresponding solid-liquid interactions. The lattice gas rules include a gravity force step to allow buoyancy-driven flow. The model handles with ease complex geometries of the solid, and an algorithm for generating random porous media is presented. The results of four types of simulation experiments are presented: (1) We verified Poiseuille's law for steady and saturated flow between two parallel plates. (2) We analyzed transient water infiltration between two parallel plates of varying degrees of saturation and various apertures. (3) Philip's infiltration equation was adequately simulated in an unsaturated porous medium. (4) Infiltration into an aggregated medium containing one vertical parallel crack was simulated. Further applications of this lattice gas method for studying unsaturated flow in porous media are discussed.
Curating Media Learning: Towards a Porous Expertise
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McDougall, Julian; Potter, John
2015-01-01
This article combines research results from a range of projects with two consistent themes. Firstly, we explore the potential for curation to offer a productive metaphor for the convergence of digital media learning across and between home/lifeworld and formal educational/system-world spaces--or between the public and private spheres. Secondly, we…
Slip effects associated with Knudsen transport phenomena in porous media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frederking, T. H. K.; Hepler, W. A.; Khandhar, P. K.
1988-01-01
Porous media used in phase separators and thermomechanical pumps have been the subject of characterization efforts based on the Darcy permeability of laminar continuum flow. The latter is not always observed at low speed, in particular at permeabilities below 10 to the -9th/squared cm. The present experimental and theoretical studies address questions of slip effects associated with long mean free paths of gas flow at room temperature. Data obtained are in good agreement, within data uncertainty, with a simplified asymptotic Knudsen equation proposed for porous plugs on the basis of Knudsen's classical flow equation for long mean free paths.
Theoretical relationships between reactivity and permeability for monomineralic porous media
Smith, R.W.; Schafer, A.L.; Tompson, A.F.B.
1996-08-01
The release of contaminants to the subsurface has lead to potential or actual contamination of groundwater resources. The remediation of these plumes requires improved capability for the prediction of contaminant fate and transport. Key to improving predictive capabilities is an increased understanding of natural chemical (or reactive) heterogeneity in subsurface media and how chemical and physical heterogeneity are related. Although the effects of physical heterogeneity on transport has received significant attention, similar investigations of chemical heterogeneity, and the correlation of chemical and physical heterogeneity are in their infancy. Theoretical considerations for unconsolidated porous media composed of sand-sized grains of a single reactive phase suggest that chemical reactivity and permeability are inversely related. This correlation is consistent with measured permeability, porosity, and surface area data for unconsolidated sands. The correlation arises because both reactivity and permeability are functions of the surface area of the porous media. This relationship suggests that for a heterogeneous porous media, significant contaminant transport will occur in zones of minimal reactivity.
Uncertainty Quantification Bayesian Framework for Porous Media Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demyanov, V.; Christie, M.; Erbas, D.
2005-12-01
Uncertainty quantification is an increasingly important aspect of many areas of applied science, where the challenge is to make reliable predictions about the performance of complex physical systems in the absence of complete or reliable data. Predicting flows of fluids through undersurface reservoirs is an example of a complex system where accuracy in prediction is needed (e.g. in oil industry it is essential for financial reasons). Simulation of fluid flow in oil reservoirs is usually carried out using large commercially written finite difference simulators solving conservation equations describing the multi-phase flow through the porous reservoir rocks, which is a highly computationally expensive task. This work examines a Bayesian Framework for uncertainty quantification in porous media flows that uses a stochastic sampling algorithm to generate models that match observed time series data. The framework is flexible for a wide range of general physical/statistical parametric models, which are used to describe the underlying hydro-geological process in its temporal dynamics. The approach is based on exploration of the parameter space and update of the prior beliefs about what the most likely model definitions are. Optimization problem for a highly parametric physical model usually have multiple solutions, which impact the uncertainty of the made predictions. Stochastic search algorithm (e.g. genetic algorithm) allows to identify multiple "good enough" models in the parameter space. Furthermore, inference of the generated model ensemble via MCMC based algorithm evaluates the posterior probability of the generated models and quantifies uncertainty of the predictions. Machine learning algorithm - Artificial Neural Networks - are used to speed up the identification of regions in parameter space where good matches to observed data can be found. Adaptive nature of ANN allows to develop different ways of integrating them into the Bayesian framework: as direct time
Propagation of nitromethane detonations in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, J. J.; Frost, D. L.; Lee, J. H. S.; Dremin, A.
1995-06-01
The characteristics of the propagation of a detonation in chemically sensitized nitromethane in a dense porous medium are investigated. By introducing liquid NM+15% (by weight) DETA into densely packed beds of solid spherical glass beads 66μm to 2.4 mm in diameter, a highly heterogeneous explosive mixture is obtained. The critical (i.e., failure) charge diameter of this mixture is systematically measured in unconfined charges over a wide range of bead sizes. Velocity measurements are also made for the various charges. It is found that there exists a critical bead size above which the critical diameter decreases with increasing bead size and below which it decreases with decreasing bead size. This result indicates an abrupt change in the mechanism of propagation at the critical bead size. Velocity measurements further support this by emphasizing the different behavior above and below the critical point.
Attenuation of Shocks through Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lind, Charles A.; Cybyk, Bohdan Z.; Boris, Jay P.
1998-11-01
Structures designed to mitigate the effects of blast and shock waves are important for both accidental and controlled explosions. The net effect of these mitigating structures is to reduce the strength of the transmitted shock thereby reducing the dynamic pressure loading on nearby objects. In the present study, the attenuation of planar blast and shock waves by passage through structured media is numerically studied with the FAST3D model. The FAST3D model is a state-of-the-art, portable, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model based on Flux-Corrected Transport and uses the Virtual Cell Embedding algorithm for simulating complex geometries. The effects of media placement, spacing, orientation, and area blockage are parametrically studied to enhance the understanding of the complex processes involved and to determine ways to minimize the adverse effects of these blast waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Jianping
2016-04-01
In this letter we explore the propagation behavior of permeability reduction due to particulate transport in heterogeneous porous media. By simulating an advection-dispersion–based model we find that an attenuating sequence exists in terms of the propagation of particle concentration, permeability reduction and heterogeneity perturbation. The advancing speed of the fronts of the mentioned physical quantities attenuates successively from const to \\text{const}(1/n)1/t1-1/n to \\text{const}1/t (where n > 1 and t denotes time) regardless of the heterogeneity patterns. Then we move on to discuss the micro-dynamics of the propagation sequence, involving how it originates and how it connects with the macroscopic results. Moreover, exploiting the propagation mechanism enables us to know the condition under which we can apply the hypothesis of media homogeneity to describe the behavior of the particulate transport system in porous media.
Retention of a model pathogen in a porous media biofilm.
Bauman, W J; Nocker, A; Jones, W L; Camper, A K
2009-01-01
The inadvertent or the deliberate introduction of pathogens into drinking water can lead to public health consequences. Distribution system sampling strategies are needed to provide information on the identity, source and fate of the introduced pathogens. Porous media biofilm reactors conditioned with undefined drinking water biofilms were tested for their ability to immobilize Escherichia coli 0157:H7. Biofilms were established by applying continuous flow of biologically activated carbon treated water with natural microflora and supplemented nutrient solution (0.5 mg l(-1) C) for 2 or 3 weeks. Control reactors were clean and were not colonized with biofilm. All reactors were injected with slug doses of approximately 1 x 10(9) cfu E. coli O157:H7. On the basis of the plate count enumeration of the introduced pathogen, reactors pre-colonized for 2 or 3 weeks retained significantly more cells (0.75 and 9.37% of the introduced spike dose, respectively) compared with uncolonized control reactors (0.22%). Compared with cultivation, microscopic direct counts and quantitative PCR suggested significantly higher and lower numbers of pathogens, respectively. Plate counts were thus considered as the method of choice for pathogen enumeration in this study. In addition to providing general insights into interactions between pathogens and drinking water biofilms, the study concluded that engineered biofilm systems may be considered as a device to capture pathogens from the bulk flow for monitoring purposes. PMID:19173097
Horizontal flow and capillarity-driven redistribution in porous media.
Doster, F; Hönig, O; Hilfer, R
2012-07-01
A recent macroscopic mixture theory for two-phase immiscible displacement in porous media has introduced percolating and nonpercolating phases. Quasi-analytic solutions are computed and compared to the traditional theory. The solutions illustrate physical insights and effects due to spatiotemporal changes of nonpercolating phases, and they highlight the differences from traditional theory. Two initial and boundary value problems are solved in one spatial dimension. In the first problem a fluid is displaced by another fluid in a horizontal homogeneous porous medium. The displacing fluid is injected with a flow rate that keeps the saturation constant at the injection point. In the second problem a horizontal homogeneous porous medium is considered which is divided into two subdomains with different but constant initial saturations. Capillary forces lead to a redistribution of the fluids. Errors in the literature are reported and corrected. PMID:23005535
Pore-scale simulation of laminar flow through porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piller, M.; Casagrande, D.; Schena, G.; Santini, M.
2014-04-01
The experimental investigation of flow through porous media is inherently difficult due to the lack of optical access. The recent developments in the fields of X-ray micro-tomography (micro-CT hereafter), digital sample reconstruction by image-processing techniques and fluid-dynamics simulation, together with the increasing power of super-computers, allow to carry out pore-scale simulations through digitally-reconstructed porous samples. The scientific relevance of pore-scale simulations lies in the possibility of upscaling the pore-level data, yielding volume-averaged quantities useful for practical purposes. One of the best-known examples of upscaling is the calculation of absolute and relative permeability of reservoir rocks. This contribution presents a complete work-flow for setting up pore-scale simulations, starting from the micro-CT of a (in general small) porous sample. Relevant applications are discussed in order to reveal the potential of the proposed methodology.
Oil ganglion dynamics in flow through porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ng, K. M.
1980-12-01
A model is formulated to study the transient behavior of oil ganglion populations during immiscible displacement in oil recovery processes. The model is composed of three components: a suitable model for granular porous media; a stochastic simulation method capable of predicting the fate of solitary ganglia and two coupled population balance equations for studying the dynamics of oil ganglion populations. The porous medium model proposed is a network of interconnected unit cells of the constricted tube type. The permeability of this model is determined by both the statistical analysis the network analysis. It is demonstrated that fluids in different portions of a porous medium interact with one another. Two methods are used in the simulation of the motion of solitary ganglion. It is found that the velocity of an oil blob decreases as its viscosity increases.
Magnetic Resonance Microscopy of Scale Dependent Transport Phenomena and Bioactivity in Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seymour, J. D.; Codd, S. L.; Romanenko, K. V.; Hornemann, J. A.; Brosten, T. R.
2008-05-01
equations, closure problems and comparison with experiment. Chemical Engineering Science, 48(14): 2537-2564 (1993). 2. N. Goldenfeld and L.P. Kadanoff, Simple lessons from complexity. Science, 284: 87-89 (1999). 3. J.D. Seymour and P.T. Callaghan, Generalized approach to NMR analysis of flow and dispersion in porous medium. AIChE Journal, 43: 2096-2111 (1997). 4. S.L. Codd, B. Manz, J.D. Seymour, and P.T. Callaghan, Taylor dispersion and molecular displacements in poiseuille flow. Physical Review E, 60(4): R3491-R3494 (1999). 5. P.T. Callaghan, Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Microscopy. New York: Oxford University Press (1991). 6. G.K. Batchelor, Developments in microhydrodynamics, in Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, W.T. Koiter, Editor. North-Holland: Amsterdam. p. 33-55 (1976). 7. J.D. Seymour, J.P. Gage, S.L. Codd, and R. Gerlach, Anomalous fluid transport in porous media induced by biofilm growth. Physical Review Letters, 93: 198103 (2004).
Competition among flow, dissolution, and precipitation in porous media
Rege, S.D.; Fogler, H.S. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)
1989-07-01
A theoretical and experimental study has been carried out on flow, dissolution, and precipitation in porous media. Flow experiments were performed on linear carbonate cores using acidic ferric chloride solutions. Dissolution of the carbonate by the acid causes an increase in the solution pH, thereby precipitating ferric hydroxide. This precipitate plugs up the pore throats in the medium and increases the resistance to fluid flow. Fluctuations in the permeability ratio were observed during core flood experiments, confirming the competition between channel formation due to dissolution and pore plugging due to precipitation. The evolution of the pore structure was characterized. A network model has also been developed to describe flow and reaction in porous media. The model was used to simulate the ferric chloride system, and pressure oscillations predicted by the model show identical trends to those observed experimentally. Additionally, the evolution of pores in the network were graphically represented.
On growth and flow: bacterial biofilms in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durham, William; Leombruni, Alberto; Tranzer, Olivier; Stocker, Roman
2011-11-01
Bacterial biofilms often occur in porous media, where they play pivotal roles in medicine, industry and the environment. Though flow is ubiquitous in porous media, its effects on biofilm growth have been largely ignored. Using patterned microfluidic devices that simulate unconsolidated soil, we find that the structure of Escherichia coli biofilms undergoes a self-organization mediated by the interaction of growth and flow. Intriguingly, we find that biofilm productivity peaks at intermediate flow rates, when the biofilm is irrigated by a minimum number of preferential flow channels. At larger and smaller flow rates, fluid flows more uniformly through the matrix, but productivity drops due to removal by shear and reduced nutrient transport, respectively. These dynamics are correctly predicted by a simple network model. The observed tradeoff between growth and flow may have important consequences on biofilm-mediated processes such as biochemical cycling, antibiotic resistance and water filtration.
Dissipative particle dynamics model for colloid transport in porous media
Pan, W.; Tartakovsky, A. M.
2013-08-01
We present that the transport of colloidal particles in porous media can be effectively modeled with a new formulation of dissipative particle dynamics, which augments standard DPD with non-central dissipative shear forces between particles while preserving angular momentum. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the new formulation is able to capture accurately the drag forces as well as the drag torques on colloidal particles that result from the hydrodynamic retardation effect. In the present work, we use the new formulation to study the contact efficiency in colloid filtration in saturated porous media. Note that the present model include all transport mechanisms simultaneously, including gravitational sedimentation, interception and Brownian diffusion. Our results of contact efficiency show a good agreement with the predictions of the correlation equation proposed by Tufenkji and EliMelech, which also incorporate all transport mechanisms simultaneously without the additivity assumption.
A numerical approach for groundwater flow in unsaturated porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quintana, F.; Guarracino, L.; Saliba, R.
2006-07-01
In this article, a computational tool to simulate groundwater flow in variably saturated non-deformable fractured porous media is presented, which includes a conceptual model to obtain analytical expressions of water retention and hydraulic conductivity curves for fractured hard rocks and a numerical algorithm to solve the Richards equation. To calculate effective saturation and relative hydraulic conductivity curves we adopt the Brooks-Corey model assuming fractal laws for both aperture and number of fractures. A standard Galerkin formulation was employed to solve the Richards' equation together with a Crank-Nicholson scheme with Richardson extrapolation for the time discretization.The main contribution of this paper is to group an analytical model of the authors with a robust numerical algorithm designed to solve adequately the highly non-linear Richards' equation generating a tool for porous media engineering.
Plume dynamics in Hele-Shaw porous media convection.
Ecke, Robert E; Backhaus, Scott
2016-10-13
Mass transport in multi-species porous media is through molecular diffusion and plume dynamics. Predicting the rate of mass transport has application in determining the efficiency of the storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide. We study a water and propylene-glycol system enclosed in a Hele-Shaw cell with variable permeability that represents a laboratory analogue of the general properties of porous media convection. The interface between the fluids, tracked using an optical shadowgraph technique, is used to determine the mass transport rate, the spatial separation of solutal plumes, and the velocity and width characteristics of those plumes. One finds that the plume dynamics are closely related to the mass transport rate.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy and the subsurface'. PMID:27597786
Electrokinetic coupling in unsaturated porous media
Revil, A.; Linde, N.; Cerepi, A.; Jougnot, D.; Matthai, S.; Finsterle, S.
2007-02-27
We consider a charged porous material that is saturated bytwo fluid phases that are immiscible and continuous on the scale of arepresentative elementary volume. The wetting phase for the grains iswater and the nonwetting phase is assumed to be an electricallyinsulating viscous fluid. We use a volume-averaging approach to derivethe linear constitutive equations for the electrical current density aswell as the seepage velocities of the wetting and nonwetting phases onthe scale of a representative elementary volume. These macroscopicconstitutive equations are obtained by volume-averaging Ampere's lawtogether with the Nernst Planck equation and the Stokes equations. Thematerial properties entering the macroscopic constitutive equations areexplicitly described as functions of the saturation of the water phase,the electrical formation factor, and parameters that describe thecapillary pressure function, the relative permeability function, and thevariation of electrical conductivity with saturation. New equations arederived for the streaming potential and electro-osmosis couplingcoefficients. A primary drainage and imbibition experiment is simulatednumerically to demonstrate that the relative streaming potential couplingcoefficient depends not only on the water saturation, but also on thematerial properties of the sample, as well as the saturation history. Wealso compare the predicted streaming potential coupling coefficients withexperimental data from four dolomite core samples. Measurements on thesesamples include electrical conductivity, capillary pressure, thestreaming potential coupling coefficient at various level of saturation,and the permeability at saturation of the rock samples. We found verygood agreement between these experimental data and the modelpredictions.
The flow around circular cylinders partially coated with porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruck, Bodo; Klausmann, Katharina; Wacker, Tobias
2012-05-01
There are indications that the flow resistance of bodies can be reduced by a porous coating or porous sheath. A few numerical investigations exists in this field, however, experimental evidence is lacking. In order to investigate this phenomenon, the drag resistance of cylinders with porous coating has been investigated qualitatively and quantitatively in wind tunnel experiments. The Reynolds number was systematically varied in the range from 104 to 1.3*105. The results show that the boundary layer over the porous surface is turbulent right from the beginning and thickens faster because of the possible vertical momentum exchange at the interface. The region of flow detachment is widened resulting in a broader area with almost vanishing low flow velocities. All in all, the measurements show that a full porous coating of the cylinders increase the flow resistance. However, the measurements show that a partial coating only on the leeward side can decrease the flow resistance of the body. This effect seems due to the fact that the recirculating velocity and the underpressure in the wake is reduced significantly through a leeward porous coating. Thus, combining a smooth non-permeable windward side with a porous-coated leeward side can lead to a reduction of the body's flow resistance. These findings can be applied advantageously in many technical areas, such as energy saving of moving bodies (cars/trains/planes) or in reducing fluid loads on submersed bodies.
Denitrification and chemotaxis of Pseudomonas stutzeri KC in porous media.
Roush, Caroline J; Lastoskie, Christian M; Worden, R Mark
2006-01-01
Chemotaxis is an important mechanism by which microorganisms are dispersed in porous media. A vigorous chemotactic response to concentration gradients formed by microbial consumption of chemoattractants can accelerate transport of bacteria to highly contaminated regions of soils and sediments, enhancing the efficiency of in situ bioremediation operations. Although chemotaxis plays a key role in establishment of biodegradation zones in the subsurface, the effects of physical heterogeneity on bacterial motility are poorly understood. To investigate the influence of porous media heterogeneity on microbial chemotaxis, swarm plate migration experiments were conducted using Pseudomonas stutzeri strain KC, a denitrifying bacterium used for in situ biodegradation of carbon tetrachloride in groundwater. Swarm plate measurements indicate that strain KC is strongly chemotactic toward both acetate and nitrate. A three-component mathematical model was developed to describe the migration of strain KC. Estimates of chemotactic sensitivity were obtained in the homogeneous (agar) phase and in a heterogeneous medium of aquifer solids extracted from the Schoolcraft bioremediation field site in western Michigan. Interestingly, the motility of strain KC is significantly larger in the porous medium than in the aqueous phase. We hypothesize that chemotactic response is enhanced within the heterogeneous medium because chemoattractant gradients formed by nitrate consumption are larger in the confined spaces of the porous medium than in unconfined agar solution. PMID:16760079
Computation of streaming potential in porous media: Modified permeability tensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bandopadhyay, Aditya; DasGupta, Debabrata; Mitra, Sushanta K.; Chakraborty, Suman
2015-11-01
We quantify the pressure-driven electrokinetic transport of electrolytes in porous media through a matched asymptotic expansion based method to obtain a homogenized description of the upscaled transport. The pressure driven flow of aqueous electrolytes over charged surfaces leads to the generation of an induced electric potential, commonly termed as the streaming potential. We derive an expression for the modified permeability tensor, K↔eff, which is analogous to the Darcy permeability tensor with due accounting for the induced streaming potential. The porous media herein are modeled as spatially periodic. The modified permeability tensor is obtained for both topographically simple and complex domains by enforcing a zero net global current. Towards resolving the complicated details of the porous medium in a computationally efficient framework, the domain identification and reconstruction of the geometries are performed using adaptive quadtree (in 2D) and octree (in 3D) algorithms, which allows one to resolve the solid-liquid interface as per the desired level of resolution. We discuss the influence of the induced streaming potential on the modification of the Darcy law in connection to transport processes through porous plugs, clays and soils by considering a case-study on Berea sandstone.
Normalized inverse characterization of sound absorbing rigid porous media.
Zieliński, Tomasz G
2015-06-01
This paper presents a methodology for the inverse characterization of sound absorbing rigid porous media, based on standard measurements of the surface acoustic impedance of a porous sample. The model parameters need to be normalized to have a robust identification procedure which fits the model-predicted impedance curves with the measured ones. Such a normalization provides a substitute set of dimensionless (normalized) parameters unambiguously related to the original model parameters. Moreover, two scaling frequencies are introduced, however, they are not additional parameters and for different, yet reasonable, assumptions of their values, the identification procedure should eventually lead to the same solution. The proposed identification technique uses measured and computed impedance curves for a porous sample not only in the standard configuration, that is, set to the rigid termination piston in an impedance tube, but also with air gaps of known thicknesses between the sample and the piston. Therefore, all necessary analytical formulas for sound propagation in double-layered media are provided. The methodology is illustrated by one numerical test and by two examples based on the experimental measurements of the acoustic impedance and absorption of porous ceramic samples of different thicknesses and a sample of polyurethane foam. PMID:26093413
Reconstruction of Porous Media with Multiple Solid Phases
Losic; Thovert; Adler
1997-02-15
A process is proposed to generate three-dimensional multiphase porous media with fixed phase probabilities and an overall correlation function. By varying the parameters, a specific phase can be located either at the interface between two phases or within a single phase. When the interfacial phase has a relatively small probability, its shape can be chosen as granular or lamellar. The influence of a third phase on the macroscopic conductivity of a medium is illustrated. PMID:9056372
Unsteady-State Flow of Flexible Polymers in Porous Media.
Zitha, Pacelli L. J.; Chauveteau, Guy; Léger, Liliane
2001-02-15
In this paper we report an investigation of the unsteady-state flow of polymer solutions through granular porous media. The experiments were performed using high-molecular-weight nonionic and anionic polyacrylamides dissolved in water containing NaCl and model porous media obtained by packing silicon carbide (SiC) grains having a narrow grain size distribution. Before injection in porous media, the polymer solutions were carefully filtered according to a method that was proved to be efficient in removing any possibly remaining microgels. The SiC grain surface was passively oxidized by a controlled thermal treatment in order to obtain a surface partially covered by a thin silica layer having adsorption properties similar to those of quartzitic sand. By packing SiC grains of different sizes, porous media having identical adsorption properties and well-known pore throats sizes can be obtained with a good reproducibility. Parameters investigated include pore size, velocity gradient, polymer concentration, and adsorption energy. A striking unsteady-state flow behavior (pressure build-up at constant flow rate) is observed when three conditions are fulfilled: (a) the velocity gradient is larger than that known to be able to induce a coil-stretch transition, (b) the polymer adsorbs on the pore surfaces, and (c) the length of stretched macromolecules is larger than the effective pore throat diameter. When one of these conditions is not satisfied the flow remains steady. These observations are interpreted by a mechanism involving the adsorption and bridging across pore restrictions of elongated chains. We propose to refer to this peculiar mode of polymer adsorption as bridging adsorption. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11161513
Dendrite Suppression by Shock Electrodeposition in Charged Porous Media
Han, Ji-Hyung; Wang, Miao; Bai, Peng; Brushett, Fikile R.; Bazant, Martin Z.
2016-01-01
It is shown that surface conduction can stabilize electrodeposition in random, charged porous media at high rates, above the diffusion-limited current. After linear sweep voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy, copper electrodeposits are visualized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy in two different porous separators (cellulose nitrate, polyethylene), whose surfaces are modified by layer-by-layer deposition of positive or negative charged polyelectrolytes. Above the limiting current, surface conduction inhibits growth in the positive separators and produces irregular dendrites, while it enhances growth and suppresses dendrites behind a deionization shock in the negative separators, also leading to improved cycle life. The discovery of stable uniform growth in the random media differs from the non-uniform growth observed in parallel nanopores and cannot be explained by classic quasi-steady “leaky membrane” models, which always predict instability and dendritic growth. Instead, the experimental results suggest that transient electro-diffusion in random porous media imparts the stability of a deionization shock to the growing metal interface behind it. Shock electrodeposition could be exploited to enhance the cycle life and recharging rate of metal batteries or to accelerate the fabrication of metal matrix composite coatings. PMID:27307136
Upscaling of Constitutive Relations I Unsaturated Heterogeneous Porous Media
H. H. Liu; G. S. Bodvarsson
2001-05-31
When numerical model are used for modeling field scale flow and transport processes in the subsurface, the problem of ''upscaling'' arises. Typical scales, corresponding to spatial resolutions of subsurface heterogeneity in numerical models, are generally much larger than the measurement scale of the parameters and physical processes involved. The upscaling problems is, then, one of assigning parameters to gridblock scale based on parameter values measured on small scales. The focus of this study is to develop an approach to determine large-scale (upscaled) constitutive relations (relationships among relative permeability, capillary pressure and saturation) from small-scale measurements for porous media for a range of air entry values that are typical for the tuff matrix in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain. For porous media with large air entry values, capillary forces play a key role in determining spatial water distribution at large-scales. Therefore, a relatively uniform capillary pressure approximately exists even for a large gridblock scale under steady state flow conditions. Based on these reasoning, we developed formulations that relate upscaled constitutive relations to ones measured at core-scale. Numerical experiments with stochastically generated heterogeneous porous media were used to evaluate the upscaling formulations.
Statistical fusion of two-scale images of porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohebi, Azadeh; Fieguth, Paul; Ioannidis, Marios A.
2009-11-01
The reconstruction of the architecture of void space in porous media is a challenging task, since porous media contain pore structures at multiple scales. Whereas past methods have been limited to producing samples with matching statistical behavior, the patterns of grey-level values in a measured sample actually say something about the unresolved details, thus we propose a statistical fusion framework for reconstructing high-resolution porous media images from low-resolution measurements. The proposed framework is based on a posterior sampling approach in which information obtained by low-resolution (MRI or X-ray) measurements is combined with prior models inferred from high-resolution microscopic data, typically 2D. In this paper, we focus on two-scale reconstruction tasks in which the measurements resolve only the large scale structures, leaving the small-scale to be inferred. The evaluation of the results generated by the proposed method shows the strong ability of the proposed method in reconstructing fine-scale structures positively correlated with the underlying ground truth. Comparing our method with the recent method of Okabe and Blunt [12], in which the measurements are also used in the reconstruction, we conclude that our method is more robust to the resolution of the measurement, and more closely matches the underlying fine-scale field.
Intermittent filtration of bacteria and colloids in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Auset, Maria; Keller, Arturo A.; Brissaud, FrançOis; Lazarova, Valentina
2005-09-01
Intermittent filtration through porous media used for water and wastewater treatment can achieve high pathogen and colloid removal efficiencies. To predict the removal of bacteria, the effects of cyclic infiltration and draining events (transient unsaturated flow) were investigated. Using physical micromodels, we visualized the intermittent transport of bacteria and other colloids in unsaturated porous media. Column experiments provided quantitative measurements of the phenomena observed at the pore scale. Tagged Escherichia coli and a conservative tracer (NaI) were introduced in an initial pulse into a 1.5 m sand column. Subsequent hydraulic flushes without tagged bacteria or tracer were repeated every 4 hours for the next 4 days, during which outflow concentrations were monitored. Breakthrough behavior between colloids and dissolved tracer differed significantly, reflecting the differences in transport processes. Advancement of the wetting front remobilized bacteria which were held in thin water films, attached to the air-water interface (AWI), or entrapped in stagnant pore water between gas bubbles. In contrast, the tracer was only remobilized by diffusion from immobile to mobile water. Remobilization led to successive concentration peaks of bacteria and tracer in the effluent but with significant temporal differences. Observations at the pore-scale indicated that the colloids were essentially irreversibly attached to the solid-water interface, which explained to some extent the high removal efficiency of microbes in the porous media. Straining, cluster filtration, cell lysis, protozoa grazing, and bacteriophage parasitism could also contribute to the removal efficiency of bacteria.
Dendrite Suppression by Shock Electrodeposition in Charged Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Ji-Hyung; Wang, Miao; Bai, Peng; Brushett, Fikile R.; Bazant, Martin Z.
2016-06-01
It is shown that surface conduction can stabilize electrodeposition in random, charged porous media at high rates, above the diffusion-limited current. After linear sweep voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy, copper electrodeposits are visualized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy in two different porous separators (cellulose nitrate, polyethylene), whose surfaces are modified by layer-by-layer deposition of positive or negative charged polyelectrolytes. Above the limiting current, surface conduction inhibits growth in the positive separators and produces irregular dendrites, while it enhances growth and suppresses dendrites behind a deionization shock in the negative separators, also leading to improved cycle life. The discovery of stable uniform growth in the random media differs from the non-uniform growth observed in parallel nanopores and cannot be explained by classic quasi-steady “leaky membrane” models, which always predict instability and dendritic growth. Instead, the experimental results suggest that transient electro-diffusion in random porous media imparts the stability of a deionization shock to the growing metal interface behind it. Shock electrodeposition could be exploited to enhance the cycle life and recharging rate of metal batteries or to accelerate the fabrication of metal matrix composite coatings.
Dendrite Suppression by Shock Electrodeposition in Charged Porous Media.
Han, Ji-Hyung; Wang, Miao; Bai, Peng; Brushett, Fikile R; Bazant, Martin Z
2016-01-01
It is shown that surface conduction can stabilize electrodeposition in random, charged porous media at high rates, above the diffusion-limited current. After linear sweep voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy, copper electrodeposits are visualized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy in two different porous separators (cellulose nitrate, polyethylene), whose surfaces are modified by layer-by-layer deposition of positive or negative charged polyelectrolytes. Above the limiting current, surface conduction inhibits growth in the positive separators and produces irregular dendrites, while it enhances growth and suppresses dendrites behind a deionization shock in the negative separators, also leading to improved cycle life. The discovery of stable uniform growth in the random media differs from the non-uniform growth observed in parallel nanopores and cannot be explained by classic quasi-steady "leaky membrane" models, which always predict instability and dendritic growth. Instead, the experimental results suggest that transient electro-diffusion in random porous media imparts the stability of a deionization shock to the growing metal interface behind it. Shock electrodeposition could be exploited to enhance the cycle life and recharging rate of metal batteries or to accelerate the fabrication of metal matrix composite coatings. PMID:27307136
Grayscale lattice Boltzmann model for multiphase heterogeneous flow through porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pereira, Gerald G.
2016-06-01
The grayscale lattice Boltzmann (LB) model has been recently developed to model single-phase fluid flow through heterogeneous porous media. Flow is allowed in each voxel but the degree of flow depends on that voxel's resistivity to fluid motion. Here we extend the grayscale LB model to multiphase, immiscible flow. The new model is outlined and then applied to a number of test cases, which show good agreement with theory. This method is subsequently used to model the important case where each voxel may have a different resistance to each particular fluid that is passing through it. Finally, the method is applied to model fluid flow through real porous media to demonstrate its capability. Both the capillary and viscous flow regimes are recovered in these simulations.
Grayscale lattice Boltzmann model for multiphase heterogeneous flow through porous media.
Pereira, Gerald G
2016-06-01
The grayscale lattice Boltzmann (LB) model has been recently developed to model single-phase fluid flow through heterogeneous porous media. Flow is allowed in each voxel but the degree of flow depends on that voxel's resistivity to fluid motion. Here we extend the grayscale LB model to multiphase, immiscible flow. The new model is outlined and then applied to a number of test cases, which show good agreement with theory. This method is subsequently used to model the important case where each voxel may have a different resistance to each particular fluid that is passing through it. Finally, the method is applied to model fluid flow through real porous media to demonstrate its capability. Both the capillary and viscous flow regimes are recovered in these simulations. PMID:27415381
Superfluid helium in fully saturated porous media
Huang, K. ); Meng, H. )
1993-09-01
The flow of superfluid [sup 4]He through spongelike media at full saturation is modeled by the flow of current through an Ohmic network with random resistors. Solving Kirchhoff's equations leads to the conclusion that the superfluid critical point is a percolation threshold, with critical exponent 1.7. The fractal dimension of the percolating cluster is 2.6. These lead to a specific-heat exponent [alpha]=[minus]5.4, by the Josephson hyperscaling relation. Existing experiments apparently do not cover the critical region. Instead, they measure mean-field'' exponents, whose values for Vycor, aerogel, and xerogel can all be reproduced by choosing appropriate distribution functions for the resistors.
Numerical investigation of nanoparticles transport in anisotropic porous media.
Salama, Amgad; Negara, Ardiansyah; El Amin, Mohamed; Sun, Shuyu
2015-10-01
In this work the problem related to the transport of nanoparticles in anisotropic porous media is investigated numerically using the multipoint flux approximation. Anisotropy of porous media properties is an essential feature that exists almost everywhere in subsurface formations. In anisotropic media, the flux and the pressure gradient vectors are no longer collinear and therefore interesting patterns emerge. The transport of nanoparticles in subsurface formations is affected by several complex processes including surface charges, heterogeneity of nanoparticles and soil grain collectors, interfacial dynamics of double-layer and many others. We use the framework of the theory of filtration in this investigation. Processes like particles deposition, entrapment, as well as detachment are accounted for. From the numerical methods point of view, traditional two-point flux finite difference approximation cannot handle anisotropy of media properties. Therefore, in this work we use the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA). In this technique, the flux components are affected by more neighboring points as opposed to the mere two points that are usually used in traditional finite volume methods. We also use the experimenting pressure field approach which automatically constructs the global system of equations by solving multitude of local problems. This approach facilitates to a large extent the construction of the global system. A set of numerical examples is considered involving two-dimensional rectangular domain. A source of nanoparticles is inserted in the middle of the anisotropic layer. We investigate the effects of both anisotropy angle and anisotropy ratio on the transport of nanoparticles in saturated porous media. It is found that the concentration plume and porosity contours follow closely the principal direction of anisotropy of permeability of the central domain. PMID:26212784
Porous Media and Mixture Models for Hygrothermal Behavior of Phenolic Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sullivan, Roy M.; Stokes, Eric H.
1999-01-01
Theoretical models are proposed to describe the interaction of water with phenolic polymer. The theoretical models involve the study of the flow of a viscous fluid through a porous media and the thermodynamic theory of mixtures. From the theory, a set of mathematical relations are developed to simulate the effect of water on the thermostructural response of phenolic composites. The expressions are applied to simulate the measured effect of water in a series of experiments conducted on carbon phenolic composites.
Influence of biofilm accumulation on flow and reactive transport through porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharp, R.; Adgie, M.; Cunningham, A.
2003-04-01
A series of continuous flow, porous media reactor studies were performed to characterize the development of thick biofilms in porous media and the subsequent effects on flow and reactive transport. The bioluminescent organism Vibrio fischeri was used to produce various degrees of biofilm growth within the porous media system. V. fischeri biofilm growth, distribution, and activity in the porous media reactors was evaluated using bioluminescent imaging. Bulk fluid flow and flow channel dynamics in the porous media were monitored by imaging pulses of nigrosine bulk fluid dye. Hydrodynamics of the porous media/biofilm systems were analyzed using fluorescein break through curves and head loss across the system. Bioluminescent and bulk-fluid dye imaging, along with fluoroscein break through curve analysis, provided quantitative information on the transient distribution of biofilm within the reactor and the dynamic relationship between biofilm development and porous media hydraulics. Bioluminescent and bulk-fluid dye images showed continuous creation and closure of flow channels in the biofilm/porous media matrix. Flow channel size and distribution changed with increasing degrees of biofilm growth. Bioluminescence showed not only the density and distribution of biofilm growth in the porous media, but also the rate of oxygen uptake across the flow field. Results from the breakthrough curves suggest that thin biofilms transform the well-defined plug flow regime of clean porous media to a flow with severe axial and longitudinal dispersion. As the biofilm thickens, the flow regime is transformed to dispersed plug flow with an accelerated residence time. These studies provide a better quantitative understanding of the fundamental relationship between biofilm development and bulk fluid hydrodynamics in porous media. Results demonstrate the simultaneous visualization of biofilm growth and bulk fluid flow in porous media at the meso-scale. The studies also establish a novel
Coupled Flow and Mechanics in Porous and Fractured Media*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez, M. J.; Newell, P.; Bishop, J.
2012-12-01
Numerical models describing subsurface flow through deformable porous materials are important for understanding and enabling energy security and climate security. Some applications of current interest come from such diverse areas as geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2, hydro-fracturing for stimulation of hydrocarbon reservoirs, and modeling electrochemistry-induced swelling of fluid-filled porous electrodes. Induced stress fields in any of these applications can lead to structural failure and fracture. The ultimate goal of this research is to model evolving faults and fracture networks and flow within the networks while coupling to flow and mechanics within the intact porous structure. We report here on a new computational capability for coupling of multiphase porous flow with geomechanics including assessment of over-pressure-induced structural damage. The geomechanics is coupled to the flow via the variation in the fluid pore pressures, whereas the flow problem is coupled to mechanics by the concomitant material strains which alter the pore volume (porosity field) and hence the permeability field. For linear elastic solid mechanics a monolithic coupling strategy is utilized. For nonlinear elastic/plastic and fractured media, a segregated coupling is presented. To facilitate coupling with disparate flow and mechanics time scales, the coupling strategy allows for different time steps in the flow solve compared to the mechanics solve. If time steps are synchronized, the controller allows user-specified intra-time-step iterations. The iterative coupling is dynamically controlled based on a norm measuring the degree of variation in the deformed porosity. The model is applied for evaluation of the integrity of jointed caprock systems during CO2 sequestration operations. Creation or reactivation of joints can lead to enhanced pathways for leakage. Similarly, over-pressures can induce flow along faults. Fluid flow rates in fractures are strongly dependent on the
Surface dynamics of liquids in porous media.
Korb, J P
2001-01-01
We report remarkable differences in the 1H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion data (NMRD) between water and other common aprotic solvents such as acetone when in contact with high surface area calibrated microporous chromatographic silica glasses that contain trace paramagnetic impurities located at or close to the pore surface. All these differences have been related to the particular chemical behaviors and dynamics of these liquids at the pore surface. We apply this technique to probe the structure and dynamics of water and oil at the surface of calibrated macroporous systems, where similar surface dynamics effects have been observed. This technique is also applied to follow the first hydration stage of a white cement-paste. Last, we present an analysis of the magnetic field dependence of 1H nuclear relaxation data to exhibit the microporosity of ultra high performance concretes. PMID:11445312
Lattice Boltzmann simulation of chemical dissolution in porous media.
Kang, Qinjun; Zhang, Dongxiao; Chen, Shiyi; He, Xiaoyi
2002-03-01
In this paper, we develop a lattice Boltzmann model for simulating the transport and reaction of fluids in porous media. To simulate such a system, we account for the interaction of forced convection, molecular diffusion, and surface reaction. The problem is complicated by the evolution of the porous media geometry due to chemical reactions, which may significantly and continuously modify the hydrologic properties of the media. The particular application that motivates the present study is acid stimulation, a common technique used to increase production from petroleum reservoirs. This technique involves the injection of acid (e.g., hydrochloric acid, HCl, acetic acid, HAc) into the formation to dissolve minerals comprising the rock. As acid is injected, highly conductive channels or "wormholes" may be formed. The dissolution of carbonate rocks in 0.5M HCl and 0.5M HAc is simulated with the lattice Boltzmann model developed in this study. The dependence of dissolution process and the geometry of the final wormhole pattern on the acid type and the injection rate is studied. The results agree qualitatively with the experimental and theoretical analyses of others and substantiate the previous finding that there exists an optimal injection rate at which the wormhole is formed as well as the number of pore volumes of the injected fluid to break through is minimized. This study also confirms the experimentally observed phenomenon that the optimal injection rate decreases and the corresponding minimized number of pore volumes to break through increases as the acid is changed from HCl to HAc. Simulations suggest that the proposed lattice Boltzmann model may serve as an alternative reliable quantitative approach to study chemical dissolution in porous media. PMID:11909255
Effect of Bacterial Motility on Contaminant Mixing in Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, R.; Olson, M. S.; Bioremediation At Drexel
2010-12-01
Groundwater flow is typically characterized by laminar flow and therefore contaminant mixing limited conditions prevail in subsurface environments. The presence of porous media introduces tortuosity to groundwater flow paths, thereby enhancing contaminant mixing. In addition, bacterial motility is reported to induce movement in their surrounding liquid, which may enhance contaminant mixing. Enhancement of chemical diffusion coefficients in bulk fluid due to bacterial random motility and chemotaxis has been already reported in literature. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of bacterial motility on contaminant mixing in the presence of porous media. A microfluidic device was designed and fabricated using standard photolithography and soft-lithography techniques to simulate a contaminant plume in subsurface porous media due to leakage of an underground storage tank. A non-reactive conservative tracer, Dextran solution labeled with FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate), was used as surrogate for the contaminant and the motile bacterial strain Escherichia coli HCB33 (wild type) was used for the experiments to enhance contaminant mixing. Images were obtained at various cross-sections along the device and fluorescence intensity profile distributions were analyzed to determine the transverse dispersion of the contaminant. Enhancement in contaminant mixing was assessed by comparing the contaminant transverse dispersion coefficients (Dyi) in porous media in presence of motile bacteria, immobilized bacteria, and with no bacteria. In order to quantify the contaminant dispersion coefficients under the various test conditions, experimental data obtained were fitted to concentration profiles predicted by the contaminant advection-dispersion equation for the given experimental conditions (Figure 1). The transverse dispersion coefficient values obtained in the presence of motile bacteria (Dymb)and with no bacteria (Dynb) were 2.49 x 10-4 cm2/s and 1.39 x 10-4 cm2/s
McNeil, J D; Oldenborger, G A; Schincariol, R A
2006-03-01
Intermediate-scale laboratory experiments on heterogeneous porous media have been increasingly used for the study of saturated and unsaturated ground water systems. While the ability to reproduce field-scale heterogeneity in these experiments has advanced, the use of visualization or image analysis methods to characterize the spatial distribution of solute concentrations has largely remained at the homogeneous media level. To advance these imaging techniques we developed a generic image analysis package that, for the first time, automatically segments regions in photographic images that require unique concentration calibration curves due to varying porous media properties or lighting nonuniformities. As a robust test, our image analysis package was applied to an intermediate-scale flow tank experiment characterized by a correlated random permeability field with unprecedented resolution. Twenty-five distinct classes of porous media were developed and binned to the synthetic permeability field, creating an experimental field of 3456 rectangular cells and thereby ensuring the emplaced field closely matched the statistics of the original continuous distribution. Concentration distributions were determined for an experimental tracer run and the corresponding dispersion parameters were calculated. The closeness of the experimental, image-processed longitudinal dispersivity (4.6 x 10(-2) m) to that obtained from the field statistics (9.1 x 10(-2) m) verifies our image analysis technique. PMID:16455153
Bioremediation in Porous Media: Upscaling From the Pore to the Continuum Scales Via Volume Averaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wood, B. D.; Quintard, M.; Minard, K. R.; Whitaker, S.
2001-12-01
Biofilms are involved in many important porous media systems, such as packed-bed bioreactors and in situ bioremediation. Recently, we have completed a study of upscaling mass transfer and reactions in biofilms, with the biofilm itself being treated as a two-phase medium (Wood and Whitaker, 2000, Chem. Engng. Sci., 55, 3397-3418). In that work, we used volume averaging as an upscaling method to predict the effective diffusivity of a biofilm on the basis of its geometric structure, its membrane transport properties, and the diffusivities of the intercellular and extracellular phases. In continuing work, we have proceeded up the sequence of length-scales to consider the process of mass transport and reaction in a porous media containing biofilms. Our current research involves (1) development of the Darcy-scale transport equations via upscaling of the sub-pore-scale description of flow, transport, and reaction within a volume of porous media, (2) prediction of effective parameters (effective dispersion tensor, effective reaction rate coefficients, effectiveness factor) from closure problems defined over a representative volume of media, and (3) correspondence between theory and experiment via direct observation Darcy-scale and sub-pore-scale processes and structures that describe transport and reaction. We will present the macroscopic equations developed via volume averaging, predictions for the effective parameters on the basis of sub-pore-scale phenomena, and preliminary experimental results. Additionally, we will discuss the definition of the concentrations that apply to the biological and aqueous phases in the upscaled representation.
Drying patterns of porous media containing wettability contrasts.
Shokri, N; Or, D
2013-02-01
Porous media containing sharp wettability discontinuities may occur in natural systems due to depositional processes, accumulation of organic layers or modification of soil wettability following intense forest fires all of which are known to significantly modify water flow and transport processes. We studied evaporation from sand columns containing hydraulically-interacting domains with sharp wettability contrasts. We employed neutron transmission technique to map liquid phase dynamics during evaporation, and conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate evaporative fluxes affected by interactions across wettability contrast. We explained the preferential drying front displacement in the hydrophobic domain and the spatial extent of capillary flow supporting the vaporization plane using a physically-based model. The model provides description of observed liquid phase patterns and dynamics observed in neutron radiography measurements and evaporative fluxes from laboratory experiments. Our results provide new insights into evaporation induced capillary exchange and preferential liquid phase distribution during evaporation from hydraulically interacting vertical porous domains with differing wettability properties and offer opportunities for design of selectively drying of porous media in natural and engineered systems. PMID:23123032
Measurement of Interfacial Area Production and Permeability within Porous Media
Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.
2010-01-01
An understanding of the pore-level interactions that affect multi-phase flow in porous media is important in many subsurface engineering applications, including enhanced oil recovery, remediation of dense non-aqueous liquid contaminated sites, and geologic CO2 sequestration. Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to have several shortcomings, which might partially be overcome using a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles that includes interfacial area as an additional parameter. A few static experimental studies have been previously performed, which allowed the determination of static parameters of the model, but no information exists concerning the interfacial area dynamic parameters. A new experimental porous flow cell that was constructed using stereolithography for two-phase gas-liquid flow studies was used in conjunction with an in-house analysis code to provide information on dynamic evolution of both fluid phases and gas-liquid interfaces. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the new generalized model of two-phase flow model and describe how the stereolithography flow cell experimental setup was used to obtain the dynamic parameters for the interfacial area numerical model. In particular, the methods used to determine the interfacial area permeability and production terms are shown.
Propagation of dissolution/precipitation waves in porous media
Novak, C.F.
1992-01-01
The transport of a chemically reactive fluid through a permeable medium is governed by many classes of chemical interactions. Dissolution/precipitation (D/P) reactions are among the interactions of primary importance because of their significant influence on the mobility of aqueous ions. In general, D/P reactions lead to the propagation of coherent waves. This paper provides an overview of the types of wave phenomena observed in one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) porous media for systems in which mineral D/P is the dominant type of chemical reaction. It is demonstrated that minerals dissolve in sharp waves in 1D advection-dominated transport, and that these waves separate zones of constant chemical compositions in the aqueous and mineral phases. Analytical solutions based on coherence methods are presented for solving 1D advection-dominated transport problems with constant and variable boundary conditions. Numerical solutions of diffusion-dominated transport in porous media show that sharp D/P fronts occur in this system as well. A final example presents a simple dual-porosity system with advection in an idealized fracture and solute diffusion into an adjacent porous matrix. The example illustrates the delay of contaminant release from the 2D domain due to a combination of physical retardation and chemical retardation.
Pore-scale study of dissolution-induced changes in permeability and porosity of porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Qinjun; Chen, Li; Valocchi, Albert J.; Viswanathan, Hari S.
2014-09-01
We apply a reactive transport lattice Boltzmann model developed in previous studies to study the dissolution-induced changes in permeability and porosity of two porous media at the pore scale. The permeability-porosity relationship is explored for a wide range of Peclet and Damkohler numbers. It is found that this relationship depends not only on different dissolution regimes characterized by Pe and Da, but also on the specific porous medium structure. The permeability-porosity relationship for the more geometrically complex porous medium shows much more complexity than that for the simple fractured medium. While a very small Da sets an upper bound for the permeability-porosity relationship for the simple medium, a combination of a high Da and Pe results in wormholing, and the fastest permeability increase for the complex medium. At a moderate Pe but large Da, a transition from transport-limited dissolution regime to wormholing is also observed for the complex medium.
A cellular automaton simulation of contaminant transport in porous media
Freed, D.M.; Simonson, S.A.
1995-12-01
A simulation tool to investigate radionuclide transport in porous groundwater flow is described. The flow systems of interest are those important in determining the fate of radionuclides emplaced in an underground repository, such as saturated matrix flow, matrix and fracture flow in the unsaturated zone, and viscous fingering in porous fractures. The work discussed here is confined to consideration of saturated flow in porous media carrying a dilute, sorptive species. The simulation technique is based on a special class of cellular automata known as lattice gas automata (LGA) which are capable of predicting hydrodynamic behavior. The original two-dimensional scheme (that of Frisch et. al. known as the FHP model) used particles of unit mass traveling on a triangular lattice with unit velocity and undergoing simple collisions which conserve mass and momentum at each node. These microscopic rules go over to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in the macroscopic limit. One of the strengths of this technique is the natural way that heterogeneities, such as boundaries, are accommodated. Complex geometries such as those associated with porous microstructures can be modeled effectively. Several constructions based on the FHP model have been devised, including techniques to eliminate statistical noise, extension to three dimensions, and the addition of surface tension which leads to multiphase flow.
Complex resistivity signatures of ethanol biodegradation in porous media
Personna, Yves Robert; Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Werkema, Dale; Szabo, Zoltan
2013-01-01
Numerous adverse effects are associated with the accidental release of ethanol (EtOH) and its persistence in the subsurface. Geophysical techniques may permit non-invasive, real time monitoring of microbial degradation of hydrocarbon. We performed complex resistivity (CR) measurements in conjunction with geochemical data analysis on three microbial-stimulated and two control columns to investigate changes in electrical properties during EtOH biodegradation processes in porous media. A Debye Decomposition approach was applied to determine the chargeability (m), normalized chargeability (mn) and time constant (τ) of the polarization magnitude and relaxation length scale as a function of time. The CR responses showed a clear distinction between the bioaugmented and control columns in terms of real (σ′) and imaginary (σ″) conductivity, phase (ϕ) and apparent formation factor (Fapp). Unlike the control columns, a substantial decrease in σ′ and increase in Fapp occurred at an early time (within 4 days) of the experiment for all three bioaugmented columns. The observed decrease in σ′ is opposite to previous studies on hydrocarbon biodegradation. These columns also exhibited increases in ϕ (up to ~ 9 mrad) and σ″ (up to two order of magnitude higher) 5 weeks after microbial inoculation. Variations in m and mn were consistent with temporal changes in ϕ and σ″ responses, respectively. Temporal geochemical changes and high resolution scanning electron microscopy imaging corroborated the CR findings, thus indicating the sensitivity of CR measurements to EtOH biodegradation processes. Our results offer insight into the potential application of CR measurements for long-term monitoring of biogeochemical and mineralogical changes during intrinsic and induced EtOH biodegradation in the subsurface.
Reptation of a semiflexible polymer through porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nam, Gimoon; Johner, Albert; Lee, Nam-Kyung
2010-07-01
We study the motion of a single stiff semiflexible filament of length S through an array of topological obstacles. By means of scaling arguments and two-dimensional computer simulations, we show that the stiff chain kinetics follows the reptation picture, albeit with kinetic exponents (for the central monomer) different from those for flexible chain reptation. At early times when topological constraints are irrelevant, the chain kinetics is the anisotropic dynamics of a free filament. After the entanglement time τe transverse modes are equilibrated under the topological constraints, but the chain is not yet correlated over its whole length. During the relaxation of longitudinal modes, both the longitudinal fluctuation of the central monomer and the longitudinal correlation length grow as ˜√t . After time τr˜S2 chain ends are correlated, the chain then diffuses globally along the tube and tube renewal takes place. In the reptation regime, the longitudinal fluctuation of the central monomer grows like ˜t1. The opening of the intermediate ˜√t regime, absent for a free filament, is a signature of the reptation process. Although the underlying physics is quite different, the intermediate regime is reminiscent of the internal Rouse mode relaxation found for reptating flexible chains. In most cases asymptotic power laws from scaling could be complemented by prefactors calculated analytically. Our results are supported by two-dimensional Langevin simulations with fixed obstacles via evaluation of the mean squared displacement of the central monomer. The scaling theory can be extended to long semiflexible polymers adopting random-walk equilibrium configurations and should also apply in three dimensions for porous media with pore diameter smaller than the persistence length of the filament.
Electrophoresis of a charged colloidal particle in porous media: boundary effect of a solid plane.
Tsai, Peter; Huang, Cheng-Hsuan; Lee, Eric
2011-11-15
Electrokinetic treatments such as the electrophoretic technique have been applied successfully to various soil remediation and contaminant removal situations. To understand further the fundamental features involved, the electrophoretic motion of a charged particle in porous media is investigated theoretically in this study, focusing on the boundary effect of a nearby solid plane toward which the particle moves perpendicularly. The porous medium is modeled as a Brinkman fluid with a characteristic screening length (λ(-1)) that can be obtained directly from the experimental data. General electrokinetic equations are used to describe the system and are solved with a pseudospectral method based on Chebyshev polynomials. We found that the particle motion is deterred by the boundary effect in general. The closer the particle is to the boundary, the more severe this effect is. Up to a 90% reduction in particle mobility is observed in some situations. This indicates that a drastic overestimation (10-fold!) of the overall transport rate of particles may occur for large-scale in situ operations in porous media, such as soil remediation utilizing large planar electrodes, should a portable analytical formula valid for bulk systems only be used. Correction factors for various situations in porous media are presented as convenient charts with which to aid engineers and researchers in the field of environmental engineering, for instance, as a realistic estimation of the actual transport rate obtainable. In addition, the results of present study can be applied to biomedical engineering and drug delivery as well because polymer gels and skin barriers both have a porous essence. PMID:21967511
Hornung, R.D.
1996-12-31
An adaptive local mesh refinement (AMR) algorithm originally developed for unsteady gas dynamics is extended to multi-phase flow in porous media. Within the AMR framework, we combine specialized numerical methods to treat the different aspects of the partial differential equations. Multi-level iteration and domain decomposition techniques are incorporated to accommodate elliptic/parabolic behavior. High-resolution shock capturing schemes are used in the time integration of the hyperbolic mass conservation equations. When combined with AMR, these numerical schemes provide high resolution locally in a more efficient manner than if they were applied on a uniformly fine computational mesh. We will discuss the interplay of physical, mathematical, and numerical concerns in the application of adaptive mesh refinement to flow in porous media problems of practical interest.
Fixation of radioactive ions in porous media with ion exchange gels
Mercer, Jr., Basil W.; Godfrey, Wesley L.
1979-01-01
A method is provided for fixing radioactive ions in porous media by injecting into the porous media water-soluble organic monomers which are polymerizable to gel structures with ion exchange sites and polymerizing the monomers to form ion exchange gels. The ions and the particles of the porous media are thereby physically fixed in place by the gel structure and, in addition, the ions are chemically fixed by the ion exchange properties of the resulting gel.
An electrical conductivity model for fractal porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Wei; Cai, Jianchao; Hu, Xiangyun; Han, Qi
2015-06-01
Archie's equation is an empirical electrical conductivity-porosity model that has been used to predict the formation factor of porous rock for more than 70 years. However, the physical interpretation of its parameters, e.g., the cementation exponent m, remains questionable. In this study, a theoretical electrical conductivity equation is derived based on the fractal characteristics of porous media. The proposed model is expressed in terms of the tortuosity fractal dimension (DT), the pore fractal dimension (Df), the electrical conductivity of the pore liquid, and the porosity. The empirical parameter m is then determined from physically based parameters, such as DT and Df. Furthermore, a distinct interrelationship between DT and Df is obtained. We find a reasonably good match between the predicted formation factor by our model and experimental data.
High-precision synthetic computed tomography of reconstructed porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hilfer, R.; Zauner, Th.
2011-12-01
Multiscale simulation of transport in disordered and porous media requires microstructures covering several decades in length scale. X-ray and synchrotron computed tomography are presently unable to resolve more than one decade of geometric detail. Recent advances in pore scale modeling [Biswal, Held, Khanna, Wang, and Hilfer, Phys. Rev. E PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.80.041301 80, 041301 (2009)] provide strongly correlated microstructures with several decades in microstructural detail. A carefully calibrated microstructure model for Fontainebleau sandstone has been discretized into a suite of three-dimensional microstructures with resolutions from roughly 128 μm down to roughly 500 nm. At the highest resolution the three-dimensional image consists of 327683=35184372088832 discrete cubic volume elements with gray values between 0 and 216. To the best of our knowledge, this synthetic image is the largest computed tomogram of a porous medium available at present.
Calculation of the effective permeability of saturated random porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostvar, S.; Wood, B. D.; Apte, S.; Liburdy, J.
2014-12-01
Estimation of the effective permeability tensor is an essential part of Darcy-scale representations of flow in porous media. The permeability tensor itself is a property of the medium, and depends only on the microscale geometry of the system. Determining the functional relationships between effective permeability (or conductivity in the general sense) and the structure of the medium is an old problem, with the earliest results for ordered porous media dating the 1920's. In this presentation, we report on the results of (1) detailed theory development, and (2) computations for the effective permeability tensor in fully-saturated random sphere packs, with a focus on the computational results. The theory is developed by volume averaging the Stokes equations, and using developing appropriate closures via potential theory, and has been reported on previously. For the computations, we have adopted an immersed boundary method to fully resolve the pore-scale velocity field. From our results, we compute the hydraulic permeability for both ordered and random media, and we compare these results with existing analytical solutions for the hydraulic conductivity in periodic arrays.
Hydraulic properties of adsorbed water films in unsaturated porous media
Tokunaga, Tetsu K.
2009-03-01
Adsorbed water films strongly influence residual water saturations and hydraulic conductivities in porous media at low saturations. Hydraulic properties of adsorbed water films in unsaturated porous media were investigated through combining Langmuir's film model with scaling analysis, without use of any adjustable parameters. Diffuse double layer influences are predicted to be important through the strong dependence of adsorbed water film thickness (f) on matric potential ({Psi}) and ion charge (z). Film thickness, film velocity, and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity are predicted to vary with z{sup -1}, z{sup -2}, and z{sup -3}, respectively. In monodisperse granular media, the characteristic grain size ({lambda}) controls film hydraulics through {lambda}{sup -1} scaling of (1) the perimeter length per unit cross sectional area over which films occur, (2) the critical matric potential ({Psi}{sub c}) below which films control flow, and (3) the magnitude of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity when {Psi} < {Psi}{sub c}. While it is recognized that finer textured sediments have higher unsaturated hydraulic conductivities than coarser sands at intermediate {Psi}, the {lambda}{sup -1} scaling of hydraulic conductivity predicted here extends this understanding to very low saturations where all pores are drained. Extremely low unsaturated hydraulic conductivities are predicted under adsorbed film-controlled conditions (generally < 0.1 mm y{sup -1}). On flat surfaces, the film hydraulic diffusivity is shown to be constant (invariant with respect to {Psi}).
Dynamic permeability of porous media by the lattice Boltzmann method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adler, P.; Pazdniakou, A.
2012-04-01
The main objective of our work is to determine the dynamic permeability of three dimensional porous media by means of the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The Navier-Stokes equation can be numerically solved by LBM which is widely used to address various fluid dynamics problems. Space is discretized by a three-dimensional cubic lattice and time is discretized as well. The generally accepted notation for lattice Boltzmann models is DdQq where D stands for space dimension and Q for the number of discrete velocities. The present model is denoted by D3Q19. Moreover, the Two Relaxation Times variant of the Multi Relaxation Times model is implemented. Bounce back boundary conditions are used on the solid-fluid interfaces. The porous medium is spatially periodic. Reconstructed media were used; they are obtained by imposing a porosity and a correlation function characterized by a correlation length. Real samples can be obtained by MicroCT. In contrast with other previous contributions, the dynamic permeability K(omega) which is a complex number, is derived by imposing an oscillating body force of pulsation omega on the unit cell and by deriving the amplitude and the phase shift of the resulting time dependent seepage velocity. The influence of two limiting parameters, namely the Knudsen number Kn and the discretization for high frequencies, on K(omega) is carefully studied for the first time. Kn is proportional to nu/(cs H) where nu is the kinematic viscosity, cs the speed of sound in the fluid and H a characteristic length scale of the porous medium. Several porous media such as the classical plane Poiseuille flow and the reconstructed media are used to show that it is only for small enough values of Kn that reliable results are obtained. Otherwise, the data depend on Kn and may even be totally unphysical. However, it should be noticed that the limiting value of Kn could not be derived in general since it depends very much on the structure of the medium. Problems occur at
Dynamic permeability of porous media by the lattice Boltzmann method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pazdniakou, A.; Adler, P. M.
2011-12-01
The main objective of our work is to determine the dynamic permeability of three dimensional porous media by means of the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The Navier-Stokes equation can be numerically solved by LBM which is widely used to address various fluid dynamics problems. Space is discretized by a three-dimensional cubic lattice and time is discretized as well. The generally accepted notation for lattice Boltzmann models is DdQq where D stands for space dimension and Q for the number of discrete velocities. The present model is denoted by D3Q19. Moreover, the Two Relaxation Times variant of the Multi Relaxation Times model is implemented. Bounce back boundary conditions are used on the solid-fluid interfaces. The porous medium is spatially periodic. Reconstructed media were used; they are obtained by imposing a porosity and a correlation function characterized by a correlation length. Real samples can be obtained by MicroCT. In contrast with other previous contributions, the dynamic permeability K(omega) which is a complex number, is derived by imposing an oscillating body force of pulsation omega on the unit cell and by deriving the amplitude and the phase shift of the resulting time dependent seepage velocity. The influence of two limiting parameters, namely the Knudsen number Kn and the discretization for high frequencies, on K(omega) is carefully studied for the first time. Kn is proportional to nu/(c_s H) where nu is the kinematic viscosity, c_s the speed of sound in the fluid and H a characteristic length scale of the porous medium. Several porous media such as the classical plane Poiseuille flow and the reconstructed media are used to show that it is only for small enough values of Kn that reliable results are obtained. Otherwise, the data depend on Kn and may even be totally unphysical. However, it should be noticed that the limiting value of Kn could not be derived in general since it depends very much on the structure of the medium. Problems occur
Creep rate induced by surface diffusion of porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Y. C.; Li, Y. D.; Wang, X.
2016-01-01
Holes in materials can cause improved or unique performance of the material when the sizes, shapes, and orientation of holes as well as grains are controlled in materials. In the paper, a computational method for creep rate induced by hole surface diffusion of porous materials is presented. The driven force for diffusional mass transport along the hole surface is the surface diffusion energy of hole and the strain energy acting on the surface, which is obtained from rigorous elastic theory. In order to apply the present solution to the realistic porous materials the scale effect is considered by using finite element method based on two-dimensional unit cell for porous materials under uniaxial tension.
Static properties of polymer chains in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Honeycutt, J. D.; Thirumalai, D.
1989-04-01
The static properties of a polymer molecule in a porous medium are investigated. The porous medium is simulated using a site percolation model in which the various sites are occupied (or unoccupied) randomly. A freely jointed chain is allowed to move in continuous space between the obstacles. Effects of excluded volume interactions between the links have also been studied. Using a generalized Flory theory, we have shown that, when the strength of disorder is large enough, the mean square end-to-end distance scales as N2ν, where N is the number of links in the chain, and ν takes on a value different from that for a free chain. Under these conditions, the polymer assumes a compact, globule-like conformation. For sufficiently large N, the Flory theory gives ν=1/(d+2) for freely jointed chains and ν=1/d for chains with excluded volume. Various correlation functions such as the distribution of the end-to-end distance and density profile of monomers with respect to the center of mass of the chain have been computed using Monte Carlo simulations. These results are interpreted using scaling concepts and an approximate variational theory based on replica methods. The limitations of the replica variational theory are assessed by an application to the directed polymer in a quenched random environment. We have also studied the shape fluctuations that the polymer molecule undergoes in the random environment. It is argued that these shape fluctuations are relevant to the transport mechanism of polymers in random media. The results obtained for the porous media are contrasted with those found for polymers in media where the obstacles are arranged in a regular manner.
Direct numerical simulation of inertial flows in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apte, S.; Finn, J.; Wood, B. D.
2010-12-01
At modest flow rates (10 ≤ Re ≤ 300) through porous media and packed beds, fluid inertia can result in complex steady and unsteady recirculation regions, dependent on the local pore geometry. Body fitted CFD is a broadly used design and analysis tool for flows in porous media and packed bed type reactors. Unfortunately, the inherent complexities of porous media make unstructured mesh generation a difficult and time consuming step in the simulation process. To accurately capture the inertial dynamics using high-fidelity direct simulations, body fitted meshes must be high quality and sufficiently refined. We present methods to parameterize and simplify mesh generation for packed beds, with an eye toward obtaining efficient mesh independence for Reynolds numbers in the inertial and unsteady regimes. The crux of mesh generation for packed beds is dealing with sphere-sphere or sphere-wall contact points, where a geometric singularity exists. To handle the sphere-sphere and sphere-wall contact points, we use a fillet bridge model, in which every pair of contacting entities are bridged by a fillet, eliminating a small fluid region near the contact point. This results in a continuous surface mesh which does not require resizing of the spheres and can accommodate prism cells for improved boundary layer resolution. A second order accurate, parallel, incompressible flow solver [Moin and Apte, AIAA J. 2006] is used to simulate flow through three different sphere packings: a periodic simple cubic packing, a wall bounded hexagonal close packing, and a randomly packed tube. Mesh independence is assessed using several measures including Ergun pressure drop coefficients, viscous and pressure components of drag force, kinetic energy, kinetic energy dissipation and interstitial velocity profiles. The results of these test cases are used to determine the feasibility of accurate and very large scale simulations of flow through a randomly packed bed of 103 pores. Preliminary results
Mathematical modeling heat and mass transfer processes in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akhmed-Zaki, Darkhan
2013-11-01
On late development stages of oil-fields appears a complex problem of oil-recovery reduction. One of solution approaches is injecting of surfactant together with water in the form of active impurities into the productive layer - for decreasing oil viscosity and capillary forces between ``oil-water'' phases system. In fluids flow the surfactant can be in three states: dissolved in water, dissolved in oil and adsorbed on pore channels' walls. The surfactant's invasion into the reservoir is tracked by its diffusion with reservoir liquid and mass-exchange with two phase (liquid and solid) components of porous structure. Additionally, in this case heat exchange between fluids (injected, residual) and framework of porous medium has practical importance for evaluating of temperature influences on enhancing oil recovery. Now, the problem of designing an adequate mathematical model for describing a simultaneous flowing heat and mass transfer processes in anisotropic heterogeneous porous medium -surfactant injection during at various temperature regimes has not been fully researched. In this work is presents a 2D mathematical model of surfactant injections into the oil reservoir. Description of heat- and mass transfer processes in a porous media is done through differential and kinetic equations. For designing a computational algorithm is used modify version of IMPES method. The sequential and parallel computational algorithms are developed using an adaptive curvilinear meshes which into account heterogeneous porous structures. In this case we can evaluate the boundaries of our process flows - fronts (``invasion'', ``heat'' and ``mass'' transfers), according to the pressure, temperature, and concentration gradient changes.
Theoretical analysis of three phase flow experiments in porous media
Sahni, A.; Blunt, M.; Guzman, R.
1996-12-31
This paper presents a framework for analyzing three phase flow experiments in porous media. We analyze previously published data from a dynamic displacement experiment, where three phase relative permeabilities have been measured. The relative permeability of each phase is, to a good approximation, a polynomial function of the saturation of that phase. Then analytically, we calculate the saturation paths and recovery for the experiments using the method of characteristics. The predicted paths agree well with the experimental measurements, and with one-dimensional numerical solutions.
NMR imaging of immiscible displacements in porous media
Majors, P.D.; Li, P.; Peters, E.J.
1995-12-31
We introduce a rapid, quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) technique to resolve and measure multiple fluid phases in porous media. Liquids are resolved on the basis of their NMR spin-spin (T{sub 2}) relaxation times, and their intensities are corrected via attenuation analysis. The spatially resolved and corrected NMRI intensities are normalized to yield fluid saturations. In-situ saturation measurements are presented for three immiscible (oil and water) displacements in the same Berea sandstone core. NMRI and effluent recovery methods were compared. T{sub 2} of the displacement fluids were observed to be sensitive to displacement conditions.
Rayleigh-Taylor instability of immiscible fluids in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalisch, H.; Mitrovic, D.; Nordbotten, J. M.
2016-05-01
The time development of an interface separating two immiscible fluids of different densities in heterogeneous two-dimensional porous media is studied. The governing equations are simplified with the help of approximate Green's functions which allow computation of the shape of the interface directly without resolving the fluid flow in the entire domain. The new formulation is amenable to numerical approximation, and the reduction in dimension leads to a significant gain in efficiency in the numerical simulation of the interfacial dynamics. Several test cases are investigated, and the numerical solutions are compared to known exact solutions and experimental data.
Combined Evaporation and Salt Precipitation in Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weisbrod, N.; Dragila, M. I.; Nachshon, U.; Or, D.; Shaharani, E.; Grader, A.
2012-12-01
The vadose zone pore water contains dissolved salts and minerals; therefore, evaporation results in high rates of salt accumulation that may change the physical and chemical properties of the porous media. Here, a series of experiments, together with a mathematical model, are presented to shed new light on these processes. Experiments included: (1) long-term column evaporation experiments to quantify changes in evaporation rates due to salt precipitation; (2) CT scans of evaporated porous media samples saturated with salt solutions, to observe salt precipitation from micro to macro scales; and (3) Infrared thermography analysis to quantify evaporation rates from porous media surfaces for homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions and constant water table, in the presence of salt precipitation. As expected, the majority of salt crystallization occurs in the upper parts of the matrix, near the evaporation front. For heterogeneous porous matrices, salt precipitation will occur mainly in the fine pore regions as preferential evaporation takes place in these locations. In addition, it was found that the precipitated NaCl salt crust diffusion coefficient for water vapor is one to two orders of magnitude lower than the vapor diffusion coefficient in free air, depending on environmental conditions and salt crystallization rates. Three new stages of evaporation were defined for saline solutions: SS1, SS2 and SS3. SS1 exhibits a low and gradual decrease in the evaporation rate due to osmotic pressure. During SS2, the evaporation rate falls progressively due to salt precipitation; SS3 is characterized by a constant low evaporation rate and determined by the diffusion rate of water vapor through the precipitated salt layer. Even though phenomenologically similar to the classical evaporation stages of pure water, these stages correspond to different mechanisms and the transition between stages can occur regardless the hydraulic conditions. As well, it was shown that matrix
A study of vapor-liquid flow in porous media
Satik, Cengiz; Yortsos, Yanis C.
1994-01-20
We study the heat transfer-driven liquid-to-vapor phase change in single-component systems in porous media by using pore network models and flow visualization experiments. Experiments using glass micromodels were conducted. The flow visualization allowed us to define the rules for the numerical pore network model. A numerical pore network model is developed for vapor-liquid displacement where fluid flow, heat transfer and capillarity are included at the pore level. We examine the growth process at two different boundary conditions.
Bacteria transport through porous media. Annual report, December 31, 1984
Yen, T.F.
1986-09-01
The following five chapters in this report have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base: (1) theoretical model of convective diffusion of motile and non-motile bacteria toward solid surfaces; (2) interfacial electrochemistry of oxide surfaces in oil-bearing sands and sandstones; (3) effects of sodium pyrophosphate additive on the ''huff and puff''/nutrient flooding MEOR process; (4) interaction of Escherichia coli B, B/4, and bacteriophage T4D with Berea sandstone rock in relation to enhanced oil recovery; and (5) transport of bacteria in porous media and its significance in microbial enhanced oil recovery.
Flow visualization in porous media via Positron Emission Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khalili, A.; Basu, A. J.; Pietrzyk, U.
1998-04-01
We demonstrate here the use of a non-invasive technique based on Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in visualizing and in making quantitative measurements of scalar transport through natural opaque permeable sediments. Along with various other possibilities, this technique has the potential to help improve the understanding of processes that take place at the seabeds between the porewater and the overlying water, which result in exchange of nutrients, toxins and solute. Unlike many other methods, PET is able to produce full three-dimensional pictures of the percolation of fluid through not only "constructed" but also natural porous media.
A Porous Media Model for Blood Flow within Reticulated Foam
Ortega, J.M.
2013-01-01
A porous media model is developed for non-Newtonian blood flow through reticulated foam at Reynolds numbers ranging from 10−8 to 10. This empirical model effectively divides the pressure gradient versus flow speed curve into three regimes, in which either the non-Newtonian viscous forces, the Newtonian viscous forces, or the inertial fluid forces are most prevalent. When compared to simulation data of blood flow through two reticulated foam geometries, the model adequately captures the pressure gradient within all three regimes, especially that within the Newtonian regime where blood transitions from a power-law to a constant viscosity fluid. PMID:24031095
Focus on the physics of magnetic resonance on porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Yi-Qiao
2012-05-01
Porous media are ubiquitous in our environment and their application is extremely broad. The common connection between these diverse materials is the importance of the microstructure in determining the physical, chemical and biological functions and properties. Magnetic resonance and its imaging modality have been essential for noninvasive characterization of these materials in the development of catalysts, understanding cement hydration, fluid transport in rocks and soil, geological prospecting and characterization of tissue properties for medical diagnosis. This focus issue highlights recent NMR/MRI technical development, the underlying physics associated with the new technology, as well as novel applications of the technologies.
Heat Transfer through Porous Media in the Counterflow Regime of He II
Maekawa, R.; Baudouy, B.
2004-06-23
Experimental results are presented for He II counter flow through Al2O3 porous media. Tests have been performed on three porous disks with different thicknesses, 2, 3 and 4 mm, having the same porosity of 32 %, average pore diameter of 2 {mu}m and permeability in the range of 10-14 m2. Temperature and pressure differences were measured across porous media from 1.4 K to 2.1 K in the saturated superfluid helium. The influence on the porous media thickness to the heat transfer is clearly seen on the typical linear Darcy regime and the turbulent Gorter-Mellink regime. Deviation from these classical laws is observed for large temperature difference that can be attributed to the change of He II heat transfer properties due to the complex flow paths of porous media. The effect of porous media thickness to the He II heat transfer is discussed.
Impact of biofilm on bacterial transport and deposition in porous media.
Bozorg, Ali; Gates, Ian D; Sen, Arindom
2015-12-01
Laboratory scale experiments were conducted to obtain insights into factors that influence bacterial transport and deposition in porous media. According to colloidal filtration theory, the removal efficiency of a filter medium is characterized by two main factors: collision efficiency and sticking efficiency. In the case of bacterial transport in porous media, bacteria attached to a solid surface can establish a thin layer of biofilm by excreting extracellular polymeric substances which can significantly influence both of these factors in a porous medium, and thus, affect the overall removal efficiency of the filter medium. However, such polymeric interactions in bacterial adhesion are not well understood and a method to calculate polymeric interactions is not yet available. Here, to determine how the migration of bacteria flowing within a porous medium is affected by the presence of surface-associated extracellular polymeric substances previously produced and deposited by the same bacterial species, a commonly used colloidal filtration model was applied to study transport and deposition of Pseudomonas fluorescens in small-scale columns packed with clean and biofilm coated glass beads. Bacterial recoveries were monitored in column effluents and used to quantify biofilm interactions and sticking efficiencies of the biofilm coated packed-beds. The results indicated that, under identical hydraulic conditions, the sticking efficiencies in packed-beds were improved consistently by 36% when covered by biofilm. PMID:26583740
Impact of biofilm on bacterial transport and deposition in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bozorg, Ali; Gates, Ian D.; Sen, Arindom
2015-12-01
Laboratory scale experiments were conducted to obtain insights into factors that influence bacterial transport and deposition in porous media. According to colloidal filtration theory, the removal efficiency of a filter medium is characterized by two main factors: collision efficiency and sticking efficiency. In the case of bacterial transport in porous media, bacteria attached to a solid surface can establish a thin layer of biofilm by excreting extracellular polymeric substances which can significantly influence both of these factors in a porous medium, and thus, affect the overall removal efficiency of the filter medium. However, such polymeric interactions in bacterial adhesion are not well understood and a method to calculate polymeric interactions is not yet available. Here, to determine how the migration of bacteria flowing within a porous medium is affected by the presence of surface-associated extracellular polymeric substances previously produced and deposited by the same bacterial species, a commonly used colloidal filtration model was applied to study transport and deposition of Pseudomonas fluorescens in small-scale columns packed with clean and biofilm coated glass beads. Bacterial recoveries were monitored in column effluents and used to quantify biofilm interactions and sticking efficiencies of the biofilm coated packed-beds. The results indicated that, under identical hydraulic conditions, the sticking efficiencies in packed-beds were improved consistently by 36% when covered by biofilm.
Numerical method for computing flow through partially saturated porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eaton, R. R.
This paper discusses the development of the finite element computer code SAGUARO which calculates the two-dimensional flow of mass and energy through porous media. The media may be saturated or partially saturated. SAGUARO solves the parabolic time-dependent mass transport equation which accounts for the presence of partially saturated zones through the use of highly non-linear material characteristic curves. The energy equation accounts for the possibility of partially-saturated regions by adjusting the thermal capacitances and thermal conductivities according to the volume fraction of water present in the local pores. The code capabilities are demonstrated through the presentation of a sample problem involving the one dimensional calculation of simultaneous energy transfer and water infiltration into partially saturated hard rock.
Vorticity and upscaled dispersion in 3D heterogeneous porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Dato, Mariaines; Chiogna, Gabriele; de Barros, Felipe; Bellin, Alberto; Fiori, Aldo
2015-04-01
Modeling flow in porous media is relevant for many environmental, energy and industrial applications. From an environmental perspective, the relevance of porous media flow becomes evident in subsurface hydrology. In general, flow in natural porous media is creeping, yet the large variability in the hydraulic conductivity values encountered in natural aquifers leads to highly heterogeneous flow fields. This natural variability in the conductivity field will affect both dilution rates of chemical species and reactive mixing. A physical consequence of this heterogeneity is also the presence of a various localized kinematical features such as straining, shearing and vorticity in aquifers, which will influence the shape of solute clouds and its fate and transport. This work aims in fundamentally characterizing the vorticity field in spatially heterogeneous flow fields as a function of their statistical properties in order to analyze the impact on transport processes. In our study, three-dimensional porous formations are constructed with an ensemble of N independent, non-overlapping spheroidal inclusions submerged into an homogeneous matrix, of conductivity K0. The inclusions are randomly located in a domain of volume W and are fully characterized by the geometry of spheroid (oblate or prolate), their conductivity K (random and drawn from a given probability density function fκ), the centroid location ¯x, the axes ratio e, the orientation of the rotational axis (α1,α2) and the volume w. Under the assumption of diluted medium, the flow problem is solved analitically by means of only two parameters: the conductivity contrast κ = K/K0 and the volume fraction n = Nw/W . Through the variation of these parameters of the problem, it is possible to approximate the structure of natural heterogeneous porous media. Using a random distribution of the orientation of the inclusions, we create media defined by the same global anisotropy f = Iz/Ix but different micro
Transport of nanoparticles in porous media with Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vo, Minh; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios
2014-03-01
Nanoparticles can serve as nanosensor devices in oil recovery processes, because of their ability to propagate in porous media. We employ DPD simulations to explore the factors affecting the retention and mobility of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in porous media. Compared to molecular dynamics simulations, longer time and length scales can be obtained with DPD, while the hydrodynamic properties of system are also maintained. Besides, complex flow structures can be handled by DPD in a simple manner (using frozen DPD beads for solid surface). In our calculations, packed-sphere geometry is utilized to create porous media. After equilibrium, CNTs are released into the flow. The interaction between the CNTs and the solid surface is considered by applying both shifted force Lenard-Jones and Morse potential in the DPD model. Different sizes of CNTs are investigated, in order to study the effect of the aspect ratio on the hydrodynamic forces as well as the rotation of CNTs while moving with the flow. In addition, the mobility of CNTs is discussed by computing their trajectory in the flow and comparing the cylindrical particles to spherical. This work was supported by the Advanced Energy Consortium. The use of computing facilities at OSCER and at XSEDE (CTS-090025) is also acknowledged.
A method for moisture measurement in porous media based on epithermal neutron scattering.
El Abd, A
2015-11-01
A method for moisture measurement in porous media was proposed. A wide beam of epithermal neutrons was obtained from a Pu-Be neutron source immersed in a cylinder made of paraffin wax. (3)He detectors (four or six) arranged in the backward direction of the incident beam were used to record scattered neutrons from investigated samples. Experiments of water absorption into clay and silicate bricks, and a sand column were investigated by neutron scattering. While the samples were absorbing water, scattered neutrons were recorded from fixed positions along the water flow direction. It was observed that, at these positions scattered neutrons increase as the water uptake increases. Obtained results are discussed in terms of the theory of macroscopic flow in porous media. It was shown that, the water absorption processes were Fickian and non Fickian in the sand column and brick samples, respectively. The advantages of applying the proposed method to study fast as well as slow flow processes in porous media are discussed. PMID:26298060
Towards a porous media model of the human lung
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeGroot, Christopher T.; Straatman, Anthony G.
2012-05-01
In this article, progress towards building a complete porous media model of the human lung is discussed. While the recent trend in computational fluid dynamics studies of airflow in the human lung has been to continually increase the size and detail of the airway tree under consideration, it is proposed in this work that simulating flow in the human lung as a coupled fluid-porous system is an effective method to simulate the flow in the whole lung. Under the proposed modeling paradigm, a truncated airway tree constitutes a fluid region which is coupled to a porous region that represents the remainder of the lung volume, containing small airways and alveoli. The first part of this work describes pore-level simulations conducted in an alveolated duct geometry, which are present in large quantities in the human lung, to determine its permeability. Next, volume-averaged simulations incorporating the results of the pore-level simulations and using a realistic lung geometry based on computed tomography images are discussed along with future directions for this work.
Microscale simulation of particle deposition in porous media.
Boccardo, Gianluca; Marchisio, Daniele L; Sethi, Rajandrea
2014-03-01
In this work several geometries, each representing a different porous medium, are considered to perform detailed computational fluid dynamics simulation for fluid flow, particle transport and deposition. Only Brownian motions and steric interception are accounted for as deposition mechanisms. Firstly pressure drop in each porous medium is analyzed in order to determine an effective grain size, by fitting the results with the Ergun law. Then grid independence is assessed. Lastly, particle transport in the system is investigated via Eulerian steady-state simulations, where particle concentration is solved for, not following explicitly particles' trajectories, but solving the corresponding advection-diffusion equation. An assumption was made in considering favorable collector-particle interactions, resulting in a "perfect sink" boundary condition for the collectors. The gathered simulation data are used to calculate the deposition efficiency due to Brownian motions and steric interception. The original Levich law for one simple circular collector is verified; subsequently porous media constituted by a packing of collectors are scrutinized. Results show that the interactions between the different collectors result in behaviors which are not in line with the theory developed by Happel and co-workers, highlighting a different dependency of the deposition efficiency on the dimensionless groups involved in the relevant correlations. PMID:24407681
Pore-scale dynamics of salt transport and distribution in drying porous media
Shokri, Nima
2014-01-15
Understanding the physics of water evaporation from saline porous media is important in many natural and engineering applications such as durability of building materials and preservation of monuments, water quality, and mineral-fluid interactions. We applied synchrotron x-ray micro-tomography to investigate the pore-scale dynamics of dissolved salt distribution in a three dimensional drying saline porous media using a cylindrical plastic column (15 mm in height and 8 mm in diameter) packed with sand particles saturated with CaI{sub 2} solution (5% concentration by mass) with a spatial and temporal resolution of 12 μm and 30 min, respectively. Every time the drying sand column was set to be imaged, two different images were recorded using distinct synchrotron x-rays energies immediately above and below the K-edge value of Iodine. Taking the difference between pixel gray values enabled us to delineate the spatial and temporal distribution of CaI{sub 2} concentration at pore scale. Results indicate that during early stages of evaporation, air preferentially invades large pores at the surface while finer pores remain saturated and connected to the wet zone at bottom via capillary-induced liquid flow acting as evaporating spots. Consequently, the salt concentration increases preferentially in finer pores where evaporation occurs. Higher salt concentration was observed close to the evaporating surface indicating a convection-driven process. The obtained salt profiles were used to evaluate the numerical solution of the convection-diffusion equation (CDE). Results show that the macro-scale CDE could capture the overall trend of the measured salt profiles but fail to produce the exact slope of the profiles. Our results shed new insight on the physics of salt transport and its complex dynamics in drying porous media and establish synchrotron x-ray tomography as an effective tool to investigate the dynamics of salt transport in porous media at high spatial and temporal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norouzi Rad, M.; Shokri, N.
2011-12-01
Understanding the physics of salt distribution in drying porous media is of relevance to various environmental and hydrological applications such as the soil salinization, terrestrial ecosystem functioning, microbiological activities in the vadose zone and structural damage to buildings, and historical monuments. Early stage of the evaporation process from saturated porous media is supplied by the capillary-induced liquid flow hydraulically connecting a receding drying front to surface (the so-called stage 1 evaporation). During stage 1, dissolved salt is transported by the capillary flow toward the evaporating surface where it accumulates, whereas diffusion (Brownian motion) tends to spread the salt and homogenize the concentrations in space. Relative humidity and ambient temperature limit the stage-1 evaporation and consequently influence the dynamics of salt distribution in porous media. The resulting interplay between convective and diffusive transport during evaporation is commonly quantified by the dimensionless Peclet number which is proportional to the evaporation rate. We have applied the convection-diffusion equation to describe the dynamics of salt distribution in drying porous media under different Peclet numbers. The predicted salt profiles were evaluated by a complete series of laboratory evaporation experiments using an environmental chamber where the relative humidity and temperature were accurately controlled. We have used sand with average particle size of 0.48 mm saturated with NaCl solution (1.25 Molal). The sand column was mounted on a digital balance connected to a computer to record the evaporation rate automatically. We studied dynamics of salt concentration at 30°C under relative humidity of 30%, 45% and 60% and also under the constant relative humidity of 45% at 30°C and 35°C . The experimentally-determined salt profiles were in a good agreement with the analytical and numerical predictions. Results revealed the preferential salt
Mobility of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes in Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Carroll, D. M.; Liu, X.; Petersen, E.; Huang, Q.; Anderson, L.
2007-12-01
Engineered multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are the subject of intense research and are expected to gain widespread usage in a broad variety of commercial products. However concerns have been raised regarding their potential environmental and health risks. The mobility of MWCNTs in porous media is examined in this study through one dimensional flow-through column experiments under conditions representative of subsurface and drinking water treatment systems. The goal of this work was to determine dominant MWCNT removal mechanisms and factors that control MWCNT transport. Results demonstrate that pore water velocity strongly influenced MWCNT transport, a result that stands in contrast to traditional colloid filtration theory, which suggests a relatively minor effect of flow velocity in comparison to Brownian diffusion. Experiments conducted at different ionic strengths indicate that both particle deposition and straining are important MWCNT removal mechanisms from the aqueous phase. Given these findings, traditional colloid filtration theory may not be appropriate for the prediction of MWCNT mobility in porous media. This may be due to the large aspect ratio of the MWCNTs and the importance of straining in MWCNT removal.
Influence of biofilms on transport properties in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davit, Y.
2015-12-01
Microbial activity and biofilm growth in porous media can drastically modify transport properties such as permeability, longitudinal and transverse dispersion or effective reaction rates. Understanding these effects has proven to be a considerable challenge. Advances in this field have been hindered by the difficulty of modeling and visualizing these multi-phase non-linear effects across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. To address these issues, we are developing a strategy that combines imaging techniques based on x-ray micro-tomography with homogenization of pore-scale transport equations. Here, we review recent progress in x-ray imaging of biofilms in porous media, with a particular focus on the contrast agents that are used to differentiate between the fluid and biofilm phases. We further show how the 3D distribution of the different phases can be used to extract specific information about the biofilm and how effective properties can be calculated via the resolution of closure problems. These closure problems are obtained using the method of volume averaging and must be adapted to the problem of interest. In hydrological systems, we show that a generic formulation for reactive solute transport is based on a domain decomposition approach at the micro-scale yielding macro-scale models reminiscent of multi-rate mass transfer approaches.
Evaluation of liquid aerosol transport through porous media.
Hall, R; Murdoch, L; Falta, R; Looney, B; Riha, B
2016-07-01
Application of remediation methods in contaminated vadose zones has been hindered by an inability to effectively distribute liquid- or solid-phase amendments. Injection as aerosols in a carrier gas could be a viable method for achieving useful distributions of amendments in unsaturated materials. The objectives of this work were to characterize radial transport of aerosols in unsaturated porous media, and to develop capabilities for predicting results of aerosol injection scenarios at the field-scale. Transport processes were investigated by conducting lab-scale injection experiments with radial flow geometry, and predictive capabilities were obtained by developing and validating a numerical model for simulating coupled aerosol transport, deposition, and multi-phase flow in porous media. Soybean oil was transported more than 2m through sand by injecting it as micron-scale aerosol droplets. Oil saturation in the sand increased with time to a maximum of 0.25, and decreased with radial distance in the experiments. The numerical analysis predicted the distribution of oil saturation with only minor calibration. The results indicated that evolution of oil saturation was controlled by aerosol deposition and subsequent flow of the liquid oil, and simulation requires including these two coupled processes. The calibrated model was used to evaluate field applications. The results suggest that amendments can be delivered to the vadose zone as aerosols, and that gas injection rate and aerosol particle size will be important controls on the process. PMID:27149690
Multicomponent, multiphase flow in porous media with temperature variation
Wingard, J.S.; Orr, F.M. Jr.
1990-10-01
Recovery of hydrocarbons from porous media is an ongoing concern. Advanced techniques augment conventional recovery methods by injecting fluids that favorably interact with the oil. These fluids interact with the oil by energy transfer, in the case of steam injection, or by mass transfer, as in a miscible gas flood. Often both thermal and compositional considerations are important. An understanding of these injection methods requires knowledge of how temperature variations, phase equilibrium and multiphase flow in porous media interact. The material balance for each component and energy balance are cast as a system of non-strictly hyperbolic partial differential equations. This system of equations is solved using the method of characteristics. The model takes into account the phase behavior by using the Peng-Robinson equation of state to partition the individual components into different phases. Temperature effects are accounted for by the energy balance. Flow effects are modelled by using fractional flow curves and a Stone's three phase relative permeability model. Three problems are discussed. The first problem eliminates the phase behavior aspect of the problem by studying the flow of a single component as it undergoes an isothermal phase change. The second couples the effects of temperature and flow behavior by including a second component that is immiscible with the original component. Phase behavior is added by using a set of three partially miscible components that partition into two or three separate phases. 66 refs., 54 figs., 14 tabs.
Pore-network modeling of biofilm evolution in porous media.
Ezeuko, C C; Sen, A; Grigoryan, A; Gates, I D
2011-10-01
The influence of bacterial biomass on hydraulic properties of porous media (bioclogging) has been explored as a viable means for optimizing subsurface bioremediation and microbial enhanced oil recovery. In this study, we present a pore network simulator for modeling biofilm evolution in porous media including hydrodynamics and nutrient transport based on coupling of advection transport with Fickian diffusion and a reaction term to account for nutrient consumption. Biofilm has non-zero permeability permitting liquid flow and transport through the biofilm itself. To handle simultaneous mass transfer in both liquid and biofilm in a pore element, a dual-diffusion mass transfer model is introduced. The influence of nutrient limitation on predicted results is explored. Nutrient concentration in the network is affected by diffusion coefficient for nutrient transfer across biofilm (compared to water/water diffusion coefficient) under advection dominated transport, represented by mass transport Péclet number >1. The model correctly predicts a dependence of rate of biomass accumulation on inlet concentration. Poor network connectivity shows a significantly large reduction of permeability, for a small biomass pore volume. PMID:21520022
Topological phase transition in 2D porous media flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waisbord, Nicolas; Stoop, Norbert; Kantsler, Vasily; Guasto, Jeffrey S.; Dunkel, Jorn; Guasto Team; Dunkel Team; Kantsler Team
2015-11-01
Since the establishment of Darcy's law, analysis of porous-media flows has focused primarily on linking macroscopic transport properties, such as mean flow rate and dispersion, to the pore statistics of the material matrix. Despite intense efforts to understand the fluid velocity statistics from the porous-media structure, a qualitative and quantitative connection remains elusive. Here, we combine precisely controlled experiments with theory to quantify how geometric disorder in the matrix affects the flow statistics and transport in a quasi-2D microfluidic channel. Experimentally measured velocity fields for a range of different microstructure configurations are found to be in excellent agreement with large-scale numerical simulations. By successively increasing the matrix disorder, we study the transition from periodic flow structures to transport networks consisting of extended high-velocity channels. Morse-Smale complex analysis of the flow patterns reveals a topological phase transition that is linked to a qualitative change in the physical transport properties. This work demonstrates that topological flow analysis provides a mathematically well-defined, broadly applicable framework for understanding and quantifying fluid transport in complex geometries.
Evaluation of liquid aerosol transport through porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, R.; Murdoch, L.; Falta, R.; Looney, B.; Riha, B.
2016-07-01
Application of remediation methods in contaminated vadose zones has been hindered by an inability to effectively distribute liquid- or solid-phase amendments. Injection as aerosols in a carrier gas could be a viable method for achieving useful distributions of amendments in unsaturated materials. The objectives of this work were to characterize radial transport of aerosols in unsaturated porous media, and to develop capabilities for predicting results of aerosol injection scenarios at the field-scale. Transport processes were investigated by conducting lab-scale injection experiments with radial flow geometry, and predictive capabilities were obtained by developing and validating a numerical model for simulating coupled aerosol transport, deposition, and multi-phase flow in porous media. Soybean oil was transported more than 2 m through sand by injecting it as micron-scale aerosol droplets. Oil saturation in the sand increased with time to a maximum of 0.25, and decreased with radial distance in the experiments. The numerical analysis predicted the distribution of oil saturation with only minor calibration. The results indicated that evolution of oil saturation was controlled by aerosol deposition and subsequent flow of the liquid oil, and simulation requires including these two coupled processes. The calibrated model was used to evaluate field applications. The results suggest that amendments can be delivered to the vadose zone as aerosols, and that gas injection rate and aerosol particle size will be important controls on the process.
The Boundary Integral Equation Method for Porous Media Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Mary P.
Just as groundwater hydrologists are breathing sighs of relief after the exertions of learning the finite element method, a new technique has reared its nodes—the boundary integral equation method (BIEM) or the boundary equation method (BEM), as it is sometimes called. As Liggett and Liu put it in the preface to The Boundary Integral Equation Method for Porous Media Flow, “Lately, the Boundary Integral Equation Method (BIEM) has emerged as a contender in the computation Derby.” In fact, in July 1984, the 6th International Conference on Boundary Element Methods in Engineering will be held aboard the Queen Elizabeth II, en route from Southampton to New York. These conferences are sponsored by the Department of Civil Engineering at Southampton College (UK), whose members are proponents of BIEM. The conferences have featured papers on applications of BIEM to all aspects of engineering, including flow through porous media. Published proceedings are available, as are textbooks on application of BIEM to engineering problems. There is even a 10-minute film on the subject.
Direct Numerical Simulation of Liquid Transport Through Fibrous Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palakurthi, Nikhil Kumar
Fluid flow through fibrous media occurs in many industrial processes, including, but not limited, to fuel cell technology, drug delivery patches, sanitary products, textile reinforcement, filtration, heat exchangers, and performance fabrics. Understanding the physical processes involved in fluid flow through fibrous media is essential for their characterization as well as for the optimization and development of new products. Macroscopic porous-media equations require constitutive relations, which account for the physical processes occurring at the micro-scale, to predict liquid transport at the macro-scale. In this study, micro-scale simulations were conducted using conventional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique (finite-volume method) to determine the macroscopic constitutive relations. The first part of this thesis deals with the single-phase flow in fibrous media, following which multi-phase flow through fibrous media was studied. Darcy permeability is an important parameter that characterizes creeping flow through a fibrous porous medium. It has a complex dependence on the medium's properties such as fibers' in-plane and through-plane orientation, diameter, aspect ratio, curvature, and porosity. A suite of 3D virtual fibrous structures with a wide range of geometric properties were constructed, and the permeability values of the structures were calculated by solving the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The through-plane permeability was found to be a function of only the fiber diameter, the fibers' through-plane orientation, and the porosity of the medium. The numerical results were used to extend a permeability-porosity relation, developed in literature for 3D isotropic fibrous media, to a wide range of fibers' through-plane orientations. In applications where rate of capillary penetration is important, characterization of porous media usually involves determination of either the effective pore radius from capillary penetration experiments
Dynamical surface affinity of diphasic liquids as a probe of wettability of multimodal porous media.
Korb, J-P; Freiman, G; Nicot, B; Ligneul, P
2009-12-01
We introduce a method for estimating the wettability of rock/oil/brine systems using noninvasive in situ nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion. This technique scans over a large range of applied magnetic fields and yields unique information about the extent to which a fluid is dynamically correlated with a solid rock surface. Unlike conventional transverse relaxation studies, this approach is a direct probe of the dynamical surface affinity of fluids. To quantify these features we introduce a microscopic dynamical surface affinity index which measures the dynamical correlation (i.e., the microscopic wettability) between the diffusive fluid and the fixed paramagnetic relaxation sources at the pore surfaces. We apply this method to carbonate reservoir rocks which are known to hold about two thirds of the world's oil reserves. Although this nondestructive method concerns here an application to rocks, it could be generalized as an in situ liquid/surface affinity indicator for any multimodal porous medium including porous biological media. PMID:20365175
Experimentally Determined Interfacial Area Between Immiscible Fluids in Porous Media
Crandall, Dustin; Niessner, J; Hassanizadeh, S.M; Smith, Duane
2008-01-01
When multiple fluids flow through a porous medium, the interaction between the fluid interfaces can be of great importance. While this is widely recognized in practical applications, numerical models often disregard interactios between discrete fluid phases due to the computational complexity. And rightly so, for this level of detail is well beyond most extended Darcy Law relationships. A new model of two-phase flow including the interfacial area has been proposed by Hassarizadeh and Gray based upon thermodynamic principles. A version of this general equation set has been implemented by Nessner and Hassarizadeh. Many of the interfacial parameters required by this equation set have never been determined from experiments. The work presented here is a description of how the interfacial area, capillary pressure, interfacial velocity and interfacial permeability from two-phase flow experiments in porous media experiments can be used to determine the required parameters. This work, while on-going, has shown the possibility of digitizing images within translucent porous media and identifying the location and behavior of interfaces under dynamic conditions. Using the described methods experimentally derived interfacial functions to be used in larger scale simulations are currently being developed. In summary, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) by mapping a pore-throat geometry onto an image of immiscible fluid flow, the saturation of fluids and the individual interfaces between the fluids can be identified; (2) the resulting saturation profiles of the low velocity drainage flows used in this study are well described by an invasion percolation fractal scaling; (3) the interfacial area between fluids has been observed to increase in a linear fashion during the initial invasion of the non-wetting fluid; and (4) the average capillary pressure within the entire cell and representative elemental volumes were observed to plateau after a small portion of the volume was
Review of key factors controlling engineered nanoparticle transport in porous media.
Wang, Mei; Gao, Bin; Tang, Deshan
2016-11-15
Nanotechnology, an emerging technology, has witnessed rapid development in production and application. Engineered nanomaterials revolutionize the industry due to their unique structure and superior performance. The release of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into the environment, however, may pose risks to the environment and public health. To advance current understanding of environmental behaviors of ENPs, this work provides an introductory overview of ENP fate and transport in porous media. It systematically reviews the key factors controlling their fate and transport in porous media. It first provides a brief overview of common ENPs in the environment and their sources. The key factors that govern ENP transport in porous media are then categorized into three groups: (1) nature of ENPs affecting their transport in porous media, (2) nature of porous media affecting ENP transport, and (3) nature of flow affecting ENP transport in porous media. In each group, findings in recent literature on the specific governing factors of ENP transport in porous media are discussed in details. Finally, this work concludes with remarks on the importance of ENP transport in porous media and directions for future research. PMID:27427890
PREDICTION OF INTERFACIAL AREAS DURING IMBIBITION IN SIMPLE POROUS MEDIA. (R827116)
The interfacial area between wetting (W-) and non-wetting (NW-) phases is one of the crucial parameters in several flow and transport processes in porous media. This paper gives predictions of such areas during imbibition (displacement of NW-phase by W) in simple porous media....
Proceedings: Geotechnology workshop on compressed-air energy storage in porous media sites
Not Available
1987-07-01
The extensive experience of the natural gas industry with gas storage in underground porous media is directly applicable to the storage of air for compressed-air energy storage plants. In this workshop, natural gas industry representatives provided utility personnel with a basic understanding of the geology of porous media and strategies for developing air storage reservoirs.
Magnetic resonance imaging of convection in porous media
Shattuck, M.; Behringer, R.P.; Johnson, G.A.; Georgiadis, J.
1994-12-31
We describe convection patterns formed in porous media fully saturated with water. The flows are noninvasively visualized by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Ordered and disordered packings of acrylic spheres of diameter d = 3.2 mm, form the porous media studied here. The horizontal cross sections of the convection layers are circular, rectangular and hexagonal. If there are inhomogeneities in the packing, convection begins first in the resulting regions of high permeability. These regions occur throughout the randomly-packed medium at defects, as well as at the edges. Even well above onset, packing defects remain as pinning sites for the pattern. Grain boundaries occur at the walls for all sphere packings, and lead to two convective onsets. Convection occurs first for the narrow higher permeability wall region, and is characterized by larger wave-number rolls. Convection occurs at higher Rayleigh numbers, Ra, for the lower permeability interior region and is characterized by smaller wave number rolls. The sidewalls appear to play a weak role in the interior pattern selection. In the ordered media, we see steady-state rolls up to 5Ra{sub c} where Ra{sub c} is the critical Rayleigh number. Above 5Ra{sub c}, time dependent behavior begins. As Ra increases above Ra{sub c}, there is an increasing asymmetry between the area of the up flows and of the down flows. By Ra = 8Ra{sub c}, the up flows consist of smaller mobile islands in a sea of down flows. The equations which describe PMC predict a rapid decay of vertical vorticity. In Rayleigh-Benard convection (RBC) vertical vorticity is responsible for mean flows which lead to complex time dependent flows such as spiral chaos, even relatively near Ra{sub c}. We find rapid relaxation to steady states (stable over at least 100 vertical diffusion times) within the stability region, which is in agreement with the expectation of no vertical vorticity.
Preparation of asymmetric porous materials
Coker, Eric N.
2012-08-07
A method for preparing an asymmetric porous material by depositing a porous material film on a flexible substrate, and applying an anisotropic stress to the porous media on the flexible substrate, where the anisotropic stress results from a stress such as an applied mechanical force, a thermal gradient, and an applied voltage, to form an asymmetric porous material.
Recent Advances on Fractal Modeling of Permeability for Fibrous Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Jianchao; Luo, Liang; Ye, Ran; Zeng, Xiangfeng; Hu, Xiangyun
2015-03-01
Permeability is an important hydraulic parameter for characterizing heat and mass transfer properties of fibrous porous media. However, it is difficult to be quantitatively predicted due to the complex and irregular pore structure of fibrous porous media. Fractal geometry has been verified to be an effective method for determining the permeability of fibrous porous media. In this study, recent works on the permeability of fibrous porous media by means of fractal geometry are reviewed, the advances for each presented fractal model are analyzed and summarized, parameter equations used in available fractal permeability models are also briefly compared and reviewed. Future work for more generalized permeability model of fibrous porous media need to conducted by considering the special characters of fibrous materials, uniform pore structure parameter model and the influence factor of capillary pressure, electrokinetic phenomena, etc.
A numerical study for transport phenomena of nanoscale gas flow in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oshima, Tomoya; Yonemura, Shigeru; Tokumasu, Takashi
2012-11-01
Gas flow in porous media occurs in various engineering devices such as catalytic converters and fuel cells. In order to improve the performance of such devices, it is important to understand transport phenomena in porous media. In porous media with pores as small as a molecular mean free path, molecular motions need to be directly considered instead of treating gas flow as a continuum, and effects of complicated channels need to be taken into account. Therefore, such gas flow was analyzed by using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, which is the stochastic solution of the Boltzmann equation. Numerical simulations of gas flow driven by pressure gradient without surface reaction were performed to clarify transport phenomena in porous media imitated by arranging nanoscale solid particles randomly. The effects of pressure gradient, diameter of particles and porosity on gas flow rates and permeability of porous media were investigated.
Silliman, S.E.; Babic, M.
1993-09-28
Sophisticated models of the movement of particles, particularly bacteria and viruses, through porous media have been developed, but have met with limited success when compared to field observations some argue that the poor predictive capabilities of the models are due in part to the fact that most of the sophisticated models are tied to an assumptions of homogeneity within the flow field. In previous work, the structure of random percolation fields has been investigated and suggests application of percolation theory to heterogeneous porous media. One conclusion from this study as applied to particle transport is that as the distribution of pore throat sizes takes on variation in the third dimension, the probability of finding a continuous flow path with large throat size increases. One interpretation of this work, within the current context, leads to an argument that a saturated medium will become more open to transport of particles as the medium takes on three dimensional structure. The central hypothesis of the current project is therefore be stated: Particles which are suspended within the pore fluids of media demonstrating three-dimensional heterogeneities will be transported at higher average velocities and with less trapping than particles which are suspended in the pore fluids of media demonstrating one- or two-dimensional heterogeneities. This dependence on dimension is a function of the dimensional character of the heterogeneity, the length scales of the heterogeneity, the size of the particles, the hydrodynamics of the flow field, the degree of saturation of the medium, and the medium/particle interaction.
Mixing Zones and Mineral Precipitation Dynamics in Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gebrehiwet, T.; Henrikson, J.; Guo, L.; Fox, D. T.; Huang, H.; Fujita, Y.; Tu, L.
2011-12-01
Precipitation of mineral phases in subsurface environments involves coupling between reactant transport and changes in media properties that control transport. Chemical gradients within mixing zones will determine the rates and products of reactions, which in turn can modify the permeability and flow paths within the porous media. This reaction-transport coupling is being studied using double diffusion experiments and reactive transport modeling, with calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate as the model mineral systems. In particular we are investigating: (1) the interplay between permeability modifications and reactions that can change local chemical conditions, hydrodynamic conditions, and therefore the rate of precipitation, (2) narrowing ("focusing") of the precipitation zone, and (3) migration of the precipitation zone associated with asymmetry across the mixing zone with respect to precipitation rates and/or local chemical conditions. Experiments are being conducted in hydrogel (polyacrylamide) and granular (glass beads and fine-grained sand) media. Gels were used to investigate the role of diffusion alone on the structure of precipitation zones. We observed differences between carbonate and phosphate systems with respect to the induction period for precipitation, and the position and migration of the precipitation zone. One interesting observation was that multiple precipitation bands are produced in the calcium phosphate system, while no clear banding has been observed in the calcium carbonate system. Initial reactive transport simulations that couple precipitation kinetics with reactant transport and mixing appear consistent with the experimental observations. Precipitation band width and position were found to change with time, and precipitation appeared to slow subsequent reactions at the mixing interfaces. The induction time, spacing between the precipitation bands and band width in the calcium phosphate system were influenced by pH, saturation state
Microbial growth and transport in saturated and unsaturated porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hron, Pavel; Jost, Daniel; Bastian, Peter; Ippisch, Olaf
2014-05-01
There is a considerable ongoing effort aimed at understanding the behavior of microorganisms in porous media. Microbial activity is of significant interest in various environmental applications such as in situ bioremediation, protection of drinking water supplies and for subsurface geochemistry in general. The main limiting factors for bacterial growth are the availability of electron acceptors, nutrients and bio-available water. The capillary fringe, defined - in a wider sense than usual - as the region of the subsurface above the groundwater table, but still dominated by capillary rise, is a region where all these factors are abundantly available. It is thus a region where high microbial activity is to be expected. In a research unit 'Dynamic Capillary Fringes - A Multidisciplinary Approach (DyCap)' founded by the German Research Foundation (DFG), the growth of microorganisms in the capillary fringe was studied experimentally and with numerical simulations. Processes like component transport and diffusion, exchange between the liquid phase and the gas phase, microbial growth and cell attachment and detachment were incorporated into a numerical simulator. The growth of the facultative anaerobic Escherichia coli as a function of nutrient availability and oxygen concentration in the liquid phase is modeled with modified Monod-type models and modifications for the switch between aerobic and anaerobic growth. Laboratory batch experiments with aqueous solutions of bacteria have been carried out under various combinations of oxygen concentrations in the gas phase and added amounts of dissolved organic carbon to determine the growth model parameters by solution of a parameter estimation problem. For the transport of bacteria the adhesion to phase boundaries is also very important. As microorganisms are transported through porous media, they are removed from the pore fluid by physicochemical filtration (attachment to sediment grain surfaces) or are adhering to gas
Mobility of engineered inorganic nanoparticles in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metreveli, George; Heidmann, Ilona; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen
2013-04-01
Besides the excellent properties and great potential for various industrial, medical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and life science applications, engineered inorganic nanoparticles (EINP) can show also disadvantages concerning increasing risk potential with increasing application, if they are released in the environmental systems. EINP can influence microbial activity and can show toxic effects (Fabrega et al., 2009). Similar to the inorganic natural colloids, EINP can be transported in soil and groundwater systems (Metreveli et al., 2005). Furthermore, due to the large surface area and high sorption and complex formation capacity, EINP can facilitate transport of different contaminants. In this study the mobility behaviour of EINP and their effect on the transport of different metal(loid) species in water saturated porous media was investigated. For these experiments laboratory column system was used. The column was filled with quartz sand. The interactions between EINP and metal(loid)s were characterised by coupling of asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation (AF4) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). As EINP laponite (synthetic three layer clay mineral), and as metal(loid)s Cu, Pb, Zn, Pt and As were used. In AF4 experiments sorption of metal(loid)s on the surface of EINP could be observed. The extent of interactions was influenced by pH value and was different for different metal(loid)s. Laboratory column experiments showed high mobility of EINP, which facilitated transport of most of metal(loid)s in water saturated porous media. Furthermore the migration of synthetic silver nanoparticles in natural soil columns was determined in leaching experiments. Acknowledgement Financial support by German Research Council (DFG) and Max-Buchner-Research Foundation (MBFSt) is gratefully acknowledged. We thank Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) for the opportunity to perform the column and AF4 experiments. References: Fabrega, J., Fawcett, S. R
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rockhold, M. L.; Yarwood, R. R.; Niemet, M. R.; Bottomley, P. J.; Selker, J. S.; Brockman, F. J.
2001-12-01
An experimental and numerical investigation was conducted to study interactions between microbial dynamics and transport processes in variably saturated porous media. A mathematical model is developed in this paper (Part 2) to describe the processes of water flow, solute transport, gas diffusion, and microbial dynamics, including bacterial cell growth, substrate consumption, and cell attachment to and detachment from solid-liquid and gas-liquid interfaces. A composite media model is used to account for the accumulation of an attached bacterial phase on the hydraulic properties of variably saturated porous media. Fluid-media scaling is used to account for possible biomass-induced changes in surface tension, contact angle, fluid viscosity, and density. The model is applied to simulate experiments conducted in sand-packed columns and in a light transmission chamber inoculated with a Pseudomonas fluorescens bacterium. The experimental results from the light transmission chamber are described in a companion paper by Yarwood et al. (Part 1).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehmann, Peter; Hoogland, Frouke; Or, Dani
2016-04-01
The air entry value is the capillary pressure associated with the formation of a continuous gas phase, hence marking the onset of unsaturated conditions in a porous medium. Near the air-entry value, transport properties change abruptly hence the importance of reliable determination of this value for modeling processes in the vadose zone. Typically, air entry value is inferred from the soil water characteristics of a porous sample subjected to step-wise increase in applied suction. This procedure is laborious and may require long equilibration times, and is difficult to apply for coarse media. We present an alternative and simpler method to deduce air entry-value from continuous evaporation from an initially saturated porous sample. As water evaporates and menisci form and penetrate the surface, the capillary pressure (measured with a tensiometer at any depth) abruptly changes and marks the macroscopic air entry value. This value remains remarkably constant during evaporation and receding drying front (after accounting for hydrostatic front position). We present experimental results from different porous media confirming that air-entry values deduced from soil water characteristics and evaporation experiments are similar. We employed pore scale imaging and network modeling to confirm that the air-entry value corresponds to the critical path that is needed to form a continuous air phase and its macroscopic value remains stable at a drying front that traverses a uniform porous medium. For layered media, corresponding adjustments in air entry values and air invasion patterns have been predicted and measured.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roth, E. J.; Tigera, R. G.; Crimaldi, J. P.; Mays, D. C.
2015-12-01
Research in porous media is often hampered by the difficulty in making pore-scale observations. By selecting porous media that is refractive index matched (RIM) to the pore fluid, the media becomes transparent. This allows optical imaging techniques such as static light scattering (SLS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), confocal microscopy, and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) to be employed. RIM is particularly useful for research concerning contaminant remediation in the subsurface, permitting visual observation of plume dynamics at the pore scale. The goal of this research is to explore and assess candidate combinations of porous media, fluid, and fluorescent dye. The strengths and weaknesses of each combination will then be evaluated in terms of safety, cost, and optical quality in order to select the best combination for use with PLIF. Within this framework, top-ranked RIM combinations include Pyrex glass beads, water beads, or granular Nafion saturated in vegetable glycerin, deionized water, and an aqueous solution of 48% isopropanol, respectively. This research lays the groundwork for future efforts to build a flow chamber in which the selected RIM porous media, solution, and dye will be used in evaluating subsurface pumping strategies designed to impose chaotic plume spreading in porous media. Though the RIM porous media explored in this research are selected based on the specifications of a particular experiment, the methods developed for working with and evaluating RIM porous media should be of utility to a wide variety of research interests.
Phase field modeling of partially saturated deformable porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sciarra, Giulio
2016-09-01
A poromechanical model of partially saturated deformable porous media is proposed based on a phase field approach at modeling the behavior of the mixture of liquid water and wet air, which saturates the pore space, the phase field being the saturation (ratio). While the standard retention curve is expected still^ to provide the intrinsic retention properties of the porous skeleton, depending on the porous texture, an enhanced description of surface tension between the wetting (liquid water) and the non-wetting (wet air) fluid, occupying the pore space, is stated considering a regularization of the phase field model based on an additional contribution to the overall free energy depending on the saturation gradient. The aim is to provide a more refined description of surface tension interactions. An enhanced constitutive relation for the capillary pressure is established together with a suitable generalization of Darcy's law, in which the gradient of the capillary pressure is replaced by the gradient of the so-called generalized chemical potential, which also accounts for the "force", associated to the local free energy of the phase field model. A micro-scale heuristic interpretation of the novel constitutive law of capillary pressure is proposed, in order to compare the envisaged model with that one endowed with the concept of average interfacial area. The considered poromechanical model is formulated within the framework of strain gradient theory in order to account for possible effects, at laboratory scale, of the micro-scale hydro-mechanical couplings between highly localized flows (fingering) and localized deformations of the skeleton (fracturing).
Structure of drying fronts in three-dimensional porous media.
Shokri, Nima; Sahimi, Muhammad
2012-06-01
Evaporation in a three-dimensional (3D) porous medium, a sand column saturated by water, was studied using synchrotron x-ray tomography. Three-dimensional images of the medium with a resolution of 7 μm were obtained during the evaporation. The entire column was scanned seven times, resulting in nearly 10(4) 2D cross sections and illustrating the spatial distribution of air, liquid, and solid phases at the pore scale. The results were analyzed in order to gain new insights and better understanding of the characteristics of the drying front that was formed when the liquid-filled pores were invaded by air, as well as the structure of the liquid phase as it was dried. The analysis indicates that the liquid phase has a self-similar fractal structure, with its fractal dimension D(f) in all the cross sections being a function of the water content or saturation. In addition, D(f) for the 3D liquid structure, as well as its density correlation function, were computed using the 3D images. A crossover length scale ξ was identified that separates the fractal regime from the compact geometry. For length scales r>ξ, the density correlation function approaches asymptotically the water content of the porous medium. The drying front is shown to be rough and multi-affine, rather than self-affine. Its properties were also computed using the 3D images. The roughness characteristics agree with those for imbibition in porous media, but not with those of fracture surfaces and crack lines. PMID:23005211
Evaluation of QNI corrections in porous media applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radebe, M. J.; de Beer, F. C.; Nshimirimana, R.
2011-09-01
Qualitative measurements using digital neutron imaging has been the more explored aspect than accurate quantitative measurements. The reason for this bias is that quantitative measurements require correction for background and material scatter, and neutron spectral effects. Quantitative Neutron Imaging (QNI) software package has resulted from efforts at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and Necsa to correct for these effects, while the sample-detector distance (SDD) principle has previously been demonstrated as a measure to eliminate material scatter effect. This work evaluates the capabilities of the QNI software package to produce accurate quantitative results on specific characteristics of porous media, and its role to nondestructive quantification of material with and without calibration. The work further complements QNI abilities by the use of different SDDs. Studies of effective %porosity of mortar and attenuation coefficient of water using QNI and SDD principle are reported.
Anomalous transport in weakly heterogeneous geological porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yan
2013-03-01
Anomalous transport is found to be ubiquitous in complex geological formations and it has a paramount impact on petroleum engineering and groundwater sciences. This process can be well described by the continuous time random walk (CTRW) model, in which the probability density function w(t) of a particle's transition time t follows a power law for large t: w(t)˜t-1-α (0<α<2). In this work, based on the CTRW theory, a semifractional advection-diffusion equation is proposed to model the anomalous transport for 1<α<2, which is, as evidenced by field and numerical experiments, possibly the typical situation for many complex geological porous media with weakly heterogeneous microstructures.
Gravity Current in Horizontal Porous Media with A Permeability Gradient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Zhong; Tsai, Peichun; Al-Housseiny, Talal; Stone, Howard; Complex Fluid Group Team
2011-11-01
We study the influence of a power-law porosity and permeability gradient on the front propagation of a gravity current in an unconfined porous media. We neglect mass transfer and surface tension on the interface. A similarity solution is found for the propagating front, which is different from the homogeneous case. Experiments have been performed using liquid pushing air in a Hele-Shaw cell with a constant gradient in gap thickness in the vertical direction. We measure the speed of the front and the shape of the interface. We observe a third layer of trapped air in the region where the permeability is low, while it appears that the propagating front still satisfies the similarity solution with a modified coefficient. This work is supported by a funding from Carbon Mitigation Initiative at Princeton University
On the transport of emulsions in porous media
Cortis, Andrea; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.
2007-06-27
Emulsions appear in many subsurface applications includingbioremediation, surfactant-enhanced remediation, and enhancedoil-recovery. Modeling emulsion transport in porous media is particularlychallenging because the rheological and physical properties of emulsionsare different from averages of the components. Current modelingapproaches are based on filtration theories, which are not suited toadequately address the pore-scale permeability fluctuations and reductionof absolute permeability that are often encountered during emulsiontransport. In this communication, we introduce a continuous time randomwalk based alternative approach that captures these unique features ofemulsion transport. Calculations based on the proposed approach resultedin excellent match with experimental observations of emulsionbreakthrough from the literature. Specifically, the new approach explainsthe slow late-time tailing behavior that could not be fitted using thestandard approach. The theory presented in this paper also provides animportant stepping stone toward a generalizedself-consistent modeling ofmultiphase flow.
Gelfand-type problem for two-phase porous media
Gordon, Peter V.; Moroz, Vitaly
2014-01-01
We consider a generalization of the Gelfand problem arising in Frank-Kamenetskii theory of thermal explosion. This generalization is a natural extension of the Gelfand problem to two-phase materials, where, in contrast to the classical Gelfand problem which uses a single temperature approach, the state of the system is described by two different temperatures. We show that similar to the classical Gelfand problem the thermal explosion occurs exclusively owing to the absence of stationary temperature distribution. We also show that the presence of interphase heat exchange delays a thermal explosion. Moreover, we prove that in the limit of infinite heat exchange between phases the problem of thermal explosion in two-phase porous media reduces to the classical Gelfand problem with renormalized constants. PMID:24611025
Biopolymer system for permeability modification in porous media
Stepp, A.K.; Bryant, R.S.; Llave, F.M.
1995-12-31
New technologies are needed to reduce the current high rate of well abandonment. Improved sweep efficiency, reservoir conformance, and permeability modification can have a significant impact on oil recovery processes. Microorganisms can be used to selectively plug high-permeability zones to improve sweep efficiency and impart conformance control. Studies of a promising microbial system for polymer production were conducted to evaluate reservoir conditions in which this system would be effective. Factors which can affect microbial growth and polymer production include salinity, pH, temperature, divalent ions, presence of residual oil, and rock matrix. Flask tests and coreflooding experiments were conducted to optimize and evaluate the effectiveness of this system. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) was used to visualize microbial polymer production in porous media. Changes in fluid distribution within the pore system of the core were detected.
Strength and stability of microbial plugs in porous media
Sarkar, A.K.
1995-12-31
Mobility reduction induced by the growth and metabolism of bacteria in high-permeability layers of heterogeneous reservoirs is an economically attractive technique to improve sweep efficiency. This paper describes an experimental study conducted in sandpacks using an injected bacterium to investigate the strength and stability of microbial plugs in porous media. Successful convective transport of bacteria is important for achieving sufficient initial bacteria distribution. The chemotactic and diffusive fluxes are probably not significant even under static conditions. Mobility reduction depends upon the initial cell concentrations and increase in cell mass. For single or multiple static or dynamic growth techniques, permeability reduction was approximately 70% of the original permeability. The stability of these microbial plugs to increases in pressure gradient and changes in cell physiology in a nutrient-depleted environment needs to be improved.
Solute Transport Across a Contact Interface in Deformable Porous Media
Ateshian, Gerard A.; Maas, Steve; Weiss, Jeffrey A.
2012-01-01
A finite element formulation of neutral solute transport across a contact interface between deformable porous media is implemented and validated against analytical solutions. By reducing the integral statements of external virtual work on the two contacting surfaces into a single contact integral, the algorithm automatically enforces continuity of solute molar flux across the contact interface, whereas continuity of the effective solute concentration (a measure of the solute mechano-chemical potential) is achieved using a penalty method. This novel formulation facilitates the analysis of problems in biomechanics where the transport of metabolites across contact interfaces of deformable tissues may be of interest. This contact algorithm is the first to address solute transport across deformable interfaces, and is made available in the public domain, open-source finite element code FEBio (http://mrl.sci.utah.edu/software). PMID:22281406
Solute transport across a contact interface in deformable porous media.
Ateshian, Gerard A; Maas, Steve; Weiss, Jeffrey A
2012-04-01
A finite element formulation of neutral solute transport across a contact interface between deformable porous media is implemented and validated against analytical solutions. By reducing the integral statements of external virtual work on the two contacting surfaces into a single contact integral, the algorithm automatically enforces continuity of solute molar flux across the contact interface, whereas continuity of the effective solute concentration (a measure of the solute mechano-chemical potential) is achieved using a penalty method. This novel formulation facilitates the analysis of problems in biomechanics where the transport of metabolites across contact interfaces of deformable tissues may be of interest. This contact algorithm is the first to address solute transport across deformable interfaces, and is made available in the public domain, open-source finite element code FEBio (http://www.febio.org). PMID:22281406
Generalized Newtonian fluid flow through fibrous porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mierzwiczak, Magdalena; Kołodziej, Jan Adam; Grabski, Jakub Krzysztof
2016-06-01
The numerical calculations of the velocity field and the component of transverse permeability in the filtration equation for steady, incompressible flow of the generalized Newtonian fluid through the assemblages of cylindrical fibers are presented in this paper. The fibers are arranged regularly in arrays. Flow is transverse with respect to the fibers. The non-linear governing equation in the repeated element of the array is solved using iteration method. At each iteration step the method of fundamental solutions and the method of particular solutions are used. The bundle of fibers is treated as a porous media and on the base of velocity field the permeability coefficients are calculated as a function of porosity.
Magnetic Resonance of Porous Media (MRPM): A perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Yi-Qiao
2013-04-01
Porous media are ubiquitous in our environment and their application is extremely broad. The common connection between these diverse materials is the importance of the microstructure (μm to mm scale) in determining the physical, chemical and biological functions and properties. Magnetic resonance and its imaging modality have been essential for noninvasive characterization of these materials, in the development of catalysts, understanding cement hydration, fluid transport in rocks and soil, geological prospecting, and characterization of tissue properties for medical diagnosis. The past two decades have witnessed significant development of MRPM that couples advances in physics, chemistry and engineering with a broad range of applications. This article will summarize key advances in basic physics and methodology, examine their limitations and envision future R&D directions.
Advanced Laser Based Measurements in Porous Media Combustion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tedder, Sarah A.
2009-01-01
We present measurements using dual-pump dual-broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy (DP-DBB-CARS) inside a porous media burner. This work continues our previous measurements in such combustion systems. The existing setup was significantly modified with the aim of providing improved data quality and data rate, reduction of interferences and additional species information. These changes are presented and discussed in detail. The CARS technique was expanded to a dual-pump dual-broadband CARS system which in principle enables acquisition of temperatures together with relative H2/N2- and O2/N2- species concentrations. Experimental complexity was reduced by the use of a modified spectrometer enabling the detection of both signals, vibrational and rotational CARS, with only one detection system.
Aspects of hysteresis in unsaturated porous media flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Duijn, Hans
2016-04-01
About 20 years ago, Peter Raats and I wrote a technical note related to the horizontal redistribution in unsaturated porous media with hysteresis in the capillary pressure (P.A.C. Raats & C.J. van Duijn, A note on horizontal redistribution with capillary hysteresis, WWR 31, p. 231-232, 1995). In the first part of my presentation, I will revisit the results of that paper. In particular the cases of unconventional flow, where the water flows from the dry region to the wet region. A comparison will be made with results obtained with the current interface area models as introduced by Gray & Hassanizadeh. I will explain and outline the differences. In the second part, travelling wave solutions of Richards equation with gravity and with hysteresis in both the capillary pressure and relative permeability will be discussed. It will be explained why such solutions oscillate in space-time and how they behave as the hysteresis regularization vanishes.
Critical transport parameters for porous media subjected to counterflow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frederking, T. H. K.; Afifi, F. A.; Ono, D. Y.
1989-01-01
Experimental and theoretical studies have been conducted to determine critical parameters at the onset of nonlinear counterflow in He II below the lambda point of He-4. Critical temperature differences have been measured in porous media for zero net mass flow and for Darcy permeabilities in the order of magnitude range from 10 to the -10th to 10 to the -8th sq cm. The normalized critical temperature gradients, which covered the liquid temperature range of 1.5 K to the lambda temperature, are found to vary with T proportional to the ratio of the superfluid density to the normal fluid density. This liquid temperature dependence appears to be consistent with duct data which are limited at low temperature by a Reynolds number criterion.
A Porous Media Model for Blood Flow within Reticulated Foam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortega, Jason
2013-11-01
A porous media model is developed for non-Newtonian blood flow through reticulated foam at Reynolds numbers ranging from 10-8 to 10. This empirical model effectively divides the pressure gradient versus flow speed curve into three regimes, in which either the non-Newtonian viscous forces, the Newtonian viscous forces, or the inertial fluid forces are most prevalent. When compared to simulation data of blood flow through two reticulated foam geometries, the model adequately captures the pressure gradient within all three regimes, especially that within the Newtonian regime where blood transitions from a power-law to a constant viscosity fluid. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Grant R01EB000462 and partially performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Uncertainty quantification for flow in highly heterogeneous porous media
Tartakovsky, D. M.; Xiu, D.
2004-01-01
Natural porous media are highly heterogeneous and characterized by parameters that are often uncertain due to the lack of sufficient data. This uncertainty (randomness) occurs on a multiplicity of scales. We focus on geologic formations with the two dominant scales of uncertainty: a large-scale uncertainty in the spatial arrangement of geologic facies and a small-scale uncertainty in the parameters within each facies. We propose an approach that combines random domain decompositions (RDD) and polynomial chaos expansions (PCE) to account for the large- and small-scales of uncertainty, respectively. We present a general framework and use a one-dimensional flow example to demonstrate that our combined approach provides robust, non-perturbative approximations for the statistics of the system states.
Environmental behavior of engineered nanomaterials in porous media: a review.
Park, Chang Min; Chu, Kyoung Hoon; Heo, Jiyong; Her, Namguk; Jang, Min; Son, Ahjeong; Yoon, Yeomin
2016-05-15
A pronounced increase in the use of nanotechnology has resulted in nanomaterials being released into the environment. Environmental exposure to the most common engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), such as carbon-based and metal-based nanomaterials, can occur directly via intentional injection for remediation purposes, release during the use of nanomaterial-containing consumer goods, or indirectly via different routes. Recent reviews have outlined potential risks assessments, toxicity, and life cycle analyses regarding ENM emission. In this review, inevitable release of ENMs and their environmental behaviors in aqueous porous media are discussed with an emphasis on influencing factors, including the physicochemical properties of ENMs, solution chemistry, soil hydraulic properties, and soil matrices. Major findings of laboratory column studies and numerical approaches for the transport of ENMs are addressed, and studies on the interaction between ENMs and heavy metal ions in aqueous soil environments are examined. Future research is also presented with specific research directions and outlooks. PMID:26882524
A coupled problem of finite deformation and flow in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moussa, A. B.
1980-06-01
A theory for deformation and two phase flow in porous media was developed. Equations of balance of mass, momentum, moment of momentum and energy for each constituent were postulated. These led to equivalent balance equations for the mixture as a whole to which an entropy production inequality was also postulated. The formulation was then applied to the silage material. A constitutive theory was developed for the mixture. General appropriate constitutive assumptions were suggested and made to satisfy the axiom of material objectivity and entropy production inequality. Material incompressibility was defined and introduced into the general form of constitutive relations.
Overlimiting current and shock electrodialysis in porous media.
Deng, Daosheng; Dydek, E Victoria; Han, Ji-Hyung; Schlumpberger, Sven; Mani, Ali; Zaltzman, Boris; Bazant, Martin Z
2013-12-31
Most electrochemical processes, such as electrodialysis, are limited by diffusion, but in porous media, surface conduction and electroosmotic flow also contribute to ionic flux. In this article, we report experimental evidence for surface-driven overlimiting current (faster than diffusion) and deionization shocks (propagating salt removal) in a porous medium. The apparatus consists of a silica glass frit (1 mm thick with a 500 nm mean pore size) in an aqueous electrolyte (CuSO4 or AgNO3) passing ionic current from a reservoir to a cation-selective membrane (Nafion). The current-voltage relation of the whole system is consistent with a proposed theory based on the electroosmotic flow mechanism over a broad range of reservoir salt concentrations (0.1 mM to 1.0 M) after accounting for (Cu) electrode polarization and pH-regulated silica charge. Above the limiting current, deionized water (≈10 μM) can be continuously extracted from the frit, which implies the existence of a stable shock propagating against the flow, bordering a depleted region that extends more than 0.5 mm across the outlet. The results suggest the feasibility of shock electrodialysis as a new approach to water desalination and other electrochemical separations. PMID:24320737
(De)compaction of porous viscoelastoplastic media: Model formulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yarushina, Viktoriya M.; Podladchikov, Yuri Y.
2015-06-01
A nonlinear viscoelastoplastic theory is developed for porous rate-dependent materials filled with a fluid in the presence of gravity. The theory is based on a rigorous thermodynamic formalism suitable for path-dependent and irreversible processes. Incremental evolution equations for porosity, Darcy's flux, and volumetric deformation of the matrix represent the simplest generalization of Biot's equations. Expressions for pore compressibility and effective bulk viscosity are given for idealized cylindrical and spherical pore geometries in an elastic-viscoplastic material with low pore concentration. We show that plastic yielding around pores leads to decompaction weakening and an exponential creep law. Viscous and plastic end-members of our model are consistent with experimentally verified models. In the poroelastic limit, our constitutive equations reproduce the exact Gassmann's relations, Biot's theory, and Terzaghi's effective stress law. The nature of the discrepancy between Biot's model and the True Porous Media theory is clarified. Our model provides a unified and consistent formulation for the elastic, viscous, and plastic cases that have previously been described by separate "end-member" models.
A Monte Carlo paradigm for capillarity in porous media
Lu, Ning; Zeidman, Benjamin D.; Lusk, Mark T.; Willson, Clinton S.; Wu, David T.
2011-08-09
Wet porous media are ubiquitous in nature as soils, rocks, plants, and bones, and in engineering settings such as oil production, ground stability, filtration and composites. Their physical and chemical behavior is governed by the distribution of liquid and interfaces between phases. Characterization of the interfacial distribution is mostly based on macroscopic experiments, aided by empirical formulae. We present an alternative computational paradigm utilizing a Monte Carlo algorithm to simulate interfaces in complex realistic pore geometries. The method agrees with analytical solutions available only for idealized pore geometries, and is in quantitative agreement with Micro X-ray Computed Tomography (microXCT), capillary pressure, and interfacial area measurements for natural soils. We demonstrate that this methodology predicts macroscopic properties such as the capillary pressure and air-liquid interface area versus liquid saturation based only on the pore size information from microXCT images and interfacial interaction energies. The generality of this method should allow simulation of capillarity in many porous materials.
Scaling heat and mass flow through porous media during pyrolysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maes, Julien; Muggeridge, Ann H.; Jackson, Matthew D.; Quintard, Michel; Lapene, Alexandre
2015-03-01
The modelling of heat and mass flow through porous media in the presence of pyrolysis is complex because various physical and chemical phenomena need to be represented. In addition to the transport of heat by conduction and convection, and the change of properties with varying pressure and temperature, these processes involve transport of mass by convection, evaporation, condensation and pyrolysis chemical reactions. Examples of such processes include pyrolysis of wood, thermal decomposition of polymer composite and in situ upgrading of heavy oil and oil shale. The behaviours of these systems are difficult to predict as relatively small changes in the material composition can significantly change the thermophysical properties. Scaling reduces the number of parameters in the problem statement and quantifies the relative importance of the various dimensional parameters such as permeability, thermal conduction and reaction constants. This paper uses inspectional analysis to determine the minimum number of dimensionless scaling groups that describe the decomposition of a solid porous material into a gas in one dimension. Experimental design is then used to rank these scaling groups in terms of their importance in describing the outcome of two example processes: the thermal decomposition of heat shields formed from polymer composites and the in situ upgrading of heavy oils and oil shales. A sensitivity analysis is used to divide these groups into three sets (primary, secondary and insignificant), thus identifying the combinations of solid and fluid properties that have the most impact on the performance of the different processes.
Transport of bacteria in porous media; 1: An experimental investigation
Sarkar, A.K.; Georgiou, G.; Sharma, M.M. )
1994-08-05
The convective transport of concentrated suspensions of bacteria in porous media is of interest for several processes such as microbial enhanced oil recovery and in situ bioremediation. The parameters which affect the transport of the bacterium Bacillus licheniformis JF-2, a candidate microorganism for microbial enhanced oil recovery, were investigated experimentally in sandpacks. Bacteria retention and permeability reduction occurred primarily in the first few centimeters upon entering the porous medium. In downstream sections of the sandpack, the permeability reduction was low, even in cases in which high cell concentrations were detected in the effluent. The effects of (1) addition of a dispersant, (2) linear velocity of injection, (3) cell concentration, (4) salinity, (5) temperature, and (6) the presence of a residual oleic phase were determined experimentally. A lower reduction in permeability and a higher effluent bacterial concentration were obtained in the presence of dispersant, high injection velocities, low salinities, and at a higher temperature. Macroscopic measurements at different linear velocities and in the presence or absence of dispersants suggest that the formation of reversible microaggregates and multiparticle hydrodynamic exclusion may be the primary mechanisms for bacterial retention and permeability reduction.
Enhanced CO2 Dissolution in Heterogeneous Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daniels, K.; Neufeld, J. A.; Bickle, M. J.; Hallworth, M. A.
2014-12-01
Long-term and secure geological storage of CO2 through technologies such as Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) within reservoirs is seen as a technological means to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The long-term viability of this technology is reliant on the structural and secondary trapping of supercritical CO2 within heterogeneous reservoirs. Secondary trapping, primarily through the dissolution of CO2 into ambient reservoir brine to produce a denser fluid, is capable of retaining CO2 in the subsurface and thus reducing the risks of storage. To model secondary trapping we need to understand how the flow of CO2 through heterogeneous reservoir rocks enhances dissolution of supercritical CO2 in reservoir brines. Here we experimentally investigate the dissolution of CO2 in reservoir brines in layered, heterogeneous geological formations. Using analogue experiments, designed to approximate an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) setting, the processes of mixing, dispersion and dissolution are examined. These are compared against test results from non-layered, homogeneous porous media experiments. We find that heterogeneities significantly enhance mixing, particularly between adjacent porous layers. During fluid propagation, pore-scale viscous fingers grow and retreat, thereby providing an increased surface area between the flow and the ambient reservoir fluid. This enhanced mixing is predicted to substantially increase the dissolution of CO2 in reservoir brines. Both permeability and viscosity differences are found to have a significant effect on the interface between the two fluids, and therefore the likely amount of dissolution of CO2.
Porous media flow problems: Natural convection and non-Newtonian
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walker, K. L.
1980-03-01
Natural convection of a Newtonian fluid and one dimensional flow of a nonNewtonian fluid are studied. Convection in a rectangular porous cavity driven by heating in the horizontal is analyzed by a number of different techniques which yield a fairly complete description of the two dimensional solutions. The solutions are governed by two dimensionless parameters: the Darcy-Rayleigh number R and cavity aspect ratio A. The flow behavior of a dilute solution of polyacrylamide in corn syrup flowing through porous media is also studied. Measurement of the pressure drop and flow rate are made for the solution flowing through a packed bed of glass beads. At low velocities the pressure drop as a function of velocity is the same as that for a Newtonian fluid of equal viscosity. At high flow rates the nonNewtonian fluid exhibited significantly higher pressure drops than a Newtonian fluid. Careful rheological measurements of the fluid are made using a Weissenberg rheogoniometer. From measurements of the dynamic viscosity shear it is determined that elastic effects are negligible. It is believed that the increased pressure gradients are caused by nonlinear viscous effects resulting from the extensional components of the flow.
Modeling of Biomass Plug Development and Propagation in Porous Media
Stewart, Terri L.; Kim, Dong-Shik
2004-02-01
Biomass accumulation and evolution in porous media were simulated using a combination of biofilm evolution model and a biofilm removal model. Theses models describe biomass plug development, removal, and propagation in biological applications such as microbial enhanced oil recovery, in situ bioremediation, and bio-barrier techniques. The biofilm evolution model includes the cell growth rate and exopolymer production kinetics. The biofilm removal model was used for describing the biomass plug propagation and channel breakthrough using Bingham yield stress of biofilm, which represents the stability of biofilm against shear stress. Network model was used to describe a porous medium. The network model consists of pore body and pore bond of which the sizes were determined based on the pore size distribution of ceramic cores. The pressure drop across the network is assumed to be generated from pore bonds only, and the cell growth and biomass accumulation took place in pore bonds. The simulation results showed that the biofilm models based on Bingham yield stress predicted the biomass accumulation and channel breakthrough well. The pressure oscillation (or, permeability oscillation) was also demonstrated well indicating the process of biomass accumulation and breakthrough channel formation. In addition, the effects of cell and biofilm sucrose concentration were significant on the biomass plug development and permeability reduction rates. The modeling elucidated some deficiencies in our knowledge of the biomass yield stress that enables us to predict the stability of biomass plug against shear stress.
Modeling heating curve for gas hydrate dissociation in porous media.
Dicharry, Christophe; Gayet, Pascal; Marion, Gérard; Graciaa, Alain; Nesterov, Anatoliy N
2005-09-15
A method for modeling the heating curve for gas hydrate dissociation in porous media at isochoric conditions (constant cell volume) is presented. This method consists of using an equation of state of the gas, the cumulative volume distribution (CVD) of the porous medium, and a van der Waals-Platteeuw-type thermodynamic model that includes a capillary term. The proposed method was tested to predict the heating curves for methane hydrate dissociation in a mesoporous silica glass for saturated conditions (liquid volume = pore volume) and for a fractional conversion of water to hydrate of 1 (100% of the available water was converted to hydrate). The shape factor (F) of the hydrate-water interface was found equal to 1, supporting a cylindrical shape for the hydrate particles during hydrate dissociation. Using F = 1, it has been possible to predict the heating curve for different ranges of pressure and temperature. The excellent agreement between the calculated and experimental heating curves supports the validity of our approach. PMID:16853195
Fabric dependence of wave propagation in anisotropic porous media
Cowin, Stephen C.; Cardoso, Luis
2012-01-01
Current diagnosis of bone loss and osteoporosis is based on the measurement of the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) or the apparent mass density. Unfortunately, in most clinical ultrasound densitometers: 1) measurements are often performed in a single anatomical direction, 2) only the first wave arriving to the ultrasound probe is characterized, and 3) the analysis of bone status is based on empirical relationships between measurable quantities such as Speed of Sound (SOS) and Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation (BUA) and the density of the porous medium. However, the existence of a second wave in cancellous bone has been reported, which is an unequivocal signature of poroelastic media, as predicted by Biot’s poroelastic wave propagation theory. In this paper the governing equations for wave motion in the linear theory of anisotropic poroelastic materials are developed and extended to include the dependence of the constitutive relations upon fabric - a quantitative stereological measure of the degree of structural anisotropy in the pore architecture of a porous medium. This fabric-dependent anisotropic poroelastic approach is a theoretical framework to describe the microarchitectural-dependent relationship between measurable wave properties and the elastic constants of trabecular bone, and thus represents an alternative for bone quality assessment beyond BMD alone. PMID:20461539
A pore-network model for foam formation and propagation in porous media
Kharabaf, H.; Yortsos, Y.C.
1996-12-31
We present a pore-network model, based on a pores-and-throats representation of the porous medium, to simulate the generation and mobilization of foams in porous media. The model allows for various parameters or processes, empirically treated in current models, to be quantified and interpreted. Contrary to previous works, we also consider a dynamic (invasion) in addition to a static process. We focus on the properties of the displacement, the onset of foam flow and mobilization, the foam texture and the sweep efficiencies obtained. The model simulates an invasion process, in which gas invades a porous medium occupied by a surfactant solution. The controlling parameter is the snap-off probability, which in turn determines the foam quality for various size distributions of pores and throats. For the front to advance, the applied pressure gradient needs to be sufficiently high to displace a series of lamellae along a minimum capillary resistance (threshold) path. We determine this path using a novel algorithm. The fraction of the flowing lamellae, X{sub f} (and, consequently, the fraction of the trapped lamellae, X{sub f}) which are currently empirical, are also calculated. The model allows the delineation of conditions tinder which high-quality (strong) or low-quality (weak) foams form. In either case, the sweep efficiencies in displacements in various media are calculated. In particular, the invasion by foam of low permeability layers during injection in a heterogeneous system is demonstrated.
Assay of organic liquid contents in predominantly water-wet unconsolidated porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cary, J. W.; McBride, J. F.; Simmons, C. S.
1991-11-01
Immiscible organic liquids may be extracted from moist soil or other hydrophilic porous media by shaking a suspension of water and soil in a glass jar with a piece of porous polyethylene. The water displaces the organic liquid from the predominantly hydrophilic sample and the hydrophobic polyethylene preferentially absorbs the organic liquid, excluding water unless there is a detergent associated with the organic. Because most soils have some hydrophobic surfaces, the extraction of organic liquids by displacement with water is not quite complete. A correction is therefore made in the assay method by including samples with known organic liquid content as controls. The amount of organic liquid not displaced from the control samples can also be used to indicate the extent of hydrophobic sites in predominantly water-wet porous media. Organic liquid extractions were made by using three soils and two organic liquids. The standard deviation among replicated extractions was 0.010 g organic liquid. By applying a correction to the mass of organic liquid recovered, the assay accuracy was ±0.001 g organic liquid/g soil with 20.0-g oven-dry soil samples. It is likely that this assay method could be scaled up and used as a remediation method for removing and recovering organic liquids from earth excavated from spill or leak sites.
Thermal Convection in Laboratory-Scale Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breitmeyer, R. J.; Cooper, C. A.; Decker, D. L.
2006-12-01
Experiments in laboratory-scale porous media were conducted to observe the behavior of thermally driven convection. Experiments were conducted in two cells with dimensions of 24 x 20 x 2.54 cm and 100 x 75 x 2.54 cm. Each experiment consisted of constant temperature, thermally conductive, impermeable boundaries at the top and bottom with spherical glass beads comprising the medium. The porous medium was made up of two sizes of glass beads, 0.3 cm and 0.5 cm. A thermochromic liquid crystal (TLC) tracer was employed in conjunction with a CCD camera to develop a time-series of image data with a color-temperature relationship. Experiments were systematically designed to determine how convection develops in relation to permeability and its spatial variations, thermal gradient, and cell dimensions of the system. The physical behavior of convection was observed in terms of plume structure and velocity, and heat flux. Plume width appeared to be dependent on both permeability and the size of the initial instabilities at the onset of convection with wider plumes forming in lower permeability media and wider initial instabilities leading to wider plumes at later times. Heat flux behavior for each experiment was investigated through calculation of the Nusselt Number (Nu). Nu as a function of Rayleigh Number (Ra) appeared to scale as Nu~ Ra^{1/3} in the homogeneous medium, which is in agreement with previous work. Observations of the long-time behavior were made to determine whether or not the development of steady-state behavior occurred. In the small experimental cell with a 15° C temperature difference and containing only 0.5 cm beads, a steady state condition appeared to form shortly after the plumes reached the upper constant temperature boundary condition. Experiments were conducted in both cells in which higher permeability media underlay lower permeability media with a 10° C temperature difference. Similar behavior was seen in both cells with the plumes widening at
Measurement of Thin Film Characteristics in Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thornley, E.; Jansik, D.; Wildenschild, D.
2007-12-01
Liquid film formation in unsaturated subsurface porous media is commonly not accounted for in flow and transport models. Characteristics of this type of film flow are complex to quantify and are therefore often overlooked, despite the apparent need for a more complete low saturation flow model in fields such as hazardous waste disposal, enhanced oil recovery, and environmental contamination situations. The most important effects of film flow in porous media relate to available interfacial areas, meniscus curvature development, and permeability; greater understanding of these effects is necessary to accurately model these low saturation flow situations. In order to examine this topic further, we have created two-dimensional, pore scale flow cells containing crushed Yucca Mountain tuff. Tuff is characterized by large surface areas and intra-granular porosity which encourages thin film formation. Using these flow cells, relative humidity sensors, and a digital microscope and image processing software, the saturation and capillary pressure (as relative humidity) inside of the cells are measured. The measured values allow us to estimate the saturation point at which Van der Waals forces no longer dominate and capillary forces become the controlling factor. This point is characterized by the formation of pendular rings from condensing thin films. By introducing water into the cell and subsequently drying it, the formation of thin films and pendular rings can be observed while relative humidity and temperature are recorded. Relative humidity and temperature are then related to capillary pressure and saturation using the Kelvin and Young-LaPlace equations. Using this data and imaging analysis, the transition point from pendular rings to film- dominated flow can be related to the saturations and capillary pressures.
Mechanical Clogging Processes in Unconsolidated Porous Media Near Pumping Wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Zwart, B.; Schotting, R.; Hassanizadeh, M.
2003-12-01
In the Netherlands water supply companies produce over more than one billion cubic meters of drinking water every year. About 2500 water wells are used to pump up the groundwater from aquifers in the Dutch subsurface. More than 50% of these wells will encounter a number of technical problems during their lifetime. The main problem is the decrease in capacity due to well clogging. Clogging shows up after a number of operation years and results in extra, expensive cleaning operations and in early replacement of the pumping wells. This problem has been acknowledged by other industries, for example the metal, petroleum, beer industry and underground storage projects. Well clogging is the result of a number of interacting mechanisms creating a complex problem in the subsurface. In most clogging cases mechanical mechanisms are involved. A large number of studies have been performed to comprehend these processes. Investigations on mechanical processes are focused on transport of small particles through pores and deposition of particles due to physical or physical-chemical processes. After a period of deposition the particles plug the pores and decrease the permeability of the medium. Particle deposition in porous media is usually modelled using filtration theory. In order to get the dynamics of clogging this theory is not sufficient. The porous media is continuously altered due to deposition and mobilization. Therefore the capture characteristics will also continuously change and deposition rates will change in time. A new formula is derived to describe (re)mobilization of particles and allow changing deposition rates. This approach incorporates detachment and reattachment of deposited particles. This work also includes derivation of the filtration theory in radial coordinates. A comparison between the radial filtration theory and the new formula will be shown.
Mechanistic models of biofilm growth in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaiswal, Priyank; Al-Hadrami, Fathiya; Atekwana, Estella A.; Atekwana, Eliot A.
2014-07-01
Nondestructive acoustics methods can be used to monitor in situ biofilm growth in porous media. In practice, however, acoustic methods remain underutilized due to the lack of models that can translate acoustic data into rock properties in the context of biofilm. In this paper we present mechanistic models of biofilm growth in porous media. The models are used to quantitatively interpret arrival times and amplitudes recorded in the 29 day long Davis et al. (2010) physical scale biostimulation experiment in terms of biofilm morphologies and saturation. The model pivots on addressing the sediment elastic behavior using the lower Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for grain mixing and Gassmann substitution for fluid saturation. The time-lapse P wave velocity (VP; a function of arrival times) is explained by a combination of two rock models (morphologies); "load bearing" which assumes the biofilm as an additional mineral in the rock matrix and "pore filling" which assumes the biofilm as an additional fluid phase in the pores. The time-lapse attenuation (QP-1; a function of amplitudes), on the other hand, can be explained adequately in two ways; first, through squirt flow where energy is lost from relative motion between rock matrix and pore fluid, and second, through an empirical function of porosity (φ), permeability (κ), and grain size. The squirt flow model-fitting results in higher internal φ (7% versus 5%) and more oblate pores (0.33 versus 0.67 aspect ratio) for the load-bearing morphology versus the pore-filling morphology. The empirical model-fitting results in up to 10% increase in κ at the initial stages of the load-bearing morphology. The two morphologies which exhibit distinct mechanical and hydraulic behavior could be a function of pore throat size. The biofilm mechanistic models developed in this study can be used for the interpretation of seismic data critical for the evaluation of biobarriers in bioremediation, microbial enhanced oil recovery, and CO2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Lanlan; Liu, Yu; Teng, Ying; Zhao, Jiafei; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Mingjun; Song, Yongchen
2016-03-01
The purpose of this work is to develop a permeability estimation method for porous media. This method is based on an improved capillary bundle model by introducing some pore geometries. We firstly carried out micro-CT scans to extract the 3D digital model of porous media. Then we applied a maximum ball extraction method to the digital model to obtain the topological and geometrical pore parameters such as the pore radius, the throat radius and length and the average coordination number. We also applied a random walker method to calculate the tortuosity factors of porous media. We improved the capillary bundle model by introducing the pore geometries and tortuosity factors. Finally, we calculated the absolute permeabilities of four kinds of porous media formed of glass beads and compared the results with experiments and several other models to verify the improved model. We found that the calculated permeabilities using this improved capillary bundle model show better agreement with the measured permeabilities than the other methods.
Unstable infiltration fronts in porous media on laboratory scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schuetz, Cindi; Neuweiler, Insa
2014-05-01
Water flow and transport of substances in the unsaturated zone are important processes for the quality and quantity of water in the hydrologic cycle. The water movement through preferential paths is often much faster than standard models (e. g. Richards equation in homogeneous porous media) predict. One type/phenomenon of preferential flow can occur during water infiltration into coarse and/or dry porous media: the so-called gravity-driven fingering flow. To upscale the water content and to describe the averaged water fluxes in order to couple models of different spheres it is necessary to understand and to quantify the behavior of flow instabilities. We present different experiments of unstable infiltration in homogeneous and heterogeneous structures to analyze development and morphology of gravity-driven fingering flow on the laboratory scale. Experiments were carried out in two-dimensional and three-dimensional sand tanks as well as in larger two-dimensional sand tanks with homogeneous and heterogeneous filling of sand and glass beads. In the small systems, water content in the medium was measured at different times. We compare the experiments to prediction of theoretical approaches (e.g. Saffman and Taylor, 1958; Chuoke et al., 1959; Philip 1975a; White et al., 1976; Parlange and Hill, 1976a; Glass et al., 1989a; Glass et al., 1991; Wang et al., 1998c) that quantify properties of the gravity-driven fingers. We use hydraulic parameters needed for the theoretical predictions (the water-entry value (hwe), van Genuchten parameter (Wang et al., 1997, Wang et al., 2000) and saturated conductivity (Ks), van Genuchten parameter (Guarracino, 2007) to simplify the prediction of the finger properties and if necessary to identify a constant correction factor. We find in general that the finger properties correspond well to theoretical predictions. In heterogeneous settings, where fine inclusions are embedded into a coarse material, the finger properties do not change much
Interface effects on multiphase flows in porous media
Zhang, Duan Z
2008-01-01
Most models for multiphase flows in a porous medium are based on the straightforward extension of Darcy's law, in which each fluid phase is driven by its own pressure gradient. The pressure difference between the phases is thought to be an effect of surface tension and is called capillary pressure. Independent of Darcy's law, for liquid imbibition processes in a porous material, diffusion models are sometime used. In this paper, an ensemble phase averaging technique for continuous multi phase flows is applied to derive averaged equations and to examine the validity of the commonly used models. The closure for the averaged equations is quite complicated for general multiphase flows in a porous material. For flows with a small ratio of the characteristic length of the phase interfaces to the macroscopic length, the closure relations can be simplified significantly by an approximation with a second order error in the length ratio. The approximation reveals the information of the length scale separation obscured during the ensemble averaging process, and leads to an equation system similar to Darcy's law, but with additional terms. Based on interactions on phase interfaces, relations among closure quantities are studied.
Direct, Dynamic Measurement of Interfacial Area within Porous Media
Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.; Bromhal, Grant
2010-01-01
Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to exhibit several shortcomings that might be partially overcome with a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles (Hassanizadeh and Gray, 1990). This alternative two-phase flow model contains a set of new and non-standard parameters, including specific interfacial area. By incorporating interfacial area production, destruction, and propagation into functional relationships that describe the capillary pressure and saturation, a more physical model has been developed. Niessner and Hassanizadeh (2008) have examined this model numerically and have shown that the model captures saturation hysteresis with drainage/imbibition cycles. Several static experimental studies have been performed to examine the validity of this new thermodynamically based approach; these allow the determination of static parameters of the model. To date, no experimental studies have obtained information about the dynamic parameters required for the model. A new experimental porous flow cell has been constructed using stereolithography to study two-phase flow phenomena (Crandall et al. 2008). A novel image analysis tool was developed for an examination of the evolution of flow patterns during displacement experiments (Crandall et al. 2009). This analysis tool enables the direct quantification of interfacial area between fluids by matching known geometrical properties of the constructed flow cell with locations identified as interfaces from images of flowing fluids. Numerous images were obtained from two-phase experiments within the flow cell. The dynamic evolution of the fluid distribution and the fluid-fluid interface locations were determined by analyzing these images. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the thermodynamically based two-phase flow model, review the properties of the stereolithography flow cell, and show how the image analysis procedure has been used to obtain dynamic parameters for the
Relating tortuosity and permeability in microfractured and unfractured porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tokan-Lawal, A.; Wang, W.; Prodanovic, M.
2012-12-01
. Tortuosity distributions were observed to vary in the different samples. Fractures provide the most direct path across the sample (when aligned) and have the narrowest tortuosity distribution, followed by granular packings. Consolidated media and carbonate samples have the widest distribution. The higher the amount of rock cementing material, carbonate or quartz overgrowth, the higher tortuosity (and ultimately the fluid retention time) in both consolidated porous media and partially cemented fractures. When analyzing tortuosity of different fluid phases in the matrix, we observe the non-wetting phase as being more tortuous than the wetting phase. The addition of fracture to the matrix (as a connected system) however, reverses this behavior. Although, imaged samples were necessary for this study, observed tortuosity (and thus permeability) can be correlated to geologic description of the subsurface formations.
Quantifying Biofilm in Porous Media Using Rock Physics Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alhadhrami, F. M.; Jaiswal, P.; Atekwana, E. A.
2012-12-01
Biofilm formation and growth in porous rocks can change their material properties such as porosity, permeability which in turn will impact fluid flow. Finding a non-intrusive method to quantify biofilms and their byproducts in rocks is a key to understanding and modeling bioclogging in porous media. Previous geophysical investigations have documented that seismic techniques are sensitive to biofilm growth. These studies pointed to the fact that microbial growth and biofilm formation induces heterogeneity in the seismic properties. Currently there are no rock physics models to explain these observations and to provide quantitative interpretation of the seismic data. Our objectives are to develop a new class of rock physics model that incorporate microbial processes and their effect on seismic properties. Using the assumption that biofilms can grow within pore-spaces or as a layer coating the mineral grains, P-wave velocity (Vp) and S-wave (Vs) velocity models were constructed using travel-time and waveform tomography technique. We used generic rock physics schematics to represent our rock system numerically. We simulated the arrival times as well as waveforms by treating biofilms either as fluid (filling pore spaces) or as part of matrix (coating sand grains). The preliminary results showed that there is a 1% change in Vp and 3% change in Vs when biofilms are represented discrete structures in pore spaces. On the other hand, a 30% change in Vp and 100% change in Vs was observed when biofilm was represented as part of matrix coating sand grains. Therefore, Vp and Vs changes are more rapid when biofilm grows as grain-coating phase. The significant change in Vs associated with biofilms suggests that shear velocity can be used as a diagnostic tool for imaging zones of bioclogging in the subsurface. The results obtained from this study have significant implications for the study of the rheological properties of biofilms in geological media. Other applications include
Fabric dependence of quasi-waves in anisotropic porous media.
Cardoso, Luis; Cowin, Stephen C
2011-05-01
Assessment of bone loss and osteoporosis by ultrasound systems is based on the speed of sound and broadband ultrasound attenuation of a single wave. However, the existence of a second wave in cancellous bone has been reported and its existence is an unequivocal signature of poroelastic media. To account for the fact that ultrasound is sensitive to microarchitecture as well as bone mineral density (BMD), a fabric-dependent anisotropic poroelastic wave propagation theory was recently developed for pure wave modes propagating along a plane of symmetry in an anisotropic medium. Key to this development was the inclusion of the fabric tensor--a quantitative stereological measure of the degree of structural anisotropy of bone--into the linear poroelasticity theory. In the present study, this framework is extended to the propagation of mixed wave modes along an arbitrary direction in anisotropic porous media called quasi-waves. It was found that differences between phase and group velocities are due to the anisotropy of the bone microarchitecture, and that the experimental wave velocities are more accurately predicted by the poroelastic model when the fabric tensor variable is taken into account. This poroelastic wave propagation theory represents an alternative for bone quality assessment beyond BMD. PMID:21568431
Impact of saturation on dispersion and mixing in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jimenez-Martinez, J.; De Anna, P.; Turuban, R.; Tabuteau, H.; Le Borgne, T.; Meheust, Y.
2014-12-01
In partially saturated porous media, the spatial distribution of wetting (e.g., water) and non-wetting (e.g., air) phases causes the liquid flow to be focused onto narrow and complex flow paths, leaving large volumes of wetting fluid trapped in between non-wetting phase clusters. The impact of the resulting highly heterogeneous wetting fluid velocity distributions on the dispersion and mixing of a solute in this wetting phase is critical for predicting reactive transport processes that take place in partially saturated porous media. We study the dependence of dispersion and mixing on the saturation degree using a 2D experimental setup consisting of cylindrical grains built using soft lithography. The joint injection of the two phases (wetting and non-wetting) provides a controlled homogeneous saturation in the medium. The simultaneous measurement of the flow velocity field, the spatial distribution of the wetting and non-wetting phases, and the tracer concentration field are used to investigate the relationship between the flow field complexity induced by desaturation and dispersion/mixing properties. We analyze the temporal behavior of the mean concentration gradient and the scalar dissipation rate, which quantify the temporal variation of the concentration variability and the potential for mixing-controlled chemical reactivity. The formation of preferential flowpaths in unsaturated flows is found to have an important impact on the mixing behavior. While the mean concentration gradient decays in time for saturated flow following the classical diffusive smoothing of concentration gradients, the creation of highly channelized finger structures in unsaturated flows induces persistently large concentration gradients which decay slowly in time. The highly resolved concentration field images show that this effect is due to i) a drastic increase of the surface available for creating concentration gradients across the finger boundaries, ii) the existence of dead-ends with
Wave-induced fluid flow in random porous media: attenuation and dispersion of elastic waves.
Müller, Tobias M; Gurevich, Boris
2005-05-01
A detailed analysis of the relationship between elastic waves in inhomogeneous, porous media and the effect of wave-induced fluid flow is presented. Based on the results of the poroelastic first-order statistical smoothing approximation applied to Biot's equations of poroelasticity, a model for elastic wave attenuation and dispersion due to wave-induced fluid flow in 3-D randomly inhomogeneous poroelastic media is developed. Attenuation and dispersion depend on linear combinations of the spatial correlations of the fluctuating poroelastic parameters. The observed frequency dependence is typical for a relaxation phenomenon. Further, the analytic properties of attenuation and dispersion are analyzed. It is shown that the low-frequency asymptote of the attenuation coefficient of a plane compressional wave is proportional to the square of frequency. At high frequencies the attenuation coefficient becomes proportional to the square root of frequency. A comparison with the 1-D theory shows that attenuation is of the same order but slightly larger in 3-D random media. Several modeling choices of the approach including the effect of cross correlations between fluid and solid phase properties are demonstrated. The potential application of the results to real porous materials is discussed. PMID:15957744
Effect of Convergent and Divergent Boundaries on Flow Resistance through Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhanu Prakasham Reddy, N.; Krishnaiah, S.; Ramakrishna Reddy, M.
2015-12-01
An experimental investigation on the effect of convergent and divergent streamlines on the total energy loss in the porous medium and the effect on linear parameter, a, and non-linear parameter, b, for different ratios of radii of the test section was studied in a convergent and divergent permeameter. This paper presents the results of applying dimensional analysis to obtain a relationship between friction factor (fd) and Reynolds number (Rd) for flow in porous media with convergent and divergent boundaries, using pore size of the media (d) as characteristic length. Using friction factor (fd) and Reynolds number (Rd) relationship, theoretical curves, are developed and verified with the help of existing experimental data. In the present case, Mc Corquodale data of size 1.66 cm was used as media and water as fluid, to develop curves relating friction factor (fd) and Reynolds number (Rd) for different ratios of radii of the test section of convergent permeameter and divergent permeameter with the same convergent and divergent angle of 0.328 rad.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharp, R. R.; Gerlach, R.; Al, C. B.
2004-12-01
Using a meso-scale porous media flat plate reactor we utilized a naturally bioluminescent biofilm (V. fischeri) and tracer studies to obtain information on the interactions between biofilms and reactive flow in porous media. The growth and development of the V. fischeri biofilm in a porous media geometry was studied using digital time lapse images of the bioluminescent signal given off by the developing biofilm. The effect of biofilm development on porous media hydrodynamics was examined using dye tracer studies and image analysis. The natural bioluminescence of the V. fischeri allowed real-time, in-situ study of biofilm development in porous media, without destruction of the biofilm. Dye studies and image analysis enabled the study of effects of biofilm accumulation on porous media hydraulics, with comparisons to plug flow and completely mixed systems with varying degrees of biofilm accumulation. The hydraulic conductivity of the porous media/biofilm system was continuously monitored showing a 1 to 4 order of magnitude decrease in hydraulic conductivity as a function of biofilm thickness and accumulation. The real-time nature of the study permitted us to visualize dynamic flow channel formation within the biofilm/porous media system. In addition, the sensitivity of the V. fischeri biofilm to dissolved oxygen allowed us to capture real-time images of reactive transport within the system. Using bioluminescent imaging, the location of active biomass, as well as the relative degree of biological activity, could be visualized and monitored over time. This work is the first meso-scale visualization of the interactions between biofilm and flow in porous media.
Colwell, Frederick; Wildenschild, Dorthe; Wood, Brian; Gerlach, Robin; Mitchell, Andrew; Redden, George
2014-08-29
The goal for this research was to understand how best to add compounds to receptive microbial communities in porous media in order to achieve optimal calcite precipitation in a volumetrically significant space and to understand the physiological health of the cells that are responsible for the calcite precipitation. The specific objectives were to: (1) develop better tools for visually examining biofilms in porous media and calcium carbonate precipitation being mediated by microbes in porous media, and (2) demonstrate the effectiveness of using that tool within a flow cell model system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, S.; Sleep, B. E.; Chien, C.
2010-12-01
Probability distribution of biofilm thickness and effect of biofilm on permeability of saturated porous media were investigated in a two-dimensional sand-filled cell (55 cm wide x 45 cm high x 1.28 cm thick) under condition of rich nutrition. Inoculation of the lower portion of the cell with a methanogenic culture and addition of methanol to the bottom of the cell led to biomass growth. Biomass distributions in the water and on the sand in the cell were measured by protein analysis. The biofilm distribution on the sand was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Permeability was measured by laboratory hydraulic tests. The biomass levels measured in water and on the sand increased with time, and were highest at the bottom of the cell. The biofilm on the sand at the bottom of the cell was thicker. Biomass distribution on the grain of sand was not uniform. Biofilm thickness was a random variable with a normal distribution by statistical analysis of CLSM images. The results of the hydraulic tests demonstrated that the permeability due to biofilm growth was estimated to be average 12% of the initial value. To investigate the spatial distribution of permeability in the two dimensional cell, three models (Taylor, Seki, and Clement) were used to calculate permeability of porous media with biofilm growth. The results of Taylor's model (Taylor et al., 1990) showed reduction in permeability of 2-5 orders magnitude. The Clement's model (Clement et al., 1996) predicted 3%-98% of the initial value. Seki's model (Seki and Miyazaki, 2001) could not be applied in this study. Conclusively, biofilm growth could obviously decrease the permeability of two dimensional saturated porous media, however, the reduction was much less than that estimated in one dimensional condition. Additionally, under condition of two dimensional saturated porous media with rich nutrition, Seki's model could not be applied, Taylor’s model predicted bigger reductions, and the results of
Study on Two-Phase Flow in Heterogeneous Porous Media by Light Transmission Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiao, W.
2015-12-01
The non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) released to the subsurface can form residual ganglia and globules occupying pores and also accumulate and form pools, in which multiphase system forms. Determining transient fluid saturations in a multiphase system is essential to understand the flow characteristics of systems and to perform effective remediation strategies. As a non-destructive and non-invasive laboratory technique utilized for the measurement of liquid saturation in porous media, light transmission is of the lowest cost and safe. Utilization of Coupled Charge Device camera in light transmission systems provides a nearly instantaneous high-density array of spatial measurements over a very large dynamic range. The migration of NAPL and air spariging technique applied to remove NAPL in aquifer systems are typically two-phase flow problem. Because of the natural aquifer normally being heterogeneous, two 2-D sandboxes (Length55cm×width1.3cm×hight45cm) are set up to study the migration of gas and DNAPL in heterogeneous porous media based on light transmission method and its application in two-phase flow. Model D for water/gas system developed by Niemet and Selker (2001) and Model NW-A for water/NAPL system developed by Zhang et al. (2014) are applied for the calculation of fluid saturation in the two experiments, respectively. The gas injection experiments show that the gas moves upward in the irregular channels, piling up beneath the low permeability lenses and starting lateral movement. Bypassing the lenses, the gas moves upward and forms continuous distribution in the top of the sandbox. The faster of gas injects, the wider of gas migration will be. The DNAPL infiltration experiment shows that TCE mainly moves downward as the influence of gravity, stopping vertical infiltration when reaching the low permeability lenses because of its failure to overcome the capillary pressure. Then, TCE accumulates on the surface and starts transverse movement. Bypassing the
Transport of engineered zeolite and natural nanoparticles in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keller, A. A.; Wang, P.
2007-12-01
There are many natural nanoparticles (NPs) that are ubiquitous in the environment such as soil and sediment colloids. In addition, many new engineered NPs, such as tailored zeolites, are being developed for applications in which they may be released into the environment. The fate and transport of the NPs is very much related with contaminant fate and transport. This study focused on transport of engineered zeolite nanoparticles (NPs) and natural soil and sediment colloidal NPs within porous media under saturated conditions. Clean medium-sized sand grains were used as the porous media and NPs were injected into the column as a pulse. KCl or CaCl2 with varying concentrations was used as background electrolyte. The results showed that, interestingly, the zeta- potential of the natural colloids and Zeolite-Ca decreased (more negative) with increasing KCl concentration while increased (less negative) with increasing CaCl2 concentration. This unexpected results was attributed to the fact that the natural colloids and Zeolite-Ca are saturated with divalent cations (Ca2+ and/or Mg2+) originally and the replacement of these divalent cations with K+ on the colloid surfaces caused the zeta-potential to drop with increasing KCl concentrations. The zeta-potential measurement of Zeolite-K increased with either KCl or CaCl2 concentration. Consistently early breakthrough was observed for NP compared with conservative tracers (KCL or CaCl2) and the effect was more pronounced with higher water flowrate. Zeolite-K showed significantly higher degree of transport (defined as percent of NPs transported out of the column) than Zeolite-Ca under the otherwise same conditions. With KCl as the background electrolyte, the significantly higher NP transport was observed than with CaCl2. Overall, as the ionic strength of the flowing fluid increased, the transport of the NPs decreased, largely due to the compressed double layer under the higher ionic strength. Besides, as the flow rate of the
New hydrologic model of fluid migration in deep porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dmitrievsky, A.; Balanyuk, I.
2009-04-01
The authors present a new hydrological model of mantle processes that effect on formation of oil-and-gas bearing basins, fault tectonics and thermal convection. Any fluid migration is initially induced by lateral stresses in the crust and lithosphere which result from global geodynamic processes related to the mantle convection. The global processes are further transformed into regional movements in weakness zones. Model of porous media in deep fractured zones and idea of self-oscillation processes in mantle layers and fractured zones of the crust at different depths was used as the basis for developed concept. The content of these notions resides in the fact that there are conditions of dynamic balance in mantle layers originating as a result of combination and alternate actions of compaction and dilatance mechanisms. These mechanisms can be manifested in different combinations and under different conditions as well as can be complemented by other processes influencing on regime of fluid migration. They can act under condition of passive margin, ocean rift and ocean subduction zones as well as in consolidated platform and sheet. Self-oscillation regime, sub vertical direction of fluid flows, anomalously high layer pressure, and high level of anomalies of various geophysical fields are common for them. A certain class of fluid dynamic models describing consolidation of sedimentary basins, free oscillation processes slow and quick (at the final stage) fluid dynamic processes of the evolution of a sedimentary basin in subduction zones is considered for the first time. The last model of quick fluid dynamic processes reflects the process of formation of hydrocarbon deposits in the zones of collision of lithosphere plates. The results of numerical simulation and diagrams reflecting consecutive stages of the gas-fluid dynamic front propagation are assessed of the Pri-Caspian depression as the example. Calculations with this model will simultaneously be carried out for
Optimization of fluid front dynamics in porous media using rate control. I. Equal mobility fluids
Sudaryanto, Bagus; Yortsos, Yannis C.
2000-07-01
In applications involving the injection of a fluid in a porous medium to displace another fluid, a main objective is the maximization of the displacement efficiency. For a fixed arrangement of injection and production points (sources and sinks), such optimization is possible by controling the injection rate policy. Despite its practical relevance, however, this aspect has received scant attention in the literature. In this paper, we provide a fundamental approach based on optimal control theory, for the simplified case when the fluids are miscible, of equal viscosity, and in the absence of dispersion and gravity effects. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media are considered. From a fluid dynamics viewpoint, this is a problem in the deformation of material lines in porous media, as a function of time-varying injection rates. It is shown that the optimal injection policy that maximizes the displacement efficiency, at the time of arrival of the injected fluid, is of the ''bang-bang'' type, in which the rates take their extreme values in the range allowed. This result applies to both homogeneous and heterogeneous media. Examples in simple geometries and for various constraints are shown, illustrating the efficiency improvement over the conventional approach of constant rate injection. In the heterogeneous case, the effect of the permeability heterogeneity, particularly its spatial correlation structure, on diverting the flow paths, is analyzed. It is shown that bang-bang injection remains the optimal approach, compared to constant rate, particularly if they were both designed under the assumption that the medium was homogeneous. Experiments in a homogeneous Hele-Shaw cell are found to be in good agreement with the theory. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.
Entropy-induced separation of star polymers in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blavats'Ka, V.; von Ferber, C.; Holovatch, Yu.
2006-09-01
We present a quantitative picture of the separation of star polymers in a solution where part of the volume is influenced by a porous medium. To this end, we study the impact of long-range-correlated quenched disorder on the entropy and scaling properties of f -arm star polymers in a good solvent. We assume that the disorder is correlated on the polymer length scale with a power-law decay of the pair correlation function g(r)˜r-a . Applying the field-theoretical renormalization group approach we show in a double expansion in ɛ=4-d and δ=4-a that there is a range of correlation strengths δ for which the disorder changes the scaling behavior of star polymers. In a second approach we calculate for fixed space dimension d=3 and different values of the correlation parameter a the corresponding scaling exponents γf that govern entropic effects. We find that γf-1 , the deviation of γf from its mean field value is amplified by the disorder once we increase δ beyond a threshold. The consequences for a solution of diluted chain and star polymers of equal molecular weight inside a porous medium are that star polymers exert a higher osmotic pressure than chain polymers and in general higher branched star polymers are expelled more strongly from the correlated porous medium. Surprisingly, polymer chains will prefer a stronger correlated medium to a less or uncorrelated medium of the same density while the opposite is the case for star polymers.
Entropy-induced separation of star polymers in porous media
Blavats'ka, V.; Ferber, C. von; Holovatch, Yu.
2006-09-15
We present a quantitative picture of the separation of star polymers in a solution where part of the volume is influenced by a porous medium. To this end, we study the impact of long-range-correlated quenched disorder on the entropy and scaling properties of f-arm star polymers in a good solvent. We assume that the disorder is correlated on the polymer length scale with a power-law decay of the pair correlation function g(r){approx}r{sup -a}. Applying the field-theoretical renormalization group approach we show in a double expansion in {epsilon}=4-d and {delta}=4-a that there is a range of correlation strengths {delta} for which the disorder changes the scaling behavior of star polymers. In a second approach we calculate for fixed space dimension d=3 and different values of the correlation parameter a the corresponding scaling exponents {gamma}{sub f} that govern entropic effects. We find that {gamma}{sub f}-1, the deviation of {gamma}{sub f} from its mean field value is amplified by the disorder once we increase {delta} beyond a threshold. The consequences for a solution of diluted chain and star polymers of equal molecular weight inside a porous medium are that star polymers exert a higher osmotic pressure than chain polymers and in general higher branched star polymers are expelled more strongly from the correlated porous medium. Surprisingly, polymer chains will prefer a stronger correlated medium to a less or uncorrelated medium of the same density while the opposite is the case for star polymers.
Targeted delivery by smart capsules for controlling two-phase flow in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Jing; Abbaspourrad, Alireza; Weitz, David; Harvard Weitzgroup Team
2015-11-01
Two-phase flow in porous media is significantly influenced by the physical properties of the fluids and the geometry of the medium. We develop a variety of smart microcapsules that can deliver and release specific substances to the target location in the porous medium, and therefore change the fluid property or medium geometry at certain locations. In this talk, I will present two types of smart capsules for targeted surfactant delivery to the vicinity of oil-water interface and targeted microgel delivery for improving the homogeneity of the porous medium, respectively. We further prove the concept by monitoring the capsule location and the fluid structure in the porous media by micro-CT and confocal microscopy. This technique not only is of particular importance to the relevant industry applications especially in the oil industry but also opens a new window to study the mechanism of two-phase flow in porous media. Advanced Energy Consortium BEG08-027.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pepona, Marianna; Favier, Julien
2016-09-01
In this work, we propose a numerical framework to simulate fluid flows in interaction with moving porous media of complex geometry. It is based on the Lattice Boltzmann method including porous effects via a Brinkman-Forchheimer-Darcy force model coupled to the Immersed Boundary method to handle complex geometries and moving structures. The coupling algorithm is described in detail and it is validated on well-established literature test cases for both stationary and moving porous configurations. The proposed method is easy to implement and efficient in terms of CPU cost and memory management compared to alternative methods which can be used to deal with moving immersed porous media, e.g. re-meshing at each time step or use of a moving/chimera mesh. An overall good agreement was obtained with reference results, opening the way to the numerical simulation of moving porous media for flow control applications.
Lappan, R.E.; Fogler, H.S.
1996-04-05
In situ growth of bacteria in a porous medium can alter the permeability of that media. This article reveals that the rate of permeability alteration can be controlled by the inoculation strategy, nutrient concentrations, and injection rates. Based on experimental observations a phenomenological model has been developed to describe the inoculation of the porous medium, the in situ growth of bacteria, and the permeability decline of the porous medium. This model consists of two phases that describe the bacteria in the porous medium: (1) the nongrowth phase in which cell transport and retention are occurring; and (2) the growth phase in which the retained cells grow and plug the porous media. Transition from the transport phase to the growth phase is governed by the growth lag time of the cells within the porous medium. The importance of the inoculum injection strategy and the nutrient injection strategy is illustrated by the model.
What Determines Different Anomalous Transport Behavior in Different Porous Media?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bijeljic, B.; Raeini, A.; Mostaghimi, P.; Blunt, M. J.
2012-12-01
Solute transport in porous media is of importance in many scientific fields and applications, notably in contaminant migration in subsurface hydrology, geological storage of carbon-dioxide, packed bed reactors and chromatography in chemical engineering, and tracer studies in enhanced oil recovery. The non-Fickian nature of dispersive processes in heterogeneous media has been demonstrated experimentally from pore to field scales. However, the exact relationship between structure, velocity field and transport has not been fully understood. We study and explain the origin of non-Fickian transport behavior as a function of pore-scale heterogeneity by simulating flow and transport directly on micro-CT images of pore space of the media with increasing pore-scale complexity: beadpack, Bentheimer sandstone and Portland limestone. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved to compute the flow field and the streamline method is used to transport particles by advection, while the random walk method is used for diffusion. The connectivity of the fast flow paths for beadpack, Bentheimer sandstone and Portland carbonate is presented in Figs.1a-c. We show how computed propagators (concentration vs. displacement) for beadpack, sandstone and carbonate depend on the spread in the velocity distribution. A narrow velocity distribution in the beadpack leads to the least anomalous behaviour where the propagators rapidly become Gaussian (Fig.1d); the wider velocity distribution in the sandstone gives rise to a small immobile concentration peak, and a large secondary mobile peak moving at approximately the average flow speed (Fig.1e); in the carbonate with the widest velocity distribution the stagnant concentration peak is persistent, while the emergence of a smaller secondary mobile peak is observed, leading to a highly anomalous behavior (Fig.1f). This defines different generic nature of transport in the three media and quantifies the effect of pore structure on transport. Moreover, the
Steady Counterflow he II Heat Transfer Through Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dalban-Canassy, M.; Van Sciver, S. W.
2010-04-01
We present steady state counterflow measurements performed on porous samples saturated in He II. The experiment is composed of a vacuum insulated open channel whose top extremity is closed to a Minco® heater. The temperature and pressure differences across the plug are measured by two germanium TTR-G Microsensors® thermometers and a Validyne DP10-20 differential pressure sensor. Applied heat fluxes range up to 0.5 kW/m2 of sample cross section. Measurements were performed at temperatures ranging from 1.7 to 2.1 K on highly anisotropic samples provided by Composite Technology Development Inc.: circular pellets (3.08 mm thick and 28.58 mm in diameter) of 20 compressed layers of pre-impregnated woven magnet insulation. In the laminar regime, the permeability is estimated from the pressure drop measurements for comparison with room temperature data. In the turbulent regime, the model based on tortuosity developed previously fails to describe the heat transfer behavior of He II in this type of porous medium.
STEADY COUNTERFLOW HE II HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH POROUS MEDIA
Dalban-Canassy, M.; Van Sciver, S. W.
2010-04-09
We present steady state counterflow measurements performed on porous samples saturated in He II. The experiment is composed of a vacuum insulated open channel whose top extremity is closed to a Minco registered heater. The temperature and pressure differences across the plug are measured by two germanium TTR-G Microsensors registered thermometers and a Validyne DP10-20 differential pressure sensor. Applied heat fluxes range up to 0.5 kW/m{sup 2} of sample cross section. Measurements were performed at temperatures ranging from 1.7 to 2.1 K on highly anisotropic samples provided by Composite Technology Development Inc.: circular pellets (3.08 mm thick and 28.58 mm in diameter) of 20 compressed layers of pre-impregnated woven magnet insulation. In the laminar regime, the permeability is estimated from the pressure drop measurements for comparison with room temperature data. In the turbulent regime, the model based on tortuosity developed previously fails to describe the heat transfer behavior of He II in this type of porous medium.
Interaction of pressure and momentum driven flows with thin porous media: Experiments and modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naaktgeboren, Christian
inlet and outlet pressure-drop is obtained by considering a least restrictive porous medium core. Finally, modified K and C are proposed and predictive equations, accurate to within 2.5%, are obtained for both channel configurations with Re ranging from 10-2 to 102 and φ from 6% to 95%. When momentum driven flows interact with thin porous media, the interaction of vortices with the media's complex structure gives way to a number of phenomena of fundamental and applied interest, such as unsteady flow separation. A special case that embodies many of the key features of these flows is the interaction of a vortex ring with a permeable flat surface. Although fundamental, this complex flow configuration has never been considered. The present investigation experimentally studies the fluid mechanics of the interaction of a vortex ring impinging directly on thin permeable flat targets. The vortex ring is formed in water using a piston-cylinder mechanism and visualized using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). The rings are formed for jet Reynolds numbers of 3000 and 6000, and piston stroke-to-diameter ratios of 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0. Thin screens of similar geometry having surface opening fractions of 44, 60, 69, and 79% are targeted by the rings. The flow that emerges downstream of the screens reforms into a new, "transmitted" vortex ring. For the lower porosity targets, features that are characteristic of vortex ring impingement on walls are also observed, such as primary vortex ring rebound and reversal, flow separation, formation of secondary vortices and mixing. As the interaction proceeds, however, the primary vortex ring and secondary vortices are drawn toward the symmetry axis of the flow by fluid passing through the permeable screen. Quantitative flow measurements using digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), indicate the transmitted vortex ring has lower velocity and less (total) kinetic energy than the incident ring. Ring trajectories and total kinetic energy
SURFACE CHEMICAL EFFECTS ON COLLOID STABILITY AND TRANSPORT THROUGH NATURAL POROUS MEDIA
Surface chemical effects on colloidal stability and transport through porous media were investigated using laboratory column techniques. Approximately 100 nm diameter, spherical, iron oxide particles were synthesized as the mobile colloidal phase. The column packing material was ...
Study of the effects of stress sensitivity on the permeability and porosity of fractal porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Xiao-Hua; Li, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Jian-Yi; Zhang, Lie-Hui; Fan, Zhou
2015-10-01
Flow in porous media under stress is very important in various scientific and engineering fields. It has been shown that stress plays an important role in effect of permeability and porosity of porous media. In this work, novel predictive models for permeability and porosity of porous media considering stress sensitivity are developed based on the fractal theory and mechanics of materials. Every parameter in the proposed models has clear physical meaning. The proposed models are evaluated using previously published data for permeability and porosity measured in various natural materials. The predictions of permeability and porosity show good agreement with those obtained by the available experimental data and illustrate that the proposed models can be used to characterize the flow in porous media under stress accurately.
Prediction of Effective Permeability in Porous Media Based on Spontaneous Imbibition Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Jianchao; You, Lijun; Hu, Xiangyun; Wang, Jing; Peng, Ronghua
2012-07-01
Permeability is an important parameter for characterizing the transport properties (e.g. heat and mass transfer) of porous media. It is one of the crucial issues that the permeability of porous media is exactly and quickly decided in many fields such as reservoir engineering, groundwater engineering and composite material modeling. Spontaneous imbibition is a fundamental and ubiquitous natural phenomenon extensively existing in a variety of processes. In this paper, the relationships between the height and weight of imbibition versus the time are derived based on Darcy's law, and a simple method for predicting effective permeability of porous media using spontaneous imbibition effect is proposed, including expressions for permeabilities of artificial and natural porous media. The validity of the proposed models is analysed and tested by experimental data.
Rockhold, Mark L.; Yarwood, R. R.; Niemet, Michael R.; Bottomley, Peter J.; Selker, John S.
2002-07-26
Bacterial-induced changes in the hydraulic properties of porous media are important in a variety of disciplines. Most of the pervious research on this topic has focused on liquid-saturated porous media systems that are representative of aquifer sediments. Unsaturated or variably saturated systems such as soils require additional considerations that have not been fully addressed in the literature. This paper reviews some of the earlier studies on bacterial-induced changes in the hydraulic properties of saturated porous media, and discusses characteristics of unsaturated or variably saturated porous media that may be important to consider when modeling such phenomena in these systems. New data are presented from experiments conducted in sand-packed columns with initially steady unsaturated flow conditions that show significant biomass-induced changes in pressure heads and water contents and permeability reduction during growth of a Pseudomonas fluorescens bacterium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Lu; Zheng, Xilai; Shao, Haibing; Xin, Jia; Peng, Tao
2014-11-01
Bioclogging of natural porous media occurs frequently under a wide range of conditions. It may influence the performance of permeable reactive barrier and constructed wetland. It is also one of the factors that determine the effect of artificial groundwater recharge and in situ bioremediation process. In this study, a series of percolation column experiments were conducted to simulate bioclogging process in porous media. The predominant bacteria in porous media which induced clogging were identified to be Methylobacterium, Janthinobacterium, Yersinia, Staphylococcus and Acidovorax, most of which had been shown to effectively produce viscous extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The column in which EPS production was maximized also coincided with the largest reduction in saturated hydraulic conductivity of porous media. In addition, carbon concentration was the most significant factor to affect polysaccharide, protein and EPS secretion, followed by phosphorus concentration and temperature. The coupled effect of carbon and phosphorus concentration was also very important to stimulate polysaccharide and EPS production.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rockhold, M. L.; Yarwood, R. R.; Niemet, M. R.; Bottomley, P. J.; Selker, J. S.
Bacterial-induced changes in the hydraulic properties of porous media are important in a variety of disciplines. Most of the previous research on this topic has focused on liquid-saturated porous media systems that are representative of aquifer sediments. Unsaturated or variably saturated systems such as soils require additional considerations that have not been fully addressed in the literature. This paper reviews some of the earlier studies on bacterial-induced changes in the hydraulic properties of saturated porous media, and discusses characteristics of unsaturated or variably saturated porous media that may be important to consider when modeling such phenomena in these systems. New data are presented from experiments conducted in sand-packed columns with initially steady unsaturated flow conditions that show significant biomass-induced changes in pressure heads and water contents and permeability reduction during growth of a Pseudomonas fluorescens bacterium.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Saturated packed column and micromodel transport studies wereconducted to gain insightonmechanismsof colloid retention and release under unfavorable attachment conditions. The initial deposition of colloids in porous media was found to be a strongly coupled process that depended on solution chemistr...
A new tracer-density criterion for heterogeneous porous media
Barth, G.R.; Illangasekare, T.H.; Hill, M.C.; Rajaram, H.
2001-01-01
Tracerexperiments provide information about aquifer material properties vital for accurate site characterization. Unfortunately, density-induced sinking can distort tracer movement, leading to an inaccurate assessment of material properties. Yet existing criteria for selecting appropriate tracer concentrations are based on analysis of homogeneous media instead of media with heterogeneities typical of field sites. This work introduces a hydraulic-gradient correction for heterogeneous media and applies it to a criterion previously used to indicate density-induced instabilities in homogeneous media. The modified criterion was tested using a series of two-dimensional heterogeneous intermediate-scale tracer experiments and data from several detailed field tracer tests. The intermediate-scale experimental facility (10.0 ?? 1.2 ?? 0.06 m) included both homogeneous and heterogeneous (??2/In ?? = 1.22) zones. The field tracer tests were less heterogeneous (0.24 < ??2/ln ?? < 0.37), but measurements were sufficient to detect density-induced sinking. Evaluation of the modified criterion using the experiments and field tests demonstrates that the new criterion appears to account for the change in density-induced sinking due to heterogeneity. The criterion demonstrates the importance of accounting for heterogeneity to predict density-induced sinking and differences in the onset of density induced sinking in two-and three-dimensional systems.
Characteristic lengths affecting evaporative drying of porous media.
Lehmann, Peter; Assouline, Shmuel; Or, Dani
2008-05-01
Evaporation from porous media involves mass and energy transport including phase change, vapor diffusion, and liquid flow, resulting in complex displacement patterns affecting drying rates. Force balance considering media properties yields characteristic lengths affecting the transition in the evaporation rate from a liquid-flow-based first stage limited only by vapor exchange with air to a second stage controlled by vapor diffusion through the medium. The characteristic lengths determine the extent of the hydraulically connected region between the receding drying front and evaporating surface (film region) and the onset of flow rate limitations through this film region. Water is displaced from large pores at the receding drying front to supply evaporation from hydraulically connected finer pores at the surface. Liquid flow is driven by a capillary pressure gradient spanned by the width of the pore size distribution and is sustained as long as the capillary gradient remains larger than gravitational forces and viscous dissipation. The maximum extent of the film region sustaining liquid flow is determined by a characteristic length L_{C} combining the gravity characteristic length L_{G} and viscous dissipation characteristic length L_{V} . We used two sands with particle sizes 0.1-0.5 mm ("fine") and 0.3-0.9 mm ("coarse") to measure the evaporation from columns of different lengths under various atmospheric evaporative demands. The value of L_{G} determined from capillary pressure-saturation relationships was 90 mm for the coarse sand and 140 mm for the fine sand. A significant decrease in drying rate occurred when the drying front reached the predicted L_{G} value (viscous dissipation was negligibly small in sand and L_{C} approximately L_{G} ). The approach enables a prediction of the duration of first-stage evaporation with the highest water losses from soil to the atmosphere. PMID:18643163
Renormalization Group Analysis of the Stability of Turbulent Flows in Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avramenko, A. A.; Dmitrenko, N. P.; Tyrinov, A. I.
2016-06-01
The concept of renormalization groups for modeling the parameters of flow in porous media is considered. An algorithm for the renormalization of the equations from the k-ɛ model of turbulence is given. An expression is obtained for the coefficient of renormalized viscosity. Based on the model developed, conditions of the turbulent flow instability in a porous medium have been analyzed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gastone, Francesca; Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea
2014-10-01
The present work is the first part of a comprehensive study on the use of guar gum to improve delivery of microscale zero-valent iron particles in contaminated aquifers. Guar gum solutions exhibit peculiar shear thinning properties, with high viscosity in static conditions and lower viscosity in dynamic conditions: this is beneficial both for the storage of MZVI dispersions, and also for the injection in porous media. In the present paper, the processes associated with guar gum injection in porous media are studied performing single-step and multi-step filtration tests in sand-packed columns. The experimental results of single-step tests performed by injecting guar gum solutions prepared at several concentrations and applying different dissolution procedures evidenced that the presence of residual undissolved polymeric particles in the guar gum solution may have a relevant negative impact on the permeability of the porous medium, resulting in evident clogging. The most effective preparation procedure which minimizes the presence of residual particles is dissolution in warm water (60 °C) followed by centrifugation (procedure T60C). The multi-step tests (i.e. injection of guar gum at constant concentration with a step increase of flow velocity), performed at three polymer concentrations (1.5, 3 and 4 g/l) provided information on the rheological properties of guar gum solutions when flowing through a porous medium at variable discharge rates, which mimic the injection in radial geometry. An experimental protocol was defined for the rheological characterization of the fluids in porous media, and empirical relationships were derived for the quantification of rheological properties and clogging with variable injection rate. These relationships will be implemented in the second companion paper (Part II) in a radial transport model for the simulation of large-scale injection of MZVI-guar gum slurries.
Gastone, Francesca; Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea
2014-10-01
The present work is the first part of a comprehensive study on the use of guar gum to improve delivery of microscale zero-valent iron particles in contaminated aquifers. Guar gum solutions exhibit peculiar shear thinning properties, with high viscosity in static conditions and lower viscosity in dynamic conditions: this is beneficial both for the storage of MZVI dispersions, and also for the injection in porous media. In the present paper, the processes associated with guar gum injection in porous media are studied performing single-step and multi-step filtration tests in sand-packed columns. The experimental results of single-step tests performed by injecting guar gum solutions prepared at several concentrations and applying different dissolution procedures evidenced that the presence of residual undissolved polymeric particles in the guar gum solution may have a relevant negative impact on the permeability of the porous medium, resulting in evident clogging. The most effective preparation procedure which minimizes the presence of residual particles is dissolution in warm water (60°C) followed by centrifugation (procedure T60C). The multi-step tests (i.e. injection of guar gum at constant concentration with a step increase of flow velocity), performed at three polymer concentrations (1.5, 3 and 4g/l) provided information on the rheological properties of guar gum solutions when flowing through a porous medium at variable discharge rates, which mimic the injection in radial geometry. An experimental protocol was defined for the rheological characterization of the fluids in porous media, and empirical relationships were derived for the quantification of rheological properties and clogging with variable injection rate. These relationships will be implemented in the second companion paper (Part II) in a radial transport model for the simulation of large-scale injection of MZVI-guar gum slurries. PMID:25065767
FITTING OF THE DATA FOR DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS IN UNSATURATED POROUS MEDIA
B. Bullard
1999-05-01
The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate diffusion coefficients in unsaturated porous media for use in the TSPA-VA analyses. Using experimental data, regression techniques were used to curve fit the diffusion coefficient in unsaturated porous media as a function of volumetric water content. This calculation substantiates the model fit used in Total System Performance Assessment-1995 An Evaluation of the Potential Yucca Mountain Repository (TSPA-1995), Section 6.5.4.
Feasibility and induced effects of subsurface porous media hydrogen storage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tilmann Pfeiffer, Wolf; Li, Dedong; Wang, Bo; Bauer, Sebastian
2015-04-01
Fluctuations in energy production from renewable sources like wind or solar power can lead to shortages in energy supply which can be mitigated using energy storage concepts. Underground storage of hydrogen in porous sandstone formations could be a storage option for large amounts of energy over long storage cycles. However, this use of the subsurface requires an analysis of possible interactions with other uses of the subsurface such as geothermal energy storage or groundwater abstraction. This study aims at quantifying the feasibility of porous media hydrogen storage to provide stored energy on a timescale of several days to weeks as well as possible impacts on the subsurface. The hypothetical storage site is based on an anticlinal structure located in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany. The storage is injected and extracted using five wells completed in a partially eroded, heterogeneous sandstone layer in the top of the structure at a depth of about 500 m. The storage formation was parameterized based on a local facies model with intrinsic permeabilities of 250-2500 mD and porosities of 35-40%. Storage initialization and subsequent storage cycles, each consisting of a hydrogen injection and extraction, were numerically simulated. The simulation results indicate the general feasibility of this hydrogen storage concept. The simulated sandstone formation is able to provide an average of around 1480 t of hydrogen per week (1830 TJ) which is about 5% of the total weekly energy production or about 10% of the weekly energy consumption of Schleswig-Holstein with the hydrogen production rate being the limiting factor of the overall performance. Induced hydraulic effects are a result of the induced overpressure within the storage formation. Propagation of the pressure signal does not strongly depend on the formation heterogeneity and thus shows approximately radial characteristics with one bar pressure change in distances of about 5 km from the injection wells. Thermal
Microfluidic investigation of the deposition of asphaltenes in porous media.
Hu, Chuntian; Morris, James E; Hartman, Ryan L
2014-06-21
The deposition of asphaltenes in porous media, an important problem in science and macromolecular engineering, was for the first time investigated in a transparent packed-bed microreactor (μPBR) with online analytics to generate high-throughput information. Residence time distributions of the μPBR before and after loading with ~29 μm quartz particles were measured using inline UV-Vis spectroscopy. Stable packings of quartz particles with porosity of ~40% and permeability of ~500 mD were obtained. The presence of the packing materials reduced dispersion under the same velocity via estimation of dispersion coefficients and the Bodenstein number. Reynolds number was observed to influence the asphaltene deposition mechanism. For larger Reynolds numbers, mechanical entrapment likely resulted in significant pressure drops for less pore volumes injected and less mass of asphaltenes being retained under the same maximum dimensionless pressure drop. The innovation of packed-bed microfluidics for investigations on asphaltene deposition mechanisms could contribute to society by bridging macromolecular science with microsystems. PMID:24777527
Quantitative evaluation of porous media wettability using NMR relaxometry.
Fleury, M; Deflandre, F
2003-01-01
We propose a new method to determine wettability indices from NMR relaxometry. The new method uses the sensitivity of low field NMR relaxometry to the fluid distribution in oil-water saturated porous media. The model is based on the existence of a surface relaxivity for both oil and water, allowing the determination of the amount of surface wetted either by oil or by water. The proposed NMR wettability index requires the measurement of relaxation time distribution at four different saturation states. At the irreducible water saturation, we determine the dominant relaxation time of oil in the presence of a small amount of water, and at the oil residual saturation, we determine the dominant relaxation time of water in the presence of a small amount of oil. At 100% water and 100% oil saturation, we determine the surface relaxivity ratio. The interaction of oil with the surface is also evidenced by the comparison of the spin-lattice (T1) and spin-locking (T1rho) relaxation times. The new NMR index agrees with standard wettability measurements based on drainage-imbibition capillary pressure curves (USBM test) in the range [-0.3-1]. PMID:12850740
Patterned wettability of oil and water in porous media.
Kumar, Munish; Fogden, Andrew
2010-03-16
The microscopic wettability state of porous media, based on glass bead packings, after crude oil drainage of brine was investigated using X-ray micro-CT, white-light profilometry, and electron microscopy. Tomography revealed that the bulk residual brine occupied around 10% of void space, located in smaller pores and as pendular rings around bead contacts, in agreement with numerical simulations of drainage. The bead packing contained planar slabs of mica, quartz, and oxidized silicon wafer, which after flushing and disassembly of the pack allowed analysis of their wettability alteration due to deposition of asphaltenes from the crude oil. These substrates exhibited an overall pattern of rings with clean interiors, matching the brine pendular ring size inferred from experimental and simulated drainage, and asphaltene deposition in their exteriors, verifying the mixed wet model of oil reservoir wettability. The extent of asphaltene intrusion into ring interiors and completeness of asphaltene coverage of exteriors both increased with overall deposition tendency for the brine composition. The observed dependence on NaCl concentration and pH was consistent with expectations from DLVO and non-DLVO interactions governing brine thin film rupture and subsequent asphaltene deposition. PMID:19916532
Multiscale modelling of hydraulic conductivity in vuggy porous media
Daly, K. R.; Roose, T.
2014-01-01
Flow in both saturated and non-saturated vuggy porous media, i.e. soil, is inherently multiscale. The complex microporous structure of the soil aggregates and the wider vugs provides a multitude of flow pathways and has received significant attention from the X-ray computed tomography (CT) community with a constant drive to image at higher resolution. Using multiscale homogenization, we derive averaged equations to study the effects of the microscale structure on the macroscopic flow. The averaged model captures the underlying geometry through a series of cell problems and is verified through direct comparison to numerical simulations of the full structure. These methods offer significant reductions in computation time and allow us to perform three-dimensional calculations with complex geometries on a desktop PC. The results show that the surface roughness of the aggregate has a significantly greater effect on the flow than the microstructure within the aggregate. Hence, this is the region in which the resolution of X-ray CT for image-based modelling has the greatest impact. PMID:24511248
An experimental study of boiling in porous media
Satik, C.; Horne, R.N.
1996-12-31
We report on a preliminary, horizontal boiling experiment conducted by using a Berea sandstone core. The objective of this study is to improve the understanding of the process of boiling in porous media using both experimental and numerical tools. The ultimate goal is to obtain the two important but currently unknown functions of relative permeability and capillary pressure functions. Upon the completion of the construction of the experimental apparatus, the first preliminary boiling experiment was carried out. Three-dimensional porosity and steam saturation distributions were calculated by using a high resolution X-ray CT scanner. The centerline temperatures were measured by using eleven thermowells placed along the bottom half of the core. The heat flux values were calculated from both the heater power settings and the heat flux sensor readings. These data showed a 65% difference between the two, which indicated that further improvements within the heating section of the core holder is required. The steam saturation distributions calculated from the X-ray CT data showed a severe steam override. Steady state steam saturation data showed a progressive boiling process with the formation of the three regions of steam, two-phase and liquid as the heat flux was increased.
Immiscible Front Evolution in Randomly Heterogeneous Porous Media
A. M. Tartakovsky; S. P. Neuman; R. J. Lenhard
2003-11-01
The evolution of a sharp interface between two immiscible fluids in a randomly heterogeneous porous medium is investigated analytically using a stochastic moment approach. The displacing fluid is taken to be at constant saturation and to have a much larger viscosity than does the displaced fluid, which is therefore effectively static. Capillary pressure at the interface is related to porosity and permeability via the Leverett J-function. Whereas porosity is spatially uniform, permeability forms a spatially correlated random field. Displacement is governed by stochastic integro-differential equations defined over a three-dimensional domain bounded by a random interface. The equations are expanded and averaged in probability space to yield leading order recursive equations governing the ensemble mean and variance of interface position, rate of propagation and pressure gradient within the displacing fluid. Solutions are obtained for one-dimensional head- and flux-driven displacements in statistically homogeneous media and found to compare well with numerical Monte Carlo simulations. The manner in which medium heterogeneity affects the mean pressure gradient is indicative of how it impacts the stability of the mean interface. Capillary pressure at the interface is found to have a potentially important effect on its mean dynamics and stability.
Foamed gel barriers in porous media: Breakdown and permeability evolution
Miller, M.J.; Fogler, H.S.
1995-11-01
Foamed gel has begun to play an important role in permeability modification applications because of the reduced chemical requirements. Foamed gels create impermeable barriers in porous media; however, once a critical pressure differential is exceeded, the permeability increases with increasing pressure. A two-dimensional network model was developed to estimate foamed gel barrier performance in terms of the maximum pressure a barrier can withstand and the evolution of the foamed gel barrier`s permeability. The formation of conductive pathways and the accompanying permeability increase were estimated for a model of the pressure-induced deformation and rupture of individual lenses. The evolution of conductive pathways changed from invasion percolation (high elastic modulus, rigid gel) to a lens rupture chain reaction initiated by the rupture of a single lens (low elastic modulus gel) as the elastic modulus of the gel was decreased. The apparent fractal dimension of the first conductive channel ranged from 1.89 to 1.06 for high and low elastic modulus gels., respectively. This dependency of breakthrough and breakdown is unique and produces a large range of breakdown behavior for any degree of microscopic heterogeneity.
Estimation of three-phase flow functions in porous media
Mejia, G.M.; Watson, A.T.; Nordtvedt, J.E.
1996-07-01
Several important processes involve the flow of three immiscible fluids through porous media, such as the flow of oil, water and gas in petroleum reservoirs, or water, non-aqueous-phase liquid and air in underground aquifers. Multiphase flow functions (relative permeability and capillary pressure) are important to simulate the flow in such systems. Unfortunately, there are few, if any, reliable estimates of these flow properties from laboratory experiments. One of the main reasons for this is the use of unsupported simplifications in the procedures for determining property estimates from measured data. The authors present a method for simultaneous estimation of three-phase relative permeability and capillary pressure functions from laboratory experiments. The method is not limited by restrictions in the experimental design or assumptions regarding the saturation dependence or shape of the functions to be estimated. The method is demonstrated with simulated experiments. It is shown that with a suitable experimental design, regions of the functions represented by the measured data can be determined accurately.
Modeling NAPL dissolution from pendular rings in idealized porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Junqi; Christ, John A.; Goltz, Mark N.; Demond, Avery H.
2015-10-01
The dissolution rate of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) often governs the remediation time frame at subsurface hazardous waste sites. Most formulations for estimating this rate are empirical and assume that the NAPL is the nonwetting fluid. However, field evidence suggests that some waste sites might be organic wet. Thus, formulations that assume the NAPL is nonwetting may be inappropriate for estimating the rates of NAPL dissolution. An exact solution to the Young-Laplace equation, assuming NAPL resides as pendular rings around the contact points of porous media idealized as spherical particles in a hexagonal close packing arrangement, is presented in this work to provide a theoretical prediction for NAPL-water interfacial area. This analytic expression for interfacial area is then coupled with an exact solution to the advection-diffusion equation in a capillary tube assuming Hagen-Poiseuille flow to provide a theoretical means of calculating the mass transfer rate coefficient for dissolution at the NAPL-water interface in an organic-wet system. A comparison of the predictions from this theoretical model with predictions from empirically derived formulations from the literature for water-wet systems showed a consistent range of values for the mass transfer rate coefficient, despite the significant differences in model foundations (water wetting versus NAPL wetting, theoretical versus empirical). This finding implies that, under these system conditions, the important parameter is interfacial area, with a lesser role played by NAPL configuration.
Colloid suspension stability and transport through unsaturated porous media
McGraw, M.A.; Kaplan, D.I.
1997-04-01
Contaminant transport is traditionally modeled in a two-phase system: a mobile aqueous phase and an immobile solid phase. Over the last 15 years, there has been an increasing awareness of a third, mobile solid phase. This mobile solid phase, or mobile colloids, are organic or inorganic submicron-sized particles that move with groundwater flow. When colloids are present, the net effect on radionuclide transport is that radionuclides can move faster through the system. It is not known whether mobile colloids exist in the subsurface environment of the Hanford Site. Furthermore, it is not known if mobile colloids would likely exist in a plume emanating from a Low Level Waste (LLW) disposal site. No attempt was made in this study to ascertain whether colloids would form. Instead, experiments and calculations were conducted to evaluate the likelihood that colloids, if formed, would remain in suspension and move through saturated and unsaturated sediments. The objectives of this study were to evaluate three aspects of colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides as they specifically relate to the LLW Performance Assessment. These objectives were: (1) determine if the chemical conditions likely to exist in the near and far field of the proposed disposal site are prone to induce flocculation (settling of colloids from suspension) or dispersion of naturally occurring Hanford colloids, (2) identify the important mechanisms likely involved in the removal of colloids from a Hanford sediment, and (3) determine if colloids can move through unsaturated porous media.
Diffusion, Dispersion, and Uncertainty in Anisotropic Fractal Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monnig, N. D.; Benson, D. A.
2007-12-01
Motivated by field measurements of aquifer hydraulic conductivity (K), recent techniques were developed to construct anisotropic fractal random fields, in which the scaling, or self-similarity parameter, varies with direction and is defined by a matrix. Ensemble numerical results are analyzed for solute transport through these 2-D "operator-scaling" fractional Brownian motion (fBm) ln(K) fields. Contrary to some analytic stochastic theories for monofractal K fields, the plume growth rates never exceed Mercado's (1967) purely stratified aquifer growth rate of plume apparent dispersivity proportional to mean distance. Apparent super-stratified growth must be the result of other demonstrable factors, such as initial plume size. The addition of large local dispersion and diffusion does not significantly change the effective longitudinal dispersivity of the plumes. In the presence of significant local dispersion or diffusion, the concentration coefficient of variation CV={σc}/{\\langle c \\rangle} remains large at the leading edge of the plumes. This indicates that even with considerable mixing due to dispersion or diffusion, there is still substantial uncertainty in the leading edge of a plume moving in fractal porous media.
Effects of starvation on bacterial transport through porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cunningham, Alfred B.; Sharp, Robert R.; Caccavo, Frank; Gerlach, Robin
2007-06-01
A major problem preventing widespread implementation of microbial injection strategies for bioremediation and/or microbially enhanced oil recovery is the tendency of bacteria to strongly adhere to surfaces in the immediate vicinity of the injection point. Long term (weeks to months) nutrient starvation of bacteria prior to injection can decrease attachment and enhance transport through porous media. This paper summarizes results of starvation-enhanced transport experiments in sand columns of 30 cm, 3 m, and 16 m in length. The 16 m column experiments compared transport, breakthrough and distribution of adhered cells for starved and vegetative cultures of Klebsiella oxytoca, a copious biofilm producer. Results from these experiments were subsequently used to design and construct a field-scale biofilm barrier using starved Pseudomonas fluorescens. The 30 cm and 3 m sand columns experiments investigated starvation-enhanced transport of Shewanella algae BrY, a dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium. In both cases the vegetative cells adsorbed onto the sand in higher numbers than the starved cells, especially near the entrance of the column. These results, taken together with studies cited in the literature, indicate that starved cells penetrate farther (i.e. higher breakthrough concentration) and adsorb more uniformly along the flow path than vegetative cells.
Bacterial Deposition in Porous Media: a Surface Thermodynamic Investigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, G.; Strevett, K. A.
2001-12-01
A microbial transport study of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas sp. through a model medium of silica gel demonstrated that bacterial deposition in porous media was determined by interactions between bacteria and the medium (cell-solid interactions) as well as interactions between the deposited and suspended bacterial cells (cell-cell interactions). The clean bed collision efficiency, which represents the probability of a particle to attach upon reaching the collector surface when there are no deposited cells on the medium surface, was a function of the total free energy of the cell-solid interactions at the equilibrium distance. The blocking factor, which depicts the ratio of the blocked area to the geometric area of the medium surface, was a function of the total free energy of the cell-cell interactions at the equilibrium distance. Contact angle measurements and the wicking method were used to quantify bacterial and medium surface thermodynamics, and extended DLVO theory provided the theoretical framework for describing and predicting the interaction free energies. The understanding of these relationships is of significant importance in predicting the fate and transport of microbes in the subsurface area, and in guidance of in-situ bioremediation. Key words: bacterial deposition, van der Waals interactions, Lewis acid/base interactions, electrostatic interactions, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas sp.
Wetting Front Instability in Porous Media (Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parlange, Jean-Yves
2010-05-01
Normal porous media, like soils, exhibit liquid flow instabilities that are very different from what is observed in a Hele-Shaw cell. Unfortunately, the latter is often used as the basis of our understanding in the case of soils. In Hele-Shaw cells, the instability is less developed and shows as "fingers" merging into a hand. On the other hand, in a soil, the "fingers" are replaced by "columns" that remain distinct. With fingers, surface tension enters Laplace's equation through the radius of the saturated tip, whereas with columns, it is not the diameter of the column but the much smaller pore radii which are relevant. At present, the phenomenon is fairly well understood: With fingers, the liquid viscosity is often important and hysteresis is not; with columns the opposite usually holds. In nature, columns tend to remain at the same position in the soil. This persistence is responsible for rapid water and solute transport with potential pollution of ground water. As the column enters the soil, its tip consists of a narrow wetting zone followed by drainage. Both the drainage profile and the lateral diffusion of water are well described by Richards' equation. Lateral diffusion eventually stops because of hysteresis, maintaining columns of constant width which do not merge into a hand. The wet zone cannot be described by Richards' equation as the wetting requires understanding of the flow at the pore scale, i.e., solving the Navier-Stokes equations, leading to a Hoffman-Tanner type of flow behavior.
Transport of large particles in flow through porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imdakm, A. O.; Sahimi, Muhammad
1987-12-01
There is considerable evidence indicating that significant reduction in the efficiency of many processes in porous media, such as enhancing oil recovery, heterogeneous chemical reactions, deep-bed filtration, gel permeation, and liquid chromatography, is due to the reduction in the permeability of the pore space. This reduction is due to the transport of particles, whose sizes are comparable with those of the pores, and the subsequent blocking of the pores by various mechanisms. In this paper we develop a novel Monte Carlo method for theoretical modeling of this phenomenon. Particles of various sizes are injected into the medium, and their migration in the flow field is modeled by a random walk whose transition porbability is proportional to the local pore fluxes. Pores are blocked and their flow capacity is reduced (or vanished) when large particles pass through them (and reduce their flow) or totally block them. The permeability of the medium can ultimately vanish and, therefore, this phenomenon is a percolation process. Various quantities of interest such as the variations of the permeability with process time and the distribution of pore-plugging times are computed. The critical exponent characterizing the vanishing of the permeability near the percolation threshold appears to be different from that of percolation conductivity. The agreement between our results and the available experimental data is excellent.
Experimental Pore-scale Study on the Dynamic Response of Blobs in Porous Media to Pressure Gradients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, S.; Hilpert, M.
2012-12-01
The dynamic response of blobs, which are trapped in porous media due to capillary forces, to applied pressure gradients is of interest to petroleum reservoir detection, enhanced oil recovery, and groundwater remediation. By performing planar laser-induced fluorescence experiments, we visualized the dynamics of blobs subject to steady and oscillatory pressure gradients in porous media. By analyzing blob images, we measured the 2D/3D contact angles and mean curvatures of the liquid-liquid interfaces and furthermore quantified the effects of contact angle hysteresis on blob mobilization. Once a blob was mobilized, the subsequent movement and interface behavior, such as contact line pinning, contact line slipping, and snap off, depended very much on the magnitude of the applied pressure gradient. We also revealed the flow patterns inside moving blobs by performing particle image velocimetry experiments. For an oscillatory pressure gradient, we showed that a trapped blob can exhibit resonance which can be exploited to enhance blob mobilization by seismic waves.
Evaporation-driven transport and precipitation of salt in porous-media: A multi-domain approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jambhekar, Vishal Arun; Schmid, Karen Sophie; Helmig, Rainer
2014-05-01
the free-flow porous-media interface and the influence of atmospheric conditions on evaporation dynamics. The model is also capable to handle dissolved salt transport, osmosis, salt-precipitation and changes in porous-media properties (e.g. porosity and permeability). Numerical implementation is performed in the framework of DuMuX. Implicit Euler method is applied for time and BOX scheme is used for spatial discretization. The system is solved implicitly after incorporating the interface conditions. Results: Numerical examples are setup to illustrate evolution of the evaporation rate, cumulative water loss, drying behavior, solute distribution, salinization and changes in porous media properties. The model is applicable to both non-saline and saline cases. Numerical experiments are undertaken for saturated and unsaturated systems with homogeneous and heterogeneous porous structures. The model concept is validated against the experimental data presented by [4]. References [1] Nachshon, U. et. al (2011). Combined evaporation and salt precipitation in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media. WRR, 47. [2] Coussot, P. (2000). Scaling approach of the convective drying of a porous medium. The European Physical Journal B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, 15:557-566. [3] Mosthaf, K. et. al (2011). A coupling concept for two-phase compositional porous-medium and single phase compositional free flow. WRR 47. [4] M. Norouzi Rad., N. Shokri, and M. Sahimi. Pore-scale dynamics of salt precipitation in drying porous media. Physical Review E. 2013 September; 88(3).
Lattice Boltzmann description of magnetization in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guyer, R. A.; McCall, K. R.
2000-08-01
The magnetic moments of fluid particles filling the pore space of a porous material (1) reside in a complex space, (2) are carried by the particles in diffusive exploration of the pore space, and (3) relax when the particles approach relaxation sites on the walls of the pore space. Further, when the magnetic moments are the object of a nuclear magnetic resonance experiment, they are manipulated by rf magnetic fields, internal magnetic field gradients, and applied magnetic field gradient pulses. In this paper, a lattice Boltzmann computational procedure is described that accounts for all of the vagaries in the experience of a magnetic moment in a porous material. The time evolution of the longitudinal and transverse magnetization, in a variety of experimental situations, can be simulated with this computational procedure. The z component of the magnetization, the longitudinal magnetization, is described by a set of coarse grained distribution functions for a scalar fluid. The time evolution of these distribution functions involves a scattering process (to account for diffusion) and a probability of transmission out of the pore space (to account for surface relaxation). A numerical example, involving a pore adjacent to a microporous region, is examined in detail. The transverse magnetization is a vector. Its x and y magnetization components are carried by separate scalar fluids. There is a set of coarse grained distribution functions for each fluid. Radio frequency magnetic fields, internal magnetic field gradients, applied magnetic field gradient pulses, etc., represent conversion processes in which the two fluids transform into one another. Two examples, one involving a periodic field gradient and a Hahn echo, and the other involving an isolated pore and a PFG sequence, are examined in detail.
Theoretical studies of non-Newtonian and Newtonian fluid flow through porous media
Wu, Yu-Shu.
1990-02-01
A comprehensive theoretical study has been carried out on the flow behavior of both single and multiple phase non-Newtonian fluids in porous media. This work is divided into three parts: development of numerical and analytical solutions; theoretical studies of transient flow of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media; and applications of well test analysis and displacement efficiency evaluation to field problems. A fully implicit, integral finite difference model has been developed for simulation of non-Newtonian and Newtonian fluid flow through porous media. Several commonly-used rheological models of power-law and Bingham plastic non-Newtonian fluids have been incorporated in the simulator. A Buckley-Leverett type analytical solution for one-dimensional, immiscible displacement involving non-Newtonian fluids in porous media has been developed. An integral method is also presented for the study of transient flow of Bingham fluids in porous media. In addition, two well test analysis methods have been developed for analyzing pressure transient tests of power-law and Bingham fluids, respectively. Applications are included to demonstrate this new technology. The physical mechanisms involved in immiscible displacement with non-Newtonian fluids in porous media have been studied using the Buckley-Leverett type analytical solution. In another study, an idealized fracture model has been used to obtain some insights into the flow of a power-law fluid in a double-porosity medium. Transient flow of a general pseudoplastic fluid has been studied numerically. 125 refs., 91 figs., 12 tabs.
Effect of sequential release of NAPLs on NAPL migration in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bang, Woohui; Yeo, In Wook
2016-04-01
NAPLs (Non-aqueous phase liquids) are common groundwater contaminants and are classified as LNAPLs (Light non-aqueous phase liquids) and DNAPLs (Dense non-aqueous phase liquids) according to relative density for water. Due to their low solubility in water, NAPLs remain for a long time in groundwater, and they pose a serious environmental problem. Therefore, understanding NAPLs migration in porous media is essential for effective NAPLs remediation. DNAPLs tend to move downward through the water table by gravity force because its density is higher than water. However, if DNAPLs do not have sufficient energy which breaks capillary force of porous media, they will just accumulate above capillary zone or water table. Mobile phase of LNAPLs rises and falls depending on fluctuation of water table, and it could change the wettability of porous media from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. This could impacts on the migration characteristics of subsequently-released DNAPLs. LNAPLs and DNAPLs are sometime disposed at the same place (for example, the Hill air force base, USA). Therefore, this study focuses on the effect of sequential release of NAPLs on NAPLs (in particular, DNAPL) migration in porous media. We have conducted laboratory experiments. Gasoline, which is known to change wettability of porous media from hydrophilic to intermediate, and TCE (Trichloroethylene) were used as LNAPL and DNAPL, respectively. Glass beads with the grain size of 1 mm and 2 mm were prepared for two sets of porous media. Gasoline and TCE was dyed for visualization. First, respective LNAPL and DNAPL of 10 ml were separately released into prepared porous media. For the grain size of 2 mm glass beads, LNAPL became buoyant above the water table, and DNAPL just moved downward through porous media. However, for the experiment with the grain size of 1 mm glass beads, NAPLs behaved very differently. DNAPL did not migrate downward below and just remained above the water table due to capillary pressure of
Non-equilibrium model of two-phase porous media flow with phase change
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; Fu, X.; Juanes, R.
2014-12-01
The efficient simulation of multi-phase multi-component flow through geologic porous media is challenging and computationally intensive, yet quantitative modeling of these processes is essential in engineering and the geosciences. Multiphase flow with phase change and complex phase behavior arises in numerous applications, including enhanced oil recovery, steam injection in groundwater remediation, geologic CO2 storage and enhanced geothermal energy systems. A challenge of multiphase compositional simulation is that the number of existing phases varies with position and time, and thus the number of state variables in the saturation-based conservation laws is a function of space and time. The tasks of phase-state identification and determination of the composition of the different phases are performed assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium. Here we investigate a thermodynamically consistent formulation for non-isothermal two-phase flow, in systems where the hypothesis of instantaneous local equilibrium does not hold. Non-equilibrium effects are important in coarse-scale simulations where the assumption of complete mixing in each gridblock is not realistic. We apply our model to steam injection in water-saturated porous media.
Momentum transfer across fluid-fluid interfaces in porous media: A network model
Goode, P.A.; Ramakrishnan, T.S. )
1993-07-01
Two-phase flow in porous media is described based on the extended form of Darcy's law, which ignores momentum transfer at fluid-fluid interfaces. Two forms of corrections to this simple description have been proposed in the literature: on the relative permeability dependence on viscosity ratio; the other on the velocities assumed to be proportional to both phase pressure gradients and so introducing an additional saturation-dependent cross coefficient. In this article, to identify the correct form of transport equations, a simple cubic network model of 30 x 30 x 30 bonds is used. The cross section of the bonds is that of a four-cusp duct. The fluid interface in each duct is located by capillary equilibrium. The duct hydraulic conductances are then obtained as a function of viscosity ratio and phase volume fraction using a finite element calculation. These individual duct results are used in the network calculations for which a percolation algorithm is applied to simulate nonwetting phase displacing wetting phase, a process also known as initial drainage. Flow calculations show that both the nonwetting-phase relative permeability and the cross coefficient are strong functions of saturation and viscosity ratio. Also, the off-diagonal terms may contribute to a nonnegligible fraction of the flow. The proposed generalization of the Darcy equations is applicable to all problems involving multiphase flow in porous media. The current practices for relative permeability measurements and reservoir simulation may have to be reexamined in the context of the proposed transport equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Revil, A.; Barnier, G.; Karaoulis, M.; Sava, P.; Jardani, A.; Kulessa, B.
2014-02-01
The seismoelectric method is based on the interpretation of the electrical field associated with the conversion of mechanical to electromagnetic energy during the propagation of seismic waves in heterogeneous porous media. We propose an extension of a poroacoustic model that takes into account fluid flow and the effect of saturation. This model is coupled with an electrokinetic model accounting for the effect of saturation and in agreement with available experimental data in sands and carbonate rocks. We also developed new scaling laws for the permeability, the streaming potential coupling coefficient and the capillary entry pressure of porous media. The theory is developed for frequencies much below the critical frequency at which inertial effects starts to dominate in the Navier-Stokes equation (>10 kHz). The equations used to compute the propagation of the P waves and the seismoelectric effect in unsaturated condition are solved with finite elements using triangular meshing. We demonstrate the usefulness of a recently developed technique, seismoelectric beamforming, to localize saturation fronts by focusing seismic waves and looking at the resulting seismoelectric conversions. This method is applied to a cross-hole problem showing how a saturation front characterized by a drop in the electrical conductivity and compressibility is responsible for seismoelectric conversions. These conversions can be used, in turn, to determine the position of the front over time.
Investigation of water seepage through porous media using X-ray imaging technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, Sung Yong; Lim, Seungmin; Lee, Sang Joon
2012-07-01
SummaryDynamic movement of wetting front and variation of water contents through three different porous media were investigated using X-ray radiography. Water and natural sand particles were used as liquid and porous media in this study. To minimize the effects of minor X-ray attenuation and uneven illumination, the flat field correction (FFC) was applied before determining the position of wetting front. In addition, the thickness-averaged (in the direction of the X-ray penetration) water content was obtained by employing the Beer-Lambert law. The initial inertia of water droplet influences more strongly on the vertical migration, compared to the horizontal migration. The effect of initial inertia on the horizontal migration is enhanced as sand size decreases. The pattern of water transport is observed to be significantly affected by the initial water contents. As the initial water contents increases, the bulb-type transport pattern is shifted to a trapezoidal shape. With increasing surface temperature, water droplets are easily broken on the sand surface. This consequently decreases the length of the initial inertia region. Different from the wetting front migration, the water contents at the initial stage clearly exhibit a preferential flow along the vertical direction. The water transport becomes nearly uniform in all directions beyond the saturation state.
Berryman, J.G.
2009-11-20
Poroelastic analysis usually progresses from assumed knowledge of dry or drained porous media to the predicted behavior of fluid-saturated and undrained porous media. Unfortunately, the experimental situation is often incompatible with these assumptions, especially when field data (from hydrological or oil/gas reservoirs) are involved. The present work considers several different experimental scenarios typified by one in which a set of undrained poroelastic (stiffness) constants has been measured using either ultrasound or seismic wave analysis, while some or all of the dry or drained constants are normally unknown. Drained constants for such a poroelastic system can be deduced for isotropic systems from available data if a complete set of undrained compliance data for the principal stresses are available - together with a few other commonly measured quantities such as porosity, fluid bulk modulus, and grain bulk modulus. Similar results are also developed here for anisotropic systems having up to orthotropic symmetry if the system is granular (i.e., composed of solid grains assembled into a solid matrix, either by a cementation process or by applied stress) and the grains are known to be elastically homogeneous. Finally, the analysis is also fully developed for anisotropic systems with nonhomogeneous (more than one mineral type), but still isotropic, grains - as well as for uniform collections of anisotropic grains as long as their axes of symmetry are either perfectly aligned or perfectly random.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chau, Jessica Furrer; Or, Dani; Sukop, Michael C.; Steinberg, S. L. (Principal Investigator)
2005-01-01
Liquid distributions in unsaturated porous media under different gravitational accelerations and corresponding macroscopic gaseous diffusion coefficients were investigated to enhance understanding of plant growth conditions in microgravity. We used a single-component, multiphase lattice Boltzmann code to simulate liquid configurations in two-dimensional porous media at varying water contents for different gravity conditions and measured gas diffusion through the media using a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann code. The relative diffusion coefficients (D rel) for simulations with and without gravity as functions of air-filled porosity were in good agreement with measured data and established models. We found significant differences in liquid configuration in porous media, leading to reductions in D rel of up to 25% under zero gravity. The study highlights potential applications of the lattice Boltzmann method for rapid and cost-effective evaluation of alternative plant growth media designs under variable gravity.
Rolland du Roscoat, S; Martins, J M F; Séchet, P; Vince, E; Latil, P; Geindreau, C
2014-06-01
The development of reliable models to accurately predict biofilm growth in porous media relies on a good knowledge of the temporal evolution of biofilms structure within the porous network. Since little is known on the true 3D structure of biofilms developed in porous media, this work aimed at developing a new experimental protocol to visualize the 3D microstructure of bacterial biofilms in porous media. The main originality of the proposed procedure lies on the combination of the more recent advances in synchrotron microtomography (Paganin mode) and of a new contrast agent (1-chloronaphtalene) that has never been applied to biofilm visualization. It is shown that the proposed methodology takes advantage of the contrasting properties of 1-chloronaphtalene to prevent some limitations observed with more classical contrast agents. A quantitative analysis of the microstructural properties (volume fractions and specific surface area) of bacterial biofilms developed in columns of clay beads is also proposed on the basis of the obtained 3D images. PMID:24293082
Determination of the Darcy permeability of porous media including sintered metal plugs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frederking, T. H. K.; Hepler, W. A.; Yuan, S. W. K.; Feng, W. F.
1986-01-01
Sintered-metal porous plugs with a normal size of the order of 1-10 microns are used to evaluate the Darcy permeability of laminar flow at very small velocities in laminar fluids. Porous media experiment results and data adduced from the literature are noted to support the Darcy law analog for normal fluid convection in the laminar regime. Low temperature results suggest the importance of collecting room temperature data prior to runs at liquid He(4) temperatures. The characteristic length diagram gives a useful picture of the tolerance range encountered with a particular class of porous media.
Mineral carbonation in water-unsaturated porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harrison, A. L.; Dipple, G. M.; Mayer, K. U.; Power, I. M.
2014-12-01
Ultramafic mine tailings have an untapped capacity to sequester CO2 directly from air or CO2-rich gas streams via carbonation of tailings minerals [1]. The CO2 sequestration capacity of these sites could be exploited simply by increasing the supply of CO2 into tailings, such as through circulation of air or flue gas from mine site power plants [1,2]. Mine tailings storage facilities typically have heterogeneously distributed pore water [1], affecting both the reactive capacity of the porous medium and the exposure of reactive phases to CO2 [3]. We examine the physical reaction processes that govern carbonation efficiency in variably saturated porous media using meter-scale column experiments containing the tailings mineral, brucite [Mg(OH)2], that were supplied with 10% CO2 gas streams. The experiments were instrumented with water content and gas phase CO2 sensors to track changes in water saturation and CO2concentration with time. The precipitation of hydrated Mg-carbonates as rinds encasing brucite particles resulted in passivation of brucite surfaces and an abrupt shut down of the reaction prior to completion. Moreover, the extent of reaction was further limited at low water saturation due to the lack of water available to form hydrated Mg-carbonates, which incorporate water into their crystal structures. Reactive transport modeling using MIN3P-DUSTY [4] revealed that the instantaneous reaction rate was not strongly affected by water saturation, but the reactive capacity was reduced significantly. Surface passivation and water-limited reaction resulted in a highly non-geometric evolution of reactive surface area. The extent of reaction was also limited at high water content because viscous fingering of the gas streams injected at the base of the columns resulted in narrow zones of highly carbonated material, but left a large proportion of brucite unreacted. The implication is that carbonation efficiency in mine tailings could be maximized by targeting an
Fundamental Studies of Fluid Mechanics: Stability in Porous Media
George M. Homsy
2005-04-28
This work has been concerned with theoretical, computational and experimental studies of a variety of flow and transport problems that are of generic interest and applicability in energy-related and energy-intensive processes. These include the following. (1) Problems associated with oil recovery: the global economy continues to be dependent on the stable and predictable supply of oil and fossil fuels. This will remain the case for the near term, as current estimates are that world production of oil will peak between 2025 and 2100, depending on assumptions regarding growth. Most of these resources reside in porous rocks and other naturally occurring media. Studies of flow-induced instabilities are relevant to the areas of secondary and enhanced oil recovery. (2) Small scale and Stokes flows: flows in microgeometries and involving interfaces and surfactants are of interest in a myriad of energy-related contexts. These include: pore-level modeling of the fundamental processes by which oil held in porous materials is mobilized and produced; heating and cooling energy cycles involving significant expenditure of energy in conditioning of human environments, heat pipes, and compact heat exchangers; and energy efficiency in large scale separation processes such as distillation and absorption-processes that underlie the chemical process industries. (3) Coating flows: these are of interest in information technologies, including the manufacture of integrated circuits and data storage and retrieval devices. It is estimated that 50-70% of the starting raw materials and intermediate devices in information technology processes must be discarded as a result of imperfections and failure to meet specifications. These in turn are often the result of the inability to control fluid-mechanical processes and flow instabilities. Our work over the grant period is primarily fundamental in nature. We are interested in establishing general principles and behaviors that relate to a variety of
NMR studies of granular media and two-phase flow in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiaoyu
This dissertation describes two experimental studies of a vibrofluidized granular medium and a preliminary study of two-phase fluid flow in a porous medium using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The first study of granular medium is to test a scaling law of the rise in center of mass in a three-dimensional vibrofluidized granular system. Our granular system consisted of mustard seeds vibrated vertically at 40 Hz from 0g to 14g. We used Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to measure density profile in vibrated direction. We observed that the rise in center of mass scaled as nu 0alpha/Nlbeta with alpha = 1.0 +/- 0.2 and beta = 0.5 +/- 0.1, where nu 0 is the vibration velocity and Nl is the number of layers of grains in the container. A simple theory was proposed to explain the scaling exponents. In the second study we measured both density and velocity information in the same setup of the first study. Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG)-NMR combined with MRI was used to do this measurement. The granular system was fully fluidized at 14.85g 50 Hz with Nl ≤ 4. The velocity distributions at horizontal and vertical direction at different height were measured. The distributions were nearly-Gaussian far from sample bottom and non-Gaussian near sample bottom. Granular temperature profiles were calculated from the velocity distributions. The density and temperature profile were fit to a hydrodynamic theory. The theory agreed with experiments very well. A temperature inversion near top was also observed and explained by additional transport coefficient from granular hydrodynamics. The third study was the preliminary density measurement of invading phase profile in a two-phase flow in porous media. The purpose of this study was to test an invasion percolation with gradient (IPG) theory in two-phase flow of porous media. Two phases are dodecane and water doped with CuSO4. The porous medium was packed glass beads. The front tail width sigma and front width of invading phase were
Nanoparticle dispersion in disordered porous media with and without polymer additives.
Babayekhorasani, Firoozeh; Dunstan, Dave E; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Conrad, Jacinta C
2016-06-29
In purely viscous Newtonian fluids, mechanical mixing of the fluid stream as it moves through an unstructured porous medium controls the long-time dispersion of molecular tracers. In applications ranging from environmental remediation to materials processing, however, particles are transported through porous media in polymer solutions and melts, for which the fluid properties depend on the shear rate and extent of deformation. How the flow characteristics of polymer solutions affect the spreading of finite-sized particles remains poorly understood - both on the microscopic scale as local velocity profiles, and on the macroscale as dispersion. Here, we show across a range of flow rates and disordered porous media configurations that the long-time transport coefficients of particles flowed in water, in a viscous Newtonian fluid, and in a non-Newtonian shear-thinning polymer solution collapse onto scaling curves, independent of the fluid rheology. Thus the addition of polymer does not impact nanoparticle dispersion through disordered porous media. PMID:27328208
Flow imaging of fluids in porous media by magnetization prepared centric-scan SPRITE.
Li, Linqing; Chen, Quan; Marble, Andrew E; Romero-Zerón, Laura; Newling, Benedict; Balcom, Bruce J
2009-03-01
MRI has considerable potential as a non-destructive probe of porous media, permitting rapid quantification of local fluid content and the possibility of local flow visualization and quantification. In this work we explore a general approach to flow velocity measurement in porous media by combining Cotts pulsed field gradient flow encoding with SPRITE MRI. This technique permits facile and accurate flow and dispersion coefficient mapping of fluids in porous media. This new approach has proven to be robust in characterizing fluid behavior. This method is illustrated through measurements of flow in pipes, flow in sand packs and flow in porous reservoir rocks. Spatially resolved flow maps and local fluid velocity distribution were acquired. PMID:19121591
Thermal macrotransport processes in porous media. A review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batycky, Richard P.; Brenner, Howard
This paper reviews recent work by the authors involving nonconservative convective-conductive internal energy transport phenomena in porous media. Where appropriate, these heat-transfer results are contrasted and compared with their classical mass-transfer counterparts. Commonalities as well as differences are pointed out, arising from the distinction between molecular diffusivity vs thermal diffusivity. Differences raise from the fact that the latter — in contrast with the former — is a composite material property (derived jointly from separate thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity properties). This contrasts with the case of molecular diffusivity, which is a fundamental rather than composite material property. Both adiabatic and nonadiabatic systems are studied, with the latter characterized by a rate of heat loss to the surroundings described by a 'Newton's law of colling' heat transfer coefficient, h. Taylor dispersion theory is used to effect the coarse-graining of the thermal problem posed by the microscale equations, thereby producing a macroscale or effective-medium theory of the mean thermal transport process. Various porous media, each possessing a spatially periodic skeletal geometry, are analyzed. General expressions are presented for the macroscale thermal propagation velocity vector Ū ∗ (which is not generally equal to the interstitial Darcy-scale velocity V¯ ∗ of the flowing fluid) and effective thermal dispersivity dyadic ᾱ∗ in terms of the prescribed microscale data. Additionally, in the nonadiabatic case, an expression is obtained for a third macrotransport coefficient, H¯∗, representing the effective or overall macroscale heat-transfer coefficient, and distinct from the microscale heat-transfer coefficient h. (The former, macrotransport coefficient represents the same type of macroscale material property as arises in so-called 'fin' heat-transfer problems.) Furthermore, it is shown that when solving the transient
Dynamics of water evaporation from saline porous media with mixed wettability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergstad, Mina; Shokri, Nima
2016-04-01
Understanding of the dynamics of salt transport and precipitation in porous media during evaporation is of crucial concern in various environmental and hydrological applications such as soil salinization, rock weathering, terrestrial ecosystem functioning, microbiological activities and biodiversity in vadose zone. Vegetation, plant growth and soil organisms can be severely limited in salt-affected land. This process is influenced by the complex interaction among atmospheric conditions, transport properties of porous media and properties of the evaporating solution (1-5). We investigated effects of mixed wettability conditions on salt precipitation during evaporation from saline porous media. To do so, we conducted a series of evaporation experiments with sand mixtures containing different fractions of hydrophobic grains saturated with NaCl solutions. The dynamics of salt precipitation at the surface of sand columns (mounted on digital balances to record the evaporation curves) as well as the displacement of the receding drying front (the interface between wet and partially wet zone) were recorded using an automatic imaging system at well-defined time intervals. The experiments were conducted with sand packs containing 0, 25, 40, 50, 65, and 80% fraction of hydrophobic grains. All experiments were conducted in an environmental chamber in which the relative humidity and ambient temperature were kept constant at 30% and 30 C, respectively. Our results show that partial wettability conditions had minor impacts on the evaporative mass losses from saline sand packs due to the presence of salt. This is significantly different than what is normally observed during evaporation from mixed wettability porous media saturated with pure water (6). In our experiments, increasing the fraction of hydrophobic grains did not result in any notable reduction of the evaporative mass losses from saline porous media. Our results show that the presence of hydrophobic grains on the surface
Porous liquids: A promising class of media for gas separation
Zhang, Jinshui; Chai, Song -Hai; Qiao, Zhen -An; Mahurin, Shannon M.; Chen, Jihua; Fang, Youxing; Wan, Shun; Nelson, Kimberly; Zhang, Pengfei; Dai, Sheng
2014-11-17
In porous liquids with empty cavities we successfully has been successfully fabricated by surface engineering of hollow structures with suitable corona and canopy species. By taking advantage of the liquid-like polymeric matrices as a separation medium and the empty cavities as gas transport pathway, this unique porous liquid can function as a promising candidate for gas separation. A facile synthetic strategy can be further extended to other types of nanostructure-based porous liquid fabrication, opening up new opportunities for preparation of porous liquids with attractive properties for specific tasks.
Toward an improved understanding of multiphase flow in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muccino, Julia C.; Gray, William G.; Ferrand, Lin A.
1998-08-01
Physical description of multiphase flow in porous media ideally should be based on conservation principles. In practice, however, Darcy's law is employed as the foundation of multiphase flow studies. Darcy's law is an empirical surrogate for momentum conservation based on data obtained from experimental study of one-dimensional single-phase flow. In its original form [Darcy, 1856], Darcy's law contained a single, constant coefficient that depended on the properties of the medium. Since 1856, Darcy's relation has been heuristically and progressively altered by allowing this coefficient to be a spatially dependent, nonlinear function of fluid and solid phase properties, particularly of the quantities of these phases within the flow system. The shortcoming of this approach is that the governing flow equation is obtained by enhancing a simple empirical coefficient with complex functional dependencies rather than by simplifying general conservation principles. As a result, some of the important physical phenomena are not properly accounted for. Also, some assumptions intrinsic to the equations are overlooked, making accurate simulation more of an art than an entirely scientific exercise. A more general and more theoretically appealing approach to the derivation of conservation principles for multiphase flow has been evolving over the last 30 years. This approach employs a mathematical procedure for deriving conservation principles at the length scale of interest, followed by imposition of thermodynamic constraints to restrict the generality of these expressions. The product of this approach is a set of balance equations that provides a framework in which the assumptions inherent in a hypothesized model of multiphase flow are clearly stated. Requirements for more comprehensive and physically complete models can then be specified.
Cotransport of bismerthiazol and montmorillonite colloids in saturated porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Chongyang; Wang, Hong; Lazouskaya, Volha; Du, Yichun; Lu, Weilan; Wu, Junxue; Zhang, Hongyan; Huang, Yuanfang
2015-06-01
While bismerthiazol [N,N‧-methylene-bis-(2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole)] is one of the most widely used bactericides, the transport of bismerthiazol in subsurface environments is unclear to date. Moreover, natural colloids are ubiquitous in the subsurface environments. The cotransport of bismerthiazol and natural colloids has not been investigated. This study conducted laboratory column experiments to examine the transport of bismerthiazol in saturated sand porous media both in the absence and presence of montmorillonite colloids. Results show that a fraction of bismerthiazol was retained in sand and the retention was higher at pH 7 than at pH 4 and 10. The retention did not change with ionic strength. The retention was attributed to the complex of bismerthiazol with metals/metal oxides on sand surfaces through ligand exchange. The transport of bismerthiazol was enhanced with montmorillonite colloids copresent in the solutions and, concurrently, the transport of montmorillonite colloids was facilitated by the bismerthiazol. The transport of montmorillonite colloids was enhanced likely because the bismerthiazol and the colloids competed for the attachment/adsorption sites on collector surfaces and the presence of bismerthiazol changed the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) interaction energies between colloids and collectors. The transport of bismerthiazol was inhibited if montmorillonite colloids were pre-deposited in sand because bismerthiazol could adsorb onto the colloid surfaces. The adsorbed bismerthiazol could be co-remobilized with the colloids from primary minima by decreasing ionic strength. Whereas colloid-facilitated transport of pesticides has been emphasized, our study implies that transport of colloids could also be facilitated by the presence of pesticides.
Differential porosimetry and permeametry for random porous media.
Hilfer, R; Lemmer, A
2015-07-01
Accurate determination of geometrical and physical properties of natural porous materials is notoriously difficult. Continuum multiscale modeling has provided carefully calibrated realistic microstructure models of reservoir rocks with floating point accuracy. Previous measurements using synthetic microcomputed tomography (μ-CT) were based on extrapolation of resolution-dependent properties for discrete digitized approximations of the continuum microstructure. This paper reports continuum measurements of volume and specific surface with full floating point precision. It also corrects an incomplete description of rotations in earlier publications. More importantly, the methods of differential permeametry and differential porosimetry are introduced as precision tools. The continuum microstructure chosen to exemplify the methods is a homogeneous, carefully calibrated and characterized model for Fontainebleau sandstone. The sample has been publicly available since 2010 on the worldwide web as a benchmark for methodical studies of correlated random media. High-precision porosimetry gives the volume and internal surface area of the sample with floating point accuracy. Continuum results with floating point precision are compared to discrete approximations. Differential porosities and differential surface area densities allow geometrical fluctuations to be discriminated from discretization effects and numerical noise. Differential porosimetry and Fourier analysis reveal subtle periodic correlations. The findings uncover small oscillatory correlations with a period of roughly 850μm, thus implying that the sample is not strictly stationary. The correlations are attributed to the deposition algorithm that was used to ensure the grain overlap constraint. Differential permeabilities are introduced and studied. Differential porosities and permeabilities provide scale-dependent information on geometry fluctuations, thereby allowing quantitative error estimates. PMID:26274305
Transport in porous and fractured media of the Creede Formation
Conca, J.L.
1995-12-31
Direct measurement was made of the hydraulic conductivity of Creede Formation rocks using a new experimental method. The UFA{trademark} method employs open-flow centrifugation. Centrifugation, like gravity, has the effect on a material of a whole-body force exerting equal force at all points within the sample. The equivalent gravitational force exerted throughout the sample can be chosen to be from one to four orders of magnitude higher than earth gravity (from 10 to 10,000 g). The result is an increase in rate of fluid flow equally at all points throughout the sample so that hydraulic steady state is obtained in most geologic materials in hours, even under highly unsaturated conditions. This extraordinarily short time allows direct measurement of transport parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity, diffusion coefficient, and retardation factors, in any porous media over the complete range of field moisture contents. Hydraulic conductivities in the Creede Formation rocks ranged from 10{sup {minus}12} cm/s to 10{sup {minus}7} cm/s (10{sup {minus}9} Darcy to 10{sup {minus}4} Darcy) and showed no correlation with any other physical or mineralogical properties including porosity. The high degree of alteration to clay minerals appears to obscure any porosity/permeability relationship of the kind that occurs in many reservoir rocks. However, down-hole neutron porosities correlated well with laboratory-determined porosities. The objective of this investigation is to determine the hydrologic transport parameters of Creede Formation rocks for use in transport model development and for image analysis of transport pathways to produce a porosity/permeability evolution curve in support of geochemical and isotopic water/rock interaction models.
Rock Physics Models of Biofilm Growth in Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaiswal, P.; alhadhrami, F. M.; Atekwana, E. A.
2013-12-01
Recent studies suggest the potential to use acoustic techniques to image biofilm growth in porous media. Nonetheless the interpretation of the seismic response to biofilm growth and development remains speculative because of the lack of quantitative petrophysical models that can relate changes in biofilm saturation to changes in seismic attributes. Here, we report our efforts in developing quantitative rock physics models to biofilm saturation with increasing and decreasing P-wave velocity (VP) and amplitudes recorded in the Davis et al. [2010] physical scale experiment. We adapted rock physics models developed for modeling gas hydrates in unconsolidated sediments. Two distinct growth models, which appear to be a function of pore throat size, are needed to explain the experimental data. First, introduction of biofilm as an additional mineral grain in the sediment matrix (load-bearing mode) is needed to explain the increasing time-lapse VP. Second, introduction of biofilm as part of the pore fluid (pore-filling mode) is required to explain the decreasing time-lapse VP. To explain the time-lapse VP, up to 15% of the pore volume was required to be saturated with biofilm. The recorded seismic amplitudes, which can be expressed as a function of porosity, permeability and grain size, showed a monotonic time-lapse decay except on Day 3 at a few selected locations, where it increased. Since porosity changes are constrained by VP, amplitude increase could be modeled by increasing hydraulic conductivity. Time lapse VP at locations with increasing amplitudes suggest that these locations have a load-bearing growth style. We conclude that permeability can increase by up to 10% at low (~2%) biofilm saturation in load-bearing growth style due to the development of channels within the biofilm structure. Developing a rock physics model for the biofilm growth in general may help create a field guide for interpreting porosity and permeability changes in bioremediation, MEOR and
Improving attenuation predictions in heterogeneous porous media using laboratory data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masson, Y.; Pride, S. R.
2009-12-01
Over the past decade, significant efforts have been made to acurately model the dispersion and attenuation of seismic waves propagating in heterogeneous porous media. Different analytical models such as patchy saturation, squirt flow, or double porosity as well as some numerical approaches have been proposed. All these approaches account for losses due to wave induced flow occurring at the mesoscopic scale; i.e., much smaller than the wavelength but greater than the grain size. Some models, such as squirt flow, can explain attenuation levels observed in lab experiments while others, like the double porosity model, are better at explaining the attenuation measured in the seismic band of frequencies. Numerical methods are more general and can be used in any frequency range. However to correctly use the predictive power of these modeling methods, it is crucial to have a good knowledge of the nature of the heterogeneities present within the propagating medium. Among other parameters such as the porosity or the permeability, it's important to have a good idea of the spatial distribution of the elastic properties within the propagating medium since the elastic moduli of the frame of grains determines how much the fluid pressure changes and how much mesoscopic flow occurs. These fluctuations in the elastic moduli in rocks remain largely unknown at the mesoscopic scale. To fill this gap, we developed a micro-indenter able to map the elastic moduli of rock samples with a sub millimetric resolution. Various maps of the elastic properties obtained from different rocks samples will be presented as well as the attenuation level estimated from these data.
Exact Averaging of Stochastic Equations for Flow in Porous Media
Karasaki, Kenzi; Shvidler, Mark; Karasaki, Kenzi
2008-03-15
It is well known that at present, exact averaging of the equations for flow and transport in random porous media have been proposed for limited special fields. Moreover, approximate averaging methods--for example, the convergence behavior and the accuracy of truncated perturbation series--are not well studied, and in addition, calculation of high-order perturbations is very complicated. These problems have for a long time stimulated attempts to find the answer to the question: Are there in existence some, exact, and sufficiently general forms of averaged equations? Here, we present an approach for finding the general exactly averaged system of basic equations for steady flow with sources in unbounded stochastically homogeneous fields. We do this by using (1) the existence and some general properties of Green's functions for the appropriate stochastic problem, and (2) some information about the random field of conductivity. This approach enables us to find the form of the averaged equations without directly solving the stochastic equations or using the usual assumption regarding any small parameters. In the common case of a stochastically homogeneous conductivity field we present the exactly averaged new basic nonlocal equation with a unique kernel-vector. We show that in the case of some type of global symmetry (isotropy, transversal isotropy, or orthotropy), we can for three-dimensional and two-dimensional flow in the same way derive the exact averaged nonlocal equations with a unique kernel-tensor. When global symmetry does not exist, the nonlocal equation with a kernel-tensor involves complications and leads to an ill-posed problem.
Differential porosimetry and permeametry for random porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hilfer, R.; Lemmer, A.
2015-07-01
Accurate determination of geometrical and physical properties of natural porous materials is notoriously difficult. Continuum multiscale modeling has provided carefully calibrated realistic microstructure models of reservoir rocks with floating point accuracy. Previous measurements using synthetic microcomputed tomography (μ -CT) were based on extrapolation of resolution-dependent properties for discrete digitized approximations of the continuum microstructure. This paper reports continuum measurements of volume and specific surface with full floating point precision. It also corrects an incomplete description of rotations in earlier publications. More importantly, the methods of differential permeametry and differential porosimetry are introduced as precision tools. The continuum microstructure chosen to exemplify the methods is a homogeneous, carefully calibrated and characterized model for Fontainebleau sandstone. The sample has been publicly available since 2010 on the worldwide web as a benchmark for methodical studies of correlated random media. High-precision porosimetry gives the volume and internal surface area of the sample with floating point accuracy. Continuum results with floating point precision are compared to discrete approximations. Differential porosities and differential surface area densities allow geometrical fluctuations to be discriminated from discretization effects and numerical noise. Differential porosimetry and Fourier analysis reveal subtle periodic correlations. The findings uncover small oscillatory correlations with a period of roughly 850 μ m , thus implying that the sample is not strictly stationary. The correlations are attributed to the deposition algorithm that was used to ensure the grain overlap constraint. Differential permeabilities are introduced and studied. Differential porosities and permeabilities provide scale-dependent information on geometry fluctuations, thereby allowing quantitative error estimates.
SURVEY AND EVALUATION OF POROUS POLYETHYLENE MEDIA FINE BUBBLE TUBE AND DISK AERATORS
Historically, while alternative media materials have been employed over the years with varying degrees of success, the principal fine pore diffuser medium has been porous ceramic. n the early-to-mid-1970s, diffusers with plastic porus media were installed in secondary treatment p...
SURVEY AND EVALUATION OF POROUS POLYETHYLENE MEDIA FINE BUBBLE TUBE AND DISK AERATORS
Historically, while alternative media materials have been employed over the years with varying degrees of success, the principal fine pore diffuser medium has been porous ceramic. In the early-to-mid-1970s, diffusers with plastic porus media were installed in secondary treatment...
Miksis, M.J.
1993-01-01
Central theme of this proposal is to study effects of capillarity on motion of a fluid interface and to apply these results to flow in porous media. Here we report on several problems considered this year, the second year of the grant. In particular we have developed a numerical code to study the dynamics of a gas bubble in a pore in order to examine the fundamental mechanism for the generation of a foam in a porous material, we have started an investigation of the stability of a foam lamella in order to understand the stability of foam flow in a porous material and we have derived systematically a slip coefficient for flow over a rough surface, e.g., as in a pore. In addition we report on work on several other problems.
Miksis, M.J.
1994-05-01
The central theme of this proposal is to study the effects of capillarity on the motion of a fluid interface and to apply these results to flow in porous media. Here we report on several problems considered this year, the third year of the grant, and during the other years of the grant. In particular we have developed a numerical code to study the dynamics of a gas bubble in a pore in order to examine the fundamental mechanism for the generation of a foam in a porous material, we have investigated the stability of a foam lamella in order to understand the stability of foam flow in a porous material and we have derived systematically a slip coefficient for flow over a rough and coated surface, e.g., as in a pore. In addition we report on work on several other problems.
Measurement of colloidal phenomena during flow through refractive index matched porous media.
Roth, Eric J; Mont-Eton, Michael E; Gilbert, Benjamin; Lei, Tim C; Mays, David C
2015-11-01
Colloidal phenomena in porous media, natural or engineered, are important in a breadth of science and technology applications, but fundamental understanding is hampered by the difficulty in measuring colloid deposit morphology in situ. To partially address this need, this paper describes a static light scattering apparatus using a flow cell filled with refractive index matched (RIM) porous media, allowing real-time measurement of colloidal phenomena as a function of depth within the flow cell. A laser interacts with the colloids in the pore space and their structures, but not with the RIM media. The intensity of scattered light is measured as a function of scattering angle, which allows characterization of colloid deposit morphology as a fractal dimension and a radius of gyration. In parallel, fluid discharge rate and pressure drop are recorded to determine permeability, a key parameter for any application involving flow through porous media. This apparatus should prove useful in any application requiring characterization of colloidal phenomena within porous media. Additionally, this paper describes how to use granular Nafion as RIM porous media. PMID:26628117
Saripalli, Kanaka P.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Meyer, Philip D.; McGrail, B. Peter
2002-08-01
Determination of aqueous phase diffusion coefficients of solutes through porous media is essential for understanding and modeling contaminant transport. Prediction of diffusion coefficients in both saturated and unsaturated zones requires knowledge of tortuosity and constrictivity factors. No methods are available for the direct measurement of these factors, which are empirical in their definition. In this paper, a new definition for the tortuosity factor is proposed, as the real to ideal interfacial area ratio. We define the tortuosity factor for saturated porous media (ts) as the ratio S/So (specific surface of real porous medium to that of an idealized capillary bundle). For unsaturated media, tortuosity factor (ta) is defined as aaw/aaw,o (ratio of the specific air-water interfacial area of real and the corresponding idealized porous medium). This tortuosity factor is suitably measured using sorptive tracers (e.g., nitrogen adsorption method) for saturated media and interfacial tracers for unsaturated media. A model based on this new definition of tortuosity factors, termed the Interfacial Area Ratio (IAR) model, is presented for the prediction of diffusion coefficients as a function of the degree of water saturation. Diffusion coefficients and diffusive resistances measured in a number of saturated and unsaturated granular porous media, for solutes in dilute aqueous solutions, agree well with the predictions of the IAR model. A comparison of permeability of saturated sands estimated based on ts and the same based on the Kozeny-Carman equation confirm the usefulness of the ts parameter as a measure of tortuosity.
Measurement of colloidal phenomena during flow through refractive index matched porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roth, Eric J.; Mont-Eton, Michael E.; Gilbert, Benjamin; Lei, Tim C.; Mays, David C.
2015-11-01
Colloidal phenomena in porous media, natural or engineered, are important in a breadth of science and technology applications, but fundamental understanding is hampered by the difficulty in measuring colloid deposit morphology in situ. To partially address this need, this paper describes a static light scattering apparatus using a flow cell filled with refractive index matched (RIM) porous media, allowing real-time measurement of colloidal phenomena as a function of depth within the flow cell. A laser interacts with the colloids in the pore space and their structures, but not with the RIM media. The intensity of scattered light is measured as a function of scattering angle, which allows characterization of colloid deposit morphology as a fractal dimension and a radius of gyration. In parallel, fluid discharge rate and pressure drop are recorded to determine permeability, a key parameter for any application involving flow through porous media. This apparatus should prove useful in any application requiring characterization of colloidal phenomena within porous media. Additionally, this paper describes how to use granular Nafion as RIM porous media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramírez-López, A.; Muñoz-Negrón, D.; Palomar-Pardavé, M.; Escarela-Perez, R.; Cruz-Morales, V.
In materials science the properties representation in anisotropic materials is a very important topic. Porous media are heterogeneous in nature. Their representation is frequently assumed as a complex problem and difficult to be treated using normal numerical methods. Chaos theory is used to treat problems without established rules in different topics. The present work is focused to show the development of some computational algorithms to simulate the porous media properties such as porosity, permeability and saturation. The procedures involve the employ of a random number generator to assign properties. The result is amorphous media formed using a cellular automaton. This work also includes the development of some amorphous geometry to represent solid walls in empty samples in order to represent tortuosity of a porous media specimen. Finally advantages and disadvantages of the models developed are commented.
Natural Convection in Enclosed Porous or Fluid Media
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Saatdjian, Esteban; Lesage, François; Mota, José Paulo B.
2014-01-01
In Saatdjian, E., Lesage, F., and Mota, J.P.B, "Transport Phenomena Projects: A Method to Learn and to Innovate, Natural Convection Between Porous, Horizontal Cylinders," "Chemical Engineering Education," 47(1), 59-64, (2013), the numerical solution of natural convection between two porous, concentric, impermeable cylinders was…
Porous filtering media comparison through wet and dry sampling of fixed bed gasification products
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allesina, G.; Pedrazzi, S.; Montermini, L.; Giorgini, L.; Bortolani, G.; Tartarini, P.
2014-11-01
The syngas produced by fixed bed gasifiers contains high quantities of particulate and tars. This issue, together with its high temperature, avoids its direct exploitation without a proper cleaning and cooling process. In fact, when the syngas produced by gasification is used in an Internal Combustion engine (IC), the higher the content of tars and particulate, the higher the risk to damage the engine is. If these compounds are not properly removed, the engine may fail to run. A way to avoid engine fails is to intensify the maintenance schedule, but these stops will reduce the system profitability. From a clean syngas does not only follow higher performance of the generator, but also less pollutants in the atmosphere. When is not possible to work on the gasification reactions, the filter plays the most important role in the engine safeguard process. This work is aimed at developing and comparing different porous filters for biomass gasifiers power plants. A drum filter was developed and tested filling it with different filtering media available on the market. As a starting point, the filter was implemented in a Power Pallet 10 kW gasifier produced by the California-based company "ALL Power Labs". The original filter was replaced with different porous biomasses, such as woodchips and corn cobs. Finally, a synthetic zeolites medium was tested and compared with the biological media previously used. The Tar Sampling Protocol (TSP) and a modified "dry" method using the Silica Gel material were applied to evaluate the tars, particulate and water amount in the syngas after the filtration process. Advantages and disadvantages of every filtering media chosen were reported and discussed.
Droplet Mobility Manipulation on Porous Media Using Backpressure.
Vourdas, N; Pashos, G; Kokkoris, G; Boudouvis, A G; Stathopoulos, V N
2016-05-31
Wetting phenomena on hydrophobic surfaces are strongly related to the volume and pressure of gas pockets residing at the solid-liquid interface. In this study, we explore the underlying mechanisms of droplet actuation and mobility manipulation when backpressure is applied through a porous medium under a sessile pinned droplet. Reversible transitions between the initially sticky state and the slippery states are thus incited by modulating the backpressure. The sliding angles of deionized (DI) water and ethanol in DI water droplets of various volumes are presented to quantify the effect of the backpressure on the droplet mobility. For a 50 μL water droplet, the sliding angle decreases from 45 to 0° when the backpressure increases to ca. 0.60 bar. Significantly smaller backpressure levels are required for lower surface energy liquids. We shed light on the droplet actuation and movement mechanisms by means of simulations encompassing the momentum conservation and the continuity equations along with the Cahn-Hilliard phase-field equations in a 2D computational domain. The droplet actuation mechanism entails depinning of the receding contact line and movement by means of forward wave propagation reaching the front of the droplet. Eventually, the droplet skips forward. The contact line depinning is also corroborated by analytical calculations based on the governing vertical force balance, properly modified to incorporate the effect of the backpressure. PMID:27163363
Second-order cone programming formulation for consolidation analysis of saturated porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xue; Sheng, Daichao; Sloan, Scott W.; Krabbenhoft, Kristian
2016-07-01
In this paper, the incremental problem for consolidation analysis of elastoplastic saturated porous media is formulated and solved using second-order cone programming. This is achieved by the application of the Hellinger-Reissner variational theorem, which casts the governing equations of Biot's consolidation theory as a min-max optimisation problem. The min-max problem is then discretised using the finite element method and converted into a standard second-order cone programming problem that can be solved efficiently using modern optimisation algorithms (such as the primal-dual interior-point method). The proposed computational formulation is verified against a number of benchmark examples and also applied to simulate the construction of a road embankment on soft clay.
Comparison of various formulations of three-phase flow in porous media
Chen, Zhangxin; Ewing, R.E.
1997-04-01
Various formulations of the governing equations that describe three-phase (e.g., water, oil, and gas) flow in porous media, including phase, global, and pseudo-global pressure-saturation formulations, are discussed in this paper. Comparisons of these differential formulations are theoretically and numerically presented for the first time. It is shown that the global pressure-saturation formulation is the most efficient one from the computational point of view in the case where the three-phase relative permeability and capillary pressure curves satisfy a so-called total differential condition, the pseudo-global formulation is useful when the fractional flow functions of the water and gas phases are close to their respective mean values, and the phase formulation can be applied generally. 23 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.
Superstatistics model for T₂ distribution in NMR experiments on porous media.
Correia, M D; Souza, A M; Sinnecker, J P; Sarthour, R S; Santos, B C C; Trevizan, W; Oliveira, I S
2014-07-01
We propose analytical functions for T2 distribution to describe transverse relaxation in high- and low-fields NMR experiments on porous media. The method is based on a superstatistics theory, and allows to find the mean and standard deviation of T2, directly from measurements. It is an alternative to multiexponential models for data decay inversion in NMR experiments. We exemplify the method with q-exponential functions and χ(2)-distributions to describe, respectively, data decay and T2 distribution on high-field experiments of fully water saturated glass microspheres bed packs, sedimentary rocks from outcrop and noisy low-field experiment on rocks. The method is general and can also be applied to biological systems. PMID:24819425
Davis, H.T.; Scriven, L.E.
1991-07-01
A major program of university research, longer-ranged and more fundamental in approach than industrial research, into basic mechanisms of enhancing petroleum recovery and into underlying physics, chemistry, geology, applied mathematics, computation, and engineering science has been built at Minnesota. The original focus was surfactant-based chemical flooding, but the approach taken was sufficiently fundamental that the research, longer-ranged than industrial efforts, has become quite multidirectional. Topics discussed are volume controlled porosimetry; fluid distribution and transport in porous media at low wetting phase saturation; molecular dynamics of fluids in ultranarrow pores; molecular dynamics and molecular theory of wetting and adsorption; new numerical methods to handle initial and boundary conditions in immiscible displacement; electron microscopy of surfactant fluid microstructure; low cost system for animating liquid crystallites viewed with polarized light; surfaces of constant mean curvature with prescribed contact angle.
Second-order cone programming formulation for consolidation analysis of saturated porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xue; Sheng, Daichao; Sloan, Scott W.; Krabbenhoft, Kristian
2016-03-01
In this paper, the incremental problem for consolidation analysis of elastoplastic saturated porous media is formulated and solved using second-order cone programming. This is achieved by the application of the Hellinger-Reissner variational theorem, which casts the governing equations of Biot's consolidation theory as a min-max optimisation problem. The min-max problem is then discretised using the finite element method and converted into a standard second-order cone programming problem that can be solved efficiently using modern optimisation algorithms (such as the primal-dual interior-point method). The proposed computational formulation is verified against a number of benchmark examples and also applied to simulate the construction of a road embankment on soft clay.
Small scale flow processes in aqueous heterogeneous porous media
Rashidi, M.; Dickenson, E.
1996-04-01
Small scale flow processes in aqueous heterogeneous porous systems have been studied experimentally via novel nonintrusive fluorescence imaging techniques. The techniques involve 3D visualization and quantification of flow fields within a refractive index-matched transparent porous column. The refractive index-matching yields a transparent porous medium, free from any scattering and refraction at the solid-liquid interfaces, as a result allowing direct optical probing at any point within the porous system. By illuminating the porous regions within the column with a planar sheet of laser beam, flow processes through the porous medium can be observed microscopically, and qualitative and quantitative in-pore transport information can be obtained at a good resolution and a good accuracy. A CCD camera is used to record the fluorescent images at every vertical plane location while sweeping back and forth across the column. These digitized flow images are then analyzed and accumulated over a 3D volume within the column. Series of flow experiments in aqueous, refractive index-matched, porous systems packed with natural mineral particles have been performed successfully in these laboratories.
METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR DETERMINING THE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF FRACTURED POROUS MEDIA
Dixon, K.
2013-09-30
Plausible, but unvalidated, theoretical model constructs for unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of fractured porous media are currently used in Performance Assessment (PA) modeling for cracked saltstone and concrete (Flach 2011). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has expressed concern about the lack of model support for these assumed Moisture Characteristic Curves (MCC) data, as noted in Requests for Additional Information (RAIs) PA-8 and SP-4 (Savannah River Remediation, LLC, 2011). The objective of this task was to advance PA model support by developing an experimental method for determining the hydraulic conductivity of fractured cementitious materials under unsaturated conditions, and to demonstrate the technique on fractured saltstone samples. The task was requested through Task Technical Request (TTR) HLW-SSF-TTR-2012-0016 and conducted in accordance with Task Technical & Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) SRNL-TR-2012-00090. Preliminary method development previously conducted by Kohn et al. (2012) identified transient outflow extraction as the most promising method for characterizing the unsaturated properties of fractured porous media. While the research conducted by Kohn et al. (2012) focused on fractured media analogs such as stacked glass slides, the current task focused directly on fractured saltstone. For this task, four sample types with differing fracture geometries were considered: 1) intact saltstone, 2) intact saltstone with a single saw cut, smooth surface fracture, 3) micro-fractured saltstone (induced by oven drying), and 4) micro-fractured saltstone with a single, fully-penetrating, rough-surface fracture. Each sample type was tested initially for saturated hydraulic conductivity following method ASTM D 5084 using a flexible wall permeameter. Samples were subsequently tested using the transient outflow extraction method to determine cumulative outflow as a function of time and applied pressure. Of the four sample types tested, two yielded
Experimental study of advective-diffusive gaseous CO2 transport through porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basirat, Farzad; Sharma, Prabhakar; Niemi, Auli; Fagerlund, Fritjof
2014-05-01
Leakage of gaseous CO2 into the shallow subsurface system is one of the main concerns associated with geologic storage resources. A better understanding of CO2 leakage in the shallow subsurface plays an important role for developing leakage monitoring programs. CO2 may reach the unsaturated zone by different leak mechanisms such as exsolution from CO2 supersaturated water and continuous bubbling or gas flow along a leakage path. In the unsaturated zone, the CO2 is heavier than air and may accumulate below the ground surface and move laterally. We developed a small-scale experiment setup to study the possible gaseous CO2 transport mechanisms with different controlled conditions. In this study, the experiment setup was applied to measure CO2 distributions in time and space through homogenous dry sand in which the CO2 concentrations through the domain were measured by sensitive gas sensors. The preliminary analysis of the result suggests that the transport and distribution of gaseous CO2 is spatially and temporally sensitive for the selected experimental conditions of gas flow rate and porous media. To better understand the advection and diffusion processes through the unsaturated zone, the experimental results are coupled with the dusty gas model (DGM) of Mason et al. (1967). The dusty gas model's constitutive relationships are integrated into a numerical model for multicomponent gas mixture flow and transport in porous media. The DGM considers interactions between all gaseous species and Knudsen diffusion which is important in fine grained soils. Results from the applied model were consistent with the experimental breakthrough curves obtained in this study.
Evaporation of NaCl solution from porous media with mixed wettability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergstad, Mina; Shokri, Nima
2016-05-01
Evaporation of saline water from porous media is ubiquitous in many processes including soil salinization, crop production, and CO2 sequestration in deep saline acquirer. It is controlled by the transport properties of porous media, atmospheric conditions, and properties of the evaporating saline solution. In the present study, the effects of mixed wettability conditions on the general dynamics of water evaporation from porous media saturated with NaCl solution were investigated. To do so, we conducted a comprehensive series of evaporation experiments using sand mixtures containing different fractions of hydrophobic grains saturated with NaCl solutions. Our results showed that increasing fraction of hydrophobic grains in the mixed wettability sand pack had minor impact on the evaporative mass losses due to the presence of salt whose precipitation patterns were significantly influenced by the mixed wettability condition. Through macroscale and microscale investigations, we found formation of patchy efflorescence in the case of mixed wettability sand pack as opposed to crusty efflorescence in the case of completely hydrophilic porous media. Furthermore, the presence of salty water and hydrophobic grains in the sand pack significantly influenced the general dynamics and morphology of the receding drying front. Our results extend the understanding of the saline water evaporation from porous media with direct applications to various hydrological and engineering processes.
Drop Impingement Induced Dispersal of Microorganisms and Contaminants Within Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joung, Young Soo; Ge, Zhifei; Buie, Cullen
2014-11-01
We investigate migration of chemicals and microbes with aerosol generated by drop impingement on porous media. In our previous work we found that aerosol generation from droplets hitting porous media within a specific range of the Weber number (We) and a modified Pelect number (Pe). We and Pe reflect the impact condition of droplets and the wetting properties of porous media, respectively. The relationship between We and Pe can be expressed by a third dimensionless group, the Washburn Reynolds number (ReW = We/Pe). In a specific range of ReW, hundreds of aerosol particles can be generated within milliseconds of drop impingement. In this work we investigate if microbes such as Corynebacterium glutamicum, a soil bacterium, and chemicals such as Rhodamine B can be dispersed by aerosols generated from droplet impact. Experimentally, C. glutamicum and Rhodamine B are permeated into porous media. Then drop impingements are conducted on the porous media with different We and Pe in an airflow tunnel. We quantitatively investigate the volume and speed of aerosol migration as a function of ReW of the drop impingement and Re of the airflow. Results of this study will shed light upon the dispersal of elemental compounds and microbes within soils due to aerosol generated by rainfall.
Cushman, J.H.; Madilyn Fletcher
2000-06-01
Dynamic microbial attachment/detachment occurs in subsurface systems in response to changing environmental conditions caused by contaminant movement and degradation. Understanding the environmental conditions and mechanisms by which anaerobic bacteria partition between aqueous and solid phases is a critical requirement for designing and evaluating in situ bioremediation efforts. This interdisciplinary research project, of which we report only the Purdue contribution, provides fundamental information on the attachment/detachment dynamics of bacteria in heterogeneous porous media. Fundamental results from the Purdue collaboration are: (a) development of a matched-index method for obtaining 3-D Lagrangian trajectories of microbial sized particles transporting within porous media or microflow cells, (b) application of advanced numerical methods to optimally design a microflow cell for studying anaerobic bacterial attachment/detachment phenomena, (c) development of two types of models for simulating bacterial movement and attachment/detachment in microflow cells and natural porous media, (d) application of stochastic analysis to upscale pore scale microbial attachment/detachment models to natural heterogeneous porous media, and (e) evaluation of the role nonlocality plays in microbial dynamics in heterogeneous porous media
Cushman, J.H.
2000-06-01
Dynamic microbial attachment/detachment occurs in subsurface systems in response to changing environmental conditions caused by contaminant movement and degradation. Understanding the environmental conditions and mechanisms by which anaerobic bacteria partition between aqueous and solid phases is a critical requirement for designing and evaluating in situ bioremediation efforts. This interdisciplinary research project, of which we report only the Purdue contribution, provides fundamental information on the attachment/detachment dynamics of bacteria in heterogeneous porous media. Fundamental results from the Purdue collaboration are: (a) development of a matched-index method for obtaining 3-D Lagrangian trajectories of microbial sized particles transporting within porous media or microflow cells, (b) application of advanced numerical methods to optimally design a microflow cell for studying anaerobic bacterial attachment/detachment phenomena, (c) development of two types of models for simulating bacterial movement and attachment/detachment in microflow cells and natural porous media, (d) application of stochastic analysis to upscale pore scale microbial attachment/detachment models to natural heterogeneous porous media, and (e) evaluation of the role nonlocality plays in microbial dynamics in heterogeneous porous media.
Experimental investigation of magnetically driven flow of ferrofluids in porous media
Borglin, S.E.; Moridis, G.J.; Oldenburg, C.M.
1998-08-01
This report presents experimental results of the flow of ferrofluids in porous media to investigate the potential for precisely controlling fluid emplacement in porous media using magnetic fields. Ferrofluids are colloidal suspensions of magnetic particles stabilized in various carrier liquids. In the presence of an external magnetic field, the ferrofluid becomes magnetized as the particles align with the magnetic field. Potential applications of ferrofluids to subsurface contamination problems include magnetic guidance of reactants to contaminated target zones in the subsurface for in situ treatment or emplacement of containment barriers. Laboratory experiments of magnetically induced ferrofluid flow in porous media in this report demonstrate the potential for mobilizing ferrofluid and controlling fluid emplacement through control of the external magnetic field. The pressures measured in ferrofluid due to the attraction of ferrofluid to a permanent magnet agree well with calculated values. The results show that a predictable pressure gradient is produced in the fluid which is strong near the magnet and drops off quickly with distance. This pressure gradient drives the fluid through sand without significant loss of ferrofluid strength due to filtration or dilution. Flow visualization experiments of ferrofluid in water-filled horizontal Hele-Shaw cells demonstrate that ferrofluid obtains a consistent final arc-shaped configuration around the magnet regardless of initial configuration or flow path toward the magnet. Analogous experiments in actual porous media showed similar features and confirm the ability of ferrofluid to move through porous media by magnetic forces.
Fate and Transport of Graphene Oxide in Granular Porous Media: Experimental Results and Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Bin
2014-05-01
Although graphene oxide (GO) has been used in many applications to improve human life quality, its environmental fate and behavior are still largely unknown. In this work, a range of laboratory experiments were conducted to explore the aggregation, deposition, and transport mechanisms of GO nano-sheets in porous media under various conditions. Stability experimental data showed that both cation valence and pH showed significant effect on the aggregation of GO sheets. The measured critical coagulation concentrations were in good agreement with the predictions of the extended Schulze-Hardy rule. Sand column experimental results indicated that deposition and transport of GO in porous media were strongly dependent on solution ionic strength. Particularly, GO showed high mobility under low ionic strength conditions in both saturated and unsaturated columns. Increasing ionic strength dramatically increased the retention of GO in porous media, mainly through secondary-minimum deposition. Recovery rates of GO in unsaturated sand columns were lower than that in saturated columns under the same ionic strength conditions, suggesting moisture content also played an important role in the retention of GO in porous media. Findings from the bubble column experiments showed that the GO did not attach to the air-water interface, which is consistent with the XDLVO predictions. Additional retention mechanisms, such as film straining, thus could be responsible to the reduced mobility of GO in unsaturated porous media. The breakthrough curves of GO in saturated and unsaturated columns could be accurately simulated by an advection-dispersion-reaction model.
Fluid flow in porous media with rough pore-solid interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghanbarian, Behzad; Hunt, Allen G.; Daigle, Hugh
2016-03-01
Quantifying fluid flow through porous media hinges on the description of permeability, a property of considerable importance in many fields ranging from oil and gas exploration to hydrology. A common building block for modeling porous media permeability is consideration of fluid flow through tubes with circular cross section described by Poiseuille's law in which flow discharge is proportional to the fourth power of the tube's radius. In most natural porous media, pores are neither cylindrical nor smooth; they often have an irregular cross section and rough surfaces. This study presents a theoretical scaling of Poiseuille's approximation for flow in pores with irregular rough cross section quantified by a surface fractal dimension Ds2. The flow rate is a function of the average pore radius to the power 2(3-Ds2) instead of 4 in the original Poiseuille's law. Values of Ds2 range from 1 to 2, hence, the power in the modified Poiseuille's approximation varies between 4 and 2, indicating that flow rate decreases as pore surface roughness (and surface fractal dimension Ds2) increases. We also proposed pore length-radius relations for isotropic and anisotropic fractal porous media. The new theoretical derivations are compared with standard approximations and with experimental values of relative permeability. The new approach results in substantially improved prediction of relative permeability of natural porous media relative to the original Poiseuille equation.
Laboratory Models of Thermal Convection in Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooper, C. A.; Breitmeyer, R.; Schumer, R.; Voepel, H.; Decker, D.
2011-12-01
Experiments have been conducted to measure the length and times scales of thermal plumes in laboratory porous media. A polycarbonate cell 1 m high x 75 cm wide x 2.54 cm deep filled with 3 mm glass beads is heated uniformly from the bottom using electrical heat tape. The heat tape is in direct contact with an aluminum alloy heat exchanger sandwiched between the two vertical plates, and a digital controller is used to maintain constant temperature. The upper boundary is kept at constant temperature by circulating cold water from a constant-temperature refrigerating bath through copper tubes in contact with the upper part of the cell. Flow is visualized by mixing a neutrally buoyant thermochromic liquid tracer in the working fluid (water and glycerin). TLCs are liquid crystals manufactured to change color as a function of temperature. Color change is repeatable and reversible with a response time to temperature change is less than 0.01 s. Image acquisition is done using a CCD camera, and three images are captured nearly simultaneously, each with a red, blue, or green filter over the camera lens. The three images are then combined to make a true color image. At each pixel in the image, hue is extracted and a calibration curve is developed to relate hue to temperature. In one experiment with a 10 degree C temperature difference between the upper and lower boundaries, the onset of convection began within 26 minutes, which is about half the time predicted by a scale analysis. The initial velocity of all plumes is on the order of 15 cm/hr, although some plumes stop moving before reaching the upper boundary of the cell. There are several reasons for plume deceleration: (1) As plumes travel vertically, they alter the initial temperature profile of the fluid such that the temperature field makes constant adjustments, which affects the dimensions, velocities, and interactions of the plumes; (2) adjacent plumes merge, resulting in a single larger plume; and (3) interactions
Predicting colloid transport through saturated porous media: A critical review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molnar, Ian L.; Johnson, William P.; Gerhard, Jason I.; Willson, Clinton S.; O'Carroll, Denis M.
2015-09-01
Understanding and predicting colloid transport and retention in water-saturated porous media is important for the protection of human and ecological health. Early applications of colloid transport research before the 1990s included the removal of pathogens in granular drinking water filters. Since then, interest has expanded significantly to include such areas as source zone protection of drinking water systems and injection of nanometals for contaminated site remediation. This review summarizes predictive tools for colloid transport from the pore to field scales. First, we review experimental breakthrough and retention of colloids under favorable and unfavorable colloid/collector interactions (i.e., no significant and significant colloid-surface repulsion, respectively). Second, we review the continuum-scale modeling strategies used to describe observed transport behavior. Third, we review the following two components of colloid filtration theory: (i) mechanistic force/torque balance models of pore-scale colloid trajectories and (ii) approximating correlation equations used to predict colloid retention. The successes and limitations of these approaches for favorable conditions are summarized, as are recent developments to predict colloid retention under the unfavorable conditions particularly relevant to environmental applications. Fourth, we summarize the influences of physical and chemical heterogeneities on colloid transport and avenues for their prediction. Fifth, we review the upscaling of mechanistic model results to rate constants for use in continuum models of colloid behavior at the column and field scales. Overall, this paper clarifies the foundation for existing knowledge of colloid transport and retention, features recent advances in the field, critically assesses where existing approaches are successful and the limits of their application, and highlights outstanding challenges and future research opportunities. These challenges and opportunities
Field GPR monitoring of biostimulation in saturated porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGlashan, M. A.; Tsoflias, G. P.; Schillig, P. C.; Devlin, J. F.; Roberts, J. A.
2012-03-01
plausible mechanism for the changes observed in the aquifer. Therefore, at 200 MHz frequency, biomass formation is observed to cause a decrease of EM wave velocity of propagation suggesting an increase of the bulk dielectric constant of the water saturated medium. This finding is in agreement with published laboratory-scale GPR monitoring of microbial growth in porous media. This study shows that time-lapse GPR along with supporting biogeochemical observations can be used for monitoring of biological activity at the field scale.
Capillary pinning of immiscible gravity currents in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, B.; MacMinn, C. W.; Huppert, H. E.; Juanes, R.
2013-12-01
Gravity currents in porous media have attracted interest recently in the context of geological carbon dioxide (CO2) storage, where supercritical CO2 is captured from the flue gas of power plants and injected underground into deep saline aquifers. Capillarity can be important in the spreading and migration of the buoyant CO2 after injection because the typical pore size is very small (~10-100 microns), but the impact of capillarity on these flows is not well understood. Here, we study the impact of capillarity on the buoyant spreading of a finite gravity current of non-wetting fluid into a dense, wetting fluid in a vertically confined, horizontal aquifer. We show via simple, table-top experiments using glass bead packs that capillary pressure hysteresis pins a portion of the fluid-fluid interface. The horizontal extent of the pinned portion of the interface grows over time and this is responsible for ultimately stopping the spreading of the buoyant current after a finite distance. In addition, capillarity blunts the leading edge of the buoyant current. We demonstrate through micromodel experiments that the characteristic height of the nose of the current is controlled by the pore throat size distribution and the balance between capillarity and gravity. We develop a theoretical model that captures the evolution of immiscible gravity currents and predicts the maximum migration distance. Our work suggests that capillary pinning and capillary blunting exert an important control on finite-release gravity currents in the context of CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers. Gravity driven flow of a buoyant, nonwetting fluid (air) over a dense, wetting fluid (propylene glycol). Starting with a vertical interface between the fluids, the flow first undergoes a lock-exchange process. The process models a finite release problem after the dense fluid hits the left boundary. In contrast to finite release of a miscible current that spreads indefinitely, spreading of an immiscible
Osteogenecity of octacalcium phosphate coatings applied on porous metal implants.
Barrère, Florence; van der Valk, Chantal M; Dalmeijer, Remco A J; Meijer, Gert; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; de Groot, Klaas; Layrolle, Pierre
2003-09-15
The biomimetic route allows the homogeneous deposition of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) coatings on porous implants by immersion in simulated physiologic solution. In addition, various Ca-P phases, such as octacalcium phosphate (OCP) or bone-like carbonated apatite (BCA), which are stable only at low temperatures, can be deposited. In this pilot study, experiments were designed with a twofold-purpose: (1) to investigate the osteoinduction of OCP-coated and noncoated porous tantalum cylinders and of dense titanium alloy cylinders (5 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length) in the back muscle of goats at 12 and 24 weeks (n = 4); and (2) to compare the osteogenic potentials of BCA-coated, OCP-coated, and bare porous tantalum cylinders in a gap of 1 mm created in the femoral condyle of a goat at 12 weeks (n = 2). In the goat muscle, after 12 weeks the OCP-coated porous cylinder had induced ectopic bone as well as bone within the cavity of the OCP-coated dense titanium cylinder. In the femoral condyle, bone did not fill the gap in any of the porous implants. In contrast with the two other groups, OCP-coated porous cylinders exhibited bone formation in the center of the implant. The nature of the Ca-P coating, via its microstructure, its dissolution rate, and its specific interactions with body fluids, may influence the osteogenecity of the Ca-P biomaterial. PMID:12926029
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peluso, F.; Arienzo, I.
Experimental investigation of the behavior of porous media is a field of interest of modern non-equilibrium thermodynamics. In the frame of a multi-disciplinary re- search project we are performing in our laboratory experimental tests to measure equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamic properties of natural porous media. Aim of our study is to characterize some stone samples and to verify whether a mass transport due to coupled pressure and temperature gradients (thermo-mechanic) is ap- preciable in this kind of porous medium. We have designed an apparatus that allows to measure the volume flux across a porous sample at various, predefined pressures and temperatures, both in isothermal and non isothermal conditions. A mechanical piston compels a liquid to flow through the sample, previously saturated under vacuum with the same fluid. Knowing the geometrical dimensions of the stone, the volume flux is estimated by measuring the time needed to a known amount of liquid to flow across the sample. Measurements have been performed in isothermal conditions at various temperatures and in non-isothermal conditions. Non-isothermal measurements have been performed both in unsteady and steady-state thermal conditions. Before to be undergone to a measurement cycle, samples are dried and weighted. Then they are sat- urated under vacuum with pure distilled water and weighted once again. By difference between the two measurements, porosity is determined. In all examined samples the volume flux has been found linear with respect to the applied pressure at the various temperatures. The values of volume flux in unsteady thermal conditions are consid- erably higher than the one obtained at the same pressure in isothermal conditions at the higher temperature (T=+45rC). This could be the evidence of a thermo-mechanic effect, pushing the water from hot to cold. Once the steady thermal state is reached, however, this effect disappears. Only measurements performed in unsteady thermal
Determination of the heat transfer coefficients in porous media
Kim, L.V.
1994-06-01
The process of transpiration cooling is considered. Methods are suggested for estimating the volumetric coefficient of heat transfer with the use of a two-temperature model and the surface heat transfer coefficient at entry into a porous wall. The development of new technology under conditions of increasing heat loads puts the search for effective methods of heat transfer enhancement in the forefront of theoretical investigations. One of the promising trends in the solution of this problem is the use of porous materials (PM) in the elements of power units. For thermal protection against convective or radiative heat fluxes, the method of transpiration cooling is successfully used. The mechanism operative in the thermal protection involves the injection of a coolant through a porous medium to produce a screen over the contour of a body in a flow for removing heat energy from the skeleton of the porous material.
Volume Averaging Study of the Capacitive Deionization Process in Homogeneous Porous Media
Gabitto, Jorge; Tsouris, Costas
2015-05-05
Ion storage in porous electrodes is important in applications such as energy storage by supercapacitors, water purification by capacitive deionization, extraction of energy from a salinity difference and heavy ion purification. In this paper, a model is presented to simulate the charge process in homogeneous porous media comprising big pores. It is based on a theory for capacitive charging by ideally polarizable porous electrodes without faradaic reactions or specific adsorption of ions. A volume averaging technique is used to derive the averaged transport equations in the limit of thin electrical double layers. Transport between the electrolyte solution and the chargedmore » wall is described using the Gouy–Chapman–Stern model. The effective transport parameters for isotropic porous media are calculated solving the corresponding closure problems. Finally, the source terms that appear in the average equations are calculated using numerical computations. An alternative way to deal with the source terms is proposed.« less
Volume Averaging Study of the Capacitive Deionization Process in Homogeneous Porous Media
Gabitto, Jorge; Tsouris, Costas
2015-05-05
Ion storage in porous electrodes is important in applications such as energy storage by supercapacitors, water purification by capacitive deionization, extraction of energy from a salinity difference and heavy ion purification. In this paper, a model is presented to simulate the charge process in homogeneous porous media comprising big pores. It is based on a theory for capacitive charging by ideally polarizable porous electrodes without faradaic reactions or specific adsorption of ions. A volume averaging technique is used to derive the averaged transport equations in the limit of thin electrical double layers. Transport between the electrolyte solution and the charged wall is described using the Gouy–Chapman–Stern model. The effective transport parameters for isotropic porous media are calculated solving the corresponding closure problems. Finally, the source terms that appear in the average equations are calculated using numerical computations. An alternative way to deal with the source terms is proposed.
Numerical study on the permeability in a tensorial form for laminar flow in anisotropic porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galindo-Torres, S. A.; Scheuermann, A.; Li, L.
2012-10-01
Pore-scale flow simulations were conducted to investigate the permeability tensor of anisotropic porous media constructed using the Voronoi tessellation method. This construction method enabled the introduction of anisotropy to the media at the particle level in a random and yet controllable way. Simulations were carried out for media with different degrees of anisotropy through varying the mean aspect ratio of grain particles. The simulation results were then analyzed using the Kozeny-Carman (KC) model. The KC model describes the permeability of the anisotropic media in a tensor form with the anisotropy represented by different tortuosities along the three principal directions. The tortuosity tensor was found to be a complex function of the particle morphology, which is yet to be fully determined. However, the results presented have established the starting point for further theoretical development to formulate such a function and to build closed-form analytical permeability models for anisotropic porous media based on first principles.
A dynamic mechanical analysis technique for porous media
Pattison, Adam J; McGarry, Matthew; Weaver, John B; Paulsen, Keith D
2015-01-01
Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is a common way to measure the mechanical properties of materials as functions of frequency. Traditionally, a viscoelastic mechanical model is applied and current DMA techniques fit an analytical approximation to measured dynamic motion data by neglecting inertial forces and adding empirical correction factors to account for transverse boundary displacements. Here, a finite element (FE) approach to processing DMA data was developed to estimate poroelastic material properties. Frequency-dependent inertial forces, which are significant in soft media and often neglected in DMA, were included in the FE model. The technique applies a constitutive relation to the DMA measurements and exploits a non-linear inversion to estimate the material properties in the model that best fit the model response to the DMA data. A viscoelastic version of this approach was developed to validate the approach by comparing complex modulus estimates to the direct DMA results. Both analytical and FE poroelastic models were also developed to explore their behavior in the DMA testing environment. All of the models were applied to tofu as a representative soft poroelastic material that is a common phantom in elastography imaging studies. Five samples of three different stiffnesses were tested from 1 – 14 Hz with rough platens placed on the top and bottom surfaces of the material specimen under test to restrict transverse displacements and promote fluid-solid interaction. The viscoelastic models were identical in the static case, and nearly the same at frequency with inertial forces accounting for some of the discrepancy. The poroelastic analytical method was not sufficient when the relevant physical boundary constraints were applied, whereas the poroelastic FE approach produced high quality estimates of shear modulus and hydraulic conductivity. These results illustrated appropriate shear modulus contrast between tofu samples and yielded a consistent contrast in
A dynamic mechanical analysis technique for porous media.
Pattison, Adam Jeffry; McGarry, Matthew; Weaver, John B; Paulsen, Keith D
2015-02-01
Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is a common way to measure the mechanical properties of materials as functions of frequency. Traditionally, a viscoelastic mechanical model is applied and current DMA techniques fit an analytical approximation to measured dynamic motion data by neglecting inertial forces and adding empirical correction factors to account for transverse boundary displacements. Here, a finite-element (FE) approach to processing DMA data was developed to estimate poroelastic material properties. Frequency-dependent inertial forces, which are significant in soft media and often neglected in DMA, were included in the FE model. The technique applies a constitutive relation to the DMA measurements and exploits a nonlinear inversion to estimate the material properties in the model that best fit the model response to the DMA data. A viscoelastic version of this approach was developed to validate the approach by comparing complex modulus estimates to the direct DMA results. Both analytical and FE poroelastic models were also developed to explore their behavior in the DMA testing environment. All of the models were applied to tofu as a representative soft poroelastic material that is a common phantom in elastography imaging studies. Five samples of three different stiffnesses were tested from 1-14 Hz with rough platens placed on the top and bottom surfaces of the material specimen under test to restrict transverse displacements and promote fluid-solid interaction. The viscoelastic models were identical in the static case, and nearly the same at frequency with inertial forces accounting for some of the discrepancy. The poroelastic analytical method was not sufficient when the relevant physical boundary constraints were applied, whereas the poroelastic FE approach produced high quality estimates of shear modulus and hydraulic conductivity. These results illustrated appropriate shear modulus contrast between tofu samples and yielded a consistent contrast in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharifi Haddad, Amin
Fractured porous media are important structures in petroleum engineering and geohydrology. The accelerating global demand for energy has turned the focus to fractured formations. The fractured porous media are also found in conventional naturally fractured reservoirs and the water supply from karst (carbonate) aquifers. Studying mass transfer processes allows us to explore the complexities and uncertainties encountered with fractured rocks. This dissertation is developing an analytical methodology for the study of mass transfer in fractured reservoirs. The dissertation begins with two cases that demonstrate the importance of the rock matrix block size distribution and dispersivity through a transient mass exchange mechanism between rock matrix blocks and fractures. The first case assumes a medium with no surface adsorption, and the second case includes the surface adsorption variable. One of the main focuses of this work is the characterization of the rock matrix block size distribution in fractured porous media. Seismic surveying, well test analysis, well logging, and geomechanical tools are currently used to characterize this property, based on measurements of different variables. This study explores an innovative method of using solute transport to determine the fracture intensity. This methodology is applied to slab-shaped rock matrix blocks and can easily be extended to other geometries. Another focus of this dissertation is the characterization of dispersivity in field scale studies. Improving our knowledge of dispersivity will enable more accurate mass transfer predictions and advance the study of transport processes. Field tracer tests demonstrated that dispersivity is scale-dependent. Proposed functions for the increasing trend of dispersivity include linear and asymptotic scale-dependence. This study investigated the linear dispersivity trend around the injection wellbore. An analysis of the tracer concentration in a monitoring well was used to
Albaalbaki, Bashar; Hill, Reghan J.
2014-01-01
A computational framework is developed for applying interfacial kinetic transport theory to predict water vapour permeability of porous media. Modified conservation equations furnish spatially periodic disturbances from which the average flux and, thus, the effective diffusivity is obtained. The equations are solved exactly for a model porous medium comprising parallel layers of gas and solid with arbitrary solid volume fraction. From the microscale effective diffusivity, a two-point boundary-value problem is solved at the macroscale to furnish the water vapour transport rate in membranes subjected to a finite RH differential. Then, the microscale model is implemented using a computational framework (extended finite-element method) to examine the role of particle size, aspect ratio and positioning for periodic arrays of aligned super-ellipses (model particles that pack with high density). We show that the transverse water vapour permeability can be reduced by an order of magnitude only when fibres with a high-aspect ratio cross section are packed in a periodic staggered configuration. Maximum permeability is achieved at intermediate micro-structural length scales, where gas-phase diffusion is enhanced by surface diffusion, but not limited by interfacial-exchange kinetics. The two-dimensional computations demonstrated here are intended to motivate further efforts to develop efficient computational solutions for realistic three-dimensional microstructures. PMID:24399918
A new quasi-steady method to measure gas permeability of weakly permeable porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jannot, Yves; Lasseux, Didier
2012-01-01
A new quasi-steady method for the determination of the apparent gas permeability of porous materials is presented in this paper along with the corresponding interpretative physical model derived from the unsteady flow equations. This method is mainly dedicated to the measurement of very low permeability of thin porous media, although thicker but more permeable samples may also be analyzed. The method relies on quasi-steady flow resulting from a (quasi) constant pressure maintained at the inlet face of the sample. Gas flow-rate, as low as 3 × 10-10 m3/s, is determined from the record of pressure increase in a reservoir connected to the outlet face of the sample. An estimate of the characteristic time, tc, to reach quasi-steady flow after imposing a constant pressure at the inlet is derived. It is validated by direct numerical simulations of the complete unsteady flow, clearly defining the required experimental duration for the method to apply. Experimental results obtained on rather permeable and thick rock samples are reported showing an excellent agreement of the measured permeability with that determined independently on the same sample whereas the experimental value of tc is also in very good agreement with the predicted one. The method is further employed on a composite material sheet allowing the identification of an apparent gas permeability of about 10-23 m2.
Experimental and theoretical investigations of shock-induced flow of reactive porous media
Baer, M.R.; Graham, R.A.; Anderson, M.U.; Sheffield, S.A.; Gustavsen, R.L.
1996-11-01
In this work, the microscale processes of consolidation, deformation and reaction features of shocked porous materials are studied. Time- resolve particle velocities and stress fields associated with dispersive compaction waves are measured in gas-gun experiments. In these tests, a thin porous layer of HMX is shock-loaded at varied levels. At high impact, significant reaction is triggered by the rapid material distortion during compaction. In parallel modeling studies, continuum mixture theory is applied to describe the behavior of averaged wave-fields in heterogeneous media. One-dimensional simulations of gas-gun experiments demonstrate that the wave features and interactions with viscoelastic materials in the gauge package are well described by mixture theory, including reflected wave behavior and conditions where significant reaction is initiated. Numerical simulations of impact on a collection of discrete HMX `crystals` are also presented using shock physics analysis. Three-dimensional simulations indicate that rapid distortion occurs at material contact points; the nature of the dispersive fields includes large amplitude fluctuations of stress with wavelengths of several particle diameters. Localization of energy causes `hot-spots` due to shock focusing and plastic work as material flows into interstitial regions. These numerical experiments demonstrate that `hot-spots` are strongly influenced by multiple crystal interactions. This mesoscale study provides new insights into micromechanical behavior of heterogeneous energetic materials.
Acoustical determination of the parameters governing thermal dissipation in porous media.
Olny, Xavier; Panneton, Raymond
2008-02-01
In this paper, the question of the acoustical determination of macroscopic thermal parameters used to describe heat exchanges in rigid open-cell porous media subjected to acoustical excitations is addressed. The proposed method is based on the measurement of the dynamic bulk modulus of the material, and analytical inverse solutions derived from different semiphenomenological models governing the thermal dissipation of acoustic waves in the material. Three models are considered: (1) Champoux-Allard model [J. Appl. Phys. 20, 1975-1979 (1991)] requiring knowledge of the porosity and thermal characteristic length, (2) Lafarge et al. model [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 1995-2006 (1997)] using the same parameters and the thermal permeability, and (3) Wilson model [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94, 1136-1145 (1993)] that requires two adjusted parameters. Except for the porosity that is obtained from direct measurement, all the other thermal parameters are derived from the analytical inversion of the models. The method is applied to three porous materials-a foam, a glass wool, and a rock wool-with very different thermal properties. It is shown that the method can be used to assess the validity of the descriptive models for a given material. PMID:18247886
Derivation of the macroscopic solute transport equation for homogeneous, saturated, porous media
Chu, S.Y.; Sposito, G.
1980-06-01
The macroscopic transport equation for a conservative solute in a homogeneous, water-saturated porous medium is derived on the basis of a rigorous cumulant expansion applied to the equation of mass balance. The essential physical conept underlying the derivation is that of a local volume-averaged solute velocity which fluctuates on a time scale that is orders of magnitude smaller than its autocorrelation time scale, which, in turn, is much smaller than the time scale of interest in a typical solute transport experiment. This clear separation of the scales is illustrated with representative data on solute transport in homogeneous, water-saturated soils and is employed to justify the truncation of an exact cumulant expansion of the divergence of the volume-averaged solute mass flux density. With the cumulant expansion terminated at first order in the ratio of the solute velocity autocorrelation time to the macroscopic solute transport time interval, an expression for the macroscopic solute mass flux density is produced which is the same as Fick's law extended to porous media. 26 references.
Torkzaban, Saeed; Kim, Hyunjung N; Simunek, Jiri; Bradford, Scott A
2010-03-01
Saturated packed column and micromodel transport studies were conducted to gain insight on mechanisms of colloid retention and release under unfavorable attachment conditions. The initial deposition of colloids in porous media was found to be a strongly coupled process that depended on solution chemistry and pore space geometry. During steady state chemical conditions, colloid deposition was not a readily reversible process, and micromodel photos indicated that colloids were immobilized in the presence of fluid drag. Upon stepwise reduction in eluting solution ionic strength (IS), a sharp release of colloids occurred in each step which indicates that colloid retention depends on a balance of applied (hydrodynamic) and resisting (adhesive) torques which varied with pore space geometry, surface roughness, and interaction energy. When the eluting fluid IS was reduced to deionized water, the final retention locations occurred near grain-grain contacts, and colloid aggregation was sometimes observed in micromodel experiments. Significant amounts of colloid retention hysteresis with IS were observed in the column experiments, and it depended on the porous medium (glass beads compared with sand), the colloid size (1.1 and 0.5 mum), and on the initial deposition IS. These observations were attributed to weak adhesive interactions that depended on the double layer thickness (e.g., the depth of the secondary minimum and/or nanoscale heterogeneity), colloid mass transfer on the solid phase to regions where the torque and force balances were favorable for retention, the number and extent of grain-grain contacts, and surface roughness. PMID:20136144
A linear viscoelastic biphasic model for soft tissues based on the Theory of Porous Media.
Ehlers, W; Markert, B
2001-10-01
Based on the Theory of Porous Media (mixture theories extended by the concept of volume fractions), a model describing the mechanical behavior of hydrated soft tissues such as articular cartilage is presented. As usual, the tissue will be modeled as a materially incompressible binary medium of one linear viscoelastic porous solid skeleton saturated by a single viscous pore-fluid. The contribution of this paper is to combine a descriptive representation of the linear viscoelasticity law for the organic solid matrix with an efficient numerical treatment of the strongly coupled solid-fluid problem. Furthermore, deformation-dependent permeability effects are considered. Within the finite element method (FEM), the weak forms of the governing model equations are set up in a system of differential algebraic equations (DAE) in time. Thus, appropriate embedded error-controlled time integration methods can be applied that allow for a reliable and efficient numerical treatment of complex initial boundary-value problems. The applicability and the efficiency of the presented model are demonstrated within canonical, numerical examples, which reveal the influence of the intrinsic dissipation on the general behavior of hydrated soft tissues, exemplarily on articular cartilage. PMID:11601726
Modeling the Impact of Fracture Growth on Fluid Displacements in Deformable Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santillán, D.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; Juanes, R.
2015-12-01
Coupled flow and geomechanics is a critical research challenge in engineering and the geosciences. The flow of a fluid through a deformable porous media is present in manyenvironmental, industrial, and biological processes,such as the removal of pollutants from underground water bodies, enhanced geothermal systems, unconventional hydrocarbon resources or enhanced oil recovery techniques. However, the injection of a fluid can generate or propagate fractures, which are preferential flow paths. Using numerical simulation, we study the interplay between injection and rock mechanics, and elucidate fracture propagation as a function of injection rate, initial crack topology and mechanical rock properties. Finally, we discuss the role of fracture growth on fluid displacements in porous media. Figure: An example of fracture (in red) propagated in a porous media (in blue)
Colloid deposition in granular porous media based on random sequential adsorption mechanics
Johnson, P.R.; Elimelech, M.
1995-12-01
A theoretical model is presented for describing one-dimensional colloid transport in granular porous media. The model depicts irreversible, monolayer deposition of colloidal particles onto oppositely-charged collectors of spherical geometry. A dynamic blocking function based on random sequential adsorption (RSA) mechanics is implemented to account for the dynamic aspects of particle deposition. The RSA dynamic blocking function is modified to consider the excluded area effects arising from diffuse double-layer interactions of particles. The RSA blocking function exhibits a nonlinear power law dependence on surface coverage, in contrast to the linear Langmuirian blocking function utilized in previous dynamic deposition models for porous media. A comparison of theoretical model predictions based on RSA and Langmuirian blocking with experimental particle breakthrough curves demonstrates the superiority of RSA mechanics as a means of describing the transient nature of colloid deposition in granular porous media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norouzi Rad, M.; Shokri, N.
2014-12-01
Understanding the physics of water evaporation from saline porous media is important in many processes such as evaporation from porous media, vegetation, plant growth, biodiversity in soil, and durability of building materials. To investigate the effect of particle size distribution on the dynamics of salt precipitation in saline porous media during evaporation, we applied X-ray micro-tomography technique. Six samples of quartz sand with different grain size distributions were used in the present study enabling us to constrain the effects of particle and pore sizes on salt precipitation patterns and dynamics. The pore size distributions were computed using the pore-scale X-ray images. The packed beds were saturated with NaCl solution of 3 Molal and the X-ray imaging was continued for one day with temporal resolution of 30 min resulting in pore scale information about the evaporation and precipitation dynamics. Our results show more precipitation at the early stage of the evaporation in the case of sand with the larger particle size due to the presence of fewer evaporation sites at the surface. The presence of more preferential evaporation sites at the surface of finer sands significantly modified the patterns and thickness of the salt crust deposited on the surface such that a thinner salt crust was formed in the case of sand with smaller particle size covering larger area at the surface as opposed to the thicker patchy crusts in samples with larger particle sizes. Our results provide new insights regarding the physics of salt precipitation in porous media during evaporation.
Generalized lattice Boltzmann model for flow through tight porous media with Klinkenberg's effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Li; Fang, Wenzhen; Kang, Qinjun; De'Haven Hyman, Jeffrey; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Tao, Wen-Quan
2015-03-01
Gas slippage occurs when the mean free path of the gas molecules is in the order of the characteristic pore size of a porous medium. This phenomenon leads to Klinkenberg's effect where the measured permeability of a gas (apparent permeability) is higher than that of the liquid (intrinsic permeability). A generalized lattice Boltzmann model is proposed for flow through porous media that includes Klinkenberg's effect, which is based on the model of Guo et al. [Phys. Rev. E 65, 046308 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevE.65.046308]. The second-order Beskok and Karniadakis-Civan's correlation [A. Beskok and G. Karniadakis, Microscale Thermophys. Eng. 3, 43 (1999), 10.1080/108939599199864 and F. Civan, Transp. Porous Med. 82, 375 (2010), 10.1007/s11242-009-9432-z] is adopted to calculate the apparent permeability based on intrinsic permeability and the Knudsen number. Fluid flow between two parallel plates filled with porous media is simulated to validate the model. Simulations performed in a heterogeneous porous medium with components of different porosity and permeability indicate that Klinkenberg's effect plays a significant role on fluid flow in low-permeability porous media, and it is more pronounced as the Knudsen number increases. Fluid flow in a shale matrix with and without fractures is also studied, and it is found that the fractures greatly enhance the fluid flow and Klinkenberg's effect leads to higher global permeability of the shale matrix.
Generalized lattice Boltzmann model for flow through tight porous media with Klinkenberg's effect.
Chen, Li; Fang, Wenzhen; Kang, Qinjun; De'Haven Hyman, Jeffrey; Viswanathan, Hari S; Tao, Wen-Quan
2015-03-01
Gas slippage occurs when the mean free path of the gas molecules is in the order of the characteristic pore size of a porous medium. This phenomenon leads to Klinkenberg's effect where the measured permeability of a gas (apparent permeability) is higher than that of the liquid (intrinsic permeability). A generalized lattice Boltzmann model is proposed for flow through porous media that includes Klinkenberg's effect, which is based on the model of Guo et al. [Phys. Rev. E 65, 046308 (2002)]. The second-order Beskok and Karniadakis-Civan's correlation [A. Beskok and G. Karniadakis, Microscale Thermophys. Eng. 3, 43 (1999) and F. Civan, Transp. Porous Med. 82, 375 (2010)] is adopted to calculate the apparent permeability based on intrinsic permeability and the Knudsen number. Fluid flow between two parallel plates filled with porous media is simulated to validate the model. Simulations performed in a heterogeneous porous medium with components of different porosity and permeability indicate that Klinkenberg's effect plays a significant role on fluid flow in low-permeability porous media, and it is more pronounced as the Knudsen number increases. Fluid flow in a shale matrix with and without fractures is also studied, and it is found that the fractures greatly enhance the fluid flow and Klinkenberg's effect leads to higher global permeability of the shale matrix. PMID:25871199
Modelling the Complex Conductivity of Charged Porous Media using The Grain Polarization Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leroy, P.; Revil, A.; Jougnot, D.; Li, S.
2015-12-01
The low-frequency complex conductivity response of charged porous media reflects a combination of three polarization processes occuring at different frequency ranges. One polarization process corresponds to the membrane polarization phenomenon, which is the polarization mechanism associated with the back-diffusion of salt ions through different pore spaces of the porous material (ions-selective zones and zones with no selectivity). This polarization process generally occurs at the lowest frequency range, typically in the frequency range [mHz Hz] because it involves polarization mechanism occurring over different pore spaces (the relaxation frequency is inversely proportional to the length of the polarization process). Another polarization process corresponds to the electrochemical polarization of the electrical double layer coating the surface of the grains. In the grain polarization model, the diffuse layer is assumed to not polarize because it is assumed to form a continuum in the porous medium. The compact Stern layer is assumed to polarize because the Stern layer is assumed to be discontinuous over multiple grains. The electrochemical polarization of the Stern layer typically occurs in the frequency range [Hz kHz]. The last polarization process corresponds to the Maxwell-Wagner polarization mechanism, which is caused by the formation of field-induced free charge distributions near the interface between the phases of the medium. In this presentation, the grain polarization model based on the O'Konski, Schwarz, Schurr and Sen theories and developed later by Revil and co-workers is showed. This spectral induced polarization model was successfully applied to describe the complex conductivity responses of glass beads, sands, clays, clay-sand mixtures and other minerals. The limits of this model and future developments will also be presented.
Surface porosity and permeability of porous media with a periodic microstructure
Dmitriev, N.M.
1995-07-01
Various ways of determining the surface porosity, the relation between the porosity and the surface porosity and the presentation of the permeability in terms of the characteristics of the microstructure of the porous medium are analyzed with reference to model porous media with a periodic microstructure. It is shown that it is necessary to distinguish between the geometric (scalar) and physical (tensor) surface porosities and that the geometric surface porosity, the physical surface porosity and the porosity are different characteristics of the porous medium.
Transition in the Flow of Power-Law Fluids through Isotropic Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zami-Pierre, F.; de Loubens, R.; Quintard, M.; Davit, Y.
2016-08-01
We use computational fluid dynamics to explore the creeping flow of power-law fluids through isotropic porous media. We find that the flow pattern is primarily controlled by the geometry of the porous structure rather than by the nonlinear effects in the rheology of the fluid. We further highlight a macroscale transition between a Newtonian and a non-Newtonian regime, which is the signature of a coupling between the viscosity of the fluid and the structure of the porous medium. These complex features of the flow can be condensed into an effective length scale, which defines both the non-Newtonian transition and the Newtonian permeability.
Transition in the Flow of Power-Law Fluids through Isotropic Porous Media.
Zami-Pierre, F; de Loubens, R; Quintard, M; Davit, Y
2016-08-12
We use computational fluid dynamics to explore the creeping flow of power-law fluids through isotropic porous media. We find that the flow pattern is primarily controlled by the geometry of the porous structure rather than by the nonlinear effects in the rheology of the fluid. We further highlight a macroscale transition between a Newtonian and a non-Newtonian regime, which is the signature of a coupling between the viscosity of the fluid and the structure of the porous medium. These complex features of the flow can be condensed into an effective length scale, which defines both the non-Newtonian transition and the Newtonian permeability. PMID:27563969
A new interpretation of internal heat transfer coefficients of porous media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dybbs, A.; Kar, K.; Groeneweg, M.; Ling, J. X.; Naraghi, M.
1984-01-01
The results of laser anemometer and flow visualization based fluid mechanics studies of porous media are used to obtain heat transfer coefficients for porous materials. Average pore flow Re ranging from 0.16-700 were examined. Darcy, inertial steady laminar, unsteady laminar and turbulent flow regimes were detected. A passage length model was devised to derive the heat transfer coefficient. Sample data from flows through porous metals composed of powders and fibers validated the passage length for Darcy and inertial flow regimes. Unsteady laminar and turbulent flow coefficients require the identification of new parameters.
Dilution and reactive mixing in three-dimensional helical flows in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiogna, Gabriele; Ye, Yu; Grathwohl, Peter; Cirpka, Olaf A.; Rolle, Massimo
2016-04-01
Dilution under steady-state flow and transport conditions in porous media occurs primarily by lateral mass exchange at the fringe of solute plumes. This process controls the fate and transport of scalars in groundwater and in chemical reactors and it is fundamental for the understanding of many reactive processes. Three-dimensional flow fields can be characterized by a complex topological structure, which may greatly influence dilution and dilution enhancement of dissolved plumes, which is quantified by the exponential of the Shannon entropy [1]. In previous works, we identified the necessary conditions to obtain helical flow fields in non-stationary anisotropic heterogeneous porous media [2, 3]. To prove our theoretical findings, we perform steady-state bench-scale experiments with a conservative tracer and we provide a model-based investigation of the results [4]. The relevance of transverse mixing enhancement for the case of reactive solute transport is computed numerically using, as metrics of mixing, the length of a reactive plume undergoing an instantaneous complete bimolecular reaction and its critical dilution index. [1] Cirpka O.A., Chiogna G., Rolle M. and A. Bellin (2015). Transverse mixing in three-dimensional non-stationary anisotropic heterogeneous porous media. Water Resources Research, 51, DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015331. [2] Chiogna G., Cirpka O.A., Rolle M. and A. Bellin (2015). Helical flow streamlines in three-dimensional nonstationary anisotropic heterogeneous porous media. Water Resources Research, 51, DOI:10.1002/2014WR015330. [3] Chiogna G., Rolle M., Bellin A. and O.A. Cirpka (2014). Helicity and flow topology in three dimensional porous media. Advances in Water Resources, 73, 134-143, DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2014.06.017. [4] Ye Y., Chiogna G., Cirpka O.A., Grathwohl P., and M. Rolle (2015). Experimental evidence of helical flow in porous media. Phys. Rev. Lett., 115, 194502, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.194502
Dynamics of barite growth in porous media quantified by in situ synchrotron X-ray tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Godinho, jose; Gerke, kirill
2016-04-01
Current models used to formulate mineral sequestration strategies of dissolved contaminants in the bedrock often neglect the effect of confinement and the variation of reactive surface area with time. In this work, in situ synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography is used to quantify barite growth rates in a micro-porous structure as a function of time during 13.5 hours with a resolution of 1 μm. Additionally, the 3D porous network at different time frames are used to simulate the flow velocities and calculate the permeability evolution during the experiment. The kinetics of barite growth under porous confinement is compared with the kinetics of barite growth on free surfaces in the same fluid composition. Results are discussed in terms of surface area normalization and the evolution of flow velocities as crystals fill the porous structure. During the initial hours the growth rate measured in porous media is similar to the growth rate on free surfaces. However, as the thinner flow paths clog the growth rate progressively decreases, which is correlated to a decrease of local flow velocity. The largest pores remain open, enabling growth to continue throughout the structure. Quantifying the dynamics of mineral precipitation kinetics in situ in 4D, has revealed the importance of using a time dependent reactive surface area and accounting for the local properties of the porous network, when formulating predictive models of mineral precipitation in porous media.
Fate and Transport of Nanoparticles in Porous Media: A Numerical Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taghavy, Amir
Understanding the transport characteristics of NPs in natural soil systems is essential to revealing their potential impact on the food chain and groundwater. In addition, many nanotechnology-based remedial measures require effective transport of NPs through soil, which necessitates accurate understanding of their transport and retention behavior. Based upon the conceptual knowledge of environmental behavior of NPs, mathematical models can be developed to represent the coupling of processes that govern the fate of NPs in subsurface, serving as effective tools for risk assessment and/or design of remedial strategies. This work presents an innovative hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian modeling technique for simulating the simultaneous reactive transport of nanoparticles (NPs) and dissolved constituents in porous media. Governing mechanisms considered in the conceptual model include particle-soil grain, particle-particle, particle-dissolved constituents, and particle- oil/water interface interactions. The main advantage of this technique, compared to conventional Eulerian models, lies in its ability to address non-uniformity in physicochemical particle characteristics. The developed numerical simulator was applied to investigate the fate and transport of NPs in a number of practical problems relevant to the subsurface environment. These problems included: (1) reductive dechlorination of chlorinated solvents by zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) in dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones; (2) reactive transport of dissolving silver nanoparticles (nAg) and the dissolved silver ions; (3) particle-particle interactions and their effects on the particle-soil grain interactions; and (4) influence of particle-oil/water interface interactions on NP transport in porous media.
Convective heat transfer from a sphere embedded in unheated porous media
Tung, V.X. ); Dhir, V.K. )
1993-05-01
The purpose of this work was to establish the effect of the surrounding particles' size on forced convective heat transfer from a sphere. It is shown that convective heat transfer coefficient from a large heated sphere embedded in unheated porous media is independent of the size of the particles forming the porous media as long as D[sub p]/D[sub s]<1. The contributions from other modes of heat transfer such as conduction, radiation, and natural convection are significant at lower Reynolds numbers. 16 refs., 3 figs.
Analysis of permeability for transient two-phase flow in fractal porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Xiao-Hua; Li, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Jian-Yi; Zhang, Guang-Dong; Zhang, Lie-Hui
2014-03-01
A relative permeability model for transient two-phase flow in fractal porous media is derived based on the fractal characteristics of pore size distribution and the assumption that porous media consists of capillary bundles. The functions in this model are tortuosity fractal dimension, pore fractal dimension, and maximum and minimum pore diameters. Every parameter has clear physical meaning without the use of empirical constants. Good agreement between model predictions and experimental data is obtained, the sensitive parameters that influence the relative permeability are specified and their effects on relative permeability are discussed.
Mesoscopic modeling of multi-physicochemical transport phenomena in porous media
Kang, Qinjin; Wang, Moran; Mukherjee, Partha P; Lichtner, Peter C
2009-01-01
We present our recent progress on mesoscopic modeling of multi-physicochemical transport phenomena in porous media based on the lattice Boltzmann method. Simulation examples include injection of CO{sub 2} saturated brine into a limestone rock, two-phase behavior and flooding phenomena in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, and electroosmosis in homogeneously charged porous media. It is shown that the lattice Boltzmann method can account for multiple, coupled physicochemical processes in these systems and can shed some light on the underlying physics occuning at the fundamental scale. Therefore, it can be a potential powerful numerical tool to analyze multi-physicochemical processes in various energy, earth, and environmental systems.
Direct Observations of Three Dimensional Growth of Hydrates Hosted in Porous Media
Kerkar, P.; Jones, K; Kleinberg, R; Lindquist, W; Tomov, S; Feng, H; Mahajan, D
2009-01-01
The visualization of time-resolved three-dimensional growth of tetrahydrofuran hydrates with glass spheres of uniform size as porous media using synchrotron x-ray computed microtomography is presented. The images of hydrate patches, formed from excess tetrahydrofuran in aqueous solution, show random nucleation and growth concomitant with grain movement but independent of container-wall effect. Away from grain surfaces, hydrate surface curvature was convex showing that liquid, not hydrate, was the wetting phase, similar to ice growth in porous media. The extension of the observed behavior to methane hydrates could have implications in understanding their role in seafloor stability and climate change.
Microscale simulations of NMR relaxation in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohnke, O.; Klitzsch, N.; Clauser, C.
2009-12-01
In petrophysical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the measured relaxation signals originate from the fluid filled pore space. Hence, in rocks or sediments the water content directly corresponds to the initial amplitude of the recorded NMR relaxation signals. The relaxation rate (longitudinal/transversal decay time T1, T2) is sensitive to pore sizes and physiochemical properties of rock-fluid interfaces (surface relaxivity), as well as the concentration of paramagnetic ions in the fluid phases (bulk relaxivity). We aim at improving the basic understanding of these processes at the pore scale and thereby advancing the interpretation of NMR data by reducing the application of restrictive approximated interpretation schemes, e.g. for deriving pore size distributions, connectivity or permeability. In this respect we numerically simulate NMR relaxation data at the micro sale to study the impact of physical and hydrological parameters such as internal field gradients or pore connectivities on NMR signals. Joint numerical simulations of the NMR relaxation behavior (Bloch equations) in the presence of internal gradients (Ampere’s law) and fluid flow (Navier-Stokes) on a pore scale dimension have been implemented in a finite element (FE) model using Comsol Multiphysics. Processes governing the time and spatial behavior of the nuclear magnetization density in a porous medium are diffusion and surface interactions at the rock-fluid interface. Based on Fick's law of diffusive motion Brownstein and Tarr (1979) introduced differential equations that describe the relaxation behavior of the Spin magnetization in single isolated pores and derived analytical solutions for simple geometries, i.e. spherical, cylindrical and planar. However, by numerically solving these equations in a general way using a FE algorithm this approach can be applied to study and simulate coupled complex pore systems, e.g. derived from computer tomography (CT). In this respect substantial
Microscale simulations of NMR relaxation in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohnke, Oliver; Klitzsch, Norbert
2010-05-01
In petrophysical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the measured relaxation signals originate from the fluid filled pore space. Hence, in rocks or sediments the water content directly corresponds to the initial amplitude of the recorded NMR relaxation signals. The relaxation rate (longitudinal/transversal decay time T1, T2) is sensitive to pore sizes and physiochemical properties of rock-fluid interfaces (surface relaxivity), as well as the concentration of paramagnetic ions in the fluid phases (bulk relaxivity). In the subproject A2 of the TR32 we aim at improving the basic understanding of these processes at the pore scale and thereby advancing the interpretation of NMR data by reducing the application of restrictive approximated interpretation schemes, e.g. for deriving pore size distributions, connectivity or permeability. In this respect we numerically simulate NMR relaxation data at the micro sale to study the impact of physical and hydrological parameters such as internal field gradients or pore connectivities on NMR signals. Joint numerical simulations of the NMR relaxation behavior (Bloch equations) in the presence of internal gradients (Ampere's law) and fluid flow (Navier-Stokes) on a pore scale dimension have been implemented in a finite element (FE) model using Comsol Multiphysics. Processes governing the time and spatial behavior of the nuclear magnetization density in a porous medium are diffusion and surface interactions at the rock-fluid interface. Based on Fick's law of diffusive motion Brownstein and Tarr (1979) introduced differential equations that describe the relaxation behavior of the Spin magnetization in single isolated pores and derived analytical solutions for simple geometries, i.e. spherical, cylindrical and planar. However, by numerically solving these equations in a general way using a FE algorithm this approach can be applied to study and simulate coupled complex pore systems, e.g. derived from computer tomography (CT
Studies of Reaction Kinetics of Methane Hydrate Dissocation in Porous Media
Moridis, George J.; Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.
2005-03-10
The objective of this study is the description of the kinetic dissociation of CH4-hydrates in porous media, and the determination of the corresponding kinetic parameters. Knowledge of the kinetic dissociation behavior of hydrates can play a critical role in the evaluation of gas production potential of gas hydrate accumulations in geologic media. We analyzed data from a sequence of tests of CH4-hydrate dissociation by means of thermal stimulation. These tests had been conducted on sand cores partially saturated with water, hydrate and CH4 gas, and contained in an x-ray-transparent aluminum pressure vessel. The pressure, volume of released gas, and temperature (at several locations within the cores) were measured. To avoid misinterpreting local changes as global processes, x-ray computed tomography scans provided accurate images of the location and movement of the reaction interface during the course of the experiments. Analysis of the data by means of inverse modeling (history matching ) provided estimates of the thermal properties and of the kinetic parameters of the hydration reaction in porous media. Comparison of the results from the hydrate-bearing porous media cores to those from pure CH4-hydrate samples provided a measure of the effect of the porous medium on the kinetic reaction. A tentative model of composite thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing media was also developed.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Fractal and prefractal geometric models have substantial potential of contributing to the analysis of flow and transport in porous media such as soils and reservoir rocks. In this study, geometric and hydrodynamic parameters of saturated 3D mass and pore-solid prefractal porous media were characteri...
Microscale simulation of bimolecular reaction in two dimensional porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porta, G.; Chaynikov, S.; Thovert, J.; Riva, M.; Guadagnini, A.; Adler, P. M.
2012-12-01
Reactive transport in porous media is typically modeled approximating key processes occurring at the pore-scale through a set of continuum- (or Darcy-) scale partial differential equations, the advection dispersion reaction equation (ADRE) being a widely used model. Such formulations hold under a set of assumptions which are not always met in the context of laboratory and/or field scale applications. These hypotheses involve spatial scale separation and restrictions on the magnitude of dimensionless parameters, such as the Damköhler and the Péclet numbers, characterizing the process. In this context, direct measurements and micro-scale numerical simulations are key to (1) assess the validity of upscaled continuum formulations, and (2) quantify the ability of such models to capture the key features of the process dynamics. Here, we focus on the simulation of a homogeneous irreversible bimolecular reaction of the kind A + B → C. We analyze the evolution of the process in the presence of different pore scale geometrical settings, upon performing numerical pore-scale simulations in ordered and disordered two dimensional arrays of cylinders. The selected pore scale geometries are characterized by different porosities and by the presence of large cavities and regions with different relative importance of diffusive and advective processes. A particle tracking methodology is employed to study the system dynamics and simulations are performed for a wide range of the Péclet and Damköhler numbers. The evolution of the features of the reactive transport process is analyzed on different observation scales. Our results show that the reactive transport process attains an asymptotic regime for which the reaction is limited by (effective) dispersion. The influence of the pore scale geometry on the asymptotic and pre-asymptotic behavior of the reaction rate globally observed in the domain is quantitatively analyzed. Local mixing features and related characteristic scales are
Feedback-induced phase transitions in active porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ocko, Samuel; Mahadevan, L.
2014-11-01
We consider a reduced-complexity model for an active porous medium where flow and resistance are coupled to each other i.e. the porous medium is modified by the flow and in turn modifies the flow. Using numerical simulations, we show that this results in both channelization and wall-building transitions depending on the form of the feedback. A continuum model allows us to understand the qualitative features of the resulting phase diagram, and suggests ways to realize complex architectures using simple rules in engineered systems. Human Frontiers Science Program Grant RGP0066/2012- TURNER.
Some aspects of fluid flow and heat transfer in porous media
Masuoka, Takashi
1999-07-01
Flows in porous media can exhibit time-dependent, chaotic, and turbulent behaviors, despite the highly dissipative effects of viscosity and thermal conductivity. Since the complicated flow paths in porous media cannot be directly followed in general, the description of the phenomena depends on certain simplifications based on proper averaging techniques, taking the characteristic spatial and time scales specifying the phenomena into consideration. This paper discusses some basic effects of the porous structures on fluid flow and heat transfer, including the examination of the chaotic behaviors in porous media. The presence of the porous matrix brings about both the macroscopic and microscopic (particle-diameter level) effects on fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics basically through the short-distance interaction of fluid with the adjacent inner walls, which exist everywhere in porous media. It is shown that even the concentrated inhomogeneities of permeability and of thermal conductivity modify the action of the buoyant force and the flow resistance, which yields the various modes of convection and the nonlinear stabilities of three-dimensional flow modes, much less for convection with distributed inhomogeneities. Next, the basic aspects of chaotic behaviors of thermal convection in porous media are discussed, concentrating on the finite Prandtl-number effect. The inertia force causes the flow against the action of buoyant force, which will introduce the flow-reversal mechanism and brings about the instability of the flow direction in large-scale convective motions, while the instability of the thermal boundary layers dominates in the limit of Pr {r_arrow} {infinity}. That is, for thermal convection in porous media or in Hele-Shaw cells, if the condition of 1/pr = 0 is relaxed, the chaotic behaviors of different nature are produced. It is also seen that the chaotic behaviors can affect the entropy generation rate through the mechanism of the instabilities
Reconstruction of three-dimensional porous media using a single thin section.
Tahmasebi, Pejman; Sahimi, Muhammad
2012-06-01
The purpose of any reconstruction method is to generate realizations of two- or multiphase disordered media that honor limited data for them, with the hope that the realizations provide accurate predictions for those properties of the media for which there are no data available, or their measurement is difficult. An important example of such stochastic systems is porous media for which the reconstruction technique must accurately represent their morphology--the connectivity and geometry--as well as their flow and transport properties. Many of the current reconstruction methods are based on low-order statistical descriptors that fail to provide accurate information on the properties of heterogeneous porous media. On the other hand, due to the availability of high resolution two-dimensional (2D) images of thin sections of a porous medium, and at the same time, the high cost, computational difficulties, and even unavailability of complete 3D images, the problem of reconstructing porous media from 2D thin sections remains an outstanding unsolved problem. We present a method based on multiple-point statistics in which a single 2D thin section of a porous medium, represented by a digitized image, is used to reconstruct the 3D porous medium to which the thin section belongs. The method utilizes a 1D raster path for inspecting the digitized image, and combines it with a cross-correlation function, a grid splitting technique for deciding the resolution of the computational grid used in the reconstruction, and the Shannon entropy as a measure of the heterogeneity of the porous sample, in order to reconstruct the 3D medium. It also utilizes an adaptive technique for identifying the locations and optimal number of hard (quantitative) data points that one can use in the reconstruction process. The method is tested on high resolution images for Berea sandstone and a carbonate rock sample, and the results are compared with the data. To make the comparison quantitative, two sets
Characteristic evaluation of cooling technique using liquid nitrogen and metal porous media
Tanno, Yusuke; Ito, Satoshi; Hashizume, Hidetoshi
2014-01-29
A remountable high-temperature superconducting magnet, whose segments can be mounted and demounted repeatedly, has been proposed for construction and maintenance of superconducting magnet and inner reactor components of a fusion reactor. One of the issues in this design is that the performance of the magnet deteriorates by a local temperature rise due to Joule heating in jointing regions. In order to prevent local temperature rise, a cooling system using a cryogenic coolant and metal porous media was proposed and experimental studies have been carried out using liquid nitrogen. In this study, flow and heat transfer characteristics of cooling system using subcooled liquid nitrogen and bronze particle sintered porous media are evaluated through experiments in which the inlet degree of subcooling and flow rate of the liquid nitrogen. The flow characteristics without heat input were coincided with Ergun’s equation expressing single-phase flow in porous materials. The obtained boiling curve was categorized into three conditions; convection region, nucleate boiling region and mixed region with nucleate and film boiling. Wall superheat did not increase drastically with porous media after departure from nucleate boiling point, which is different from a situation of usual boiling curve in a smooth tube. The fact is important characteristic to cooling superconducting magnet to avoid its quench. Heat transfer coefficient with bronze particle sintered porous media was at least twice larger than that without the porous media. It was also indicated qualitatively that departure from nucleate boiling point and heat transfer coefficient depends on degree of subcooling and mass flow rate. The quantitative evaluation of them and further discussion for the cooling system will be performed as future tasks.
Nuclear magnetic resonance as a method of fluid mobility detection in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhakov, Sergey; Loskutov, Valentin
2016-04-01
The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method is widely used for studying the structure of porous media and processes taking place in such media. This method permits to determine porosity and pore-size distributions, which have direct practical application in various areas. The problem of porous media permeability determination is connected directly with extraction of hydrocarbons from pays and water from aquiferous layers. But it is impossible to measure directly amount of fluid past through the fixes cross section for determination of bed permeability. So various indirect approaches are used to find correlation of permeability value with porosity and pore size distribution which can be determined directly using NMR relaxometry. In contrast to porosity, permeability is dynamic characteristic of porous media so it may be measured correctly only in conditions of moving fluid. Natural porous medium has branched pore structure, so a chaotic component of fluid velocity will occur even for constant mean filtration fluid velocity. In the presence of magnetic field gradient this chaotic fluid velocity will produce additional spin dephasing and decrease of relaxation time [1]. Direct detecting of fluid movement in porous core samples through the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence has been demonstrated and theoretical model and analysis was given. Experiments were made on a set of sandstone samples (Berea, Bentheimer, Castle Gate, Leopard) and with synthetic high-perm samples made of abrasive material. The experiments show that the NMR spin echo measurements permit to fix mean fluid velocity mm/sec. The experiments and the theoretical model show that for low fluid velocities the mean relaxation rate is proportional to fluid velocity . The results may serve as the basis for determination of mobility of liquids in porous media and permeability. 1. P.T.Callaghan. Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Microscopy. 1991, Oxford University Press.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Dato, M.; Fiori, A.; Chiogna, G.; de Barros, F.; Bellin, A.
2015-12-01
Modeling flow in porous media is relevant for many environmental, energy and industrial applications. From an environmental perspective, the relevance of porous media flow becomes evident in subsurface hydrology. In general, flow in natural porous media is at low Reynolds numbers, yet the large variability in the hydraulic conductivity values encountered in natural aquifers leads to highly heterogeneous flow fields. This natural variability in the conductivity field will affect both dilution rates of non reactive tracers and reactive mixing. A physical consequence of this heterogeneity is also the presence of localized kinematical features such as straining, shearing and vorticity in the fluid element. These kinematical features will influence the shape of solute clouds and its fate. While in porous media straining and shearing have been considered as important kinematical features controlling the shape of the plume and consequently mixing, much less attention has been devoted to vorticity, which can be defined as the anti-symmetric component of the velocity gradient tensor. In the present work we analyze how vorticity is related to large scale heterogeneity, as described by global parameters such as the log-conductivity variance and integral scale, and porous microstructure. Following a micro-mechanical approach, the medium is schematized as an ensemble of independent inclusions placed at random in a homogeneous matrix. Adopting this model permits to solve the flow problem by means of only few parameters, such as the conductivity contrast, the volume fraction and the shape and inclination of the inclusions, the latter two properties representing the microstructure. Through this conceptualization, it is possible to approximate the structure of natural heterogeneous porous media. We show that vorticity depends on both conductivity contrast, epitomized by the log-conductivity variance, and the microstructure. In addition, vorticity and lateral dispersion are related
A stochastic multiscale framework for modeling flow through random heterogeneous porous media
Ganapathysubramanian, B.; Zabaras, N.
2009-02-01
Flow through porous media is ubiquitous, occurring from large geological scales down to the microscopic scales. Several critical engineering phenomena like contaminant spread, nuclear waste disposal and oil recovery rely on accurate analysis and prediction of these multiscale phenomena. Such analysis is complicated by inherent uncertainties as well as the limited information available to characterize the system. Any realistic modeling of these transport phenomena has to resolve two key issues: (i) the multi-length scale variations in permeability that these systems exhibit, and (ii) the inherently limited information available to quantify these property variations that necessitates posing these phenomena as stochastic processes. A stochastic variational multiscale formulation is developed to incorporate uncertain multiscale features. A stochastic analogue to a mixed multiscale finite element framework is used to formulate the physical stochastic multiscale process. Recent developments in linear and non-linear model reduction techniques are used to convert the limited information available about the permeability variation into a viable stochastic input model. An adaptive sparse grid collocation strategy is used to efficiently solve the resulting stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs). The framework is applied to analyze flow through random heterogeneous media when only limited statistics about the permeability variation are given.
The permeability of poly-disperse porous media and effective particle size
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markicevic, B. I.; Preston, C.; Osterroth, S.; Iliev, O.; Hurwitz, M.
2015-11-01
The interactions between the fluid and solid phases in porous media account for the openness and length of the flow path that the fluid needs to travel within. The same reasoning applies for both mono- and poly-disperse media, and is reflected in the adoption of the same permeability models. The only difference is that an effective particle size diameter has to be used for the poly-disperse samples. A filtration experiment is used to form a particle layer, filter cake, consisting of particles of different sizes. Both inflow and outflow particle size distribution are measured by particle counting method, and from their difference, the particle size distribution in the cake is determined. In a set of experiments, the filtration history is altered by changing (i) filtration medium; (ii) suspension flow rate; and (iii) particle concentration, where in all cases investigated the cake permeability remains constant. In order to predict the permeability of poly-disperse cake from the analytical models, the particle size distribution moments are calculated, and the permeability is found for each moment. Comparing the experimental to the analytical permeability values the effective particle size is found, where the permeability calculated by using the harmonic mean of the particle size distribution reproduces the permeability experimental value best. Finally, in the parametric study, reducing the cake porosity and/or lowering the particle retention shifts effective particle size used in the permeability model toward higher moments of the particle size distribution function.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poullain, P.; Mounanga, P.; Bastian, G.; Coué, R.
2006-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and the use of two measurement techniques especially adapted to the rapid determination of the thermophysical properties of evolutive porous media. The first technique exploits the method of the “heated and non-heated wires” and is validated on wet clay by comparison with previous works [Mounanga et al., Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 65 (2004)]. It is then used to quantify the evolution of both thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of hardening cement pastes maintained at 294 ± 1 K. The second technique is based on the classical method of the “heating film” and a data treatment using forward calculation. This technique is first used to measure the properties of well-known materials (hardened mortars, wet sand [Mounanga et al., Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 65 (2004); Delacre, Ph.D. thesis, University of Artois, 2000] and glass [Bastian, Rev. Phys. Appl. 22, 431 (1987)] and then applied to media whose properties evolve both over time and through space (drying sand).
Multiphase continuum model to describe dynamic loading effects in nonlinear porous media
Swift, R.P.; Burton, D.E.; Bryan, J.B.; Glenn, H.D.
1985-03-01
A multiphase constitutive model that couples nonlinear deformation to porous flow has been developed for numerical analyses of dynamic behavior of geological media. The model has been incorporated into the explicit finite-difference code TENSOR and applied to examine the phenomenology associated with contained explosions and nuclear surface cratering in a coral geology. For contained explosions in nearly saturated media, the model predicts a region of liquefaction to exist adjacent to the cavity. This region is markedly enhanced for the case of total saturation and the associated pore pressure buildup indicate that the stability of the residual stress field may be threatened. Based on plausible assumptions about the geology and the constitutive relations of coral, we have shown that the multiphase constitutive model can relate subsidence to calculational parameters such as peak effective stress. Most of the observed volume of the Koa crater at the Pacific Proving Grounds can be accounted for by late time consolidation of the damaged coral. 21 refs., 10 figs.
Flow of foams in two-dimensional disordered porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dollet, Benjamin; Geraud, Baudouin; Jones, Sian A.; Meheust, Yves; Cantat, Isabelle; Institut de Physique de Rennes Team; Geosciences Rennes Team
2015-11-01
Liquid foams are a yield stress fluid with elastic properties. When a foam flow is confined by solid walls, viscous dissipation arises from the contact zones between soap films and walls, giving very peculiar friction laws. In particular, foams potentially invade narrow pores much more efficiently than Newtonian fluids, which is of great importance for enhanced oil recovery. To quantify this effect, we study experimentally flows of foam in a model two-dimensional porous medium, consisting of an assembly of circular obstacles placed randomly in a Hele-Shaw cell, and use image analysis to quantify foam flow at the local scale. We show that bubbles split as they flow through the porous medium, by a mechanism of film pinching during contact with an obstacle, yielding two daughter bubbles per split bubble. We quantify the evolution of the bubble size distribution as a function of the distance along the porous medium, the splitting probability as a function of bubble size, and the probability distribution function of the daughter bubbles. We propose an evolution equation to model this splitting phenomenon and compare it successfully to the experiments, showing how at long distance, the porous medium itself dictates the size distribution of the foam.
Crossover from anomalous to normal diffusion in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aarão Reis, F. D. A.; di Caprio, Dung
2014-06-01
Random walks (RW) of particles adsorbed in the internal walls of porous deposits produced by ballistic-type growth models are studied. The particles start at the external surface of the deposits and enter their pores in order to simulate an external flux of a species towards a porous solid. For short times, the walker concentration decays as a stretched exponential of the depth z, but a crossover to long-time normal diffusion is observed in most samples. The anomalous concentration profile remains at long times in very porous solids if the walker steps are restricted to nearest neighbors and is accompanied with subdiffusion features. These findings are correlated with a decay of the explored area with z. The study of RW of tracer particles left at the internal part of the solid rules out an interpretation by diffusion equations with position-dependent coefficients. A model of RW in a tube of decreasing cross section explains those results by showing long crossovers from an effective subdiffusion regime to an asymptotic normal diffusion. The crossover position and density are analytically calculated for a tube with area decreasing exponentially with z and show good agreement with numerical data. The anomalous decay of the concentration profile is interpreted as a templating effect of the tube shape on the total number of diffusing particles at each depth, while the volumetric concentration in the actually explored porous region may not have significant decay. These results may explain the anomalous diffusion of metal atoms in porous deposits observed in recent works. They also confirm the difficulty in interpreting experimental or computational data on anomalous transport reported in recent works, particularly if only the concentration profiles are measured.
Quantifying Light, Medium, and Heavy Crude Oil Distribution in Homogeneous Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, J.; Tick, G. R.
2008-12-01
Crude oil recovery is highly dependent upon the physical heterogeneity of media and resulting distribution of the oil-phase within the pore spaces. Factors such as capillary force, the geometry of the pore spaces, and interfacial tension between the oil blobs and water-wet porous media will ultimately control the recovery process. Pore scale studies were conducted to study the distribution and the morphology of various fractions of crude oil in increasingly heterogeneous porous media. In addition, experiments were also carried out to characterize the temporal changes in distribution and morphology of the oil phase after a series of surfactant flooding events. Specifically, columns were packed with three different porous media with increasing heterogeneity and distributed with three different fractions (light, medium, and heavy) of crude oil. The columns were imaged using synchrotron X-ray microtomography before and after a series of surfactant floods to quantify the resulting crude oil distributions over time. Preliminary results show that the light crude oil was more heterogeneously distributed than the medium fraction crude oil within the same porous media type both before and throughout the series of surfactant floods. It was also observed that approximately 95% of the medium fraction crude oil blob-size distribution was smaller (<0.0008 cu mm) than that of the light crude oil, encompassing a significant number of blob singlets. The lighter crude oil fraction has the median blob diameter approximately 20 times greater than that of the medium crude oil fraction. These results further reveal that that oil extraction and recovery is highly dependent upon the oil fraction, the presence of small- sized blob singlets, and the resulting distributions present within porous media before and during surfactant flooding. This research will not only be helpful in understanding the factors controlling crude oil mobilization at the pore scale but also test the utility of
Optimization of Fluid Front Dynamics in Porous Media Using Rate Control: I. Equal Mobility Fluids
Sundaryanto, Bagus; Yortsos, Yanis C.
1999-10-18
In applications involving this injection of a fluid in a porous medium to displace another fluid, a main objective is the maximization of the displacement efficiency. For a fixed arrangement of injection and production points (sources and sinks), such optimization is possible by controlling the injection rate policy. Despite its practical relevance, however, this aspect has received scant attention in the literature. In this paper, a fundamental approach based on optimal control theory, for the case when the fluids are miscible, of equal viscosity and in the absence of dispersion and gravity effects. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media are considered. From a fluid dynamics viewpoint, this is a problem in the deformation of material lines in porous media, as a function of time-varying injection rates.
Aspects of non-Newtonian flow and displacement in porous media
Shah, C.; Yortsos, Y.C.
1993-02-01
The rheology of many heavy oils has been shown to be non-Newtonian, Bingham plastics being one manifestation of heavy oil flow. In EOR applications, non-Newtonian fluids such as low concentration polymer solutions, emulsions, gels etc. are simultaneously injected to increase the viscosity of driving agents that displace oil. Such rheologically complex fluids are used to improve sweep efficiencies, divert displacing fluids and block swept zones. The present study has been undertaken to understand the flow of non-Newtonian fluids through porous media. The work considered involves the numerical (pore network) modeling of both single and multiphase flow of power-law and Bingham plastic fluids in network-like porous media. We consider aspects of both single- and multi-phase flow and displacement. Section 2 describes elementary aspects of non-Newtonian flow and some simple models for porous media. Viscoelastic effects in the flow of non-Newtonian fluids are also discussed. The section includes a brief literature review on non-Newtonian flow in porous media. Section 3 describes single-phase flow.
A single expression for solute and heat dispersion in homogeneous porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Milligen, Boudewijn Ph.; Bons, Paul D.
2014-05-01
A variety of expressions have been proposed for dispersion in homogeneous porous media. These expressions are either for heat (thermal) or solute dispersion, and often only valid for a limited range of flow rates, typically expressed in terms of the Péclet number. We present a single, universal expression for both the heat and solute dispersion coefficient (both transverse and longitudinal) in homogeneous porous media, valid over a wide range of Péclet numbers as long as flow is laminar. The expression covers the complex intermediate regime between diffusion and advection controlled dispersion, where dispersion increases non-linearly with flow velocity. Using numerical simulations of pore channel networks, we show that that the intermediate regime can be regarded as a phase transition between random, diffusive transport at low flow velocity and ordered transport controlled by the geometry of the pore space at high flow velocities. This phase transition explains the first-order behavior in the intermediate regime. A new quantifier, the ratio of the amount of solute in dominantly advective versus dominantly diffusive pore channels, plays the role of "order parameter" of this phase transition. Bons, P.D., van Milligen, B.P., Blum, P. 2013. A general unified expression for solute and heat dispersion in homegeneous porous media. Water Resources Research 49, 1-13. van Milligen, B.Ph., Bons, P.D. 2012. Analytical model for tracer dispersion in porous media. Physical Review E 85.
Organic Dye Effects on DNAPL Entry Pressure in Water Saturated Porous Media
Iversen, G.M.
2001-10-02
One of three diazo dyes with the same fundamental structure have been used in most studies of DNAPL behavior in porous media to stain the NAPL: Sudan III, Sudan IV, or Oil-Red-O. The dyes are generally implicitly assumed to not influence DNAPL behavior. That assumption was tested using simple entry pressure experiments.
Du, Liming; Xie, Maozhao
2011-06-01
A numerical study of Reciprocating Superadiabatic Combustion of Premixed gases in porous media (hereafter, referred to as RSCP) is performed. In this system the transient combustion of methane-air mixture is stabilized in a porous media combustor by periodically switching flow directions. The mass, momentum, energy and species conservation equations are solved using a two-dimensional control volume method. Local thermal non-equilibrium between the gas and the solid phases is considered by solving separate energy equations for the two phases and coupling them through a convective heat transfer coefficient. The porous media is assumed to emit, absorb and isotropically scatter radiation. The influences of the dominating operating parameters, such as filtration velocity, equivalence ratio and half cycle on the temperature profile, heat release rate, radiant flux, radiant efficiency and combustion efficiency are discussed. The results show that coupling calculating of flow field, combustion reaction and volume radiation of the optically thick media is successively achieved and heat radiation plays an important role in the overall performance of the burner. The temperature profile inside the RSCP combustor has a typical trapezoidal shape and the profile of radiation flux is similar to sinusoidal shape. Compared with the conventional premixed combustion in porous medium, combustion behavior in RSCP combustor is superior, such as better thermal structure and higher radiation efficiency and combustion efficiency. PMID:25084588
ENHANCING THE STABILITY OF POROUS CATALYSTS WITH SUPERCRITICAL REACTION MEDIA. (R826034)
Adsorption/desorption and pore-transport are key parameters influencing the activity and product selectivity in porous catalysts. With conventional reaction media (gas or liquid phase), one of these parameters is generally favorable while the other is not. For instance, while ...
Transport and Retention of Colloids in Porous Media: Does Shape Really Matter?
The effect of particle shape on its transport and retention in porous media was evaluated by stretching carboxylate-modified fluorescent polystyrene spheres into rod shapes with aspect ratios of 2:1 and 4:1. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation experiments (QCM-D) were c...
Macromolecule Mediated Transport and Retention of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Saturated Porous Media
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The role of extracellular macromolecules on Escherichia coli O157:H7 transport and retention was investigated in saturated porous media. To compare the relative transport and retention of E. coli cells that are macromolecule rich and deficient, macromolecules were partially cleaved using a proteolyt...
PARAMETRIC MODEL FOR CONSTITUTIVE PROPERTIES GOVERNING MULTIPHASE FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA
A parametric model is developed to describe relative permeability-saturation-fluid pressure functional relationships in two- or three-fluid phase porous media systems subject to monotonic saturation paths. All functions are obtained as simple closed-form expressions convenient fo...
a Novel Fractal Model for Two-Phase Relative Permeability in Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, G.; Dong, P. C.; Mo, S. Y.; Gai, S. H.; Wu, Z. S.
2015-03-01
Multiphase flow in porous media is very important in various scientific and engineering fields. It has been shown that relative permeability plays an important role in determination of flow characteristics for multiphase flow. The accurate prediction of multiphase flow in porous media is hence highly important. In this work, a novel predictive model for relative permeability in porous media is developed based on the fractal theory. The predictions of two-phase relative permeability by the current mathematical models have been validated by comparing with available experimental data. The predictions by the proposed model show the same variation trend with the available experimental data and are in good agreement with the existing experiments. Every parameter in the proposed model has clear physical meaning. The proposed relative permeability is expressed as a function of the immobile liquid film thickness, pore structural parameters (pore fractal dimension Df and tortuosity fractal dimension DT) and fluid viscosity ratio. The effects of these parameters on relative permeability of porous media are discussed in detail.
Note on the validity of the Kozeny-Carman formulas for consolidated porous media
Schlueter, E.M.; Witherspoon, P.A.
1995-12-31
The region of validity of the well-known Kozeny-Carmen permeability formulas for consolidated porous media and their relationship to the microscopic spatial variations of channel dimensions are established. For highly inhomogeneous rock-pore-space systems, the validity of the critical path analysis for estimating the permeability of consolidated rocks is examined also.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
A mathematical model is presented for colloid transport and retention in saturated porous media under unfavorable attachment conditions. The model accounts for colloid transport in the bulk aqueous phase and adjacent to the solid surface, and rates of colloid collision, interaction, release and imm...
Fractional Advective-Dispersive Equation as a Model of Solute Transport in Porous Media
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Understanding and modeling transport of solutes in porous media is a critical issue in the environmental protection. The common model is the advective-dispersive equation (ADE) describing the superposition of the advective transport and the Brownian motion in water-filled pore space. Deviations from...
MODELING MULTICOMPONENT ORGANIC CHEMICAL TRANSPORT IN THREE-FLUID-PHASE POROUS MEDIA
A two dimensional finite-element model was developed to predict coupled transient flow and multicomponent transport of organic chemicals which can partition between NAPL, water, gas and solid phases in porous media under the assumption of local chemical equilibrium. as-phase pres...
MODELING MULTICOMPONENT ORGANIC CHEMICAL TRANSPORT IN THREE FLUID PHASE POROUS MEDIA
A two-dimensional finite-element model was developed to predict coupled transient flow and multicomponent transport of organic chemicals which can partition between nonaqueous phase liquid, water, gas and solid phases in porous media under the assumption of local chemical equilib...
A KINETIC MODEL FOR CELL DENSITY DEPENDENT BACTERIAL TRANSPORT IN POROUS MEDIA
A kinetic transport model with the ability to account for variations in cell density of the aqueous and solid phases was developed for bacteria in porous media. Sorption kinetics in the advective-dispersive-sorptive equation was described by assuming that adsorption was proportio...
Critical role of surface roughness on colloid retention and release in porous media
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
A thorough understanding of colloid transport in porous media is of great importance in many environmental and industrial applications. Extended-DLVO theory was employed to investigate the influence of nanoscale surface roughness (NSR) on the magnitudes of the secondary (F2min) and primary energy (F...
Numerical study on freezing heat transfer in water-saturated porous media
Sasaki, A.; Aiba, S. ); Fukusako, S. )
1990-01-01
Numerical investigations have been carried out to examine the characteristics of unsteady freezing heat transfer in water-saturated porous media. Also, the effects of Stefan number and of the ratio if cooling to heating temperature are discussed for the unsteady freezing heat transfer.
General slip regime permeability model for gas flow through porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Bo; Jiang, Peixue; Xu, Ruina; Ouyang, Xiaolong
2016-07-01
A theoretical effective gas permeability model was developed for rarefied gas flow in porous media, which holds over the entire slip regime with the permeability derived as a function of the Knudsen number. This general slip regime model (GSR model) is derived from the pore-scale Navier-Stokes equations subject to the first-order wall slip boundary condition using the volume-averaging method. The local closure problem for the volume-averaged equations is studied analytically and numerically using a periodic sphere array geometry. The GSR model includes a rational fraction function of the Knudsen number which leads to a limit effective permeability as the Knudsen number increases. The mechanism for this behavior is the viscous fluid inner friction caused by converging-diverging flow channels in porous media. A linearization of the GSR model leads to the Klinkenberg equation for slightly rarefied gas flows. Finite element simulations show that the Klinkenberg model overestimates the effective permeability by as much as 33% when a flow approaches the transition regime. The GSR model reduces to the unified permeability model [F. Civan, "Effective correlation of apparent gas permeability in tight porous media," Transp. Porous Media 82, 375 (2010)] for the flow in the slip regime and clarifies the physical significance of the empirical parameter b in the unified model.
Resolving the coupled effects of hydrodynamics and DLVO forces on colloid attachment in porous media
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Transport of colloidal particles in porous media is governed by the rate at which the colloids strike and stick to collector surfaces. Classic filtration theory has considered the influence of system hydrodynamics on determining the rate that colloids strike collector surfaces, but has neglected the...
Flow channeling in strongly heterogeneous porous media: A numerical study
Moreno, L.; Tsang, C.F.
1994-05-01
The variation of hydraulic conductivity in a porous medium causes the fluids flowing through it to have nonuniform velocities. Variation in fluid velocity is one of the main contributors to solute dispersion, causing a part of the contaminants dissolved in the fluid to be transported with greater than average velocities. In practical problems concerning transport of radioactive or toxic wastes, the velocity of contaminant flow may be of vital importance. This paper examines a three dimensional case, considering also the similarities and differences between parallel flow and convergent/divergent flow. Fluid flow in a porous medium is shown to perfer the most conductive paths. For a medium with strongly variable permeability this effect can be very pronounced. This paper discusses the impact of this flow distribution upon solute transport. 28 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.
Diffusive and thermodiffusive transfer of magnetic nanoparticles in porous media.
Sints, Viesturs; Blums, Elmars; Maiorov, Michail; Kronkalns, Gunars
2015-05-01
Experimental results on mass transfer within a thin porous layer saturated with ferrofluid are outlined in this paper. From the analysis of particle concentration distribution across the layer it is shown that both the mass diffusion and the Soret coefficients of nanoparticles are remarkably less than those measured in free fluid. The particle transport coefficient changes due to an external uniform magnetic field qualitatively well agree with the predictions of existing theoretical research. The magnetic field that is oriented transversely to the porous layer causes an increase in the diffusion coefficient and a decrease in the Soret coefficient whilst the longitudinal field causes a reduction of the mass diffusion and an intensification of the particle thermodiffusion. PMID:25957178
Imaging of colloidal deposits in granular porous media by X-ray difference micro-tomography
Gaillard, Jean-Francois; Chen, Cheng; Stonedahl, Susa H.; Lau, Boris L.T.; Keane, Denis T.; Packman, Aaron I.
2008-07-08
High resolution synchrotron-based X-ray computed microtomography (X-CMT) was used to identify the morphology of colloidal deposits formed in porous media. We show that difference microtomography - whereby a tomographic reconstruction is performed across an absorption edge - provides valuable information on the nature and location of the aggregates formed by the deposition of colloidal particles. Column experiments were performed using an idealized porous medium consisting of glass beads through which colloidal ZrO{sub 2} particles were transported. Tomographic reconstructions of the porous medium and of the aggregate structure provide an unique opportunity to observe colloidal particle deposits and of their morphology. These results show that the local pore geometry controls particle deposition and that deposits tend to form in a rather heterogeneous manner in the porous medium.
Pore-Scale Study of Miscible Displacements in Porous Media Using Lattice Boltzmann Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ting; Shi, Baochang; Huang, Changsheng; Liang, Hong
2015-12-01
In the past few years, the miscible displacements in porous media were usually simulated by some semiempirical models based on the volume averaging at the representative elementary volume scale. To better understand the microscopic mechanism of the viscous fingering phenomenon in porous media for miscible fluids, in this paper the miscible displacements processes in porous media are studied using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) at the pore scale. First, the code of LBM is tested by simulating the displacement process of two miscible fluids with the same viscosity between two parallel plates which is the well-known Taylor-Aris dispersion problem, and comparing the results with the theoretical predictions. Then, the effects of the Péclet number Pe, the viscosity ratio M and the structure of the porous media on the displacement phenomenon are investigated, and the location and velocity of the finger tip, the displacement efficiency are also studied. In this paper, the displacement efficiency is calculated by 1-m, here the quantity m is defined as m=V_M/V_T, where V_M is the volume of more viscous fluids (the displaced fluid) left behind the finger tip, V_T is the total pore volume behind the finger tip. It can be found that the "interface" of two fluids will become clearer with the increasing of the Péclet number. As Pe and M are large enough, the viscous fingering phenomenon will occur, and in the front of the finger, "mushroom-like" pattern can be observed. Besides, with the increasing of Pe or M the quantity m will be increased too, i.e., the displacement efficiency will be decreased. While Pe (or M) is greater than a certain value, the growth rate of the quantity m will slow down. The same trend was observed for the miscible displacement in capillary tubes or Hele-Shaw cells. Besides, changing the structure of the porous media makes the finger pattern different. The present simulation results provide a good understanding of the microscopic mechanism of the
Flow through porous media of packed spheres saturated with water
Kececioglu, I.; Jiang, Y. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)
1994-03-01
The existing literature on the flow of fluids through porous packed beds gives very limited quantitative information of the criteria employed in marking the applicability of the different flow regimes. It is the objective of this paper to provide experimental evidence for determining the demarcation criteria during the flow of water through a bed of randomly packed spherical beads. Two different sizes of glass beads, 3 mm and 6 mm, were employed as the porous matrix through which water flowed at rates varying from 5.07 [times] 10[sup [minus]6] m[sup 3]/s to 4,920 [times] 10[sup [minus]6] m[sup 3]/s. The dimensionless pressure drop data showed less variation when the characteristic length of the porous medium was taken to be proportional to the square root of the permeability over the porosity and not the bead diameter. Curves of properly nondimensionalized pressure drop plotted against the actual flow Reynolds number based on the porous medium permeability provided the following information. It was found that Darcy's law has very limited applicability and is valid for a small range of Reynolds numbers. This leads to a pre-Darcy flow that is valid for a much broader range of Reynolds numbers than expected. Alternatively, the range of validity of the post-Darcy laminar Forchheimer flow is also found to be of much more limited applicability than previous studies have indicated. Transition to turbulence takes place earlier than expected and turbulent flow prevails from then on. The dimensionless pressure drop in both the Forchheimer and turbulent flow regimes can be modeled by an appropriately nondimensionalized Ergun's equation i.e., a first-order inertia term correction is sufficient in both flow regimes.
Anomalous reactive transport in porous media: Experiments and modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edery, Yaniv; Dror, Ishai; Scher, Harvey; Berkowitz, Brian
2015-05-01
We analyze dynamic behavior of chemically reactive species in a porous medium, subject to anomalous transport. In this context, we present transport experiments in a refraction-index-matched, three-dimensional, water-saturated porous medium. A pH indicator (Congo red) was used as either a conservative or a reactive tracer, depending on the tracer solution pH relative to that of the background solution. The porous medium consisted of an acrylic polymer material formed as spherical beads that have pH-buffering capacity. The magnitude of reaction during transport through the porous medium was related to the color change of the Congo red, via image analysis. Here, we focused on point injection of the tracer into a macroscopically uniform flow field containing water at a pH different from that of the injected tracer. The setup yielded measurements of the temporally evolving spatial (local-in-space) concentration field. Parallel experiments with the same tracer, but without reactions (no changes in pH), enabled identification of the transport itself to be anomalous (non-Fickian); this was quantified by a continuous time random walk (CTRW) formulation. A CTRW particle tracking model was then used to quantify the spatial and temporal migration of both the conservative and reactive tracer plumes. Model parameters related to the anomalous transport were determined from the conservative tracer experiments. An additional term accounting for chemical reaction was established solely from analysis of the reactant concentrations, and significantly, no other fitting parameters were required. The measurements and analysis emphasized the localized nature of reaction, caused by small-scale concentration fluctuations and preferential pathways. In addition, a threshold radius for pH-controlled reactive transport processes was defined under buffering conditions, which delineated the region in which reactions occurred rapidly.
Transport properties of porous media from the microstructure
Torquato, S.
1995-12-31
The determination of the effective transport properties of a random porous medium remains a challenging area of research because the properties depend on the microstructure in a highly complex fashion. This paper reviews recent theoretical and experimental progress that we have made on various aspects of this problem. A unified approach is taken to characterize the microstructure and the seemingly disparate properties of the medium.
Magnetic resonance imaging of immiscible fluid displacement in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jing-Den; Dias, Madalena M.; Patz, Samuel; Schwartz, Lawrence M.
1988-09-01
Magnetic resonance imaging is used to study oil and water invasion in a model porous medium. Images taken normal to the flow direction are processed to give both the oil saturation and the fractal character of the oil distribution. These images reveal qualitative differences between the cases of invasion by the wetting (water) and nonwetting (oil) fluids. We have also found large saturation fluctuations in the residual oil state in which the oil consists entirely of disconnected blobs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Yirang; Liang, Dong; Rui, Hongxing
2009-01-01
For the three-dimensional seawater intrusion and protection system, the model of dynamics of fluids in porous media and the modified upwind finite difference fractional steps schemes are put forward. Based on the numerical simulation of the practical situation in the Laizhou Bay Area of Shandong Province, predictive numerical simulation and analysis of the consequence of protection projects, underground dams, tidal barrage projects and the applied modular form of project adjustment have been finished. By using the theory and techniques of differential equation prior estimates, the convergence results have been got.
Freeze fracturing of elastic porous media: a mathematical model
Vlahou, I.; Worster, M. G.
2015-01-01
We present a mathematical model of the fracturing of water-saturated rocks and other porous materials in cold climates. Ice growing inside porous rocks causes large pressures to develop that can significantly damage the rock. We study the growth of ice inside a penny-shaped cavity in a water-saturated porous rock and the consequent fracturing of the medium. Premelting of the ice against the rock, which results in thin films of unfrozen water forming between the ice and the rock, is one of the dominant processes of rock fracturing. We find that the fracture toughness of the rock, the size of pre-existing faults and the undercooling of the environment are the main parameters determining the susceptibility of a medium to fracturing. We also explore the dependence of the growth rates on the permeability and elasticity of the medium. Thin and fast-fracturing cracks are found for many types of rocks. We consider how the growth rate can be limited by the existence of pore ice, which decreases the permeability of a medium, and propose an expression for the effective ‘frozen’ permeability. PMID:25792954
Optical Analyses of Flow in and Transformation of Deformable Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kvalheim Eriksen, Fredrik; Toussaint, Renaud; Jørgen Måløy, Knut; Turkaya, Semih; Flekkøy, Eirik
2014-05-01
This study focuses on the characterization of fluid flow through transforming porous media and the simultaneous transformation of the porous media itself. The motivation is to investigate how fluid flow and deformation of the porous media influence each other, which are complex feedback processes. As a source of data, we have performed controlled experiments of air injection into deformable porous media samples created in the lab. The samples are transparent, horizontal and quasi 2-dimensional, enabling us to visually observe fluid flow through a slice of deformable porous media. The experiments are recorded from above with a digital high-speed camera, providing the raw-data as image sequences with high framerates (250 - 1000 images/s). Analyses on the fluid flow are based on the spatial properties of the observed flow patterns. The spatial properties are derived digitally after the raw-images are transformed into binary images of the flow patterns. Analyses on the transformation of the porous media are based on the frame-to-frame displacement fields of the particles. Such displacement fields are obtained by evaluating a sequence of raw images with a Particle Image Velocimetry software. We aim to show connections between flow observations and porous media observations. Two different kinds of experiments are analyzed. The first is two-phase flow in deformable porous media, and the other is aerofracturing in dry, fine-grained granular packings. The samples for the two-phase flow experiments are created in a circular Hele-Shaw cell with the inlet in the center and the outlet along its rim. Inside the cell, glass beads form a monolayer of deformable porous media saturated with a viscous glycerol-water solution. During an experiment, air is injected into the center of the sample with a constant overpressure, which will force the air to drain the sample radially outwards. This two-phase flow is an unstable event creating fingering patterns of air, while at the same time
Learning from models: Insights into the behavior of water in unsaturated fractured-porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ireson, A. M.; Butler, A. P.
2014-12-01
The way that water is stored within and transmitted through structured porous media can be challenging to infer from available observation techniques, in particular at field scales. Fractured porous media are an example of such structured media, comprising a fracture domain and a matrix domain. Flow processes depend on how water is both stored and transmitted within each domain, and how water exchanges between the domains. In unsaturated conditions the problem is confounded as hydraulic properties (e.g. hydraulic conductivity) in each domain become dynamic, as a function of saturation. One domain may not contribute significantly to the flow, or may not provide significant amounts of storage, depending of the properties of both domains. The two domains may or may not respond in equilibrium with one another, depending on both the properties and on driving boundary conditions (i.e. infiltration intensity). Physically based models can in theory be used to falsify hypotheses about the role of the fractures versus the matrix in transmitting flow, within an inverse modelling framework. However, there are two problems: firstly, even the most detailed and complex physically based model will still be a simplification of reality, unable to resolve heterogeneities that exist; and secondly the observations available may not contain sufficient information to constrain the model. In this study we explore how models and observations have been applied to understand the flow processes in the unsaturated Chalk in field sites in south east England. We look at what can and cannot be inferred from various observations, including the water table response, soil moisture and matric potential, and the power of these observations to constrain models. We look at how models provide a framework through which to interpret the observations, and provide insights into the dominant controls on behavior. In the case of the unsaturated Chalk, we have demonstrated that groundwater recharge is
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, S.; Sleep, B. E.
2012-12-01
The effects of biofilm growth on the flow and transport in porous media were investigated in an anaerobic two-dimensional coarse sand-filled cell. The cell was inoculated with a mixed microbial culture fed methanol. Biomass concentrations attached to the sand and suspended in the water in the cell were determined by protein analysis. The biofilm thickness on individual sand grains was investigated with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The biofilm thickness for individual sand grains had a range of mean values from 59 to 316 microns in this study. To investigate the implications of the variability of biofilm thicknesses, four models were used to calculate reductions in porous media permeability as a function of biofilm thickness. Taylor's model (Taylor et al., 1990) predicted a reduction by a factor ranging from 14 to 5000 from minimum to maximum mean biofilm thickness. Vandevivere's Model (Vandevivere et al.,1995) predicted a reduction in permeability by a factor ranging from 769 to 3846 from minimum to maximum mean biofilm thickness. Seki's model (Seki and Miyazaki, 2001) could not be applied in this study. Clement's model (Clement et al., 1996) predicted a reduction ranging from 1 to 1.14 over the range of biomass levels observed in the cell. To investigate the implications of the variability of biofilm thicknesses for dispersivity, Taylor and Jaffe's models (1990) were used to calculate increase in porous media dispersivity as a function of biofilm thickness. The model predicted an increase in dispersivity by a factor ranging from 20 to 1883 by a simplified dispersivity model and a factor ranging from 4 to 85 by a dispersivity model based on a cut-and-random-rejoin type model of pore geometry from minimum to maximum mean biofilm thickness. Acknowledgements Funding for this research from US Dupont Company, and also from NSFC40872155, 40725010 and 41030746 is gratefully acknowledged. References: Clement, T.P., Hooker, B.S. and Skeen, R.S., 1996
Evaporation and capillary coupling across vertical textural contrasts in porous media.
Lehmann, Peter; Or, Dani
2009-10-01
High and nearly constant evaporation rates from initially saturated porous media are sustained by capillary-driven flow from receding drying front below the evaporating surface. The spatial extent of continuous liquid pathways in homogeneous porous medium is defined by its hydraulically connected pore size distribution. We consider here evaporative losses from porous media consisting of two hydraulically coupled dissimilar domains each with own pore and particle size distributions separated by sharp vertical textural contrast. Evaporation experiments from texturally dissimilar media were monitored using neutron transmission and dye pattern imaging to quantify water distribution and drying front dynamics. Drying front invades exclusively coarse-textured domain while fine-textured domain remains saturated and its surface continuously coupled with the atmosphere. Results show that evaporation from fine-textured surface was supplied by liquid flow from adjacent coarse domain driven by capillary pressure differences between the porous media. A first characteristic length defining limiting drying front depth during which fine sand region remains saturated is deduced from difference in air-entry pressures of the two porous media. A second characteristic length defining the end of high evaporation rate includes the extent of continuous liquid films pinned in the crevices of the pore space and between particle contacts in the fine medium. We established numerically the lateral extent of evaporation-induced hydraulic coupling that is limited by viscous losses and gravity. For certain combinations of soil types the lateral extent of hydraulic coupling may exceed distances of 10 m. Results suggest that evaporative water losses from heterogeneous and coupled system are larger compared with uncoupled or homogenized equivalent systems. PMID:19905447
Fluid Stretching in Heterogeneous Porous Media as a Lévy Process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dentz, Marco; Lester, Daniel R.; Le Borgne, Tanguy; de Barros, Felipe P. J.
2016-04-01
Stretching and compression of material fluid elements is key for the understanding and quantification of the dispersion and mixing dynamics in heterogeneous porous media flows, because they represent the support of a transported solute. The elongation and compression of a material strip determine the mixing volume and mixing rate and thus the concentration content of a heterogeneous mixture. While linear and exponential elongation dynamics typical for shear and chaotic flows, respectively, are well understood, the mechanisms that lead toobserved power-law elongation in heterogeneous porous media are in general unknown. We cast the fluid deformation problem in streamline coordinates, which reveals that the principal elongation mechanism for non-helical steady flows is due to shear deformation and velocity fluctuations along the streamline. The impact of this coupling on the elongation dynamics is quantified within a continuous time random walk (CTRW) approach. The CTRW describes the movement of fluid particles in porous media flows through a random in both space and time, in which the transition time τ over a characteristic velocity length scale ℓc is coupled kinematically to streamline velocity vs as τ = ℓc/vc. In this framework, the elongation process isidentified as a coupled CTRW in which the elongation increment is related to the transition time through the velocity-shear coupling. For a broad distribution of transition, as found in strongly heterogeneous porous media, the elongation is a Lévy process. These dynamics describe a broad range of algebraic stretching behaviors with mean strip elongations ⟨ℓ(t)⟩∝ tν with 1/2 ≤ ν < 2. These findings have broad implications for the understanding and prediction of dilution and mixing in heterogeneous porous media flows.
Effect of Porous Media Particle Size on Bacterial Motility and Chemotaxis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olson, M. S.; Smith, J. A.; Ford, R. M.; Fernandez, E. J.
2003-12-01
Many soil-inhabiting bacteria that degrade chemical contaminants are both motile and chemotactic. Chemotaxis refers to the ability of bacteria to sense pollutant concentration gradients in water and preferentially swim toward regions of high pollutant concentration, and is thought to be important in guiding subsurface microbial populations toward chemical contaminants. Bacterial motion consists of a series of smooth-swimming runs interrupted by changes in direction. In the presence of a chemical gradient, bacteria bias their frequency of changing direction and demonstrate longer run lengths in the direction of increasing attractant concentration. One concern when studying bacterial chemotaxis in porous media is that in small pores, the porous media may interrupt the extended run lengths of bacteria swimming in the direction of a positive chemical gradient. The purpose of this study is to examine how a decrease in particle size affects the motility and chemotactic response of bacteria traveling through porous media. We employ an innovative technique for noninvasive visualization of changes in bacterial density distributions in a packed column as a function of time. Paramagnetic magnetite particles are attached to the surface of Pseudomonas putida F1 cells using an antibody. Bacterial distributions within a column of glass-coated polystyrene beads are imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with a spatial resolution of 300 μ m. Experiments are conducted with both 250-300 μ m beads and 90-150 μ m beads. Bacteria labeled with magnetite are introduced into a specially designed chromatography column packed with glass-coated polystyrene beads. Bacterial migration is monitored over time using MRI, with and without the presence of a chemical gradient of trichloroethylene (TCE). Comparisons of the motility and chemotactic transport coefficients for Pseudomonas putida F1 cells traveling through different-sized samples of porous media in the presence of TCE will be
Three-Dimensional Imaging and Quantification of Biomass and Biofilms in Porous Media
Dorthe Wildenschild
2012-10-10
A new method to resolve biofilms in three dimensions in porous media using high-resolution synchrotron-based x-ray computed microtomography (CMT) has been developed. Imaging biofilms in porous media without disturbing the natural spatial arrangement of the porous media and associated biofilm has been a challenging task, primarily because porous media generally precludes conventional imaging via optical microscopy; x-ray tomography offers a potential alternative. One challenge for using this method is that most conventional x-ray contrast agents are water-soluble and easily diffuse into biofilms. To overcome this problem, silver-coated microspheres were added to the fluid phase to create an x-ray contrast that does not diffuse into the biofilm mass. Using this approach, biofilm imaging in porous media was accomplished with sufficient contrast to differentiate between the biomass- and fluid-filled pore spaces. The method was validated by using a two-dimensional micro-model flow cell where both light microscopy and CMT imaging were used to im age the biofilm. The results of this work has been published in Water Resources Research (Iltis et al., 2010). Additional work needs to be done to optimize this imaging approach, specifically, we find that the quality of the images are highly dependent on the coverage of the biofilm with Ag particles, - which means that we may have issues in dead-end pore space and for very low density (fluffy) biofilms. What we can image for certain with this technique is the biofilm surface that is well-connected to flow paths and thus well-supplied with nutrients etc.
1998-11-01
This report consists first of a discussion of specific results. Following that is a discussion of important issues. During the period July 1993--present, the authors have developed Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and other experimental techniques for the study of porous flow (Section 1). These techniques include fast spin echo methods and precision temperature control and measurements systems for use in the MRI environment. They have applied these techniques to extensive studies of Porous Media Convection (PMC) which they discuss below. Sections 2--4 summarize important experimental results, and Section 5 lists publications and related information. These studies clearly point to the need for improved models for porous flow. In related studies using a special kind of shadowgraph technique, they found corroborating support for the effects of microstructure on PMC and the need for improved models of porous flow, and of PMC in particular. They initially studied convective flows for pure fluids (water), and more recently, they have begun studies of miscible binary mixtures.
An Initial Non-Equilibrium Porous-Media Model for CFD Simulation of Stirling Regenerators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tew, Roy; Simon, Terry; Gedeon, David; Ibrahim, Mounir; Rong, Wei
2006-01-01
The objective of this paper is to define empirical parameters (or closwre models) for an initial thermai non-equilibrium porous-media model for use in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes for simulation of Stirling regenerators. The two CFD codes currently being used at Glenn Research Center (GRC) for Stirling engine modeling are Fluent and CFD-ACE. The porous-media models available in each of these codes are equilibrium models, which assmne that the solid matrix and the fluid are in thermal equilibrium at each spatial location within the porous medium. This is believed to be a poor assumption for the oscillating-flow environment within Stirling regenerators; Stirling 1-D regenerator models, used in Stirling design, we non-equilibrium regenerator models and suggest regenerator matrix and gas average temperatures can differ by several degrees at a given axial location end time during the cycle. A NASA regenerator research grant has been providing experimental and computational results to support definition of various empirical coefficients needed in defining a noa-equilibrium, macroscopic, porous-media model (i.e., to define "closure" relations). The grant effort is being led by Cleveland State University, with subcontractor assistance from the University of Minnesota, Gedeon Associates, and Sunpower, Inc. Friction-factor and heat-transfer correlations based on data taken with the NASAlSunpower oscillating-flow test rig also provide experimentally based correlations that are useful in defining parameters for the porous-media model; these correlations are documented in Gedeon Associates' Sage Stirling-Code Manuals. These sources of experimentally based information were used to define the following terms and parameters needed in the non-equilibrium porous-media model: hydrodynamic dispersion, permeability, inertial coefficient, fluid effective thermal conductivity (including themal dispersion and estimate of tortuosity effects}, and fluid-solid heat transfer
Critique of Burnett-Frind dispersion tensor for axisymmetric porous media
Lichtner, Peter C; Kelkar, Sharad; Robinson, Bruce A
2008-01-01
This technical note provides a critique of the Burnett and Frind (1987) dispersion tensor for porous media with axial symmetry based on a previous publication by the authors (Lichtner et aI., 2002). In this work a new approach is used based on unit eigenvectors which simplifies the analysis. It is demonstrated that the Burnett-Frind dispersion tensor, although acceptable for small values of the vertical velocity, produces the incorrect behavior for both longitudinal and transverse dispersivity as the flow velocity varies from parallel to perpendicular to the axis of symmetry. A new form of the dispersion tensor is derived for axially symmetric porous media involving four dispersivity coefficients corresponding to longitudinal and transverse dispersion in horizontal and vertical directions, defined as perpendicular and parallel to the axis of symmetry, respectively. This new dispersion tensor corrects two fundamental problems with the dispersion tensor proposed by Burnett and Frind (1987) for axial symmetric media.
One-phase flow in porous media with hysteresis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Botkin, N. D.; Brokate, M.; El Behi-Gornostaeva, E. G.
2016-04-01
This paper presents a numerical simulation of one phase flow through a porous medium showing a hysteretic relation between the capillary pressure and the saturation of the phase. The flow model used is based on mass conservation principle and Darcy's law. Boundary conditions of Neumann and Signorini type are imposed. The hysteretic relation between the capillary pressure and the saturation is described by a Preisach hysteresis operator. A numerical algorithm for the treatment of the arising system of equations is proposed. Results of numerical simulations are presented.
Novel Biodegradable Porous Scaffold Applied to Skin Regeneration
Wang, Hui-Min; Chou, Yi-Ting; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Zhao-Ren; Chen, Chun-Hong; Ho, Mei-Ling
2013-01-01
Skin wound healing is an important lifesaving issue for massive lesions. A novel porous scaffold with collagen, hyaluronic acid and gelatin was developed for skin wound repair. The swelling ratio of this developed scaffold was assayed by water absorption capacity and showed a value of over 20 g water/g dried scaffold. The scaffold was then degraded in time- and dose-dependent manners by three enzymes: lysozyme, hyaluronidase and collagenase I. The average pore diameter of the scaffold was 132.5±8.4 µm measured from SEM images. With human skin cells growing for 7 days, the SEM images showed surface fractures on the scaffold due to enzymatic digestion, indicating the biodegradable properties of this scaffold. To simulate skin distribution, the human epidermal keratinocytes, melanocytes and dermal fibroblasts were seeded on the porous scaffold and the cross-section immunofluorescent staining demonstrated normal human skin layer distributions. The collagen amount was also quantified after skin cells seeding and presented an amount 50% higher than those seeded on culture wells. The in vivo histological results showed that the scaffold ameliorated wound healing, including decreasing neutrophil infiltrates and thickening newly generated skin compared to the group without treatments. PMID:23762223
Quantitative measurements of injections into porous media with contrast based MRI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paulsen, J. L.; Donaldson, M. H.; Betancourt, S. S.; Song, Y.-Q.
2011-09-01
Porous flow occurs in a wide range of materials and applies to many commercially relevant applications such as oil recovery, chemical reactors and contaminant transport in soils. Typically, breakthrough and pressure curves of column floods are used in the laboratory characterization of these materials. These characterization methods lack the detail to easily and unambiguously resolve flow mechanisms with similar effects at the core scale that can dominate at the aquifer or oil field scale, as well as the effects of geometry that control the flow at interfaces as in a perforated well or the inlet of an improperly designed column. Non-invasive imaging techniques such as MRI have been shown to provide a far more detailed characterization of the properties of the solid matrix and flow, but usually focus on the intrinsic flow properties of porous media or matching a numerical model to a complex flow system. We show that these MRI techniques, utilizing paramagnetic tagging in combination with a carefully controlled and ideal flow system, can quantitatively characterize the effects of geometry and intrinsic flow properties for a point injection into a core. The use of a carefully controlled and 'idealized' system is essential to be able to isolate and match predicted effects from geometry and extract subtle flow processes omitted in the model that would be hidden in a more heterogeneous system. This approach provides not only a tool to understand the behavior of intentional boundary effects, but also one to diagnose the unintentional ones that often degrade the data from routine column flood measurements.
Brusseau, M.L.; Narter, M.; Schnaar, G.; Marble, J.
2009-06-01
The objective of this study was to quantitatively characterize the impact of porous-medium texture on interfacial area between immiscible organic liquid and water residing within natural porous media. Synchrotron X-ray microtomography was used to obtain high-resolution, three-dimensional images of solid and liquid phases in packed columns. The image data were processed to generate quantitative measurements of organic-liquid/water interfacial area and of organic-liquid blob sizes. Ten porous media, comprising a range of median grain sizes, grain-size distributions, and geochemical properties, were used to evaluate the impact of porous-medium texture on interfacial area. The results show that fluid-normalized specific interfacial area (A{sub f}) and maximum specific interfacial area (A{sub m}) correlate very well to inverse median grain diameter. These functionalities were shown to result from a linear relationship between effective organic-liquid blob diameter and median grain diameter. These results provide the basis for a simple method for estimating specific organic-liquid/water interfacial area as a function of fluid saturation for a given porous medium. The availability of a method for which the only parameter needed is the simple-to-measure median grain diameter should be of great utility for a variety of applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rupert, Y. K.
2015-12-01
The remediation and monitoring of soils and groundwater contaminated with organic compounds is an important goal of many environmental restoration efforts. This laboratory research focuses on combining two innovative geophysical methods: nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and spectral induced polarization (SIP) to assess their suitability to characterize and quantify organic contaminants in porous media. Toluene, a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL), and ethoxy-nonafluorobutane, an engineered dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), have been selected as representative organic contaminants. Low-field NMR relaxation time (T2) measurements and diffusion-relaxation (D-T2) correlation measurements, as well as low frequency SIP measurements (<10 kHz) are performed to quantify the amount of these two organic compounds in the presence of water in three types of porous media (sands, clay, and various sand-clay mixtures). The T2, D-T2, and SIP measurements are made on water, toluene, and the synthetic DNAPL in each porous media to understand the effect of different porous media on the NMR and SIP responses in each fluid. We then plan to make measurements on water-organic mixtures with varied concentrations of organic compounds in each porous medium to resolve the NMR and SIP response of the organic contaminants from that of water and to quantify the amount of organic contaminants. Building a relationship between SIP and NMR signatures from organic contaminants not only provides a fundamental yet important petrophysical relationship, but also builds a framework for continued investigation into how these two methods synergize. This will also provide spatially dense information about organic contaminated natural sediments at scales that will improve the quantitative characterization and remediation of contaminated sites.The remediation and monitoring of soils and groundwater contaminated with organic compounds is an important goal of many environmental restoration efforts
Pore-scale dynamics of salt precipitation in drying porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norouzi Rad, Mansoureh; Shokri, Nima; Sahimi, Muhammad
2013-09-01
We study the pore-scale dynamics of salt precipitation in three-dimensional drying porous media, utilizing high resolution x-ray microtomography and scanning electron microscopy. Our results illustrate that the salt precipitation patterns in drying porous media are nonuniform, manifesting the influence of the spatial distribution of pore sizes on the dynamics of salt crystallization and formation of discrete efflorescence. Results reveal that during stage-1 evaporation from saline porous media, the salt precipitation rate initially increases which is followed by a constant precipitation rate. This non-linear behaviour is attributed to the preferential liquid vaporization and salt precipitation in finer pores located at the surface of the porous medium contributing in evaporation according to the pore sizes. We also show that, contrary to common practice, the macroscopic convection-diffusion equation cannot provide accurate predictions for the dynamics of salt precipitation, at least at the early stages, due to the microscale heterogeneity of evaporation sites at the surface that results in salt precipitation exclusively in the finer pores.
Neutron imaging of hydrogen-rich fluids in geomaterials and engineered porous media: A review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perfect, E.; Cheng, C.-L.; Kang, M.; Bilheux, H. Z.; Lamanna, J. M.; Gragg, M. J.; Wright, D. M.
2014-02-01
Recent advances in visualization technologies are providing new discoveries as well as answering old questions with respect to the phase structure and flow of hydrogen-rich fluids, such as water and oil, within porous media. Magnetic resonance and x-ray imaging are sometimes employed in this context, but are subject to significant limitations. In contrast, neutrons are ideally suited for imaging hydrogen-rich fluids in abiotic non-hydrogenous porous media because they are strongly attenuated by hydrogen and can "see" through the solid matrix in a non-destructive fashion. This review paper provides an overview of the general principles behind the use of neutrons to image hydrogen-rich fluids in both 2-dimensions (radiography) and 3-dimensions (tomography). Engineering standards for the neutron imaging method are examined. The main body of the paper consists of a comprehensive review of the diverse scientific literature on neutron imaging of static and dynamic experiments involving variably-saturated geomaterials (rocks and soils) and engineered porous media (bricks and ceramics, concrete, fuel cells, heat pipes, and porous glass). Finally some emerging areas that offer promising opportunities for future research are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vayenas, D. V.; Michalopoulou, E.; Constantinides, G. N.; Pavlou, S.; Payatakes, A. C.
Biodegradation in porous media is studied with carefully controlled and well-characterized experiments in model porous media constructed of etched glass. Porous media of this type allow visual observation of the phenomena that take place at pore scale. An aqueous solution of five organic pollutants (toluene, phenol, o-cresol, naphthalene and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene) was used as a model NAPL (representing creosote). The bacteria used were Pseudomonas fluorescens, which are indigenous (even predominant) in many contaminated soils. The maximum aqueous concentrations of the specific organic substances, below which biodegradation becomes possible, were determined as a function of temperature from toxicity experiments. Visualization experiments were made under various flow velocities and organic loadings to study the morphology and thickness of the biofilm as a function of the pore size and the distance from the entrance, and the efficiency of biodegradation. The efficiency of biodegradation decreased as the aqueous concentration of NAPL at the inlet increased and/or as the flow velocity increased. The thickness of biofilm decreased as the distance from the inlet increased and/or the pore diameter decreased. A quasi-steady-state theoretical model of biodegradation was used to calculate the values of the mesoscopic biochemical rates and to predict the profile of NAPL concentration in the porous medium and the thickness of biofilm in pores. The agreement between experimental data and model predictions is quite satisfactory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chau, J. F.; Or, D.; Jones, S.; Sukop, M.
2004-05-01
Liquid distribution in unsaturated porous media under different gravitational forces and resulting gaseous diffusion coefficients were investigated to enhance understanding of plant growth conditions in microgravity. Different fluid behavior in plant growth media under microgravity conditions as compared to earth presents a challenge to plant growth in long duration space exploration missions. Our primary objective was to provide qualitative description and quantitative measures of the role of reduced gravity on hydraulic and gaseous transport properties in simulated porous media. We implemented a multi-phase lattice Boltzmann code for equilibrium distribution of liquid in an idealized two-dimensional porous medium under microgravity and "normal" gravity conditions. The information was then used to provide boundary conditions for simulation of gaseous diffusion through the equilibrium domains (considering diffusion through liquid phase negligibly small). The models were tested by comparison with several analytical solutions to the diffusion equation, with excellent results. The relative diffusion coefficient for both series of simulations (with and without gravity) as functions of air-filled porosity was in good agreement with established models of Millington-Quirk. Liquid distribution under earth's gravity featured increased water content at the lower part of the medium relative to the distribution in reduced gravity, which resulted in decreased gas diffusion through a vertically oriented column of a porous medium. Simulation results for larger domains under various orientations will be presented.
Accelerated formation of THF-H2 clathrate hydrate in porous media.
Saha, Dipendu; Deng, Shuguang
2010-06-01
Porous media were used to control the hydrogen clathrate particle size in order to accelerate its formation kinetics. Stoichiometric tetrahydrofuran-hydrogen binary clathrate hydrates with approximately 1 wt % hydrogen loading formed in the mesopores of four porous media with median pore diameters of 49, 65, 100, and 226 A at 270 K and hydrogen pressure of 65 bar. The minimum formation time for the tetrahydrofuran-hydrogen binary clathrate hydrates was 27 min in a porous medium with a median pore diameter of 49 A, which is 6-22 times faster than the tetrahydrofuran-hydrogen binary clathrate hydrates formed in the bulk ice. The clathrate formation time was found to increase with pore size of the porous media. A modified shrinking core kinetic model was used to calculate the diffusivity of hydrogen in the tetrahydrofuran-hydrogen binary clathrate hydrates. Hydrogen diffusivities in the tetrahydrofuran-hydrogen binary clathrate hydrates were found to be on the order of 10(-18)-10(-19) m(2)/s and decrease with increasing pore size or clathrate particle size. PMID:20148547
Simultaneous sorption and mechanical entrapment during polymer flow through porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farajzadeh, R.; Bedrikovetsky, P.; Lotfollahi, M.; Lake, L. W.
2016-03-01
Physical adsorption and mechanical entrapment are two major causes of polymer retention in porous media. Physical adsorption is considered an equilibrium process and is often modeled by assuming a Langmuir isotherm. The outcome is a steady state pressure response because the permeability reduction is also accounted for by adsorption. However, some experimental data show gradual increase of pressure with time, implying that polymer retention is a time-dependent process. We discuss simultaneous effect of sorption and mechanical entrapment on the polymer retention in porous media. An exact solution for 1-D flow problem for the case of constant filtration coefficient and Langmuir-sorption isotherm, including explicit formulae for breakthrough concentration and pressure drop across the core is derived. The general model with a varying filtration coefficient was successfully matched with experimental data confirming the occurrence of simultaneous sorption with deep-bed filtration during polymer flow in porous media. In the absence of mechanical entrapment, the physical adsorption causes delay in the polymer front and does not affect the polymer concentration behind the front. Addition of mechanical entrapment results in slow recovery of the injected concentration at the outlet (for a varying filtration coefficient) or reaching to a steady state concentration, which is only a fraction of the injected concentration (for a constant filtration coefficient). Accurate assessment and quantification of the polymer retention requires both pressure and effluent concentration data at the outlet of the porous medium.